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  1. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. "It is the left eye, right?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikkel D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dvora Pikkel,1 Adi Sharabi-Nov,2,3 Joseph Pikkel4,5 1Risk Management and Patient Safety Unit, Assuta Hospital, Ramat Hachayal, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 2Research Wing, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, Israel; 3Tel-Hai Academic College, Upper Galilee, Israel; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, Israel; 5Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv, Israel Objective: Because wrong-site confusion is among the most common mistakes in the operations of paired organs, we have examined the frequency of wrong-sided confusions that could theoretically occur in cataract surgeries in the absence of preoperative verification. Methods: Ten cataract surgeons participated in the study. The surgeons were asked to complete a questionnaire that included their demographic data, occupational habits, and their approach to and the handling of patients preoperatively. On the day of operation, the surgeons were asked to recognize the side of the operation from the patient's name only. At the second stage of the study, surgeons were asked to recognize the side of the operation while standing a 2-meter distance from the patient's face. The surgeons' answers were compared to the actual operation side. Patients then underwent a full time-out procedure, which included side marking before the operation. Results: Of the total 67 patients, the surgeons correctly identified the operated side of the eye in 49 (73% by name and in 56 (83% by looking at patients' faces. Wrong-side identification correlated with the time lapsed from the last preoperative examination (P=0.034. The number of cataract surgeries performed by the same surgeon (on the same day also correlated to the number of wrong identifications (P=0.000. Surgeon seniority or age did not correlate to the number of wrong identifications. Conclusion: This study illustrates the high error rate that can result in the absence of side marking prior to cataract surgery, as well as in operations on

  3. Advantages in exploring a new environment with the left eye in lizards.

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    Bonati, Beatrice; Csermely, Davide; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

    2013-07-01

    Lizards (Podarcis muralis) preferentially use the left eye during spatial exploration in a binocular condition. Here we allowed 44 adult wild lizards to explore an unknown maze for 20 min under a temporary monocular condition whilst recording their movements, particularly the direction of turns made whilst walking within the maze. Lizards with a patch on their right eye, i.e. using their left eye to monitor the environment, moved faster than lizards with a patch on their left eye when turning both leftward and rightward in a T-cross. Hence, right eye-patched lizards were faster than left eye-patched lizards also in turning right, although their right eye was covered. Thus, lizards that could use the left eye/right hemisphere to attend spatial cues appeared to have more control and to be more prompt in exploring the maze. In addition, female lizards with their left eye covered stopped very frequently when they reached crosses, showing a high level of indecision. Results confirm that P. muralis lizards using their left eye only in exploring a new environment react faster and more efficiently than those using the right eye only in exploration. Hence lateralisation of spatial stimuli mediated by the left eye/right hemisphere could provide an advantage to this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Looking at a predator with the left or right eye: asymmetry of response in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, Beatrice; Csermely, Davide; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

    2013-01-01

    Studies carried out with the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) revealed preferential use of the left eye during responses to predatory threat in laboratory settings and in the wild. Here we tested lizards under monocular conditions of vision, using temporary eye-patching. Lizards were facing a (simulated) predatory threat laterally, from the side of the non-patched eye. Results showed that lizards with the left eye uncovered during predatory threat used the left eye to monitor the predator, whereas lizards with the right eye uncovered nonetheless tried to use the covered left eye. Moreover, lizards frequently tried to change the eye exposition, making a body C-bend behaviour. Right-eyed lizards showed more frequent and faster C-bending responses than left-eyed lizards, trying to monitor the predator with the left eye even though it was patched. Results fit with asymmetries in spontaneous eye use observed in laboratory conditions and in the wild in this species, confirming that structures located on the right side of the brain (mainly served by the left eye) predominantly attend to predatory threat.

  5. Increased prevalences of left-handedness and left-eye sighting dominance in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHandedness and eye sighting dominance were assessed in a sample of 50 individuals (25 male, 25 female; aged 5 – 38 years) with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness were compared to the normative prevalences in the general population. We

  6. [Keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Sow, A S; Nguer, M; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, J M; Ndoye, N W; Diallo, M A; Diop, A; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Déme, A; Ndiaye, I M; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as Fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. We report the case of a keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole. The diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a 28-year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the Ophthalmological clinic at the University Hospital Le Dantec in Dakar for a left painful red eye with decreased visual acuity lasting for 15 days. The patient did not receive any foreign body into the eye. Samples by corneal scraping were made for microbiological analysis and the patient was hospitalized and treated with a reinforced eye drops based treatment (ceftriaxone+gentamicin). The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F. oxysporum, which motivated the replacement of the initial treatment by eye drops containing iodized povidone solution at 1% because of the amphotericin B unavailability. Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. The outcome was favorable with a healing abscess and visual acuity amounted to 1/200th. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  8. [Left lateral gaze paresis due to subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takamori, M

    1998-03-01

    We report a case of transient left lateral gaze paresis due to a hemorrhagic lesion restricted in the right precentral gyrus. A 74-year-old female experienced a sudden clumsiness of the left upper extremity. A neurological examination revealed a left central facial paresis, distal dominant muscle weakness in the left upper limb and left lateral gaze paresis. There were no other focal neurological signs. Laboratory data were all normal. Brain CTs and MRIs demonstrated a subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus. The neurological symptoms and signs disappeared over seven days. A recent physiological study suggested that the human frontal eye field (FEF) is located in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 8) and the precentral gyrus around the precentral sulcus. More recent studies stressed the role of the precentral sulcus and the precentral gyrus. Our case supports those physiological findings. The hematoma affected both the FEF and its underlying white matter in our case. We assume the lateral gaze paresis is attributable to the disruption of the fibers from the FEF. It is likely that fibers for motor control of the face, upper extremity, and lateral gaze lie adjacently in the subcortical area.

  9. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixed orthodontic appliance was used to facilitate traction and correction of malalignement of the impacted upper left central incisor.Treatment outcome: Successful removal of the odontoma, full exposure of the crown of upper left central incisor and good alignment on the arch were achieved. Crowding on the upper and ...

  10. Kinesthetic alexia due to left parietal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihori, Nami; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Araki, Shigeo; Kawachi, Juro

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms of kinesthetic alexia, we asked 7 patients who showed kinesthetic alexia with preserved visual reading after damage to the left parietal region to perform tasks consisting of kinesthetic written reproduction (writing down the same letter as the kinesthetic stimulus), kinesthetic reading aloud, visual written reproduction (copying letters), and visual reading aloud of hiragana (Japanese phonograms). We compared the performance in these tasks and the lesion sites in each patient. The results suggested that deficits in any one of the following functions might cause kinesthetic alexia: (1) the retrieval of kinesthetic images (motor engrams) of characters from kinesthetic stimuli, (2) kinesthetic images themselves, (3) access to cross-modal association from kinesthetic images, and (4) cross-modal association itself (retrieval of auditory and visual images from kinesthetic images of characters). Each of these factors seemed to be related to different lesion sites in the left parietal lobe. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  12. Fatal necrotising enterocolitis due to mydriatic eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgun, Uygur; Demet, Terek; Ozge, Koroglu A; Zafer, Dokumcu; Murat, Sezak; Mehmet, Yalaz; Nilgun, Kultursay

    2014-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a serious problem of preterm infants which may lead to impairment of vision and even to blindness if untreated. Routine eye examination is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of ROP in preterm infants. Mydriatic eye drops (cyclopentolate, tropicamide and phenylephrine) are applied before the ophthalmic examination. These agents are rarely absorbed to systemic circulation and in some cases result with serious side effects like skin rash, tachycardia, feeding intolerance, discomfort, apnea, gastric dilatation and ileus, despite different treatment models and dosage reducing strategies. We report here a preterm patient who died because of severe diffuse necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after topical application of 0.5% cyclopentolate and 1.25% phenylephrine during ROP screening to emphasise the serious side effects of these agents.

  13. Strong rightward lateralization of the dorsal attentional network in left-handers with right sighting-eye: an evolutionary advantage.

