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Sample records for left femoral neck

  1. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuda, Kenji; Nishi, Hosei; Oba, Hiroshi

    1977-01-01

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Treatment of the femoral neck peudoarthrosis in childhood: Case report

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    Vukašinović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck fractures in children and adolescents are rare. However, their complications are frequent - avascular necrosis, femoral neck pseudoarthrosis, premature physeal closure with consequent growth disturbance and coxa vara deformity. Case Outline. A 9.5­year­old boy was injured in a car accident, and femoral neck fracture was diagnosed. Prior to admission at our hospital he was surgically treated several times. He was admitted at our hospital eight months following the accident. On the X­ray transcervical pseudoarthrosis of the femoral neck was found, as well as coxa vara deformity and metaphyseal avascular necrosis. He was operated at our hospital; all previously placed ostefixation material was removed, valgus osteotomy of 30 degrees was done as well as additional local osteoplasty using the commercial osteoindactive agent (Osteovit®. Postoperatively, we applied skin traction, bed rest and physical therapy. At the final follow­up, the patient was recovered completely. He is now painless, the legs are of equal length, range of movements in the left hip is full, life activity is normal. The X­ray shows that the femoral neck pseudoarthrosis is fully healed. Conclusion. This case is presented in order to encourage other colleagues to challenge the problematic situation such as this one. Also, we would like to remind them what one should think about and what should be taken into consideration in the primary treatment of femoral neck fractures in children. Valgus femoral osteotomy, as a part of the primary treatment of femoral neck fracture in children (identically as in the adults can prevent the occurrence of femoral neck pseudoarthrosis.

  3. Biogeometry of femoral neck for implant placement

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    Patwa J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of fracture neck femur with three cannulated cancellous screws in an apex proximal configuration is practised in many parts of the world. Methods : Dimensions of femoral neck at the middle of transcervical neck using CT scan (live neck and vernier caliper (dry cadeveric neck in 20 subjects respectively were measured. Results : Inferior half of the neck is narrower than superior half. Conclusion : Biogeometry of the neck of femur does not accomodate two inferior screws and thus fixation of fracture neck femur with three canulated cancellous screws in an apex distal configuration is recommended.

  4. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

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    Anil K Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the "Pubmed" search with the keywords "NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture." A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG, (b closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective, classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu′s staging neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90

  5. Posterior Femoral Single Limb Osteotomy for the Removal of Well-Fixed Modular Femoral Neck Components

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    Keith A Fehring

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modular neck femoral components were introduced to optimize femoral neck anteversion, leg length, offset, and stability in total hip arthroplasty. However, concerns have been raised in recent years regarding early failure of these implants due to corrosion, pseudotumor, as well as fracture of the modular neck. Removing modular neck femoral implants is challenging as removal of the modular femoral neck leaves a proximally coated femoral stem level with the proximal bone of the femoral neck. We describe a posterior femoral single limb osteotomy  (posterior cut of an extended trochanteric osteotomy for the removal of a modular neck femoral component.

  6. frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures in patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ipsilateral associated femoral neck and shaft fractures are reported to occur in 2.5-6% of all femoral shaft ... nailing of the shaft fracture, which makes treatment of the neck ... chest, spine), while the other had maxillofacial injuries.

  7. Frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ipsilateral associated femoral neck and shaft fractures are reported to occur in 2.5-6% of all femoral shaft fractures. Objective: To establish the frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures amongst all patients presenting with femoral shaft fractures in Mulago Hospital. Methodology: This was a descriptive ...

  8. Ipsilateral femoral neck and trochanter fracture

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    Devdatta S Neogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipsilateral fractures in the neck and trochanteric region of the femur are very rare and seen in elderly osteoporotic patients. We present a case of a young man who presented with ipsilateral fracture of the femoral neck and a reverse oblique fracture in the trochanteric region following a motor vehicle accident. A possible mechanism, diagnostic challenge, and awareness required for identifying this injury are discussed.

  9. Fibrous dysplasia of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, P.E.; Stoker, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of the femur is usually observed in the intertrochanteric region. It is rarely confined to the femoral neck. We present four cases illustrating the radiographic appearance and spectrum of this condition which all showed the relatively lucent variety of fibrous dysplasia with varying degrees of expansion and surrounding sclerosis. The natural history of this condition is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

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    Grigsby, Perry W; Roberts, Heidi L; Perez, Carlos A

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication.

  11. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, Perry W.; Roberts, Heidi L.; Perez, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication

  12. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

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    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  13. Evaluation of perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy

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    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ishido, Yasuhiro [Saiseikai Sendai Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Okano, Toshihiro [Ibusuki National Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Komiya, Setsuro [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    We treated 13 patients for femoral neck fracture. They consisted of 2 males and 11 females, and were classified according to Garden stage classification; Stage I, 3 cases; Stage II, 2 cases; Stage III, 2 cases; Stage IV, 4 cases. Two trochanteric fracture cases were used by control. We evaluated perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy, which is considered useful for evaluation of perfusion of the femoral neck before operation. (author)

  14. Evaluation of perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ishido, Yasuhiro; Okano, Toshihiro; Komiya, Setsuro

    2002-01-01

    We treated 13 patients for femoral neck fracture. They consisted of 2 males and 11 females, and were classified according to Garden stage classification; Stage I, 3 cases; Stage II, 2 cases; Stage III, 2 cases; Stage IV, 4 cases. Two trochanteric fracture cases were used by control. We evaluated perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy, which is considered useful for evaluation of perfusion of the femoral neck before operation. (author)

  15. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  16. Self-designed femoral neck guide pin locator for femoral neck fractures.

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    Xia, Shengli; Wang, Ziping; Wang, Minghui; Wu, Zuming; Wang, Xiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Closed reduction and fixation with 3 cannulated screws is a widely accepted surgery for the treatment of femoral neck fractures. However, how to obtain optimal screw placement remains unclear. In the current study, the authors designed a guide pin positioning system for femoral neck fracture cannulated screw fixation and examined its application value by comparing it with freehand guide needle positioning and with general guide pin locator positioning provided by equipment manufacturers. The screw reset rate, screw parallelism, triangle area formed by the link line of the entry point of 3 guide pins, and maximum vertical load bearing of the femoral neck after internal fixation were recorded. As expected, the triangle area was largest in the self-designed positioning group, followed by the general positioning group and the freehand positioning group. The difference among the 3 groups was statistically significant (P.05). The authors’ self-designed guide pin positioning system has the potential to accurately insert cannulated screws in femoral neck fractures and may reduce bone loss and unnecessary radiation.

  17. [Treatment of avascular necrosis of femoral head after femoral neck fracture with pedicled iliac bone graft].

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    Wang, Benjie; Zhao, Dewei; Guo, Lin; Yang, Lei; Li, Zhigang; Cui, Daping; Tian, Fengde; Liu, Baoyi

    2011-05-01

    To explore the effectiveness of pedicled iliac bone graft transposition for treatment of avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture. Between June 2002 and December 2006, 22 cases (22 hips, 16 left hips and 6 right hips) of ANFH after femoral neck fracture were treated with iliac bone graft pedicled with ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels. There were 18 males and 4 females with an age range from 28 to 48 years (mean, 37.5 years). The time from injury to internal fixation was 2-31 days, and all fractures healed within 12 months after internal fixation. The ANFH was diagnosed at 15-40 months (mean, 22 months) after internal fixation. The ANFH duration was 3-11 months (mean, 8 months). According to Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) staging system, 2 hips were classified as stage IIa, 3 hips as stage IIb, 3 hips as stage IIc, 3 hips as stage IIIa, 7 hips as stage IIIb, and 4 hips as stage IIIc. The preoperative Harris hip score (HHS) was 64.10 +/- 5.95. All incisions healed by first intention and the patients had no complication of lung embolism, sciatic nerve injury, lower limb deep venous thrombosis, and numbness and pain of donor site. All patients were followed up 2.5 to 6.3 years (mean, 4.8 years). The fracture healing time was 8-12 months, and no femoral neck fracture recurred. The HHS was 90.20 +/- 5.35 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with the preoperative value (t = -18.447, P = 0.000). The hip function were excellent in 11 hips, good in 10 hips, fair in 1 hip, and the excellent and good rate was 95.5%. Four hips were radiographically progressed in ARCO staging, 18 hips remained stable with a stable rate of 81.8%. Pedicled iliac bone graft transposition is an ideal option for treatment of ANFH after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture for the advantages of femoral head revascularization, sufficient cancellous bone supply, and relatively simple procedure.

  18. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical ...

  19. Femoral neck fractures: A prospective assessment of the pattern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To review the pattern of femoral neck fractures, complications and outcome following fixation with Austin-Moore endoprosthesis. METHOD: A two year prospective study in patients who had fracture of the femoral neck based on strict inclusion criteria. All the patients were treated by Austin-Moore ...

  20. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, T.; Benjamin, J.; Lund, P.; Graham, A.; Krupinski, E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  1. Negative magnetic resonance imaging in femoral neck stress fracture with joint effusion: a case report

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    Seki, Nobutoshi; Okuyama, Koichiro; Kamo, Keiji; Chiba, Mitsuho [Akita Rosai Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Odate, Akita (Japan); Shimada, Yoichi [Akita University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) is well documented in the orthopedic literature and is generally associated with strenuous activities such as long-distance running and military training. The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for FNSF was reported to be 100 %, and early MRI is recommended when this fracture is suspected. We encountered a 16-year-old male long-distance runner with FNSF in whom the left femoral neck showed no signal changes on MRI although an effusion was detected in the left hip joint. One month later, roentgenograms revealed periosteal callus and oblique consolidation of the left femoral neck, confirming the diagnosis of compression FNSF. Because FNSF with a normal bone marrow signal on MRI is very rare, this patient is presented here. (orig.)

  2. MR evaluation of femoral neck version and tibial torsion

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    Koenig, James Karl; Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California, San Diego, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pring, Maya E. [Rady Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Abnormalities of femoral neck version have been associated with a number of hip abnormalities in children, including slipped capital femoral epiphysis, proximal femoral focal deficiency, coxa vara, a deep acetabulum and, rarely, developmental dysplasia of the hip. Orthopedic surgeons also are interested in quantifying the femoral neck anteversion or retroversion in children especially to plan derotational osteotomies. Historically, the angle of femoral version and tibial torsion has been measured with the use of radiography and later by CT. Both methods carry with them the risks associated with ionizing radiation. Techniques that utilize MR are used less often because of the associated lengthy imaging times. This article describes a technique using MRI to determine femoral neck version and tibial torsion with total scan times of approximately 10 min. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of femoral morphology and bone mineral density between femoral neck fractures and trochanteric fractures.

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    Maeda, Yuki; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Saito, Masanobu; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    Many studies that analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal factors of hip fractures were based on uncalibrated radiographs or dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA). Spatial accuracy in measuring BMD and morphologic features of the femur with DXA is limited. This study investigated differences in BMD and morphologic features of the femur between two types of hip fractures using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Forty patients with hip fractures with normal contralateral hips were selected for this study between 2003 and 2007 (trochanteric fracture, n=18; femoral neck fracture, n=22). Each patient underwent QCT of the bilateral femora using a calibration phantom. Using images of the intact contralateral femur, BMD measurements were made at the point of minimum femoral-neck cross-sectional area, middle of the intertrochanteric region, and center of the femoral head. QCT images also were used to measure morphologic features of the hip, including hip axis length, femoral neck axis length, neck-shaft angle, neck width, head offset, anteversion of the femoral neck, and cortical index at the femoral isthmus. No significant differences were found in trabecular BMD between groups in those three regions. Patients with trochanteric fractures showed a smaller neck shaft angle and smaller cortical index at the femoral canal isthmus compared with patients with femoral neck fractures. We conclude that severe osteoporosis with thinner cortical bone of the femoral diaphysis is seen more often in patients with trochanteric fracture than in patients with femoral neck fracture. Level IV, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.; Riemer, B.L.; Butterfield, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG)

  5. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

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    Daffner, R.H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA) Medical Coll. of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Riemer, B.L.; Butterfield, S.L. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA) Medical Coll. of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG).

  6. [Treatment of femoral neck fracture--preference to internal fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Izumi

    2011-03-01

    In the guidelines for the treatment of femoral neck fracture, prosthetic replacement is recommended in displaced one and internal fixation is in undisplaced one. However, in the long view, survived femoral head after internal fixation can be superior to prosthesis which will deteriorate as time goes by. Surgical method should be considered not only by type of fracture but general status of the patient.

  7. Three-dimensional measurement of femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Pascoe, Jessica; Graham, H Kerr; Ramanauskas, Fiona; Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional measurement technique for femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angles which do not require alignment of the femoral and scanner axes. Two assessors performed the measurements on 11 patients (22 femurs). Repeatability between assessors was 2.7 degrees for femoral neck anteversion and 4.8 degrees for neck shaft angle. Measurements compared with an alternative single slice method were different by 2 degrees (3 degrees) in average. The method was repeatable and appropriate for clinical practice.

  8. Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures

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    S. P. Tuck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric, symptomatic vertebral (91, and distal forearm (67 fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm2: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately, nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P=0.001, but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P=0.01. Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

  9. Femoral neck fractures complicating gaucher disease in children

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    Goldman, A.B.; Jacobs, B.

    1984-09-01

    In normal children, fractures of the femoral neck are uncommon and accompany severe trauma and multiple injuries elsewhere in the skeleton. In children with Gaucher disease, a rare hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism, midcervical or basicervical fractures can occur with minor or no trauma and without other injury to the skeleton. Three children with Gaucher disease who developed pathologic fractures of the femoral neck are described. In all three, the fractures occurred between five and nine years of age, and the fracture lines passed through areas of abnormal bone characterized by poorly defined patches of increased and decreased density and cortical thinning along the medial femoral necks. In the affected hips, there was no evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral heads at the time of injury. One child's fracture was preceeded by multiple bone 'crisis' localized to the proximal femora.

  10. Femoral neck fractures complicating gaucher disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.B.; Jacobs, B.

    1984-01-01

    In normal children, fractures of the femoral neck are uncommon and accompany severe trauma and multiple injuries elsewhere in the skeleton. In children with Gaucher disease, a rare hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism, midcervical or basicervical fractures can occur with minor or no trauma and without other injury to the skeleton. Three children with Gaucher disease who developed pathologic fractures of the femoral neck are described. In all three, the fractures occurred between five and nine years of age, and the fracture lines passed through areas of abnormal bone characterized by poorly defined patches of increased and decreased density and cortical thinning along the medial femoral necks. In the affected hips, there was no evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral heads at the time of injury. One child's fracture was preceeded by multiple bone 'crisis' localized to the proximal femora. (orig.)

  11. Femoral neck fractures complicating gaucher disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, A B; Jacobs, B

    1984-09-01

    In normal children, fractures of the femoral neck are uncommon and accompany severe trauma and multiple injuries elsewhere in the skeleton. In children with Gaucher disease, a rare hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism, midcervical or basicervical fractures can occur with minor or no trauma and without other injury to the skeleton. Three children with Gaucher disease who developed pathologic fractures of the femoral neck are described. In all three, the fractures occurred between five and nine years of age, and the fracture lines passed through areas of abnormal bone characterized by poorly defined patches of increased and decreased density and cortical thinning along the medial femoral necks. In the affected hips, there was no evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral heads at the time of injury. One child's fracture was preceeded by multiple bone 'crisis' localized to the proximal femora.

  12. Femoral neck radiography: effect of flexion on visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, S.C.; Jhangri, G.S.; Lambert, R.G.W.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether flexion improves radiographic visualization of the femoral neck when the femur is externally rotated. Five human femora, with varying neck-shaft and anteversion angles, were measured and immobilized. Degree of flexion required to bring the femoral neck horizontal was measured, varying the rotation. Next, one bone was radiographed in 16 positions, varying rotation in 15 o and flexion in 10 o increments. Radiographs were presented in randomized blinded fashion to 15 staff radiologists for scoring of femoral neck visualization. Following this, all 5 bones were radiographed in 4 positions of rotation and at 0 o and 20 o flexion, and blinded randomized review of radiographs was repeated. Comparisons between angles and rotations were made using the Mann-Whitney test. The flexion angle required to bring the long axis of the femoral neck horizontal correlated directly with the degree of external rotation (ρ o internal rotation to 30 o external rotation (ρ o flexion was applied to bones in external rotation, visualization significantly improved at 15 o (ρ o (ρ o ) of flexion can significantly improve radiographic visualization. This manoeuvre could be useful for radiography of the femoral neck when initial radiographs are inadequate because of external rotation of the leg. (author)

  13. Image features of herniation pit of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Li Guangming; Wang Cunli; Wang Guimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate imaging appearances of herniation pit of the femoral neck. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray, CT and MRI findings of 9 patients with herniation pit of the femoral neck. All nine patients were male with the age ranging from 21 to 73 years. They had pain in the hip from two months to two years duration. Results: The bilateral hips were affected in six patients, the right hips in the other 3 patients. Of the nine patients, X-ray plain films (2 cases), CT scanning(6 cases), and MR scanning (5 cases ) were performed. The size of the lesions ranged from 0.5 cm x 0.6 cm to 1.0 cm x 1.5 cm, located in the anterosuperior portion of the femoral neck (n=7) or anteroinferior portion (n=2). X-ray plain films showed an osteolytic lesion surrounded by a sclerotic rim. CT scanning showed the lesion just below the cortex of the femoral neck surrounded by a rim of sclerosis or associated with a small cortical break in two patients. MR scanning showed low signal intensity in five patients on T 1 WI and high signal intensity surrounded by a rim of low signal intensity (n=3) or low signal intensity (n=2) on T 2 WI, and high signal intensity on fat suppression MR image. A small joint effusion was observed in two cases on T 2 WI. Conclusion: The CT and MRI findings of herniation pit of the femoral neck are characteristic, it is useful in defining the diagnosis of the herniation pit of the femoral neck. (authors)

  14. Stress fracture of the femoral neck in a child (stress fracture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, D.; Gross, G.W.; Boal, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Femoral neck stress fracture is extremely rare in childhood. We report a case of femoral neck stress fracture in an 11-year-old girl. Differentials diagnosis and a brief review of the literature follow. (orig.)

  15. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  16. Bilateral simultaneous femoral neck and shafts fractures - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Saied, Alireza

    2014-10-01

    Simultaneous fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are not common injuries, though they cannot be considered rare. Herein, we report our experience with a patient with bilateral occurance of this injury. Up to the best of our knowkedge this is the first case reported in literature in which correct diagnosis was made initially. Both femurs were fixed using broad 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate and both necks were fixed using 6.5 mm cannulated screws. Femur fixation on one side was converted to retrograde nailing because of plate failure. Both neck fractures healed uneventfully. In spite of rarity of concomitant fractures of femoral neck and shaft, this injury must be approached carefully demanding especial attention and careful device selection.

  17. Factors that influence femoral neck length. Analysis of 1543 patients with advanced osteoarthritis of the hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Wybren; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is little known about the relationship between patient characteristic and the variance in geometrical properties of the femoral neck. The length of the femoral neck is relevant when considering a femoral neck preserving hip replacement. Based on surgical experience we

  18. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Jun Hyung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Soon Yong

    1985-01-01

    Secondary ischemic necrosis of femoral head due to loss of blood supply following to femoral neck fracture is well known. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuricals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the evaluation of vascularity of the femoral head. The authors made a comparative study of scintigraphic findings and operative findings of 28 cases of femoral neck fracture treated at Kyung Hee University Hospital from April 1980 to May 1984. The results were as follows: 1. In 16 cases of proven avascular necorsis of femoral head, scintigraphy showed absent or decreased activity in 14 cases (87.5%), while radiography showed increased density in 10 cases (62.5%). 2. In 12 cases of proven vital femoral head, scintigraphy showed increased activity in 9 cases (75%) and radiography showed decreased density in 9 cases (75%). 3. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy was an excellent and useful method for assessing bone vitality of femoral head

  19. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following femoral neck fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Jun Hyung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    Secondary ischemic necrosis of femoral head due to loss of blood supply following to femoral neck fracture is well known. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuricals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the evaluation of vascularity of the femoral head. The authors made a comparative study of scintigraphic findings and operative findings of 28 cases of femoral neck fracture treated at Kyung Hee University Hospital from April 1980 to May 1984. The results were as follows: 1. In 16 cases of proven avascular necorsis of femoral head, scintigraphy showed absent or decreased activity in 14 cases (87.5%), while radiography showed increased density in 10 cases (62.5%). 2. In 12 cases of proven vital femoral head, scintigraphy showed increased activity in 9 cases (75%) and radiography showed decreased density in 9 cases (75%). 3. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy was an excellent and useful method for assessing bone vitality of femoral head.

  20. Treatment of femoral neck fracture by Moore Prosthesis in Cotonou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of femoral neck fracture by Moore Prosthesis in Cotonou. AHM Akue, M Lawson, S Madougou, R Zannou, J Padonou. Abstract. Keywords: Benin; hip; Moore prosthesis; results. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Radiographic anatomy of the proximal femur: femoral neck fracture vs. transtrochanteric fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lecia Carneiro Leão de Araújo Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters of the proximal femur with femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures. METHODS: Cervicodiaphyseal angle (CDA, femoral neck width (FNW, hip axis length (HAL, and acetabular tear drop distance (ATD were analyzed in 30 pelvis anteroposterior view X-rays of patients with femoral neck fractures (n = 15 and transtrochanteric fractures (n = 15. The analysis was performed by comparing the results of the X-rays with femoral neck fractures and with transtrochanteric fractures. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between samples were observed. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between radiographic parameters evaluated and specific occurrence of femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures.

  2. Primary Total Hip Replacement for a Femoral Neck Fracture in a Below-Knee Amputee

    OpenAIRE

    Masmoudi, Karim; Rbai, H?di; Fradj, Ayman Ben; Sa?dena, Jecem; Boughattas, Anouar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Femoral neck fracture on amputated limb is an uncommon lesion and challenging to manage. Case Report: We report a case of a displaced neck fracture of the left femur in a 57-year-old female. She underwent at the age of the three a below-knee amputation of the ipsilateral limb for post traumatic ischemia. The fracture was managed by a total hip arthroplasty (THA), as a primary procedure. In this article we describe our experience of this unusual entity. Conclusion: Total hip arth...

  3. Avascular necrosis associated with nailing of femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemqvist, B.; Hansson, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Two patients with femoral neck fractures, one displaced and one undisplaced, are presented. Preoperative intravital staining with tetracycline and Tc-MDP scintimetry both showed intact femoral head circulation while Tc-MDP-scintimetry 1 week after operation showed pronounced circulatory deficiency. SR 85 -scintimetry performed at the same time was inconclusive. Segmental collapse was observed radiographically, 8 and 12 months postoperatively. The major vascular injury resulting in avascularity most probably occured during the procedure of osteosynthesis, and Tc-MDP-scintimetry was found suitable for early postoperative recognition of avascular necrosis in both fractures. (author)

  4. Avascular necrosis associated with nailing of femoral neck fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemqvist, B; Hansson, L I [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital in Lund, Sweden

    1983-01-01

    Two patients with femoral neck fractures, one displaced and one undisplaced, are presented. Preoperative intravital staining with tetracycline and Tc-MDP scintimetry both showed intact femoral head circulation while Tc-MDP-scintimetry 1 week after operation showed pronounced circulatory deficiency. Sr/sup 85/-scintimetry performed at the same time was inconclusive. Segmental collapse was observed radiographically, 8 and 12 months postoperatively. The major vascular injury resulting in avascularity most probably occured during the procedure of osteosynthesis, and Tc-MDP-scintimetry was found suitable for early postoperative recognition of avascular necrosis in both fractures.

  5. Unstable femoral neck fractures in children - A new treatment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruthi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Femoral neck fractures in children are an uncommon but difficult situation. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical results of closed reduction internal fixation and primary valgus osteotomy fixed with a tension band wire loop in high angled pediatric femoral neck fractures. Methods : In a prospective nonrandomized study conducted at 2 centres, sixteen children and adolescents with a Pauwel type 2/3 fracture neck femur were taken as participants. The femoral neck fractures were stabilized using closed reduction and internal fixation (6.5 mm noncannulated screw and a primary valgus osteotomy fixed with a tension band wire loop preferably within 24-36 hours of injury. Patients were evaluated to determine complications, clinical and radiological outcome. Results : At a mean post operative follow up of 5 years, union was achieved in all cases. Three patients had AVN and one developed coxavara. Results were evaluated using IOWA hip scores. Thirteen patients had an excellent result while 3 patients had a good result. Conclusion : Use of this technique holds promise in treating these difficult unstable fractures. Although results from a larger series are still awaited yet the use of this technique can safely be extended to stable fractures also, to minimize the incidence of complications as nonunion and AVN.

  6. Surgery for pathological proximal femoral fractures, excluding femoral head and neck fractures: resection vs. stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacherl, Max; Gruber, Gerald; Glehr, Mathias; Ofner-Kopeinig, Petra; Radl, Roman; Greitbauer, Manfred; Vecsei, Vilmos; Windhager, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Pathological femoral head and neck fractures are commonly treated by arthroplasty. Treatment options for the trochanteric region or below are not clearly defined. The purpose of this retrospective, comparative, double-centre study was to analyse survival and influences on outcome according to the surgical technique used to treat pathological proximal femoral fractures, excluding fractures of the femoral head and neck. Fifty-nine patients with 64 fractures were operated up on between 1998 and 2004 in two tertiary referral centres and divided into two groups. One group (S, n = 33) consisted of patients who underwent intramedullary nailing alone, and the other group (R, n = 31) consisted of patients treated by metastatic tissue resection and reconstruction by means of different implants. Median survival was 12.6 months with no difference between groups. Surgical complications were higher in the R group (n = 7) vs. the S group (n = 3), with no statistically significant difference. Patients with surgery-related complications had a higher survival rate (p = 0.049), as did patients with mechanical implant failure (p = 0.01). Survival scoring systems did not correlate with actual survival. Resection of metastases in patients with pathological fractures of the proximal femur, excluding femoral head and neck fractures, has no influence on survival. Patients with long postoperative survival prognosis are at risk of implant-related complications.

  7. Bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head following asynchronous postictal femoral neck fractures: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatadass, K; Avinash, M; Rajasekaran, S

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral avascular necrosis (AVN) following postictal bilateral fracture neck of the femur is a rare occurrence. Here, we report a case of bilateral AVN of the femoral head following an asynchronous bilateral postictal fracture neck of the femur. A 16-year-old autistic boy presented with left hip pain following an episode of seizures and radiographs showed Delbet type II fracture neck of the left femur. This was treated by closed reduction and cancellous screw fixation and skeletal traction for 6 weeks. At 3 months, follow-up radiograph showed union of the fracture, but he had developed segmental AVN with collapse of the head. At 8 months, the patient presented with pain in the right hip following another episode of seizures and radiograph of the pelvis showed a fresh Delbet type II fracture neck of the right femur with established AVN of the left femoral head. He underwent closed reduction and cancellous screw fixation of the right hip and implant exit of the left hip. At the 6-month follow-up after this surgery, his radiograph of the pelvis showed AVN with collapse and extrusion of the femoral head on the right side as well. Literature review shows an increased risk of fracture neck of the femur among epileptics. The incidence of AVN is maximum in Delbet type I, followed by Delbet type II and type III in that order. Although there are no clear guidelines on the management of post-traumatic AVN of the femoral head, the majority have reported that most of them will eventually develop arthritis and will require total hip replacement at a later date. Upon extensive literature search, no case report of bilateral fracture neck of the femur with bilateral AVN was found and hence this case was reported.

  8. Radionuclide scintimetry for diagnosis of complications following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, K.A.; Dahlborn, M.; Hindmarsh, J.; Soederborg, B.; Ringertz, H.

    1984-01-01

    A scintimetric study using Tc-99m MDP was made of 54 patients with delayed union, nonunion, or late segmental collapse of the femoral head, 4-92 months after femoral neck fracture. In radiographically verified collapse, the radionuclide uptake ratio between the femoral head on the fractured and on the intact side (HHR) was significantly higher than in fractures resulting in delayed union or nonunion. On the basis of scintimetric and radiographic findings, the patients with healing disturbances could be divided into three groups, characterized by the following features: (1) Satisfactory post-reduction position of the fracture without subsequent redisplacement and a high HHR, which as a rule turned out to be delayed union; (2) The same radiographic pattern but with a lower HHR, which in most cases resulted in nonunion; (3) Inadequate reduction or early redisplacement of the fracture with a high HHR, which resulted in nonunion. The fractional precision in discriminating between different types of disturbed fracture healing by means of skeletal scintimetry was 0.86 in this study. This non-invasive and technically simple method would therefore be a valuable complement to radiography in the assessment of healing, more than 4 months after fracture of the femoral neck. (author)

  9. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  10. To study the role of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the femoral head vascularity in intracapsular femoral neck fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Abhishek, E-mail: abhiortho27@gmail.co [Department of Orthopedics, 513, Thermal Colony, Sector-22, Faridabad 121005, Haryana (India); Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew [Department of Orthopedics, St Stephen' s Hospital, Tis hazari, Delhi, New Delhi 110054 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote

  11. To study the role of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the femoral head vascularity in intracapsular femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Abhishek; Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote

  12. Threading the Needle: Intrapelvic Displacement of a Femoral Neck Fracture through the Obturator Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite timely and appropriate management, displaced femoral neck fractures are often devastating injuries for the young patient. The risk of negative sequelae is further amplified with increasing displacement and vertical fracture patterns. Open anatomic reduction with rigid internal fixation is essential to maximize the healing potential in displaced fractures of the femoral neck. Successful primary osteosynthesis of significantly displaced femoral neck fractures in the young patient has been reported in the literature. We present a unique case of open reduction and internal fixation of a high-energy femoral neck fracture with extrusion of the head through the obturator foramen into the pelvis without associated acetabular or pelvic injury.

  13. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byung-Woo; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-05-18

    The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. We evaluated the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head with the use of contemporary techniques for femoral neck fracture fixation. We then sought to determine what potential risk factors influenced the development of avascular necrosis.Between 1990 and 2005, one hundred sixty-three intracapsular femoral neck fractures in 163 patients were treated with internal fixation at our level-I trauma center. All patients were monitored until conversion to total hip arthroplasty or for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Ten patients (10 hips) died and 7 patients (7 hips) were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 hips) had a mean 5.2 years of follow-up (range, 3 months to 17 years). The incidence of avascular necrosis was 25.3% (37 hips). The average time to diagnosis of avascular necrosis was 18.8 months (range, 3-47 months). Patient sex, age, interval from injury to surgery, and mechanism of injury were statistically not associated with the development of avascular necrosis. The quality of fracture reduction, adequacy of fixation, degree of displacement, and comminution of the posterior cortex were significantly associated. After we controlled for patient and radiographic characteristics, multivariate analyses indicated that the important predictors for avascular necrosis are poor reduction (odds ratio=13.889) and initial displacement of the fracture (odds ratio=4.693). Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. A unique case of nontraumatic femoral neck fracture following epilepsia partialis continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl O. Nakken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are more accident prone than the non-epilepsy population. Bone fractures are most often due to seizure-related falls. However, seizures themselves, in particular generalized tonic-clonic seizures, may also cause fractures, e.g. of the thoracic spine. Here, I present a man who developed focal epilepsy following a subarachnoidal hemorrhage. During a focal motor seizure with left-sided convulsions and preserved consciousness that lasted 2 hrs, he sustained a femoral neck fracture. In persons with low mineral density, as in this case, contractions associated with simple focal motor seizures may be sufficient to give rise to such a severe complication.

  15. A disappearing left-sided neck mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-07-04

    The patient was a 48-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with complaints of a left-sided painful neck mass, which changed in size relative to ingestion of meals. He denied voice change, fever, chills, weight loss, dysphagia and hoarseness. Physical examination was unremarkable. CT scan demonstrated a 3.9 mm calculus of the submandibular gland duct. Therapeutic sialendocopy was successfully performed.

  16. Femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Adam D

    2013-12-01

    Cases of femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty are infrequently reported in reptiles, and details of surgical technique and clinical outcome in chelonia are lacking. An adult female leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis) was presented with chronic non-weight-bearing lameness of the left hind limb. Examination and radiography were consistent with coxofemoral luxation, and as a result of the chronic presentation, surgical intervention was recommended. A cranial approach to the joint via the prefemoral fossa afforded good surgical exposure. A depressed lytic acetabular lesion was noted during the procedure, postulated to be a result of abnormal wear from the luxated femoral head. A fiberglass prop was used during recovery to allow extension of the limb without full weight-bearing. Lameness persisted postoperatively, but limb usage significantly improved.

  17. Evaluation in femoral neck fracture scintimetry: modes of region of interest selection and influence on results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, S.; Mesko, L.; Stroemqvist, B.; Thorngren, K.G.

    1985-04-01

    Different sized ROIs within the femoral head and different modes of calculation were used in (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture. In preoperative scintimetry, correction for increased trochanteric uptake gave the best discrimination, whereas in postoperative scintimetry the direct ratio fractured/intact femoral head was superior. The change in ROI size had little influence.

  18. Evaluation in femoral neck fracture scintimetry: modes of region of interest selection and influence on results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, S.; Mesko, L.; Stroemqvist, B.; Thorngren, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Different sized ROIs within the femoral head and different modes of calculation were used in [/sup 99m/Tc]MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture. In preoperative scintimetry, correction for increased trochanteric uptake gave the best discrimination, whereas in postoperative scintimetry the direct ratio fractured/intact femoral head was superior. The change in ROI size had little influence

  19. A multidisciplinary, multifactorial intervention program reduces postoperative falls and injuries after femoral neck fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Stenvall, M.; Olofsson, B.; Lundstr?m, M.; Englund, U.; Borss?n, B.; Svensson, O.; Nyberg, L.; Gustafson, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates whether a postoperative multidisciplinary, intervention program, including systematic assessment and treatment of fall risk factors, active prevention, detection, and treatment of postoperative complications, could reduce inpatient falls and fall-related injuries after a femoral neck fracture. Methods A randomized, controlled trial at the orthopedic and geriatric departments at Ume? University Hospital, Sweden, included 199 patients with femoral neck fracture...

  20. Measuring anteversion in the femoral neck from routine radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, K.L.; Egund, N.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a new method for measuring femoral neck anteversion (FNA) that requires only one lateral radiograph of the knee in addition to routine radiographs of the hip for evaluation of total hip replacement; and to compare the proposed method with FNA measurement by means of 3D CT. Material and Methods: In 18 femoral specimens, radiographic examinations of the hip and knee, in three different rotational positions, and one CT examination were made, and the measurements of FNA were compared. Similarly, in 38 patients with 40 total hip replacements, measurements form routine radiographic examinations of the hip and knee and from CT examinations were compared. The accuracy and reproducibility of the FNA measurements produced by this proposed method were calculated. Results: Accuracy and reproducibility were 2 and 2 for the proposed method in the femoral specimen study, and accuracy was 4 in the hip patient study. The proposed method had a minor flaw that was caused almost solely by differences in knee size at inward rotation of the femur. Conclusion: FNA measurement can be made from a routine radiographic examination of the hip and a lateral view of the knee. This method achieves an acceptable level of accuracy and reproducibility. (orig.)

  1. Femoral neck pseudoarthrosis in a polio patient treated with closed reduction and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Codesido

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis disease affects the anterior horns cells of the spinal cord and certain motor nuclei of the brain stem. Paralysis type is flaccid and asymmetrical and result in muscular imbalance.Due to this, in case of having a hip muscles involvement, degenerative or posttraumatic, total hip arthroplasty is normally contraindicated because of the excessive risk of hip dislocation. In cases of subcapital femoral neck fractures the femoral head vascularization is a main concern, and in cases of neglected fracture with pseudoarthrosis the vascular status to the head must be investigated prior to further decisions.We report the case of a femoral neck fracture non-union after a missed femoral neck fracture in a polio affected leg treated with cannulated screws and percutaneous autologous injection of processed total nuclear cells (TNC mixed with putty demineralized bone matrix. Keywords: Pseudoarthrosis, Poliomyelitis, Cell therapy, Femoral neck

  2. Femoral neck stress fractures (fnsf) in military recruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, N.U.; Naqvi, A.N.; Majeed, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify patterns of Femoral Neck Stress Fractures (FNSF), its presentation and outcome of its treatment in PMA (Pakistan Military Academy) cadets. These findings would help suggest guidelines for their appropriate management. Study design: Case Series Place and duration of study: CMH Abbottabad and CMH Rawalpindi from May 2005 to January 2008. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases (20 hips in 18 patients) of FNSF were included in the study. Only male cadets from Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) were included. Diagnosis was made clinically and was confirmed by radiographs or bone scan. Incomplete fractures were managed conservatively where as complete fractures were fixed surgically. Results: All compression fractures healed conservatively where as tension fractures needed surgical fixation in all the cases, except one where fracture remained incomplete. Rest of tension fractures converted from incomplete fractures to complete fractures and hence needed surgical stabilization. There was no problem of avascular necrosis of femoral head (AVNFH) in any patient. Conclusion: FNSF are uncommon injuries with potentially serious complications and are difficult to diagnose clinically. When diagnosed early and managed appropriately, they carry good prognosis. (author)

  3. Preoperative sup(99m)Tc-MDP scintimetry of femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, S.; Thorngren, K.-G.

    1984-01-01

    Preoperative sup(99m)Tc-MDP-scintimetry was performed in 117 patients with femoral neck fractures. Scintimetry was shown to be superior to visual evaluation. The ratio was calculated of the uptake in the femoral head of the fractured side over that in the unfractured side, with compensation for the increased trochanteric femoral activity found on the fractured side. A ratio above 0.90 correlated well with uneventful healing in both undisplaced and displaced fractures. Preoperative scintimetry is of great value in the choice of primary treatment of femoral neck fractures. (author)

  4. FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES GARDEN I AND II: EVALUATION OF THE DEVIATION IN LATERAL VIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Natália Zalc; Melo, Lucas da Ponte; Nordon, David Gonçalves; Silva, Fernando Brandão de Andrade E; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Santos

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of deviation in the lateral radiographic incidence in patients with femoral neck fracture classified as non-diverted in the anteroposterior view (Garden I and II). Nineteen selected patients with femoral neck fractures classified as Garden I and II were retrospectively evaluated, estimating the degree of deviation in the lateral view. Fifteen cases (79%) presented deviations in lateral view, with a mean of 18.6 degrees (±15.5). Most fractures of the femoral neck classified as Garden I and II present some degree of posterior deviation in the X-ray lateral view. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.

  5. Case report: AVN of the femoral head five year follow-up of the combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Feng; Dong, Hanqing; Xu, Yaozeng

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge, the type of combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture is rare. And the long term follow-up is seldom been reported. A 60 year old woman suffered from a traffic accident. We gave her the intramedullary nail treatment for the combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture, and the fracture indeed cured after one year and there is no clue of necrosis of the femoral head, but after 5 years, there is an evidence of necrosis of the femoral head. Combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture should be kept in mind. Patients with this unusual fracture should be kept under surveillance for longer than might be thought currently to be necessary for there is a possibility of necrosis of the femoral head, even a nondisplaced femoral neck fracture.

  6. Femoroacetabular impingement: bone marrow oedema associated with fibrocystic change of the femoral head and neck junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom) and Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jamesslj@email.com; Connell, D.A. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Aim: To describe the association of bone marrow oedema adjacent to areas of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. Materials and methods: The clinical and imaging findings in six patients with bone marrow oedema adjacent to an area of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction are presented. There were five males and one female (age range 19-42 years, mean age 34.5 years). Three patients were referred with a clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement, two with suspected osteoid osteoma and one with a clinical diagnosis of sciatica. The volume of bone marrow oedema (grade 1: 0-25%, grade 2: 26-50%, grade 3: 51-75% and grade 4: 76-100% of the femoral neck width), presence of labral and articular cartilage abnormality, joint effusion, and femoral head and neck morphology were recorded. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified fibrocystic change in the anterolateral aspect of the femoral head and neck junction in all cases (mean size 9 mm, range 5-14 mm, three multilocular and three unilocular cysts). The volume of oedema was variable (one grade 1, two grade 2, one grade 3 and two grade 4). All patients had abnormality of the anterosuperior labrum with five patients demonstrating chondral loss. An abnormal femoral head and neck junction was identified in five patients. Conclusion: The radiological finding of fibrocystic change at the anterosuperior femoral neck with or without bone marrow oedema should prompt the search for femoroacetabular impingement. Bone marrow oedema may rarely be identified adjacent to these areas of cystic change and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow oedema in the femoral neck.

  7. Femoroacetabular impingement: bone marrow oedema associated with fibrocystic change of the femoral head and neck junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.L.J.; Connell, D.A.; O'Donnell, P.; Saifuddin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To describe the association of bone marrow oedema adjacent to areas of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. Materials and methods: The clinical and imaging findings in six patients with bone marrow oedema adjacent to an area of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction are presented. There were five males and one female (age range 19-42 years, mean age 34.5 years). Three patients were referred with a clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement, two with suspected osteoid osteoma and one with a clinical diagnosis of sciatica. The volume of bone marrow oedema (grade 1: 0-25%, grade 2: 26-50%, grade 3: 51-75% and grade 4: 76-100% of the femoral neck width), presence of labral and articular cartilage abnormality, joint effusion, and femoral head and neck morphology were recorded. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified fibrocystic change in the anterolateral aspect of the femoral head and neck junction in all cases (mean size 9 mm, range 5-14 mm, three multilocular and three unilocular cysts). The volume of oedema was variable (one grade 1, two grade 2, one grade 3 and two grade 4). All patients had abnormality of the anterosuperior labrum with five patients demonstrating chondral loss. An abnormal femoral head and neck junction was identified in five patients. Conclusion: The radiological finding of fibrocystic change at the anterosuperior femoral neck with or without bone marrow oedema should prompt the search for femoroacetabular impingement. Bone marrow oedema may rarely be identified adjacent to these areas of cystic change and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow oedema in the femoral neck

  8. Genomic expression analysis of rat chromosome 4 for skeletal traits at femoral neck

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Liu, Lixiang; Koller, Daniel L.; Liu, Yunlong; Edenberg, Howard J.; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Hip fracture is the most devastating osteoporotic fracture type with significant morbidity and mortality. Several studies in humans and animal models identified chromosomal regions linked to hip size and bone mass. Previously, we identified that the region of 4q21-q41 on rat chromosome (Chr) 4 harbors multiple femoral neck quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats. The purpose of this study is to identify the candidate genes for femoral neck structure an...

  9. Femoral neck-shaft angle in extra-capsular proximal femoral fracture fixation; does it make a TAD of difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N P; Wynn-Jones, H; Ward, M S; Wimhurst, J A

    2005-11-01

    The effect of femoral neck-shaft angle and implant type on the accuracy of lag screw placement in extra-capsular proximal femoral fracture fixation was investigated. Radiographs of all extra-capsular proximal femoral fractures seen in one unit over 18 months were reviewed. Of 399 cases, 307 (237 female, 70 male) were included in the study as they had no contra-lateral proximal femoral metal work. Femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) of the uninjured hip and magnification adjusted tip-apex distance (TAD) of femoral head lag screw were measured. Type of fixation implant was 135 degrees classic hip screw (CHS) (n=144) or 130 degrees intra-medullary hip screw (IMHS) (n=163). Mean contra-lateral NSA was 130.2 degrees (112.9--148 degrees ) and 64 patients (58 female, 6 male) had a NSA TAD was 18.7 mm (5.8--43.8mm) and 88.9% of cases had a TAD of less than 25 mm. TAD values were significantly greater using an IMHS if NSA was 125 degrees (p=0.028). This was not the case with the CHS. The use of the 130 degrees -IMHS in patients with a NSA 125 degrees and caution is advocated when using this device in such cases.

  10. Femoral Neck Strain during Maximal Contraction of Isolated Hip-Spanning Muscle Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate femoral neck strain during maximal isometric contraction of the hip-spanning muscles. The musculoskeletal and the femur finite-element models from an elderly white woman were taken from earlier studies. The hip-spanning muscles were grouped by function in six hip-spanning muscle groups. The peak hip and knee moments in the model were matched to corresponding published measurements of the hip and knee moments during maximal isometric exercises about the hip and the knee in elderly participants. The femoral neck strain was calculated using full activation of the agonist muscles at fourteen physiological joint angles. The 5%±0.8% of the femoral neck volume exceeded the 90th percentile of the strain distribution across the 84 studied scenarios. Hip extensors, flexors, and abductors generated the highest tension in the proximal neck (2727 με, tension (986 με and compression (−2818 με in the anterior and posterior neck, and compression (−2069 με in the distal neck, respectively. Hip extensors and flexors generated the highest neck strain per unit of joint moment (63–67 με·m·N−1 at extreme hip angles. Therefore, femoral neck strain is heterogeneous and muscle contraction and posture dependent.

  11. Hip dislocation following the treatment of femoral neck fracture: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck fractures are very rare in young patients and are frequently complicated by femoral head osteonecrosis and femoral neck nonunion. Case Outline. A 19-year-old girl with hip dislocation following the treatment of the femoral neck fracture is presented. The femoral neck fracture was initially treated by open reduction and three-screw fixation. After detecting the nonunion of femoral neck, valgus osteotomy was done. Secondary, iatrogenic, hip dislocation appeared. The patient had pains, and in clinical findings a shorter leg and limited range of motion in the hip - altogether 40 degrees. She was then successfully treated by open reduction, together with Chiari pelvic osteotomy and joint transfixation. Transfixation pin was removed three weeks following the operation. After that, the patient was put into the abduction device and physical therapy was started. The mentioned regimen lasted four months after the surgery, then the abduction device was removed and walking started. Full weight bearing was allowed eight months after surgery. Conclusion. As we have not found the literature data concerning the above mentioned problem, we solved it in the way that we usually do for the treatment of developmental dislocation of the hip in adolescence.

  12. Atypical femoral neck stress fracture in a marathon runner: a case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Femoral neck stress fractures are relatively rare and may present as sports-related injuries. The presentation is variable, and prompt diagnosis facilitates the earliest return to pre-morbid functional activity levels. Delayed detection may precipitate femoral non-union or avascular necrosis, resulting in long-term functional deficit. AIMS: We present the case of a basicervical femoral neck stress fracture occurring in a 23-year-old marathon runner. The pathophysiology and practical management issues related to this unusual injury pattern are discussed. CONCLUSION: The growing interest in amateur athletic activities should raise the index of suspicion for stress fractures of the femoral neck in healthy adults with atypical hip pain. Increased levels of patient education and physician awareness can reduce the incidence of long-term morbidity in cases of this unusual sports-related injury.

  13. Postoperative stroke after hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture: a report of 2 cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, David Yi; Christoforou, Dimitrios; Turner, Garth; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2014-06-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the elderly comprise a significant number of orthopedic surgical cases at a major trauma center. These patients are immediately incapacitated, and surgical fixation can help increase mobility, restore independence, and reduce morbidity and mortality. However, operative treatment carries its own inherent risks including infections, deep vein thromboses, and intraoperative cardiovascular collapse. Cerebrovascular stroke is a relatively uncommon occurrence after hip fractures. We present 2 cases with unusual postoperative medical complication after cemented hip hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture that will serve to illustrate an infrequent but very serious complication. Case 1 was a 73-year-old man with a Garden IV femoral neck fracture who underwent a right hip unipolar cemented hemiarthroplasty under general anesthesia. After uneventful surgery, he developed neurological deficits, and a postoperative noncontrast head computed tomography showed a right medial thalamic infarct. Case 2 was an 82-year-old man with a Garden IV femoral neck fracture who underwent a right hip unipolar cemented hemiarthroplasty under general anesthesia. After uneventful surgery, the patient became hemodynamically unstable. A postoperative noncontrast head computed tomography showed a large evolving left middle cerebral artery stroke. General anesthesia in the setting of decreased cardiac function (decreased ejection fraction and output) carries the risk for ischemic injury to the brain from decreased cerebral perfusion. Risk factors including advanced age, history of coronary artery disease, atherosclerotic disease, and atrial fibrillation increase the risk for perioperative stroke. Furthermore, it is known that during the cementing of implants, microemboli can be released, which must be considered in patients with preoperative heart disease. As a result, consideration of using a noncemented implant or cementing without pressurizing in this clinical scenario

  14. Correlation between baseline femoral neck marrow status and the development of femoral head osteonecrosis in corticosteroid-treated patients: A longitudinal study by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Gilon, Raphael; Malghem, Jacques; Lecouvet, Frederic; Depresseux, Genevieve; Houssiau, Frederic A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the development of corticosteroid (CS)-associated femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) is influenced by baseline femoral neck marrow status. Patients and methods: The population consisted of 20 untreated patients with a newly diagnosed rheumatic disease in whom a standardized CS regimen was planned. Before CS treatment, baseline femoral neck marrow status was determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on T1-weighted images (proportion of surface area of femoral neck and intertrochanteric area occupied by fatty marrow; index of marrow conversion [IMC]) and on a quantitative MR sequence (bulk T1 values of femoral head and neck). The presence of ON was assessed by coronal T1-weighted MR images of the hips at 6 and 12 months. Results: None of the patients suffered from ON at baseline. Four patients (20%) developed bilateral femoral head ON at 6 months. The mean percentage of fat marrow in the femoral neck before treatment was significantly higher in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.0025). The mean baseline femoral neck IMC value, which parallels the degree of red to yellow marrow conversion, was higher in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.089). The mean baseline bulk T1 value of the femoral neck (but not of the femoral head), which inversely correlates with the amount of fat marrow, was significantly shorter in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.0298). Conclusion: The development of CS-associated femoral head ON is correlated with a high fat content in the proximal femur before CS therapy

  15. Early detection by sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following medial femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiff, J.; Lanng, S.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.; Karle, A.K.; Uhrenholdt, A.

    1980-01-01

    A selected series of 24 patients with displaced medial femoral neck fracture, treated with closed reduction and osteosynthesis with cancellous bone screws (ASIF), were investigated. During an observation period of 6 to 26 months, serial hip joint scintigraphies were performed and compared with serial X-ray examinations. At the first scintigraphic examination performed on average 5-6 weeks after the fracture, two separate investigators found a decreased amount of activity or no activity in the femoral head of 10 and 8 patients, respectively. At the second scintigraphic examination performed on average 11.1 weeks after the fracture both investigators found no activity or a decreased amount of activity in 8 patients. This figure declined to 7 during the following period, because one patient with decreased activity was recorded as having normal activity 15 months after the fracture. These 7 patients all developed radiological signs of femoral head collapse on average 16.3 months after the fracture (range 5-26 months), whereas their scintigrams displayed decreased or absent tracer uptake on average 1.2 months after the fracture (P<0.01). None of the patients with initially normal or increased uptake later showed decreased or absent uptake during the study and none developed radiological collapse. It may be concluded that absent or decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate in the femoral head following medial femoral neck fracture indicates femoral head necrosis and a high risk of late segmental collapse, whereas normal or increased uptake implying preserved blood supply means that late segmental collapse will probably never develop. (author)

  16. The application of bilateral femoral vein approaches in interventional treatment of deep venous thrombosis of left lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuping; Liu Jian; Wang Bin; Yao Zhongqiang; Zhang Yan; Li Chen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of interventional catheterization with bilateral femoral vein approaches for performing the thrombolytic treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis of left lower extremity. Methods: Antegrade puncturing into the left femoral vein was carried out in eighteen patients with acute deep vein thrombosis in the left lower extremity after left iliac-femoral vein catheterization via the right femoral vein or the right jugular vein access failed. When the puncturing of the left femoral vein was successfully done and was confirmed by angiography, the guide wire was inserted into the inferior vena cava and was pulled out through the right femoral vein or right jugular vein, and a wire track was thus established. Then, retrograde insertion of the catheter was conducted along the wire from the right to the left until the catheter was placed into the left iliac-femoral vein for thrombolysis. Results: Of 18 cases,successful puncturing into the left femoral vein was achieved in 16, and an effective wire track was established between the left and right femoral veins, based on which the catheter was smoothly inserted into the left iliac-femoral vein via the right femoral vein or jugular vein. Catheter thrombolysis was employed for 3 to 14 days, the thrombus was completely dissolved and the lower extremity swelling subsided. During the course of thrombolysis, no obvious congestion or hematoma occurred at the puncturing site of the left femoral vein. Conclusion: For patients with deep vein thrombosis of left lower extremity, when left iliac-femoral vein catheterization via the right femoral vein or the right jugular vein access failed, the establishment of wire track by using bilateral femoral vein approaches for further catheterization of left iliac-femoral vein and subsequent thrombolysis is feasible in clinical practice. This technique is safe and minimally-invasive with higher success rate. (authors)

  17. Dual mobility cup reduces dislocation rate after arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertsson Otto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures remains a serious complication. The aim of our study was to investigate the dislocation rate in acute femoral neck fracture patients operated with a posterior approach with cemented conventional or dual articulation acetabular components. Methods We compared the dislocation rate in 56 consecutive patients operated with conventional (single mobility cemented acetabular components to that in 42 consecutive patients operated with dual articulation acetabular components. All the patients were operated via posterior approach and were followed up to one year postoperatively. Results There were 8 dislocations in the 56 patients having conventional components as compared to no dislocations in those 42 having dual articulation components (p = 0.01. The groups were similar with respect to age and gender distribution. Conclusions We conclude that the use of a cemented dual articulation acetabular component significantly reduces the dislocation rates in femoral neck fracture patients operated via posterior approach.

  18. Radiation-induced femoral neck fracture in patients cured of cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukowska, K; Zomer-Drozda, J; Kielbinska, S [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    In the years 1948-1967 8275 patients with cervical carcinoma in various grades of progression were treated at the Institute of Oncology in Warsaw by radiotherapy from external fields. Five-year survival without signs of recurrence was obtained in 4204 cases, 3863 of them were irradiated from external fields with X-rays under conventional conditions, while 341 received Co/sup 60/ radiotherapy. In 43 patients treated with X-rays and radium and regarded as cured radiological evidence of femoral neck fracture was obtained. These patients account for 1.1% of all cured patients. In the group treated with Co/sup 60/ radiation in only 1 case femoral neck fracture was observed (0.3%). In the group of cured patients with femoral neck fracture the method of irradiation from external fields, the age, clinical course, radiological appearance of radiation-induced changes and the method of fracture management were analysed.

  19. Clinical value of 64-slice spiral CT for classification of femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiangtao; Gong Jianping; Cai Wu; Zhu Jianbing; Chen Guangqiang; Qian Minghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of 64-slice spiral CT for classification of femoral neck fracture. Methods: The survey was comprised of 46 patients with femoral neck fractures detected with plain radiographs and CT images. Cases were randomly presented in 2 formats: plain radiographs and CT. Garden classification was queried. Modification of garden classification (nondisplaced vs displaced) was taken to compare with plain radiographs and CT in the study. Results: The results of classification for plain radiographs were 2 cases of Garden Ⅰ, 10 cases of Ⅱ, 22 cases of Ⅲ, and 12 cases of Ⅳ. Those for CT were 1 cases of Garden Ⅰ, 4 cases of Ⅱ, 26 cases of Ⅲ, and 15 cases of Ⅳ. CT improved the accuracy of Garden Classification (P<0.05). Conclusion: Garden classification using CT images shows good conformation with results of surgery. 64-Slic CT is better plain radiographs for Garden classification of femoral neck fracture. (authors)

  20. Dislocation of total hip replacement in patients with fractures of the femoral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enocson, Anders; Hedbeck, Carl-Johan; Tidermark, Jan; Pettersson, Hans; Ponzer, Sari; Lapidus, Lasse J

    2009-04-01

    Total hip replacement is increasingly used in active, relatively healthy elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Dislocation of the prosthesis is a severe complication, and there is still controversy regarding the optimal surgical approach and its influence on stability. We analyzed factors influencing the stability of the total hip replacement, paying special attention to the surgical approach. We included 713 consecutive hips in a series of 698 patients (573 females) who had undergone a primary total hip replacement (n = 311) for a non-pathological, displaced femoral neck fracture (Garden III or IV) or a secondary total hip replacement (n = 402) due to a fracture-healing complication after a femoral neck fracture. We used Cox regression to evaluate factors associated with prosthetic dislocation after the operation. Age, sex, indication for surgery, the surgeon's experience, femoral head size, and surgical approach were tested as independent factors in the model. The overall dislocation rate was 6%. The anterolateral surgical approach was associated with a lower risk of dislocation than the posterolateral approach with or without posterior repair (2%, 12%, and 14%, respectively (p replacement in patients with femoral neck fractures.

  1. Pertrochanteric osteotomy and distraction femoral neck lengthening for treatment of proximal hip ischemic deformities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplenky, Mikhail; Mekki, Waleed

    2016-02-01

    Proximal femoral ischemic deformities in the pediatric population is a challenging pathological situation. Many surgical techniques have been proposed to treat this problem, with variable reported results. We believe that a C-shaped pertrochanteric osteotomy plus neck lengthening utilizing distraction osteogenesis principles would restore the femoral anatomical ratios between neck, shaft, and the head, and redress the biomechanics of the proximal femur with resultant sufficient containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum. We reviewed the results of 19 patients divided into two groups with proximal femoral ischemic deformities. Between 2002 and 2009, preoperative and postoperative clinical examination and radiographs were assessed measuring the neck-shaft angle (NSA), neck-epiphyseal angle (NEA), articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD), lateralization of the greater trochanter (LT), the angle of Wiberg (CEA), index of lateral head displacement by Reimers (IM), and lateral angle of displacement (LDA). All patients were followed prospectively. Clinical outcome was assessed using Colton's criteria, which showed average good improvement in function (58.9 %). Radiological indicators were assessed using Kruczynski's criteria. For group I, the postoperative NSA, NEA, and CEA showed significant change (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). For group II, the postoperative NSA, NEA, and CEA showed significant change (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). The midterm functional results are favorable for the implementation of pertrochanteric osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis to treat proximal femoral ischemic deformities in the pediatric population.

  2. Removal of a broken guide wire entrapped in a fractured femoral neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Qing-hua

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Guide wire plays an important role in the fixation of femoral neck fracture with dynamic hip screw (DHS. Breakage of a guide wire during operation is a very rare condition. We met such a dilemma in DHS fixation of a 54-year-old male patient who sustained Garden type IV frac-ture of the right femoral neck. The distal end of the guide wire broke and was entrapped in the fractured femoral neck. We tried to get the broken part out by a cannulated drill. Reaming was started with the cannulated drill slowly rotat-ing around the guide K-wire until the reamer fully contained the target under fluoroscope. A bone curette was used to get the broken wire out but failed, so we had to use the cannuated drill to dredge this bone tunnel. Finally the bro-ken wire end was taken out, mixed with blood and bone fragments. Through the existing drilling channel, DHS fixa-tion was easily finished. The patient had an uneventful re-covery without avascular necrosis of femoral head or non-union of the fracture at one year’s follow-up. A few methods can be adopted to deal with the broken guide wire. The way used in our case is less invasive but technically challenging. When the guide wire is properly positioned, this method is very practical and useful. Key words: Femoral neck fractures; Bones wires; Complications

  3. Occult injuries of the femoral neck in osteoporosis of aged patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fractures of the femoral neck in elderly patients are often a complication in osteoporosis. Diagnosis of fractures with displacement and compression of fragments is quite easy. The negative radiograph in old patients complaining of hip pain is generally considered a characteristic feature of presensile osteoporotic pain. Clinical examples present patients with hip pain caused by occult injuries of the femoral neck. They should be regarded as imminent fractures and adequately treated. Bone scan is very helpful in the early detection of such occult osteroporotic injuries. (orig.) [de

  4. Efficacy Evaluation for the Treatment of Subcapital Femoral Neck Fracture in Young Adults by Capsulotomy Reduction and Closed Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subcapital femoral neck fracture in young adults has many complications, and the incidence is increasing year-by-year. The selection of the proper operation method to avoid them is an ambiguous matter. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of subcapital femoral neck fracture by the capsulotomy and internal fixation with iliac bone grafting or closed reduction and internal fixation in young adults. Methods: From March 2003 to February 2010, 65 young patients with subcapital femoral neck fractures were treated, including 39 males and 26 females with average age of 34.5 years (range, 19-50 years; 29 cases of the left side and 36 cases of the right side. They were randomly divided into Group A with 34 cases treated by closed reduction and internal fixation and Group B with 31 cases treated by the capsulotomy and internal fixation with iliac bone grafting. The two groups had no significant differences in sex, age, body mass index and preoperative Harris Hip Score. The observation criteria involved the length of the incision, blood loss, operation time, nonunion rate, avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH rate and Harris Hip Score. Results: Four of 65 patients were lost follow-up, and the follow-up rate was 93.8%, the average follow-up time was 38.7 months (range, 33-47 months. In Group A, the incision length was 5.1 ± 2.2 cm, blood loss was 84.0 ± 13.2 ml, and operation time was 52.9 ± 10.2 min. In Group B, the incision length was 15.4 ± 4.6 cm, blood loss was 396.0 ± 21.3 ml, and operation time was 116.5 ± 15.3 min. Nonunion occurred in 8 patients (25.2% in Group A and 1 patient (3.3% in Group B. ANFH occurred in 9 patients (29.1% in Group A and 2 patients (6.7% in Group B. Postoperative Harris Hip Score was 89.0 ± 5.6 in Group A and 95.0 ± 4.5 in Group B. The above index of two groups was considered statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Capsulotomy and internal fixation with iliac bone grafting can

  5. Bilateral Stress Fractures of the Femoral Neck from Renal Osteomalacia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sengupta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of spontaneous bilateral stress fractures of femoral neck leading to coxa vara in a young female with history of chronic renal disease and secondary osteomalacia is described. Once the underlying disease was controlled, the fracture was treated by valgus osteotomy with good result.

  6. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  7. Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhava RJ Satish

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Closed reduction and cannulated cancellous screw fixation gives satisfactory functional results in large group of elderly patients. The four quadrant parallel peripheral (FQPP screw fixation technique gives good stability, allows controlled collapse, avoids fixation failure and achieves predictable bone healing in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients ≥50 years of age.

  8. Nonunion of the femoral neck: possibilities and limitations of the various treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, Ernst L. F. B.; Marti, René K.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in cases of nonunions of the femoral neck, the surgeon is tempted to perform prosthetic replacement of the hip, more so if there is also evidence of avascular necrosis of the head of femur. This provides rapid pain relief and allows early mobilization. However, long-term results of hip

  9. Closed reduction, internal fixation with quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting in displaced femoral neck fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Sibaji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of femoral neck fracture is still considered as an unsolved problem. It is more evident in displaced fractures where this fracture is considered as some sort of vascular insult to the head of the femur. We have used closed reduction, internal fixation and quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting in fresh displaced femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods: From April 1996 to December 2004 we operated 73 consecutive patients of displaced femoral neck fracture in the age group of 24 to 81 years, mean age being 54.6 years. The patients were operated within one week of injury, the mean delay being 3.6 days. Closed reduction internal fixation along with quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting was done in all cases. They were followed up for an average period of 5.6 years (range 2-11 years. Results: Results were assessed according to modified Harris Hip Scoring system and found to be excellent in 53, good in 12, fair in six and poor in two patients. Bony union occurred in 68 cases, no patient developed avascular necrosis (AVN till date. Conclusion: For fresh displaced femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients closed reduction, internal fixation and quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting is a suitable option to secure union and prevent development of AVN.

  10. Can introduction of an uncemented, hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures be recommended?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Kring; Brix, Michael; Birkelund, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    The role of uncemented fully hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasties for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures remains unclear. We investigated if complications, reoperations and mortality differed from that of cemented hemiarthroplasties. The study groups consisted of 78 cemented...... and 97 uncemented, hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasties with minimum 1 year follow-up. The dislocation rate was 3% in both groups (p=0.84). Proximal femoral fracturing occurred in 1% in the cemented group and in 4% in the uncemented group (p=0.26). Reoperations were performed following 4......% of procedures in the cemented group and following 2% of procedures in the uncemented group (p=0.48). Mortality rates did not differ statistically significant between groups. Outcomes were comparable. Introduction of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femoral neck...

  11. Bilateral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head and neck in a case of oncogenic osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, V; Agrawal, K; Vinothkumar, T K; Mathesul, A

    2010-07-01

    We describe a case of oncogenic osteomalacia in an adult male who presented with low back pain and bilateral hip pain. Extensive investigations had failed to find a cause. A plain pelvic radiograph showed Looser's zones in both femoral necks. MRI confirmed the presence of insufficiency fractures bilaterally in the femoral head and neck. Biochemical investigations confirmed osteomalacia which was unresponsive to treatment with vitamin D and calcium. A persistently low serum phosphate level suggested a diagnosis of hypophosphataemic osteomalacia. The level of fibroblast growth factor-23 was highly raised, indicating the cause as oncogenic osteomalacia. This was confirmed on positron-emission tomography, MRI and excision of a benign fibrous histiocytoma following a rapid recovery. The diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia may be delayed due to the non-specific presenting symptoms. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head may be missed unless specifically looked for.

  12. fibular osteosynthesis of neglected femoral neck fracture in a young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As soon as a diagnosis of non-displaced fracture of his right hip was made he discharged himself ... in dogs that cortical grafts provided structural support to the necrotic femoral head preventing its collapse ... possibility of future osteoarthritis of the index hip and the need for regular follow-up. In conclusion, the use of ...

  13. Benign aggressive lesions of femoral head and neck: Is salvage possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Panchwagh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign aggressive bone lesions of the femoral head and neck are mostly seen in young adults and warrant treatment for pain, impending fracture or established fracture, and disease clearance. It becomes challenging to treat them effectively while attempting salvage of the femoral head and yet achieving long term disease control with minimum complications. We describe our technique and experience in dealing with these lesions which can achieve the above-mentioned goals and can be easily replicated. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 15 cases of surgically treated, biopsy-proven benign, locally aggressive lesions affecting the femoral head and neck in skeletally mature individuals. All cases were treated with extended curettage through anterolateral modified Smith–Petersen approach along with tricortical iliac crest bone graft (combined with fibular graft in some cases reconstruction with or without suitable internal fixation. Results: All, except one, patients were available for follow up. The age ranged from 18 to 43 years and the follow up ranged between 24 and 124 months (average 78 months. These included aneurysmal bone cysts (9, giant cell tumors (4, and fibrous dysplasia (2. The indication was pain (8, with impending (2 or established pathological neck femur fracture (5. In all cases, there was satisfactory healing of lesion and timely rehabilitation. Nonunion, avascular necrosis or local recurrences were not seen. The MSTS functional score was good or excellent in all (range 26–29, average 28. Conclusion: Benign aggressive lesions affecting femoral head and neck in young and middle-aged adults pose a treatment challenge. A sturdy, lasting reconstruct with acceptable functional outcome and minimal recurrence rate can be achieved by salvaging the femoral head and neck using curettage and reconstruction, obviating the need for replacement at such an early age.

  14. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term "small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm. Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II. Fractures which united (n = 54 had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16, which had a small average head size (49 cu cm and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05. Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  15. Femoral neck fractures after removal of hardware in healed trochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquet, Antonio; Giannoudis, Peter V; Gelink, Andrés

    2017-12-01

    Hardware removal in healed trochanteric fractures (TF) in the absence of infection or significant mechanical complications is rarely indicated. However, in patients with persistent pain, prominent material and discomfort in the activities of daily living, the implant is eventually removed. Publications of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture after removal of implants from healed trochanteric fractures (FNFARIHTF) just because of pain or discomfort are rare. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on the eventual risk factors, the mechanisms, the clinical presentation, and frequency, and to pay special emphasis in their prevention. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines with no language restriction. Case reports of FNFARIHTF and series of TF with cases of FNFARIHTF due to pain or discomfort published between inception of journals to December 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Relevant information was divided in two parts. Part I included the analysis of cases of FNFARIHTF, with the objective of establishing the eventual risk factors, mechanisms and pathoanatomy, clinical presentation and diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Part II analyzed series of TF which included cases of FNFARIHTF for assessing the incidence of femoral neck fractures in this condition. Overall 24 publications with 45 cases of FNFARIHTF met the inclusion criteria. We found that the only prevalent factors for FNFARIHTF were: 1) preexisisting systemic osteoporosis, as most patients were older and elder females, with lower bone mineral density and bone mass; 2) local osteoporosis as a result of preloading by the fixation device in the femoral neck, leading to stress protection, reducing the strain at the neck, and increasing bone loss and weakness; and 3) the removal of hardware from the femoral neck, with reduction of the failure strength of the neck. The femoral neck fractures were spontaneous, i.e. not related to trauma or

  16. Review of a single contemporary femoral neck fracture fixation method in young patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henari, Shwan

    2011-03-01

    An intracapsular femoral neck fracture in a young patient is a rare and difficult injury to manage. The occurrence of complications following fixation is multifactorial. Initial displacement and timing and accuracy of reduction are the key factors affecting outcome. The severities of the trauma to the hip and the impact of the intracapsular hematoma also play a role, the importance of which remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high incidence of femoral neck fractures treated in our institution over a 7-month period, to record the long-term outcome of these patients, all of whom were treated with contemporary methods of internal fixation, and to highlight the reasons for this injury being termed an "orthopedic emergency" and its differences from the same injury in the elderly population. We performed a retrospective analysis of 12 cases of intracapsular femur neck fracture in patients younger than 50 years treated over 7 months in a regional trauma center. All patients underwent satisfactory reduction and fixation. Nine of the 12 patients had a good outcome at a mean follow-up of 29 months. One patient developed a nonunion of the femoral head requiring total hip arthroplasty, one developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and one developed partial avascular necrosis. This compares favorably with other studies.

  17. Does femoral offset recover and affect the functional outcome of patients with displaced femoral neck fracture following hemiarthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyung-Min; Won, Seok-Hyung; Han, Jun; Won, Ye-Yeon

    2017-06-01

    Restoring preoperative horizontal femoral offset (FO) promised good functional outcome in patients receiving total hip arthroplasty. However, relatively little was known regarding the clinical relevance of restoring the offset in patients with bipolar hemiarthroplasty to treat displaced femoral neck fracture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative FO accurately and verify its relation with functional outcome. One hundred elderly patients who received bipolar hemiarthroplasty to treat displaced femoral neck fracture were identified. Preoperative CT scanning of contralateral hip joint and reconstruction of images led to rotation-free FO. By referencing postoperative implant specification and comparing to measured values in Picture Archive and Communication System, rotation-free postoperative FO and the amount of change were acquired. Postoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI) were evaluated to measure functional outcome at 12-month after the surgery. Patients with significant FO change were identified. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine if the FO change might independently affect the outcome regardless of confounding factors. The mean preoperative offset was 37.4±2.5 increased by 12.7±9.6% after the surgery. Only 25.0% of postoperative offset after hemiarthroplasty was changed within ±5% of preoperative offset. A total of 45.0% of postoperative offset changed within ±10% while 77.0% of postoperative offset changed within ±20%. 23% of patients whose FO changed more than 20% showed significantly worse outcome score than the patients whose FO change remained within ±20% of initial value. Mean MBI and HHS were negatively correlated with FO change. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant correlation remained between modification of FO and MBI, but not between FO change and HHS (B=4.576; β=0.235; 95% confidence interval of B: 0.534 to 8.135). FO was not properly restored in 23

  18. Bone density in relation to failure in patients with osteosynthesized femoral neck fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke; Ryg, Jesper; Lauritsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Background The treatment of femoral neck fracture with internal fixation (IF) is recommended in younger patients and has compared to arthroplasty the advantage of retaining the femoral head. A big problem with osteosynthesis is though failure. Finding predictors for fixation failure is still......,2 (75,4-79,0). Failure is defined as revision surgery or new fracture. Results 69 patients had a t-score (total hip) below -2,5 SD as defined for osteoporosis. At 1 year the overall (dislocated) failure rate was 34,5 % (44,7 %), at 2 years 45,4 % (60,0 %) and at end of follow-up 49,6 % (62...

  19. simultaneous ipsilateral fracture of the femoral neck and shaft

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-04-14

    Apr 14, 1971 ... Eight cases with fractures of The shaft and the neck of the ... discovered after a period of 6 months (case 1), 16 days ... The patient made a satisfactory recovery from the ... right hip from 0° to 110° and his knee from 0° to 90°.

  20. Simultaneous Ipsilateral fracture of the femoral neck and shaft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cases with fractures of The shaft and the neck of the same femur are described. Attention is drawn to the high incidence of undiagnosed fractures in cases where these two fractures occur concomitantly. It is emphasized that definitive treatment can only be planned after a full clinical and radiological examination.

  1. Transfracture abduction osteotomy: A solution for nonunion of femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairamchander Pingle

    2014-01-01

    femur with or without bone graft, valgus osteotomy or hip arthroplasty. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases of nonunion of femoral neck fracture treated by transfracture abduction osteotomy (TFAO. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, 30 patients with nonunion of femoral neck fractures were treated with TFAO over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, All patients were less than 50 years of age. Absence of clinical and radiological signs of union after four months was considered as nonunion. Patients more than 50 years of age were excluded from the study. Union was assessed at 6 months radiologically. Limb length was measured at six months. The mean duration of femoral neck fracture was 19 months (range 4 months 10 years. Results were analyzed in terms of radiological union at six months. Average followup was five years and six months. Results: Consistent union was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. One case was lost to followup after five and one-half months postoperatively. However, the fracture had united in this case at the last followup. Average shortening of the limb at six months was 1.9 cm. Average neck shaft angle was 127° (range 120-145°. Five cases went into AVN but were asymptomatic. Two cases required reoperation due to back out of Moore′s pins. These were reopened and cancellous screws were inserted in the same tracks. Conclusions: Consistent union of nonunion femoral neck fracture was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. The major drawback of the procedure is immobilization of the patient in the hip spica for eight weeks.

  2. Effect of combined treatment with alendronate and calcitriol on femoral neck strength in osteopenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotovati Abbas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip fracture is associated with pronounced morbidity and excess mortality in elderly women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Many drugs have been developed to treat osteoporosis and to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. We investigated the effects of combined alendronate and vitamin D3 treatment on bone mass and fracture load at the femoral neck in ovariectomized (OVX rats, and evaluated the relationship between bone mass parameters and femoral neck strength. Methods Thirty 12-week-old female rats underwent either a sham-operation (n = 6 or OVX (n = 24. Twenty weeks later, OVX rats were further divided into four groups and received daily doses of either saline alone, 0.1 mg/kg alendronate, 0.1 μg/kg calcitriol, or a combination of both two drugs by continuous infusion via Alzet mini-osmotic pumps. The sham-control group received saline alone. After 12 weeks of treatment, femoral necks were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT densitometry and mechanical testing. Results Saline-treated OVX rats showed significant decreases in total bone mineral content (BMC (by 28.1%, total bone mineral density (BMD (by 9.5%, cortical BMC (by 26.3%, cancellous BMC (by 66.3%, cancellous BMD (by 29.0% and total cross-sectional bone area (by 30.4% compared with the sham-control group. The combined alendronate and calcitriol treatments improved bone loss owing to estrogen deficiency. On mechanical testing, although OVX significantly reduced bone strength of the femoral neck (by 29.3% compared with the sham-control group, only the combined treatment significantly improved the fracture load at the femoral neck in OVX rats to the level of the sham-controls. The correlation of total BMC to fracture load was significant, but that of total BMD was not. Conclusion Our results showed that the combined treatment with alendronate and calcitriol significantly improved bone fragility of the femoral neck in OVX osteopenic

  3. Current and past menstrual status is an important determinant of femoral neck geometry in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Gibbs, Jenna C; Koehler, Karsten; Allaway, Heather C M; Southmayd, Emily; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-07-01

    Menstrual status, both past and current, has been established as an important determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) in young exercising women. However, little is known regarding the association between the cumulative effect of menstrual status and indices of bone health beyond BMD, such as bone geometry and estimated bone strength. This study explores the association between cumulative menstrual status and indices of bone health assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), including femoral neck geometry and strength and areal BMD (aBMD), in exercising women. 101 exercising women (22.0±0.4years, BMI 21.0±0.2kg/m(2), 520±40min/week of self-reported exercise) participated in this cross-sectional study. Women were divided into three groups as follows based on their self-reported current and past menstrual status: 1) current and past regular menstrual cycles (C+P-R) (n=23), 2) current and past irregular menstrual cycles (C+P-IR) (n=56), 3) and current or past irregular cycles (C/P-RIR) (n=22). Current menstrual status was confirmed using daily urinary metabolites of reproductive hormones. DXA was used to assess estimates of femoral neck geometry and strength from hip strength analysis (HSA), aBMD, and body composition. Cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), strength index (SI), diameter, and section modulus (Z) were calculated at the femoral neck. Low CSMI, CSA, SI, diameter, and Z were operationally defined as values below the median. Areal BMD (g/cm(2)) and Z-scores were determined at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Low BMD was defined as a Z-score0.05). However, after controlling for confounding variables, cumulative menstrual status was not a significant predictor of low aBMD. In exercising women, the cumulative effect of current and past menstrual irregularity appears to be an important predictor of lower estimates of femoral neck geometry, as observed by smaller CSMI and CSA, which may serve as an

  4. Study of the anatomical position of the femoral nerve by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with fractured neck of femur: relevance to femoral nerve block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehmood, Shehzad

    2012-01-31

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the anatomical location of the femoral nerve in patients who have sustained fracture of the neck of femur, and its relevance to femoral nerve block technique. DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical study. SETTING: Orthopedic and Radiology departments of a regional hospital. SUBJECTS: 10 consecutive adult ASA physical status II and III patients (mean age, 78.5 yrs) and 4 adult healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: A T1 magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed of both upper thighs in patients and healthy volunteers successfully. MEASUREMENTS: The distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral artery and the midpoint of the femoral nerve, and the distance of the femoral nerve from the skin was measured at the mid-inguinal ligament, the pubic tubercle, and at the mid-inguinal crease. Data are shown as means (SD). Differences between both sides were compared using paired Student\\'s t-tests. P < 0.05 was significant. MAIN RESULTS: In patients the mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of femoral artery at the mid-inguinal crease on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 10.7 and 11.0, respectively (P = 0.87). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the mid-inguinal ligament on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 9.64 and 12.5, respectively (P = 0.03). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the pubic tubercle on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 8.74 and 10.49, respectively (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of the femoral nerve may be easier to perform at the mid-inguinal crease in patients with fractured neck of femur.

  5. Quantitative CT assessment of proximal femoral bone density. An experimental study concerning its correlation to breaking load for femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Schulze, C.; Gufler, H.; Langer, M.; Bonnaire, F.; Hoenninger, A.; Kuner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In an experimental study, the correlation between the trabecular bone density of the different regions of the proximal femur and the fracture load in the setting of femoral neck fractures was examined. Methods: The bone mineral density 41 random proximal human femora was estimated by single-energy quanitative CT (SE-QCT). The trabecular bone density was measured at the greatest possible extracortical volume at midcapital, midneck and intertrochanteric level and in the 1 cm 3 volumes of the centres of these regions in a standardised 10 mm thick slice in the middle of the femoral neck axis (in mg/ml Ca-hydroxyl apatite). The proximal femora were then isolated and mounted on a compression/bending device under two-legged stand conditions and loaded up to the point when a femoral neck fracture occurred. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a linear correlation between the trabecular bone density and the fracture load for the greater regions, with the highest value in the maximal area of the head (coefficient factor r=0.76). Conclusion: According to our data, the measurement of the trabecular bone by SE-QCT at the femoral head is a more confident adjunct than the neck or trochanteric area to predict a femoral neck fracture. (orig.) [de

  6. The impact of high total cholesterol and high low-density lipoprotein on avascular necrosis of the femoral head in low-energy femoral neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianshang; Zhan, Ke; Zhang, Lili; Zeng, Dan; Yu, Weiguang; Zhang, Xinchao; Zhao, Mingdong; Lai, Zhicheng; Chen, Runzhen

    2017-02-17

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) typically constitutes 5 to 15% of all complications of low-energy femoral neck fractures, and due to an increasingly ageing population and a rising prevalence of femoral neck fractures, the number of patients who develop AVNFH is increasing. However, there is no consensus regarding the relationship between blood lipid abnormalities and postoperative AVNFH. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between blood lipid abnormalities and AVNFH following the femoral neck fracture operation among an elderly population. A retrospective, comparative study was performed at our institution. Between June 2005 and November 2009, 653 elderly patients (653 hips) with low-energy femoral neck fractures underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with cancellous screws (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee). Follow-up occurred at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after surgery. Logistic multi-factor regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors of AVNFH and to determine the effect of blood lipid levels on AVNFH development. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predetermined to focus on isolated freshly closed femoral neck fractures in the elderly population. The primary outcome was the blood lipid levels. The secondary outcome was the logistic multi-factor regression analysis. A total of 325 elderly patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures (AVNFH, n = 160; control, n = 165) were assessed. In the AVNFH group, the average TC, TG, LDL, and Apo-B values were 7.11 ± 3.16 mmol/L, 2.15 ± 0.89 mmol/L, 4.49 ± 1.38 mmol/L, and 79.69 ± 17.29 mg/dL, respectively; all of which were significantly higher than the values in the control group. Logistic multi-factor regression analysis showed that both TC and LDL were the independent factors influencing the postoperative AVNFH within femoral neck fractures. This evidence indicates that AVNFH was significantly

  7. Promising Effect Of Intraarticular Ropivacaine In Femoral Neck Fractures Treated With Internal Fixation (Best Poster Award)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Rune Dueholm

    2008-01-01

     Promising Effect Of Intraarticular Ropivacaine In Femoral Neck Fractures Treated With Internal Fixation Rune Bech*, Jens Lauritsen*+,Tine Dimon*, Ole Ovesen*, Claus Emmeluth, Søren Overgaard*. *:Dept. Ortopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, +:Institute of Public Health-dept. biostatistics...... underwent osteosynthesis with 2 canulated hip screws and were prescribed regular paracetamol and supplementary opioid rescue analgesia as necessary. Pilot group: 11 patients received one peroperative (30 mL=100 mg) and 6 postoperative bolus installations  (10 mL=100 mg) of open label Ropivacaine through......-74) (p=0.012).   CONCLUSION This pilot-study suggests that intraarticular application of Ropivacaine may reduce opioid requirement after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture. However, this is an open pilot study with few patients. We find the results promising and have initiated a double...

  8. Delayed fixation of displaced bilateral, atraumatic, femoral neck fractures in a patient with pregnancy related osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, Charles; Starks, Ian; Wade, Roger; Wynn-Jones, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We present the case of a woman diagnosed with simultaneous displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures following the birth of her second child. No traumatic event was identified. Diagnosis was delayed as the cause of her pain was thought to be non-skeletal in origin. Radiological and serological investigations were diagnostic of osteomalacia. Surgical fixation of her fractures was further delayed due to profound hypocalcaemia. Despite the delays, fixation with bilateral dynamic hip screws resulted in union with no evidence of avascular necrosis at 2 years follow-up. We believe this to be the first report of atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fractures and it shows that a good result can be achieved even in the presence of delayed fixation.

  9. Bilateral non-traumatic acetabular and femoral neck fractures due to pregnancy-associated osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynaci, Osman; Kerimoglu, Servet; Ozturk, Cagatay; Saracoglu, Metehan

    2008-03-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare disorder and its pathophysiology remains unknown. We report a case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 27-year-old primiparous patient who revealed bilateral hip pain during early postnatal period. The plain radiographs and computerized tomography showed bilateral femoral neck and acetabular fractures. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was established by bone mineral density. Diagnostic work-up excluded a secondary osteoporosis. The case was treated successfully by bilateral cementless total hip arthroplasty. Bone mineral density increased after 2 years of treatment with calcium-vitamin D, calcitriol and alendronate. Diagnosis of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis should be suspected when hip pain occurs during pregnancy or in the post-partum period as it can lead to acetabular and femoral neck fractures.

  10. Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in non-athlete - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Stefani de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in healthy young patients is an extremely rare entity, whose diagnostic and treatment represent a major challenge. Patients with history of hip pain, even non-athletes or military recruits, should be analyzed to achieve an early diagnosis and prevent possible complications from the surgical treatment. This report describes a 43-year-old male patient, non-athlete, without previous diseases, who developed bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck without displacement. He had a late diagnosis; bilateral osteosynthesis was made using cannulated screws. Although the diagnosis was delayed in this case, the study highlights the importance of the diagnosis of stress fracture, regardless of the activity level of the patients, for the success of the treatment.

  11. Bilateral Femoral Neck Fatigue Fracture due to Osteomalacia Secondary to Celiac Disease: Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Ozgur; Memisoglu, Kaya; Selek, Alev

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral non traumatic femoral neck fatigue fracture is a rare condition usually occurring secondary to medical conditions such as pregnancy, pelvic irradiation, corticosteroid exposure, chronic renal failure and osteomalacia. In this report, we present three young female patients with bilateral femoral neck fracture secondary to osteomalacia. The underlying cause of osteomalacia was Celiac disease in all patients. The patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated lag screws. They were free of pain and full weight bearing was achieved at three months. There were no complications, avascular necrosis and nonunion during the follow up period. In patients with bone pain, non traumatic fractures and muscle weakness, osteomalacia should be kept in mind and proper diagnostic work-up should be performed to identify the underlying cause of osteomalacia such as celiac disease.

  12. Dislocation of total hip replacement in patients with fractures of the femoral neck

    OpenAIRE

    Enocson, Anders; Hedbeck, Carl-Johan; Tidermark, Jan; Pettersson, Hans; Ponzer, Sari; Lapidus, Lasse J

    2009-01-01

    Background Total hip replacement is increasingly used in active, relatively healthy elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Dislocation of the prosthesis is a severe complication, and there is still controversy regarding the optimal surgical approach and its influence on stability. We analyzed factors influencing the stability of the total hip replacement, paying special attention to the surgical approach. Patients and methods We included 713 consecutive hips in a series of 698 p...

  13. Genomic expression analysis of rat chromosome 4 for skeletal traits at femoral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Liu, Lixiang; Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Yunlong; Edenberg, Howard J; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-10-08

    Hip fracture is the most devastating osteoporotic fracture type with significant morbidity and mortality. Several studies in humans and animal models identified chromosomal regions linked to hip size and bone mass. Previously, we identified that the region of 4q21-q41 on rat chromosome (Chr) 4 harbors multiple femoral neck quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats. The purpose of this study is to identify the candidate genes for femoral neck structure and density by correlating gene expression in the proximal femur with the femoral neck phenotypes linked to the QTLs on Chr 4. RNA was extracted from proximal femora of 4-wk-old rats from F344 and LEW strains, and two other strains, Copenhagen 2331 and Dark Agouti, were used as a negative control. Microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 arrays. A total of 99 genes in the 4q21-q41 region were differentially expressed (P level of the gene in that strain. A total of 18 candidate genes were strongly correlated (r(2) > 0.50) with femoral neck width and prioritized for further analysis. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed 14 of 18 of the candidate genes. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed several direct or indirect relationships among the candidate genes related to angiogenesis (VEGF), bone growth (FGF2), bone formation (IGF2 and IGF2BP3), and resorption (TNF). This study provides a shortened list of genetic determinants of skeletal traits at the hip and may lead to novel approaches for prevention and treatment of hip fracture.

  14. Free fibular strut graft in neglected femoral neck fractures in adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Md Quamar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neglected femoral neck fracture in adults still poses a formidable challenge. Existing treatment options varies from osteotomy (with or without graft to osteosynthesis using various implants and grafting techniques (muscle pedicle, vascularized, and nonvascularized fibula. The aim of this study was to assess outcome of nonvascularized fibular strut graft and cancellous screw fixation in neglected femoral neck fractures in the younger age group. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 32 patients of neglected femoral neck fracture, in the age group of 22-45 years (mean 37.8 years, operated between May 1994 to December 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 28 patients having three years minimum follow-up (mean 4.6 years were included. Delay between injury and operation varied from four weeks to 42 weeks (mean 16.4 weeks. Closed reduction was achieved in 17 patients; open reduction through Watson-Jones anterolateral approach was performed in the remaining 15 patients in whom closed reduction failed. The fracture was transfixed with three parallel guide wires. Appropriate sized cannulated lag screw (7 mm was then inserted in two of the wires. Selection of the third guide wire for fibula depended on the space available in both anteroposterior and lateral view. Results: Satisfactory bony union was obtained in 25 patients, of whom in four cases, the union occurred in 10-20° (mean 15° of varus. Nonunion occurred in three patients (9.37%, and aseptic necrosis occurred in another six patients (18.75%. Of the 25 patients where union was achieved, five patients showed excellent results; 14 good and six had poor functional result, as evaluated using modified Anglen criteria. Conclusion: Nonvascularized fibular strut graft along with cancellous screws provides a dependable and technically less-demanding alternative procedure for neglected femoral neck fractures in young adults. Fibula

  15. MR findings in cases of suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiris, M.G.; Lilleaas, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging of the hip in patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck in cases where conventional plain films show negative or equivocal findings. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven such patients were prospectively examined by MR imaging with a 1.0 T unit, within 24 hours of admittance to hospital. A coronal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence (n=27), and a coronal STIR sequence (n=25) or a coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo fast saturation sequence (n=2) were used. The evaluations were made by 2 radiologists with experience in musculoskeletal radiology. Results: There were 6 patients with a petrochanteric fracture, 2 without and 4 with slight displacement. Five patients had an impacted fracture of the femoral neck, and 3 had a fracture of the superior pubic bone. Of 2 patients with advanced arthrosis, i had an impacted femoral neck fracture and the other a nondisplaced intertrochanteric fracture. There was 1 patient who had sustained a nondisplaced acetabular fracture with increased joint fluid and muscle contusions. Three patients had muscle contusions only. Two patients had bone marrow contusions only, while 2 others with advanced coxarthrosis had increased joint fluid only. Three patients showed normal findings. Our findings led to emergency surgery in 13 cases, and conservative measures directed to the specific MR findings in 14 patients. Conclusion: MR imaging should be the first modality of choice in examining patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck where conventional films show negative or equivocal findings. (orig.)

  16. MR findings in cases of suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiris, M.G.; Lilleaas, F.G. [Aker Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging of the hip in patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck in cases where conventional plain films show negative or equivocal findings. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven such patients were prospectively examined by MR imaging with a 1.0 T unit, within 24 hours of admittance to hospital. A coronal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence (n=27), and a coronal STIR sequence (n=25) or a coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo fast saturation sequence (n=2) were used. The evaluations were made by 2 radiologists with experience in musculoskeletal radiology. Results: There were 6 patients with a petrochanteric fracture, 2 without and 4 with slight displacement. Five patients had an impacted fracture of the femoral neck, and 3 had a fracture of the superior pubic bone. Of 2 patients with advanced arthrosis, i had an impacted femoral neck fracture and the other a nondisplaced intertrochanteric fracture. There was 1 patient who had sustained a nondisplaced acetabular fracture with increased joint fluid and muscle contusions. Three patients had muscle contusions only. Two patients had bone marrow contusions only, while 2 others with advanced coxarthrosis had increased joint fluid only. Three patients showed normal findings. Our findings led to emergency surgery in 13 cases, and conservative measures directed to the specific MR findings in 14 patients. Conclusion: MR imaging should be the first modality of choice in examining patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck where conventional films show negative or equivocal findings. (orig.).

  17. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  18. Results of cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty for fracture of the femoral neck - 10 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maini P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : One of the most common treatments of displaced fracture of femoral neck in elderly is bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Method : Two hundred and seventy patients of displaced fracture of femoral neck were treated by bipolar hemiarthroplasty. The Mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 69.80 years. Results : Follow up ranged between 12 months and 120 months. There were 8 cases each of acetabular erosion and protrusion with 10 cases of femoral stem loosening. Eight cases had post operative dislocation requiring open reduction. Eighteen patients got revision surgery to total hip replacement. The overall incidence of DVT/PE was 9.9% which declined after regular use of low molecular weight heparin. Eleven patients had post operative infection. There were 54.2 % excellent results, 21.0 % good results, 10.7 % fair and 3.7% poor results. Conclusion : Elderly patients with displaced fracture of neck femur are able to ambulate early after Cemented bipolar hemi arthroplasty. The complication rate is low, the component survival long and pre injury functional status is restored in majority of patients.

  19. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of healing process and prognosis of medial femoral neck fracture evaluated by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1981-02-01

    As to healing process and prognosis of femoral neck fracture, radionuclide bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound was performed and the following results were obtained. 1. In cases of osteosynthesis, scintigraphical study showed a certain serial pattern until fracture was uneventfully healed. 2. On the other hand, in cases with non-union or late segmental collapse of the head, scintigraphy revealed defect at superolateral or central area in the head. This finding could be already noted prior to roentgenographical evaluation. 3. In the study of radionuclide uptake count on the femoral head of resected specimen, the higher value was observed in the area along medial fracture edge to medial margin of the head. Histological study showed feature of increased new bone formation at the area of higher radionuclide uptake. Vascular supply through the bone marrow of the neck and superior retinacular artery was thought to play an important role for the new bone formation. 4. From the aforementioned results, sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound scintigraphy was considered as one of the quite useful methods for early diagnosis of complications after femoral neck fracture.

  1. Nonvascularized fibular grafting in nonunion of femoral neck fracture: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of femoral neck fractures following primary fixation and neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is a challenging task. Every effort should be directed toward hip joint salvage in these patients. Among different available options of hip salvage, nonvascularized fibular graft (NVFG osteosynthesis is simple, easy to perform, and a successful technique. In this review, the available literature on NVFG in neglected and nonunion femoral neck fractures has been analyzed. After review of 15 articles on NVFG, the average nonunion rate was estimated to be 7.86% (range 0-31%. Six articles that evaluated the preoperative and postoperative osteonecrosis reported improvement in 50% patients. The clinical and/or functional outcome was good to excellent in 56-96% patients following fibular osteosynthesis. Few complications such as coxa vara deformity, limb shortening, and intraarticular penetration of the graft or hardware have been reported. However, there are minimal donor site morbidities such as mild ankle pain, transient loss of toe flexors and extensors and transient lateral popliteal nerve palsy.

  2. The effects of femoral neck cut, cable tension, and muscles forces on the greater trochanter fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Yvan; Cloutier, Luc P; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves

    2012-04-01

    Greater trochanter (GT) stabilization techniques following a fracture or an osteotomy are still showing high levels of postoperative complications. Understanding the effect of femoral neck cut placement, cable tension and muscles forces on GT fragment displacements could help surgeons optimize their techniques. A 3D finite element model has been developed to evaluate, through a statistical experimental design, the impact of the above variables on the GT fragment gap and sliding displacements. Muscles forces were simulating typical daily activities. Stresses were also investigated. The femoral neck cut placement had the most significant effect on the fragment displacement. Lowering it by 5 mm increased the gap and sliding fragment displacements by 288 and 128 %, respectively. Excessive cable tightening provided no significant reduction in fragment displacement. Muscle activities increased the gap and the sliding displacements for all muscle configurations. The maximum total displacement of 0.41 mm was present with a 10 mm femoral neck cut, a cable tension of 178 N, and stair climbing. Caution must be used not to over tighten the cables as the potential damage caused by the increased stress is more significant than any reduction in fragment displacement. Furthermore, preservation of the contact area is important for GT stabilization.

  3. Risk stratification for avascular necrosis of the femoral head after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures by post-operative SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Won; Oh, Min Young; Yoon, Seok Ho; Kim, Jin Soo; Chang, Jae Suk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical CenterUniversity of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Wan [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a major complication after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and determines the functional prognosis. We investigated postoperative bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for assessing the risk of femoral head AVN. We retrospectively reviewed 53 consecutive patients who underwent bone SPECT/CT within 2 weeks of internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and follow-up serial hip radiographs over at least 12 months. Nine patients developed femoral head AVN. In 15 patients who showed normal uptake on immediate postoperative SPECT/CT, no AVN occurred, whereas 9 of 38 patients who showed cold defects of the femoral head later developed AVN. The negative predictive value of immediate postoperative SPECT/CT for AVN was 100 %, whereas the positive predictive value was 24 %. Among 38 patients with cold defects, 1 developed AVN 3 months postoperatively. A follow-up bone SPECT/CT was performed in the other 37 patients at 2–10 months postoperatively. The follow-up bone SPECT/CT revealed completely normalized femoral head uptake in 27, partially normalized uptake in 8, and persistent cold defects in 2 patients. AVN developed in 3.7 % (1/27), 62.5 % (5/8), and 100 % (2/2) of each group, respectively. According to the time point of imaging, radiotracer uptake patterns of the femoral head on postoperative bone SPECT/CT indicate the risk of AVN after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures differently. Postoperative bone SPECT/CT may help orthopedic surgeons determine the appropriate follow-up of these patients.

  4. Risk stratification for avascular necrosis of the femoral head after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures by post-operative SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Won; Oh, Min Young; Yoon, Seok Ho; Kim, Jin Soo; Chang, Jae Suk; Ryu, Jin Sook; Kim, Ji Wan

    2017-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a major complication after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and determines the functional prognosis. We investigated postoperative bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for assessing the risk of femoral head AVN. We retrospectively reviewed 53 consecutive patients who underwent bone SPECT/CT within 2 weeks of internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and follow-up serial hip radiographs over at least 12 months. Nine patients developed femoral head AVN. In 15 patients who showed normal uptake on immediate postoperative SPECT/CT, no AVN occurred, whereas 9 of 38 patients who showed cold defects of the femoral head later developed AVN. The negative predictive value of immediate postoperative SPECT/CT for AVN was 100 %, whereas the positive predictive value was 24 %. Among 38 patients with cold defects, 1 developed AVN 3 months postoperatively. A follow-up bone SPECT/CT was performed in the other 37 patients at 2–10 months postoperatively. The follow-up bone SPECT/CT revealed completely normalized femoral head uptake in 27, partially normalized uptake in 8, and persistent cold defects in 2 patients. AVN developed in 3.7 % (1/27), 62.5 % (5/8), and 100 % (2/2) of each group, respectively. According to the time point of imaging, radiotracer uptake patterns of the femoral head on postoperative bone SPECT/CT indicate the risk of AVN after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures differently. Postoperative bone SPECT/CT may help orthopedic surgeons determine the appropriate follow-up of these patients

  5. Clinical and imaging features of intra-articular osteoid osteoma in the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yonghan; Cheng Xiaoguang; Gu Xian; Luan Yixin; Li Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging characteristics of osteoid osteoma in femoral neck and to improve diagnostic accuracy of this disease. Methods: Twenty-one patients (18 males and 3 females, age, 7-26 years, median age, 13 years) with pathologically proven osteoid osteoma of the femoral neck were retrospectively analyzed for their clinical profile and radiologic features. CT and X-ray examinations were performed in all patients, 10 of them performed post-contrast CT scan and 4 of them performed MRI examinations. Results: Nineteen patients had hip pain (pain worse at night in 11, and 8 received salicylates treatment with good response), and 2 patients only with intermittent claudication. The duration ranged from 2 months to 54 months (median duration 12 months). X-ray: Nidus was seen on plain film in 10 cases, 18 cases showed different degrees of bone sclerosis of the nidus. CT: Nidus was demonstrated in all cases. Among them, 8 were intracortical, 6 were subperiosteal, 7 were endosteal. Twenty cases showed different degrees of bone sclerosis of the nidus-extra-articular anteromedial cortical surface of the femur neck. Nineteen cases showed 'vascular groove sign'. MRI: Nidus was seen in 4 cases. Bone sclerosis was low signal on all sequences. Three cases had joint effusion, 4 cases had bone marrow edema, and 2 cases had synovial thickening. Conclusions: Although osteoid osteoma of femoral neck has non-specific clinical features, the radiographic findings are usually typical. The nidus of osteoid osteoma is often located within the joint. Bony sclerosis occurs at the area of extra-articular anteromedial cortical surface of the femur neck.CT examination remains an optimal method to identify the nidus. (authors)

  6. a brodie's abscess of femoral neck mimicking osteoid osteoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... right hip, the left knee and the spine showed no positive findings. The patient was subjected to routine biochemical and radiological investigations. It included ... adjacent oedematous or sclerotic bone marrow on unenhanced T1-weighted imaging. Brodie's abscess is known to mimic osteoid osteoma, more.

  7. The effect of hip positioning on the projected femoral neck-shaft angle: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhashyam, Abhiram R; Rodriguez, Edward K; Appleton, Paul; Wixted, John J

    2018-04-03

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is used to restore normal hip geometry during hip fracture repair. Femoral rotation is known to affect NSA measurement, but the effect of hip flexion-extension is unknown. The goals of this study were to determine and test mathematical models of the relationship between hip flexion-extension, femoral rotation and NSA. We hypothesized that hip flexion-extension and femoral rotation would result in NSA measurement error. Two mathematical models were developed to predict NSA in varying degrees of hip flexion-extension and femoral rotation. The predictions of the equations were tested in vitro using a model that varied hip flexion-extension while keeping rotation constant, and vice versa. The NSA was measured from an AP radiograph obtained with a C-arm. Attributable measurement error based on hip positioning was calculated from the models. The predictions of the model correlated well with the experimental data (correlation coefficient = 0.82 - 0.90). A wide range of patient positioning was found to result in less than 5-10 degree error in the measurement of NSA. Hip flexion-extension and femoral rotation had a synergistic effect in measurement error of the NSA. Measurement error was minimized when hip flexion-extension was within 10 degrees of neutral. This study demonstrates that hip flexion-extension and femoral rotation significantly affect the measurement of the NSA. To avoid inadvertently fixing the proximal femur in varus or valgus, the hip should be positioned within 10 degrees of neutral flexion-extension with respect to the C-arm to minimize positional measurement error. N/A, basic science study.

  8. Spatial Differences in the Distribution of Bone Between Femoral Neck and Trochanteric Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aihong; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Wang, Ling; Lang, Thomas F; Su, Yongbin; Wu, Xinbao; Wang, Manyi; Wei, Jie; Yi, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoguang

    2017-08-01

    There is little knowledge about the spatial distribution differences in volumetric bone mineral density and cortical bone structure at the proximal femur between femoral neck fractures and trochanteric fractures. In this case-control study, a total of 93 women with fragility hip fractures, 72 with femoral neck fractures (mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 12.7 years) and 21 with trochanteric fractures (75.6 ± 9.3 years), and 50 control subjects (63.7 ± 7.0 years) were included for the comparisons. Differences in the spatial distributions of volumetric bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, cortical volumetric bone mineral density, and volumetric bone mineral density in a layer adjacent to the endosteal surface were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM). We compared these spatial distributions between controls and both types of fracture, and between the two types of fracture. Using VBM, we found spatially heterogeneous volumetric bone mineral density differences between control subjects and subjects with hip fracture that varied by fracture type. Interestingly, femoral neck fracture subjects, but not subjects with trochanteric fracture, showed significantly lower volumetric bone mineral density in the superior aspect of the femoral neck compared with controls. Using surface-based SPM, we found that compared with controls, both fracture types showed thinner cortices in regions in agreement with the type of fracture. Most outcomes of cortical and endocortical volumetric bone mineral density comparisons were consistent with VBM results. Our results suggest: 1) that the spatial distribution of trabecular volumetric bone mineral density might play a significant role in hip fracture; 2) that focal cortical bone thinning might be more relevant in femoral neck fractures; and 3) that areas of reduced cortical and endocortical volumetric bone mineral density might be more relevant for

  9. Femoral Neck Stress Fractures in Children Younger Than 10 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Matthew J; Hogue, Grant D; Heyworth, Benton E; Ackerman, Kathryn; Quinn, Bridget; Yen, Yi-Meng

    2017-03-01

    Femoral neck stress fractures are rare in healthy children, with only 9 cases previously reported. The present article reviews our institutional experience with femoral neck stress fractures in children younger than 10 years of age, to highlight the unique features of this condition. We undertook a retrospective review of clinical records of patients who had been treated at our institution for an idiopathic femoral neck stress fracture between 2000 and 2014. To focus on children rather than adolescents, the World Health Organization's definition of adolescent as a person between 10 and 19 years of age was used; we thereby limited our analysis to patients younger than 10 years of age. The study included 6 patients (3 males, 3 females) treated for an idiopathic femoral neck stress fracture, with a mean age at diagnosis of 7.7 years (range, 5.2 to 8.9 y). All patients presented with a limp, which worsened with activity and had persisted for a mean of 5 weeks (range, 2 to 9 wk). None of the patients had experienced an increase in activity level or sporting volume before symptom onset. On examination, 3 patients experienced pain with terminal hip flexion and 3 patients demonstrated pain-free hip range of motion. Plain radiography demonstrated inferior femoral neck cortical disruption, suggesting a compression-type stress fracture mechanism. The diagnosis was confirmed by cross-sectional imaging in all cases. All patients were initially treated with 6 to 8 weeks of non-weight-bearing followed by 4 to 6 weeks of partial weight-bearing, leading to complete healing in 4 patients. Two patients demonstrated incomplete healing and were managed with spica casting for an additional 6 weeks. Our case series illustrates the unique features of this rare condition in children, with a history and examination profile distinct from those of adolescents and adults. Compliance with weight-bearing restrictions is difficult in this population and hip spica casting may be required to permit

  10. Management of Post-Traumatic Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens via Right-to-Left Femoral Vein to Femoral Vein Bypass (Palma Procedure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Heller, Jennifer; Lee, Cheong

    2017-11-01

    Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is a rare condition resulting from venous occlusion that impairs arterial flow. We report a rare case of post-traumatic PCD after ligation of the iliac vein with successful treatment by right-to-left femoral vein to femoral vein bypass using left great saphenous vein (Palma procedure). The clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and approach to management along with a literature review on the operative management of PCD are presented in this case report.

  11. Diagnostic gait pattern of a patient with longstanding left femoral nerve palsy: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2010-12-01

    The gait pattern of a 35-year-old man with longstanding, left femoral nerve palsy was assessed using 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analysis. Stability of his left knee in stance was achieved by manipulating the external moments of the limb so that the ground reaction force passes in front of the knee joint. This compensatory mechanism of locking the knee in extension is reliant on the posterior capsular structures. The patient was managed conservatively and continued to walk without aids.

  12. Osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures: dynamic hip screw (DHS or mini-invasive Targon FN system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dulaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to investigate the long-term outcomes of femoral neck fractures that were surgically fixed using various types of extramedullary implants in patients aged 65 years and younger. Material and methods: We analyzed the clinical results of surgical treatment of femoral neck fractures by extramedullary osteosynthesis in 94 patients aged 38 to 65 years old (71 women and 23 men. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to AO/ASIF fracture classification. We used different techniques of osteosynthesis: with DHS or with Targon FN. In all patients the mental status rate SPMSQ, osteoporosis degree (Singh index, general somatic status (WHO scale were evaluated in the preoperative period. We also evaluated next intraoperative parameters: duration of surgery, blood loss, quality of reduction, long of incision. In a year after surgery we assessed functional results (Harris Hip Score and analysed postoperative complications. Results: It was found the inverse correlation (r = -0,8 of total preoperative parameters (WHO scale, the Singh index and mental status SPMSQ and postoperative functional results on Harris Hip Score. With the reliability of p<0.05 the average rate of blood loss and length of skin incision were less in patients operated with Targon FN. In 12 months unsatisfactory results rate on Harris Hip Score was 12.7% in all study groups, great - 22,3%, good - 52.1%, and satisfactory - 12,9%. Complications rate in patients operated with DHS was 17,02%, and in patients operated with Targon FN - 18.1%. Conclusion: Minimally invasive osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures (type B1 and B2 on AO/ASIF classification allows to achieve the best results in compare with DHS osteosynthesis. Revealed complications such as screw migration, false joint formation and femoral head avascular necrosis were determined by impaired surgical technique and inadequate reduction.