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    Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for spatial attention and its relationships with manual preference strength and eye preference were studied in a sample of 293 healthy individuals balanced for manual preference. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map this large sample while performing visually guided saccadic eye movements. This activated a bilateral distributed cortico-subcortical network in which dorsal and ventral attentional/saccadic pathways elicited rightward asymmetrical activation depending on manual preference strength and sighting eye. While the ventral pathway showed a strong rightward asymmetry irrespective of both manual preference strength and eye preference, the dorsal frontoparietal network showed a robust rightward asymmetry in strongly left-handers, even more pronounced in left-handed subjects with a right sighting-eye. Our findings brings support to the hypothesis that the origin of the rightward hemispheric dominance for spatial attention may have a manipulo-spatial origin neither perceptual nor motor per se but rather reflecting a mechanism by which a spatial context is mapped onto the perceptual and motor activities, including the exploration of the spatial environment with eyes and hands. Within this context, strongly left-handers with a right sighting-eye may benefit from the advantage of having the same right hemispheric control of their dominant hand and visuospatial attention processing. We suggest that this phenomenon explains why left-handed right sighting-eye athletes can outperform their competitors in sporting duels and that the prehistoric and historical constancy of the left-handers ratio over the general population may relate in part on the hemispheric specialization of spatial attention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Left is right and right is wrong: fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in left hemi-diaphragm due to right phrenic nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old Indian man, a recently diagnosed case of the right lung carcinoma underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for staging of the malignancy. PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake in the right lung mass, consistent with the known primary tumor. Right hemidiaphragm was found to be elevated on CT, suggesting right diaphragmatic paresis. The PET scan demonstrated asymmetric, intense FDG uptake in the left hemidiaphragm and accessory muscles of respiration, which was possibly due to compensatory increased workload related to contralateral right diaphragmatic paresis. The right diaphragmatic paresis was hypothesized to be caused by phrenic nerve palsy by right lung neoplasm. (author)

  15. Left is right and right is wrong: Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in left hemi-diaphragm due to right phrenic nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old Indian man, a recently diagnosed case of the right lung carcinoma underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for staging of the malignancy. PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake in the right lung mass, consistent with the known primary tumor. Right hemidiaphragm was found to be elevated on CT, suggesting right diaphragmatic paresis. The PET scan demonstrated asymmetric, intense FDG uptake in the left hemidiaphragm and accessory muscles of respiration, which was possibly due to compensatory increased workload related to contralateral right diaphragmatic paresis. The right diaphragmatic paresis was hypothesized to be caused by phrenic nerve palsy by right lung neoplasm.

  16. Semifluorinated Alkane Eye Drops for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease Due to Meibomian Gland Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Philipp; Augustin, Albert J; Geerling, Gerd; Kaercher, Thomas; Kretz, Florian; Kunert, Kathleen; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schrage, Norbert; Schrems, Wolfgang; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Messmer, Elisabeth M

    2017-11-01

    Meibomian gland disease is generally accepted as the leading cause for evaporative dry eye disease (DED). In a previous study, perfluorohexyloctane, a semifluorinated alkane, has been demonstrated to significantly increase tear film breakup time and to reduce corneal fluorescein staining in patients with evaporative DED, thereby vastly reducing dry eye-related symptoms. This study was set up to evaluate perfluorohexyloctane in a larger population of patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction. Seventy-two patients with Meibomian gland disease and associated dry eye received 1 drop of perfluorohexyloctane 4 times daily during an observational, prospective, multicenter, 6-8-week study. Clinical assessment included best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer test I, tear film breakup time, anterior and posterior blepharitis assessment, number of expressible Meibomian glands, meibum quality and quantity, ocular surface fluorescein staining, lid margin and symptom assessment, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI © ). From the 72 patients recruited, 61 completed the trial per protocol. Nine patients did not apply the medication as recommended and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Tear film breakup time, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining, number of expressible Meibomian glands, and severity of anterior and posterior blepharitis significantly improved after 6-8 weeks of perfluorohexyloctane application. In addition, symptoms improved as demonstrated by a significant decrease of OSDI-values from 37 (±13) to 26 (±16). In concordance with previous findings, 6-8 weeks of topical application of perfluorohexyloctane significantly improves clinical signs of Meibomian gland disease and associated mild to moderate DED.

  17. Autonomic Predictors of Hospitalization Due to Heart Failure Decompensation in Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system balance can be significantly deteriorated during heart failure exacerbation. However, it is still unknown whether these changes are only the consequence of heart failure decompensation or can also predict development thereof. Objectives were to verify if simple, non-invasive autonomic parameters, such as baroreflex sensitivity and short-term heart rate variability can provide independent of other well-known clinical parameters information on the risk of heart failure decompensation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.In 142 stable patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, baroreflex sensitivity and short-term heart rate variability, as well as other well-known clinical parameters, were analyzed. During 23 ± 9 months of follow-up 19 patients were hospitalized due to the heart failure decompensation (EVENT.Pre-specified cut-off values of baroreflex sensitivity (≤2.4 ms/mmHg and low frequency power index of heart rate variability (≤19 ms2 were significantly associated with the EVENTs (hazard ratio 4.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-14.54 and 5.41, 95% CI 1.87-15.65 respectively. EVENTs were also associated with other parameters, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA class, diuretic use, renal function, brain natriuretic peptide and hemoglobin level, left atrial size, left and right ventricular heart failure signs. After adjusting baroreflex sensitivity and low frequency power index for each of the abovementioned parameters, autonomic parameters were still significant predictors of hospitalization due to the heart failure decompensation.Simple, noninvasive autonomic indices can be helpful in identifying individuals with increased risk of hospitalization due to the heart failure decompensation among clinically stable patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, even when adjusted for other well-known clinical parameters.

  18. Aortic embolization of an Edwards SAPIEN prosthesis due to sigmoid left ventricular hypertrophy: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Isa Öner; Koklu, Erkan; Arslan, Sakir; Cagirci, Goksel; Kucukseymen, Selcuk

    2016-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is considered an alternative therapy in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Although a minimally invasive procedure, it is not free from complications, one of which is valve embolization at the time of TAVI. We present a case of embolization of a balloon-expandable aortic valve due to sigmoid left ventricular hypertrophy and managed with a second valve without surgery. The embolized valve was repositioned in the aortic arch between the left common carotid artery and the brachiocephalic trunk. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural correlates of the eye dominance effect in human face perception: the left-visual-field superiority for faces revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wookyoung; Kang, Joong-Gu; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Shim, Miseon; Sun Kim, Ji; Leem, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-08-01

    Faces are processed best when they are presented in the left visual field (LVF), a phenomenon known as LVF superiority. Although one eye contributes more when perceiving faces, it is unclear how the dominant eye (DE), the eye we unconsciously use when performing a monocular task, affects face processing. Here, we examined the influence of the DE on the LVF superiority for faces using event-related potentials. Twenty left-eye-dominant (LDE group) and 23 right-eye-dominant (RDE group) participants performed the experiments. Face stimuli were randomly presented in the LVF or right visual field (RVF). The RDE group exhibited significantly larger N170 amplitudes compared with the LDE group. Faces presented in the LVF elicited N170 amplitudes that were significantly more negative in the RDE group than they were in the LDE group, whereas the amplitudes elicited by stimuli presented in the RVF were equivalent between the groups. The LVF superiority was maintained in the RDE group but not in the LDE group. Our results provide the first neural evidence of the DE's effects on the LVF superiority for faces. We propose that the RDE may be more biologically specialized for face processing. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of myocardial infarction due to left circumflex artery occlusion: comparison with infarction due to right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, B.L.; Beller, G.A.; Kaiser, D.L.; Gibson, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Forty consecutive patients with creatine kinase-MB confirmed myocardial infarction due to circumflex artery occlusion (Group 1) were prospectively evaluated and compared with 107 patients with infarction due to right coronary artery occlusion (Group 2) and 94 with left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group 3). All 241 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography, 24 h Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and coronary arteriography before hospital discharge and were followed up for 39 +/- 18 months. There were no significant differences among the three infarct groups in age, gender, number of risk factors, prevalence and type of prior infarction, Norris index, Killip class and frequency of in-hospital complications. Acute ST segment elevation was present in only 48% of patients in Group 1 versus 71 and 72% in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.012), and 38% of patients with a circumflex artery-related infarct had no significant ST changes (that is, elevation or depression) on admission (versus 21 and 20% for patients in Groups 2 and 3, respectively) (p = 0.001). Abnormal R waves in lead V1 were more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p less than 0.003) as was ST elevation in leads I, aVL and V4 to V6 (p less than or equal to 0.048). These differences in ECG findings between Group 1 and 2 patients correlated with a significantly higher prevalence of posterior and lateral wall asynergy in the group with a circumflex artery-related infarct. Infarct size based on peak creatine kinase levels and multiple radionuclide variables was intermediate in Group 1 compared with that in Group 2 (smallest) and Group 3 (largest). During long-term follow-up, the probability of recurrent cardiac events was similar in the three infarct groups