  13. Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with avascular necrosis of the femoral head following femoral neck fractures in middle-aged and elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zi-Sheng; Gao, You-Shui; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Cheng-Hua

    2013-03-01

    Risk factors for femoral neck fracture-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head have not been elucidated clearly in middle-aged and elderly patients. Moreover, the high incidence of screw removal in China and its effect on the fate of the involved femoral head require statistical methods to reflect their intrinsic relationship. Ninety-nine patients older than 45 years with femoral neck fracture were treated by internal fixation between May 1999 and April 2004. Descriptive analysis, interaction analysis between associated factors, single factor logistic regression, multivariate logistic regression, and detailed interaction analysis were employed to explore potential relationships among associated factors. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was found in 15 cases (15.2 %). Age × the status of implants (removal vs. maintenance) and gender × the timing of reduction were interactive according to two-factor interactive analysis. Age, the displacement of fractures, the quality of reduction, and the status of implants were found to be significant factors in single factor logistic regression analysis. Age, age × the status of implants, and the quality of reduction were found to be significant factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis. In fine interaction analysis after multivariate logistic regression analysis, implant removal was the most important risk factor for avascular necrosis in 56-to-85-year-old patients, with a risk ratio of 26.00 (95 % CI = 3.076-219.747). The middle-aged and elderly have less incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head following femoral neck fractures treated by cannulated screws. The removal of cannulated screws can induce a significantly high incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in elderly patients, while a high-quality reduction is helpful to reduce avascular necrosis.

  14. A Novel Method for Estimation of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Using Forearm Images from Peripheral Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanmoon Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of osteoporosis treatment is prevention of osteoporosis-induced bone fracture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and quantitative computed tomographic imaging (QCT are widely used for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD. However, they have limitations in patients with special conditions. This study evaluated a method for diagnosis of osteoporosis using peripheral cone beam computed tomography (CBCT to estimate BMD. We investigated the correlation between the ratio of cortical and total bone areas of the forearm and femoral neck BMD. Based on the correlation, we established a linear transformation between the ratio and femoral neck BMD. We obtained forearm images using CBCT and femoral neck BMDs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for 23 subjects. We first calculated the ratio of the cortical to the total bone area in the forearm from the CBCT images, and investigated the relationship with the femoral neck BMDs obtained from DXA. Based on this relationship, we further investigated the optimal forearm region to provide the highest correlation coefficient. We used the optimized forearm region to establish a linear transformation of the form to estimate femoral neck BMD from the calculated ratio. We observed the correlation factor of r = 0.857 (root mean square error = 0.056435 g/cm2; mean absolute percentage error = 4.5105% between femoral neck BMD and the ratio of the cortical and total bone areas. The strongest correlation was observed for the average ratios of the mid-shaft regions of the ulna and radius. Our results suggest that femoral neck BMD can be estimated from forearm CBCT images and may be useful for screening osteoporosis, with patients in a convenient sitting position. We believe that peripheral CBCT image-based BMD estimation may have significant preventative value for early osteoporosis treatment and management.

  15. Bilateral Simultaneous Femoral Neck Fracture Mimicking Abdominal Pain in a Cerebral Palsy Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are unusual lesions, generally associated with an underlying condition which causes impaired bone mineralization, triggered by an increased bone stress. We present a 24-year-old cerebral palsy patient, who was previously evaluated in another institution due to inability to walk, interpreted as abdominal pain. No alteration in blood analysis or abdominal X-rays was found. As no response to treatment was observed, a new abdominal X-ray was taken, which incidentally depicted bilateral medial femoral neck fracture. He was referred to our practice after a resection arthroplasty was offered in another institution. After admission, bilateral one-stage THA was performed. Several reports emphasize bone disease as a major precipitating factor, and there is an increased incidence of hip fractures in chronic epilepsy, renal osteodystrophy, and chronic steroid use. Femoral head resection has been proven to be effective in immobilized patients, whereas this was not a reasonable option in this patient who presented walking ability. Despite the treatment election, primary care physicians should be aware of and alert to the possibility of fractures in patients with neurological disorders and calcium metabolism alterations. Late diagnosis of orthopedic injuries in this type of patients may lead to permanent disability.

  16. Total Hip Arthroplasty in an Inveterate Femoral Neck Fracture in a Patient with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Augusto; Ursino, Nicola; Ripamonti, Carlo A M; Fiorentini, Carlo E; Scelsi, Michele; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Portinaro, Nicola M

    2017-12-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an extremely rare disorder characterized by autonomic and sensory nerves malfunction with insensitivity to both deep and superficial painful stimuli, inability to sweat and produce tears, and mild to moderate mental retardation with self-mutilating behavior. Related consequences of inveterate musculoskeletal injuries represent a major issue for these patients, since pain cannot act as a protection mechanism. For the same reason, the patients are at risk during postoperative rehabilitation, which should be taken into account when selecting an orthopaedic implant. To our knowledge, only one case of total hip arthroplasty has been reported in the literature to date. A 21-year-old Caucasian male patient affected with CIPA arrived at our attention complaining about a functional limitation of the left hip. No history of trauma was reported. The X-rays showed an inveterate femoral neck fracture with a severe necrosis and resorption of the femoral head. We decided to perform a total hip arthroplasty with a cemented stem and a cemented dual mobility cup. The postoperative course and rehabilitation were satisfactory, with excellent clinical results, measured with the Harris Hip Score at 1 year.

  17. Bilateral stress fractures of femoral neck in non-athletes: a report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Monappa A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs are rare, constituting only 5% of all stress fractures in young adults. These fractures are usually seen in athletes, military recruits and patients with underlying metabolic diseases. The treatment of FNSFs is still controversial because of the inherent complications associated with the treatment procedure. We came across 4 cases of bilateral FNSFs in non-athletic individuals who were manual labourers with-out underlying bony disorders. Two patients with FNSFs and coxa vara deformity on both sides were managed by subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy and dynamic hip screw fixation. One of the remaining two patients was treated by cannulated cancellous screw fixation on one side and sub-trochanteric valgus osteotomy on the other side. The fourth patient received subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy on one side and bipolar hemiarthroplasty on the other side after failed cannulated screw fixation. All the fractures healed without any complications. No evidence of avascular ne-crosis or arthritis was noted in our series. Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy restores normal neck-shaft angle in pa-tients suffering from FNSFs combined with coxa vara deformity. Moreover, it helps to bring the forces acting around the hip to normal biomechanical levels, leading to fracture union and better results. Replacement arthroplasty is recommended to patients who fail to achieve bony union after fixation. Key words: Fractures, stress; Femoral neck fractures; Coxa vara; Osteotomy

  18. Outcome of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Jacob; Kring, Søren; Brix, Michael

    2012-01-01

    discouraged their use. There is limited evidence for the use of modern uncemented femoral stems in the treatment of DFNF, and we wished to investigate the clinical and radiographic performance of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty at 2-year follow-up. Patients and methods: We included 97...... consecutive patients who had an uncemented, hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty (Corail, Depuy) inserted during a 1-year period. Due to unwillingness or cognitive impairment (n = 6) and death before follow-up (n = 44), a total of 47 patients (39 females) with a mean age of 81 years were available. Results......-up. Conclusion: The results suggest that an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty can be used to treat displaced intracupsular femoral neck fractures with good clinical and radiographic outcomes at short term follow-up....

  19. [Preliminary analysis of total cost and life quality for elder patients with femoral neck fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haonan; He, Liang; Zhang, Guilin; Gong, Xiaofeng; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the total cost and life quality of the femoral neck fracture patients who received different surgery and supplement comprehensive data of osteoporotic fracture. One hundred and five patients above 60-year old who were diagnosed femoral neck fracture and received operation in Department of Orthopedics & Traumatology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital were admitted into our study from August 2013 to December. According to the type of surgery there were 52 and 53 cases in internal fixation (IF) group and hemiarthroplasty (HA) group respectively. At first we collected the medical expense of the patients before and during hospitalization. And then the 1-year medical and non-medical expenses were collected by the cost diary ever 3 months after discharge. At the last follow-up we evaluated the life quality by the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and calculated the total cost. Outcome All the patients completed the operation successfully. No nonunion or delayed union cases in IF group, and no cases received revision surgery in both groups. The total average cost was 59 584.9 yuan including 79.1% medical cost and 20.9% non-medical cost. The primary treatment cost accounts for 84.1% of the medical cost. The cost for home care accounts for 90.7% of the non-medical care. The total and medical cost of IF group just account for 40.3% and 38.5% of the HA group and the non-medical showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P>0.05). In addition the data of life quality and walking capability also showed no significant difference. The main cost for the femoral neck fracture is medical expense in 1-year follow-up. Both surgeries can provide satisfactory outcome, however IF may be more cost-effective compared to the HA because of the less total cost.

  20. Bilateral subcapital femoral neck fractures secondary to transient osteoporosis during pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Mohammad Jafar; Abdollahpour, Hamid Reza; Kazemi, Ali Reza; Vosoughi, Amir Reza

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis during pregnancy is a rare, self-limiting disease. We report on a 36-year-old woman who had bilateral subcapital femoral neck fractures during the 6th month of pregnancy. The diagnosis was made 4 days after delivery, because radiography was declined by the patient for fear of radiation. Fixation was not feasible owing to bone resorption, and 2-stage bipolar hemiarthroplasty was therefore performed. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best non-invasive investigative tool for pregnant women with hip pain. Early detection can prevent complications and resorting to major surgeries.

  1. Nonunion of the femoral neck: Possibilities and limitations of the various treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaymakers Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in cases of nonunions of the femoral neck, the surgeon is tempted to perform prosthetic replacement of the hip, more so if there is also evidence of avascular necrosis of the head of femur. This provides rapid pain relief and allows early mobilization. However, long-term results of hip arthroplasties, especially in younger people and in the presence of osteopenia, are not always as expected; and a less radical approach is worth considering. The intertrochanteric valgization osteotomy, described by Pauwels, is an excellent alternative for healthy patients up to 65 years of age with a nonunion of the femoral neck. A union rate of 80-90% of the nonunion is described by most authors. Leg length inequallity, rotational and angular deformities can be corrected at the same time. During the period 1973-1995, we performed valgization osteotomy according to Pauwels in 66 patients of, 18-72 years old (mean 49.5 years. 24 (37% of our patients died 4 months to 24 years (mean: 9.5 years after the operation. Union of the femoral neck was achieved in 58 (88% of the 66 patients; union of the osteotomy in 65 patients (99%. A good or excellent result was achieved in 62% (23 uneventful and 13 with healed, necrosis/arthrosis without need for further treatment of our patients. However, the method has its limits. We feel if there is too little bone stock inside the femoral head, a valgization osteotomy does not give good result. The radiographic signs of avascular necrosis in patients over 30 years of age is considered a contraindication for an osteotomy. However our results show that it is worthwhile trying to save the joint of young patients even in case of a segmental collapse. In the race between revascularization and collapse, often revascularization is the winner. We deliberately give nature its chance and don′t rely on the result of bleeding from drill holes in the head, nuclear scans and other methods to estimate vascularity. A secondary total hip

  2. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm 2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm 2 and 0.765g/cm 2 . Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  3. Does the Watson-Jones or Modified Smith-Petersen Approach Provide Superior Exposure for Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichstein, Paul M; Kleimeyer, John P; Githens, Michael; Vorhies, John S; Gardner, Michael J; Bellino, Michael; Bishop, Julius

    2018-04-24

    A well-reduced femoral neck fracture is more likely to heal than a poorly reduced one, and increasing the quality of the surgical exposure makes it easier to achieve anatomic fracture reduction. Two open approaches are in common use for femoral neck fractures, the modified Smith-Petersen and Watson-Jones; however, to our knowledge, the quality of exposure of the femoral neck exposure provided by each approach has not been investigated. (1) What is the respective area of exposed femoral neck afforded by the Watson-Jones and modified Smith-Petersen approaches? (2) Is there a difference in the ability to visualize and/or palpate important anatomic landmarks provided by the Watson-Jones and modified Smith-Petersen approaches? Ten fresh-frozen human pelvi underwent both modified Smith-Petersen (utilizing the caudal extent of the standard Smith-Petersen interval distal to the anterosuperior iliac spine and parallel to the palpable interval between the tensor fascia lata and the sartorius) and Watson-Jones approaches. Dissections were performed by three fellowship-trained orthopaedic traumatologists with extensive experience in both approaches. Exposure (in cm) was quantified with calibrated digital photographs and specialized software. Modified Smith-Petersen approaches were analyzed before and after rectus femoris tenotomy. The ability to visualize and palpate seven clinically relevant anatomic structures (the labrum, femoral head, subcapital femoral neck, basicervical femoral neck, greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, and medial femoral neck) was also recorded. The quantified area of the exposed proximal femur was utilized to compare which approach afforded the largest field of view of the femoral neck and articular surface for assessment of femoral neck fracture and associated femoral head injury. The ability to visualize and palpate surrounding structures was assessed so that we could better understand which approach afforded the ability to assess structures that

  4. Bilateral femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis showed bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kyoko; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Taku; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Yomo, Hiroko; Murakami, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition. Herein, we report an undoubted case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 38-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who suffered bilateral femoral neck fractures in the third trimester and early post-partum period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed femoral neck fractures as well as diffuse marrow edema involving both femoral heads, which are considered under ordinary circumstances as characteristic imaging findings of transient osteoporosis of the hip. Based on our experience, we propose that pregnancy-associated osteoporosis might be present in femoral neck fractures attributed to transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy. Conversely, bone status should be carefully and accurately estimated in cases of potential transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy to reduce future fracture risk. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. A mountain among molehills: removing an impinging large femoral neck osteochondroma in a man with hereditary multiple exostoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, Conall W R

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old man with a history of hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) presented with persistent right groin pain and reduced hip range of movement. Examination demonstrated a positive FADIR (flexion, adduction and internal rotation) test suggesting femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Investigations showed multiple sessile osteochondromata of the right femur with a dominant anterolateral femoral neck osteochondroma causing flexion block. The patient underwent an uncomplicated proximal femoral exostectomy. Six-week postoperative pain, range of movement and daily activity had greatly improved. This case highlights that even in the setting of multiple osteochondromata, excellent impingement relief can be achieved following selective proximal femoral exostectomy.

  6. Vitamin C depletion and pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, H. F.; Burns, E.; Walker, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the contribution of specific nutritional deficiencies (as indicated by zinc; vitamin A, C, and E; albumin; and haemoglobin concentrations) to the risk of pressure sores. DESIGN--Observational cohort study. SETTING--St James's University Hospital, Leeds. SUBJECTS--21 elderly patients presenting consecutively to the orthopaedic unit with femoral neck fracture. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Full thickness epidermal break over a pressure bearing surface. RESULTS--10 patients (48%) developed a pressure sore during their hospital stay. Indices of zinc status and concentrations of albumin, haemoglobin, and vitamins A and E were similar in patients who developed a pressure sore and those who did not. Mean leucocyte vitamin C concentration, however, was 6.3 (SD 2.2) micrograms/10(8) cells in patients who developed a pressure sore as compared with 12.8 (4.6) micrograms/10(8) cells in patients who did not. CONCLUSIONS--Low concentrations of leucocyte vitamin C appear to be associated with subsequent development of pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. PMID:1458073

  7. Herniation pits in the femoral neck: a radiographic indicator of femoroacetabular impingement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Ah; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyungnam; Jin, Wook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the significance of herniation pits in the femoral neck for radiographic diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Eighty hips in 62 patients (bilateral in 18) with neutral pelvic orientation were enrolled. Herniation pits were diagnosed when they were located at the anterosuperior femoral neck, close to the physis, and with a diameter of >3 mm. The five radiographic signs of FAI were used: lateral center edge angle (LCE) >39 , acetabular index (AI) ≤0, extrusion index (EI) <25%, acetabular retroversion, and pistol-grip deformity. Patients with radiographs suggesting FAI were retrospectively correlated with their clinical symptoms. Positive radiographic signs were observed in 7 hips with LCE, 7 with AI, and 80 with EI criteria. Only 3 hips out of 80 (3.8%) showed all of the signs. The acetabular retroversion and pistol-grip deformity were seen in 12/80 and 3/80 hips, respectively. The total number of hips that met radiographic criteria for FAI, including pincer type and cam type, was 18 (23%). However, none of these hips were clinically diagnosed with FAI. All symptomatic hips (11/80) presented only with nonspecific pain, and 2 hips out of 11 showed radiographic signs of FAI. The low frequency of positive radiographic signs suggesting FAI with related symptoms among patients with herniation pits suggests that herniation pits have limited significance in the diagnosis of FAI. Therefore it can be concluded that an incidental finding of herniation pits does not necessarily imply a correlation with FAI. (orig.)

  8. The application of PRP combined with TCP in repairing avascular necrosis of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-L; Wang, Y-M; Chu, K; Wang, Z-H; Liu, Y-H; Jiang, L-H; Chen, X; Zhou, Z-Y; Yin, G

    2018-02-01

    In view of the high occurrence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture and the difficulties in the treatment, our work aimed to explore the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) on the repair of ANFH after femoral neck fracture and to provide reference for clinical treatment. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, TCP group, and PRP+TCP group. The rabbit ANFH model was established and femoral head tissues were collected. HE staining was used for histological observation. Image analysis and statistical analysis were used to calculate the New Bone Area fraction (NBA %). The levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in serum were detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The new bone area of TCP group was significantly lower than that of PRP+TCP group (pPRP+TCP groups (pPRP+TCP group was higher than that in TCP group. TCP and PRP+TCP can both significantly reduce the content of IL-6 and TNF-a (pPRP+TCP group compared with the TCP group at 8 weeks after injection. PRP combined with TCP, which can promote new bone formation and inhibit inflammatory response, showed higher efficiency in repairing ANFH than internal fixation alone.

  9. Burnei's technique of femoral neck variation and valgisation by using the intramedullary rod in Osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, Șt; Nepaliuc, I; Munteanu, L; Țiripa, I; Ghiță, R; Japie, E; Hamei, S; Dughilă, C; Macadon, M

    2014-01-01

    Varus or valgus deviations of the femoral neck in osteogenesis imperfecta have been an ignored chapter because the classic correction procedures were applied in medical practice with unsatisfying results. Until the use of telescopic rods, coronal deviations remained unsolved and the distal configuration of the proximal femoral extremity remained uncorrected or partially corrected, which required an extensive use of the wheel chair or bed immobilization of the patient. The concomitant correction of the complex deformities, coxa vara/valga and femoral integrated configuration, have been a progress which allowed the patients to walk with or without support. The purpose of this study is to present the Burnei's technique, a therapeutic alternative in deformity corrections of the varus or valgus hip in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. The paper is about a retrospective study done in a single center, which analyses Burnei technique and other procedures described in literature. The content of the article is based on a 12 years experience on a batch of 51 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta from which 10 patients (13 hips) presented frontal plane deviations of the femoral neck. All the patients with osteogenesis imperfecta who presented coxa vara or valga were submitted to investigations with the purpose of measuring blood loss, the possibility of extending the surgical intervention to the leg, the association of severe deformities of the proximal extremity of the femur and the necessity of postoperative intensive care. Burnei's technique: The operation was first performed in 2002. A subtrochanteric osteotomy was made in an oblique cut, from the internal side to the external side and from proximal to distal for coxa vara, or by using a cuneiform resection associated with muscular disinsertions. Only telescopic rods were used for osteosynthesis. There are a few articles in literature, which approach corrections of vara or valgus deviations in osteogenesis imperfecta

  10. Internal fixation and muscle pedicle bone grafting in femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture is still an unsolved problem. Non-union and avascular necrosis are the two main complications of this fracture, especially if patient presents late. Muscle pedicle bone grafting has been advocated to provide additional blood supply. We present analysis of our 32 cases of displaced femoral neck fracture treated by internal fixation and quadratus femoris based muscle pedicle bone grafting. Materials and Methods: Open reduction and internal fixation with muscle pedicle grafting was done in 32 patients. The age of patients varied from 14-62 years (average age 45 years with male to female ratio of 13:3. Twenty-nine fractures were more than three weeks old. All the cases were treated by Meyers′ procedure. The fracture was internally fixed after open reduction and then a muscle pedicle graft was applied. It was supplemented by cancellous bone graft in seven cases. Fixation was done by parallel cancellous lag screws ( n = 19, crossed Garden′s screws ( n = 7, parallel Asnis screws ( n = 5 and Moore′s pin ( n = 1.Quadratus femoris muscle pedicle graft was used in 32 cases. In the initial 12 cases the graft was fixed with circumferential proline sutures, but later, to provide a secure fixation, the graft was fixed with a cancellous screw ( n = 20. Postoperative full weight bearing was deferred to an average of 10 weeks. Results: Union was achieved in 26/29 (89.65% cases which could be followed for an average period of 3.4 years, (2-8.5 years with good functional results and had the ability to squat and sit cross-legged. Results were based on hip rating system given by Salvatti and Wilson. The results were excellent in 15 cases, good in four cases, fair in four cases and poor in six cases. Complications were avascular necrosis ( n = 2, transient foot drop ( n = 2, coxa-vara ( n = 1 and temporary loss of scrotal sensation ( n = 1. Conclusion: Muscle pedicle bone grafting with

  11. Does a trochanteric lag screw improve fixation of vertically oriented femoral neck fractures? A biomechanical analysis in cadaveric bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Michael A; Kim, Hyunchul; Strauss, Joseph E; Oliphant, Bryant W; Golden, Robert D; Hsieh, Adam H; Nascone, Jason W; O'Toole, Robert V

    2013-10-01

    We assessed the biomechanical performances of a trochanteric lag screw construct and a traditional inverted triangle construct in the treatment of simulated Pauwels type 3 femoral neck fractures. An inverted triangle construct (three 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed in inverted triangle orientation) and a trochanteric lag screw construct (two 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed across the superior portion of the femoral neck and one 4.5-mm lag screw placed perpendicular to the fracture in superolateral to inferomedial orientation) were tested in nine matched pairs of non-osteoporotic human cadaveric femora. We used a previously described vertically oriented femoral neck fracture model and testing protocol that incrementally loaded the constructs along the mechanical axis of the femur to 1400 N. Specimens that survived incremental loading underwent cyclic loading. Apparent construct stiffness, force at 3mm of displacement, and survival of incremental loading were recorded. The trochanteric lag screw group had a 70% increase in stiffness (261 N/mm [29 standard deviation] versus 153 N/mm [16 standard deviation]; P=0.026) and a 43% increase in force required for displacement (620 N versus 435 N; P=0.018) compared with the inverted triangle group. One trochanteric lag screw and no inverted triangle specimen survived incremental loading. A trochanteric lag screw construct applied to vertically oriented femoral neck fractures provides marked improvement in mechanical performance compared with the inverted triangle construct. © 2013.

  12. The variation of cancellous bones at lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Qi; Shao, Bo; Xiao, Jianrui; Zhou, Hong; Niu, Qiang; Shen, Mingming; Liu, Baolin; Hu, Kaijin; Kong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the variation of cancellous bones at four skeletal sites: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep. Sixteen adult sheep were randomly divided into two groups: eight sheep were ovariectomized served as experimental group; the other eight untreated sheep were served as control group. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and twelve months after ovariectomy. After 12 months, lumbar vertebrae L3 and L4, femoral necks, mandibular angles and the fourth ribs were harvested for micro-CT scanning, histological analysis and biomechanical test. The results showed that bone mineral density of lumbar vertebra decreased significantly in twelfth month (pbone volume/total volume decreased by 45.6%, 36.1% 21.3% and 18.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks, mandibular angles and ribs in experimental group (pbones to oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomized sheep was site-specific on a pattern as follows: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Large diameter metal on metal total hip replacement for femoral neck fractures with neurological conditions A retrospective assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We believe the use of L-MoM can diminish the rate of instability or dislocation, after operation. The L-MoM is an option for patients with Parkinson′s disease and poliomyelitis with femoral neck fracture.

  14. Cephalomedullary fixation for femoral neck/intertrochanteric and ipsilateral shaft fractures: surgical tips and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Kamal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Surgical management op-tions for femoral shaft fracture and ipsilateral proximal fe-mur fracture vary from single-implant to double-implant fixation. Cephalomedullary fixation in such fractures has rela-tive advantages over other techniques especially because of less soft tissue dissection and immediate postoperative weight bearing with accelerated rehabilitation. However, the surgery is technically demanding and there is a paucity of literature describing the surgical techniques for this fixation. The aim of the study was to describe the surgical technique of cephalomedullary fixation for femoral shaft fracture and ipsilateral proximal femur fracture. Methods: Sixteen cases (10 males and 6 females with a mean age of 41.8 years of ipsilateral proximal femur and shaft fractures were treated by single-stage cephalomedullary fixa-tion at tertiary level trauma center in northern India. The fractures were classified according to AO classification. An intraoperative record of duration of surgery as well as tech-nical challenges unique to each fracture pattern was kept for all the patients. Results: The most common proximal femoral pattern was AO B2.1 observed in 9 of our patients. The AO B2.3 fractures were seen in 4 patients while the AO A1.2 fractures in 3 patients. Four of the AO B2.1 and 2 of the AO B2.3 frac-tures required open reduction with Watson-Jones approach. The mean operative time was around 78 minutes, which tended to decrease as the surgical experience increased. There was only one case of malreduction, which required revision surgery. Conclusion: Combination of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture and neck/intertrochanteric fracture is a difficult frac-ture pattern for trauma surgeons. Cephalomedullary nail is an excellent implant for such fractures but it requires careful insertion to avoid complications. Surgery is technically de-manding with a definite learning curve. Nevertheless, a ma-jority of these

  15. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment...... with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  16. Influence of bone density and surgical treatment choice on failure of femoral neck fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke

    (bipolar vs. unipolar), cement, coating, and stem design In the literature there seems to be no difference in risk of failure when comparing unipolar HA with bipolar HA, the surgical approach, or the surgeons experience. However, there is an increased risk of failure associated with lower patient age, male...... gender, and with some uncemented stem designs. One of the papers in thesis finds a higher failure rate for older uncemented HA compared to cemented HA, especially after 5-10 years. The uncemented HA do not seem to benefit from hydroxy-apatite coating when failure rates for the uncemented HA were compared...... to those of the cemented HA. Generally, in studies assessing failure, the sample sizes are too small to detect small risk of increased failure, since the increased mortality in femoral neck fracture patients are not taken into account....

  17. The relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chien-Hung; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Articles in the literature describing the association between body composition and osteoporosis in subjects with poliomyelitis are scarce. To assess the relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous polio. After excluding postmenopausal women, 44 polio (mean age ± standard deviation, 46.1 ± 3.3 years) and 44 able-bodied control volunteers (47.0 ± 4.0 years) participated in the study. Each participant's femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) and whole body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. With local reference BMD values of normal young adults installed in the instrument, we obtained T-score values that depended on each FNBMD value. A T-score value of ≤-1.0 indicated decreased T-score, including osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and osteopenia (-1.0 to -2.5). This study conducted logistic regression analyses to find factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on the FNBMD T-score values, 60.0% of middle-aged men with polio had osteoporosis. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, total lean tissue mass (Adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.74 [0.56-0.99], P < 0.05) and male gender (947.16 [6.02-148,926.16], P < 0.01) were important factors associated with decreased T-score in polio group. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is a common medical problem for middle-aged men with polio. Reduced total lean tissue mass seems to be one of the important factors associated with osteoporosis or osteopenia among subjects with polio. Further research for a clinical tool to assess lean tissue mass for subjects with polio is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Direct Anterior Approach Does Not Increase Return to Function Following Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Victor R; Ong, Alvin C; Orozco, Fabio R; Lutz, Rex W; Duque, Andres F; Post, Zachary D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional outcomes for hemiarthroplasty using a direct anterior approach or a direct lateral approach for femoral neck fracture. This retrospective review used data collected from a single institution between 2006 and 2016. Eighty-five and 75 consecutive patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty via a direct anterior approach and a direct lateral approach, respectively, met inclusion criteria. All patients with femoral neck fractures were treated by 1 of 2 fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons using the direct anterior approach or the direct lateral approach to hemiarthroplasty. Disposition, ambulation, and other perioperative surgical outcomes were compared between the cohorts. Compared with the direct lateral cohort, the direct anterior cohort had a shorter mean operative time (2.4 minutes, P<.01), a shorter mean length of hospital stay (2.7 days, P<.01), and a smaller mean decrease in hemoglobin postoperatively (0.7 g/dL, P<.01). No significant difference was observed between the cohorts for postoperative disposition, the number of feet ambulated on the second postoperative day, or the prevalence of ambulatory decline at 4- to 6-week and 4- to 6-month follow-up visits. Compared with the direct lateral approach, the direct anterior approach may benefit patients by small, but statistically significant, improvements in blood loss, surgical time, and length of hospital stay after hemiarthroplasty. However, the direct anterior approach does not appear to decrease the likelihood of transfer to a skilled nursing facility postoperatively or accelerate return to preoperative function. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(6):e1055-e1061.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. The role of acetabulum geometry and femoral head-neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, B; Halle, D M; Torfing, T

    2007-01-01

    and the consequence of acetabular retroversion on standardized x-rays. Men aged 26-55 years who earlier had a total hip arthroplasty were included in the case group. This group was compared to a control-group of men treated as trauma patients. The study indicates that acetabular dysplasia and retroversion......We studied the role of acetabulum geometry and head neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis of the hip in young men. Contrary to previous studies we evaluated the significance of the anterior, posterior and total coverage of the femoral head, the influence of the femoral neck...... and a relative decreased head neck ratio are associated with osteoarthritis of the hip in young men....

  20. Osteosynthesis of ununited femoral neck fracture by internal fixation combined with iliac crest bone chips and muscle pedicle bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Baksi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ununited femoral neck fracture is seen commonly in developing countries due to delayed presentation or failure of primary internal fixation. Such fractures, commonly present with partial or total absorption of femoral neck, osteonecrosis of femoral head in 8-30% cases with upward migration of trochanter posing problem for osteosynthesis, especially in younger individuals. Several techniques for treatment of such conditions are described like osteotomies or nonvascularied cortical or cancellous bone grafting provided varying degrees of success in terms of fracture union but unsatisfactory long term results occurred due to varying incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of femoral head. Moreover, in presence of AVN of femoral head neither free fibular graft nor cancellous bone graft is satisfactory. The vascularied bone grafting by deep circumflex iliac artery based on iliac crest bone grafting, free vascularied fibular grafting and muscle pedicle periosteal grafting showed high incidence of success rate. Osteosynthesis is the preferred treatment of choice in ununited femoral neck fracture in younger individuals. Materials and Methods: Of the 293 patients operated during the period from June 1977 to June 2009, 42 were lost to followup. Seven patients with gluteus medius muscle pedicle bone grafting (MPBG were excluded. Thus, out of 244 patients, 208 (85.3% untreated nonunion and 36 (14.7% following failure of primary internal fixation were available for studies. Time interval between the date of injury and operation in untreated nonunion cases was mean 6.5 months and in failed internal fixation cases was mean 11.2 months. Ages of the patients varied from 16 to 55 years. Seventy patients had partial and 174 had subtotal absorption of the femoral neck. Evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN femoral head was found histologically in 135 (54.3% and radiologically in 48 (19.7% patients. The patients were operated by open reduction of fracture

  1. A new measurement for posterior tilt predicts reoperation in undisplaced femoral neck fractures: 113 consecutive patients treated by internal fixation and followed for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Gosvig, Kasper; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preoperative posterior tilt in undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures is thought to influence rates of reoperation. However, an exact method for its measurement has not yet been presented. We designed a new measurement for posterior tilt on preoperative lateral...... radiographs and investigated its association with later reoperation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 113 patients, > or = 60 years of age with undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures treated with two parallel implants, was assessed regarding patient characteristics, radiographs...... and able to predict reoperation in patients with undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures....

  2. Adverse local tissue reaction arising from corrosion at the femoral neck-body junction in a dual-taper stem with a cobalt-chromium modular neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H John; Urban, Robert M; Wixson, Richard L; Meneghini, R Michael; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2013-05-15

    Femoral stems with dual-taper modularity were introduced to allow additional options for hip-center restoration independent of femoral fixation in total hip arthroplasty. Despite the increasing availability and use of these femoral stems, concerns exist about potential complications arising from the modular neck-body junction. This was a multicenter retrospective case series of twelve hips (eleven patients) with adverse local tissue reactions secondary to corrosion at the modular neck-body junction. The cohort included eight women and three men who together had an average age of 60.1 years (range, forty-three to seventy-seven years); all hips were implanted with a titanium-alloy stem and cobalt-chromium-alloy neck. Patients presented with new-onset and increasing pain at a mean of 7.9 months (range, five to thirteen months) following total hip arthroplasty. After serum metal-ion studies and metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal results, the patients underwent hip revision at a mean of 15.2 months (range, ten to twenty-three months). Tissue specimens were examined by a single histopathologist, and the retrieved implants were studied with use of light and scanning electron microscopy. Serum metal levels demonstrated greater elevation of cobalt (mean, 6.0 ng/mL) than chromium (mean, 0.6 ng/mL) or titanium (mean, 3.4 ng/mL). MRI with use of MARS demonstrated adverse tissue reactions in eight of nine patients in which it was performed. All hips showed large soft-tissue masses and surrounding tissue damage with visible corrosion at the modular femoral neck-body junction. Available histology demonstrated large areas of tissue necrosis in seven of ten cases, while remaining viable capsular tissue showed a dense lymphocytic infiltrate. Microscopic analysis was consistent with fretting and crevice corrosion at the modular neck-body interface. Corrosion at the modular neck-body junction in dual-tapered stems with a modular

  3. A new angle and its relationship with early fixation failure of femoral neck fractures treated with three cannulated compression screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Zhang, W; Zhang, C Q

    2017-04-01

    The Pauwels angle has been used widely, however an accurate evaluation of this angle is difficult because of deformity of the affected lower extremity. Therefore we designed a new measurement of the orientation of femoral neck fracture and applied this in a retrospective study to assess: (1) its reproducibility, (2) its advantages compared with the Pauwels angle, (3) its relationship with the short-term prognosis treated with three cannulated compression screws. This new measurement is reproducible and has some reference meaning for the treatment of femoral neck fractures. Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with femoral neck fractures treated with three cannulated compression screws were retrospectively analyzed. The VN angle, which was the angle between the fracture line and the vertical of the neck axis, and the Pauwels angle were measured respectively. The method of ICC was performed to assess the reproducibility of the two angles, and the absolute value of difference in pre-operative and post-operative radiographs was used to evaluate the uniformity of the two angles. These fractures were divided into four groups according to VN angle (VN50°) were respectively 0%, 1.46% (95% CI: 1.42-1.50) and 36.24% (95% CI: 34.93-37.54). The VN angle has a good inter-rater reproducibility, a higher reliability than the Pauwels angle and is closely related to the short-term prognosis of femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated compression screws. Level IV, retrospective diagnostic study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliability of using DXA around RTHAs. Bone Mineral Density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

      Background and purpose: Resurfacing Total Hip Arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone-stock post-operatively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), could theoretically be affected by the hip-position, and bias longitudinal studies. We aimed to investigate BMD precision dependency on type...... was rotated in increments of 15° and 30°, the mean CVs rose to 7.2%, 7.3% and 11.8%.  Rotation affected the precision most in the model that divided the neck in 6 sub regions, predominantly in the lateral and distal regions. For larger-region models, some rotation could be allowed without compromising...

  5. Comparison of cannulated screw and dynamic hip screw for the treatment of femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the results of surgeries for intracapsular femoral neck fractures with cannulated screws(CS and dynamic hip screw(DHS, due to lack of evidence which implant for internal fixation of femoral neck fractures is better . Methods: In our clinic between September 2005 and November 2009, 38 patients were operated with intracapsular transcervical fracture of collum femoris between17 to 65 years of age. Eighteen were operated with DHS(47.4% and 20 were operated with CS fixation(52.6%. Results: 16 patients (42.1% were female and 22 (57.9% were male and the mean age was 37.13 (17-65 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 18.05 (2-57 months. 26 patients were operated in 1st -3rd day (68.4%, 9 patients were operated in 4 to 7 day (23.7%, 3 patients were operated in after 7th day (7.9%. In the DHS group, 9 (50% patients had avascular necrosis (AVN, 6 (33.3% patients had implant failure, 3 (16.7% patients had delayed union, 5 (27.8% patients had nonunion, 1 (5.6% patient had infection, and 1 (5.6% patient had myositis ossificans. According to the criteria of Salvati Wilson hip joint assessment, in the DHS group 8 patients (44.4% were very good, 5 patients (27.8% were good, 5 patients (27.8% were moderate. Salvati score was evaluated as average of 28 points (16-40. İn the CS group, 8 (40% patients had AVN, 1 (5% had delayed union, 3 (15% of the cases had nonunion and 1 (5% patients infection was detected. According to the criteria of the Salvati-Wilson, in the CS group13 (65% of them are very good, 5 (25% were good, 2 (10% were assessed as moderate. Salvati score was evaluated as average of 33 points (18-40. In the CS group none of the patients had implant failure, in the DHS group 6 patients had implant failure (33.3% (p<0,05. Conclusion: Except for the high rate of implant failure detection in the DHS group method, no significant difference between complications and functional results between two groups. J Clin Exp Invest

  6. Bilateral Pseudarthrosis of the Femoral Neck in a 25-Year-Old Male with Hereditary Hypophosphatemic Rickets

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    Joris Anthonissen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets (HHR is a rare disorder of renal phosphate wasting and the most common form of heritable rickets. Here, we report a case of an active 25-year-old male with HHR showing atraumatic bilateral femoral neck pseudarthrosis after 4 years of consecutive knee pain. A conservative therapy was administered, taking into account both the risks of surgical treatment and the little impairment even in the sport activities which the patient experienced.

  7. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. Methods The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion fo...

  8. Bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis--a prospective 5 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steens, Wolfram; Boettner, Friedrich; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf; Schneeberger, Alberto

    2015-08-12

    Bone resorption in the proximal femur due to stress shielding has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to prospectively investigate the in vivo changes of bone-mineral density as a parameter of bone remodeling around a short, femoral neck prosthesis over the first 5 years following implantation. The secondary goal was to report on its clinical outcome. We are reporting on the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur and the clinical outcome up to five years after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis. Bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three, 12 and 60 months after surgery. 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65) were clinically assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. In contrast to conventional implants DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 91 points and 95 points at 60 months, the global WOMAC index from 5.3 preoperatively to 0.8 at 12 months and 0.6 at 60 months postoperatively. At 60 months after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis, all regions except one (region of interest #5) showed no significant changes in BMD compared to baseline measurements at 10 days which is less to the changes in bone mineral density seen in conventional implants.

  9. The quality of life after a femoral neck fracture in elderly patients: a comparative study between internal fixation and arthroplasties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sansanovicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The femoral neck fracture is a frequent pathology in the elderly population, with about of 100,000 cases per year in Brazil. The surgical treatment by internal fixation or arthroplastic hip replacement is advocated today. The non-surgical treatment is reserved for cases of exception. Objective: To compare the quality of patient postoperative life treated for femoral neck fracture by two different techniques: hip arthroplasty and internal fixation. Methods: Through the SF-36 questionnaire, we study the quality of life of 60 patients with more than 65 years, treated between 2004 and 2012 in our service. Half of the patients was submitted to internal fixation and the other half to the arthroplastic replacement. Results: Higher averages in the large majority of the parameters of the questionnaire were obtained by the group which was carried out by internal fixation, but without statistical significance in most of these differences. Some international reports indicate that patients who have suffered a fracture of the femoral neck and were treated with internal fixation may recover the quality of life they had before the fracture. Paradoxically, there is a growing trend among orthopedic surgeons to perform a hip replacement surgery in these cases. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to define which is the best surgical treatment option.

  10. Improving the preoperative care of patients with femoral neck fractures through the development and implementation of a checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Riaz; Edison, Eric; Fowler, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of femoral neck fractures (FNFs) is expected to rise with life expectancy. It is important to improve the safety of these patients whilst under the care of orthopaedic teams. This study aimed to increase the performance of vital preoperative tasks in patients admitted for femoral neck fracture operations by producing and implementing a checklist as an aide memoir. The checklist was designed primarily for use by senior house officers (SHOs) admitting patients from the emergency department. A list of 12 preoperative tasks was identified. A baseline audit of 10 random patients showed that the mean proportion of the 12 tasks completed was 53% (range 25% - 83%). A survey of 14 nurses and surgeons found that the majority of respondents agreed that there was a problem with the performance of most of the tasks. The tasks were incorporated into a checklist which was refined in three plan-do-study-act cycles and introduced into the femoral neck fracture pathway. In the week following the introduction of the checklist, 77% of the checklist tasks were completed, 24% more than at the baseline audit (53%). In week 3, the completion of checklist tasks rose to 88% and to 95% in week 4. In conclusion, a simple checklist can markedly improve the performance and recording of preoperative tasks by SHOs. We recommend the wider adoption of the new checklist to be produced as a sticker for patients' medical records. Further study is required to ascertain the effect of the checklist on clinical outcomes.

  11. [Osteoarthritic changes in hip joint in patients with fractures of femoral neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Vladimir; Saranga, Dan; Kidron, Debora

    2013-06-01

    Fractures of proximal femur are common among elderly people. They are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Identification of etiopathogenetic factors associated with fractures might facilitate prevention. Osteoporosis is commonly present in the heads of femurs. The prevalence of osteoarthritic changes in hip joints is controversial. Some authorities report low prevalence and even speculate on the protective effect of osteoarthritis against fractures. The goal of the study was to examine the association between osteoarthritic changes (radiologic and histologic) and fractures of the neck of the femur. The patient population included 41 patients undergoing replacement of femoral head for subcapital fracture; their ages ranged from 61 - 93 years of age. Radiologic criteria for osteoarthritis included: (a)narrowing of joint space (b) subchondral sclerosis (c) deformation of head of femur (d) subchondra cysts and (e] osteophytes. Osteoarthritic changes, usually mild, were present in 22 (54%) patients, regardless of age and gender The frequency of radioLogical changes was similar to the general population. HistoLogic findings included subchondral fibrosis and subchondral cysts. Mild subchondral fibrosis was present in 78% of cases. The findings support lack of association between osteoarthritic changes in hip joint and fracture of proximal femur, without a protective effect.

  12. Development and application of computer assisted optimal method for treatment of femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monan; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Ning

    2018-04-09

    To help doctors decide their treatment from the aspect of mechanical analysis, the work built a computer assisted optimal system for treatment of femoral neck fracture oriented to clinical application. The whole system encompassed the following three parts: Preprocessing module, finite element mechanical analysis module, post processing module. Preprocessing module included parametric modeling of bone, parametric modeling of fracture face, parametric modeling of fixed screw and fixed position and input and transmission of model parameters. Finite element mechanical analysis module included grid division, element type setting, material property setting, contact setting, constraint and load setting, analysis method setting and batch processing operation. Post processing module included extraction and display of batch processing operation results, image generation of batch processing operation, optimal program operation and optimal result display. The system implemented the whole operations from input of fracture parameters to output of the optimal fixed plan according to specific patient real fracture parameter and optimal rules, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the system. Meanwhile, the system had a friendly interface, simple operation and could improve the system function quickly through modifying single module.

  13. Comparison of the femoral neck bone density, quantitative ultrasound and bone density of the heel between dominant and non-dominant side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, Szilvia [First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Koranyi Sandor Str. 2/a, Budapest H-1083 (Hungary); Ferencz, Viktoria [First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Koranyi Sandor Str. 2/a, Budapest H-1083 (Hungary); Csupor, Emoke [Health Service, Budavar Local Authorities, Budapest (Hungary); Mester, Adam [Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Hosszu, Eva [Second Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Edit [Department of Reumatology, Ferenc Flor County Hospital, Kerepestarcsa (Hungary); Horvath, Csaba [First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Koranyi Sandor Str. 2/a, Budapest H-1083 (Hungary)]. E-mail: horcsa@bel1.sote.hu

    2006-11-15

    Our study was initiated to evaluate whether there are differences between the two sides, depending on hand dominance, in densitometry values and quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS) of the lower limb. One hundred and six women and 44 men were involved. The hand dominance was determined by interview. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the left and the right femoral necks and the calcanei were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorpiometry (DXA). The QUS examination consisted of measuring the attenuation (BUA), the speed of the ultrasound (SOS) and quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) transversing the left and right calcanei. The density of the neck of femur of the non-dominant side did not differ from that of the dominant side. On the other hand, BMD, BUA and the QUI of the calcaneus were higher on the non-dominant side in both genders (p < 0.05 for each parameter). No similar differences were seen for the SOS values. Our study has confirmed the side-to-side differences of the calcaneus in both genders, lower values were found on the dominant side. No similar differences were seen on the femur. The AUC values seemed to be higher on the dominant side, however, these differences were not strictly significant. In the case of peripheral site (heel) measurements, the practical significance of our observations is that they raise the possibility of performing peripheral DXA and QUS examinations of the calcaneus on the dominant side of the patient according to handedness.

  14. Comparison in bone turnover markers during early healing of femoral neck fracture and trochanteric fracture in elderly patients

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    Shota Ikegami

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Healing of fractures is different for each bone and bone turnover markers may reflect the fracture healing process. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic changes in bone turnover markers during the fracture healing process. The subjects were consecutive patients with femoral neck or trochanteric fracture who underwent surgery and achieved bone union. There were a total of 39 patients, including 33 women and 6 men. There were 18 patients (16 women and 2 men with femoral neck fracture and 21 patients (17 women and 4 men with trochanteric fracture. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP was measured as a bone formation marker. Urine and serum levels of N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX, as well as urine levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX and deoxypyridinoline (DPD, were measured as markers of bone resorption. All bone turnover markers showed similar changes in patients with either type of fracture, but significantly higher levels of both bone formation and resorption markers were observed in trochanteric fracture patients than in neck fracture patients. BAP showed similar levels at one week after surgery and then increased. Bone resorption markers were increased after surgery in patients with either fracture. The markers reached their peak values at three weeks (BAP and urinary NTX, five weeks (serum NTX and DPD, and 2-3 weeks (CTX after surgery. The increase in bone turnover markers after hip fracture surgery and the subsequent decrease may reflect increased bone formation and remodeling during the healing process. Both fractures had a similar bone turnover marker profile, but the extent of the changes differed between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.

  15. Comparison in bone turnover markers during early healing of femoral neck fracture and trochanteric fracture in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Shota; Kamimura, Mikio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takahara, Kenji; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2009-10-10

    Healing of fractures is different for each bone and bone turnover markers may reflect the fracture healing process. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic changes in bone turnover markers during the fracture healing process. The subjects were consecutive patients with femoral neck or trochanteric fracture who underwent surgery and achieved bone union. There were a total of 39 patients, including 33 women and 6 men. There were 18 patients (16 women and 2 men) with femoral neck fracture and 21 patients (17 women and 4 men) with trochanteric fracture. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was measured as a bone formation marker. Urine and serum levels of N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX), as well as urine levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), were measured as markers of bone resorption. All bone turnover markers showed similar changes in patients with either type of fracture, but significantly higher levels of both bone formation and resorption markers were observed in trochanteric fracture patients than in neck fracture patients. BAP showed similar levels at one week after surgery and then increased. Bone resorption markers were increased after surgery in patients with either fracture. The markers reached their peak values at three weeks (BAP and urinary NTX), five weeks (serum NTX and DPD), and 2-3 weeks (CTX) after surgery. The increase in bone turnover markers after hip fracture surgery and the subsequent decrease may reflect increased bone formation and remodeling during the healing process. Both fractures had a similar bone turnover marker profile, but the extent of the changes differed between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.

  16. Factors Associated With Psycho-Cognitive Functions in Patients With Persistent Pain After Surgery for Femoral Neck Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Atsushi; Hida, Mitsumasa; Takami, Hidenobu; Hirata, Naoki; Deguchi, Yuko; Miyaguchi, Kazuya; Nakazono, Masako; Nakagawa, Rie; Fukumoto, Noriyuki; Hamaoka, Katsumi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to address issues arising from fracture of the femoral neck in elderly individuals, the prevalence of which continues to increase in Japan. The prevalence is increasing in Japan and there have been many reports on physical functions such as prevention of a fall. However, there have been a few studies that focus on psycho-cognitive functions. We must examine factors in patients with fractured femur necks to develop methods to assist affected patients. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with psycho-cognitive functions after surgery for fractured femoral neck in the Japanese elderly. In this study, we examined the relationships among sex, age, fracture site, operative procedure, body mass index, lifestyle, psycho-cognitive functions, and types of pain in 142 patients, performed multiple regression analysis using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) scores as dependent variables, and created MMSE and MADRS models. Analysis of MMSE and MADRS models identified night pain and the number of family members as factors that affected mental function in a population with persistent pain for 1 week after surgery for fractured femoral neck. In addition, the number of family members was identified in multiple regression analysis models as a factor associated with psycho-cognitive functions. Pain, and night pain in particular, affect psycho-cognitive functions. We speculated that emotional changes were associated with number of family members. Patients living with family members maintained psycho-cognitive functions better than did those living alone, even when they experienced pain in their daily lives.

  17. [Fracture Type and Injury-to-Surgery Interval as Risk Factors for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head after Internal Fixation of Intracapsular Femoral Neck Fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, O; Skála-Rosenbaum, J; Bartoška, R; Waldauf, P; Krbec, M; Džupa, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head following the osteosynthesis of intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck in relation to the time interval between injury and surgery and the type of fracture. The data of patients with intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck surgically treated in the period from 2001 to 2011 were reviewed. Of 1555 patients treated for this fracture, 125 (7%) underwent osteosynthesis. The evaluated group included 115 patients who came for examination at one-year follow-up. There were 59 (52%) women and 56 (48%) men. Dynamic hip screw (DHS) osteosynthesis with an anti-rotation screw was performed in 103 patients and lag-screw osteosynthesis involving three parallel cannulated cancellous screws was employed in 12 patients. The patients were allocated to groups according to the injury-to-surgery interval and to sub-groups on the basis of the Garden classification of femoral fracture stage. In the group of 58 patients treated within 6 h of injury, AVN developed in 10 (17%). When the type of fracture was considered, 4% of the non-displaced fractures and 30% of the displaced fractures developed AVN. The patients with Garden stage I and II (non-displaced) fractures treated within 6 h of injury had a significantly lower risk of AVN development than those with Garden stage III or IV (displaced) fractures. The group treated between 6 and 24 post-injury hours comprised 21 patients, of whom four (19%) had AVN. In non-displaced and displaced fracture sub-groups, 25% of the patients in the former and 16% in the latter had AVN. The stage of displacement had no effect on AVN development. The two groups together (patients treated by 24 h) had a significantly lower AVN incidence than the patients treated after 24 h (p = 0.0025). In this group of 36 patients, 16 had AVN (44%) and the fracture stage made no significant difference (p = 0.6985; nondisplacement sub-group, 41%; displacement sub

  18. Modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy in neglected femoral neck fractures in children: a report of 10 cases followed for a minimum of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magu, Narender Kumar; Singh, Roop; Sharma, Ashwini Kumar; Ummat, Vikas

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the role of a modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy (MPIO) in neglected femoral neck fractures in children. Prospective study with retrospective analysis. Tertiary care Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences. Ten children (8 males, 2 females) with an average age of 10.2 years with neglected femoral neck fractures were seen from 1990 to 1998. A femoral neck fracture was considered neglected when no proper medical treatment was instituted for at least 1 month following the fracture. Nonunion was accompanied by coxa vara and resorption of the femoral neck in 9 patients; a 10th patient had a neglected femoral neck fracture for 1 month without coxa vara. Three patients at time of presentation with Delbet Type II displaced fractures with associated nonunion and coxa vara (2 with Ratliff Type III and 1 with Type I) also had avascular necrosis using plain radiographic criteria of increased density. Modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy. The children were immobilized in a hip spica for 6-10 weeks postoperatively and weightbearing was started after hip spica removal. Fracture healing, neck-shaft angle, avascular necrosis, and functional outcome. Patients were followed for an average of 8.2 years (range 5-12 years). All patients had union of their fracture within an average of 16.6 weeks (12-20 weeks) and of the osteotomy site within 8.2 weeks (7-9 weeks). Radiologic signs of avascular necrosis disappeared completely in the 3 patients who presented with avascular necrosis. In 1 patient with a preoperatively viable femoral head, radiologic signs of Ratliff Type I avascular necrosis appeared between 60 and 98 weeks. This radiologic finding became normal again, indicating viability of the femoral head somewhere between 98 to 205 weeks of follow-up. Postoperatively, an average of 135-degree neck-shaft angle was achieved (range 125-160 degrees). The average preoperative neck-shaft angle was 104.4 degrees (range 92-120 degrees) and on the normal hip

  19. Total hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures as an urgent procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Total hip arthroplasty (THA is one of the most widely accepted operative methods for femoral neck fracture (FNF in elderly. However, the data on the early THA for FNF are very limited. The aim of this study to determine if there were differences in postoperative complications and functional outcomes between an urgent and delayed THA following FNF. Methods. This prospective study included a total of 244 patients who had THA following FNF from January 2010 to January 2013. In the first group 41 FNF patients were treated with THA within less than 12 hours of admission. A total of 203 FNF patients were operated in delayed settings, of whom 162 required prolonged preoperative processing and comorbidities correction. The group II consisted of 41 FNF patients who were fit for the early surgery at admission, but the operation was delayed due to institution related reasons. Main outcome measurements included mortality, functional outcome assessement, cardiological and pulmonary complications, pressure ulcers, dislocations, infections, length of hospitalization and revisions. Results. There were no differences in terms of age, gender, type of implants, neither in mortality, nor complications. There were differences in hospital length of stay [t (51.72 = -10.25, p < 0.001]. The patients operated within less than 12 hours of admission, had significantly better scores at all three time points of functional outcome assessment: at discharge t (80 = 2.556, p < 0.012; one month t (80 = 4.731, p < 0.001; three months t (80 = 5.908, p < 0.001. Conclusion. THA for FNF as an urgent procedure is not a widely accepted concept. Our findings indicate that the early operative treatment, does not worsen clinical outcomes, and our results give an advantage to the policy of the early THA for FNF.

  20. Femoral neck-shaft angle and climate-induced body proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Stephanie L; Cowgill, Libby W

    2017-12-01

    Declination in femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is commonly linked to an increased level of physical activity during life. More recently, however, research suggests that lower NSA might also be explained, in part, as the mechanical consequence of differences in ecogeographic body proportions. This study tests the proposed link between NSA and climatic-induced body proportions, using relative body mass (RBM), throughout the course of development. NSA and RBM were collected for 445 immature remains from five geographic locations. NSA and RBM were standardized for age-effects. ANOVA was used to examine when population differences emerged in both NSA and RBM. Regression analyses were used to examine the pattern of relationship between NSA and RBM. Populations differ significantly in NSA and RBM before skeletal maturity, and these differences occur early in life. While both NSA and RBM change over the course of development, no significant relationship was found between NSA and RBM for any sample, or any age category (p = .244). Individuals who have relatively greater relative body mass do not necessarily have lower NSA. Population differences in NSA were found to be variable, while differences in RBM remained consistent across the developmental span. Taken together, these results suggest that regardless of body proportions, the degree of declination of NSA is presumed to be similar among individuals with similar gait and ambulatory behaviors. Conversely, populations differ in RBM from birth, and these differences are consistent throughout development. These two measures likely are responsive to diffing stimuli, and any potential relationship is likely complex and multifactorial. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Unstable recent intracapsular femoral neck fractures in young adults: Osteosynthesis and primary valgus osteotomy using broad dynamic compression plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures continue to be a difficult problem to treat. Various treatment modalities and their modifications have been proposed to improve the outcome. Osteosynthesis and primary valgus angulation osteotomy is one of them. Technique and outcome in a consecutive series of recent intracapsular femoral neck fractures in young adults, from a single center, is presented. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients of recent (< 3 weeks old displaced intracapsular fracture neck femur (Garden III and IV, Pauwels III, with or without comminution in the age group 20-50 years (mean 35.4±10.4 years were subjected to osteosynthesis and primary valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy using contoured broad dynamic compression plate (DCP. The patients were followed up from two to six years (mean 4.6 years. Results: Fifty-one fractures united by six months of the index procedure (92.7% union range. Avascular necrosis (AVN developed in six patients (11%. The other complications were shortening (six, coxa vara (two, infection (two and delayed union at osteotomy site (one. Excellent results were achieved in 48, good/fair in four and poor in three patients. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis with cancellous screw and primary valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy stabilized by a contoured broad DCP is a simple, easy to perform, biological treatment. Failure in a particular case can be treated with any appropriate second procedure. Level of Evidence: IV

  2. Biomechanical properties of the femoral neck relative to osteosynthesis methods and bone mineral content assessed by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husby, T.

    1990-01-01

    Bone mineral content as determined by computerized tomography (CT) and mechanical strength on axial loading were compared in 36 cadaveric femur specimens. Based on the CT measurements of density and area, the mass of a transverse slice of the femur was estimated. Highly significant correlations were demonstrated between strength and cancellous bone density. Even higher correlations were revealed when the bone masses of the proximal and distal femoral areas were calculated. Based on these findings, an equal distribution of the effective mass of the femur was postulated. This hypothesis was confirmed in an experimental rotational model. The CT attenuation values were also correlated to direct measurements of bone mineral content, i.e. calcium. Moreover, the strength of different metal implants, commonly used in femoral neck fractures, were assessed in cadaver specimens. 134 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Evaluation of the health-related quality of life in elderly patients according to the type of hip fracture: femoral neck or trochanteric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria da Silva Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect the type of hip fracture (femoral neck or trochanteric has on the Health-Related Quality of Life of elderly subjects. METHODS: Forty-five patients with hip fractures (mean 74.30 ± 7.12 years, 24 with a femoral neck fracture and 21 with a trochanteric fracture, completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 at baseline and four months after fracture. The Health-Related Quality of Life scores were compared according to fracture type, undisplaced and displaced femoral neck fractures, and stable and unstable trochanteric fractures. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, all patients scored lower in the physical functioning, role limitation-physical, bodily pain and vitality categories four months after the fracture had occurred. The SF-36 scores for all the scales did not differ significantly between patients with femoral neck versus trochanteric fractures, or between patients with displaced versus undisplaced femoral neck fractures and stable versus unstable trochanteric fractures. CONCLUSIONS: The mental and physical quality of life of elderly patients with a hip fracture is severely impaired one month after fracture, with partial recovery by the end of the fourth month. The negative impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life did not differ significantly according to fracture type.

  4. Do physical examination and CT-scan measures of femoral neck anteversion and tibial torsion relate to each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Mahy, Jessica; Graham, H Kerr

    2014-01-01

    Informed clinical decision making for femoral and/or tibial de-rotation osteotomies requires accurate measurement of patient function through gait analysis and anatomy through physical examination of bony torsions. Validity of gait analysis has been extensively studied; however, controversy remains regarding the accuracy of physical examination measurements of femoral and tibial torsion. Comparison between CT-scans and physical examination measurements of femoral neck anteversion (FNA) and external tibial torsion (ETT) were retrospectively obtained for 98 (FNA) and 64 (ETT) patients who attended a tertiary hospital for instrumented gait analysis between 2007 and 2010. The physical examination methods studied for femoral neck anteversion were the trochanteric prominence angle test (TPAT) and the maximum hip rotation arc midpoint (Arc midpoint) and for external tibial torsion the transmalleolar axis (TMA). Results showed that all physical examination measurements statistically differed to the CT-scans (bias(standard deviation): -2(14) for TPAT, -10(12) for Arc midpoint and -16(9) for TMA). Bland and Altman plots showed that method disagreements increased with increasing bony torsions in all cases but notably for TPAT. Regression analysis showed that only TMA and CT-scan measurement of external tibial torsion demonstrated good (R(2)=57%) correlation. Correlations for both TPAT (R(2)=14%) and Arc midpoint (R(2)=39%) with CT-scan measurements of FNA were limited. We conclude that physical examination should be considered as screening techniques rather than definitive measurement methods for FNA and ETT. Further research is required to develop more accurate measurement methods to accompany instrumented gait analysis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Risk factors of avascular necrosis of the femoral head and fixation failure in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures over the age of 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Choi, Ho June; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) and fixation failure (FF) after screw osteosynthesis in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures. We conducted a retrospective study of 308 patients (mean age, 72.5 years, range, 50-97 years), with a mean follow-up of 21.4 months (range, 12-64 months). The risk for failure in treatment (FIT) associated with patient- and fracture-related factors was evaluated by logistic regression analyses. FIT was identified in 32 cases (10.3%): 22 cases (7.1%) of AVN and 10 cases (3.2%) of FF. Initial valgus tilt>15° (p=0.023), posterior tilt>15° (p=0.012), and screw sliding distance (p=0.037) were significantly associated with FIT. FIT occurred in 7 patients (5.2%) with B1.2.1 fractures and 17 patients (48.6%) with B1.1.2 fractures (p15° (B1.1.2) compared to patients with 15° are reasonable candidates for primary arthroplasty due to high risk of FIT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compression type stress fracture of femoral neck with equivocal X-ray features diagnosed on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT in a case of trivial hip pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalkar, Saurabh; Manglunia, Ashmi S.; Kulkarni, Arvind; Puranik, Ameya D.

    2016-01-01

    Stress insufficiency fracture is usually diagnosed clinically and on the basis of routine X-ray imaging findings. However, the absence of any known predisposing factors and negative or occult radiographic findings pose diagnostic challenges. We report the case of an elderly male patient who presented with a chief complaint of trivial left hip pain and with equivocal radiographic findings. Triphasic 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography helped in arriving at the diagnosis of stress insufficiency fracture involving femoral neck

  7. Corrosion at the head-neck interface of current designs of modular femoral components: essential questions and answers relating to corrosion in modular head-neck junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K; Panagiotidou, A P; Khan, M; Blunn, G; Haddad, F S

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing global awareness of adverse reactions to metal debris and elevated serum metal ion concentrations following the use of second generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The high incidence of these complications can be largely attributed to corrosion at the head-neck interface. Severe corrosion of the taper is identified most commonly in association with larger diameter femoral heads. However, there is emerging evidence of varying levels of corrosion observed in retrieved components with smaller diameter femoral heads. This same mechanism of galvanic and mechanically-assisted crevice corrosion has been observed in metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic components, suggesting an inherent biomechanical problem with current designs of the head-neck interface. We provide a review of the fundamental questions and answers clinicians and researchers must understand regarding corrosion of the taper, and its relevance to current orthopaedic practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:579-84. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Neglected simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to narcotic drug abuse treated by bilateral one-staged hemiarthroplasty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahedi Ehsan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are extremely rare and associated with various conditions. Up to now Most cases had correlations with major trauma, repetitive minor trauma, seizure, parathyroid or renal dysfunction, anti-epileptic medications, seizure, etc. A 28-year-old addict man referred to us with a 10-year history of narcotic drug abuse and history of 8 months bilateral groin pain. He admitted with displaced bilateral femoral neck fracture. Because of long duration of this condition and osteonecrosis revealed on bone scan, one-staged bilateral hip hemiarthroplasty was done. A good function was noted after surgery to 4-month follow up. Up to now, have not be founded in the literature that a case of bilateral femoral neck fracture associated with narcotic drug abuse. Because of negative effects of opium or smoking on bone tissues, a simple bone pain should aware us about the risk of stress or fatigue fracture.

  9. Dual photon absorptiometry in patients with Paget disease (bone mineral contents of lumbar spine and femoral neck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Piketty, C.; Kiffel, T.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1988-01-01

    The bone mineral contents (BMC) of the lumbar spine (84 cases) and of one femoral neck (53 cases) were measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in patients suffering from Paget's disease of bone. The BMC of the patients and of 53 controls were compared, taking into account the occurrence of a scintigraphic hyperfixation, in each patient. A hyperfixation of the technetium labelled diphosphonate in the lumbar spine, more frequent in males, was associated with an elevated mean BMC value. The difference versus controls was significant in men but not in women. A hyperfixation of the femoral neck was associated with an elevated mean BMC value in both sexes. BMC values greater than the mean BMC of controls + 2 SD were observed in 83 per cent of these male patients and 50 per cent of the females. In contrast, BMC values lower than in controls were observed in non-pagetic areas. DPA allows the quantification of these abnormalities which cannot be evidenced by bone scintigraphy even if alkaline phosphatases levels are assayed [fr

  10. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    2016-01-11

    Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation. Eight orthopaedic surgeons performed the experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of this device. Each surgeon performed guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation in six synthetic femurs: three times with the new device and three times with the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic time, operative time and surgeon satisfaction were evaluated. In the operations with the new adjustable drill guide, the fluoroscopic and operative times were significantly lower than the operations with the conventional technique (p level of satisfaction of this device was also statistically significantly better (p = 0.02) than the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic and operative times with the new adjustable drill guide were reduced for multiple screw fixation of femoral neck fracture and the satisfaction of the surgeons was good.

  11. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kolja Boese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA, possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips. Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips was 54.32 years (18–100, SD 22.05 years. The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°–147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3–31°; SD 4.4°; the correlation was high (0.738; p<0.001. Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated.

  12. [A method to avoid lengthening lower limbs after total hip arthroplasty in patients with congenital short femoral neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Shang, Xifu; He, Rui; Hu, Fei; Ge, Chang

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the method to avoid lengthening lower limbs after total hip arthroplasty in patients with congenital short femoral neck. The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively from 38 patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between April 2005 and December 2010. There were 26 males and 12 females, aged 45-78 years (mean, 62.3 years). Among these cases, there were 11 cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, 17 cases of hip osteoarthritis, and 10 cases of femoral neck fracture. Before operation, 29 cases had leg length discrepancy; and the shortened length of the legs was 10-24 mm with an average of 14.5 mm by clinical measurement, and was 11-25 mm with an average of 14.7 mm by X-ray film measurement. The Harris score before operation was 44.0 +/- 3.6. At 1 day after operation, 3 cases had legs lengthening by clinical and X-ray film measurement; limb length difference less than 10 mm was regarded as equal limb length in the other 35 patients (92.1%). All incisions healed by first intention, and no complication of infection or lower limb deep venous thrombosis occurred. In 3 patients who had legs lengthening, 1 patient had abnormal gait and slight limping after increasing heel pad because the lower limb was lengthened by 16 mm, and 2 patients had slight limping. The other patients could walk normally and achieved pain relief of hip. Thirty-six patients were followed up 12-68 months (mean, 43.8 months). The Harris score was 86.7 +/- 2.3 after 6 months, showing significant difference (t = 3.260, P = 0.031) when compared with that before operation. The X-ray films showed no prosthetic loosening or subsidence. For patients with congenital short femoral neck during total hip arthroplasty, the surgeons should pay attention to osteotomy plane determination, limb length measurement, and use of the prosthesis with collar to avoid the lengthening lower limbs.

  13. Investigating Clinical Failure of Bone Grafting through a Window at the Femoral Head Neck Junction Surgery for the Treatment of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zuo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the clinical factors related to the failure of bone grafting through a window at the femoral head-neck junction.In total, 119 patients (158 hips underwent bone grafting for treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The patients were classified by their ARCO staging and CJFH classification. All patients were clinically and radiographically followed up every three months during the first year and every six months in the following year. The clinical follow-up comprised determination of pre- and postoperative Harris hip scores, while serial AP, frog lateral radiographs, and CT scan were used for the radiographic follow-up.The clinical failure of bone grafting was observed in 40 patients. The clinical failure rates in patients belonging to ARCO stage II period, IIIa, and III (b + c were 25.9%, 16.2%, and 61.5%, respectively, while those in patients belonging to (C + M + L1 type and L2, L3 type disease groups were 1.7%, 38.9%, and 39%, respectively. The clinical failure rates in patients aged below 40 and those aged 40 and over were 20.5% and 39.0%, respectively (all P < 0.05.Disease type, disease stage, and patient age are risk factors for failure of bone graft surgery. Patients belonging to ARCO stage II and IIIa showed a good overall response rate, while patients belonging to ARCO stage IIIb and IIIc and those with necrotic lesions involving the lateral pillar (L2 and L3 type showed high surgical failure rates.

  14. Association of neck strength with upper femoral geometry and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip fracture is a severe health burden in the elderly population. In order to prevent, it is to evaluate the bone strength by establishing the relation between bone mineral density (BMD, neck strength, and geometry. Materials and Methods: The subjects under study were 100 postmenopausal women who visited bone clinic of Bharat Scan Centre. After recording general profile such as age, body mass index (BMI, geometric measures such as hip axis length (HAL, neck shaft angle (NSA, and neck width (NW were measured from digital X-ray. For the same individuals, BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. From the DXA print out neck strength was calculated using the formula = sectional modulus/HAL. Results: The correlation test was analyzed among BMD, neck strength, anthropometric, and geometric factors using Statistical packages for social services (SPSS software. BMD is inversely related with age and positively correlated with height, weight, and BMI. HAL, NSA, and NW had a weaker association with BMD. Age, BMD, and NSA had a negative relation with neck strength. HAL and NW had a positive relation with neck strength. Conclusion: Noninvasive means of associating neck strength with BMD and geometry will provide improved estimates for fracture risk beyond any other invasive method of assessing bone mineral properties.

  15. Radiation-induced femoral head necrosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-25

    Mar 25, 2011 ... had open medial menisectomy of the left knee following medial meniscal tear ... postoperative recovery and mobilised full weight-bearing immediately [Figure 6]. ... obtained from the oncologists at the time of this review), and there was a ... previous trauma such as femoral neck fracture, Gaucher's disease ...

  16. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, P.T.; Poolman, R.W.; Bakel, T.M. Van; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; Zielinski, S.M.; Bhandari, M.; Patka, P.; Lieshout, E.M. van; Kampen, A. van; Biert, J.; Vugt, A.B. van; Edwards, M.J.R.; Blokhuis, T.J.; Frolke, J.P.; Geeraedts, L.M.G.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Schreurs, B.W.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of

  17. Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for Elderly Patients with a Femoral Neck Fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Paul T. P. W.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; van Bakel, Theodorus M. J.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Devereaux, P. J.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Thabane, Lehana; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Koval, Kenneth J.; Frihagen, Frede; Tetsworth, Kevin; Guerra-Farfan, Ernesto; Walter, Stephen D.; Sprague, Sheila; Swinton, Marilyn; Scott, Taryn; McKay, Paula; Madden, Kim; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Silva, Heather; Heetveld, Martin J.; Burgers, T. P. W.; Zura, Robert D.; Avram, Victoria; Eygendaal, Denise; Krips, Rover; Raven, Eric E. J.; Haverlag, Robert; Mutsaerts, Eduard L. A. R.; Haverkamp, Daniel; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Beimers, Lijkele; de Vries, Jasper; Zurcher, Arthur W.; Bulstra, Gythe H.; Campo, Martin M.; Somford, Mathijs P.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Festen, Sebastiaan; Geeraedts, Leo M. G.; Peters, Rolf; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of

  18. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.P.W. Burgers (Paul); R.W. Poolman (Rudolf); T.M. van Bakel (Theodorus); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); S.M. Zielinski (Stephanie); M. Bhandari (Mohit); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and

  19. Total medical costs of treating femoral neck fracture patients with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty: a cost analysis of a multicenter prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.P.W. Burgers (Paul); M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); E.A.C. Van Woensel; R.W. Poolman (Rudolf); M. Bhandari (Mohit); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSummary: The aim of this study was to determine the total medical costs for treating displaced femoral neck fractures with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty in fit elderly patients. The mean total costs per patient at 2 years of follow-up were €26,399. These results contribute to cost

  20. Association of cognitive status with mobility and functioning after femoral neck fracture surgery in elderly patients: differences between hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Kos

    2013-02-01

    Conclusions: Presence of cognitive problems adversely affects walking ability and functioning mainly in patients operatively treated with IF after femoral neck fracture, and not (or to a much lesser extent in patients treated with HA. It is recommended to take this into account during surgical decision-making.

  1. A systematic review of undisplaced femoral neck fracture treatments for patients over 65 years of age, with a focus on union rates and avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan-Feng; Bi, Fang-Gang; Ma, Chi-Yuan; Wen, Zheng-Fa; Cai, Xun-Zi

    2017-02-10

    It remains unclear whether conservative treatment should be used to treat the common undisplaced femoral neck fractures that develop in the elderly. Herein, we systematically review the rates of union and avascular necrosis after conservative and surgical treatment of undisplaced femoral neck fractures. We searched the EMBASE, PubMed, OVID, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for randomized controlled trials or observational studies that assessed the outcomes of conservative or surgical treatments of undisplaced femoral neck fractures. No language or publication year limitation was imposed. Statistical analyses were performed with the aid of the chi-squared test. We evaluated the quality of each publication and the risk of bias. Twenty-nine studies involving 5071 patients were ultimately included; 1120 patients were treated conservatively and 3951 surgically. The union rates were 68.8% (642/933) and 92.6% (635/686) in the former and latter groups, respectively (p avascular necrosis rate in the conservatively treated group was 10.3% (39/380), while it was 7.7% (159/2074) in the surgically treated group (p = 0.09). Surgery to treat undisplaced femoral neck fractures was associated with a higher union rate and a tendency toward less avascular necrosis than conservative treatment.

  2. The Frank Stinchfield Award : Total Hip Arthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture Is Not a Typical DRG 470: A Propensity-matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, William W; Lane, Joseph M; Halsey, David A; Iorio, Richard; Padgett, Douglas E; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-02-01

    Hip fractures are a major public health concern. For displaced femoral neck fractures, the needs for medical services during hospitalization and extending beyond hospital discharge after total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be different than the needs after THA performed for osteoarthritis (OA), yet these differences are largely uncharacterized, and the Medicare Severity Diagnosis-Related Groups system does not distinguish between THA performed for fracture and OA. (1) What are the differences in in-hospital and 30-day postoperative clinical outcomes for THA performed for femoral neck fracture versus OA? (2) Is a patient's fracture status, that is whether or not a patient has a femoral neck fracture, associated with differences in in-hospital and 30-day postoperative clinical outcomes after THA? The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, which contains outcomes for surgical patients up to 30 days after discharge, was used to identify patients undergoing THA for OA and femoral neck fracture. OA and fracture cohorts were matched one-to-one using propensity scores based on age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, and medical comorbidities. Propensity scores represented the conditional probabilities for each patient having a femoral neck fracture based on their individual characteristics, excluding their actual fracture status. Outcomes of interest included operative time, length of stay (LOS), complications, transfusion, discharge destination, and readmission. There were 42,692 patients identified (41,739 OA; 953 femoral neck fractures) with 953 patients in each group for the matched analysis. For patients with fracture, operative times were slightly longer (98 versus 92 minutes, p = 0.015), they experienced longer LOS (6 versus 4 days, p group (2.0% versus 0.2%, p = 0.002), the frequency of postoperative transfusion was not different between groups (27% versus 24%, p = 0.157). Having a femoral neck fracture versus OA was

  3. New quantitative ultrasound techniques for bone analysis at the distal radius in hip fracture cases: differences between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sakai, Ryo; Sawada, Koshiro; Mikami, Yasuo; Toyama, Syogo; Ozaki, Etsuko; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kurokawa, Masao; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence on etiological and pathological differences between femoral neck and trochanteric fracture cases suggests the possibility of individualized treatment. There are many issues related to areal bone mineral density and other quantitative computed tomography parameters of the proximal femur. Although osteoporosis is a systemic problem, little has been reported regarding differences in bone structural parameters, including bone mineral density, between them in regions other than the proximal femur. Participants were consecutive female patients >50 years of age admitted to the Saiseikai Suita Hospital (Osaka prefecture, Japan) for their first hip fracture between January 2012 and September 2014. Cortical thickness (CoTh, mm), volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (TBD, mg/cm 3 ), and elastic modulus of trabecular bone (EMTb, GPa) were obtained as the new QUS parameters using the LD-100 system (Oyo Electric, Kyoto, Japan). The mean values of these parameters were compared between femoral neck and trochanteric fracture cases. In addition, correlations between age and each QUS parameter were investigated for each fracture type. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the degree of effect each parameter on the fracture types. The area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter was compared to the AUC for age. There were 63 cases of femoral neck fracture (mean age, 78.2 years) and 37 cases of trochanteric fracture (mean age, 85.9 years). Mean TBD and EMTb were significantly higher for femoral neck fractures. There were significant negative correlations between QUS parameters and age for femoral neck fractures (P fractures were above those for trochanteric fractures for TBD and EMTb. AUCs were 0.72 for age, and 0.61, 0.65, and 0.65 for CoTh, TBD, and EMTb, respectively. The new QUS parameters indicated that TR fracture cases were more osteoporotic than were FN fracture cases, even at the distal radius. There might be

  4. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. Results: 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4% patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ≥30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks. Conclusion: Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  5. Presence of a nail in the medullary canal; is it enough to prevent femoral neck shortening in trochanteric fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoon, Han Kuk; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Presence of a cephalomedullary nail (CMN) in the medullary canal has been thought as advantageous in the control of femoral neck shortening (FNS) and lag screw sliding in trochanteric fracture compared to extramedullary fixation system. However, researches on the factors that influence the degree of FNS after cephalomedullary nailing are lacking. We observed 95 patients (mean age, 75±2.8 years) with trochanteric fractures who were treated with a CMN, and evaluated the relationship between FNS and patient factors including age, gender, fracture type (AO/OTA), bone mineral density, medullary canal diameter, canal occupancy ratio (COR=nail size/canal diameter), and tip-apex distance using initial, immediate postoperative, and follow-up radiography. Univariate regression analyses revealed that the degree of FNS was significantly correlated with fracture type (A1 versus A3, pfracture type (pfracture.

  6. Cementless Stem for Femoral Neck Fractures in a Patient's 10th Decade of Life: High Rate of Periprosthetic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelitz, Method; Fritz, Yannick; Grueninger, Patrick; Meier, Christoph; Fries, Patrick; Dietrich, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Subsidence of cementless femoral stems in hemiarthroplasty (HA) and increased fracture rates are ongoing concerns of orthopedic surgeons when treating fractures in very old patients. Additionally, bone cement implantation syndrome may result in perioperative cardiac or pulmonary complications, especially in older patients, leading to morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to analyze possible subsidence and intraoperative fractures in a cohort of very old patients treated with cementless stems. We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive cohort of patients aged ≥90 years with femoral neck fractures treated by uncemented HA and an anterior minimally invasive approach. Immediate full-weight bearing was allowed postoperatively. Pelvic radiographs were examined for subsidence immediately postoperatively and 6 weeks later. We treated 109 patients (74% women; mean age, 93 years; range, 90-102 years) by HA from January 2010 to March 2016. The 30-day mortality rate was 16%, and the morbidity rate was 47%. There were 11 (12%) intraoperative fractures: 8 (Vancouver B 2 ) had to be addressed immediately during the primary operation, while 3 (1 Vancouver B 1 and 2 Vancouver A G ) were treated conservatively. One periprosthetic femoral fracture (Vancouver B 1 ) was documented during follow-up. In 17 patients, subsidence of >2.0 mm (median, 3.9 mm; range, 2.5-9.0 mm) was documented. Early subsidence was low in this very old cohort treated with an uncemented stem and not showing a periprosthetic fracture. The risk of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures was high. The use of uncemented implants in osteoporotic bone continues to be an intervention with high risk and should only be performed by experienced surgeons. Level III, Therapeutic study.

  7. Dynamics of biochemical and immunological blood markers in patients with pseudoarthrosis of the femoral neck after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bondarenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of biomarkers to predict recovery following total hip arthroplasty (THA is still unclear to clinicians. To assess the preoperative biomarkers of patients with pseudoarthrosis of the femoral neck and their dynamics in the early postoperative period after THA, 50 patients aged 33 to 82 years old, 18 males and 32 females diagnosed with pseudoarthrosis of the femoral neck after failed internal fixation and failed conservative management were studied. The control group consisted of 30 healthy people aged 27 to 50 years, 13 males, 17 females. Patients’ blood was examined for biochemical markers upon admission, and then on the 7th and 14th days after surgery. Their blood serum content of total protein, albumin, glycoproteins, sialic acids, chondroitin sulfates, haptoglobin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, GGT, acid phosphatase, thymol index; interleukins (IL-1, IL-4 and IL-6. and C-reactive protein was measured. The content of glycoproteins in the blood exceeded the norm by 2.3 times, chondroitin sulfate by 4.7 times, sialic acids by 1.5 times, haptoglobin by 55.8%, fibrinogen by 19.1%, globulin by 19,6%, alkaline phosphatase activity by 72.3%, IL-1 by 94.7 and IL-6 by 3 times, C-reactive protein by 2.6 times. After THA there was a gradual decrease in blood biochemical and immunological markers. The most informative laboratory markers were glycoproteins, chondroitin sulfates, sialic acids, haptoglobin, activity of alkaline phosphatase, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-4, and C-reactive protein. Subsequent research is required to validate these dynamics.

  8. Computer-assisted three-dimensional correlation between the femoral neck-shaft angle and the optimal entry point for antegrade nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, George; Chissas, Dionisios; Dourountakis, Joseph; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Magnisalis, Evaggelos; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Xenakis, Theodore A

    2010-03-01

    Optimal entry point for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN) remains controversial in the current medical literature. The definition of an ideal entry point for femoral IMN would implicate a tenseless introduction of the implant into the canal with anatomical alignment of the bone fragments. This study was undertaken in order to investigate possible existing relationships between the true 3D geometric parameters of the femur and the location of the optimum entry point. A sample population of 22 cadaveric femurs was used (mean age=51.09+/-14.82 years). Computed-tomography sections every 0.5mm for the entire length of femurs were produced. These sections were subsequently reconstructed to generate solid computer models of the external anatomy and medullary canal of each femur. Solid models of all femurs were subjected to a series of geometrical manipulations and computations using standard computer-aided-design tools. In the sagittal plane, the optimum entry point always lied a few millimeters behind the femoral neck axis (mean=3.5+/-1.5mm). In the coronal plane the optimum entry point lied at a location dependent on the femoral neck-shaft angle. Linear regression on the data showed that the optimal entry point is clearly correlated to the true 3D femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.7310) and the projected femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.6289). Anatomical parameters of the proximal femur, such as the varus-valgus angulation, are key factors in the determination of optimal entry point for nailing. The clinical relevance of the results is that in varus hips (neck-shaft angle shaft angle between 120 degrees and 130 degrees , the optimal entry point lies just medially to the trochanter tip (at the piriformis fossa) and the use of stiff implants is safe. In hips with neck-shaft angle over 130 degrees the anatomical axis of the canal is medially to the base of the neck, in a "restricted area". In these cases the entry point should be located at the insertion of the

  9. Results of bone regenerate study after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants in experimental femoral neck fractures (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kazanin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective - to analyze the results of X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry experimental studies of bone regenerates after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants. Material and methods. The study was conducted on experimental femoral neck fractures in rabbit males. Reparative osteogenesis processes were studied in groups of bioinert titanium implant osteosynthesis and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implant osteosynthesis. The animals were clinically followed-up during the postoperative period. X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies of samples extracted from femoral bones were conducted over time on days 1, 7, 14, 30 and 60. The animal experiments were kept and treated according to recommendations of international standards, Helsinki Declaration on animal welfare and approved by the local ethics committee. All surgeries were performed under anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize the suffering of the animals. Results. In the animal group without femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis, femoral neck pseudoarthrosis was observed at the end of the experiment. The results of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies conducted on day 60 of the experiment confirmed that the cellular composition of the bone regenerate in the group of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants corresponded to a more mature bone tissue than in the group of bioinert titanium implants. Conclusion. The results of the statistical analysis of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry data show that the use of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants allows to achieve significantly earlier bone tissue regeneration.

  10. The application of closed reduction internal fixation and iliac bone block grafting in the treatment of acute displaced femoral neck fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary clinical and radiographic outcomes of acute displaced femoral neck fracture treated by closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF with free iliac bone block grafting with comparison to a routine protocol of CRIF without bone grafting. METHODS: From December 2008 to February 2010, 220 adult patients with acute displaced femoral neck fractures were enrolled in this study. In study group, there were 124 patients (57 males, 67 females with a mean age of 44.8 years (range, 20-64 years. There were 70 transcervical fractures and 54 subcapital fractures. The patients were treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting. The control group consisted of 96 adult patients (46 males, 50 females with a mean age of 46.3 years (range, 23-64 years. There were 61 transcervical fractures and 35 subcapital fractures. The patients in control group were treated by CRIF without bone grafting. RESULTS: In study group, 112 patients were followed up for an average of 27.4 months (range, 24-34 months. All fractures healed within 5 months. However, 10 patients presented AVN of the femoral heads. The mean Harris score was 88.6 (range, 41-100. In control group, 68 patients were followed up for an average of 31.2 months (range, 24-42 months. The rates of AVN of the femoral head and fracture nonunion in control group were 26.5% (18/68 and 16.2% (11/68, respectively, significantly higher than those in study group (both P<0.05. The mean Harris score in control group was 83.8 (41-100, significantly lower than that in study group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Acute displaced femoral neck fractures can be treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting in a minimally invasive manner. This technique can guarantee uneventful fracture healing and significantly reduce the rate of femoral head osteonecrosis.

  11. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shinichi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.

  12. Quantitative CT assessment of proximal femoral bone density. An experimental study concerning its correlation to breaking load for femoral neck fractures; Quantitative CT des proximalen Femurs. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Korrelation mit der Bruchlast bei Schenkelhalsfrakturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Schulze, C.; Gufler, H.; Langer, M. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg (Germany); Bonnaire, F.; Hoenninger, A.; Kuner, E. [Abt. Unfallchirurgie, Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Purpose: In an experimental study, the correlation between the trabecular bone density of the different regions of the proximal femur and the fracture load in the setting of femoral neck fractures was examined. Methods: The bone mineral density 41 random proximal human femora was estimated by single-energy quanitative CT (SE-QCT). The trabecular bone density was measured at the greatest possible extracortical volume at midcapital, midneck and intertrochanteric level and in the 1 cm{sup 3} volumes of the centres of these regions in a standardised 10 mm thick slice in the middle of the femoral neck axis (in mg/ml Ca-hydroxyl apatite). The proximal femora were then isolated and mounted on a compression/bending device under two-legged stand conditions and loaded up to the point when a femoral neck fracture occurred. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a linear correlation between the trabecular bone density and the fracture load for the greater regions, with the highest value in the maximal area of the head (coefficient factor r=0.76). Conclusion: According to our data, the measurement of the trabecular bone by SE-QCT at the femoral head is a more confident adjunct than the neck or trochanteric area to predict a femoral neck fracture. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In einer experimentellen Versuchsserie wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen der Knochendichte an verschiedenen Lokalisationen des proximalen Femurs und der maximalen Last bei der Entstehung von Schenkelhalsfrakturen (Bruchlast) untersucht. Methode: An 41 frisch entnommenen proximalen Leichenfemora wurde die trabekulaere Knochendichte mit Hilfe der Ein-Energie Quantitativen Computertomographie (SE-QCT) bei einer Schichtdicke von 10 mm in der Mitte der Schenkelhalsachse bestimmt. Erfasst wurden die maximale extrakortikale, zylinderfoermige Messregion im Hueftkopf, Schenkelhals und der Intertrochantaerregion sowie das 1 cm{sup 3} umfassende Zentrum dieser Regionen. Die Praeparate wurden unter Zweibeinstandbedingungen

  13. Reliability of using DXA around RTHAs. Bone Mineral Density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty. Precision biased by region of interest and rotation of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Introduction:  Resurfacing Total Hip Arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone-stock post-operatively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), could theoretically be affected by the hip-position, and bias longitudinal studies. We aimed to investigate BMD precision dependency on type of ROI...... the hip was rotated in increments of 15° and 30°, the mean CVs rose to 7.2%, 7.3% and 11.8%.  Rotation affected the precision most in the model that divided the neck in 6 sub regions, predominantly in the lateral and distal regions. For larger-region models, some rotation could be allowed without...

  14. Cement augmentation of implants--no general cure in osteoporotic fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on non-displaced femoral neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Nicolino, Tomas I; Barla, Jorge; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are a common problem in orthopedics. Augmentation of screw fixation with bone cement can provide better stability of implants and lower the risk of secondary displacement. This study aimed to investigate whether cement augmentation of three cannulated screws in non-displaced femoral neck fractures could increase implant fixation. A femoral neck fracture was simulated in six paired human cadaveric femora and stabilized with three 7.3 mm cannulated screws. Pairs were divided into two groups: conventional instrumentation versus additional cement augmentation of screw tips with 2 ml TraumacemV+ each. Biomechanical testing was performed by applying cyclic axial load until failure. Failure cycles, axial head displacement, screw angle changes, telescoping and screw cut-out were evaluated. Failure (15 mm actuator displacement) occurred in the augmented group at 12,500 cycles (± 2,480) compared to 15,625 cycles (± 4,215) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.041). When comparing 3 mm vertical displacement of the head no significant difference (p = 0.72) was detected between the survival curves of the two groups. At 8,500 load-cycles (early onset failure) the augmented group demonstrated a change in screw angle of 2.85° (± 0.84) compared to 1.15° (± 0.93) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.013). The results showed no biomechanical advantage with respect to secondary displacement following augmentation of three cannulated screws in a non-displaced femoral neck fracture. Consequently, the indication for cement augmentation to enhance implant anchorage in osteoporotic bone has to be considered carefully taking into account fracture type, implant selection and biomechanical surrounding. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ordinary Cannulated Compression Screws or Headless Cannulated Compression Screws? A Synthetic Bone Biomechanical Research in the Internal Fixation of Vertical Femoral Neck Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to verify whether the headless cannulated compression screw (HCCS has higher biomechanical stability than the ordinary cannulated compression screw (OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods. 30 synthetic femur models were equally divided into 2 groups, with 50°, 60°, and 70° Pauwels angle of femoral neck fracture, under 3D printed guiding plates and C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. The femur molds were fixed with three parallel OCCSs as OCCS group and three parallel HCCSs as HCCS group. All specimens were tested for compressive strength and maximum load to failure with a loading rate of 2 mm/min. Results. The result showed that there was no significant difference with the compressive strength in the Pauwels angle of 50° and 60°. However, we observed that the maximum load to failure with the Pauwels angle of 50°, 60°, and 70° and the compressive strength with 70° of HCCS group showed better performance than the OCCS group. Conclusion. HCCS performs with better biomechanical stability than OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fracture, especially with the Pauwels angle of 70°.

  16. THE RESULTS OF THE CLINICAL USE OF A NEW METHOD OF OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH NON-FREE BONE AUTOPLASTY AT THE MEDIAL FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES

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    R. M. Tikhilov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective - to improve treatment outcomes in patients with medial fractures of the femoral neck through the development and introduction into clinical practice a new method of fixation with non-free plastic by the autograft from the iliac crest on a permanent muscular-vascular pedicle. Materials and methods. A comparative analysis of short- and long-term results of surgical treatment of 57 patients with medial fractures of the femoral neck, which were divided into primary and control groups. The study group included 24 patients who have undergone an osteosynthesis with cannulated screws with additional autoplasty with vascularized graft from the iliac crest. The control group consisted of 33 patients who underwent fixation with cannulated screws for the traditional method. Results. The use of non-free bone autoplasty in the main group of patients provided the best short- and long-term outcomes: fracture healing occurred in all cases in a period of 6 to 8 months. The long-term results of treatment of 22 patients after 2-6 years after the operation showed comparatively better anatomical functional outcomes. Conclusions. The indications for the clinical use of the fixation with the non-free bone autotransplantation are prognostically unfavorable for the union medial fractures of the femoral neck (II-III types by Pauwels or III-IV types by Garden in patients aged under 60 years with no signs of deforming arthrosis II-III stages.

  17. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008–2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Methods Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. Results There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had “uncertain” as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures. PMID:27252738

  18. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008-2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had "uncertain" as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures.

  19. Progression of a fracture site impaction as a prognostic indicator of impacted femoral neck fracture treated with multiple pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant.

  20. Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9-7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1-4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8-7.4; RR = 16...... treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12-19 years of follow-up. Methods 4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1...... an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex. Results Cemented HA had...

  1. Determination of bone blood supply with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells and /sup 113m/In transferrin in fractures of femoral neck: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempi, V.; Sandegard, J.

    1982-05-01

    The uptake of in vivo labeled /sup 99m/Tc RBCs and /sup 113/In transferrin was studied in femoral bone of 21 patients who had recent operations for fracture of the femoral neck. Femoral bone biopsies and blood samples were obtained during the operation. The activity values for bone biopsies, erythrocytes, and serum were determined, and the uptake ratios between bone and erythrocyte cpm/g and between bone and serum were calculated. Biopsy samples were taken from the femoral head in 21 cases and from the trochanteric region in 14. The activity ratios for the two tracers correlated well: r . 0.94 for femoral head biopsies (P less than 0.001) and r . 0.98 for samples from the trochanteric region (P less than 0.001). Thus, the procedures are interchangeable and either may be valuable in assessing bone blood supply. An additional patient, studied only with /sup 99m/Tc RBCs, had a subsequent operation for nonunion of a fracture. Samples of both cancellous and cortical bone were obtained from the removed head. The activity ratios for the two types of bone tissue differed significantly (P . 0.02).

  2. Determination of bone blood supply with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells and /sup 113m/In transferrin in fractures of femoral neck: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempi, V.; Sandegard, J.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of in vivo labeled /sup 99m/Tc RBCs and 113 In transferrin was studied in femoral bone of 21 patients who had recent operations for fracture of the femoral neck. Femoral bone biopsies and blood samples were obtained during the operation. The activity values for bone biopsies, erythrocytes, and serum were determined, and the uptake ratios between bone and erythrocyte cpm/g and between bone and serum were calculated. Biopsy samples were taken from the femoral head in 21 cases and from the trochanteric region in 14. The activity ratios for the two tracers correlated well: r . 0.94 for femoral head biopsies (P less than 0.001) and r . 0.98 for samples from the trochanteric region (P less than 0.001). Thus, the procedures are interchangeable and either may be valuable in assessing bone blood supply. An additional patient, studied only with /sup 99m/Tc RBCs, had a subsequent operation for nonunion of a fracture. Samples of both cancellous and cortical bone were obtained from the removed head. The activity ratios for the two types of bone tissue differed significantly

  3. Automated 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck junction using MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ying; Fripp, Jurgen; Chandra, Shekhar S.; Walker, Duncan; Crozier, Stuart; Engstrom, Craig

    2015-10-01

    To develop an automated approach for 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck (FHN) junction using bone models derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip joint. Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired from 30 male volunteers (healthy active individuals and high-performance athletes, aged 18-49 years) using a water-excited 3D dual echo steady state (DESS) sequence. In a subset of these subjects (18 water-polo players), additional True Fast Imaging with Steady-state Precession (TrueFISP) images were acquired from the right hip joint. For both MR image sets, an active shape model based algorithm was used to generate automated 3D bone reconstructions of the proximal femur. Subsequently, a local coordinate system of the femur was constructed to compute a 2D shape map to project femoral head sphericity for calculation of alpha angles around the FHN junction. To evaluate automated alpha angle measures, manual analyses were performed on anterosuperior and anterior radial MR slices from the FHN junction that were automatically reformatted using the constructed coordinate system. High intra- and inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients  >  0.95) was found for manual alpha angle measurements from the auto-extracted anterosuperior and anterior radial slices. Strong correlations were observed between manual and automatic measures of alpha angles for anterosuperior (r  =  0.84) and anterior (r  =  0.92) FHN positions. For matched DESS and TrueFISP images, there were no significant differences between automated alpha angle measures obtained from the upper anterior quadrant of the FHN junction (two-way repeated measures ANOVA, F  hip joints to generate alpha angle measures around the FHN junction circumference with very good reliability and reproducibility. This work has the potential to improve analyses of cam-type lesions of the FHN junction for large

  4. Automated 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck junction using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Ying; Chandra, Shekhar S; Crozier, Stuart; Fripp, Jurgen; Walker, Duncan; Engstrom, Craig

    2015-01-01

    To develop an automated approach for 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck (FHN) junction using bone models derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip joint.Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired from 30 male volunteers (healthy active individuals and high-performance athletes, aged 18–49 years) using a water-excited 3D dual echo steady state (DESS) sequence. In a subset of these subjects (18 water-polo players), additional True Fast Imaging with Steady-state Precession (TrueFISP) images were acquired from the right hip joint. For both MR image sets, an active shape model based algorithm was used to generate automated 3D bone reconstructions of the proximal femur. Subsequently, a local coordinate system of the femur was constructed to compute a 2D shape map to project femoral head sphericity for calculation of alpha angles around the FHN junction. To evaluate automated alpha angle measures, manual analyses were performed on anterosuperior and anterior radial MR slices from the FHN junction that were automatically reformatted using the constructed coordinate system.High intra- and inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients  >  0.95) was found for manual alpha angle measurements from the auto-extracted anterosuperior and anterior radial slices. Strong correlations were observed between manual and automatic measures of alpha angles for anterosuperior (r  =  0.84) and anterior (r  =  0.92) FHN positions. For matched DESS and TrueFISP images, there were no significant differences between automated alpha angle measures obtained from the upper anterior quadrant of the FHN junction (two-way repeated measures ANOVA, F  <  0.01, p  =  0.98).Our automatic 3D method analysed MR images of the hip joints to generate alpha angle measures around the FHN junction circumference with very good reliability and reproducibility. This work has the

  5. Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szucs, Szilard

    2012-06-27

    AbstractBackgroundPeripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in patients with FNF.MethodsFollowing institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1) or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2). Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score) at 30 min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10). The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later.ResultsOf 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7) vs 27.5(14.2) h, P = 0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4) vs 31(28), P = 0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30 min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6 h 30.7(23.4) vs 67.0(32.0), P = 0

  6. Mid term results of Furlong LOL uncemented hip hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the femoral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Prakash; Azzabi, Mohammed; Burton, Dave J C; Andrews, Mark; Bradley, John G

    2006-08-01

    We report the mid-term results of hemiarthroplasty with the Furlong hydroxyapatite coated bipolar prosthesis for displaced (Garden type III and IV) intracapsular hip fracture in 480 patients operated between 1989 and 2000. Three hundred sixty eight (77%) patients were lost to follow-up due to death, dementia or movement away from the area. In the patients followed up there was an 8% reoperation rate for infection, aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture and acetabular erosion. One hundred and twelve patients with a mean follow-up of 4 years (3-14) were studied. Eighty eight percent had no or slight pain, 77% could mobilise outdoors and 89% needed either no aid or a single walking stick to mobilise. Radiographic assessment revealed a stable implant with visible osseointegration in 91%. We conclude that hemiarthroplasty with the hydroxyapatite coated bipolar Furlong LOL prosthesis for displaced intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur gives good mid term results in elderly patients for return to mobility, use of mobility aids and freedom from pain. It avoids the need for cement and provides satisfactory incorporation into the host bone. The use of a modular head makes revision to total hip replacement easier.

  7. The establishment of implanted VX2 liver tumor model in rabbits and discussion on superselective left hepatic arterial catheterization with micro-catheter technique via femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiongying; Luo Rongguang; Huang Jinhua; Miao Bijian; Wang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the implanted VX2 liver tumor model in rabbits and to discuss the feasibility and technical features of superselective left hepatic arterial catheterization by using micro-catheter through the femoral artery catheter sheath. Methods: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with fragments of VX2 tumor into the medial left lobe of liver by using a 16G lumbar puncture needle through laparotomy route. Two weeks later, all the rabbits were proved to be successfully inoculated with liver neoplasm on CT scanning. Then, the catheter sheath was inserted into one of the femoral arteries, which was followed by celiac artery angiography and left hepatic artery catheterization with a micro-catheter under DSA guidance in order to evaluate the main branches of celiac artery and the imaging manifestations of VX2 liver tumor. After that, some scheduled interventional experiments were carried out. Results: Imaging examination and histopathologic study showed that the successful rate of implanted rabbit VX2 liver tumor was 100% (40/40). And the successful rate of the catheter sheath inserted to femoral artery was 97.5% (39/40). The successful rate of celiac artery, gastro-hepatic artery, common hepatic artery, proper hepatic artery and left hepatic artery catheterizations was 100% (39/39), 100% (39/39), 100% (39/39), 94.9% (37/39) and 71.2% (28/39) respectively. Conclusion: To implant tumor tissue mass through laparotomy is a stable and reliable method to establish rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The insertion of micro-catheter through rabbit femoral catheter sheath approach is a convenient and simple technique to be carried out for the left hepatic artery catheterization and it can efficiently solve the technical difficulties when performing the interventional treatment of the rabbit VX2 hepatic tumor via left hepatic artery approach. (authors)

  8. Do post-operative changes of neck-shaft angle and femoral component anteversion have an effect on clinical outcome following uncemented total hip arthroplasty?

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    Müller, M; Abdel, M P; Wassilew, G I; Duda, G; Perka, C

    2015-12-01

    The accurate reconstruction of hip anatomy and biomechanics is thought to be important in achieveing good clinical outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). To this end some newer hip designs have introduced further modularity into the design of the femoral component such that neck-shaft angle and anteversion, which can be adjusted intra-operatively. The clinical effect of this increased modularity is unknown. We have investigated the changes in these anatomical parameters following conventional THA with a prosthesis of predetermined neck-shaft angle and assessed the effect of changes in the hip anatomy on clinical outcomes. In total, 44 patients (mean age 65.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 7); 17 male/27 female; mean body mass index 26.9 (kg/m²) (SD 3.1)) underwent a pre- and post-operative three-dimensional CT scanning of the hip. The pre- and post-operative neck-shaft angle, offset, hip centre of rotation, femoral anteversion, and stem alignment were measured. Additionally, a functional assessment and pain score were evaluated before surgery and at one year post-operatively and related to the post-operative anatomical changes. The mean pre-operative neck-shaft angle was significantly increased by 2.8° from 128° (SD 6.2; 119° to 147°) to 131° (SD 2.1; 127° to 136°) (p = 0.009). The mean pre-operative anteversion was 24.9° (SD 8; 7.9 to 39.1) and reduced to 7.4° (SD 7.3; -11.6° to 25.9°) post-operatively (p shaft angles was found with a significant decrease of the post-operative anteversion and slight increase of the neck-shaft angles, but without any impact on clinical outcome. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. A method for the measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: experimental validation and application to a femoral neck mimicking phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Chekroun, Mathieu; Cassereau, Didier; Laugier, Pascal; Prada, Claire; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-07-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop an ultrasonic method to characterize the thickness, stiffness and porosity of the cortical shell of the femoral neck, which could enhance hip fracture risk prediction. To this purpose, we proposed to adapt a technique based on the measurement of guided waves. We previously evidenced the feasibility of measuring circumferential guided waves in a bone-mimicking phantom of a circular cross-section of even thickness. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the complex geometry of the femoral neck on the measurement of guided waves. Two phantoms of an elliptical cross-section and one phantom of a realistic cross-section were investigated. A 128-element array was used to record the inter-element response matrix of these waveguides. This experiment was simulated using a custom-made hybrid code. The response matrices were analyzed using a technique based on the physics of wave propagation. This method yields portions of dispersion curves of the waveguides which were compared to reference dispersion curves. For the elliptical phantoms, three portions of dispersion curves were determined with a good agreement between experiment, simulation and theory. The method was thus validated. The characteristic dimensions of the shell were found to influence the identification of the circumferential wave signals. The method was then applied to the signals backscattered by the superior half of constant thickness of the realistic phantom. A cut-off frequency and some portions of modes were measured, with a good agreement with the theoretical curves of a plate waveguide. We also observed that the method cannot be applied directly to the signals backscattered by the lower half of varying thicknesses of the phantom. The proposed approach could then be considered to evaluate the properties of the superior part of the femoral neck, which is known to be a clinically relevant site.

  10. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Paul T P W; Poolman, Rudolf W; Van Bakel, Theodorus M J; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Zielinski, Stephanie M; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-05-06

    The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the WOMAC compared with the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) questionnaires for the assessment of elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture. Reliability was tested by assessing the Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was determined with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Change scores were calculated from ten weeks to twelve months of follow-up. Standardized response means and floor and ceiling effects were determined. Analyses were performed to compare the results for patients less than eighty years old with those for patients eighty years of age or older. The mean WOMAC total score was 89 points before the fracture in the younger patients and increased from 70 points at ten weeks to 81 points at two years postoperatively. In the older age group, these scores were 86, 75, and 78 points. The mean WOMAC pain scores before the fracture and at ten weeks and two years postoperatively were 92, 76, and 87 points, respectively, in the younger age group and 92, 84, and 93 points in the older age group. Function scores were 89, 68, and 79 points for the younger age group and 84, 71, and 73 points for the older age group. The Cronbach alpha for pain, stiffness, function, and the total scale ranged from 0.83 to 0.98 for the younger age group and from 0.79 to 0.97 for the older age group. Construct validity was good, with 82% and 79% of predefined hypotheses confirmed in the younger and older age groups, respectively. Responsiveness was moderate. No floor effects were found. Moderate to large ceiling effects were found for pain and stiffness scales at ten weeks and twelve months in younger patients (18% to 36%) and in the older age group (38% to 53%). The WOMAC showed good

  11. Study of relation between Neck Shaft Angle (NSA and mineral density of the femoral head among old post menopausal women in east part of mazandaran province

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    Majid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diversity in Proximal Femur Geometric Parameters (PFGPs will be led to frequency changes in hip fractures. The purpose of the present study is to investigate of the relation between Bone Mineral Density (BMD in proximal femur with Neck Shaft Angle (NSA in both of osteoporotic and normal groups among old postmenopausal women in eastern part of Mazandaran province as a appropriate indicator to predict hip fractures occurance. Materials and Methods: Among 5103 postmenopausal women reffered to bone densitometry center, for 221 postmenopausal women who had inclusion criteria to this study, simultaneously by using densitometry system and completing a standard questionnaire, history of disease and demographic information including body mass index (BMI were recorded for each patient. Obtained information from densitometers was analyzed by the statistical software SPSS version 16 and Pearson correlation coefficient test was used. Results: Geometric parameters of 221 post-menopausal women aged 50 to 60 were analyzed. The mean of neck shaft angle (NSA were recorded for osteoporotic group 121.55 and for control group 121.44. Pearson correlation coefficient t-test results showed a negative significant correlation between mineral density in the femoral neck in osteoporotic group and NSA (P<0.05. Considering the effect of weight and BMI in strength and bone density in the femoral neck, the mean of BMI and weight in osteoporotic group was lower compared to control group. Conclusion: according to the findings of this study, NSA is effective in predicting of the proximal femur BMD in osteoporotic group.