  1. [Left-sided endocarditis due to gram-negative bacilli: epidemiology and clinical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Mariam; de la Torre, Javier; Ivanova, Radka; Martínez, Francisco José; Lomas, Jose María; Plata, Antonio; Gálvez, Juan; Reguera, Jose María; Ruiz, Josefa; Hidalgo, Carmen; Luque, Rafael; García-López, María Victoria; de Alarcón, Arístides

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with left-side endocarditis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Prospective multicenter study of left-sided infective endocarditis reported in the Andalusian Cohort for the Study of Cardiovascular Infections between 1984 and 2008. Among the 961 endocarditis, 24 (2.5%) were caused by gram-negative bacilli. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica. Native valves (85.7%) were mainly affected, most of them with previous valve damage (57%). Comorbidity was greater (90% vs 39%; P=.05) than in endocarditis due to other microorganism, the most frequent being, diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis and neoplasm. A previous manipulation was found in 47.6% of the cases, and 37% were considered hospital-acquired. Renal failure (41%), central nervous system involvement (33%) and ventricular dysfunction (45%) were the most frequent complications. Five cases (21%) required cardiac surgery, mostly due to ventricular dysfunction. More than 50% of cases were treated with aminoglycosides, but this did not lead to a better outcome or prognosis. Mortality (10 patients) was higher than that reported with other microorganisms (41% vs 35%; P=.05). Left-sided endocarditis due to gram-negative bacilli is a rare disease, which affects patients with major morbidities and often with a previous history of hospital manipulations. Cardiac, neurological and renal complications are frequent and associated with a high mortality. The association of aminoglycosides in the antimicrobial treatment did not involve a better outcome or prognosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Noise Attenuation Loss Due to Wearing APEL Eye Protection with Ear-Muff Style Headset Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    USAARL Report No. 2012-09 Noise Attenuation Loss Due to Wearing APEL Eye Protection with Ear-Muff Style Headset Systems By Efrem Reeves Elmaree...Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia 22314. Orders will be expedited if placed through the librarian or other person designated to request...not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other official documentation. Citation

  3. Changes in the ionic and protein contents of adult Schistocerca Gregaria compound eyes due to He-Ne laser exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gindi, A.M.; Osiris, W.G.; El-kes, N.; Abd El-Meguid, A.

    1996-01-01

    The induced change in the concentration of the ionic content such as Na, K, and Ca in the compound eyes of Schistocerca Gregaria was carried out before and after exposure for different periodic times to He-Ne ;laser beam. Total protein and albumin contents in the compound eyes were also determined. The Data indicated that the ionic contents (Na, K and Ca) showed acceptable and significant changes in both the right (R) and left (L) eyes after exposure to different periodic times up to 60 minutes in comparison with the control ones. Moreover, very high significant increase in the total protein content (about 70.2%) as well as significant decrease in the albumin content (about 39.1%) in the right (R) eyes after exposure to He-Ne laser beam for 30 minutes in comparison with the control (unexposed) eyes, were detected. 2 tabs

  4. The prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in the Australian National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Massive Left-sided Congestive Colitis Due to Idiopathic Inferior Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martí Gelonch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVM of the inferior mesenteric artery are rare. They may be primary (congenital or idiopathic or secondary (acquired after trauma or of iatrogenic origin. Of the abdominal AVM, the inferior mesenteric trunk is the least commonly involved. Most reported cases are of iatrogenic origin, resulting from colon surgery. Only 17 cases have been described and published in the literature. The objective of this work is to make known a case treated in our center. We present a case of 73-year old male, who came to the emergency service with symptoms of abdominal distension, pain lasting 48 hours along with months of diarrhoea. CT scan and an abdominal CT angiography showed a massive left-sided congestive colitis due to idiopathic inferior mesenteric arteriovenous malformation. In our case, the decision was to carry out the treatment in two stages. Embolisation was performed in the first stage in order to decrease the blood flow and the risk of intraoperative bleeding, followed by resective surgery of the affected colon.

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Is it the Result or Cause of Disease Progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adusumalli, Srinath; Mazurek, Jeremy A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to define pulmonary hypertension in the setting of left heart disease (PH-LHD), discuss its epidemiology and pathophysiology, and highlight the cause and effect relationship it has with disease progression in the setting of cardiomyopathy. Both pulmonary hypertension (PH) and heart failure are becoming increasingly common. As such, PH-LHD is now the most common form of PH. The pathophysiology of the condition relates to backward transmission of elevated left ventricular filling pressures into the pulmonary circulation and, ultimately, right ventricular (RV) strain/dysfunction. It is evident that these pathophysiologic processes are both the effect and cause of left heart disease progression. In this review, we describe the complex relationship between disease progression in left ventricular cardiomyopathy and PH-LHD. Clinicians and researchers should take note of the importance of PH-LHD and RV dysfunction to appropriately risk stratify patients and develop therapies for the condition.

  7. Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance Predicts Cardiac Events in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Although pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (LHD-PH accounts for the largest proportion of pulmonary hypertension, few reports on the epidemiological analysis of LHD-PH exist. Recently, pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC has attracted attention as a possible factor of right ventricular afterload along with pulmonary vascular resistance. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of PAC in LHD-PH.The subject consisted of 252 LHD-PH patients (145 men, mean age 63.4 ± 14.7 years diagnosed by right heart catheterization. PAC was estimated by the ratio between stroke volume and pulmonary arterial pulse pressure. Patients were classified into four groups according to the PAC (1st quartile was 0.74 to 1.76 ml/mmHg, the 2nd quartile 1.77 to 2.53 ml/mmHg, the 3rd quartile 2.54 to 3.59 ml/mmHg, and the 4th quartile 3.61 to 12.14 ml/mmHg. The end-points were defined as rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure and/or cardiac death. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine what variables were associated with cardiac events.The patients in the 1st quartile had the lowest cardiac index and stroke volume index, and the highest mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance compared with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles. Fifty-four patients experienced cardiac events during the follow-up period (median 943 days. The event-free rate of the 1st quartile was significantly lower than that of the 3rd and 4th quartiles (66.7% vs 82.5% [3rd quartile], P = 0.008; and 92.1% [4th quartile], P < 0.001. The Cox hazard analysis revealed that PAC was significantly associated with cardiac events (HR 0.556, 95% CI 0.424-0.730, P < 0.001.PAC is useful in the prediction of cardiac event risk in LHD-PH patients.

  8. Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance Predicts Cardiac Events in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koichi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Jin, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokokawa, Tetsuro; Misaka, Tomofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background Although pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (LHD-PH) accounts for the largest proportion of pulmonary hypertension, few reports on the epidemiological analysis of LHD-PH exist. Recently, pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC) has attracted attention as a possible factor of right ventricular afterload along with pulmonary vascular resistance. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of PAC in LHD-PH. Methods The subject consisted of 252 LHD-PH patients (145 men, mean age 63.4 ± 14.7 years) diagnosed by right heart catheterization. PAC was estimated by the ratio between stroke volume and pulmonary arterial pulse pressure. Patients were classified into four groups according to the PAC (1st quartile was 0.74 to 1.76 ml/mmHg, the 2nd quartile 1.77 to 2.53 ml/mmHg, the 3rd quartile 2.54 to 3.59 ml/mmHg, and the 4th quartile 3.61 to 12.14 ml/mmHg). The end-points were defined as rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure and/or cardiac death. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine what variables were associated with cardiac events. Results The patients in the 1st quartile had the lowest cardiac index and stroke volume index, and the highest mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance compared with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles. Fifty-four patients experienced cardiac events during the follow-up period (median 943 days). The event-free rate of the 1st quartile was significantly lower than that of the 3rd and 4th quartiles (66.7% vs 82.5% [3rd quartile], P = 0.008; and 92.1% [4th quartile], P < 0.001). The Cox hazard analysis revealed that PAC was significantly associated with cardiac events (HR 0.556, 95% CI 0.424–0.730, P < 0.001). Conclusion PAC is useful in the prediction of cardiac event risk in LHD-PH patients. PMID:27875533

  9. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying ...

  10. Left atrium and pulmonary artery compression due to aortic aneurysm causing heart failure symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Antonio José Lagoeiro; Martins, Wolney de Andrade; Moutinho, Victor M; Rezende, Juliano M; Alves, Patricia Y; Villacorta, Humberto; Silveira, Pedro F; Couto, Antonio A

    2018-05-09

    Patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) are mostly asymptomatic and TAA is rarely related to heart failure (HF). We report the case of an 80-year-old female patient, with type A TAA without dissection, with right pulmonary artery and left atrium compression, who presented with HF, preserved ejection fraction and acute pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A rating scale is a proper method to evaluate changes in quality of life due to dry eye symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenwen; Xu, Xian; Zou, Haidong

    2018-02-07

    To determine which utility value assessment method is more suitable to evaluate changes in the quality of life due to dry eye symptoms. Dry eye outpatients with a presenting visual acuity of 20/25 or better in the worse-seeing eye were recruited. Presenting distance visual acuity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and fluorescein were assessed. The severity of dry eye symptoms was assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and utility values were measured using the time trade-off (TTO), standard gamble (SG1 and SG2) and rating scale (RS) methods. Different utility values were compared with each other. The most appropriate utility value method to evaluate quality-of-life changes solely due to dry eye symptoms is determined by calculating the correlation between the OSDI score and different utility values. A total of 104 patients were enrolled. The three sections of OSDI in the order of high to low scores were as follows: "environmental trigger," "eye discomfort" and "visual function." The utility scores measured with TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS were 0.95 ± 0.11, 0.96 ± 0.10, 0.99 ± 0.07 and 0.89 ± 0.10, respectively. The utility scores evaluated by the TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS methods were significantly different from each other (p eye discomfort" section scores (p dry eye symptoms.

  12. Suppressed eye growth following diffuser removal from myopic birds is not due to increased dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, I.; Boelen, M.; Megaw, P.; Miethke, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Myopia can be induced in developing chickens by fitting a diffuser over the eye. If the diffuser is removed, the restoration of normal visual input results in rapid suppression of eye growth, with ultimate restoration of normal vision. We have investigated whether the suppression of eye growth after the removal of a diffuser from a myopic eye results from an increased rate of release of dopamine from the retina. Chickens were maintained on a 12:12 light-dark cycle, and were fitted with a diffuser from day 7 to day 21. After removal of the diffuser, the rate of dopamine release was then followed by measuring the kinetics of accumulation of DOPAC in the vitreous during the light phase. The rate of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis (SGS) was followed by measuring the rate of incorporation of 35 S-sulphate into scleral buttons incubated in vitro. At the end of the period of development of form-deprivation myopia,dopamine release rates were very low in the myopic eyes compared to those in the contralateral control eyes. In contrast, SGS rates were higher in the sclera from myopic eyes. After removal of the diffusers, the rate of SGS declined rapidly to below that in the control eyes within 72h. In contrast, dopamine release rates remained low for up to 10 days after removal of the occluders. These results show that there is a correlation between reduced dopamine release and increased SGS during the development of myopia, but that there is not a symmetrical relationship during the suppression of SGS following occluder removal. These results therefore suggest that dopamine is not a crucial signalling molecule in the visually mediated control of eye growth. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  13. Two Young Women with Left-sided Pneumothorax Due to Thoracic Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukumi, Shungo; Suzuki, Hideaki; Morimoto, Masamitsu; Shigematsu, Hisayuki; Okazaki, Mikio; Abe, Masahiro; Kitazawa, Sohei; Nakamura, Kenji; Sano, Yoshifumi

    Pneumothorax associated with thoracic endometriosis (TE) generally occurs in women around 30 years old and it usually affects the right pleural cavity. We herein report two cases of TE associated with left-sided pneumothorax in young women. The prevalence of TE in younger patients may be underestimated if these cases are treated as spontaneous pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurring in younger patients has not been reported to show laterality. TE-related or catamenial pneumothorax in young women must therefore represent a different clinical entity from the condition seen in older patients.

  14. Exposure to gonads and eyes due to computerised tomography for brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin-Chieh Hsu; Pao-Shan Weng; Ling-Nah Su

    1986-01-01

    Eye and gonad doses for some 150 patients were determined using thermoluminescence dosemeters. Doses received during CT scanning using a Toshiba scanner were compared with those obtained using a Pfizer scanner. A female Rando phantom was also used as the reference. For males, the average eye dose for the Toshiba was 1695+-2041 μGy per slice and the gonad dose was 2.0+-1.5 μGy per slice; for females it was 1953+-1923 μGy per slice for eyes and 0.4+-0.3 μGy per slice for gonads. (author)

  15. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  16. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A.; Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H.; Roger, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  17. Transient left ventricular dysfunction due to coronary spasm after spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikowski, Waldemar; Małek-Elikowska, Małgorzata; Słomczyński, Marek; Horbacka, Karolina; Bartkowski, Jarosław; Kalawski, Bartosz

    2017-10-23

    Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic (LA) used for cutaneous infiltration, peripheral nerve blocks, epidural and spinal anesthesia. However, its application may result in cardiovascular complications such as: hypotension, bradycardia, cardiac arrest and toxic myocardial injury. The authors describe a 53-year-old male with a history of cigarette smoking, admitted for an elective inguinal hernia surgery. Before surgery, the patient received subarachnoid injection of bupivacaine (20 mg). After the operation, he developed transient hypotension. Blood pressure returned to normal after gelofusine infusion; no sympathomimetics were administered. The male denied chest pain; however, ECG showed ST segment elevation coexisting with left ventricular anterolateral hypokinesia and decreased longitudinal strain in echocardiography. A significant increase in troponin I level was suggestive rather of myocardial infarction than of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Urgent coronary angiography revealed left anterior descending artery spasm, which remitted after intracoronary nitroglycerin injection. Normalization of ECG and echocardiography was observed within a few days. The authors indicate that the presented atypical adverse effect of bupivacaine manifested itself with delay and that coronary spasm proceeded without angina. A close observation of the patient after anesthetic procedure with LA should be extended over the postoperative period.

  18. [Influence of mechanical effect due to MRI-magnet on tattoo seal and eye makeup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yuta; Miyati, Tosiaki; Ueda, Jousei; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Hamaguchi, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-20

    The purpose of our study was to assess the mechanical effect on tattoo seals and eye makeup caused by a spatial magnetic gradient in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Seven kinds of tattoo seals and three kinds of eye makeup, i.e., mascara, eye shadow, and eyeliner were used. On a 3.0-Tesla MRI, we determined these deflection angles according to a method established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) at the position that produced the greatest magnetically induced deflection. Eighty-five percent of the tattoo seals showed deflection angles greater than 45 degrees of the ASTM guidelines, and the mascara and eye shadow showed over 40 degrees. This was because these contained ferromagnetic pigments such as an iron oxide, but those translational forces were very small owing to slight mass. However, it is desirable that these should be removed before MRI examination to prevent secondary problems.

  19. Influence of mechanical effect due to MRI-magnet on tattoo seal and eye makeup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yuta; Ueda, Jousei; Miyati, Tosiaki; Hamaguchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the mechanical effect on tattoo seals and eye makeup caused by a spatial magnetic gradient in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Seven kinds of tattoo seals and three kinds of eye makeup, i.e., mascara, eye shadow, and eyeliner were used. On a 3.0-Tesla MRI, we determined these deflection angles according to a method established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) at the position that produced the greatest magnetically induced deflection. Eighty-five percent of the tattoo seals showed deflection angles greater than 45 degrees of the ASTM guidelines, and the mascara and eye shadow showed over 40 degrees. This was because these contained ferromagnetic pigments such as an iron oxide, but those translational forces were very small owing to slight mass. However, it is desirable that these should be removed before MRI examination to prevent secondary problems. (author)

  20. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report).