  12. The relationship of femoral neck shaft angle and adiposity to greater trochanteric pain syndrome in women. A case control morphology and anthropometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, AM; Stephens, S; Cook, JL; Smith, PN; Neeman, T; Cormick, W; Scarvell, JM

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if pelvic or hip width predisposed women to developing greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). Design Prospective case control study. Participants Four groups were included in the study: those gluteal tendon reconstructions (n=31, GTR), those with conservatively managed GTPS (n=29), those with hip osteoarthritis (n=20, OA) and 22 asymptomatic participants (ASC). Methods Anterior-posterior pelvic x-rays were evaluated for femoral neck shaft angle; acetabular index, and width at the lateral acetabulum, and the superior and lateral aspects of the greater trochanter. Body mass index, and waist, hip and greater trochanter girth were measured. Data were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; posthoc Scheffe analysis), then multivariate analysis. Results The GTR group had a lower femoral neck shaft angle than the other groups (p=0.007). The OR (95% CI) of having a neck shaft angle of less than 134°, relative to the ASC group: GTR=3.33 (1.26 to 8.85); GTPS=1.4 (0.52 to 3.75); OA=0.85 (0.28 to 2.61). The OR of GTR relative to GTPS was 2.4 (1.01 to 5.6). No group difference was found for acetabular or greater trochanter width. Greater trochanter girth produced the only anthropometric group difference (mean (95% CI) in cm) GTR=103.8 (100.3 to 107.3), GTPS=105.9 (100.2 to 111.6), OA=100.3 (97.7 to 103.9), ASC=99.1 (94.7 to 103.5), (ANOVA: p=0.036). Multivariate analysis confirmed adiposity is associated with GTPS. Conclusion A lower neck shaft angle is a risk factor for, and adiposity is associated with, GTPS in women. PMID:22547561

  13. Urban versus rural differences in the occurrence of hip fractures in Japan’s Kyoto prefecture during 2008–2010: a comparison of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the differences in the characteristics of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures between urban and rural areas of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Methods Fracture type (neck vs. trochanteric), age, sex, place where fracture occurred (indoors vs. outdoors), and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥65 years who sustained hip fractures between 2008 and 2010 and who were treated at 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 urban, 8 rural). The ratio of sick beds to total number of beds at the participating hospitals was 19.6% (2,188/11,158) in the urban area and 34.9% (1,963/5,623) in the rural area. We also investigated the incidence of hip fracture in Tango medical district as a representative rural area. Results There were 1,346 neck (mean age, 82.4 years) and 1,606 trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). The ratio of neck to trochanteric fractures was higher in the urban area than in the rural area in all age groups (65–74, 75–84, and ≥ 85 years). There were no apparent differences in place or cause of injury. The incidence of hip fracture in the women of Tango medical district was lower than the national average. Conclusions There was a difference in the ratio of neck to trochanteric fractures between urban and rural areas. This difference is estimated to be caused by the high and low incidence of neck fracture in urban and rural areas, respectively. PMID:24156244

  14. Comparative analysis of treatment outcomes in patients with femoral neck fracture using monolateral wire and half-pin fixator of the authors' design and transosseous fixation wires

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    Allakhverdiev A.S.

    2014-12-01

    fractures of the proximal femur. Two groups of patients were studied: duration of surgery, duration of osteosynthesis, complications, and outcomes (in terms of one year after the dismantling clips using the modified scale Luboshyce — Mattis — Schwartzberg. Results. Fracture repair was achieved in 40 patients (62,5% of the 1st group. The following complications were observed in this group: non-union and pseudarthrosis — in 21 (32,8% case; aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in 3 (4,7% cases; hip ankyloses — in one (1,6% case, breakage and migration of wires into the joint cavity and smaller pelvis — 3 (4,7% patients and cutting out of wires from the femoral head was observed in 3 (4,7% cases. Totally 61 complication were revealed. In the second group of the patients non-union was found in one patient (64 years old. Complications were observed in 6 patients of this group — pint-tract infection, moderate secondary displacement of the fragments (the patient fell down on the operated limb and wire breakage. Conclusion. The efficiency of the femoral neck osteosynthesis with application of elaborated monolateral wire- and half-pin fixator made up 95,7% of the positive outcomes (in osteosynthesis using bunch of wires with llizarov frame fixation the same 60,9% of the positive outcomes.

  15. Necrosis avascular de cabeza y cuello de fémur en un paciente con sida Avascular osteonecrosis of femoral head and neck in an AIDS patient

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    María F. Villafañe

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La osteonecrosis avascular (ONA es una complicación que se describe con frecuencia creciente en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo-1 (HIV-1. En su localización más común compromete la cabeza y cuello del fémur con dolor e impotencia funcional, en una o ambas caderas. Su etiología es multifactorial y la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (HAART con inhibidores de proteasa (IP puede estar relacionada con la patogenia. En su evolución puede requerir el reemplazo total de la cadera con la colocación de una prótesis. Se presenta un paciente hemofílico, HIV-1 seropositivo, que desarrolló una ONA bilateral de cabeza y cuello de fémur mientras se encontraba bajo HAART.Avascular osteonecrosis (AON has increased in the last few years in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1. The most commonly affected bone is the femoral head and neck. Frequently these bilateral and clinical findings include moderate to severe pain and functional impotence of the affected joints. The etiology is multifactorial and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART with protease inhibitors (PI is probably related to its development. In the evolution, a total hip replacement may be needed. We present an hemophilic patient with AIDS, who developed a bilateral AON of the femoral head and neck during HAART.

  16. Comparison of femoral neck fracture healing and affected limb pain after anterolateral-approach minimally invasive total hip replacement and hemiarthroplasty

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    Xiao-Dong Cao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the differences in femoral neck fracture healing and affected limb pain after anterolateral-approach minimally invasive total hip replacement and hemiarthroplasty. Methods: A total of 92 patients with femoral neck fracture who received hip replacement in our hospital between May 2013 and December 2015 were selected and randomly divided into total hip and half hip group, total hip group received anterolateral-approach minimally invasive total hip replacement, half hip group received anterolateral-approach minimally invasive hemiarthroplasty, and 1 month after operation, serum was collected to detect the levels of bone metabolism markers, osteocyte cytokines, SP and CGRP. Results: 1 month after operation, serum PINP, PICP, BMP, TGF-β, FGF, IGF-I and IGF-II levels of total hip group were significantly higher than those of half hip group while TRAP5b and CatK levels were significantly lower than those of half hip group; the day after operation, serum pain media SP and CGRP levels were not significantly different between the two groups of patients; 36 h after operation, serum SP and CGRP levels of total hip group were significantly lower than those of half hip group. Conclusion: The bone metabolism after anterolateral-approach minimally invasive total hip replacement is better than that after hemiarthroplasty, and the degree of pain is less than that after hemiarthroplasty.

  17. Calcium and phosphorus concentrations and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in trabecular bone from the femoral neck of healthy humans as determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    The Ca and P concentrations as well as the Ca/P ratio were estimated in intact trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck of healthy humans, 34 women and 44 men, aged from 15 to 55 years, using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The mean values (M±SD) for the investigated parameters (on a dry-weight basis) were: 12.1±3.0%, 5.94±1.71%, 2.07±0.25 and 10.9±2.5%, 5.30±1.23%, 2.07±0.22 for females and males, respectively. A statistically significant (p≤0.05) decrease of Ca concentration with age was found only for males while the P concentration and the Ca/P ratio were not affected by age. No statistically significant sex-related differences were observed in any of the parameters. The mean values for Ca, P and the Ca/P ratio lay close to the median of the very wide range of published data. The individual variation for the Ca/P ratio in trabecular bone from the healthy human femoral neck was lower than those for Ca and P separately. This suggests that the specificity of the Ca/P ratio is better than that of Ca and P concentrations and may be more reliable for the diagnosis of bone disorders

  18. Determination of calcium, phosphorus, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in cortical bone from the human femoral neck by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of Ca and P as well as the Ca/P ratio were estimated in intact cortical bone samples from the femoral neck of healthy humans, 33 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 yr using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M±SD) for the investigated parameters (on dry weight basis) were: 23.0±3.9%, 10.7±2.4% and 2.17±0.31, respectively. No statistically significant differences of the above parameters were observed related either to age or sex. The mean values for Ca, P and Ca/P ratio were within a very wide range of published data and close to their median. The individual variation for the Ca/P ratio in cortical bone from the healthy human femoral neck was lower than those for Ca and P separately. This means that specificity of Ca/P ratio is better than those of Ca and P concentrations are and may be more reliable for diagnosis of bone disorders

  19. Use of clinical and computed tomography findings to assess long-term unsatisfactory outcome after femoral head and neck ostectomy in four large breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Ciprian; Pestean, Cosmin; Bel, Lucia; Taulescu, Marian; Milgram, Joshua; Todor, Adrian; Ungur, Rodica; Leșu, Mirela; Oana, Liviu

    2018-05-10

    Femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHNO) is a salvage surgical procedure intended to eliminate hip joint laxity associated pain in the immature dog, or pain due to secondary osteoarthritis in the mature dog. The outcome of the procedure is associated with the size of the dog but the cause of a generally poorer outcome in larger breeds has not been determined. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term results of FHNO associated with unsatisfactory functional outcome by means of clinical examination and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Four large mixed breed dogs underwent FHNO in different veterinary clinics. Clinical and CT scanning evaluations were carried out long time after the procedures had been done. Hip pain, muscle atrophy, decreased range of motion and chronic lameness were observed at clinical examination. Extensive remodelling, unacceptable bone-on-bone contact with bony proliferation involving the femoral neck and acetabulum, but also excessive removal with bone lysis were observed by CT scanning. Revision osteotomy was performed in one dog. Deep gluteal muscle interposition was used, but no improvements were observed postoperatively. This is the first report on the evaluation of three-dimensional CT reconstructions of the late bone remodelling associated with poor clinical outcome in large dogs. The study shows that FHNO could lead to severe functional deficits in large breed dogs. An extensive follow-study is necessary to more accurately determine the frequency of such complications.

  20. Damage Control Orthopedics Management as Vital Procedure in Elderly Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures Complicated with Chronic Renal Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenhui; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyu; Du, Quanyin; Wang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes to hip fractures in elderly patients, with high subsequent mortality. Selection and timing of the surgical procedure of such patients is a serious challenge. Many clinicians believe in earlier surgery as preferable and providing better outcomes. Damage control orthopedics (DCO) aids to adjust and optimize the overall condition of patients. Methods In 32 patients with femoral neck fractures complicated with CRF, we evaluated how the timing of the surgery determines the mortality rates if the DCO approach is applied. Preoperative ASA grading, POSSUM score, P-POSSUM score and DCO were carried out. Based on the assessment, timing of the surgery was ascertained. Results Of a total of 32 patients, twenty-nine patients were accepted for either early (failures and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There was no significant difference in complication rates and Harris hip score between both groups. Conclusion In patients with femoral neck fracture complicated with CRF, delaying the surgery for several days does not increase the incidence of postoperative adverse events. PMID:27149117

  1. 5-year clinical and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) follow-up of 39 CUT femoral neck total hip prostheses in young osteoarthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background As the number of young patients receiving total hip arthroplasty increases, bone-saving implantations facilitating possible future revision, such as the CUT femoral neck prosthesis, are gaining importance. There have been few medium-term results reported for this prosthesis, however, and its migration pattern has not been analyzed. Patients and methods 39 consecutive CUT femoral neck prostheses were implanted in 32 patients, mean age 37 (17–58) years, with symptomatic osteoarthritis and either less than 55 years of age or with an anatomic anomaly preventing implantation of a diaphyseal stem (n = 1). Patients were followed prospectively using routine clinical examination and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively and annually thereafter. This study evaluated the 5-year follow-up results. Results The mean Harris hip score increased from 26 (3–51) points preoperatively to 84 (66–98), 86 (55–98), and 87 (47–98) points at 3, 12, and 60 months. 3 stems were revised: 1 after luxation following excessive subsidence due to an undersized component and 2 due to persistent strong thigh pain. 5-year survival was 95% (95% CI: 87–100). Initial migration varied widely in magnitude; median total tip migration was 0.42 mm (0.09–9.4) at 6 weeks, 0.92 mm (0.18–5.9) at 1 year, and 1.10 mm (0.13–6.4) at 5 years. Even after high initial migration, stabilization was achieved in 31 of the 35 RSA-evaluable implants. 3 prostheses showed progressive continuous migration throughout the entire follow-up period, and were considered to be loose, suggesting reduced long-term survival. Interpretation Currently, we cannot recommend the CUT femoral neck prosthesis as a routine treatment option in (young) patients requiring THA. The CUT prosthesis may not reach the 90% survival benchmark at 10 years, and the prosthesis is difficult to implant. If initial stabilization is achieved, however, aseptic loosening is unlikely. A good clinical

  2. Brief communication: Paleobiological inferences on the locomotor repertoire of extinct hominoids based on femoral neck cortical thickness: The fossil great ape hispanopithecus laietanus as a test-case study.

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    Pina, Marta; Alba, David M; Almécija, Sergio; Fortuny, Josep; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between femoral neck superior and inferior cortical thickness in primates is related to locomotor behavior. This relationship has been employed to infer bipedalism in fossil hominins, although bipeds share the same pattern of generalized quadrupeds, where the superior cortex is thinner than the inferior one. In contrast, knuckle-walkers and specialized suspensory taxa display a more homogeneous distribution of cortical bone. These different patterns, probably related to the range of movement at the hip joint and concomitant differences in the load stresses at the femoral neck, are very promising for making locomotor inferences in extinct primates. To evaluate the utility of this feature in the fossil record, we relied on computed tomography applied to the femur of the Late Miocene hominoid Hispanopithecus laietanus as a test-case study. Both an orthograde body plan and orang-like suspensory adaptations had been previously documented for this taxon on different anatomical grounds, leading to the hypothesis that this fossil ape should display a modern ape-like distribution of femoral neck cortical thickness. This is confirmed by the results of this study, leading to the conclusion that Hispanopithecus represents the oldest evidence of a homogeneous cortical bone distribution in the hominoid fossil record. Our results therefore strengthen the utility of femoral neck cortical thickness for making paleobiological inferences on the locomotor repertoire of fossil primates. This feature would be particularly useful for assessing the degree of orthograde arboreal locomotor behaviors vs. terrestrial bipedalism in putative early hominins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evaluation the treatment outcomes of intracapsular femoral neck fractures with closed or open reduction and internal fixation by screw in 18-50-year-old patients in Isfahan from Nov 2010 to Nov 2011

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    Mohammad Javdan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that femoral neck fracture is associated with several complications, especially if open reduction was necessary. So, the surgical method and necessary equipments such as radiolucent bed, C-ARM machine, and implant cannulated screw set should be considered.

  4. Prediction of femoral neck and spine bone mineral content from the BMC of the radius or ulna and the relationship between bone strength and BMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) is extensively used to provide information about the status of an entire skeleton. Changes in BMC are employed to evaluate the effect of various drugs, disease states, weightlessness, exercise, renal dialysis and others on the skeleton. Clinical and functional information is discussed that may be derived from the BMC of a limited region of the skeleton. In particular there is a fairly high degree of correlation between the BMC of the radius or ulna and that of the femoral neck, r about 0.85 and a somewhat lower relationship between the BMC of the radius or ulna and the thoracic vertebrae, r about 0.65. Also the BMC is highly related to the strength of bone at that scan site.

  5. Cementless Stem for Femoral Neck Fractures in a Patient’s 10th Decade of Life: High Rate of Periprosthetic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelitz, Method; Fritz, Yannick; Grueninger, Patrick; Meier, Christoph; Fries, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Background: Subsidence of cementless femoral stems in hemiarthroplasty (HA) and increased fracture rates are ongoing concerns of orthopedic surgeons when treating fractures in very old patients. Additionally, bone cement implantation syndrome may result in perioperative cardiac or pulmonary complications, especially in older patients, leading to morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to analyze possible subsidence and intraoperative fractures in a cohort of very old patients treated with cementless stems. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive cohort of patients aged ≥90 years with femoral neck fractures treated by uncemented HA and an anterior minimally invasive approach. Immediate full-weight bearing was allowed postoperatively. Pelvic radiographs were examined for subsidence immediately postoperatively and 6 weeks later. Results: We treated 109 patients (74% women; mean age, 93 years; range, 90-102 years) by HA from January 2010 to March 2016. The 30-day mortality rate was 16%, and the morbidity rate was 47%. There were 11 (12%) intraoperative fractures: 8 (Vancouver B2) had to be addressed immediately during the primary operation, while 3 (1 Vancouver B1 and 2 Vancouver AG) were treated conservatively. One periprosthetic femoral fracture (Vancouver B1) was documented during follow-up. In 17 patients, subsidence of >2.0 mm (median, 3.9 mm; range, 2.5-9.0 mm) was documented. Conclusion: Early subsidence was low in this very old cohort treated with an uncemented stem and not showing a periprosthetic fracture. The risk of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures was high. The use of uncemented implants in osteoporotic bone continues to be an intervention with high risk and should only be performed by experienced surgeons. Level of Evidence: Level III, Therapeutic study. PMID:29623237

  6. Evaluation of a fall-prevention program in older people after femoral neck fracture: a one-year follow-up.

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    Berggren, M; Stenvall, M; Olofsson, B; Gustafson, Y

    2008-06-01

    A randomized, controlled fall-prevention study including 199 patients operated on for femoral neck fracture reduced inpatient falls and injuries. No statistically significant effects of the intervention program could be detected after discharge. It seems that fall-prevention must be part of everyday life in fall-prone old people. This study evaluates whether a postoperative multidisciplinary, multifactorial fall-prevention program performed by a geriatric team that reduced inpatient falls and injuries had any continuing effect after discharge. The intervention consisted of staff education, systematic assessment and treatment of fall risk factors and vitamin D and calcium supplementation. The randomized, controlled trial with a one-year follow-up at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, included 199 patients operated on for femoral neck fracture, aged > or = 70 years. After one year 44 participants had fallen 138 times in the intervention group compared with 55 participants and 191 falls in the control group. The crude postoperative fall incidence was 4.16/1,000 days in the intervention group vs. 6.43/1,000 days in the control group. The incidence rate ratio was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.40-1.02, p = 0.063). Seven new fractures occurred in the intervention group and 11 in the control group. A team applying comprehensive geriatric assessment and rehabilitation, including prevention and treatment of fall-risk factors, reduced inpatient falls and injuries, but no statistically significant effects of the program could be detected after discharge. It seems that fall-prevention must be part of everyday life in fall-prone elderly.

  7. Valgus Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis in Patient with Hypopituitarism

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    Yoshihiro Kotoura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE is a common disease of adolescent and the epiphysis is positioned more posteromedially in relation to the femoral neck shaft with varus SCFE; however, posterolateral displacement of the capital epiphysis, valgus SCFE, occurs less frequently. We report a case of valgus SCFE in a 17-year-old boy with hypopituitarism. After falling down, he experienced difficulty in walking. The radiographs were inconclusive; however three-dimensional computed tomography images showed lateral displacement of the epiphysis on the right femoral head. Valgus SCFE was diagnosed. The patient underwent in situ pinning of both sides. In situ pinning on the left side was performed as a prophylactic pinning because of endocrine abnormalities. At the 1-year follow-up, he could walk without any difficulty and there were no signs of pain. The epiphysis is commonly positioned more posteromedially in relation to the femoral neck shaft with most SCFE, but, in this case, the epiphysis slipped laterally. Differential diagnosis included femoral neck fracture (Delbet-Colonna type 1; however, this was less likely due to the absence of other clinical signs. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient as SCFE. When children complain of leg pain and limp, valgus SCFE that may not be visualized on anteroposterior radiographs needs to be considered.

  8. Comparação dos volumes ocupados pelos diferentes dispositivos de fixação interna para fraturas do colo femoral Comparison of volumes occupied by different internal fixation devices for femoral neck fractures

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    Daniel Lauxen Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir o volume ocupado pelos dispositivos de fixação interna mais difundidos para o tratamento das fraturas de colo femoral, usando como aproximação os primeiros 30, 40 e 50mm de cada parafuso. O estudo visa observar qual desses implantes causa menor agressão óssea. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados cinco modelos de parafusos canulados e quatro modelos de parafusos deslizantes (DHS encontrados no mercado nacional através de diferença de volume por deslocamento de água. RESULTADOS: A fixação com dois parafusos canulados apresentou volume significativamente menor do que com DHS nas inserções de 30, 40 e 50mm (p=0,01, 0,012 e 0,013, respectivamente, a fixação com três parafusos não apresentou significância estatística (p=0,123, 0,08 e 0,381, respectivamente e a fixação com quatro parafusos canulados apresenta volumes maiores que o DHS (p=0,072, 0,161 e 0,033. CONCLUSÕES: A fixação da cabeça femoral com dois parafusos canulados ocupa menor volume quando comparada ao DHS com diferença estatisticamente significativa. A maioria das outras combinações de parafusos não atingiram significância estatística, apesar de a fixação com quatro parafusos canulados apresentar, em média, volumes maiores que o ocupado pelo DHS.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to measure the volume occupied by the most widely used internal fixation devices for treating femoral neck fractures, using the first 30, 40 and 50 mm of insertion of each screw as an approximation. The study aimed to observe which of these implants caused least bone aggression. METHODS: Five types of cannulated screws and four types of dy namic hip screws (DHS available on the Brazilian market were evaluated in terms of volume differences through water displace ment. RESULTS: Fixation with two cannulated screws presented significantly less volume than shown by DHS, for insertions of 30, 40 and 50 mm (p=0.01, 0.012 and 0.013, respectively, fixa tion with three screws

  9. Retrospective comparison of the effects of epidural anesthesia versus peripheral nerve block on postoperative outcomes in elderly Chinese patients with femoral neck fractures

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    Jin JW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jianwen Jin,1 Gang Wang,2 Maowei Gong,3 Hong Zhang,3 Junle Liu21Department of Clinical Medicine, Fujian Health College, Fuzhou, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army 105 Hospital, Hefei, 3Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Geriatric patients with femoral neck fracture (FNF have unacceptably high rates of postoperative complications and mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of epidural anesthesia versus peripheral nerve block (PNB on postoperative outcomes in elderly Chinese patients with FNF.Methods: This retrospective study explored mortality and postoperative complications in geriatric patients with FNF who underwent epidural anesthesia or PNB at the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital from January 2008 to December 2012. The electronic database at the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital includes discharge records for all patients treated in the hospital. Information on patient demographics, preoperative comorbidity, postoperative complications, type of anesthesia used, and in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality after surgery was obtained from this database.Results: Two hundred and fifty-eight patients were identified for analysis. The mean patient age was 79.7 years, and 71.7% of the patients were women. In-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year postoperative mortality was 4.3%, 12.4%, and 22.9%, respectively, and no differences in mortality or cardiovascular complications were found between patients who received epidural anesthesia and those who received PNB. More patients with dementia or delirium were given PNB. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for other comorbidities or intraoperative parameters. The most common complications were acute cardiovascular events (23.6%, electrolyte disturbances (20.9%, and hypoxemia (18.2%. Patients

  10. Biopolymer augmentation of the lag screw in the treatment of femoral neck fractures - a biomechanical in-vitro study

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    Paech A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cut-out of the sliding screw is one of the most common complications in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. The reasons for the cut-out are: a suboptimal position of the hip-screw in the femoral head, the type of fracture and poor bone quality. The aim of this study was to reproduce the cut-out event biomechanically and to evaluate the possible prevention of this event by the use of a biopolymer augmentation of the hip screw. Concerning the density and compression force of osteoporotic femoral bone polyurethane foam according to the terms of the Association for Standard Testing Material (ASTMF 1839-97 was used as test material. The polyurethane foam Lumoltan 200 with a compression force of 3.3 Mpa and a density of 0.192 g/cm3 was used to reproduce the osteoporotic bone of the femoral fragment (density 12 lbm/ft3. A cylinder of 50 mm of length and 50 mm of width was produced by a rotary splint raising procedure with planar contact. The axial load of the system was performed by a hydraulic force cylinder of a universal test machine type Zwick 1455, Ulm, Germany. The CCD-angle of the used TGN-System was preset at 130 degrees. The migration pattern of the hip screw in the polyurethane foam was measured and expressed as a curve of the distance in millimeter [mm] against the applied load in Newton [N] up to the cut-out point. During the tests the implants reached a critical changing point from stable to unstable with an increased load progression of steps of 50 Newton. This unstable point was characterized by an increased migration speed in millimeters and higher descending gradient in the migration curve. This peak of the migration curve served as an indicator for the change of the hip screw position in the simulated bone material. The applied load in the non-augmented implant showed that in this group for a density degree of 12 (0,192 g/cm3 the mean force at the failure point was 1431 Newton (± 52 Newton. In the augmented

  11. A soluble activin type IIA receptor mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength and cancellous bone mass in a mouse model of disuse osteopenia.

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    Lodberg, Andreas; Eijken, Marco; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Okkels, Mette Wendelboe; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Brüel, Annemarie

    2018-05-01

    Disuse causes a rapid and substantial bone loss distinct in its pathophysiology from the bone loss associated with cancers, age, and menopause. While inhibitors of the activin-receptor signaling pathway (IASPs) have been shown to prevent ovariectomy- and cancer-induced bone loss, their application in a model of disuse osteopenia remains to be tested. Here, we show that a soluble activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA-mFc) increases diaphyseal bone strength and cancellous bone mass, and mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength in the Botulinum Toxin A (BTX)-model of disuse osteopenia in female C57BL/6J mice. We show that ActRIIA-mFc treatment preferentially stimulates a dual-effect (anabolic-antiresorptive) on the periosteal envelope of diaphyseal bone, demonstrating in detail the effects of ActRIIA-mFc on cortical bone. These observations constitute a previously undescribed feature of IASPs that mediates at least part of their ability to mitigate detrimental effects of unloading on bone tissue. The study findings support the application of IASPs as a strategy to combat bone loss during disuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of a statistical model of the whole femur in a large scale, multi-model study of femoral neck fracture risk.

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    Bryan, Rebecca; Nair, Prasanth B; Taylor, Mark

    2009-09-18

    Interpatient variability is often overlooked in orthopaedic computational studies due to the substantial challenges involved in sourcing and generating large numbers of bone models. A statistical model of the whole femur incorporating both geometric and material property variation was developed as a potential solution to this problem. The statistical model was constructed using principal component analysis, applied to 21 individual computer tomography scans. To test the ability of the statistical model to generate realistic, unique, finite element (FE) femur models it was used as a source of 1000 femurs to drive a study on femoral neck fracture risk. The study simulated the impact of an oblique fall to the side, a scenario known to account for a large proportion of hip fractures in the elderly and have a lower fracture load than alternative loading approaches. FE model generation, application of subject specific loading and boundary conditions, FE processing and post processing of the solutions were completed automatically. The generated models were within the bounds of the training data used to create the statistical model with a high mesh quality, able to be used directly by the FE solver without remeshing. The results indicated that 28 of the 1000 femurs were at highest risk of fracture. Closer analysis revealed the percentage of cortical bone in the proximal femur to be a crucial differentiator between the failed and non-failed groups. The likely fracture location was indicated to be intertrochantic. Comparison to previous computational, clinical and experimental work revealed support for these findings.

  13. Hip Fractures and the Bundle: A Cost Analysis of Patients Undergoing Hip Arthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture vs Degenerative Joint Disease.

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    Grace, Trevor R; Patterson, Joseph T; Tangtiphaiboontana, Jennifer; Krogue, Justin D; Vail, Thomas P; Ward, Derek T

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether episode Target Prices in the Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative sufficiently match the complexities and expenses expected for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF) as compared to hip degenerative joint disease (DJD). Claims data under BPCI Model 2 were collected for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at a single institution over a 2-year period. Payments from the index hospitalization to 90 days postoperatively were aggregated by Medicare Severity Diagnosis-Related Group (469 or 470), indication (DJD vs FNF), and categorized as index procedure, postacute services, and related hospital readmissions. Actual episode costs and Target Prices were compared in both the FNF and DJD cohorts undergoing hip arthroplasty to gauge the cost discrepancy in each group. A total of 183 patients were analyzed (31 with FNFs, 152 with DJD). In total, the FNF cohort incurred a $415,950 loss under the current episode Target Prices, whereas the DJD cohort incurred a $172,448 gain. Episode Target Prices were significantly higher than actual episode prices for the DJD cohort ($32,573 vs $24,776, P expenses incurred by FNF patients undergoing hip arthroplasty. Better risk-adjusting Target Prices for this fragile population should be considered to avoid disincentives and delays in care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Artroplastia parcial no tratamento das fraturas do colo do fêmur Hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of fractures of the femoral neck

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    Nelson Keiske Ono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar avaliação epidemiológica e clínica dos pacientes com fratura desviada do colo femoral, que foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico, com artroplastia parcial do quadril cimentada. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, de forma retrospectiva, todos os pacientes com fratura desviada do colo do fêmur (Garden III e IV submetidos à artroplastia parcial do quadril com prótese unipolar (Thompson, cimentada pela via de acesso posterolateral do quadril, no período de junho de 2005 a setembro de 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados, inicialmente, 70 pacientes. A média de idade foi de 83,1 anos. Houve predomínio de pacientes do sexo feminino (84,3%. Houve acompanhamento ambulatorial de 36 pacientes, cujo tempo de seguimento variou de 10 a 48 meses (média de 26,5 meses. Houve perda de seguimento de 15 pacientes. Dezenove pacientes foram a óbito, com uma taxa de mortalidade no primeiro ano de 25,4%. Os pacientes classificados como ASA III apresentaram taxa de 25,7%, enquanto os pacientes ASA II, uma taxa de 12,1%. Dois pacientes apresentaram trombose venosa profunda sintomática; um paciente, infecção do sítio operatório; e nenhum paciente apresentou luxação do quadril. A maioria dos pacientes evoluiu sem dor. Doze pacientes (33%, durante a evolução, apresentaram piora na capacidade de deambulação. CONCLUSÃO: Nenhum caso de luxação do quadril foi observado. Os pacientes classificados como ASA III apresentaram um índice de mortalidade mais elevado, em relação aos pacientes ASA I e II. Houve uma piora da capacidade de deambular em 33% dos pacientes. Não foi necessária revisão de nenhum paciente por soltura ou dor. Trinta pacientes não apresentavam dor (83,3%, quatro apresentavam dor moderada (11,1% e dois apresentavam dor intensa (5,5%.OBJETIVE: To epidemiologically and clinically evaluate patients with displaced femoral neck fractures that had surgical treatment with cemented hemiarthroplasty. METHODS: We evaluated

  15. Femoral neck BMD is a strong predictor of hip fracture susceptibility in elderly men and women because it detects cortical bone instability: the Rotterdam Study.

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    Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; De Laet, Chris Edh; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Beck, Thomas J; Pols, Huibert Ap

    2007-11-01

    We studied HSA measurements in relation to hip fracture risk in 4,806 individuals (2,740 women). Hip fractures (n = 147) occurred at the same absolute levels of bone instability in both sexes. Cortical instability (propensity of thinner cortices in wide diameters to buckle) explains why hip fracture risk at different BMD levels is the same across sexes. Despite the sexual dimorphism of bone, hip fracture risk is very similar in men and women at the same absolute BMD. We aimed to elucidate the main structural properties of bone that underlie the measured BMD and that ultimately determines the risk of hip fracture in elderly men and women. This study is part of the Rotterdam Study (a large prospective population-based cohort) and included 147 incident hip fracture cases in 4,806 participants with DXA-derived hip structural analysis (mean follow-up, 8.6 yr). Indices compared in relation to fracture included neck width, cortical thickness, section modulus (an index of bending strength), and buckling ratio (an index of cortical bone instability). We used a mathematical model to calculate the hip fracture distribution by femoral neck BMD, BMC, bone area, and hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters (cortical thickness, section modulus narrow neck width, and buckling ratio) and compared it with prospective data from the Rotterdam Study. In the prospective data, hip fracture cases in both sexes had lower BMD, thinner cortices, greater bone width, lower strength, and higher instability at baseline. In fractured individuals, men had an average BMD that was 0.09 g/cm(2) higher than women (p men and women. No significant differences were observed between the areas under the ROC curves of BMD (0.8146 in women and 0.8048 in men) and the buckling ratio (0.8161 in women and 0.7759 in men). The buckling ratio (an index of bone instability) portrays in both sexes the critical balance between cortical thickness and bone width. Our findings suggest that extreme thinning of cortices in

  16. Femoral neck shortening in adult patients under the age of 55 years is associated with worse functional outcomes: Analysis of the prospective multi-center study of hip fracture outcomes in China (SHOC).

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    Slobogean, Gerard P; Stockton, David J; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Wang, Dong; Ma, Baotong; Pollak, Andrew N

    2017-08-01

    Young femoral neck fracture patients require surgical fixation to preserve the native hip joint and accommodate increased functional demands. Recent reports have identified a high incidence of fracture shortening and this may have negative functional consequences. We sought to determine if fracture shortening is associated with poor functional outcome in young femoral neck fracture patients. One hundred and forty-two patients with femoral neck fractures age 18-55 were recruited in this prospective cohort study across three Level 1 trauma hospitals in Mainland China. Patient-reported and objective functional outcomes were measured with the Harris Hip Score (HHS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and SF-36 Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS) at 12 months. Radiographic fracture shortening was measured along the long axis of the femoral neck and corrected for magnification. Severe shortening was defined as ≥10mm. The primary analysis measured associations between severe radiographic shortening and HHS at one-year post-fixation. One hundred and two patients had complete radiographic and functional outcomes available for analysis at one year. The mean age of participants was 43.7±10.8years and 53% were male. Fifty-five percent of fractures were displaced and 37% were vertically orientated (Pauwels Type 3). The mean functional outcome scores were: HHS 90.0±10.8, TUG 12.0±5.1s, and PCS 48.5±8.6. Severe shortening occurred in 13% of patients and was associated with worse functional outcome scores: HHS mean difference 9.9 (p=0.025), TUG mean difference 3.2s (p=0.082), and PCS mean difference 5.4 (p=0.055). Severe shortening is associated with clinically important decreases in functional outcome as measured by HHS following fixation of young femoral neck fractures, occurring in 13% of patients in this population. The principle of fracture site compression utilized by modern constructs may promote healing; however, excessive shortening is associated with worse patient

  17. Fourier transform infrared imaging of femoral neck bone: reduced heterogeneity of mineral-to-matrix and carbonate-to-phosphate and more variable crystallinity in treatment-naive fracture cases compared with fracture-free controls.

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    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    After the age of 60 years, hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and nonfractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck's axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared with controls. Although our treatment-naive patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone's toughness as a material. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. High failure rate after internal fixation and beneficial outcome after arthroplasty in treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in patients between 55 and 70 years.

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    Bartels, Stefan; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik; Frihagen, Frede; Rogmark, Cecilia; Utvåg, Stein Erik

    2018-02-01

    Background and purpose - The treatment of patients between 55 and 70 years with displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture remains controversial. We compared internal fixation (IF), bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) in terms of mortality, reoperations and patient-reported outcome by using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register. Patients and methods - We included 2,713 patients treated between 2005 and 2012. 1,111 patients were treated with IF, 1,030 with HA and 572 patients with THA. Major reoperations (defined as re-osteosynthesis, secondary arthroplasty, exchange, or removal of prosthesis components and Girdlestone procedure), patient-reported outcome measures (satisfaction, pain, and health-related quality of life (EQ5D) after 4 and 12 months), 1-year mortality, and change in treatment methods over the study period were investigated. Results - Major reoperations occurred in 27% after IF, 3.8% after HA and 2.8% after THA. 549 patients (20% of total study population) answered both questionnaires. Compared with IF, patients treated with THA were more satisfied after 4 and 12 months, reported less pain after 4 months and 12 months, had a higher EQ5D-index score after 4 months and 12 months, and EQ-VAS score after 4 months. Compared with IF, patients treated with HA were more satisfied and reported less pain after 4 months. EQ5D-index and EQ-VAS were similar. Patients treated with HA had higher 1-year mortality and had more comorbidities than both the THA and IF group. All these differences were statistically and clinically significant. Interpretation - This study showed high reoperation rate after IF and better patient-reported outcome after both THA and HA with medium follow-up. Patients selected for HA represented a frailer group than patients treated with THA or IF.

  19. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  20. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Imaging of Femoral Neck Bone: Reduced Heterogeneity of Mineral-to-Matrix and Carbonate-to-Phosphate and more Variable Crystallinity in Treatment-Naïve Fracture Cases compared to Fracture-Free Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L.

    2012-01-01

    After age 60 hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and non-fractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck’s axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed Tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared to controls. While our treatment-naïve patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone’s toughness as a material. PMID:22865771

  1. Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model

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    Kim Harry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head. Methods Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging. Results An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis. Conclusion Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve

  2. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley George A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training exercise on femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 exercise intervention ≥ 24 weeks, (3 comparative control group, (4 postmenopausal women, (5 participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training g was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI and number-needed-to-treat (NNT were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ≤0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28 g’s, 1632 participants, g = 0.288, 95% CI = 0.102, 0.474, p = 0.002, Q = 90.5, p I2 = 70.1%, NNT = 6 and LS (28 g’s, 1504 participants, g = 0.179, 95% CI = −0.003, 0.361, p = 0.05, Q = 77.7, p I2 = 65.3%, NNT = 6 BMD. Clinically, it was estimated that the overall changes in FN and LS would reduce the 20-year relative risk of osteoporotic fracture at any site by approximately 11% and 10%, respectively. None of the mixed

  3. Fixation using alternative implants for the treatment of hip fractures (FAITH): Design and rationale for a multi-centre randomized trial comparing sliding hip screws and cancellous screws on revision surgery rates and quality of life in the treatment of femoral neck fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hip fractures are a common type of fragility fracture that afflict 293,000 Americans (over 5,000 per week) and 35,000 Canadians (over 670 per week) annually. Despite the large population impact the optimal fixation technique for low energy femoral neck fractures remains

  4. Streptozocin-induced type-1 diabetes mellitus results in decreased density of CGRP sensory and TH sympathetic nerve fibers that are positively correlated with bone loss at the mouse femoral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Pérez, Iris A; Galindo-Ordoñez, Karla E; Pantoja-Ortíz, Christian E; Martínez-Martínez, Arisaí; Acosta-González, Rosa I; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan M

    2017-08-10

    Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in loss of innervation in some tissues including epidermis and retina; however, the effect on bone innervation is unknown. Likewise, T1DM results in pathological bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Thus, we quantified the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP + ) sensory and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH + ) sympathetic nerve fibers and determined the association between the innervation density and microarchitecture of trabecular bone at the mouse femoral neck. Ten weeks-old female mice received 5 daily administrations of streptozocin (i.p. 50mg/kg) or citrate (control group). Twenty weeks later, femurs were analyzed by microCT and processed for immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that mice with T1DM had a significant loss of both CGRP + and TH + nerve fibers in the bone marrow at the femoral neck. Likewise, microCT analysis revealed a significant decrease in the trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD), bone volume/total volume ratio (BV/TB), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in mice with T1DM as compared to control mice. Analysis of correlation revealed a positive and significant association between density of CGRP + or TH + nerve fibers with tBMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp, but not with trabecular number (there was a positive association only for CGRP + ) and degree of anisotropy (DA). This study suggests an interaction between sensory and sympathetic nervous system and T1DM-induced bone loss. Identification of the factors involved in the loss of CGRP + sensory and TH + sympathetic fibers and how they regulate bone loss may result in new avenues to treat T1DM-related osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Trochanteric femoral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, P; Čech, O; Weissinger, M; Džupa, V

    2013-01-01

    At the present time proximal femoral fractures account for 30% of all fractures referred to hospitals for treatment. Our population is ageing, the proportion of patients with post-menopausal or senile osteoporosis is increasing and therefore the number of proximal femoral fractures requiring urgent treatment is growing too. In the age category of 50 years and older, the incidence of these fractures has increased exponentially. Our department serves as a trauma centre for half of Prague and part of the Central Bohemia Region with a population of 1 150 000. Prague in particular has a high number of elderly citizens. Our experience is based on extensive clinical data obtained from the Register of Proximal Femoral Fractures established in 1997. During 14 years, 4280 patients, 3112 women and 1168 men, were admitted to our department for treatment of proximal femoral fractures. All patients were followed up until healing or development of complications. In the group under study, 82% were patients older than 70 years; 72% of those requiring surgery were in their seventies and eighties. Men were significantly younger than women (pfractures were 2.3-times more frequent in women than in men. In the category under 60 years, men significantly outnumbered women (pfractures were, on the average, eight years older than the patients with intertrochanteric fractures, which is a significant difference (pTrochanteric fractures accounted for 54.7% and femoral neck fractures for 45.3% of all fractures. The inter-annual increase was 5.9%, with more trochanteric than femoral neck fractures. There was a non-significant decrease in intertrochanteric (AO 31-A3) fractures. On the other hand, the number of pertrochanteric (AO 31-A1+2) fractures increased significantly (pfractures were treated with a proximal femoral nail; a short nail was used in 1260 and a long nail in 134 of them. A dynamic hip screw (DHS) was employed to treat 947 fractures. Distinguishing between pertrochanteric (21-A1

  6. Prediction of traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head by single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography: an experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To evaluate the femoral head perfusion and to predict the traumatic avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head by single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography (SPECT/CT. Methods: Totally 18 adult beagle dogs were divided randomly into three equal-sized (n=6 groups. Subsequently different degrees of ischemia model were developed by destroying blood vessels of the femoral head. The left hip received sham operation as normal control and the right hip underwent blood interruption. In Group A, the ligamentum teres was cut off. In Group B, the marrow cavity of the right femoral neck was destroyed while in Group C, the soft tissues at the base of the femoral neck were stripped in addition to the resection of the ligamentum teres and destruction of the marrow cavity. Three hours after surgery, SPECT/CT was performed. Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF measurements were also obtained at three different time points (before operation, immediately and three hours after operation in order to assess the change process of blood supply to the femoral head. Results: SPECT/CT showed no significant difference in the radionuclide uptake between the right and left femoral heads in Group A (t=-0.09, P=0.94 and Group B (t= 0.52, P=0.62. However, in Group C, it was 261±62 for the right femoral head, only 12% of that in the left femoral head. LDF measurements indicated that the femoral head perfusion was decreased from (45.0±3.3 PU to (39.1±3.7 PU in Group A, from (44.0±2.7 PU to (34.3±2.6 PU in Group B, and from (47.3±2.1 PU to (4.96±0.6 PU in Group C immediately after operation. However, the perfusion was restored and returned to normal values three hours after operation except in Group C. Conclusion: SPECT/CT could assess the perfusion of the femoral head semiquantitatively, which might be useful in predicting the development of traumatic AVN. Key words: Femur head necrosis; Femoral head; Tomography, emission

  7. 全髋关节置换与内固定治疗股骨颈骨折临床疗效比较%Comparison of internal fixation with total hip replacement for displaced femoral neck fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈铁男; 陈洪瑜; 王志刚

    2014-01-01

    control ed trials performed postoperatively have shown that a primary total hip replacement is superior to internal fixation for the treatment of a femoral neck fracture in a relatively healthy, mental y competent, elderly patient. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes. METHODS: 58 patients who had an acute femoral neck fracture were randomly al ocated to be treated with total hip replacement or internal fixation. 24 cases (A group)were treated by IF,and 34 cases(B group) were treated by THR. RESULTS: At the 3.8 years fol ow-up evaluation, the rate of hip complications was 8.8% in the patients treated with total hip replacement and 37.5% in those treated with internal fixation .The hip function was significantly better and the decline in health-related quality of life was less pronounced in the arthroplasty group than it was in the fixation group CONCLUSIONS: Compared with internal fixation, primary total hip replacement provides a better outcome for mental y competent elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture. If we can decrease the rate of the un-union ,then internal fixation was also good method.%对施行内固定或全髋关节置换术后的新鲜老年股骨颈骨折患者的临床随访,总结所取得的经验和教训。材料及方法:我们对1997年6月-2004年10月间施行内固定或全髋关节置换术的老年患者(65岁以上)进行随访,获得随访58例,其中A组24例行空心拉力螺钉固定;B组34例行人工全髋关节置换。对其手术后功能恢复情况平均随访时间3.8年。结果:34例全髋关节置换(T H A)患者术后优良率91.2%(22例);24例内固定(I F)患者术后优良率62.5%;A组严重并发症中有7例为骨折不愈合、股骨头坏死2例。结论:对于老年股骨颈骨折的治疗,全髋关节置换是一种有效的治疗方式;如果能够有效降低较高的骨折不愈合率,多枚中空拉力螺钉内固定也是一种可行的选择。

  8. Bone mineral density difference between right and left hip during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, P.; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Jensen, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    be affected by significant left-right difference in hip BMD, especially in the old. The purpose of our study was to ascertain the difference in BMD measurement of the two hips in a population of Caucasian community dwelling women older than 65 years invited for screening. We found that bilateral BMD...... found an increasing difference between the hips with increasing age and this difference was up to 9.1% in the women older than 70 years when evaluating femoral neck, meaning that the diagnosis of osteoporosis in a subset of patients would depend on whether the left or right hip was scanned. When...... measurements were only moderately correlated at the femoral neck and total hip. In a significant number of the screened elderly women, we found that the DXA differences changed the diagnosis of each woman from either normal BMD to osteopenia or visa versa or from osteopenia to osteoporosis or visa versa. We...

  9. Bone Mineral Density difference between Right and Left Hip during Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, P; Jørgensen, NR; Jensen, LT

    2011-01-01

    be affected by significant left-right difference in hip BMD, especially in the old. The purpose of our study was to ascertain the difference in BMD measurement of the two hips in a population of Caucasian community dwelling women older than 65 years invited for screening. We found that bilateral BMD...... found an increasing difference between the hips with increasing age and this difference was up to 9.1% in the women older than 70 years when evaluating femoral neck, meaning that the diagnosis of osteoporosis in a subset of patients would depend on whether the left or right hip was scanned. When...... measurements were only moderately correlated at the femoral neck and total hip. In a significant number of the screened elderly women, we found that the DXA differences changed the diagnosis of each woman from either normal BMD to osteopenia or visa versa or from osteopenia to osteoporosis or visa versa. We...

  10. SEX DETERMINATION FROM FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... In medico-legal cases where sophisticated methods of sex determination is lacking, these ... scientific methods(3). Using the visual method ... between the sexes and the values of the right and left femoral head diameters.

  11. Computerized tomography in evaluation of decreased acetabular and femoral anteversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennis, D.; Skamel, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Computerized tomography has received a new importance. It has been shown that decreased anteversion of femur and acetabulum, when both have decreased angles, are causing pain and osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Operative treatment should be performed before osteoarthritis develops. Exact measurements therefore are necessary. The investigation should be performed in prone position to have the pelvis lying in a defined and normal position. Femoral torsion is measured between the transverse axis of the knee and the femoral neck. The transverse axis for measurement of the femoral anteversion is defined by a rectangular line to the sagittal plane. For evaluation of the femoral anteversion in total the angle of the condyles has to be added to the femoral neck angle when the knee is found in internal rotation. Acetabular anteversion should be measured at the level where the femoral head is still in full contact and congruence with the anterior margin of the acetabulum. (orig.) [de

  12. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto; Rego, Paulo; Dantas, Pedro; Soldado, Francisco; Consciencia, Jose G.

    2017-01-01

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. The stability of the femoral component of a minimal invasive total hip replacement system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, M.M.M.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Gibbons, P.; Minderhoud, N.; Weernink, T.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the initial stability of the femoral component of a minimal invasive total hip replacement was biomechanically evaluated during simulated normal walking and chair rising. A 20 mm diameter canal was created in the femoral necks of five fresh frozen human cadaver bones and the femoral

  15. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  16. Age-dependence of power spectral density and fractal dimension of bone mineralized matrix in atomic force microscope topography images: potential correlates of bone tissue age and bone fragility in female femoral neck trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Petar; Djuric, Marija; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2012-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in bone nano-structure, the ultimate goal being to reveal the basis of age-related bone fragility. In this study, power spectral density (PSD) data and fractal dimensions of the mineralized bone matrix were extracted from atomic force microscope topography images of the femoral neck trabeculae. The aim was to evaluate age-dependent differences in the mineralized matrix of human bone and to consider whether these advanced nano-descriptors might be linked to decreased bone remodeling observed by some authors and age-related decline in bone mechanical competence. The investigated bone specimens belonged to a group of young adult women (n = 5, age: 20-40 years) and a group of elderly women (n = 5, age: 70-95 years) without bone diseases. PSD graphs showed the roughness density distribution in relation to spatial frequency. In all cases, there was a fairly linear decrease in magnitude of the power spectra with increasing spatial frequencies. The PSD slope was steeper in elderly individuals (-2.374 vs. -2.066), suggesting the dominance of larger surface morphological features. Fractal dimension of the mineralized bone matrix showed a significant negative trend with advanced age, declining from 2.467 in young individuals to 2.313 in the elderly (r = 0.65, P = 0.04). Higher fractal dimension in young women reflects domination of smaller mineral grains, which is compatible with the more freshly remodeled structure. In contrast, the surface patterns in elderly individuals were indicative of older tissue age. Lower roughness and reduced structural complexity (decreased fractal dimension) of the interfibrillar bone matrix in the elderly suggest a decline in bone toughness, which explains why aged bone is more brittle and prone to fractures. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  17. Mammary and femoral hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease most commonly affects liver and lungs, but it can affect all viscera and soft tissues of the body. Simultaneous mammary and femoral hydatid cysts, without any other visceral involvement, are extremely rare. This is a case report of 25-years-old female, presenting with lump in left breast mimicking fibroadenoma and lump in right thigh mimicking fibroma. Both turned out to be hydatid cysts.

  18. Evaluation of two different dosages of local anesthetic solution used for ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block for pain relief and positioning for central neuraxial block in patients of fracture neck of the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit A Karmarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical management of the fracture femur is preferred so as to prevent complications associated with prolonged immobilization. Central neuraxial blockade (CNB is an attractive option for these patients, and an optimal positioning of the patient is a definite requirement. Owing to the pain associated with movement of the fractured limb, it becomes difficult for the patients to give suitable positioning. Femoral nerve block (FNB features as a rescue analgesia so as to provide adequate analgesia for facilitation of satisfactory positioning. Aim: This study aims to compare analgesic effect of two different dosages of local anesthetic (LA solution administered for ultrasonography (USG-guided FNB given to facilitate optimal positioning for conduct of CNB. Materials and Methods: After taking permission from the institutional review board, eighty patients were enrolled in the study to find out the efficacy of dosage of LA solution for FNB in providing pain relief caused by movement of fractured limb during conduct of regional anesthesia. Informed consent was taken. All patients were given USG-guided FNB. Patients were randomized using a computer-generated random number table, into two groups of forty patients each. Group A patients received USG-guided 12 ml of LA solution containing 10 ml lignocaine solution without preservative (2% plus 2 ml normal saline (NS, while Group B patients received USG-guided 15 ml of LA solution containing 13 ml lignocaine solution without preservative (2% plus 2 ml NS for positioning before combined spinal epidural. Results: A total of eighty patients, divided randomly into two groups, were enrolled in the study. Demographics (age, sex, weight, and American Society of Anesthesiologists grades were similar in both groups. No statistical significance was found in the numeric rating scale scores at baseline, zero minutes, 5, and 15 min in both the groups. Conclusion: USG-guided FNB with 12 ml of LA solution was

  19. A new method for measurement of femoral anteversion using 3D imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.I.; Lee, Y.H.; Park, S.-B.; Lee, K.-M.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional methods that use cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) images to estimate femoral anteversion have several problems because of the complex 3 dimensional structure of the femur. These are the ambiguity of defining the femoral neck axis and condylar line, and the dependence on patient positioning. Especially, the femoral neck axis that is known as a major source of error is hard to determine from a single or multiple 2-dimensional transverse CT images. In this study, we are presenting a new method that we have devised form the measurement of femoral anteversion by utilizing the 3 dimensional imaging technique. Poster 176. (author)

  20. Selective arteriography in femoral head fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannella, P; Galeotti, R; Borrelli, M; Benea, G; Massari, L; Chiarelli, G M

    1986-01-01

    The choice between conservative and radical operation in case of femoral neck fractures is very important because it is the determining factor for a successfull therapy. In case of epiphysial necrosis, an endoprosthesis as well as an osteosynthesis will be carried out. Selective arteriography of the medical circumflex artery represents the most reliable study to establish, immediately after the fractures, the possible presence of a post-traumatic ischemic necrosis. Angiography, as a reliable diagnostic tool, has to be carried out in the most selective way and needs the image subtraction technique. The authors report their preliminary results on the reliability of angiography in the femoral epiphyseal ischemic necrosis diagnosed by comparing the results of angiography with the wood light test carried out on the surgically removed femoral head. 18 refs.

  1. Computer tomographic determination of femoral anteversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jend, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two macerated femora were examined by CT in order to determine the degree of anteversion and to relate this to the position of the femur and to the various reference lines quoted in the literature. The accuracy of CT is the same as that of the Rippstein method, provided the following conditions are met: 1. Position of the femur with its long axis perpendicular to the image plane. 2. Demonstration of the maximal configuration of the femoral condyles to enable one to construct a tangent to the dorsal aspect of the condyle. 3. Demonstration of the head and neck by a plane which divides the neck into approximately equal portions and sections the femoral head. These conditions are more easily met, even in immobile patients, than the requirements for the Rippstein method. (orig.) [de

  2. A STUDY ON FEMORAL ANTEVERSION IN ADULT DRY FEMORA OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Korukonda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA is an important parameter for diagnosis of gait abnormality in children, risk of various congenital and acquired orthopaedic disorders as well as corrective osteotomy and hip arthroplasty. Femoral anteversion is the lateral rotation of the neck of the femur to the long axis of its shaft. Variability in FNA has been reported and is due to torsional forces applied on femur during development. The aim of this study was to estimate the angle of anteversion of femur in both genders on both sides. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of FNA in South Indian population, in particular, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 70 dried adult unpaired human femora, i.e. 48 male and 22 female bones. The Kingsley Olmsted 1 method was used for the study and the data was analysed. Statistical analysis - Statistical analysis was done using student unpaired ‘t’ test. The data was analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (Free Trial Version. RESULTS Out of the 70 femora undertaken, mean value of FNA obtained in male is 15.95, 14.1 on right and 17.8 on left sides and in female it is 19.2, 21.8 on right and 16.6 on left side. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05 greater average anteversion in female bones and right-left variations being greater on the left side. CONCLUSION In the present study, the mean FNA was 17.8 deg. There was a gender variation for the FNA values in the population studied with females showing higher value than the male with a statistically significant difference. The reason for the difference obtained could be the small sample size of female femora due to the rarity of the donated female bodies. The value was higher on the left side than the right; 50% of the femora had the range of 16 - 25 deg of FNA. The overall mean of femoral anteversion determined is very much different from the studies in various regions in India.