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Korchuganova; A. Yu. Slonimskiy,; O. Yu. Yatsenko; M. Yu. Lerner

    2013-01-01

    There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0) on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vas...

  1. Binocular Fusion and Invariant Category Learning due to Predictive Remapping during Scanning of a Depthful Scene with Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object’s surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations.

  2. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC) may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations. PMID:25642198

  3. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC) may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations.

  4. Left Phrenic Nerve Stimulation Due to Breakage of the Endocardial Right Ventricular Lead at the Costoclavicular Ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Fujimori, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old man with a permanent pacemaker (PM implanted in his left prepectoral area reported twitches in his left lateral abdominal region. Chest X-rays revealed a broken right atrial (RA lead and a fracture of the right ventricular (RV lead at the left costoclavicular ligament. The electrocardiogram (ECG and the Holler ECG revealed atrial fibrillation (AF and an improperly functioning PM. We observed that the twitching seemed to correspond with each pacing beat and that it did not appear with his own beat. We suspected that the twitching was due to electric current leakage from the broken RV lead. We performed a PM re-implantation with a screw-in RV lead using the extrathoracic approach. After re-implantation the twitching disappeared. Costoclavicular ligament related electrode lead fractures are not uncommon and electric current leaks can be a source of problems in cardiac pacing. In this case, the electric current leak from the broken RV lead at the costoclavicular ligament stimulated the left phrenic nerve.

  5. [Two cases of severe eye and cranial injuries due to firework explosions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunte, J P; Trojaborg, N S; Nielsen, O A; Thygesen, J

    1999-12-20

    Two patients who sustained serious facial, cranial and eye trauma secondary to recreational fireworks injuries are reported. Initial assessment included axial and coronary computerized tomography, control of haemorrhage, debridement of wound and brain, and in one patient bilateral excenteration of the globe. Both patients suffered from intracranial haemorrhage, but both recovered without severe neurological sequelae.

  6. Exertional Angina Due To Fused Aortic Bioprosthesis During Left Ventricular Assist Device Support: Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonios, Michael J; Selzman, Craig H; Gilbert, Edward M; McKellar, Stephen H; Koliopoulou, Antigoni; Strege, Jennifer L; Nativi, Jose N; Fang, James C; Stehlik, Josef; Drakos, Stavros G

    We present the case of two patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and moderate aortic valve regurgitation that were treated with a bioprosthetic valve at the time of the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. A few months later, patients revealed partial recovery in the left ventricle systolic function. Both patients, during the LVAD turndown protocol, reported the onset of chest pain. The transthoracic echocardiography revealed the presence of a new transaortic pressure gradient. We confirmed the presence of a fused bioprosthetic valve by further performing a transesophageal echocardiogram and a left and right heart catheterization. Replacement of aortic valve at the time of an LVAD implantation constitutes a challenging case. Although a mechanical valve is contraindicated due to the increased thromboembolic risk, selecting a bioprosthetic valve increases the risk of valve leaflets fusion. The consequences of this phenomenon should be acknowledged in LVAD patients undergoing aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic, especially under the view of LVAD explantation for those revealing myocardial recovery under mechanical unloading.

  7. The Interaction of Eye-Voice Span with Syntactic Chunking and Predictability in Right- and Left-Embedded Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest P., Jr.

    Sixty tenth graders participated in this study of relationships between eye/voice span, phrase and clause boundaries, reading ability, and sentence structure. Results indicated that sentences apparently are "chunked" into surface constituents during processing. Better tenth grade readers had longer eye/voice spans than did poorer readers and…

  8. Penetrating head injury with bilateral eye avulsion due to Himalayan bear bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Yam B; Roka, Narayani; Shrestha, Manzil; Puri, Puspa R; Adhikari, Hari B

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), although an omnivore, is more carnivorous than its American counterpart. It is also more aggressive towards humans and is a threatened species because of the deforestation in the Himalayas. Furthermore, poverty, encroachment of the forest, extensive deforestation, lack of education and living near the forest are factors that increase the probability of such animal injuries. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who suffered a severe penetrating head injury with scalp and bilateral eye avulsion, which was managed successfully. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Eye movements discriminate fatigue due to chronotypical factors and time spent on task--a double dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cazzoli

    Full Text Available Systematic differences in circadian rhythmicity are thought to be a substantial factor determining inter-individual differences in fatigue and cognitive performance. The synchronicity effect (when time of testing coincides with the respective circadian peak period seems to play an important role. Eye movements have been shown to be a reliable indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation or time spent on cognitive tasks. However, eye movements have not been used so far to investigate the circadian synchronicity effect and the resulting differences in fatigue. The aim of the present study was to assess how different oculomotor parameters in a free visual exploration task are influenced by: a fatigue due to chronotypical factors (being a 'morning type' or an 'evening type'; b fatigue due to the time spent on task. Eighteen healthy participants performed a free visual exploration task of naturalistic pictures while their eye movements were recorded. The task was performed twice, once at their optimal and once at their non-optimal time of the day. Moreover, participants rated their subjective fatigue. The non-optimal time of the day triggered a significant and stable increase in the mean visual fixation duration during the free visual exploration task for both chronotypes. The increase in the mean visual fixation duration correlated with the difference in subjectively perceived fatigue at optimal and non-optimal times of the day. Conversely, the mean saccadic speed significantly and progressively decreased throughout the duration of the task, but was not influenced by the optimal or non-optimal time of the day for both chronotypes. The results suggest that different oculomotor parameters are discriminative for fatigue due to different sources. A decrease in saccadic speed seems to reflect fatigue due to time spent on task, whereas an increase in mean fixation duration a lack of synchronicity between chronotype and time of the day.

  10. Neuropathic ocular pain due to dry eye is associated with multiple comorbid chronic pain syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (Ppain assessed via 3 different pain scales (Ppain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863

  11. Action on diabetic macular oedema: achieving optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R; Scanlon, P H; Evans, M; Ghanchi, F; Yang, Y; Silvestri, G; Freeman, M; Maisey, A; Napier, J

    2017-05-01

    This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The authors propose more can and should be done to maximise metabolic control, promote appropriate behavioural modifications and encourage timely treatment intensification when indicated to ameliorate diabetes-related complications. All people with diabetes should be screened for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy promptly and regularly. It is shown that attitudes towards treatment adherence in diabetic macular oedema appear to mirror patients' views and health behaviours towards the management of their own diabetes. Awareness of diabetic macular oedema remains low among people with diabetes, who need access to education early in their disease about how to manage their diabetes to delay progression and possibly avoid eye-related complications. Ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals play a vital role in multidisciplinary diabetes management and establishment of dedicated diabetic macular oedema clinics is proposed. A broader understanding of the role of the diabetes specialist nurse may strengthen the case for comprehensive integrated care in ophthalmic practice. The recommendations are based on round table presentations and discussions held in London, UK, September 2016.

  12. Bilateral primary motor cortex circuitry is modulated due to theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex and bimanual training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2015-08-27

    Motor preparatory and execution activity is enhanced after a single session of bimanual visuomotor training (BMT). Recently, we have shown that increased primary motor cortex (M1) excitability occurs when BMT involves simultaneous activation of homologous muscles and these effects are enhanced when BMT is preceded by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to the left dorsal premotor cortex (lPMd). The neural mechanisms underlying these modulations are unclear, but may include interhemispheric interactions between homologous M1s and connectivity with premotor regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible intracortical and interhemispheric modulations of the extensor carpi radials (ECR) representation in M1 bilaterally due to: (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to lPMd, and (3) iTBS to lPMd followed by BMT. This study tests three related hypotheses: (1) BMT will enhance excitability within and between M1 bilaterally, (2) iTBS to lPMd will primarily enhance left M1 (lM1) excitability, and (3) the combination of these interventions will cause a greater enhancement of bilateral M1 excitability. We used single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to quantify M1 circuitry bilaterally. The results demonstrate the neural mechanisms underlying the early markers of rapid functional plasticity associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd primarily relate to modulations of long-interval inhibitory (i.e. GABAB-mediated) circuitry within and between M1s. This work provides novel insight into the underlying neural mechanisms involved in M1 excitability changes associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd. Critically, this work may inform rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical plasticity after brain injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Visual recovery from optic atrophy following acute optic neuropathy in the fellow eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Kemal; Ornek, Nurgül

    2012-06-01

    The left eye of a 65-year-old male was blind due to optic atrophy and only seeing eye had also dry type age-related macular degeneration. An anterior ischemic optic neuropathy developed in the better seeing eye. Vision recovered in the blind eye in a short time after losing the better eye. Gaining some vision in a blind eye may be an adaptation of visual pathway in such patients.

  14. Impact of Anodal and Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Attention Bias Modification: An Eye-Tracking Study.

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    Alexandre Heeren

    Full Text Available People with anxiety disorders show an attentional bias for threat (AB, and Attention Bias Modification (ABM procedures have been found to reduce this bias. However, the underlying processes accounting for this effect remain poorly understood. One explanation suggests that ABM requires the modification of attention control, driven by the recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. In the present double-blind study, we examined whether modifying left DLPFC activation influences the effect of ABM on AB. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to directly modulate cortical excitability of the left DLPFC during an ABM procedure designed to reduce AB to threat. Anodal tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases it. We randomly assigned highly trait-anxious individuals to one of three conditions: 1 ABM combined with cathodal tDCS, 2 ABM combined with anodal tDCS, or 3 ABM combined with sham tDCS. We assessed the effects of these manipulations on both reaction times and eye-movements on a task indexing AB. Results indicate that combining ABM and anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC reduces the total duration that participants' gaze remains fixated on threat, as assessed using eye-tracking measurement. However, in contrast to previous studies, there were no changes in AB from baseline to post-training for participants that received ABM without tDCS. As the tendency to maintain attention to threat is known to play an important role in the maintenance of anxiety, the present findings suggest that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may be considered as a promising tool to reduce the maintenance of gaze to threat. Implications for future translational research combining ABM and tDCS are discussed.

  15. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

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    E. A. Korchuganova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  16. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  17. Physiologic Functional Evaluation of Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft to Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Steal due to Unligated First Thoracic Branch in a Case of Refractory Angina

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    Fadi J. Sawaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unligated side branches of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA have been described in the literature as a cause of coronary steal resulting in angina. Despite a number of studies reporting successful side branch embolization to relieve symptoms, this phenomenon remains controversial. Hemodynamic evidence of coronary steal using angiographic and intravascular Doppler techniques has been supported by some and rejected by others. In this case study using an intracoronary Doppler wire with adenosine, we demonstrate that a trial occlusion of the LIMA thoracic side branch with selective balloon inflation can confirm physiologic significant steal and whether coil embolization of the side branch is indicated.

  18. Erythrocyte creatine as a marker of intravascular hemolysis due to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Toru; Okumiya, Toshika; Baba, Yuichi; Hirota, Takayoshi; Tanioka, Katsutoshi; Yamasaki, Naohito; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Doi, Yoshinori L; Kitaoka, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Erythrocyte creatine, a marker of erythrocyte age that increases with shortening of erythrocyte survival, has been reported to be a quantitative and reliable marker for intravascular hemolysis. We hypothesized that hemolysis could also occur due to intraventricular obstruction in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of subclinical hemolysis and the relation between intravascular hemolysis and intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG). We measured erythrocyte creatine in 92 HCM patients. Twelve patients had left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), 4 had midventricular obstruction (MVO), and the remaining 76 were non-obstructive. Erythrocyte creatine levels ranged from 0.92 to 4.36μmol/g hemoglobin. Higher levels of erythrocyte creatine were associated with higher IVPG (r=0.437, pcreatine levels are high (≥1.8μmol/g hemoglobin), subclinical hemolysis is considered to be present. Half of LVOTO patients and no MVO patients showed high erythrocyte creatine levels. Although non-obstructive patients did not show significant intraventricular obstruction at rest, some showed high erythrocyte creatine levels. When LVOT-PG was measured during the strain phase of the Valsalva maneuver in 20 non-obstructive patients, 7 of those 20 patients showed LVOTO. In the 20 patients, there was no relation between erythrocyte creatine levels and LVOT-PG before the Valsalva maneuver (r=0.125, p=0.600), whereas there was a significant correlation between erythrocyte creatine and LVOT-PG provoked by the Valsalva maneuver (r=0.695, p=0.001). There is biochemical evidence of subclinical hemolysis in patients with HCM, and this hemolysis seems to be associated with LVOTO provoked by daily physical activities. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomised controlled trial of topical antibacterial Manuka (Leptospermum species) honey for evaporative dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albietz, Julie M; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of standardised Manuka (Leptospermum species) antibacterial honey as adjunctive twice daily treatment to conventional therapy (warm compresses, lid massage and preservative-free lubricant), in participants with evaporative dry eye due to moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction. This prospective, open-label study involved 114 participants. After two weeks of conventional therapy participants were randomised to one of three treatment groups: Optimel Antibacterial Manuka Eye Gel (98 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37), Optimel Manuka plus Lubricant Eye Drops (16 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37) and a control (conventional therapy) (n = 40). Clinical evaluations performed at baseline and Week 8 included: symptom scores (Ocular Surface Disease Index, Ocular Comfort Index), daily lubricant use, tear assessments (break-up time, secretion, osmolarity and InflammaDry), corneal sensation, ocular surface staining, meibomian gland secretion quality and expressibility, bulbar conjunctival, limbal and lid marginal redness and eyelid marginal bacterial cultures and colony counts. Significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) occurred at Week 8 in symptoms, tear break-up time, staining, tear osmolarity, meibum quality and bulbar, limbal and lid margin redness for all treatments. Improvement in staining was significantly greater with Optimel 16 per cent drops (p = 0.035). Significant improvements (p < 0.05) in meibomian gland expressibility and InflammaDry occurred for both Optimel treatments. Optimel 98 per cent gel was significantly more effective in improving meibum quality (p = 0.005) and gland expressibility (p = 0.042). Total eyelid marginal bacterial colony counts reduced significantly with Optimel 16 per cent drops (p = 0.03) but not the other treatments. Staphylococcus epidermidis counts reduced significantly with Optimel 16

  20. Unsuccessful lung scan due to major right-to-left shunt through a sinus venosus septal defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, A.J.; Larnaudie, B.; Lambert, B.; Leccia, F.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Fontan, F.

    1985-01-01

    In a patient with a prior history of cerebral abscess and cerebral ischemia, an unsuccessful perfusion lung scan led to a radionuclide angiocardiogram using an arm vein injection. This showed a total right-to-left (R-L) shunt from the superior vena cava (SVC) to the left atrium. Repeat radionuclide study, through a leg vein, demonstrated a moderate R-L shunt and an interpretable lung scan could be obtained. Catheterization and contrast cineangiogram did not provide the exact diagnosis, the preoperative conclusion being anomalous drainage of the SVC into the left atrium, with atrial septal defect (ASD) and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the SVC. The operative diagnosis was high atrial (sinus venosus) septal defect. This example of major but clinically unsuspected R-L shunt emphasizes the value of performing a perfusion lung scan, preferably in conjunction with radionuclide angiocardiography in patients with a prior history of unexplained cerebral abscess or systemic ischemia. Implications of the site of an ASD on quantitation of L-R shunts by radionuclide methods are also discussed

  1. Intense pulsed light treatment for dry eye disease due to meibomian gland dysfunction; a 3-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyos, Rolando; McGill, William; Briscoe, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical benefits of intense-pulsed-light therapy for the treatment of dry-eye disease caused by meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye disease. It is currently treated with a range of methods that have been shown to be only somewhat effective, leading to the need for advanced treatment options. A retrospective noncomparative interventional case series was conducted with 91 patients presenting with severe dry eye syndrome. Treatment included intense-pulsed-light therapy and gland expression at a single outpatient clinic over a 30-month study. Pre/post tear breakup time data were available for a subset of 78 patients. For all patients, a specially developed technique for the treatment of dry eye syndrome was applied as a series of monthly treatments until there was adequate improvement in dry eye syndrome symptoms by physician judgment, or until patient discontinuation. Primary outcomes included change in tear breakup time, self-reported patient satisfaction, and adverse events. Physician-judged improvement in dry eye tear breakup time was found for 68 of 78 patients (87%) with seven treatment visits and four maintenance visits on average (medians), and 93% of patients reported post-treatment satisfaction with degree of dry eye syndrome symptoms. Adverse events, most typically redness or swelling, were found for 13% of patients. No serious adverse events were found. Although preliminary, study results of intense-pulsed-light therapy treatment for dry eye syndrome caused by meibomian gland dysfunction are promising. A multisite clinical trial with a larger sample, treatment comparison groups, and randomized controlled trials is currently underway.