  3. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemqvist, B.

    1983-01-01

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  4. Progressive slip after removal of screw fixation in slipped capital femoral epiphysis: two case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, Y.; Morgenstern, P.; van der Sluijs, J.A.; Witbreuk, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In slipped capital femoral epiphysis the femoral neck displaces relative to the head due to weakening of the epiphysis. Early recognition and adequate surgical fixation is essential for a good functional outcome. The fixation should be secured until the closure of the epiphysis to

  5. Does increased femoral antetorsion predispose to cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Johannes; Bredow, Jan; Wissusek, Boris; Spies, Christian Karl; Boese, Christoph Kolja; Chang, Shi-Min; Eysel, Peer; Dargel, Jens

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between femoral neck antetorsion and the presence and pattern of osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. It was hypothesized that an increased femoral neck antetorsion (1) correlates with osteoarthritic changes of the lateral facet of the patellofemoral joint and (2) correlates with an increased lateral trochlear height and a decreased sulcus angle. Seventy-eight formalin-embedded cadaveric lower extremities from thirty-nine subjects with a median age of 74 years (range 60-88) were used. Surrounding soft tissues of the lower limb were removed. The femoral neck antetorsion was measured and referenced to the transepicondylar axis and the posterior condylar line. The height of the medial and lateral facet of the trochlea and the sulcus angle was measured. The location and the degree of patellofemoral cartilage degeneration were recorded. A Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to correlate the femoral neck antetorsion with the measured knee parameters. No significant correlation could be found between the femoral antetorsion and cartilage degeneration of the lateral patellofemoral joint (n.s.), the height of the lateral trochlea (n.s.) and the sulcus angle (n.s.). This study could not document that the femoral neck antetorsion and subsequent internal rotation of the distal femur correlated with the degree of degeneration of the lateral facet of the patellofemoral joint. Clinically, femoral internal rotation may play a minor role in the development of lateral patellofemoral joint degeneration.

  6. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Femoral shaft bowing in the coronal plane has more significant effect on the coronal alignment of TKA than proximal or distal variations of femoral shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Hong, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Bum-Sik; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine (1) variations in the shape of the proximal, middle, and distal femur in a series of Korean patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA), (2) the preoperative relationship between these three parameters and the distal valgus cutting angle referenced off the femoral intramedullary guide, and (3) whether there was any relationship between femoral bowing and variations in the shape of the proximal or distal femur in the coronal plane. The preoperative long-standing anteroposterior radiographs of 316 consecutive osteoarthritis patients who underwent primary TKA from 2009 to 2011 were examined. The femoral neck shaft angle, the femoral shaft bowing angle, and the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle were measured to assess the shape of the proximal, middle, and distal femur, respectively. The valgus cutting angle of the femur was defined as the angle between the distal anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. The study population showed large variations in femoral shape. The mean femoral intramedullary guide angle was 6.5° ± 1.3° (range: 4°-13°). The femoral shaft bowing angle was the factor that showed the strongest correlation with this angle (P shaft angle showed no correlation (n.s.). The femoral shaft bowing angle showed a weak correlation with the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (P = 0.001), but was not significantly correlated with the femoral neck shaft angle (n.s.). Apparent femoral bowing (>3° of lateral or medial bowing) was found in 42 (13.3 %) of cases (37 cases of lateral bowing and five of medial bowing). Cases with lateral apparent femoral bowing >3° had a distal cutting angle of 8.6° ± 2.2° relative to the femoral intramedullary guide. The femoral intramedullary guide angle was mainly influenced by femoral shaft bowing among femoral deformities in the coronal plane. Therefore, to increase the accuracy of distal femoral cut during TKA, it is necessary to confirm femoral

  8. Analysis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Sponseller, P.D.; Griffin, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    CT with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR) was used to assess 25 adolescents with known or suspected slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). CT/MPR localizes the epiphysis in three planes, establishing its relationship to the acetabulum and the metaphyseal neck. MPR facilitates measurements of head-neck angles, residusal head-neck contact, and relative retrovision. CT/MPR may establish the true age of the epiphyseal failure and can reveal subtle SCFE in the face of normal plain films. Patients often present with confusing histories; clues to the true age of failure include subtle signs of healing, remodeling, or new bone buttressing. Characterization of acute versus chronic conditions influences preoperative planning. Postoperatively, CT/MPR confirms early results and follows epiphyseal fusion and remodelling. It also detects complications, such as pin or graft migration avascular necrosis (AVN), or chondrolysis

  9. [Femoral arteriovenous fistula: a late uncommon complication of central venous catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conz, P A; Malagoli, A; Normanno, M; Munaro, D

    2007-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was admitted due to AV graft thrombosis; given the technical impossibility of performing other native AV fistulas, we chose to insert a tunnelled central venous catheter. Considering the vascular history of the patient, the central venous catheter could not be placed into the internal jugular vein; it was therefore put into the left femoral vein. Following a 3-month-period of the catheter working properly, the patient was hospitalized due to sudden acute pain in the left thigh. In a few days the patient developed an important haematoma with serious anemization in the left lower limb. Ultrasonography showed the presence of a fistula between the left common femoral artery and the femoral vein, leading to the subsequent successful positioning of a stent into the common femoral artery through right trans-femoral access. Angiography examination showed the femoral vein patency along the proximal stretch with respect to the function of the tunnelled venous catheter.

  10. Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Is Not Caused by Arthroscopic Posterolateral Femoroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Robert E; Rupp, Sasha N

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head after arthroscopic femoroplasty extending to the posterolateral femoral neck, the source of the primary blood supply to the femoral head. Cam lesions of femoroacetabular impingement are typically anterior along the junction of the femoral head and neck. However, anatomic variations can involve the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head and neck. Femoroplasty involving this vascular region can lead to injury to the blood supply to the femoral head, with subsequent avascular necrosis. If the posterolateral portion of the cam lesion is preserved, persistent femoroacetabular impingement may occur. A retrospective review identified 112 patients who underwent arthroscopic femoroplasty for femoroacetabular impingement over a 2-year period. Of these patients, 14 had femoroplasty that extended to the posterolateral femoral head. Of this group, 5 had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after femoroplasty and the other 9 were contacted to undergo MRI of the hip to evaluate for avascular necrosis. A radiologist and the senior author evaluated all MRI scans specifically for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. All procedures were performed by the senior author. Mean age of the 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with femoroplasty that extended into the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head was 44 years (range, 23-69 years). All 14 patients underwent MRI evaluation of the affected hip a mean of 25 months (range, 7-44 months) after femoroplasty. No MRI scans showed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Femoroplasty of the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head is not associated with avascular necrosis. Patients with femoroacetabular impingement and a cam lesion extending to the posterolateral femoral head can undergo femoroplasty of this region without the development of avascular necrosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):177-180.]. Copyright

  11. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Baleani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61 and metal-on-metal (N = 87 bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions.

  12. The treatment of nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions with im nail exchange versus augmentation plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Kim, Sul Gee; Yoon, Han Kook; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results between exchange nailing (EN) and augmentation plating (AP) with a nail left in situ for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion after femoral nailing. : Retrospective data analysis, November 1996-March 2006. A level I trauma center. Eighteen patients with 18 nonisthmal femoral nonunions. Seven patients with 7 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after femoral nailing with EN and 11 patients with 11 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after nailing with AP combined with bone grafting. Union and complications. Five nonunions in the EN group failed to achieve union (72% failure rate), whereas all 11 pseudarthroses in the AP group obtained osseous union. Fisher exact test showed a higher nonunion rate of EN compared with AP for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion (odds ratio, 6.5; P = 0.002). AP with autogenous bone grafting may be a better option than EN for nonisthmal femoral nonunions.

  13. Resection of tumors of the neck of the pancreas with venous invasion: the "Whipple at the Splenic Artery (WATSA)" procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Steven M; Sanchez, Luis A; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan C; Linehan, David C

    2012-05-01

    Tumors of the neck of the pancreas may involve the superior mesenteric and portal veins as well as the termination of the splenic vein. This presents a difficult problem since the pancreas cannot be transected through the neck as is standard in a Whipple procedure. Here, we present our method of resecting such tumors, which we term "Whipple at the Splenic Artery (WATSA)". The superior mesenteric and portal veins are isolated below and above the pancreas, respectively. The pancreas and splenic vein are divided just to the right of the point that the splenic artery contacts the superior border of the pancreas. This plane of transection is approximately 2 cm to the left of the pancreatic neck and away from the tumor. The superior mesenteric artery is cleared from the left side of the patient. With the specimen remaining attached only by the superior mesenteric and portal veins, these structures are clamped and divided. Reconstruction is performed with or without a superficial femoral vein graft. The splenic vein is not reconstructed. Ten cases have been performed to date without mortality. We have previously shown that the pattern of venous collateral development following occlusion of the termination of the splenic vein in the manner described is not similar to that of cases of sinistral (left sided) portal hypertension. Whipple at the splenic artery (WATSA) is a safe method for resection of tumors of the neck of the pancreas with vein involvement. It should be performed in high-volume pancreatic surgery centers.

  14. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  15. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  16. Evaluation of femoral head viability via bone scintigraphy in the postoperative pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Ashishkumar K.; Washington, Eleby R.; Spottswood, Stephanie E.; Bobbey, Adam J.

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating postoperative patients with hardware is challenging following surgical intervention for hip maladies such as femoral neck fractures and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). These children are at increased risk of developing avascular necrosis, and imaging may be requested to confirm or exclude this diagnosis. Children with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease can be monitored for restoration of blood flow to the capital femoral epiphysis to guide management and help with prognosis. Although MRI is sensitive for detecting early avascular necrosis, the presence of hardware degrades image quality. This report examines the utility of bone scans for evaluating femoral head perfusion in children who have undergone surgery for femoral neck fractures, SCFE or Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. A retrospective review of 20 patients (22 scans) after fixation for femoral neck fracture, SCFE or Legg-Calve-Perthes disease from 2012 to 2015 was performed. The bone scan findings were correlated with the intraoperative findings or clinical follow-up. Twenty-one of the 22 (95%) bone scans in 19 of the 20 (95%) patients demonstrated findings consistent with clinical outcomes and/or the intraoperative appearance of the femoral head. Four of 20 patients (20%) had bone scan features of avascular necrosis, defined as ''absent'' or ''moderately diminished'' femoral head activity, which were confirmed intraoperatively and resulted in poor outcomes. Radionuclide imaging of hips in the postoperative setting is a valuable modality for assessing the risk of avascular necrosis, a complication of femoral neck fractures and SCFE and for evaluating the restoration of flow to the capital femoral epiphyses of children with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. (orig.)

  17. [Ex vivo microCT analysis of possible microfractures of the femoral head during implantation of a cementless hip resurfacing femoral component].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, M; Olender, G; von der Höh, N; Thorey, F; von Lewinski, G; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Windhagen, H; Hurschler, C

    2009-01-01

    Microfractures of the femoral head during implantation of the femoral components are suspected to be a cause of fractures at the implant/neck junction which represent a common failure mode in hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Callus formation observed in femoral head retrievals suggests the occurrence of microfractures inside the femoral head, which might be inadvertently caused by the surgeon during implantation. The aim of this biomechanical study was to analyse whether or not the implantation of a cementless femoral component hip resurfacing system causes microfractures in the femoral head. After the preparation of 20 paired human cadaveric femoral heads, the cementless femoral component ESKA Typ BS (ESKA Implants GmbH & Co., Lübeck) was implanted on 9 specimens with an impaction device that generates 4.5 kN impaction force. On 9 specimens the femoral component was implanted by hand. One head was used as a fracture model, 1 specimen served as control without manipulation. The femoral component used for impaction was equipped with hinges to enable its removal without further interfering with the bone stock. Specimens were scanned with a microCT device before and after impaction and the microCT datasets before and after impaction were compared to identify possible microfractures. Twenty strikes per hand or with the impaction device provided sufficient implant seating. Neither the macroscopic examination nor the 2-dimensional microCT analysis revealed any fractures of the femoral heads after impaction. At least macroscopically and in the 2-dimensional microCT analysis, implantation of the cementless hip resurfacing femoral component ESKA Typ BS with 4.5 kN or by hand does not seem to cause fractures of the femoral head. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  18. Biomechanical optimization of different fixation modes for a proximal femoral L-osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsih-Hao

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous proposed surgical techniques have had minimal success in managing greater trochanter overgrowth secondary to retarded growth of the femoral capital epiphysis. For reconstruction of residual hip deformities, a novel type of proximal femur L-osteotomy was performed with satisfactory results. Although the clinical outcome was good, the biomechanical characteristics of the femur after such an osteotomy have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study presents a three dimensional finite element analysis designed to understand the mechanical characteristics of the femur after the L-osteotomy. Methods A patient with left hip dysplasia was recruited as the study model for L-osteotomy. The normal right hip was used as a reference for performing the corrective surgery. Four FEA models were constructed using different numbers of fixation screws but the same osteotomy lengths together with four FEA models with the same number of fixation screws but different osteotomy lengths. The von Mises stress distributions and femoral head displacements were analyzed and compared. Results The results revealed the following: 1. The fixation devices (plate and screws sustained most of the external loading, and the peak value of von Mises stress on the fixation screws decreased with an increasing number of screws. 2. Additional screws are more beneficial on the proximal segment than on the distal segment for improving the stability of the postoperative femur. 3. The extent of osteotomy should be limited because local stress might be concentrated in the femoral neck region with increasing length of the L-osteotomy. Conclusion Additional screw placement on the proximal segment improves stability in the postoperative femur. The cobra-type plate with additional screw holes in the proximal area might improve the effectiveness of L-osteotomies.

  19. Bilateral Traumatic Fracture of Neck of Femur in a Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral femoral neck fractures are rare in the pediatric age group, and only a few cases have been reported following major trauma in children. A 9-year old girl presented with bilateral femoral neck fractures following a motor vehicle accident. The patient was managed with early operative fixation of the fractures with a successful outcome. This case highlights the importance of awareness of the occurrence of bilateral femoral neck fractures in the polytrauma patients. This case is presented due to its rarity.

  20. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too many hours hunched over your computer or smartphone, often triggers muscle strains. Even minor things, such ... your shoulder. The weight can strain your neck. Sleep in a good position. Your head and neck ...

  1. The tridimensional geometry of the proximal femur should determine the design of cementless femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Julien; Roux, Jean-Paul; Loriau, Charlotte; Bonin, Nicolas; Pibarot, Vincent

    2018-02-22

    Using a cementless femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA), optimal filling of the proximal femoral metaphyseal volume (PFMV) and restoration of the extramedullary proximal femoral (PF) parameters (i.e., femoral offset (FO), neck length (FNL), and head height (FHH)) constitute key goals for optimal hip biomechanics, functional outcome, and THA survivorship. However, almost 30% of mismatch between the PF anatomy and implant geometry of the most widely implanted non-modular cementless femoral stem has been demonstrated in a computed tomography scan (CT scan) study. Therefore, this anatomic study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the intra- and extramedullary PF parameters using tridimensional CT scan reconstructions. One hundred fifty-one CT scans of adult healthy hips were obtained from 151 male Caucasian patients (mean age = 66 ± 11 years) undergoing lower limb CT scan arteriography. Tridimensional PF reconstructions and parameter measurements were performed using a corrected PF coronal plane-defined by the femoral neck and diaphyseal canal longitudinal axes-to avoid influence of PF helitorsion and femoral neck version on extramedullary PF parameters. Independently of the femoral neck-shaft angle, the PFMV was significantly and positively correlated with the FO, FNL, and FHH (r = 0.407 to 0.420; p < 0.0001). This study emphasized that the tridimensional PF geometry measurement in the corrected coronal plane of the femoral neck can be useful to determine and optimize the design of a non-modular cementless femoral stem. Particularly, continuous homothetic size progression of the intra- and extramedullary PF parameters should be achieved to assure stem fixation and restore anatomic hip biomechanics.

  2. Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazzam, Shafagh [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Orthopedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Dwek, Jerry R. [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center for Hip Preservation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, TriCity Medical Center, Oceanside, CA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    With recent changing approaches to the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the accurate radiographic assessment of maximum extent of displacement is crucial for planning surgical treatment. To determine what plane best represents the maximum SCFE displacement as quantified by the head-neck angle difference (HNAD), whether HNAD can quantitatively differentiate the SCFE cohort from the normal cohort, based on CT, and how Southwick slip angle (SSA) compares to HNAD. We reviewed 19 children with SCFE (23 affected hips) with preoperative CT scans and 27 age- and sex-matched children undergoing abdominal CT for non-orthopedic problems. Head-neck angle (HNA), the angle between the femoral epiphysis and the neck axis, was measured in three planes on each hip and the HNAD (affected - unaffected hip) was determined. SSA was measured on radiographs. The coronal HNAD (mean 8.7 ) was less than both the axial-oblique (mean 30.7 ) and sagittal (mean 37.4 ) HNADs, which were also greater than the HNADs of the normal cohort. Grouping HNAD measurements by SSA severity classification did not consistently distinguish between SCFE severity levels. Axial-oblique and sagittal planes best represent the maximum SCFE displacement while biplanar radiograph may underestimate the extent of the displacement, thereby potentially altering the management between in situ pinning and capital realignment. (orig.)

  3. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosa, F.; McNulty, J.G.; Hickey, N.; O'Brien, P.; Tobin, A.; Noonan, N.; Ryan, B.; Keeling, P.W.N.; Kelleher, D.P.; McDonald, G.S.A.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated

  4. Femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.E.; Campbell, D.C. II

    1985-01-01

    The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

  5. Assessment of femoral head perfusion by dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Ryuya; Nakano, Tetsuo; Miyazono, Kazuki; Tsurugami, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Inaba, Daisuke; Takada, Koji

    2004-01-01

    We studied femoral head perfusion in 21 femoral neck fractures using dynamic MR imaging (MRI) between November 2001 and July 2002. MRI patterns divided into four groups when the results between the fractured side and unaffected side were compared. Femoral head perfusion at the fractured side was normal in Type A, about half in Type B, and absent in Type C. When perfusion at both the fractured side and unaffected side was absent, Exceptional Type was suspected. The Garden I group consisted of one Type B. The Garden II group consisted of one Type A, six Type B, one Type C, and two Exceptional Type. The Garden III group consisted of two Type B and one Type C, and the Garden IV group consisted of six Type C and one Exceptional Type. Post operations of by internal fixation confirmed the incidence of aseptic necrosis using MRI. (author)

  6. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  7. Fixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.G.; Crawford, W.H.; Stone, W.C.; Frampton, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Salter-Harris type I fractures of the femoral capital physis were repaired in five Holstein bulls with three 7.0 mm cannulated screws placed in lag fashion. Radiographically at months 7 to 10, the fractures were healed and there was periarticular bone production on the femoral necks and the dorsal acetabular rims. Four bulls had normal gaits, and one bull had muscle atrophy and barely detectable lameness

  8. Iodixanol in femoral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorstensen, Oe.; Albrechtsson, U.; Calissendorff, B.; Larusdottir, H.; Norgren, L.; Tengvar, M.; Bolstad, B.; Aspelin, P.

    1994-01-01

    Two contrast media, iodixanol (Visipaque, Nycomed) 270 mg I/ml and iohexol (Omnipaque, Nycomed) 300 mg I/ml, were compared in femoral arteriography, in 147 patients. Both contrast media were diagnostically effective for use in femoral arteriography, without any significant difference. Pain was reported in connection with injection of iohexol by 36% of the patients, after injection of iodixanol none reported pain. Seventy-two percent of the patients in the iodixanol group reported a sensation of warmth in connection with contrast injection versus 90% in the iohexol group. The average intensity of the warmth was greater with iohexol than with iodixanol. Fourteen percent of patients in the iodixanol group and 1% in the iohexol group reported one or more subjective adverse events. (orig.)

  9. Individualised distal femoral cut improves femoral component placement and limb alignment during total knee replacement in knees with moderate and severe varus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisami, Dhanasekararaja; Iyyampillai, Geethan; Shanmugam, Sivaraj; Natesan, Rajkumar; S, Rajasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to determine the variation in valgus correction angle and the influence of individualised distal femoral cut on femoral component placement and limb alignment during total knee replacement (TKR) in knees with varus deformity. The study was done prospectively in two stages. In the first stage, the valgus correction angle (VCA) was calculated in long-limb radiographs of 227 patients and correlated with pre-operative parameters of femoral bowing, neck-shaft angle and hip-knee-ankle angle. In the second part comprising of 240 knees with varus deformity, 140 (group 1) had the distal femoral cut individualised according to the calculated VCA, while the remaining 100 knees (group 1) were operated with a fixed distal femoral cut of 5°. The outcome of surgery was studied by grouping the knees as varus 15°. Of the 227 limbs analysed in stage I, 70 knees (31 %) had a VCA angle outside 5-7°. Coronal bowing (p shaft angle (p alignment when VCA was individualised in the groups of knees with varus 10-15° (p 0.002) and varus >15° (p 0.002). Valgus correction angle is highly variable and is influenced by femoral bowing, neck-shaft angle and pre-operative deformity. Individualisation of VCA is preferable in patients with moderate and severe varus deformity. Level 2.

  10. Radiographic femoral varus measurement is affected unpredictably by femoral rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    Radiographic measurements of femoral varus are used to determine if intervention to correct femoral deformity is required, and to calculate the required correction. The varus angle is defined as the angle between the proximal femoral long axis (PFLA) and an axis tangential to the distal femoral...... and externally by 5° and 10° using plastic wedges. Accuracy of rotation was within +1°. Digital radiographs were obtained at each position. Varus angles were measured using ImageJ, employing two definitions of PFLA. Mean varus angles increased with 10° of either internal or external rotation with both PFLA...... rotation angles. The effect of rotation on varus angle measurements in these femoral specimens contradicts a previous report using CT. The most probable explanation is the difference in femoral positioning: the CT study used a slightly elevated position compared to that in this study, resulting in better...

  11. Traumatic subchondral fracture of the femoral head in a healed trochanteric fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yang; Niikura, Takahiro; Iwakura, Takashi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2014-07-11

    An 82-year-old woman sustained a trochanteric fracture of the left femur after a fall. Fracture fixation was performed using proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) II, and she was able to walk with a T-cane after 3 months. Eleven months following the operation, the patient presented with left hip pain after a fall. Radiographs showed a subchondral collapse of the femoral head located above the blade tip. The authors removed the PFNA-II and subsequently performed cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Histological evaluation of the femoral head showed osteoporosis with no evidence of osteonecrosis. Repair tissue, granulation tissue and callus formation were seen at the collapsed subchondral area. Based on these findings, a traumatic subchondral fracture of the femoral head in a healed trochanteric fracture was diagnosed. A traumatic subchondral fracture of the femoral head may need to be considered as a possible diagnosis after internal fixation of the trochanteric fracture. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Comparison of electromyographic activity and range of neck motion in violin students with and without neck pain during playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-nam; Kwon, Oh-yun; Ha, Sung-min; Kim, Su-jung; Choi, Hyun-jung; Weon, Jong-hyuck

    2012-12-01

    Neck pain is common in violin students during a musical performance. The purpose of this study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in superficial neck muscles with neck motion when playing the violin as well as neck range of motion (ROM) at rest, between violin students with and without neck pain. Nine violin students with neck pain and nine age- and gender-matched subjects without neck pain were recruited. Muscle activity of the bilateral upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and superficial cervical extensor muscles was measured using surface EMG. Kinematic data on neck motion while playing and active neck ROM were also measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Independent t-tests were used to compare EMG activity with kinematic data between groups. These analyses revealed that while playing, both the angle of left lateral bending and leftward rotation of the cervical spine were significantly greater in the neck pain group than among those without neck pain. Similarly, EMG activity of the left upper trapezius, both cervical extensors, and both sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly greater in the neck pain group. The active ROM of left axial rotation was significantly lower in the neck pain group. These results suggest that an asymmetric playing posture and the associated increased muscle activity as well as decreased neck axial rotation may contribute to neck pain in violin students.

  13. A micro-architectural evaluation of osteoporotic human femoral heads to guide implant placement in proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul J; Ramaesh, Rishikesan; Pankaj, Pankaj; Patton, James T; Howie, Colin R; Goffin, Jérôme M; Merwe, Andrew van der; Wallace, Robert J; Porter, Daniel E; Simpson, A Hamish

    2013-10-01

    The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. 6 femoral heads, obtained during arthroplasty surgery for femoral neck fracture, underwent micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning at 30 μm, and bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, structural model index, connection density, and degree of anisotropy for volumes of interest throughout the head were derived. A further 15 femoral heads underwent mechanical testing of compressive failure stress of cubes of trabecular bone from different regions of the head. The greatest density and trabecular thickness was found in the central core that extended from the medial calcar to the physeal scar. This region also correlated with the greatest degree of anisotropy and proportion of plate-like trabeculae. In the epiphyseal region, the trabeculae were organized radially from the physeal scar. The weakest area was found at the apex and peripheral areas of the head. The strongest region was at the center of the head. The center of the femoral head contained the strongest trabecular bone, with the thickest, most dense trabeculae. The apical region was weaker. From an anatomical and mechanical point of view, implants that achieve fixation in or below this central core may achieve the most stable fixation during fracture healing.

  14. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vomiting Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath ... worse or doesn’t get better. Start OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

  15. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  16. Neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis after neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinu; Shin, Eun Seow; Kim, Jeong Eon; Yoon, Sang Pil [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Late complications of head and neck cancer survivors include neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis. We present an autopsy case of neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis (sternocleidomastoid, omohyoid, digastric, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and platysma muscles) within the radiation field after modified radical neck dissection type I and postoperative radiotherapy for floor of mouth cancer. A 70-year-old man underwent primary tumor resection of the left floor of mouth, left marginal mandibulectomy, left modified radical neck dissection type I, and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. The dose to the primary tumor bed and involved neck nodes was 63 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks. Areas of subclinical disease (left lower neck) received 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered.

  17. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report: We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Ant...

  18. Neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Most often, everyday activities are to blame. Such ... of a heart attack , such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, or arm or jaw pain. ...

  19. A Case of Late Femoral Pseudoaneurysm Caused by Stent Disconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivolta, Nicola; Fontana, Federico; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Tozzi, Matteo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a late superficial femoral artery stent disconnection causing an asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with a stent-graft. A 67-year-old female was referred to our department for evaluation of claudication of the left lower limb and was diagnosed to have a total occlusion of the superficial femoral artery. Three nitinol stents were used to revascularize this artery. At 48 months, duplex-ultrasonography control revealed the presence of a 45-mm saccular femoral dilatation; X-rays and CT angiography showed fractures of the proximal stents and the presence of a pseudoaneurysm at the site of the distal stents disconnection. The pseudoaneurysm was excluded using two stent-grafts. We conclude that patients and surgeons should be aware of structural complications with all stents. Rigorous follow-up controls should be mandatory. Endovascular repair proved to be feasible and durable to manage a previous endovascular procedure.

  20. Autologous Platelet Concentrates as Treatment for Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Estefanía; Vergara, Andrea; Silva, Raúl F

    2017-03-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a developmental disturbance that generally affects young dogs of small breeds and produces ischemic necrosis of the femoral head resulting in an incongruous and malformed joint. The most common treatment is the excisional arthroplasty of the head and femoral neck. The aim of this study is to describe the treatment of avascular necrosis in a Yorkshire dog using intra-articular injections of autologous platelet concentrate. Evaluations were made at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days of treatment, describing the following parameters: clinical gait analysis, perimetry, goniometry, and radiographic evaluations. The results obtained in this case suggest that the autologous platelet concentrate may be an alternative for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  2. Proximal femoral fractures: Principles of management and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ravi; Banerjee, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the principles involved in the management of proximal femoral fractures as reported in the literature. Methods: A medical literature search in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane database was undertaken to review strategies and principles in proximal femoral fracture treatment. Randomized control trials and meta analysis were given preference while case reports/small series were rejected. Results and conclusions: Early anatomical reduction and surgical fixation remains the best option to reduce the risk of complications like non-union and avascular necrosis in treating fracture neck femurs. Cancellous screws continue to be the preferred treatment for fixation of neck femur fractures in younger population until the benefit of using sliding hip screws is validated by large multicentric studies. In the geriatric age group, early prosthetic replacement brings down the mortality and morbidity associated with neck femur fractures. Sliding hip screw (DHS) is the best available option for stable inter trochanteric fractures. The use of intramedullary nails e.g. PFN is beneficial in treating inter trochanteric fractures with comminution and loss of lateral buttress. Intramedullary implants have been proven to have increased success rates in subtrochanteric fractures and should be preferred over extramedullary plate fixation systems. PMID:25983451

  3. Proximal Femoral Geometry and the Risk of Fractures: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Grygorieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the literature review of the impact of the upper third of the femur geometry (hip axis length, femoral neck angle, inter-trochanteric length, horizontal offset, thickness of the cortical bone, etc. on the risk of fractures. The article demonstrates the capabilities of techniques for measurement of hip geometry, namely conventional X-ray of pelvic bones, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography. Possible correlation is shown between some genetic markers and features of the geometry of the upper third of the femur. Also, there are presented the results of own researches of age and sex characteristics of proximal hip geometry parameters in patients without fractures, as well as in patients of older age groups with internal and extraarticular femoral fractures.

  4. Prognostic value of dynamic MRI in assessing post-traumatic femoral head vascularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Abhishek; Varghese, Mathew [St Stephen' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sankaran, Balu [St Stephen' s Hospital, Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-06-15

    The vascular status of femoral heads in the post-traumatic period of intracapsular femoral neck fracture (ICFNF) remains uncertain until the patient actually develops avascular necrosis (AVN). Several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, that are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications, and technical difficulties. The present study involved the use of Dynamic MRI (DMRI) in assessing femoral head vascularity to predict AVN. The role of DMRI was studied prospectively in 30 patients with 31 ICFNF. Fractures were divided in to three types (Type A, B, or C) based on the femoral head vascularity shown by dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation. Type A was preserved vascularity, Type B was some decrease in vascularity but still viable while Type C was significantly reduced vascularity. These were followed-up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome in terms of union, non-union, or AVN. We found that Type A curves correlate well with vascular status and Type C curves correlate well with poor vascularity of the femoral heads. No AVN was seen in any of Type A (13/31) or Type B (eight out of 31). Five cases showed AVN and all of them were of Type C dynamic curves. Dynamic MRI is a reliable tool to evaluate vascularity of femoral heads and thus reduces the uncertainty of outcome of treatment of ICFNFs. DMRI can be a useful tool to formulate a treatment algorithm in management of ICFNF. (orig.)

  5. Aberrant femoral torsion presenting with frog-leg squatting mimicking gluteal muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Ning; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang

    2012-04-01

    Patients with frog-leg squatting have restricted internal rotation and adduction of the affected hips during sitting or squatting. In the surgical literature, the cause generally has been presumed to arise from and be pathognomonic for gluteal muscle contracture. However, we have encountered patients with frog-leg squatting but without gluteal muscle contracture. We therefore raised the following questions: What are the imaging features of patients with frog-leg squatting? Do conditions other than gluteal muscle contracture manifest frog-leg squatting? We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 67 patients presenting with frog-leg squatting from April 1998 to July 2010. There were four females and 63 males; their mean age was 22.2 years (range, 4-50 years). During MRI readout, we observed aberrant axes of some femoral necks and obtained additional CT to measure femoral torsion angles in 59 of the 67 patients. MR images of 27 (40%) patients had signs of gluteal muscle contracture. Twenty-two (33%) patients (40 femora) had aberrant femoral torsion, including diminished anteversion (range, 6°-0°; average, 3.9°) in 11 femora of eight patients and femoral retroversion (range, muscle contracture or aberrant femoral torsion. The observation of aberrant femoral torsion was not anticipated before imaging studies. In addition to gluteal muscle contracture, aberrant femoral torsion can be a cause of frog-leg squatting. Level II, diagnostic study. See the guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Avascularity of the femoral head following intracapsular fracture: a comparative scintigraphic and bioptic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoilund-Carlsen, P F; Widding, A; Uhrenholdt, A; Christoffersen, P; Grieff, J [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)

    1980-03-01

    Bioptic and scintigraphic methods of diagnosing avascular necrosis of the femoral head following intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck were compared. During operative treatment of patients, biospy samples of bone marrow were taken from the femoral head about 2 hours after the intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate; histological examination of the biopsies were also performed. Scintigrams of the femoral head using sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate were performed 2 days, 7 days and 6 weeks post-operatively. The biopsies confirmed no morphological changes being apparent in the first few days. The biopsy samples indicated two groups of patients with either high or low activity in the femoral head. However, it was concluded that the use of bone-seeking radionuclides with this technique might be more reliable. Scintigraphic trends divided the patients into three groups, one with persistently normal, another with varying, and a third with decreased activity in the femoral head. It was concluded that very early scintigraphy is probably not the method of choice since the images were often difficult to interpret. For the present, assessment of the viability of the femoral head should rest upon scintigraphic examinations performed about 6 weeks or 3 months after the injury.

  7. Prognostic value of dynamic MRI in assessing post-traumatic femoral head vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Abhishek; Varghese, Mathew; Sankaran, Balu

    2009-01-01

    The vascular status of femoral heads in the post-traumatic period of intracapsular femoral neck fracture (ICFNF) remains uncertain until the patient actually develops avascular necrosis (AVN). Several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, that are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications, and technical difficulties. The present study involved the use of Dynamic MRI (DMRI) in assessing femoral head vascularity to predict AVN. The role of DMRI was studied prospectively in 30 patients with 31 ICFNF. Fractures were divided in to three types (Type A, B, or C) based on the femoral head vascularity shown by dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation. Type A was preserved vascularity, Type B was some decrease in vascularity but still viable while Type C was significantly reduced vascularity. These were followed-up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome in terms of union, non-union, or AVN. We found that Type A curves correlate well with vascular status and Type C curves correlate well with poor vascularity of the femoral heads. No AVN was seen in any of Type A (13/31) or Type B (eight out of 31). Five cases showed AVN and all of them were of Type C dynamic curves. Dynamic MRI is a reliable tool to evaluate vascularity of femoral heads and thus reduces the uncertainty of outcome of treatment of ICFNFs. DMRI can be a useful tool to formulate a treatment algorithm in management of ICFNF. (orig.)

  8. Trunnion Failure of the Recalled Low Friction Ion Treatment Cobalt Chromium Alloy Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urish, Kenneth L; Hamlin, Brian R; Plakseychuk, Anton Y; Levison, Timothy J; Higgs, Genymphas B; Kurtz, Steven M; DiGioia, Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    Gross trunnion failure (GTF) is a rare complication in total hip arthroplasty (THA) reported across a range of manufacturers. Specific lots of the Stryker low friction ion treatment (LFIT) anatomic cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr) V40 femoral head were recalled in August 2016. In part, the recall was based out of concerns for disassociation of the femoral head from the stem and GTF. We report on 28 patients (30 implants) with either GTF (n = 18) or head-neck taper corrosion (n = 12) of the LFIT CoCr femoral head and the Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy femoral stems. All these cases were associated with adverse local tissue reactions requiring revision of the THA. In our series, a conservative estimate of the incidence of failure was 4.7% (n = 636 total implanted) at 8.0 ± 1.4 years from the index procedure. Failures were associated with a high-offset 127° femoral stem neck angle and increased neck lengths; 43.3% (13 of 30) of the observed failures included implant sizes outside the voluntary recall (27.8% [5 of 18] of the GTF and 75.0% [8 of 12] of the taper corrosion cases). Serum cobalt and chromium levels were elevated (cobalt: 8.4 ± 7.0 μg/mL; chromium: 3.4 ± 3.3 μ/L; cobalt/chromium ratio: 3.7). The metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated large cystic fluid collections typical with adverse local tissue reactions. During revision, a pseudotumor was observed in all cases. Pathology suggested a chronic inflammatory response. Impending GTF could be diagnosed based on aspiration of black synovial fluid and an oblique femoral head as compared with the neck taper on radiographs. In our series of the recalled LFIT CoCr femoral head, the risk of impending GTF or head-neck taper corrosion should be considered as a potential diagnosis in a painful LFIT femoral head and Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy THA with unknown etiology. Almost half of the failures we observed included sizes outside of the

  9. [SURGICAL HIP DISLOCATION APPROACH FOR TREATMENT OF FEMORAL HEAD FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanfeng; Liu, Youwen; Zhu, Yingjie; Li, Jianming; Li, Wuyin; Li, Qiyi; Jia, Yudong

    2015-11-01

    To discuss the value of surgical hip dislocation approach in the treatment of femoral head fracture. A retrospectively analysis was made on the clinical data of 15 patients with femoral head fractures treated through surgical hip dislocation approach between January 2010 and February 2013. There were 11 men and 4 women with an average age of 30.8 years (range, 15-63 years). The causes included traffic accident injury in 9 cases, falling injury from height in 5 cases, and sports injury in 1 case. According to Pipkin typing, 2 cases were rated as type I, 7 cases as type II, 1 case as type III, and 5 cases as type IV. The interval of injury and operation was 2-10 days (mean, 4.1 days). Reduction was performed in 10 patients within 6 hours after injury, and then bone traction was given for 4-6 weeks except 5 patients who received reduction in the other hospital. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients after surgery without complications of dislocation and lower limbs deep venous thrombosis. The mean follow-up time was 29.9 months (range, 25-36 months). During follow-up, there was no infection, breakage of internal fixation, or nonunion of femoral greater trochanter fracture. In 3 patients having necrosis of the femoral head, 2 had no obvious symptoms [staging as IIa and IIb respectively according to Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) staging system], and 1 (stage IIIb) had nonunion of the femoral neck fracture, who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA). In 4 patients having myositis ossificans (2 cases of grade I, 1 case of grade II, and 1 case of grade III based on Brooker grading), no treatment was given in 3 cases and the focus was removed during THA in 1 case. According to the Thompson-Epstein scale at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 3 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 2 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 80%. Surgical hip dislocation approach can not only protect the residual vessels of the

  10. Risk factors for trochanteric and femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, A R; Navas, P Z

    The differences between the two main types of fracture of proximal end of the femur, trochanteric and cervical fractures, are still a subject of study, and could be the key to a better understanding of its pathophysiology and prevention. The aim of this study is to determine whether epidemiological differences in the distribution of risk factors associated with hip fracture exist between these two entities. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 428 patients over the age of 65 admitted for trochanteric or cervical fractures in 2015, in which gender, age, previous diagnosis, external causes associated with fracture and place of the event were recorded. There were 220 patients with a cervical fracture (51.4%) and 208 patients with a trochanteric fracture (48.6%). The average age was higher in the trochanteric fracture, observing a constant increase with age only in women with trochanteric fractures. Cervical fracture showed a significant association with cerebrovascular disease (p=0.039) and trochanteric fracture with accidental falls (p=0.047) and presence of 5-9 previous diseases (p=0.014). A regression analysis maintained this association in the case of a cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.6, 95%CI 1.1-6.4) and the presence of 5-9 diseases (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.3). Trochanteric fractures are associated with women patients of more advanced ages, 5-9 previous diseases and accidental falls. Cerebrovascular disease shows a higher prevalence in cervical fractures. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Posterior Hip Dislocation with Ipsilateral Femoral Neck Fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was managed by bipolar hemiarthroplasty as opposed to total hip athroplasty due to financial constrains. This case highlights the challenge of ... of the knee revealed a communited fracture of the pa- tella at the inferior pole (Fig. 2 2). ... Our case was managed by prosthetic replacement of the proximal femur. This was ...

  12. Intertrochanteric and femoral neck fractures' in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 79, No 2 (1991) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Ipsilateral Femoral Neck fracture During Closed Intraedullary Nailing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njotra.v7i1.29317 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  14. Hip Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fractures Using the Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Jan-Jun 2010 | Vol-2 | Issue-1. 8 ... anteriorly and posteriorly, to expose the gluteus minimus.[5]. The extent of exposure ... infection in our setting, where impervious and adhesive sterile drapes ...

  15. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  16. A successful retrieval of stripped outer coating of J-tip diagnostic guidewire from the left popliteal artery during elective coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Entrapment and fracture of diagnostic or therapeutic devices within the coronary circulatory system are a rare, but increasing problem. Case report. A 70-yearold man was admitted in our clinic for coronary angiography before the planned aortic valve replacement. An arterial sheath was inserted in the right common femoral artery. After introducing a J-tip diagnostic coronary guidewire into the aorta and advancing a left Judkins diagnostic catheter over it, suddenly occured peeling off of the wire´s hydrophilic coating at the aortic arch level. Very soon, this outer coating of guidewire carried by the blood stream was entered into the left femoral artery, then into the left popliteal artery. This stripped part of guidewire was successfully caught and extracted out by using a goose-neck snare catheter. Conclusion. A sudden stripping of outer coating of a J-tip diagnostic hydrophilic coronary guidewire during coronary angiography is possible to manage quickly and successfully by the use of a simple cathether.

  17. Mortality Following Periprosthetic Proximal Femoral Fractures Versus Native Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Matthew R; Riesgo, Aldo M; Paulino, Carl B; Slover, James D; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Egol, Kenneth A

    2018-04-04

    The number of periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures is expected to increase with the increasing prevalence of hip arthroplasties. While native hip fractures have a well-known association with mortality, there are currently limited data on this outcome among the subset of patients with periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures. Using the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System, we identified patients from 60 to 99 years old who were admitted to a hospital in the state with a periprosthetic proximal femoral fracture (n = 1,655) or a native hip (femoral neck or intertrochanteric) fracture (n = 97,231) between 2006 and 2014. Within the periprosthetic fracture cohort, the indication for the existing implant was not available in the data set. We used mixed-effects regression models to compare mortality at 1 and 6 months and 1 year for periprosthetic compared with native hip fractures. The risk of mortality for patients who sustained a periprosthetic proximal femoral fracture was no different from that for patients who sustained a native hip fracture at 1 month after injury (3.2% versus 4.6%; odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.19; p = 0.446), but was lower at 6 months (3.8% versus 6.5%; OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.95; p = 0.020) and 1 year (9.7% versus 15.9%; OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.85; p accounting for age and comorbidities. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Femoral head necrosis; Hueftkopfnekrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.; Scheurecker, A.; Stoeger, A.; Huber, A. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.) [German] Bei der avaskulaeren Femurkopfnekrose handelt es sich um ein Krankheitsbild, dessen Ursachen noch immer nicht vollstaendig geklaert sind. Da die Erkrankung stadienhaft verlaeuft und ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum betrachtet nahezu immer in einem prothetischen Hueftersatz muendet, ist eine genaue radiologische Abklaerung fuer die Behandlung von enormer Bedeutung. Um Langzeiterfolge verschiedener Therapiekonzepte vergleichen zu koennen, sind eine exakte Beschreibung und darauf basierend die Verwendung einer einheitlichen Stadieneinteilung wuenschenswert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die ARCO-Stadieneinteilung im Detail beschrieben, die alle bildgebenden Methoden beruecksichtigt und histopathologische Veraenderungen mit einbezieht. (orig.)

  19. Clinical accuracy of a patient-specific femoral osteotomy guide in minimally-invasive posterior hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adrian K; Pierrepont, Jim W; Hawdon, Gabrielle; McMahon, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Patient specific guides can be a valuable tool in improving the precision of planned femoral neck osteotomies, especially in minimally invasive hip surgery, where bony landmarks are often inaccessible. The aim of our study was to validate the accuracy of a novel patient specific femoral osteotomy guide for THR through a minimally invasive posterior approach, the direct superior approach (DSA). As part of our routine preoperative planning 30 patients underwent low dose CT scans of their arthritic hip. 3D printed patient specific femoral neck osteotomy guides were then produced. Intraoperatively, having cleared all soft tissue from the postero-lateral neck of the enlocated hip, the guide was placed and pinned onto the posterolateral femoral neck. The osteotomy was performed using an oscillating saw and the uncemented hip components were implanted as per routine. Postoperatively, the achieved level of the osteotomy at the medial calcar was compared with the planned level of resection using a 3D/2D matching analysis (Mimics X-ray module, Materialise, Belgium). A total of 30 patients undergoing uncemented Trinity™ acetabular and TriFit TS™ femoral component arthroplasty (Corin, UK) were included in our analysis. All but one of our analysed osteotomies were found to be within 3 mm from the planned height of osteotomy. In one patient the level of osteotomy deviated 5 mm below the planned level of resection. Preoperative planning and the use of patient specific osteotomy guides provides an accurate method of performing femoral neck osteotomies in minimally invasive hip arthroplasty using the direct superior approach. IV (Case series).

  20. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  1. Multi-element determination in cancellous bone of human femoral head by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuanxun Zhang; Yongping Zhang; Yongpeng Tong; Shijing Qiu; Xiaotao Wu; Kerong Dai

    1996-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in cancellous bone of human femoral head from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck broken. The specimen preparation and experimental procedure are described in detail. Using the t test, the results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in control group are higher than those in patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The physiological functions of metallic elements in human bone are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Femoral revision with impaction allografting and an uncemented femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, T N; Erenbjerg, M; Retpen, J B

    2008-01-01

    A technique for uncemented revision of the femoral component which combines impaction allografting and the use of a long-stemmed proximally coated titanium prostheses (Bimetric, Biomet Inc.) is described. The results after a mean follow-up of 112 months are reported. From 1991 to 1995 femoral...... implants 88% had no pain, 10% had slight pain and only 2% had severe pain. Thirty-eight patients had radiographic signs of remodelling of the graft and/or cortical repair. In cases with a successful outcome, the results have been encouraging in relation to clinical performance, regeneration of bone...

  3. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Causing Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Mimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 27-year-old man with pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip joint with coincident osteonecrosis of the femoral head. According to our review of the English-language literature, no detailed report of osteonecrosis of the femoral head complicated with pigmented villonodular synovitis has been published. Preoperative X-ray images showed joint narrowing and severe multiple bone erosions at the acetabulum and femoral neck. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a low-intensity band attributable to osteonecrosis of the femoral head and massive diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis lesions. Comparison of a three-dimensional computed tomographic image of this patient with an angiographic image of a normal individual demonstrated proximity of the pigmented villonodular synovitis-induced bone erosions to the medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries and retinacular arteries, suggesting likely the compromise of the latter by the former. We propose that the massive pigmented villonodular synovitis may have contributed to the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in this patient. We performed open synovectomy and total hip arthroplasty. No operative complications occurred, and no recurrence of the pigmented villonodular synovitis was detected for 3 years after the operation.

  4. A comparative study of radionuclide bone scan, X-ray and MRI on early femoral head necrosis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jihua; Ji Qinglian; Xu Aide; Zuo Shuyao; Gao Zhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize radionuclide bone scan signs in the early femoral head necrosis (FHN) in adults, to compare them with MRI and X-ray findings and to discuss the pathological basis of radionuclide bone scan findings from the view of MRI. Methods: Forty cases (63 hips) with early FHN in adult patients proved by follow-up studies or pathology were analyzed. All patients underwent radionuclide bone scan, MRI and X-ray examination within a period of less than 7 d separately. Results: 1) Radionuclide bone scan manifestations of the early FHN corresponding to different MRI signs included: focally decreased uptake of radioisotope, focally increased uptake, atypical or typical doughnut sign, mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or femoral neck, and diffused increase of uptake in the whole head. 2) In 40 cases (63 hips), there was statistical difference in diagnosis early FHN in adults not only between radionuclide bone scan and X-ray but also between MRI and X-ray in sensitivity (P 0.05). Conclusions: 1) The atypical or typical doughnut sign and mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or neck are specific signs for diagnosing early FHN. 2) For sensitivity, radionuclide bone scan and MRI are equally superior to X-ray. (authors)

  5. Large diameter femoral heads impose significant alterations on the strains developed on femoral component and bone: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, E G; Provatidis, C G; Babis, G C; Georgiou, C S; Megas, P D

    2011-01-01

    Total Hip Arthroplasty aims at fully recreating a functional hip joint. Over the past years modular implant systems have become common practice and are widely used, due to the surgical options they provide. In addition Big Femoral Heads have also been implemented in the process, providing more flexibility for the surgeon. The current study aims at investigating the effects that femoral heads of bigger diameter may impose on the mechanical behavior of the bone-implant assembly. Using data acquired by Computed Tomographies and a Coordinate Measurement Machine, a cadaveric femur and a Profemur-E modular stem were fully digitized, leading to a three dimensional finite element model in ANSYS Workbench. Strains and stresses were then calculated, focusing on areas of clinical interest, based on Gruen zones: the calcar and the corresponding below the greater trochanter area in the proximal femur, the stem tip region and a profile line along linea aspera. The performed finite elements analysis revealed that the use of large diameter heads produces significant changes in strain development within the bone volume, especially in the lateral side. The application of Frost's law in bone remodeling, validated the hypothesis that for all diameters normal bone growth occurs. However, in the calcar area lower strain values were recorded, when comparing with the reference model featuring a 28mm femoral head. Along line aspera and for the stem tip area, higher values were recorded. Finally, stresses calculated on the modular neck revealed increased values, but without reaching the yield strength of the titanium alloy used.

  6. Case report: multifocal subchondral stress fractures of the femoral heads and tibial condyles in a young military recruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    Subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head may be either of the insufficiency-type with poor quality bone or the fatigue-type with normal quality bone but subject to high repetitive stresses. Unlike osteonecrosis, multiple site involvement rarely has been reported for subchondral stress fractures. We describe a case of multifocal subchondral stress fractures involving femoral heads and medial tibial condyles bilaterally within 2 weeks. A 27-year-old military recruit began having left knee pain after 2 weeks of basic training, without any injury. Subsequently, right knee, right hip, and left hip pain developed sequentially within 2 weeks. The diagnosis of multifocal subchondral stress fracture was confirmed by plain radiographs and MR images. Nonoperative treatment of the subchondral stress fractures of both medial tibial condyles and the left uncollapsed femoral head resulted in resolution of symptoms. The collapsed right femoral head was treated with a fibular strut allograft to restore congruity and healed without further collapse. There has been one case report in which an insufficiency-type subchondral stress fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle occurred within a 2-year interval. Because the incidence of bilateral subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head is low and multifocal involvement has not been reported, multifocal subchondral stress fractures can be confused with multifocal osteonecrosis. Our case shows that subchondral stress fractures can occur in multiple sites almost simultaneously.

  7. Augmentation of proximal femoral nail in unstable trochanteric fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadegone Wasudeo M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biomechanically proximal femoral nail (PFN is a better choice of implant, still it is associated with screw breakage, cut out of screw through femoral head, Z effect, reverse Z effect, and lateral migration of screws. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of augmented PFN in terms of prevention of postoperative complications and failure rates in unstable trochanteric fractures. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective study of 82 cases with unstable trochanteric femoral fractures from April 2010 to December 2015. Forty-two females and 40 males in the age group between 58 and 81 years were included in this study. There were 45 cases of AO 31 A2 (2.2, 2.3 and 37 cases of AO 31 A3 (3.1, 3.2, 3.3. Fractures were fixed by PFN with augmentation by an additional screw from trochanter to inferior quadrant of femoral head or cerclage wire to strengthen the lateral trochanteric wall. Results: The bone healing is observed in all the cases in the mean period of 14.2 weeks. Nine patients developed complications, including lateral migration of neck screws (n = 5, Z effect (n = 1, infection (n = 2, and breakage of distal interlocking bolt in one case. Removal of screws was required in five cases. Patients were followed up for a mean of 8.4 months. At the end of follow-up the Salvati and Wilson hip function was 32 (out of 40 in 88% of patients. Conclusion: The stabilization of lateral trochanteric wall with additional screw or cerclage wire increases the stability of construct.

  8. The unipolar ASR : Viable option in unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya SKS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient has remained an unresolved dilemma. Articular surface replacement of the hip has recently made some headway in terms of providing near-normal hip joint mechanics and function. However, this surgery has been limited to early stages of arthritis only with reasonable maintenance of head-neck congruity and morphology. Femoral neck fractures, osteonecrosis with large segment collapse, advanced arthritis with femoral incongruity, etc are traditional contraindications to the resurfacing technique. Methods: We present here a report on our series of 20 cases of unsalvageable femoral heads in young patients (age range, 27 to 52yrs, over a twelve month period (Aug 2004 to Jul 2005, treated with the unipolar ASR prosthesis. Fifteen patients (two had bilateral hip pathology had primary or secondary arthritis (degenerative, post-traumatic, ankylosing spondylitis and post-avascular necrosis while three had old operated femoral neck fractures. All patients underwent hip replacement surgery using the Unipolar ASR prosthesis. Results: Clinical and radiological results at 6-month follow up have been very encouraging and warrant further study. At an average of 4 months post-operatively, patients were able to squat, sit on the ground and perform light sporting activities. Conclusions: The Unipolar ASR prosthesis is an extension of the articular resurfacing technique employing similar principles (large size bearings, metal-on-metal interfaces, and has incorporated the advantages of the uncemented technique. We propose that this technique be more frequently used so as to brighten the prognosis of the young active patient with unsalvageable hip conditions, especially in the Asian scenario.