  2. Secondary Angle Closure due to Crystalline Lens Dislocation in a Patient with Atopic Dermatitis and Chronic Eye Rubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kuiper

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report an unusual case of ectopia lentis and angle closure in a patient with chronic eye rubbing. Methods: A 57-year-old male with a history of poorly controlled atopic dermatitis presented with right eye pain, decreased vision, and an intraocular pressure (IOP of 55 mm Hg. He had no past history of ocular disease and no reported history of trauma. He did report a history of chronic eye rubbing. Results: Best corrected visual acuity was hand motions. The examination revealed severe atopic keratoconjunctivitis in both eyes, microcystic corneal edema of the right eye, and 2+ nuclear sclerosis in both eyes. Gonioscopy showed no visible angle structures OD and an open angle OS. Topical and oral IOP-lowering medications and a laser iridotomy were unsuccessful at lowering IOP. He was taken to the operating room for a lensectomy and was found to have 9 clock hours of zonular dehiscence and a dislocated lens. After lensectomy, the IOP improved to 9 mm Hg on postoperative day 1. A follow-up examination at 2 weeks showed improved acuity to 20/150 with a pinhole and an IOP of 10 mm Hg. A dilated examination OS did not reveal significant phacodonesis, and the patient was referred for a possible sutured sulcus lens or anterior chamber intraocular lens. Conclusions: It is important for the provider to consider ectopia lentis in the differential for patients with pupillary block angle closure. For patients with atopic disease, one should be aware that eye rubbing may be a cause of zonular dehiscence, even in the absence of reported trauma or prior intraocular surgery.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease: diagnostic and prognostic value of CT in chronic systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Geoffrey C; Gerber, Bernhard L; de Meester de Ravenstein, Christophe; Byl, David; Dietz, Anna; Kamga, Michele; Pasquet, Agnes; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; D'Hondt, Anne-Marie; Ghaye, Benoit; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine

    2018-05-14

    To evaluate the ability of chest computed tomography (CT) to predict pulmonary hypertension (PH) and outcome in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We reviewed 119 consecutive patients with HFrEF by CT, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and right heart catheterization (RHC). CT-derived pulmonary artery (PA) diameter and PA to ascending aorta diameter ratio (PA:A ratio), left atrial, right atrial, right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular volumes were correlated with RHC mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) . Diagnostic accuracy to predict PH and ability to predict primary composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and HF events were evaluated. RV volume was significantly higher in 81 patients with PH compared to 38 patients without PH (133 ml/m 2 vs. 79 ml/m 2 , p < 0.001) and was moderately correlated with mPAP (r=0.55, p < 0.001). Also, RV volume had higher ability to predict PH (area under the curve: 0.88) than PA diameter (0.79), PA:A ratio (0.76) by CT and tricuspid regurgitation gradient (0.83) and RV basal diameter by TTE (0.84, all p < 0.001). During the follow-up period (median: 3.4 years), 51 patients (43%) had HF events or died. After correction for important clinical, TTE and RHC parameters, RV volume (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.71, 95% CI 1.31-2.23, p < 0.001) and PA diameter (HR: 1.61, 95% CI 1.18-2.22, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of the primary endpoint. In patients with HFrEF, measurement of RV volume and PA diameter on ungated CT are non-invasive markers of PH and may help to predict the patient outcome. • Right ventricular (RV) volume measured by chest CT has good ability to identify pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). • The accuracy of pulmonary artery (PA) diameter and PA to ascending aorta diameter ratio (PA:A ratio) to predict PH was similar to previous studies, however, with lower cut-offs (28.1 mm and 0

  4. Frontal Phonological Agraphia and Acalculia with Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory due to Left Inferior Precentral Gyrus Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Furukawa, Emi; Kurihara, Masanori; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.

  5. Frontal Phonological Agraphia and Acalculia with Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory due to Left Inferior Precentral Gyrus Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Sakurai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6 and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.

  6. Severe upper extremity polyneuropathy due to inferior brachial plexus compression as a result of left subclavian artery pseudoaneurism

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    George Kosmadakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we describe the case of a 76-year-old hemodialysis patient who was admitted with clinical features of neurological thoracic exit syndrome due to subclavian artery pseudoaneurism following the insertion of a dual lumen vascular internal jugular catheter (vascath with excellent outcome after endo-arterial stent placement.

  7. Computing the stresses and deformations of the human eye components due to a high explosive detonation using fluid-structure interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    In spite the fact that a very small human body surface area is comprised by the eye, its wounds due to detonation have recently been dramatically amplified. Although many efforts have been devoted to measure injury of the globe, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury mechanism due to Primary Blast Wave (PBW). The goal of this study was to determine the stresses and deformations of the human eye components, including the cornea, aqueous, iris, ciliary body, lens, vitreous, retina, sclera, optic nerve, and muscles, attributed to PBW induced by trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosion via a Lagrangian-Eulerian computational coupling model. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was employed to establish a Finite Element (FE) model of the human eye according to a normal human eye. The solid components of the eye were modelled as Lagrangian mesh, while an explosive TNT, air domain, and aqueous were modelled using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) mesh. Nonlinear dynamic FE simulations were accomplished using the explicit FE code, namely LS-DYNA. In order to simulate the blast wave generation, propagation, and interaction with the eye, the ALE formulation with Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation defining the explosive material were employed. The results revealed a peak stress of 135.70kPa brought about by detonation upsurge on the cornea at the distance of 25cm. The highest von Mises stresses were observed on the sclera (267.3kPa), whereas the lowest one was seen on the vitreous body (0.002kPa). The results also showed a relatively high resultant displacement for the macula as well as a high variation for the radius of curvature for the cornea and lens, which can result in both macular holes, optic nerve damage and, consequently, vision loss. These results may have implications not only for understanding the value of stresses and strains in the human eye components but also giving an outlook about the process of PBW triggers damage to the eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Unilateral Keratoconus after Chronic Eye Rubbing by the Nondominant Hand

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    Nathalie Bral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To report the development of unilateral keratoconus in a healthy male after persistent unilateral eye rubbing by the nondominant hand which was not needed for professional activities. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 60-year-old male was first seen in our clinic due to decreased vision in his left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the left eye revealed Vogt’s striae, stromal thinning, and a stromal scar. Corneal topography showed a stage 4 keratoconus. Clinical examination and corneal topography of the right eye were normal. Medical history revealed a habit of chronic eye rubbing only in the left eye because of the right hand being occupied for professional needs. During follow-up of 5 years, Scheimpflug images of the right eye stayed normal while the left eye showed a stable cone. Discussion: This case report supports the hypothesis of mechanical fatigue of the cornea due to repetitive shear stress on the surface caused by eye-rubbing.