  9. Closed bone graft epiphysiodesis for avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George H; Lea, Ethan S; Chin, Kenneth; Liu, Raymond W; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Gilmore, Allison

    2013-07-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis (CFE) after an unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), femoral neck fracture or traumatic hip dislocation can result in severe morbidity. Treatment options for immature patients with AVN are limited, including a closed bone graft epiphysiodesis (CBGE). However, it is unclear whether this procedure prevents AVN progression. We investigated whether early MRI screening and CBGE prevented the development of advanced AVN changes in the CFE and the rates of complications with this approach. We prospectively followed all 13 patients (seven boys, six girls) with unstable SCFEs (six patients), femoral neck fractures (five patients), and traumatic hip dislocations (two patients) and evidence of early AVN treated between 1984 and 2012. Mean age at initial injury was 12 years (range, 10-16 years). Nine of the 13 patients had followup of at least 2 years or until conversion to THA (mean, 4.5 years; range, 0.8-8.5 years), including two with unstable SCFEs, the five with femoral neck fractures, and the two with traumatic hip dislocations. All patients had technetium scans and/or MRI within 1 to 2 months of their initial injury (before CBGE) and all had evidence of early (Ficat 0) AVN. Patients were followed clinically and radiographically for AVN progression. Six of the nine hips did not develop typical clinical or radiographic evidence of AVN. These six patients have been followed 6.3 years (range, 4.3-9.1 years) from initial injury and 5.9 years (range, 3.8-8.5 years) from CBGE. The remaining three patients were diagnosed with AVN at periods ranging from 3 to 6 months after CBGE. Early recognition and treatment of AVN with a CBGE may alter the natural history of this complication. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Comparison of Ultrasound-Guided Thrombin Injection of Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysms Based on Neck Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ethan Y; Tabbara, Marwan M; Sanchez, Priscila G; Abi-Chaker, Andrew M; Patel, Jaimin; Bornak, Arash; Jones, Keith M; Rey, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection (UGTI) of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms after endovascular procedures is an effective therapy. There is controversy in the literature regarding injecting pseudoaneurysms with short and/or wide necks. This article reports our experience in UGTI of pseudoaneurysms in 1 hospital regarding the efficacy of this treatment in all pseudoaneurysms regardless of the size of the necks. A retrospective review of 46 patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 with groin pseudoaneurysms using established duplex ultrasound criteria. Mean age was 68 years (range 27-87). Ten pseudoaneurysms thrombosed spontaneously, 5 were thrombosed by ultrasound-guided compression, and 2 were treated surgically due to disqualifying criteria. In this retrospective review, we analyzed the remaining 29 pseudoaneurysms regarding the dimensions of their neck lengths and outcomes after attempting thrombin injection. The mean aneurysm neck length and width were 1.03 ± 0.9 cm and 0.30 ± 0.1 cm, respectively. All 29 patients were evaluated with respect to pseudoaneurysm size, neck length, neck width, and complexity. Successful treatment of 29 pseudoaneurysms (2 external iliac, 20 common femoral, 2 deep femoral, and 5 superficial femoral) with UGTI was achieved without complications in 100% of the cases, regardless of pseudoaneurysm size, neck dimensions, or complexity. Anticoagulation status did not affect the efficacy of the procedure. Nine of the 29 pseudoaneurysms (31.0%) had neck length less than 0.5 cm. This study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of UGTI in treating iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm in 29 of 29 patients, even in patients with pseudoaneurysm with short neck lengths. Our experiences support injecting all pseudoaneurysms irrespective of dimension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissociation of modular total hip arthroplasty at the neck-stem interface without dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzelis, A; Georgiou, C S; Megas, P

    2012-12-01

    Modular femoral and acetabular components are now widely used, but only a few complications related to the modularity itself have been reported. We describe a case of dissociation of the modular total hip arthroplasty (THA) at the femoral neck-stem interface during walking. The possible causes of this dissociation are discussed. Successful treatment was provided with surgical revision and replacement of the modular neck components. Surgeons who use modular components in hip arthroplasties should be aware of possible early complications in which the modularity of the prostheses is the major factor of failure.

  12. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur

    OpenAIRE

    Navraj S. Nagra; Dmitri van Popta; Sigrid Whiteside; Edward M. Holt

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored pe...

  13. The Incidence of Atypical Femoral Fractures in Patients with Rheumatic Disease: Yamagata Prefectural Committee of Atypical Femoral Fractures (YamaCAFe) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakubo, Yuya; Ohta, Daichi; Ishi, Masaji; Ito, Juji; Oki, Hiroharu; Naganuma, Yasushi; Uno, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Akiko; Akabane, Takeru; Dairaku, Katsuyuki; Goto, Shinichi; Goto, Yasuo; Kanauchi, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Shinji; Nakajima, Taku; Masuda, Keiji; Matsuda, Michiharu; Mura, Nariyuki; Takenouchi, Kenji; Tsuchida, Hiroyuki; Onuma, Yasushi; Shibuya, Junichirou; Seino, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Hiragami, Ken; Urayama, Yasuhiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Okuda, Shouta; Ogura, Ken; Nakamura, Takeshi; Sasaki, Kan; Konta, Tsuneo; Takagi, Michiaki

    2017-08-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) have been reported to occur with minimal or spontaneous subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures with a characteristic transverse pattern, compared with typical femoral fractures in young patients with high-energy trauma. AFFs are related to long-term use of bisphosphonates (BPs), glucocorticoids and rheumatic diseases. We have estimated a blind analysis of AFFs in rheumatic patients receiving BPs and glucocorticoids ordinary over a long time in all Yamagata prefectural area through radiographic examination. The 123 AFFs including suspected cases over six years were collected and reviewed by two independent orthopedic surgeons. We found 86 patients with a total of 99 AFFs between 2009 and 2014 (1.43 cases/100,000 person/year). Of these 99 AFFs, 11 were in 8 rheumatic patients including three patients with bilateral AFFs. The incidence of AFFs in rheumatic patients had trend to increase from 2012. The mean age of all 8 patients was 54.9 years. All 8 patients received BPs and 7/8 received prednisolone (PSL). The mean dose of PSL was 14 mg/day. Compared to patients with unilateral AFFs, those with bilateral AFFs in rheumatic patients were on a higher dose of PSL (20 mg/day vs. 7 mg/day) and had less femoral neck-shaft angle (129° vs. 136°, p rheumatic patients showed a trend to increase from 2012 to 2014 in Yamagata prefecture. Careful management of AFFs is of particular importance in rheumatic patients who have taken high doses of PSL and have small femoral neck-shaft angle.

  14. Automated computation of femoral angles in dogs from three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions: Comparison with manual techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, F; Nicetto, T; Banzato, T; Savio, G; Drigo, M; Meneghello, R; Concheri, G; Isola, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to test a novel three-dimensional (3D) automated computer-aided design (CAD) method (aCAD) for the computation of femoral angles in dogs from 3D reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) images. The repeatability and reproducibility of three manual radiography, manual CT reconstructions and the aCAD method for the measurement of three femoral angles were evaluated: (1) anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA); (2) femoral neck angle (FNA); and (3) femoral torsion angle (FTA). Femoral angles of 22 femurs obtained from 16 cadavers were measured by three blinded observers. Measurements were repeated three times by each observer for each diagnostic technique. Femoral angle measurements were analysed using a mixed effects linear model for repeated measures to determine the levels of intra-observer agreement (repeatability) and inter-observer agreement (reproducibility). Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements using the aCAD method were excellent (intra-class coefficients, ICCs≥0.98) for all three angles assessed. Manual radiography and CT exhibited excellent agreement for the aLDFA measurement (ICCs≥0.90). However, FNA repeatability and reproducibility were poor (ICCscomputation of the 3D aCAD method provided the highest repeatability and reproducibility among the tested methodologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of hip morphology in the assessment of femoral acetabular impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, E.C.; Read, P.; Carty, F.; Zoga, A.C.; Parvizi, J.; Morrison, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine a possible association between femoral-acetabular impingement (FAI) volume and the development of labral tear using a three-dimensional (3D) model reconstruction of the acetabulum and the femoral head. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance arthrography images of the hip in 42 patients with pain and suspected labral tear were acquired using a 1.5 T MRI machine. Using 3D analysis software, outlines of the acetabular cup and femoral head were drawn and 3D reconstruction obtained. To control for differences in patient size, ratios of acetabulum : femoral head volume (AFV) and acetabulum : femoral head surface area (AFA) were used for analysis. The association between volume of acetabulum : femoral head and FAI was investigated using ANOVA analysis. Results: There were 19 men and 23 women with a mean age of 39 years (range 18-78 years). The average AFV was 0.64 (range 0.37-1.05, SD 0.16) and AFA was 0.73 (range 0.36-1.26, SD 0.23). Herniation pit was significantly associated with a small AFV. Conclusion: Femoral neck herniation pits are associated with a low AFV. Gross volume and surface area ratios do not appear to correlate with labral tears or cartilage loss. This technique will enable more advanced analysis of morphological variations associated with FAI.

  16. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  17. Effectiveness of the magnetic resonance imaging for the therapy of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshinao; Katsuki, Ichirou; Ushijima, Masahiro; Tsutsui, Hideki; Sugioka, Youichi

    1990-01-01

    Recently, some reports demonstrate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early diagnosis of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANF). In this report we analyzed 64 hips in 40 cases using preoperative plain radiographs, tomography and MRI affected by ANF. And we gained following three conclusions. When rotational osteotomy of the femoral head is to be carried out, two plain views of MRI, parallel and contrary to the axis of the femoral neck, were useful for evaluation of postoperative weight bearing area. In 58 hips with strinct the former two plain views of MRI, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 54 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 32 hips by MRI. In 28 hips performed anterior rotational osteotomy, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 26 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 6 hips by MRI. In such cases careful follow-up should be required. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of the magnetic resonance imaging for the therapy of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Yoshinao; Katsuki, Ichirou; Ushijima, Masahiro; Tsutsui, Hideki; Sugioka, Youichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-03-01

    Recently, some reports demonstrate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early diagnosis of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANF). In this report we analyzed 64 hips in 40 cases using preoperative plain radiographs, tomography and MRI affected by ANF. And we gained following three conclusions. When rotational osteotomy of the femoral head is to be carried out, two plain views of MRI, parallel and contrary to the axis of the femoral neck, were useful for evaluation of postoperative weight bearing area. In 58 hips with strinct the former two plain views of MRI, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 54 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 32 hips by MRI. In 28 hips performed anterior rotational osteotomy, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 26 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 6 hips by MRI. In such cases careful follow-up should be required. (author).

  19. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  20. Aggressive fibromatosis of the neck in a patient with Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, A.T.; Nguyen, T.P.; Hogg, J.P.; Gabriele, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report a patient with Gardner's syndrome who, in addition to a total colectomy, had multiple excisions of desmoid tumors in both thighs. He presented with left-sided neck swelling and pain. MRI was highly suggestive of desmoid tumors in multiple neck muscles. To our knowledge this is the first description of diffuse fibromatosis of the neck in association with Gardner's syndrome. (orig.)

  1. Study of the variations of fall induced hip fracture risk between right and left femurs using CT-based FEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Tanvir R; Luo, Yunhua

    2017-10-03

    Hip fracture of elderly people-suffering from osteoporosis-is a severe public health concern, which can be reduced by providing a prior assessment of hip fracture risk. Image-based finite element analysis (FEA) has been considered an effective computational tool to assess the hip fracture risk. Considering the femoral neck region is the weakest, fracture risk indicators (FRI) are evaluated for both single-legged stance and sideways fall configurations and are compared between left and right femurs of each subject. Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scan datasets of thirty anonymous patients' left and right femora have been considered for the FE models, which have been simulated with an equal magnitude of load applied to the aforementioned configurations. The requirement of bilateral hip assessment in predicting the fracture risk has been explored in this study. Comparing the sideways fall and single-legged stance, the FRI varies by 64 to 74% at the superior aspects and by 14 to 19% at the inferior surfaces of both the femora. The results of this in vivo analysis clearly substantiate that the fracture is expected to initiate at the superior surface of femoral neck region if a patient falls from his/her standing height. The distributions of FRI between the femurs vary considerably, and the variability is significant at the superior aspects. The p value (= 0.02) obtained from paired sample t-Test yields p value ≤ 0.05, which shows the evidence of variability of the FRI distribution between left and right femurs. Moreover, the comparison of FRIs between the left and right femur of men and women shows that women are more susceptible to hip fracture than men. The results and statistical variation clearly signify a need for bilateral hip scanning in predicting hip fracture risk, which is clinically conducted, at present, based on one hip chosen randomly and may lead to inaccurate fracture prediction. This study, although preliminary, may play a crucial role in

  2. Femoral vessel injury by a nonlethal weapon projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Rodrigo Bruno; Miranda, Gustavo Cunha; Mota de Moraes, Leonardo; Nasser, Felipe; Burihan, Marcelo Calil; Ingrund, José Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Rubber projectiles are used as an alternative to metal bullets owing to their lower morbidity and mortality rate. There are few reports of vascular lesions of extremities caused by rubber projectiles in the literature. The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man who was the victim of a penetrating injury to the left thigh with a rubber projectile. He reported only pain at the site of the injury; pulses were decreased in the affected limb. After arteriography confirmed an injury to the superficial femoral artery, he underwent an arterial and venous femorofemoral bypass using a reversed contralateral saphenous vein.

  3. Femoral vessel injury by a nonlethal weapon projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bruno Biagioni, MD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Rubber projectiles are used as an alternative to metal bullets owing to their lower morbidity and mortality rate. There are few reports of vascular lesions of extremities caused by rubber projectiles in the literature. The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man who was the victim of a penetrating injury to the left thigh with a rubber projectile. He reported only pain at the site of the injury; pulses were decreased in the affected limb. After arteriography confirmed an injury to the superficial femoral artery, he underwent an arterial and venous femorofemoral bypass using a reversed contralateral saphenous vein. Keywords: Vascular trauma, Nonlethal projectile, Penetrating trauma

  4. Patency of Femoral Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters and Factors Predictive of Patency Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Kirsteen R.; Guo, Lancia L. Q.; Tan, Kong T.; Simons, Martin E.; Sniderman, Kenneth W.; Kachura, John R.; Beecroft, John R.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the patency rates of and factors associated with increased risk of patency failure in patients with femoral vein tunneled hemodialysis catheters. Methods: All femoral tunneled catheter insertions from 1996 to 2006 were reviewed, during which time 123 catheters were inserted. Of these, 66 were exchanges. Patients with femoral catheter failure versus those with femoral catheter patency were compared. Confounding factors, such as demographic and procedural factors, were incorporated and assessed using univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Results: Mean catheter primary patency failure time was 96.3 days (SE 17.9 days). Primary patency at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days was 53.8%, 45.4%, 32.1%, and 27.1% respectively. Crude rates of risk of catheter failure did not suggest a benefit for patients receiving catheters introduced from one side versus the other, but more cephalad location of catheter tip was associated with improved patency. Multivariate analysis showed that patients whose catheters were on the left side (p = 0.009), were of increasing age at the time of insertion (p = 0.002) and that those who had diabetes (p = 0.001) were at significantly greater risk of catheter failure. The catheter infection rate was 1.4/1000 catheter days. Conclusion: Patients who were of a more advanced age and had diabetes were at greater risk of femoral catheter failure, whereas those who received femoral catheters from the right side were less at risk of catheter failure.

  5. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 2 years after pertrochanteric fracture surgery: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleanu, Bogdan; Prejbeanu, Radu; Vermesan, Dinu; Honcea, Lucian; Mioc, Mihail Lazar; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Predescu, Vlad

    2016-02-01

    The avascular necrosis of the femoral head represents the death of bone tissue due to the lack of blood supply. The disease has a progressive evolution and left untreated leads to femoral head collapse and severe arthritis. We present a case of a pertrochanteric fracture which has been successfully operated with a dynamic interlocking trochanteric gamma nail on the right hip. At 2 years after surgery the patient developed an incipient avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Despite the good positioning of the implant, we considered that the source of the pain was an intolerance of the implant, and thus we removed it. After implant removal, the patient was kept under observation and conservative treatment, to prevent further damage to the right hip and allow the healing to occur. At 6 months after the gamma nail was removed the X-rays revealed advanced avascular necrosis of the femoral head and secondary osteoarthritis on the right hip. The patient underwent surgery with an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. There are a few discussions regarding the avascular necrosis of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, the treatment of choice and the postoperative complications. The avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a complication of pertrochanteric fractures that can not be foreseen or avoided. The optimal treatment in these cases is uncemented total hip arthroplasty.

  6. A Morphological Insight of the Femoral Vein

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    Ferreira AH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 cadavers (12 men and 1 women of different age group were used for the study with the purpose to determine the prevalence of femoral vein duplication. Lower limb regions (26 sides were carefully dissected as per the standard dissection procedure. Femoral vein (unitruncular was found in 96.15% of specimen. Bitruncular configurations (total bifidity was found in a male cadaver of 75 years of age (3.85%. In the right lower limb, 6.5 cms below the inguinal ligament the femoral vein - lateral ramus received the lateral circumflex femoral vein, and the medial circumflex femoral vein, and the lateral and medial ramii formed a common venous trunk. Knowledge of the truncular venous variations is important to recognize and avoid potential errors in diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of the femoral vein, in the case of an occluded duplicated trunk.

  7. The surgical treatment of ilio-femoral venous obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Mancini, P; Papaspyropoulos, V; Ceccanei, G; Lorusso, R; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    A series of 9 patients of a mean age of 48 years, operated on for compression of the ilio-femoral venous axis is reported. The cause of obstruction was external compression in 3 cases, a retroperitoneal sarcoma in 1 case, and an infrarenal aortic aneurysm in 2. Two patients presented with a Cockett's syndrome, 3 with a chronic ilio-femoral thrombosis, and one with a post-traumatic segmentary stenosis. Treatment consisted in a resection/Dacron grafting of 2 infrarenal aortic aneurysms, one femoro-caval bypass graft, 2 transpositions of the right common iliac artery in the left hypogastric artery for Cockett's syndrome, 3 Palma's operations for chronic thrombosis, and one internal jugular vein interposition for segmentary stenosis. There were no postoperative deaths and no early thromboses of venous reconstructions performed. All the patients were relieved of symptoms during the follow-up period, whose mean length was 38 months. The cause of venous obstruction and the presence of symptoms which are resistant to medical treatment are the main indications to ilio-femoral venous revascularization. The choice of the optimal treatment in each single case yields satisfactory results.

  8. A Case of Acute Prosthesis Migration after Femoral Head Replacement due to Osteomalacia by FGF23-Induced Tumor

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    Shinya Hayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 was recently identified as an important factor involved in the development of hypophosphatemic rickets and osteomalacia. We experienced a rare case of acute prosthesis migration after hemihip arthroplasty due to FGF23-induced tumor. The patient underwent femoral head replacement because of femoral neck fracture, but prosthesis migration was occurred at 1 week after operation. The patient took various examinations, and FGF23-induced tumor was found in his right wrist. The tumor was resected, and he underwent total hip arthroplasty 8 month later. Finally, he was able to obtain free gait without pain.

  9. Corticosteroid Reduces Blood Flow to Femoral Heads in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S.M.; Liu, T.K.; Kao, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is one of the common problems in orthopedic practice in Taiwan. The subchondral bone loses its blood supply which weakens its biomechanical support. Steroid overuse is one of many possible etiologies in reducing blood flow to the femoral head. Laser Doppler velocimeter is a precise monitor of regional blood flow of bone which is expressed in perfusion units (PU). In the control group the rabbits were injected with normal saline and there were no statistical differences between blood flow to the right hip (39.26 +/- 5.64 PU) and left hip (38.58 +/- 4.35 PU). In group B a weekly injection of methylprednisolone into rabbits for 6 weeks demonstrated the reduction of blood flow of femoral head (24.74 +/- 3.13 PU) by the laser Doppler velocimeter. The flow decreased further (15.93 +/- 2.33 PU) by 12 weeks of steroid treatment. In group C after a weekly injection of steroid for 6 weeks the flow became 31.63 +/- 4.79 PU. The steroid was then discontinued for 3 weeks and the flow was 34.6 +/- 1.34 PU. In group D the blood flow was 25.89 +/- 4.01 PU after 6 weeks of steroid treatment and we stopped the steroid for 6 weeks, the blood flow became 29.86 +/- 2.59 PU. The merit of our experiment established a model of study in avascular necrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Copyright 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  12. Proximal Femoral Morphology and the Relevance to Design of Anatomically Precontoured Plates: A Study of the Chinese Population

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    Kun-Jhih Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequately shaped femoral plate is critical for the fixation of fracture in the pertrochanteric regions. Lateral aspect of greater trochanter is an important region where the proximal femoral plate anchored. However, little is known regarding the morphology of greater trochanter. The objective of this study was to measure main dimensions of greater trochanter and other regions in the proximal end of the femur to provide an anatomical basis for the design of the proximal femoral plate. Anthropometric data on the proximal femur were performed utilizing three-dimensional computational modeling. Computed tomography images of healthy femurs in 53 women and 47 men were contributed to three-dimensional femur modeling. All data were compared between male and female femora. The results showed that mean values for male group were found to be greater in most of measured femoral dimensions. Oppositely, females demonstrated higher neck-shaft angle on anteroposterior view and femoral anteversion angle. The anthropometric data can be used for the anatomical shape design of femoral plates for osteosynthesis of fractures in the trochanteric regions. A distinct plate design may be necessary to accommodate differences between the genders.

  13. Ipsilateral Femoral Fracture Non-Union and Delayed Union Treated By Hybrid Plate Nail Fixation and Vascularized Fibula Bone Grafting: A Case Report

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    CK Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-union is a well recognized complication of femoral neck fractures. The decision whether to attempt fracture fixation or to resort to hip replacement is particularly difficult in patients in the borderline age group in whom complex attempts at gaining union may fail and later present a difficult revision. On the other hand the patient may be young enough that arthroplasty best be avoided . Besides, presence of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture with delayed union in addition to the femoral neck non-union will pose major problems at operation. We share our experience in treating a femoral neck fracture non-union with ipsilateral femoral shaft delayed union in the shaft and in the distal femur in a fifty years old patient. The fracture was treated with an angle blade plate and supracondylar nail supplemented with a free vascularised fibular bone grafting and autologous cancellous graft. There was radiological union at fourth month. At sixth months, the patient was free of pain and able to walk without support. Thus, we would like to suggest that vascularised fibula bone grafting with supracondylar nailing is a viable option for this pattern of fracture.

  14. A STUDY OF UNSTABLE INTERTROCHANTERIC FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED BY TROCHANTERIC FEMORAL NAIL

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    Sreenivasa Neikar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intertrochanteric fracture is one of the most common fracture of the hip especially in the elderly. The incidence of intertrochanteric fracture is rising because of the increase in number of elderly population along with superadded osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study included cases of unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO and OTA Classification 31-A2 and 31-A3 fracture patterns that were operated with the short trochanteric femoral nail, which fitted into the inclusion criteria done in medical college hospital, Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, from February 2015 to September 2016. RESULTS The age distribution was from 40 to 80 years. The largest group of patients were from 61 to 70 years. The average age was 60.5 years. The number of male patients in our series was 20 (66.7% and female was 10 (33.3%. Right side was affected in 11 cases (36.7% and left side in 19 cases (63.3%. Good reduction was achieved in 23 patients (76.7%. Acceptable reduction was achieved in 7 (23.3% patients due to severe comminution. In our study, 25 patients (83.33% had no complications. We encountered one intraoperative complication in the form of greater trochanter splintering, while inserting the nail. In our study, we encountered following postoperative complications. We noticed one case of delayed union, one case of Z effect and 2 cases of varus malunion. CONCLUSION We conclude that short trochanteric femoral nail provides good fixation for unstable intertrochanteric fractures if proper preoperative planning, good reduction and surgical technique are followed leading to high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage especially for Asian patients with relatively small femora.

  15. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  16. Nontraumatic Fracture of the Femoral Condylar Prosthesis in a Total Knee Arthroplasty Leading to Mechanical Failure

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    Girish N. Swamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of fatigue fracture of the femoral component in a cruciate-retaining cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA. A 64-year-old man had undergone a primary TKA for osteoarthritis 10 years previously at another institution using the PFC-Sigma prosthesis. The patient recovered fully and was back to his regular activities. He presented with a history of sudden onset pain and locking of the left knee since the preceding three months. There was no history of trauma, and the patient was mobilizing with difficulty using crutches. Radiographs revealed fracture of the posterior condyle of the femoral prosthesis. Revision surgery was performed as an elective procedure revealing the broken prosthesis. The TC3RP-PFC revision prosthesis was used with a medial parapatellar approach. The patient recovered fully without any squeal. Mechanical failure of the knee arthroplasty prosthesis is rare, and nontraumatic fracture of the femoral metallic component has not been reported before.

  17. Nontraumatic fracture of the femoral condylar prosthesis in a total knee arthroplasty leading to mechanical failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Girish N; Quah, Conal; Bagouri, Elmunzar; Badhe, Nitin P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of fatigue fracture of the femoral component in a cruciate-retaining cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A 64-year-old man had undergone a primary TKA for osteoarthritis 10 years previously at another institution using the PFC-Sigma prosthesis. The patient recovered fully and was back to his regular activities. He presented with a history of sudden onset pain and locking of the left knee since the preceding three months. There was no history of trauma, and the patient was mobilizing with difficulty using crutches. Radiographs revealed fracture of the posterior condyle of the femoral prosthesis. Revision surgery was performed as an elective procedure revealing the broken prosthesis. The TC3RP-PFC revision prosthesis was used with a medial parapatellar approach. The patient recovered fully without any squeal. Mechanical failure of the knee arthroplasty prosthesis is rare, and nontraumatic fracture of the femoral metallic component has not been reported before.

  18. Femoral neuropathy due to patellar dislocation in a theatrical and jazz dancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chris S; Davis, Brian A

    2005-06-01

    This case report describes a teenage female, high-level modern dancer who suffered multiple left patellar dislocations. Her history is atypical in that after her fifth dislocation, her recovery was hindered secondary to persistent weakness and atrophy of her quadriceps out of proportion to disuse alone. Electrodiagnostic studies and magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of a subacute femoral neuropathy correlating chronologically with her most recent patellar dislocation. This case suggests that further diagnostic study may be warranted in patients with persistent quadriceps weakness or atrophy after a patellar dislocation, because this may suggest the presence of a femoral neuropathy. This is important because the strength training goals and precautions differ in disuse atrophy and a neuropathy. We believe this is the first reported case of a femoral neuropathy associated with the mechanism of a patellar dislocation.

  19. Healing of experimental femoral defects in rats after implantation of collagen-calcium phosphate biocomposites

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    O. V. Korenkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the healing process of experimental defects of the femoral shaft diaphysis of rats after implantation of osteoplastic material Collapan into its cavity. In experi-mental animals, a perforated defect with diameter of 2.5 mm was created in the medullary canal of the femoral shaft and filled with osteoplastic material Collapan. In control rats, the defect was left un-filled. The bone fragments were examined on the 15th and 30th day by light microscopy morphometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that application of osteoplastic material Collapan in the femoral diaphysis defect optimised reparative osteogenesis, showed high biocompatibility, osteo-conductive properties, resorption ability and good integration with tissue-specific structures of the regenerate

  20. Effects of neck strength training on isometric neck strength in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a neck strengthening program on the isometric neck strength profile of male rugby union players. Controlled laboratory study. Professional rugby union club. Fifteen professional and 10 semiprofessional rugby union players. The 15 professional players undertook a 5-week neck strengthening intervention, which was performed twice per week, whereas the 10 semiprofessional players acted as the control group. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a hand-held dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left-side flexion (LSF), and right-side flexion (RSF). Preintervention and postintervention evaluations were undertaken. No significant between-group differences in isometric neck strength were noted preintervention. A significant main effect for time was observed (P isometric neck strength in all planes after the 5-week intervention (F preintervention = 334.45 ± 39.31 N vs F postintervention 396.05 ± 75.55 N; E preintervention = 606.19 ± 97.34 vs E postintervention = 733.88 ± 127.16 N; LSF preintervention = 555.56 ± 88.34 N vs LSF postintervention = 657.14 ± 122.99 N; RSF preintervention = 570.00 ± 106.53 N vs RSF postintervention = 668.00 ± 142.18 N). No significant improvement in neck strength was observed for control group participants. The results of the present study indicate that a 5-week neck strengthening program improves isometric neck strength in rugby union players, which may have implications for injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation. The strengthening program described in the present study may facilitate rehabilitation specialists in the development of neck injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation protocols.

  1. The innovation trap: modular neck in total hip arthroplasty

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    Samo Karel Fokter

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovations play the key role in the success of orthopaedic surgery. However, even minor modifications in the established concepts and proven designs may result in disasters. The endemic of modular femoral neck fracture (24 cases of about 4000 implanted in fully modular total hip arthroplasty, popular in our country for the last 20 years, seems to challenge us with such an unfortunate consequences. The aim of this report was to analyze the extent and the causes of the problem on the one hand and to propose possible solutions on the other.Methods: Literature search for problems associated with Profemur Z (or earlier versions with the same taper-cone design fully-modular femoral stem made of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V was performed, and hip arthroplasty registries were searched to evaluate the failure rates of the mentioned design. Mechanisms of failure were studied to get in-depth understanding of this particular hip reconstruction device.Results: Since 2010 onwards, several case reports on catastrophic modular femoral neck fractures of Profemur Z were published. Te frst Slovenian case was described in 2012. The first two larger series with modular femoral neck fractures were published in 2016. Te Australian Joint Replacement Registry was the first to discover increased revision rates due to fractures of this hip reconstruction system. Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (JAZMP received frst two reports regarding Profemur Z modular neck complication from abroad in 2010, the first Slovenian report was received in 2012, and altogether 7 reports from Slovenian hospitals were received until December 2016. Corrosion at the neck-taper interface, where two equal or different materials are subject to constant wear in the presence of body fluids, is assumed to be responsible for the unacceptable high failure rate.Conclusions: Manufacturers are responsible to produce and market only safe devices

  2. Pathological femoral fractures due to osteomalacia associated with adefovir dipivoxil treatment for hepatitis B: a case report

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    Tanaka Motoyuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of a 62-year-old man who underwent total hip arthroplasty for treatment of pathologic femoral neck fracture associated with adefovir dipivoxil-induced osteomalacia. He had a 13-month history of bone pain involving his shoulders, hips, and knee. He received adefovir dipivoxil for treatment of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus infection for 5 years before the occurrence of femoral neck fracture. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of osteomalacia and pathological hip fracture caused by drug-induced renal dysfunction, which results in Fanconi’s syndrome. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1600344696739249

  3. Pathological femoral fractures due to osteomalacia associated with adefovir dipivoxil treatment for hepatitis B: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a 62-year-old man who underwent total hip arthroplasty for treatment of pathologic femoral neck fracture associated with adefovir dipivoxil-induced osteomalacia. He had a 13-month history of bone pain involving his shoulders, hips, and knee. He received adefovir dipivoxil for treatment of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus infection for 5 years before the occurrence of femoral neck fracture. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of osteomalacia and pathological hip fracture caused by drug-induced renal dysfunction, which results in Fanconi’s syndrome. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1600344696739249 PMID:22906214

  4. Surgical hip dislocation in treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

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    Elmarghany Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most surgeons advocate in situ fixation of the slipped epiphysis with acceptance of any persistent deformity in the proximal femur [Aronsson DD, Loder RT, Breur GJ, Weinstein SL (2006 Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: current concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 14, 666–679]. This residual deformity can lead to osteoarthritis due to femoroacetabular cam impingement (FAI [Leunig M, Slongo T, Ganz R (2008 Subcapital realignment in slipped capital femoral epiphysis: surgical hip dislocation and trimming of the stable trochanter to protect the perfusion of the epiphysis. Instr Course Lect 57, 499–507]. Objective: The primary aim of our study was to report the results of the technique of capital realignment with Ganz surgical hip dislocation and its reproducibility to restore hip anatomy and function. Patients and methods: This prospective case series study included 30 patients (32 hips, 13 left (Lt hips, 19 right (Rt hips with stable chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE after surgical correction with a modified Dunn procedure. This study included 22 males and eight females. The mean age of our patients was 14 years (10–18 years. The mean follow-up period was 14.5 months (6–36 months. Results: Thirty hips had excellent and good clinical and radiographic outcomes with respect to hip function and radiographic parameters. Two patients had fair to poor clinical outcome including three patients who developed Avascular Necrosis (AVN. The difference between those who developed AVN and those who did not develop AVN was statistically significant in postoperative clinical scores (p = 0.0000. The mean slip angle of the femoral head was 52.5° ± 14.6 preoperatively and was corrected to a mean value of 5.6° ± 8.2° with mean correction of 46.85° ± 14.9° (p = 0.0000. The mean postoperative alpha angle was 51.15° ± 4.2° with mean correction of 46.70 ± 14.20 (p = 0.0000. In our series, the mean postoperative

  5. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Darby, A.J. [Department of Pathology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  6. Fracture of the acetabulum with femoral artery injury presenting late: A case report

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    Sivaprasad Kalyanasundaram

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a rare case of both column acetabulum fracture with femoral artery injury that presented late and was managed with arterial reconstruction and fracture fixation.A thirty-one year old man sustained both column acetabular fracture on the left in a motor vehicle accident. On admission there was no obvious neuro-vascular deficit. During surgery for the fracture after 7 days of the injury the femoral artery was found to be severely crushed with no blood flow. The anterior column of the acetabulum was stabilised followed by resection and reconstruction of the femoral artery. The post-operative period was uneventful and he was discharged normally. At 6 months from injury the fractures had united well with excellent limb circulation and good lower limb function.Femoral artery injury with acetabular fracture is rare and late presentations are unreported hitherto. The results of fracture stabilisation and vessel reconstruction seem to be excellent. Literature of similar injuries is reviewed. Keywords: Acetabular fractures, Both column fractures, Anterior column fractures, Vascular injury, Femoral artery injury

  7. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  8. STUDY OF AGE INCIDENCE AND SYMMETRY IN NON - TRAUMATIC AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF FEMORAL HEAD

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    Harinath

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCION: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is an increasingly common cause of musculoskeletal disability, and it poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of diagnostic imaging procedures in avascular femoral head necrosis is to provide the patient with a stage - adapted therapy. The aim of this paper is to present the age incidence and symmetricity of involvement of the non - traumatic avascular necrosis of femoral head. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study done durin g January 2013 to June 2013.The study included a total 30 patients referred to the Department of Radiology, Kurnool medical college, Kurnool, for X ray pelvis with both hips. 10 patients out of them were further investigated with MRI pelvis. RESULTS: More than half of the patients (72.6 % were within the age groups 30 - 50 years with male to female ratio of about 4:1. 60% of patients showed bilateral involvement, 20 % showed right femoral head and 20 % showed left femoral head involvement. CONCLUSION: We con clude that disease affects mostly adults within their 3rd and 5th decade and majority of the patients are being men with bilateral involvement. Our study results are comparable with previous studies. Hence we recommend MRI both hips for early identificatio n of AVN changes in asymptomatic contra-lateral hip or normal appearing hip on X-Ray.

  9. Rare Case of Large Bowel Injury due to Direct Blunt Trauma to a Preexisting Femoral Hernia

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    C. Tinner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an 85-year-old man with a known asymptomatic left femoral hernia who was admitted to the emergency ward a few hours after falling from a bicycle and suffering from blunt trauma of the handlebar to the left inguinal region. The clinical findings and a computed tomography (CT scan detecting free air in the femoral hernia sac suggested bowel perforation. Emergency laparotomy 6 hours after the incident confirmed a tear of the sigmoid colon accompanied by free blood and faeces in the left inguinal region of the abdomen. A segmental sigmoid resection and a primary end-to-end colorectal anastomosis were performed. The postoperative course was complicated by delayed oral feeding, a local infection, and a partial left testicle necrosis that led to secondary resection. The patient was discharged after 32 days of in-hospital care. Three months post trauma, we recorded a restitutio ad integrum. The case exemplifies that blunt trauma to preexisting femoral hernias may cause potentially lethal bowel perforation and that the time interval between time of injury and surgical treatment may be a prognostic factor. CT scans seem most suitable for ruling out bowel perforation. The scarce literature for blunt trauma to hernias is reviewed.

  10. The Reliability of Classifications of Proximal Femoral Fractures with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: The New Concept of Comprehensive Classification

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    Hiroaki Kijima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of proximal femoral fracture classifications using 3DCT was evaluated, and a comprehensive “area classification” was developed. Eleven orthopedists (5–26 years from graduation classified 27 proximal femoral fractures at one hospital from June 2013 to July 2014 based on preoperative images. Various classifications were compared to “area classification.” In “area classification,” the proximal femur is divided into 4 areas with 3 boundary lines: Line-1 is the center of the neck, Line-2 is the border between the neck and the trochanteric zone, and Line-3 links the inferior borders of the greater and lesser trochanters. A fracture only in the first area was classified as a pure first area fracture; one in the first and second area was classified as a 1-2 type fracture. In the same way, fractures were classified as pure 2, 3-4, 1-2-3, and so on. “Area classification” reliability was highest when orthopedists with varying experience classified proximal femoral fractures using 3DCT. Other classifications cannot classify proximal femoral fractures if they exceed each classification’s particular zones. However, fractures that exceed the target zones are “dangerous” fractures. “Area classification” can classify such fractures, and it is therefore useful for selecting osteosynthesis methods.

  11. Early detection of femoral head avascular necrosis by bone SPECT compared to MRI in renal allograft recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Lee, Hee Kyung; Han, Duck Jong; Shin, Myung Jin [Asan Mecical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head in patients who receive immunosuppresive agents after renal transplantation is reported to be 4-29%. Among patients who develop AVN after renal transplantation, 80% become symptomatic within 2 years after transplantation. As the number of renal transplantation has been increased recently, early detection of femoral head AVN is very important because early surgical core decompression of femoral head can prevent collapse of the head. MRI is known to be very sensitive to diagnose femoral head AVN. However in three cases we report here, bone SPECT showed early changes of femoral head AVN, whereas MRI showed no specific abnormality. Case 1. A 53-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in 1994. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She complained of both hip pain on Mar. 18 1997. Bone SPECT showed cold defect in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. After 3 months, bone SPECT and MRI showed AVN of both femoral heads. She underwent bilateral total hip replacement arthroplasty. AVN of femoral heads was confirmed by microscopic examination. Case 2. A 38-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in Feb. 27 1997. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She ran a fever and creatinine was elevated from 1.2 to 2.8 mg/dL. She took high dose methylprednisolone therapy for acute reanl rejection. After two days, she complained pain in both hip joints and knee joints. Bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. A follow-up bone SPECT and MRI 20 days later revealed AVN of both femoral heads. Case 3. A 50-year-old male received an allograft kidney transplantation on Jul. 12 1995. Preoperative bone scan was normal. He complained of right hip pain on Jul, 26 1995. His bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads while MRI showed only minimal hip joint effusion. He also complained of left hip pain on Oct. 2 1995. He was admitted on Mar 17

  12. Early detection of femoral head avascular necrosis by bone SPECT compared to MRI in renal allograft recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Lee, Hee Kyung; Han, Duck Jong; Shin, Myung Jin

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head in patients who receive immunosuppresive agents after renal transplantation is reported to be 4-29%. Among patients who develop AVN after renal transplantation, 80% become symptomatic within 2 years after transplantation. As the number of renal transplantation has been increased recently, early detection of femoral head AVN is very important because early surgical core decompression of femoral head can prevent collapse of the head. MRI is known to be very sensitive to diagnose femoral head AVN. However in three cases we report here, bone SPECT showed early changes of femoral head AVN, whereas MRI showed no specific abnormality. Case 1. A 53-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in 1994. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She complained of both hip pain on Mar. 18 1997. Bone SPECT showed cold defect in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. After 3 months, bone SPECT and MRI showed AVN of both femoral heads. She underwent bilateral total hip replacement arthroplasty. AVN of femoral heads was confirmed by microscopic examination. Case 2. A 38-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in Feb. 27 1997. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She ran a fever and creatinine was elevated from 1.2 to 2.8 mg/dL. She took high dose methylprednisolone therapy for acute reanl rejection. After two days, she complained pain in both hip joints and knee joints. Bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. A follow-up bone SPECT and MRI 20 days later revealed AVN of both femoral heads. Case 3. A 50-year-old male received an allograft kidney transplantation on Jul. 12 1995. Preoperative bone scan was normal. He complained of right hip pain on Jul, 26 1995. His bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads while MRI showed only minimal hip joint effusion. He also complained of left hip pain on Oct. 2 1995. He was admitted on Mar 17

  13. Lepromatous leprosy presenting as a swelling in the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Devraj

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old electrician presented with gradually, asymptomatic swelling on left of the neck since 2 years. The swelling which was initially diagnosed as cervical lymphadenitis by the internist represented the enlarged left great auricular nerve. Cutaneous examination revealed an ill-defined, hypoaesthetic macule with minimal atrophy on the pinna of the left ear. The histopathology of the nerve showed a lepromatous neuritis with bacteriological index (BI of 5+.

  14. Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sabolch, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chugh, Rashmi [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Biermann, Janet Sybil [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  15. Dose–Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V d ) receiving specified doses (≥30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 ± 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 ± 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 ± 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 ± 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 ± 20.8 Gy, 4.8 ± 5.6 cc, 2.5 ± 3.9 cc, and 0.8 ± 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose–volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  16. Subtrochanteric femoral fracture during trochanteric nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ho Hyun; Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

    2013-09-01

    We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures to improve its application and prevent implant-derived complications.

  17. Herniography off femoral, obturator and perineal hernias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Nordblom, I.; Fork, F.T.; Gullmo, A.

    1985-01-01

    Positive contrast herniography was used in the workup of 550 patients with unclear groin pain. The majority of these patients had rather characteristic hernias of indirect, direct or femoral type. However, now and then diagnostic problems arose. A femoral hernia may look like a direct or even obturator hernia. There is also a variety of multilocular femoral hernias and other types. A femoral hernia may be present together with other hernias in the ipsilateral or contralateral groin. Obturator hernias are usually small but are always confined to the obturator canal laterally in the obturator foramen. Abnormalities in the pouch of Douglas may include a deep rectogenital pouch, diverticula and true herniations. These uncommon herniographic findings are described and discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. [Disappearance of essential neck tremor after pontine base infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushitani, M; Inoue, H; Kawamura, K; Kageyama, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishinaka, K; Udaka, F; Kameyama, M

    1996-08-01

    Mechanism of essential tremor remains unknown. Central oscillators, postulated in thalamus, inferior olive, and spinal cord are thought to be important to form rhythmicity, and finally to stimulate spinal or medullary motor cells, leading trembling muscle contraction, tremor. Among several subtypes of essential familial tremor, including hand tremor, neck tremor, and voice tremor, essential neck tremor is a common disorder, and its pathophysiology seems different from that of typical essential hand tremor, since patients with essential hand tremor are responsive to beta blocker, whereas those with neck tremor are usually not. We experienced a 41-year-old left handed woman with essential neck tremor in whom neck titubation disappeared shortly after pontine base infarct. She was our patient in the outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of essential neck tremor. The tremor developed when she was teenage, and has been localized in the neck muscles. Alcohol intake had apparently diminished it transiently. Her mother also had the tremor in her neck. She was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of right-sided limb weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examination showed right hemiparesis including the ipsilateral face, scanning speech, and cerebellar limb ataxia on the same side. In addition, there was no tremor in her neck. Brain MR imaging revealed a pontine base infarct at the level of middle pons, which was consistent with paramedian artery territory. The hemiparesis and speech disturbance improved almost completely after treatment, and her neck tremor has never occurred in one year follow-up. In our patient, efficacy of alcohol imply that essential neck tremor and hand tremor had same central nervous pathway including central oscillator in common, and descending cortical fibers is seemingly associated with diminishing patient's tremor. Pathophysiology of essential neck tremor was discussed with reviewing previous literature.

  19. Complications and Functional Recovery in Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fractures with Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing

    OpenAIRE

    Sadic, Sahmir; Custovic, Svemir; Smajic, Nedim; Fazlic, Mirsad; Vujadinovic, Aleksandar; Hrustic, Asmir; Jasarevic, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Fracture of the femoral shaft is a common fracture encountered in orthopedic practice. In the 1939, K?ntscher introduced the concept of intramedullary nailing for stabilization of long bone fractures. Intramedullary nailing has revolutionized the treatment of fractures. Material and methods: The study included 37 male patients and 13 female patients, averaged 39?20,5 years (range, 16 to 76 years). Results and discussion: There were 31 left femurs and 21 right femurs fra...

  20. Recurrent neck infection with branchial arch fistula in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madana, J; Yolmo, Deeke; Kalaiarasi, R; Gopalakrishnan, S; Saxena, S K; Krishnapriya, S

    2011-09-01

    Acute suppurative neck infections associated with third or fourth branchial arch fistulas are frequently recurrent. Third and fourth branchial arch anomalies are much less common than those of second arch and usually present with left thyroid lobe inflammation. The authors present their experience with 15 cases of pyriform sinus fistulae (PSF) of third branchial arch origin and 3 cases of fourth arch origin, all of which presented as recurrent neck infection mainly on the left side. A retrospective review of 18 cases of third and fourth arch fistulae treated at JIPMER from 2005 to 2010. This study includes 18 patients with PSF diagnosed by the existence of fistulous tract radiologically and intraoperatively with pathological correlation. Neck exploration with excision of tract and left hemithyroidectomy was performed in all cases. The patients consisted of 7 males and 11 females, and the ages ranged from 3 to 15 years. All of them presented with recurrent episodes of neck infection. Investigations performed include computed tomography (CT) fistulography, barium swallow and ultrasound which were useful in delineating pyriform sinus fistulous tract preoperatively. All cases were on the left side and the fistula was identified by barium swallow in 14 cases (80%), while intraoperative and pathologic confirmation of the tract was possible in all cases (100%). Neck exploration with an emphasis on complete exposure of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and exposure of the pyriform sinus opening to facilitate complete fistulous tract excision with left hemithyroidectomy was successful in all patients. A follow up period of 1-3 years showed no recurrence. Recurrent neck infection in a child should alert the physician to the possibility of an underlying pyriform sinus fistula of branchial origin and CT fistulography should be performed after the resolution of the neck infection to delineate the tract anatomically. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  1. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  2. [COMPUTER ASSISTED DESIGN AND ELECTRON BEAMMELTING RAPID PROTOTYPING METAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING TECHNOLOGY FOR PREPARATION OF INDIVIDUALIZED FEMORAL PROSTHESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Weng, Yiping; Zhang, Yunkun; Xu, Nanwei; Tong, Jing; Wang, Caimei

    2015-09-01

    To study the feasibility of preparation of the individualized femoral prosthesis through computer assisted design and electron beammelting rapid prototyping (EBM-RP) metal three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. One adult male left femur specimen was used for scanning with 64-slice spiral CT; tomographic image data were imported into Mimics15.0 software to reconstruct femoral 3D model, then the 3D model of individualized femoral prosthesis was designed through UG8.0 software. Finally the 3D model data were imported into EBM-RP metal 3D printer to print the individualized sleeve. According to the 3D model of individualized prosthesis, customized sleeve was successfully prepared through the EBM-RP metal 3D printing technology, assembled with the standard handle component of SR modular femoral prosthesis to make the individualized femoral prosthesis. Customized femoral prosthesis accurately matching with metaphyseal cavity can be designed through the thin slice CT scanning and computer assisted design technology. Titanium alloy personalized prosthesis with complex 3D shape, pore surface, and good matching with metaphyseal cavity can be manufactured by the technology of EBM-RP metal 3D printing, and the technology has convenient, rapid, and accurate advantages.

  3. Three-dimensional MRI Analysis of Femoral Head Remodeling After Reduction in Patients With Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Yuta; Kamada, Hiroshi; Kamegaya, Makoto; Takeuchi, Ryoko; Nakagawa, Shogo; Tomaru, Yohei; Tanaka, Kenta; Onishi, Mio; Nishino, Tomofumi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-05-02

    Previous reports on patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) showed that the prereduced femoral head was notably smaller and more nonspherical than the intact head, with growth failure observed at the proximal posteromedial area. We evaluated the shape of the femoral head cartilage in patients with DDH before and after reduction, with size and sphericity assessed using 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied 10 patients with unilateral DDH (all female) who underwent closed reduction. Patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head on the plain radiograph 1 year after reduction were excluded. 3D MRI was performed before reduction and after reduction, at 2 years of age. 3D-image analysis software was used to reconstruct the multiplanes. After setting the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes in the software (based on the femoral shaft and neck axes), the smallest sphere that included the femoral head cartilage was drawn, the diameter was measured, and the center of the sphere was defined as the femoral head center. We measured the distance between the center and cartilage surface every 30 degrees on the 3 reconstructed planes. Sphericity of the femoral head was calculated using a ratio (the distance divided by each radius) and compared between prereduction and postreduction. The mean patient age was 7±3 and 26±3 months at the first and second MRI, respectively. The mean duration between the reduction and second MRI was 18±3 months. The femoral head diameter was 26.7±1.5 and 26.0±1.6 mm on the diseased and intact sides, respectively (P=0.069). The ratios of the posteromedial area on the axial plane and the proximoposterior area on the sagittal plane after reduction were significantly larger than before reduction (P<0.01). We demonstrated that the size of the reduced femoral head was nearly equal to that of the intact femoral head and that the growth failure area of the head before reduction, in the proximal posteromedial

  4. Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture during Trochanteric Nailing for the Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Ho Hyun; Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

    2013-01-01

    We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nai...

  5. Femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W; Westerbeek, Robin E

    2018-06-01

    Clinical outcomes in patellofemoral joint replacement may be related to femoral component rotation. Assessment of rotational alignment is however difficult as patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis often have trochlear dysplasia. The use of the medial malleolus as a landmark to guide rotation has been suggested. The purpose of our study was to evaluate this technique with regard to femoral component rotation, and to correlate rotation with clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up. Forty-one knees in 39 patients had patellofemoral joint replacement using the Zimmer Gender-Solutions patellofemoral prosthesis. Intraoperatively, we determined femoral component rotational alignment using an extramedullary rod aimed at the inferior tip of the medial malleolus. Postoperatively, we measured the angle between the femoral component and the anatomical transepicondylar axis using CT. The amount of rotation was correlated with clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up. Forty knees in 38 patients were available for one-year follow-up. Mean femoral component rotation relative to the anatomical transepicondylar axis was 1.4° external rotation (range, -3.8 to 5.7°). We found no statistically significant correlation between femoral component rotation and change from baseline KOOS subscales at one-year follow-up. Our findings show that when using the medial malleolus as a landmark to guide rotation, the femoral component of the patellofemoral prosthesis was oriented in external rotation relative to the anatomical transepicondylar axis in 80% of knees. Our study did not show a relation between the amount of external rotation and clinical outcomes. Level III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Congenital neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Peter A; Hirsch, David L; Dierks, Eric J

    2008-08-01

    Congenital neck lesions reflect abnormal embryogenesis in head and neck development. A thorough knowledge of embryology and anatomy is critical in the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions. The appropriate diagnosis of these lesions is necessary to provide appropriate treatment and long-term follow up, because some of these lesions may undergo malignant transformation or be harbingers of malignant disease.

  7. Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal femoral angle measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right...... femora at five degree intervals from 10° external rotation to 10° internal rotation. Using freely available software, a-LDFA measurements were made using two different a-PFA by a single observer on one occasion. Results: Mean a-LDFA was significantly greater at 10° external rotation than at any other...... rotation. The response of individual femora to rotation was unpredictable, although fairly stable within ±5° of zero rotation. Mean a-LDFA for the two a-PFA methods differed by 1.5°, but were otherwise similarly affected by femoral rotation. Clinical significance: If zero femoral elevation can be achieved...

  8. A FUNCTIONAL EVALUATION STUDY OF DISTAL FEMORAL FRACTURES FIXED WITH DISTAL FEMORAL LOCKING PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikumar C. J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fractures of the distal femur present considerable challenges in management. Older patients especially women sustain fractures due to osteoporosis. Supracondylar fractures of femur have a bimodal distribution. They account for 6% of all femur fractures and 31% if hip fractures were excluded. Nearly, 50% of distal femur intra-articular fractures are open fractures. Before 1970, most supracondylar fractures were treated nonoperatively; however, difficulties were often encountered including persistent angulatory deformity, knee joint incongruity, loss of knee motion and delayed mobilisation. The trend of open reduction and internal fixation has become evident in recent years with good results being obtained with AO blade plate, dynamic condylar screw, intramedullary supracondylar nail and locking compression plate. Elderly patients and osteoporosis pose difficulty in treating intra-articular fractures of the lower end of femur. Loss of stable fixation is of great concern in these cases. Hence, locking compression plate use has an advantage in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, 20 patients with closed fracture of distal femur were studied. All the cases were treated at the Department of Orthopaedics, Rangaraya Medical College/Government General Hospital, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, between November 2013 and November 2015. The method used for fracture fixation was open reduction and internal fixation with distal femoral locking plate. The duration of follow up ranged from 3 months to 24 months. All the fractures in this series were posttraumatic. The patients were functionally evaluated with Neer’s scoring system. 1 RESULTS Twenty distal femoral fractures were treated with distal femoral locking plates. 15 patients were males and 5 patients were females. The median age was 47 years ranging from 28-70 years. 16 of the fractures were caused by road traffic accidents and 2 were due to fall, 2 were due to assault. 12 patients

  9. Percutaneous Endoluminal Stent-Graft Repair of an Old Traumatic Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uflacker, Renan; Elliott, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A stent-graft was custom made to close a high-flow traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the left superficial femoral artery, present for 30 years, in a 60-year-old man with congestive heart failure and ischemic ulceration in the left foot. A balloon expandable Palmaz stent (P394; 2.5 mm x 3.9 cm) was covered with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft and was inserted percutaneously through an 11 Fr vascular sheath. Follow-up Doppler ultrasound at 6 months demonstrated occlusion of the arteriovenous fistula, patency of the artery, and luminal integrity of the artery and vein

  10. Correlation of ultrasound appearance, gross anatomy, and histology of the femoral nerve at the femoral triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchena, Tiffany K; McFadden, Kathryn; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Correlation between ultrasound appearance, gross anatomic characteristics, and histologic structure of the femoral nerve (FN) is lacking. Utilizing cadavers, we sought to characterize the anatomy of the FN, and provide a quantitative measure of its branching. We hypothesize that at the femoral crease, the FN exists as a group of nerve branches, rather than a single nerve structure, and secondarily, that this transition into many branches is apparent on ultrasonography. Nineteen preserved cadavers were investigated. Ultrasonography was sufficient to evaluate the femoral nerve in nine specimens; gross dissection was utilized in all 19. Anatomic characteristics were recorded, including distances from the inguinal ligament to femoral crease, first nerve branch, and complete arborization of the nerve. The nerves from nine specimens were excised for histologic analysis. On ultrasound, the nerve became more flattened, widened, and less discrete as it coursed distally. Branching of the nerve was apparent in 12 of 18 images, with mean distance from inguinal ligament of 3.9 (1.0) cm. However, upon dissection, major branching of the femoral nerve occurred at 3.1 (1.0) cm distal to the inguinal ligament, well proximal to the femoral crease. Histologic analysis was consistent with findings at dissection. The femoral nerve arborizes into multiple branches between the inguinal ligament and the femoral crease. Initial branching is often high in the femoral triangle. As hypothesized, the FN exists as a closely associated group of nerve branches at the level of the femoral crease; however, the termination of the nerve into multiple branches is not consistently apparent on ultrasonography.

  11. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Takeshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro; Mitamura, Tadayuki

    1990-01-01

    T1-weighted MR images of thirty-six hips in 25 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were obtained two to five times during the course of 2 to 26 months. We investigated these MR images in the light of the chronological change and compared them with plain radiographs. MR images changes in 16 femoral head; in general, the abnormal low intensity area in the femoral head reduced in extent and the internal high intensity area became smaller of disappeared. Thirteen femoral heads among them became more flattened on plain radiographs in the same period. It is noted that four different zones are defined in the femoral head after bone necrosis takes place: the dead bone marrow, the dead marrow which still contains fat, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow. In T1-weighted MR images, the dead bone marrow, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow are demonstrated as low intensity area, while the dead marrow containing fat may remain high in intensity. On the basis of this knowledge of histopathology and MR images of this disease, we suggest that reduction of the abnormal low intensity area and disappearance of the internal high intensity area on MR images can be regarded as diminution of hyperemia in the living bone marrow and loss of fat in the dead bone marrow, respectively. (author)

  12. Trunnion Corrosion and Early Failure in Monolithic Metal-on-Polyethylene TMZF Femoral Components: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe four patients who were treated with primary total hip arthroplasty (THA at two tertiary academic Australian teaching hospitals that experienced premature failure of head-neck trunnions through dissociation of the head-neck taper junction. This retrospective case series have similar clinical presentations and macroscopic pathology with severe head-neck taper junction loss of material, corrosion and early catastrophic failure. It is proposed that the accelerated wear is related to use of varus offset neck in a proprietary beta titanium alloy (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe  or TMZFÒ Stryker Osteonics, Mahwah NJ, USA TMZF femoral stem, longer head-neck combination in a relatively active, older, male patient population. In this limited case series presentation was on average 80 months (range 53-92 following index procedure. In three of the four patients, a prodromal period of groin or buttock pain was reported for between 1 week and 2 months prior to acute presentation. Significant metallosis and local tissue damage including gluteal muscle insufficiency was evident. Each stem revised was well fixed. An extended trochanteric osteotomy was required in two of the four cases for stem extraction. We recommend caution and further evaluation on the relationship between TMZF metal alloy and its longevity in higher demand patients with high neck offset, varus stem geometry and large CoCr bearing heads.

  13. Morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    Background. Studies on morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy are scarcely described. Methods. Patients who underwent surgery, including neck dissection, with and without radiation therapy at least 1 year before the study were asked to participate. We assessed neck pain, loss of

  14. Femoral shape analysis by Bi-plane x-ray photogrammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Tamotsu; Umezaki, Eisaku; Yamagata, Masatsune; Inoue, Shun-ichi; Yamaguchi, Kiyonao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa.

    1986-01-01

    For the osteotomy on hip joint diseases caused by abnormality of the shape of bones, an accurate 3-dimensional femoral shape must be recognized before operation. It has been reported by the present authors that spinal shape is sufficiently analyzed by a developed system based on bi-plane photogrammetry. This paper describes an application of the system to the femoral shape analysis. The shaft axis, the neck axis, the head center of femur and the radius of the head are reconstructed 3-dimensionally using the vector analysis of plane and line, and the least square approximation method. The obtained axes and head are graphically displayed on the screen of a personal computer through the perspective transformation. The shape parameters usually used in clinic, such as the anteversion angle and the neck-shaft angle, are also calculated by the present method. Result obtained by this system is compared with that by photographical measurement of exposed femurs, then the present method is reduced to have higher accuracy than Kai's method currently used. (author)

  15. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  16. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  17. Arm and neck pain in ultrasonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Frank; Berger, Jan; Stassijns, Gaëtane

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of upper-body-quadrant pain among ultrasonographers and to evaluate the association between individual ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, and occurrence of neck pain. A hundred and ten (N = 110) Belgian and Dutch male and female hospital ultrasonographers were consecutively enrolled in the study. Data on work-related ergonomic and musculoskeletal disorders were collected with an electronic inquiry, including questions regarding ergonomics (position of the screen, high-low table, and ergonomic chair), symptoms (neck pain, upper-limb pain), and work-related factors (consecutive working hours a day, average working hours a week). Subjects with the screen on their left had significantly more neck pain (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p = .0286). Depending on the workspace, high-low tables increased the chance of developing neck pain (OR = 12.9, p = .0246). A screen at eye level caused less neck pain (OR = .22, p = .0610). Employees with a fixed working space were less susceptible to arm pain (OR = 0.13, p = .0058). The prevalence of arm pain was significantly higher for the vascular department compared to radiology, urology, and gynecology departments (OR = 9.2, p = .0278). Regarding prevention of upper-limb pain in ultrasonograph, more attention should be paid to the work environment and more specialty to the ultrasound workstation layout. Primary ergonomic prevention could provide a painless work situation for the ultrasonographer. Further research on the ergonomic conditions of ultrasonography is necessary to develop ergonomic solutions in the work environment that will help to alleviate neck and arm pain. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Pitfalls in neck imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.B.; Phillips, C.D.; Cornett, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    CT and MR imaging have become effective imaging modalities in the evaluation of primary head and neck neoplasms. As radiologists have gained experience in head and neck imaging, certain pitfalls have become evident. Identification of pathologic lymph nodes is the critical element in staging neoplasms of the head and neck. The diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy may be complicated by confusion with normal structures, inadequate contrast opacification of vascular structures, and poor scanning technique. This paper illustrates these potential problem areas on both CT and MR images and offers the authors' approach to further evaluation in problem cases

  19. Cam-type femoral-acetabular impingement: is the alpha angle the best MR arthrography has to offer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohan, Derek G.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Motamedi, Kambiz; Sayre, James; Hame, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In our institutional experience, determination of the alpha (α) angle at MR arthrography as an indicator of the likelihood of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is fraught with inconsistency. The aims of this study were to quantify the degree of variability in and calculate the diagnostic accuracy of the α angle in suggesting a diagnosis of cam impingement, to determine the accuracy of a positive clinical impingement test, and to suggest alternative MR arthrographic measures of femoral head-neck overgrowth and determine their diagnostic utilities. We carried out a retrospective analysis of MR arthrographic studies performed during a 4-year period, combined with chart analysis, which allowed identification of 78 patients in whom surgical correlation was also available. The status of a preoperative clinical impingement test was also noted. Patients were designated as having cam-type FAI (Group A, n = 39) if intra-operative femoral head-neck junction bony osteochondroplasty/arthoscopic femoral debridement was performed. Group B (n = 39) acted as controls. Three radiologists independently and blindly performed a series of measurements (α angle and two newly proposed measurements) in each patient on two separate occasions. An α angle of greater than 55 was considered indicative of the presence of cam-type FAI. Performance values for α angle measurement were poor for each observer. There was considerable (up to 30% of the mean value) intra-observer variability between the first and second α angle measurements for each subject. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that the α angle is of no value in predicting the presence or absence of cam-FAI. A statistically significant difference existed between Groups A and B with regard to the newly proposed anterior femoral distance (AFD; p = 0.004). Using an AFD value of 3.60 mm or greater as being indicative of the presence of cam-FAI yields a 0.67 performance measure (95% confidence interval 0

  20. Multidisciplinary treatment of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Since lymph node metastases are one of the most important prognostic factors, treatment of the neck is challenging. In clinically N0 neck, (super)selective neck dissection is indicated, whereas a more extensive neck dissection with preservation of important structures is performed in N2-N3 disease.

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  3. Subchondral Insufficiency Fracture of the Femoral Head in a Pregnant Woman with Pre-existing Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kyoko; Mimura, Tomohiro; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawasaki, Taku; Imai, Shinji; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Kimura, Fuminori; Murakami, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is a fragility fracture secondary to osteoporosis that leads to collapse of the femoral head with no evidence of osteonecrosis. SIF of the femoral head has been reported in adults of varying ages and both sexes, but it has never been reported to occur in pregnant women. Herein, we describe a 40-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who developed SIF of the femoral head in the third trimester. At 29 weeks of gestation, the patient complained of sudden pain on walking in both hips. Despite the bed rest, her hip pain increased; consequently, cesarean section was performed at 36 weeks. After delivery, plain radiographs showed that the left femoral head was collapsed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry indicated that the patient was osteoporotic. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her hips showed the findings that were compatible with SIF. Her left hip pain worsened during follow-up, and a radiograph showed progressive collapse of the left femoral head. The patient then underwent left bipolar hip arthroplasty 18 months after delivery, and she was diagnosed with SIF histopathologically. This is the first report of SIF in a pregnant woman that may reflect pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. SIF in pregnancy might be overlooked or misdiagnosed because the MRI findings have several overlaps with those of other hip disorders. Precise diagnosis of SIF in pregnancy may contribute to a better outcome by avoiding early arthroplasty in young women and appropriate evaluation of the osteopenic status of the patient.

  4. Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zustin, Jozef; Sauter, Guido; Hahn, Michael; Morlock, Michael M.; Ruether, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral

  5. Femur Neck Fracture in a Young Marfan Syndrome Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Uk; Kong, Gyu-Min; Park, Jun-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant and could decrease bone mineral density. So patients with Marfan syndrome could vulnerable to trauma in old ages. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a rare fracture of the femoral neck with a minor traumatic history in a juvenile Marfan syndrome patient whose physis is still open. Although the patient is young, her bone mineral density was low and the geometry of femur is changed like old ages. The femur neck fracture in children is very rare and only caused by high energy trauma, we concluded that the Marfan syndrome makes the bone weaker in young age and preventative medications to avoid fractures in younger Marfan syndrome patients are necessary in early ages.

  6. Influence of muscle groups' activation on proximal femoral growth tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Pontén, Eva; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2017-12-01

    Muscle and joint contact force influence stresses at the proximal growth plate of the femur and thus bone growth, affecting the neck shaft angle (NSA) and femoral anteversion (FA). This study aims to illustrate how different muscle groups' activation during gait affects NSA and FA development in able-bodied children. Subject-specific femur models were developed for three able-bodied children (ages 6, 7, and 11 years) using magnetic resonance images. Contributions of different muscle groups-hip flexors, hip extensors, hip adductors, hip abductors, and knee extensors-to overall hip contact force were computed. Specific growth rate for the growth plate was computed, and the growth was simulated in the principal stress direction at each element in the growth front. The predicted growth indicated decreased NSA and FA (of about [Formula: see text] over a four-month period) for able-bodied children. Hip abductors contributed the most, and hip adductors, the least, to growth rate. All muscles groups contributed to a decrease in predicted NSA ([Formula: see text]0.01[Formula: see text]-0.04[Formula: see text] and FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]), except hip extensors and hip adductors, which showed a tendency to increase the FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]). Understanding influences of different muscle groups on long bone growth tendency can help in treatment planning for growing children with affected gait.

  7. Increased Dickkopf-1 expression accelerates bone cell apoptosis in femoral head osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jih-Yang; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Wang, Ching-Jen; Wong, To; Chou, Wen-Yi; Tseng, Shin-Ling

    2010-03-01

    Intensive bone cell apoptosis contributes to osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) reportedly mediates various types of skeletal disorders. This study investigated whether DKK1 was linked to the occurrence of ONFH. Thirty-nine patients with various stages of ONFH were recruited. Bone specimens were harvested from 34 ONFH patients underwent hip arthroplasty, and from 10 femoral neck fracture patients. Bad, Bcl2 TNFalpha, DKK1, Wnt3a, LRP5, and Axin1 expressions were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Apoptotic cells were assayed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end-labelling (TUNEL). Primary bone-marrow mesenchymal cells were treated with DKK1 RNA interference and recombinant DKK1 protein. ONFH patients with the histories of being administrated corticosteroids and excessive alcohol consumption had significantly higher Bad and DKK1 mRNA expressions in bone tissue and DKK1 abundances in serum than femoral neck fracture patients. Bone cells adjacent to osteonecrotic bone displayed strong DKK1 immunoreactivity and TUNEL staining. Increased DKK1 expression in bone tissue and serum correlated with Bad expression and TUNEL staining. Serum DKK1 abundance correlated with the severity of ONFH. The DKK1 RNA interference and recombinant DKK1 protein regulated Bad expression and apoptosis of primary bone-marrow mesenchymal cells. Knock down of DKK1 reduced dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of mesenchymal cells. Taken together, promoted DKK1 expression was associated with bone cell apoptosis in the occurrence of ONFH patients with the histories of corticosteroid and alcohol intake and progression of ONFH. DKK1 expression in injured tissue provides new insight into ONFH pathogenesis.

  8. Head and Neck Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck include the following: Paan (betel quid) . Immigrants from Southeast Asia who use paan (betel quid) ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. ...

  9. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  10. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drain in your neck when you leave the hospital. The provider will tell you how to care for it. Healing time will depend on how much tissue was removed. Diet and Nutrition You can eat your regular foods ...

  11. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head After Palliative Radiotherapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Absence of a Dose Threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Alia M; Hudson, Mack; Magnus, Kenneth G; Huang, Fleur; Danielson, Brita L; Venner, Peter; Saluja, Ronak; LeGuerrier, Bronwen; Daly, Helene; Emmenegger, Urban; Fairchild, Alysa

    2016-03-06

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is the final common pathway resulting from insufficient blood supply to bone, commonly the femoral head. There are many postulated etiologies of non-traumatic AVN, including corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, and radiotherapy (RT). However, it is unclear whether there is a dose threshold for the development of RT-induced AVN. In this case report, we describe a patient with prostate cancer metastatic to bone diagnosed with AVN after receiving single-fraction palliative RT to the left femoral head. Potential contributing factors are discussed, along with a review of other reported cases. At present, the RT dose threshold below which there is no risk for AVN is unknown, and therefore detrimental impact from the RT cannot be excluded. Given the possibility that RT-induced AVN is a stochastic effect, it is important to be aware of the possibility of this diagnosis in any patient with a painful hip who has received RT to the femoral head.

  12. Bioball universal modular neck adapter as a salvage for failed revision total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Vaishya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of recurrent dislocation of total hip arthroplasty is often a challenging and daunting task. Re-revision of such a total hip prosthesis may not be easy as the removal of a well-fixed, fully coated stem is extremely difficult. We managed to salvage instability in three revision hip cases in which the fully coated stem had subsided by using a bioball universal neck adapter without changing the femoral stem or acetabular cup.

  13. Proximal femoral anatomy and collared stems in hip arthroplasty: is a single collar size sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Nicolas; Gedouin, Jean-Emmanuel; Pibarot, Vincent; Bejui-Hughues, Jacques; Bothorel, Hugo; Saffarini, Mo; Batailler, Cécile

    2017-10-03

    Even if the benefits of collars are unclear, they remain widely used, in several femoral stem designs. This study aimed to determine whether collar size should be proportional to hip dimensions and morphology. The hypothesis was that the collar should be larger for greater stem sizes and for varus femoral necks. Computed Tomography scans of 204 healthy hips were digitally analysed and manually templated to determine principle dimensions, appropriate stem size and model, as well as cortical distance at the femoral calcar (ideal collar size). Univariable analysis revealed that cortical distance was moderately correlated with mediolateral offset (r = 0.572; p < 0.0001) and stem model (r = 0.520; p < 0.0001). Cortical distance was weakly correlated with head diameter (r = 0.399; p < 0.0001), stem size (r = 0.200; p = 0.017), and patient gender (r = 0.361; p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis confirmed that stem model (p < 0.0001) and head diameter (p = 0.0162) are directly correlated to cortical distance. We found that cortical distance along the femoral calcar is directly correlated with the model of the stem implanted ('standard' or 'varus') and with the head diameter. This cortical distance indicates optimal collar size, which would grant maximum calcar coverage without prosthetic overhang. Collar size should be proportional to the size of the operated hip, and should be larger for 'varus' stem models than for 'standard' stem models.

  14. Optimal dietary calcium intake in HIV treated patients: no femoral osteoporosis but higher cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Laura; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Deborah; Salpietro, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gianotti, Nicola; Bigoloni, Alba; Vinci, Concetta; Mignogna, Giovanna; Sirtori, Marcella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2014-04-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk score. 200 HIV-infected patients evaluated: 171 (86%) males with a median age of 48.1 (42.3-53.8) years and 10.6 (4.3-13.6) years of HAART exposure. DCI was 889 (589-1308) mg/day and 79 (40%) patients had an optimal DCI. Framingham risk>20% was found in 13 (6.7%) patients and femoral OP was diagnosed in 12 (6%) pts. By multivariate analysis, optimal DCI was more likely in patients with a Framingham risk>20% [OR = 5.547, 95% CI:1.337, p = 0.025] and less likely in patients with femoral osteoporosis [OR = 0.159, 95% CI: 0.018-0.790, p = 0.047]. We found that an optimal dietary calcium intake was more likely in patients with high cardiovascular risk and no femoral osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Angiographic analysis of avascular necrosis of a femoral head -selective angiography of medial femoral circumflex artery-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    The degree of anatomical revascularization of a necrotic femoral head and traumatic hip would provide information about treatment and prognosis. The authors analyzed the vascular changes of femoral head among unilateral avascular necrosis, bilateral avascular necrosis, and traumatic hips. Forty - four patients with avascular necrosis and 19 patients with traumatic hips were examined by selective angiography of the medial femoral circumflex artery. In the traumatic hip cases, 12 (63%) showed occlusion, 2 (11%) hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 5 ( 26 % ) were normal . In the avascular necrosis cases, 15 (25%) showed occlusion, 39 (67%) had hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 4 (7%) had normal findings. Hypertrophy of the superior capsular branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery is more frequently observed in avascular necrosis than in traumatic hip. Bilateral avascular necrosis reveals more frequent incidences than unilateral cases. Selective angiography could help in the therapy plan and also provide information about the contralateral side.

  16. Angiographic analysis of avascular necrosis of a femoral head -selective angiography of medial femoral circumflex artery-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1991-01-01

    The degree of anatomical revascularization of a necrotic femoral head and traumatic hip would provide information about treatment and prognosis. The authors analyzed the vascular changes of femoral head among unilateral avascular necrosis, bilateral avascular necrosis, and traumatic hips. Forty - four patients with avascular necrosis and 19 patients with traumatic hips were examined by selective angiography of the medial femoral circumflex artery. In the traumatic hip cases, 12 (63%) showed occlusion, 2 (11%) hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 5 ( 26 % ) were normal . In the avascular necrosis cases, 15 (25%) showed occlusion, 39 (67%) had hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 4 (7%) had normal findings. Hypertrophy of the superior capsular branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery is more frequently observed in avascular necrosis than in traumatic hip. Bilateral avascular necrosis reveals more frequent incidences than unilateral cases. Selective angiography could help in the therapy plan and also provide information about the contralateral side

  17. Femoral Hernia At Mulago Hospital, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... consecutive patients operated for femoral hernia over a period of twelve months. Results: There were ... The age ranged from 42 years to 70 years old with a mean of 54.6 years old. All the .... cholecystectomy. At this point in ...

  18. Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration ...

  19. Femoral Prosthesis Infection by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Sozio, Federica; Catavitello, Chiara; Talia, Marzia; Manna, Assunta; Febbo, Fabio; Balbinot, Andrea; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Piccolomini, Raffaele; Parruti, Giustino; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    This case report is a case history of a femoral prosthesis infection caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a human immunodeficiency virus patient. Though the pathogenicity of this organism for bone tissue has been previously reported, this is the first reported case of an orthopedic prosthesis infection by this species of the genus Rhodotorula. PMID:18753353

  20. Aseptic necrosis of femoral head complicating thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Castaldi, G.; Scutellary, P.N.; Bariani, L.; Pinca, A.

    1986-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is described in 4 patients, selected from 280 patients with homozygous β-thalassemia (Cooley anemia). The incidence of the complication appears to be very high (14.5per mille) in thalassemia, compared to the general population. The possible mechanism are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Dose--effect relationships for femoral fractures after multimodality limb-sparing therapy of soft-tissue sarcomas of the proximal lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A; Griffith, Kent A; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-07-15

    We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V(d)) receiving specified doses (≥30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 ± 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 ± 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 ± 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 ± 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 ± 20.8 Gy, 4.8 ± 5.6 cc, 2.5 ± 3.9 cc, and 0.8 ± 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateral femoral traction pin entry: risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral skeletal traction assists in the reduction and transient stabilization of pelvic, acetabular, hip, and femoral fractures when splinting is ineffective. Traditional teaching has recommended a medial entry site for insertion of the traction pin in order to minimize injury to the femoral artery as it passes through Hunter's canal. The present anatomical study evaluates the risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures using a lateral entry approach. Methods Six embalmed cadavers (twelve femurs were obtained for dissection. Steinman pins were drilled from lateral to medial at the level of the superior pole of the patella, at 2 cm, and at 4 cm proximal to this point. Medial superficial dissection was then performed to identify the saphenous nerve, the superior medial geniculate artery, the adductor hiatus, the tendinous insertion of the adductor magnus and the femoral artery. Measurements localizing these anatomic structures relative to the pins were obtained. Results The femoral artery was relatively safe and was no closer than 29.6 mm (mean from any of the three Steinman pins. The superior medial geniculate artery was the medial structure at most risk. Conclusions Lateral femoral traction pin entry is a safe procedure with minimal risk to the saphenous nerve and femoral artery. Of the structures examined, only the superior medial geniculate artery is at a risk of iatrogenic injury due to its position. The incidence of such injury in clinical practice and its clinical significance is not known. Lateral insertion facilitates traction pin placement since it minimizes the need to move the contralateral extremity out of the way of the drilling equipment or the need to elevate or externally rotate the injured extremity relative to the contralateral extremity.

  3. Recurrent neck mass after carotid body tumour excision: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARCH 2018 SAJS. Case Report. A 53-year-old woman was referred to our vascular unit with a two-year history of a non-trauma related slow growing, painful left neck mass. The mass ... duration. During that period, she was diagnosed as HIV ... propose a classification for recurrences after CBT to aid further management.

  4. X-ray imaging characterization of femoral bones in aging mice with osteopetrotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Huang, Hong-Wen; Chang, Wei-Jeng

    2015-04-01

    Aging mice with a rare osteopetrotic disorder in which the entire space of femoral bones are filled with trabecular bones are used as our research platform. A complete study is conducted with a micro computed tomography (CT) system to characterize the bone abnormality. Technical assessment of femoral bones includes geometric structure, biomechanical strength, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC). Normal aging mice of similar ages are included for comparisons. In our imaging work, we model the trabecular bone as a cylindrical rod and new quantitative which are not previously discussed are developed for advanced analysis, including trabecular segment length, trabecular segment radius, connecting node number, and distribution of trabecular segment radius. We then identified a geometric characteristic in which there are local maximums (0.0049, 0.0119, and 0.0147 mm) in the structure of trabecular segment radius. Our calculations show 343% higher in percent trabecular bone volume at distal-metaphysis; 38% higher in cortical thickness at mid-diaphysis; 11% higher in cortical cross-sectional moment of inertia at mid-diaphysis; 42% higher in cortical thickness at femur neck; 26% higher in cortical cross-sectional moment of inertia at femur neck; 31% and 395% higher in trabecular BMD and BMC at distal-metaphysis; 17% and 27% higher in cortical BMD and BMC at distal-metaphysis; 9% and 53% higher in cortical BMD and BMC at mid-diaphysis; 25% and 64% higher in cortical BMD and BMC at femur neck. Our new quantitative parameters and findings may be extended to evaluate the treatment response for other similar bone disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of femoral head vascularity by technetium-99m antimony colloid bone marrow imaging within 24 hours of subcapital fracture: a prospective study of 30 patients followed for 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The rationale of preoperative imaging of bone marrow was based upon the demonstration of histochemical abnormalities secondary to ischaemia which first become apparent in marrow cells of the femoral head following interruption of the blood supply by subcapital fracture. These marrow abnormalities predate changes in bone cells by several days and may explain the absence of abnormality on conventional bone scans performed on avascular femoral heads within 24 hours of subcapital fracture. The use of an endoprosthesis for fresh femoral neck fractures in unselected patients results in high mortality, high infection rate, high incidence of thromboembolic disease and poor long term results. The successful prediction of avascular necrosis in 92% of 28 patients with active bone marrow in the femoral head in this study is sufficiently accurate to allow appropriate selection of patients for internal fixation or primary prosthetic replacement on the basis of preoperative Tc-99m antimony colloid imaging

  6. Efficacy analysis of tomosynthesis in the diagnosis of the femoral head osteochondropathy (Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Vasil'ev

    2017-01-01

    areas of osteonecrosis, and in 8 (80% cases, non-congruent edge of the femoral head and acetabulum. At stage III of the disease, all patients in whom standard radiography was performed (n1 = 10, 100% had homogeneous blurring of the femoral head with loss of its bony structure, and with the femoral neck shortening in 6 (60% of them. With the use of tomosynthesis, all these patients (n2 = 10, 100% displayed synovial effusion, in 9  (90% of cases, head fragmentation, and 7  (70% patients had shortening and thickening of the femoral neck. Patients with stages IV and V had similar number of symptoms, excluding lateral subluxation of the femoral head (in  63.6% by standard radiography and in 81.8% by tomosynthesis. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of standard radiography were 73.3, 70.3, and 71.2%, whereas those of tomosynthesis 91.8, 92.4, and 93.1%.Conclusion: Tomosynthesis is more accurate, sensitive, and specific and has better positive and negative prognostic values, compared to standard digital radiography. Tomosynthesis can be recommended as a method of choice for diagnosis of the femoral head osteochondropathy.

  7. Preoperative virtual reduction reduces femoral malrotation in the treatment of bilateral femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed; Suero, Eduardo M; Hawi, Nael; Decker, Sebastian; Krettek, Christian; Citak, Musa

    2015-10-01

    In bilateral femoral shaft fractures, significant malrotation (>15°) occurs in about 40 % of cases after intramedullary nailing. Most of the methods that provide rotational control during surgery are based on a comparison to the intact femur and, thus, not applicable for bilateral fractures. In this study, we evaluated if preoperative virtual reduction can help improving rotational alignment in patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Seven patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures were initially treated with external fixation of both femurs. After obtaining a CT scan of both legs, the fractures were reduced virtually using the software program VoXim®, and the amount and direction of rotational correction were calculated. Subsequently, the patients were treated by antegrade femoral nailing and rotation was corrected to the preoperatively calculated amount. After external fixation, the mean rotational difference between both legs was 15.0° ± 10.2°. Four out of seven patients had a significant malrotation over 15°. Following virtual reduction, the mean rotational difference between both legs was 2.1° ± 1.2°. After intramedullary nailing, no case of malrotation occurred and the mean rotational difference was 6.1° ± 2.8°. Preoperative virtual reduction allows determining the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion and provided useful information for the definitive treatment of bilateral femoral shaft fractures. We believe that this procedure is worth being implemented in the clinical workflow to avoid malrotation after intramedullary nailing.

  8. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Saim; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur

    2013-01-01

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1–10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  9. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with 99m Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA)

  10. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with /sup 99m/Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA).

  11. Spontaneous resolution of avascular necrosis of femoral heads following cure of Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pazderska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN is a rare presenting feature of endogenous hypercortisolism. If left untreated, complete collapse of the femoral head may ensue, necessitating hip replacement in up to 70% of patients. The majority of the described patients with AVN due to endogenous hypercortisolaemia required surgical intervention. A 36-year-old female, investigated for right leg pain, reported rapid weight gain, bruising and secondary amenorrhoea. She had abdominal adiposity with violaceous striae, facial plethora and hirsutism, atrophic skin, ecchymosis and proximal myopathy. Investigations confirmed cortisol excess (cortisol following low-dose 48h dexamethasone suppression test 807nmol/L; 24h urinary free cortisol 1443nmol (normal<290nmol. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH was <5.0pg/mL. CT demonstrated subtle left adrenal gland hypertrophy. Hypercortisolaemia persisted after left adrenalectomy. Histology revealed primary pigmented micronodular adrenal disease. Post-operatively, right leg pain worsened and left leg pain developed, affecting mobility. MRI showed bilateral femoral head AVN. She underwent right adrenalectomy and steroid replacement was commenced. Four months after surgery, leg pain had resolved and mobility was normal. Repeat MRI showed marked improvement of radiological abnormalities in both femoral heads, consistent with spontaneous healing of AVN. We report a case of Cushing’s syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, presenting with symptomatic AVN of both hips. This was managed conservatively from an orthopaedic perspective. Following cure of hypercortisolaemia, the patient experienced excellent recovery and remains symptom free 4 years after adrenalectomy. This is the first report of a favourable outcome over long-term follow-up of a patient with bilateral AVN of the hip, which reversed with treatment of endogenous hypercortisolaemia.

  12. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored perioperatively. Analysis found a statistically and clinically significant mean drop in hemoglobin of 31.1 g/L over time from pre-operatively (D0) to day-5 post-operatively (p hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p = 0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-h post-operative period (D0 to day-1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at day-2. Relying on the day-1 hemoglobin could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused, and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring. Level IV Prognostic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CT study of avascular necrosis of femoral head in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jihua; Du Yuqing; Xu Aide

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the early and new CT signs of avascular necrosis of femoral head in adults. Methods: The CT scans of 127 cases with this condition were analyzed. Results: There were 90 hip joints with femoral head normal in shape, including 67 femoral heads with only high-density sclerosis and 23 ones with high-density and low-density areas. In 111 hip joints, the femoral head was depressed and manifested purely high-density sclerosis in 25 and mixed-density areas in 86. Air-filled cysts appeared in 43 femoral heads. In follow-up cases, the changes in shape and density of femoral head followed some rules. Conclusion: Purely high-density sclerosis is an early sign and is of great diagnostic value combined with its special shape. Air in femoral heads is also a sign of the disease

  14. Trombose aguda de aneurisma de artéria femoral isolado: relato de caso Acute thrombosis of isolated femoral artery aneurysm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hideo Motoki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aneurismas de artéria femoral são raros, porém são o segundo tipo mais freqüente de aneurismas periféricos, sendo o aneurisma de artéria poplítea o mais comum. Normalmente, são de etiologia aterosclerótica. As complicações deste aneurisma são representadas por embolia, trombose e, mais raramente, a rotura. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de um paciente com 59 anos, masculino, com queixa de dor súbita em membro inferior esquerdo associado à frialdade, palidez e ausência de pulsos. O ecocolordoppler evidenciou a presença de aneurisma trombosado da artéria femoral comum. O paciente foi submetido, com sucesso, à ressecção do aneurisma, com reconstrução do leito arterial.Common femoral artery aneurysms are rare; however, they are the second most frequent type of peripheral aneurysm, popliteal artery aneurysms being the most common. They usually have atherosclerotic ethiology. The complications of this aneurysm are thromboembolism and, more rarely, rupture. This article aimed at reporting the case of a 59-year-old male patient with complaint of sudden pain in his left leg associated with coldness, paleness and absence of pulses. Color Doppler ultrasound showed a thrombosed aneurysm of the common femoral artery. The patient was successfully submitted to aneurysm resection with reconstruction of the arterial bed.

  15. Laser Doppler flowmetry for bone blood flow measurement: correlation with microsphere estimates and evaluation of the effect of intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiontkowski, M.F.; Tepic, S.; Perren, S.M.; Moor, R.; Ganz, R.; Rahn, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was used to measure bone blood flow in the rabbit femoral condyles. To correlate the LDF output signal blood cell flux to in vivo blood flow, simultaneous measurements using LDF and 85 Sr-labeled microspheres were made in an adult rabbit model. There was no correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral condyles and the correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral head does not achieve statistical significance. An LDF signal of 0.4 V was approximately equal to a microsphere measured flow rate of 0.4 ml blood/g bone/min. The strength of the correlation in the latter case may have been affected by (a) large arteriovenous shunts, (b) inadequate mixing of the microspheres with a left ventricular injection, and (c) insufficient numbers of microspheres present in the bone samples. When LDF was used to evaluate the effect of elevated intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow in skeletally mature rabbits, femoral head subchondral bone blood flow declined with increasing intracapsular pressure from a baseline value of 0.343 +/- 0.036 to a value of 0.127 +/- 0.27 at 120 cm of water pressure. The decline in femoral head blood flow was statistically significant at pressures of 40 cm of water or higher (p less than 0.001), and evaluation of sections of the proximal femora made from preterminal disulphine blue injections confirmed these findings. Intracapsular tamponade has an adverse effect on femoral head blood flow beginning well below central venous pressure and should be considered in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic and nontraumatic necrosis of the femoral head. Laser Doppler flowmetry was easy to use and appears to be a reproducible technique for evaluating femoral head blood flow, offering distinct advantages over the microsphere technique for measuring bone blood flow

  16. Evaluation of the Painful Dual Taper Modular Neck Stem Total Hip Arthroplasty: Do They All Require Revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    Although dual taper modular-neck total hip arthroplasty (THA) design with additional neck-stem modularity has the potential to optimize hip biomechanical parameters by facilitating adjustments of leg length, femoral neck version and offset, there is increasing concern regarding this stem design as a result of the growing numbers of adverse local tissue reactions due to fretting and corrosion at the neck-stem taper junction. Implant factors such as taper cone angle, taper surface roughness, taper contact area, modular neck taper metallurgy, and femoral head size play important roles in influencing extent of taper corrosion. There should be a low threshold to conduct a systematic clinical evaluation of patients with dual-taper modular-neck stem THA using systematic risk stratification algorithms as early recognition and diagnosis will ensure prompt and appropriate treatment. Although specialized tests such as metal ion analysis and cross-sectional imaging modalities such as metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MARS MRI) are useful in optimizing clinical decision-making, overreliance on any single investigative tool in the clinical decision-making process for revision surgery should be avoided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rotationally Stable Screw-Anchor With Locked Trochanteric Stabilizing Plate Versus Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation in the Treatment of AO/OTA 31A2.2 Fracture: A Biomechanical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Matthias; Nagel, Philipp; Maier, Klaus-Jürgen; Gradl, Gertraud; Buecking, Benjamin; Sönmez, Tolga T; Modabber, Ali; Prescher, Andreas; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalomedullary nails currently represent the gold standard in the treatment of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. Recently, an extramedullary rotationally stable screw-anchor system (RoSA) has been developed. It was designed to combine the benefits of screw and blade and to improve stability using a locked trochanteric stabilizing plate (TSP). The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical behavior of RoSA/TSP and the proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). Standardized AO/OTA 31A2.2 fractures were induced by an oscillating saw in 10 paired human specimens (n = 20; mean age = 85 years; range: 71-96 years). The fractures were stabilized by either the RoSA/TSP (Koenigsee Implants, Allendorf, Germany) or the PFNA (DePuy Synthes, Zuchwil, Switzerland). Femurs were positioned in 25 degrees of adduction and 10 degrees of posterior flexion and were cyclically loaded with axial sinusoidal pattern at 0.5 Hz, starting at 300 N, with stepwise increase by 300 N every 500 cycles until bone-implant failure occurred. After every load step, the samples were measured visually and radiographically. Femoral head migration was assessed. The stiffness at the load up to the clinically relevant load step of 1800 N (639 ± 378 N/mm (RoSA/TSP) vs. 673 ± 227 N/mm (PFNA); P = 0.542) was comparable, as was the failure load (3000 ± 787 N vs. 3780 ± 874 N; P = 0.059). Up to 1800 N, no femoral head rotation, head migration, or femoral neck shortening were observed either for RoSA/TSP or PFNA. Whereas failure of the PFNA subsumed fractures of the greater trochanter and the lateral wall, a posterior femoral neck fracture with a significantly increased femoral neck shortening (1.7 mm vs. 0 mm; P = 0.012) was the cause of failure with RoSA/TSP. This specific kind of failure was induced by a femoral neck weakening caused by the posterior TSP stabilizing screw. There was no significant difference in biomechanical properties between the RoSA/TSP and the PFNA for

  18. Femoral Geometry in Male Patients with Atraumatic Hip Fracture - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Tan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Hip fracture is the most serious complication of osteoporosis and the most disabling type of fracture. In this study, we aimed to compare femoral geometry in hip fractured male patients aged more than 65 years old with age matched controls. Patients and Methods: 20 male patients with a history of nontraumatic hip fracture and 19 age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Bone mineral density of neck and trochanter of hip were measured by DEXA. In addition to BMD, an experienced radiologist measured proximal femur geometric parameters potentially involved in bone strength. Results: Mean BMDs of trochanteric region were not significantly different between groups, but mean BMDs of neck region were statistically significantly lower in the hip fractured group. Neck shaft angle and femur shaft width were the geometric parameters found to be significantly higher in the hip fractured group. The correlation between femur geometric and the anthropometric measurements was present only in the kontrol group. Conclusion: We concluded that besides femur geometric measurements, correlation between these measurements might be an important factors for the fracture risk. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:15-8

  19. Neck Pain One Week after Pacemaker Generator Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ross F; Wightman, John M

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of cardiac pacemaker implantation has risen markedly in the past three decades, making awareness of possible postprocedural complications critical to the emergency physician. This case is the first documented instance of internal jugular (IJ) deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from an uncomplicated pacemaker generator replacement. A patient presented to an Emergency Department with a 2-day history of mild left temporal headache migrating to his left neck. The patient did not volunteer this information, but review of systems revealed a temporary transvenous pacemaker inserted through the right IJ vein 1 week previously during a routine exchange of a left-sided cardiac pacemaker generator. Manipulation of the existing pacemaker wires entering the left subclavian vein was minimal. Computed tomographic angiography of the neck demonstrated near-complete thrombotic occlusion of the entire length of his left IJ vein. This required hospital admission for observation and treatment with anticoagulation. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: DVT, with thrombotic extension into adjacent vessels anywhere along the course of pacemaker wires, should be considered by the emergency provider in the evaluation of head, neck, or upper extremity symptoms after recent or remote implantation or manipulation of a transvenous cardiac pacemaker, including generator replacement. Failure to identify and treat appropriately could result in significant morbidity and mortality from airway edema, septic thrombophlebitis, superior vena cava syndrome, superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. OUTCOME OF UNCEMENTED UNIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY IN FRACTURE NECK OF FEMUR, IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS IN RELATION TO BONE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehraj Din

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis plays an important role in pathogenesis of fracture neck of femur in mobile elderly. Hemiarthroplasty is most common mode of management of femoral neck fractures in elderly in developing world. We report the outcome of uncemented hemiarthropl asty in elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture in relation to bone quality of patient as estimated by Dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 75 uncemented hemiarthroplasties for femoral neck fractures were performed in elderly patients more than 70 years of age between August 2008 and April 2012. The clinical, radiological results and bone mineral density of 65 hips in 65 patients who could be followed up were analyzed. For all cases Austin Moore prosthesis was implanted . RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 79.96±7.21 years ( 7 1 to 96 years. 44 patients were women and 21 were men. Average duration of follow - up was 18.59±11.53 months ( R ange 4 to 44 months. The mean Harris Hip Score in patients with osteopenia was 80 .29±13.29 and in patients with osteoporosis it was 79.96 ± 11.67 at the time of the last follow - up. There was no significant difference in mean Harris hi p score in osteoporotic and non - osteoporotic patient’s p value 0.923. Out of 65 patients whose results were assessed in our study 48 patients (73.8% had osteoporosis and 17 patients (26.1% had Osteopenia. None of the patients in our study had a normal bone density. The mean T Score as measured on DEXA scan was - 3.74±1.57. CONCLUSION: Uncemented hemiarthro plasty for elderly patients more than 70 years of age with a femoral neck fracture showed satisfactory short - term results with no relationship to the bone quality

  1. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, H; Alghadir, A H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn't affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ...

  3. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, Theresa M.; Gross, Anita; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Rutherford, Sherrill; Voth, Sandra; Hoving, Jan L.; Brønfort, Gert; Santaguida, Pasqualina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. The effectiveness of exercise as a physiotherapy intervention remains unclear. Objectives To improve pain, disability, function, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults with neck pain. Search methods

  4. Heritability of neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O

    2006-01-01

    73%) answered the questions regarding neck pain. Probandwise concordance rates, zygosity-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations showed a significant genetic effect on neck pain. An overall additive genetic component of 44% was found. The genetic effect decreased with age, accounting...... for only 10% in the oldest male group and 0% in the oldest female group. There was a statistically significant difference in heritability between males and females (34 vs 52%, P... gradually less important with increasing age, and environmental factors dominate almost completely in the older age groups....

  5. Intracorporeal knotting of a femoral nerve catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve catheters are effective and well-established tools to provide postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. The performance of these techniques is usually considered safe. However, placement of nerve catheters may be associated with a considerable number of side effects and major complications have repeatedly been published. In this work, we report on a patient who underwent total knee replacement with spinal anesthesia and preoperative insertion of femoral and sciatic nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia. During insertion of the femoral catheter, significant resistance was encountered upon retracting the catheter. This occurred due to knotting of the catheter. The catheter had to be removed by operative intervention which has to be considered a major complication. The postoperative course was uneventful. The principles for removal of entrapped peripheral catheters are not well established, may differ from those for neuroaxial catheters, and range from cautious manipulation up to surgical intervention.

  6. Femoral head fracture without hip dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Aditya K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries. We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high en- ergy trauma due to road traffic accident. He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39. He received cementless total hip replacement. At latest follow-up of 2.3 years, functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95. Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now. The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity, possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries. Key words: Femur head; Hip dislocation; Classification; Arthroplasty, replacement, hip

  7. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  8. Radiofrequency ablation of two femoral head chondroblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petsas, Theodore [Department of Radiology, University of Patras (Greece); Megas, Panagiotis [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Patras (Greece)]. E-mail: panmegas@med.upatras.gr; Papathanassiou, Zafiria [Department of Radiology, University of Patras (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous bone tumor. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for pain relief and prevention of further growth. Open surgical techniques are associated with complications, particularly when the tumors are located in deep anatomical sites. The authors performed RF ablation in two cases of subarticular femoral head chondroblastomas and emphasize its positive impact. The clinical course, the radiological findings and the post treatment results are discussed.

  9. [Avascular necrosis of the femoral head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubský, Peter; Trč, Tomáš; Havlas, Vojtěch; Smetana, Pavel

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in adults is not common, but not too rare diseases. In orthopedic practice, it is one of the diseases that are causing implantation of hip replacement at a relatively early age. In the early detection and initiation of therapy can delay the implantation of prosthesis for several years, which is certainly more convenient for the patient and beneficial. This article is intended to acquaint the reader with the basic diagnostic procedures and therapy.

  10. MYCOTIC FEMORAL PSEUDOANEURYSMS FROM INTRAVENOUS DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Flis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parenteral drug abuse is the most common cause of infected femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (IFAP. This complication of intravenous drug abuse is not only limb threatening but can also be life threatening. The management of the IFAP is difficult and controversial. Generally speaking, ligation and excision of the pseudoaneurysm without revascularization is accepted procedure in majority of the patients. However it is not regarded as an appropriate procedure for cases where the high probability of amputation is expected from acute interruption of the femoral artery flow.Patients, methods and results. We present three cases of young (average 20 years, range 18–24 patients with IFAP, in which a primary reconstruction was performed due to absence of doppler signal over pedal arteries after ligation of common femoral artery. In two of them complications in form of haemorrhage and repeated infection developed in late postoperative period. The first one, had an excision and ligation while the second one had a reconstruction made by means of a silver impregnated dacron prosthesis. None of the patients required an amputation.Conclusions. Overall prognosis and prognosis of the reconstruction in parenteral drug abuse patients is uncertain because there is a high incidence of postoperative drug injection despite aggressive drug rehabilitation.

  11. Radionuclide patterns of femoral head disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, M M; Wagner, J; Cragin, M D [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Radiological Sciences

    1977-12-01

    The pattern of uptake of bone marrow specific radio-sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid and the pattern of uptake of bone mineral specific radio-sup(99m)Tc pryophosphate may be valuable in assessing bone vascularity in diseases suspected of causing impaired blood supply, or indicate the presence of reactive bone formation. The low energy of the technetium label has been shown to be superior to /sup 18/F and /sup 85/Sr, and leads to greater imaging detail on the scans. Femoral head scanning with mineral and/or marrow specific radionuclides offers the clinician a method of evaluating the status of the femoral head and possibly an early diagnosis of avascular necrosis before roentgenographic changes occur. This study, which reports on a 5-year experience using radionuclide scanning to assess femoral head vascularity, begins with baseline or normal studies followed by variations of the normal pattern. Typical scan patterns of hip pathology described above are also presented.

  12. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  13. [Poldi-Čech cemented femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty after 25 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozkydal, Z; Janíček, P

    2010-08-01

    -Čech stem with its anatomical shape and a highly polished surface meets the principles of successful composite beam stems. Its disadvantage is a valgus neck- shaft angle of 140° giving lower femoral offset and the risk of development of valgus deformity of the ipsilateral knee. In most cases osteolysis, radiolucent lines and bone rarefaction of the femur resulted from polyethylene wear of the acetabular component. This study demonstrates a long-term survivorship of the Poldi-Čech femoral component in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty 25 to 35 years ago.

  14. Acute suppurative parotitis with spread to the deep neck spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M A; Docktor, J W

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the case of an elderly, diabetic woman who became dehydrated and developed acute suppurative parotitis, which caused marked swelling of her left face and neck. The parotid infection also extended by continuity into the lateral pharyngeal space and contiguous deep neck spaces, causing airway-threatening, extensive inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis and parapharyngeal soft tissues. The differential diagnosis and diagnostic rationale is discussed. The anatomy of the stylomandibular area is reviewed to explain how infection of the parotid can spread to the pharynx.

  15. Incidence of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head After Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Wan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Byun, Young-Soo; Shon, Oog-Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Oh, Hyoung Keun; Shon, Hyun Chul; Park, Ki Chul; Kim, Jung Jae; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures and to identify risk factors for developing AVNFH. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing at 10 institutions. Among the 703 patients enrolled, 161 patients were excluded leaving 542 patients in the study. Average age was 42.1 years with average follow-up of 26.3 months. Patient characteristics and fracture patterns as well as entry point of femoral nails were identified and the incidence of AVNFH was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to open versus closed physis, open versus closed fractures, and age (<20 versus ≥20 years). Overall incidence of AVNFH was 0.2% (1 of 542): the patient was 15-year-old boy. Of 25 patients with open physis, the incidence of AVNFH was 4%, whereas none of 517 patients with closed physis developed AVNFH (P < 0.001). The incidence of AVNFH in patients aged < 20 versus ≥20 years was 1.1% (1 of 93) and 0.0% (0 of 449), respectively (P = 0.172), which meant that the incidence of AVNFH was 0% in adult with femur shaft fracture. Of 61 patients with open fractures, the incidence of AVNFH was 0%. The number of cases with entry point at the trochanteric fossa or tip of the greater trochanter (GT) was 324 and 218, respectively, and the incidence of AVNFH was 0.3% and 0.0%, respectively (P = 0.412). In patients aged ≥20 years with isolated femoral shaft fracture, there was no case of AVNFH following antegrade intramedullary nailing regardless of the entry point. Therefore, our findings suggest that the risk of AVNFH following antegrade femoral nailing is extremely low in adult patients. PMID:26844518

  16. Talar Neck Fracture after United Tibiotalar Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Platt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibiotalar arthrodesis is a well-established treatment for tibiotalar arthritis, for example, in younger high demand patients. Talar neck fractures are less common though well-recognised sequelae of foot ankle trauma. Here we present the clinical case of a 69-year-old male who presented to our institution with a nonunion of a talar neck fracture, having undergone a left tibiotalar fusion 24 years previously. To the authors’ knowledge, this injury has only been described once previously in the literature. However, the original case described a fracture sustained in the very early postoperative period following tibiotalar fusion, postulated to be secondary to postimmobilisation osteopaenia or stress risers from metalwork. The aetiology in this case is likely due to axial compression transmitted to the talar neck via the calcaneus. The predisposing factors for nonunion are discussed, highlighting the importance of vigilance for this injury in any patient with concomitant tibiotalar fusion and foot trauma. The management of this patient is discussed.

  17. Custom total knee replacement in a dog with femoral condylar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Eskelinen, Esa V; Sidebotham, Christopher G; Harrysson, Ola L A; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K

    2007-06-01

    To report surgical planning, technique, and outcome of custom total knee replacement (TKR) performed to manage a medial femoral condylar nonunion in a dog. Clinical case report. A 3-year-old, 20 kg Karelian Bear Hound. Computed tomographic scan of the left pelvic limb was used to build a stereolithography model of the distal portion of the femur. The model was used to create a custom augment to replace the missing medial femoral condyle and a custom stem for intramedullary condylar cemented fixation. The augment and stem were adapted to femoral and tibial components already available. The model was used to rehearse the surgery and then the custom prosthesis was implanted. Weight bearing returned 8 hours after surgery and improved thereafter. Joint alignment was normal and prosthetic joint motion was 60-165 degrees postoperatively. The dog resumed moose hunting 3 months after surgery. Peak vertical force and impulse of the operated limb measured 17 months after surgery were 65% and 47% of the normal, contralateral limb. Based on short-term follow-up, cemented canine TKR was successfully achieved for management of a severely abnormal stifle joint. With further refinement and development of commercially available prostheses, TKR should be possible for canine patients.

  18. Use of vascular access ports in femoral veins of dogs and cats with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Alane Kosanovich; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Flanders, James A

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate long-term function of vascular access ports (VAPs) implanted in the femoral vein of dogs and cats undergoing cancer treatment. Prospective clinical study. 3 dogs and 6 cats treated via chemotherapy or radiation. VAPs were surgically implanted in the left femoral vein of 3 dogs and 6 cats over a 1-year period. Injection port location was alternated to either a caudal thoracic or ilial location in each patient. Duration of VAP function, ease of infusion, and ease of aspiration through the VAPs were recorded, and associated complications were assessed at each VAP use. Client satisfaction with VAP placement was evaluated by use of a questionnaire. Primary uses of the VAPs included blood sampling and delivering sedative or chemotherapeutic drugs. Median duration of successful infusion was 147 days (range, 60 to 370 days), and median duration of successful aspiration was 117 days (range, 10 to 271 days). The frequency of signs of VAP-related discomfort was low (7% of patient observations). Clients were satisfied with their decision to use VAPs. Complications included partial (n = 7) or complete (2) VAP occlusion, port migration (1), and presumptive infection (1). Results suggested that VAP implantation into the femoral vein provides an acceptable means of chronic venous access in dogs and cats undergoing cancer treatment.

  19. Transient peripartum osteoporosis of the femoral head in first and third pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Walczak, Piotr; Rapała, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present transient peripartum femoral head osteoporosis. This very rare condition occurred twice in our patient-a woman in her 30s. The cases described in the literature were mostly unilateral, with bilateral hip involvement noted much less frequently. In our patient, transient osteoporosis occurred in the third trimester of her first pregnancy in the right hip, her second pregnancy was uncomplicated, and in the third trimester of the patient's third pregnancy, osteoporotic changes were noted in the left hip joint. The patient breastfed her first and third babies only 3 wk each. She breastfed her second baby for 4 mo. The diagnostic workup was based on the clinical examination and radiographic/magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed bone marrow edema, and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The treatment consisted in core decompression of the femoral head (foragé), unloading of the hip using crutches as well as administration of calcitonin and calcium supplements. Complete recovery of the femoral heads was achieved. The follow-up time was 7 yr. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Walmsley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome.

  1. Delayed appearance of hypaesthesia and paralysis after femoral nerve block

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Landgraeber; Thomas Albrecht; Ulrich Reischuck; Marius von Knoch

    2012-01-01

    We report on a female patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the right knee and was given a continuous femoral nerve block catheter. The postoperative course was initially unremarkable, but when postoperative mobilisation was commenced, 18 hours after removal of the catheter, the patient noticed paralysis and hypaesthesia. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of femoral nerve dysfunction. Colour duplex sonography of the femoral artery and computed tomography of the lumbar spine and pelvis yie...

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  3. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  4. Differences in Femoral Head Penetration Between Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cemented Sockets and Uncemented Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating diff