  9. The inappropriate occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy is not due to a defect in homeostatic regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Alexis; Meftah, Soraya; Arthaud, Sébastien; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Peyron, Christelle

    2018-06-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is a disabling disorder with four primary symptoms: excessive-daytime-sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. The later three symptoms together with a short rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency have suggested impairment in REM sleep homeostatic regulation with an enhanced propensity for (i.e. tendency to enter) REM sleep. To test this hypothesis, we challenged REM sleep homeostatic regulation in a recognized model of narcolepsy, the orexin knock-out (Orex-KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We first performed 48 hr of REM sleep deprivation using the classic small-platforms-over-water method. We found that narcoleptic mice are similarly REM sleep deprived to WT mice. Although they had shorter sleep latency, Orex-KO mice recovered similarly to WT during the following 10 hr of recovery. Interestingly, Orex-KO mice also had cataplexy episodes immediately after REM sleep deprivation, anticipating REM sleep rebound, at a time of day when cataplexy does not occur in baseline condition. We then evaluated REM sleep propensity using our new automated method of deprivation that performs a specific and efficient REM sleep deprivation. We showed that REM sleep propensity is similar during light phase in Orex-KO and WT mice. However, during the dark phase, REM sleep propensity was not suppressed in Orex-KO mice when hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides are normally released. Altogether our data suggest that in addition to the well-known wake-promoting role of hypocretin/orexin, these neuropeptides would also suppress REM sleep. Therefore, hypocretin/orexin deficiency would facilitate the occurrence of REM sleep at any time of day in an opportunistic manner as seen in human narcolepsy.

  10. Pulmonary Effective Arterial Elastance as a Measure of Right Ventricular Afterload and Its Prognostic Value in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Shah, Sanjiv J; Borlaug, Barry A; Leary, Peter J; Patel, Harnish H; Miller, Wayne L; Kelemen, Benjamin W; Houston, Brian A; Kolb, Todd M; Damico, Rachel; Mathai, Stephen C; Kasper, Edward K; Hassoun, Paul M; Kass, David A; Tedford, Ryan J

    2018-04-01

    Patients with combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease have a worse prognosis compared with isolated postcapillary. However, it remains unclear whether increased mortality in combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension is simply a result of higher total right ventricular load. Pulmonary effective arterial elastance (Ea) is a measure of total right ventricular afterload, reflecting both resistive and pulsatile components. We aimed to test whether pulmonary Ea discriminates survivors from nonsurvivors in patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease and if it does so better than other hemodynamic parameters associated with combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension. We combined 3 large heart failure patient cohorts (n=1036) from academic hospitals, including patients with pulmonary hypertension due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (n=232), reduced ejection fraction (n=335), and a mixed population (n=469). In unadjusted and 2 adjusted models, pulmonary Ea more robustly predicted mortality than pulmonary vascular resistance and the transpulmonary gradient. Along with pulmonary arterial compliance, pulmonary Ea remained predictive of survival in patients with normal pulmonary vascular resistance. The diastolic pulmonary gradient did not predict mortality. In addition, in a subset of patients with echocardiographic data, Ea and pulmonary arterial compliance were better discriminators of right ventricular dysfunction than the other parameters. Pulmonary Ea and pulmonary arterial compliance more consistently predicted mortality than pulmonary vascular resistance or transpulmonary gradient across a spectrum of left heart disease with pulmonary hypertension, including patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and pulmonary hypertension with a normal pulmonary vascular resistance. © 2018 American Heart Association

  11. A case of acute psychosis induced by topical cyclopentolate eye drops in an elderly patient

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    Neha Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old female patient was operated for cataract in her left eye. Cyclopentolate eye drops were started due to intraoperative handling of the iris. After the second dose of the eye drops, irrational behavior was observed. Psychiatrist′s opinion was taken and drug-induced psychosis was suspected. Thereafter, eye drops were withdrawn and the patient′s behaviour reverted to normal within 48 h.

  12. Cardiac arrest due to left circumflex coronary artery embolism as a complication of subtherapeutic oral anticoagulation in a patient with mitral and aortic mechanical valve prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasiewicz, Marcin; Rojek, Aleksandra; Gajek, Jacek; Mysiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old female patient after replacement of aortic and mitral valve with mechanical prostheses and implantation of a pacemaker hospitalized in our clinic due to acute coronary syndrome complicated with cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. The electrocardiogram performed on admission showed signs of myocardial infarction with concomitant ventricular pacing. After successful resuscitation the coronary angiography was performed, which showed occlusion of the left circumflex artery (LCx) by thrombus. On the basis of intravascular ultrasound imaging the presence of vulnerable plaque, parietal thrombus and dissection of LCx were excluded. It suggested that occlusion of the LCx resulted from its embolism by left-sided heart thrombus due to subtherapeutic oral anticoagulation. In this case suboptimal anticoagulation was partially iatrogenic. Two weeks before the patient had been given vitamin K intravenously due to indeterminable international normalized ratio (INR) level, which caused transient resistance to oral anticoagulants. This case report illustrates tragic difficulties in the treatment with vitamin K antagonists, which concern as many as 2/3 of anticoagulated patients. These troubles contributed to the search for new, more efficient and safer anticoagulants. There are two classes of new oral anticoagulant drugs, which do not require monitoring of coagulation: direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban). In spite of their proven efficacy in the prevention of ischaemic stroke related to atrial fibrillation and prevention or treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the use of new oral anticoagulants for the treatment of patients with mechanical valve prostheses needs further research.

  13. Impaired left ventricular systolic function reserve limits cardiac output and exercise capacity in HFpEF patients due to systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Michael; Mörner, Stellan; Lindmark, Krister; Lindqvist, Per

    2013-09-30

    Heart failure (HF) patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (HFpEF) due to systemic hypertension (SHT) are known to have limited exercise tolerance. Despite having normal EF at rest, we hypothesize that these patients have abnormal systolic function reserve limiting their exercise capacity. Seventeen patients with SHT (mean age 68 ± 9 years) but no valve disease and 14 healthy individuals (mean age of 65 ± 10 years) underwent resting and peak exercise echocardiography using conventional, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking techniques. The differences between resting and peak exercise values were also analyzed (Δ). Exercise capacity was determined as the workload divided by body surface area. Resting values for left atrial (LA) volume/BSA (r=-0.66, pexercise capacity. LVEF increased during exercise in normals (mean Δ EF=10 ± 8%) but failed to do so in patients (mean Δ EF=0.6 ± 9%, pexercise in patients, to the same extent as it did in normals (0.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 1/s, pexercise (Δ) in LV lateral wall systolic velocity from tissue Doppler (s') (0.71, pexercise capacity independent of changes in heart rate. HFpEF patients with hypertensive LV disease have significantly limited exercise capacity which is related to left atrial enlargement as well as compromised LV systolic function at the time of the symptoms. The limited myocardial systolic function reserve seems to be underlying important explanation for their limited exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Left, right, left, right, eyes to the front! Müller-Lyer bias in grasping is not a function of hand used, hand preferred or visual hemifield, but foveation does matter.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kamp, J.; de Wit, M.M.; Masters, R.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the control of movement of the left hand is more likely to involve the use of allocentric information than movements performed with the right hand. Previous studies (Gonzalez et al. in J Neurophys 95:3496-3501, 2006; De Grave et al. in Exp Br Res 193:421-427, 2009) have reported contradictory findings in this respect. In the present study, right-handed participants (N = 12) and left-handed participants (N = 12) made right- and left-handed grasps to foveated objects and...

  15. Case control study of dry eye and related ocular surface abnormalities in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibele, C O; Baiyeroju, A M; Ajaiyeoba, A; Akang, E E U; Ajayi, B G K

    2010-02-01

    Tear instability is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort and irritation. Many patients with dry eyes remain untreated due to improper diagnoses. To identify symptoms and surface abnormalities associated with dry eyes. One hundred and fifty-six eyes of 78 subjects attending the Eye Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan were screened for dry eyes/tear instability using rose Bengal stain (graded 0-9), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's 1 tests, tear meniscus height and a standardised symptoms questionnaire. Grades 4-9 rose Bengal staining were considered as positive dry eye and were compared with grades 0-3 staining eyes as negative controls. Mean tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and TBUT were lower among cases than their corresponding control eyes. The difference between the mean Schirmer's test values of cases and their controls were statistically significant (P = 0.00 for right eyes and P = 0.002 for left eyes). Rose Bengal grades were inversely correlated with the mean Schirmer's values (Pearson correlation -0.429, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.335, P = 0.03 for left eyes) and TBUT (Pearson correlation -0.316, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.212, P = 0.06 for left eyes). About 95.8% of the cases were symptomatic, as opposed to 70.4% of the controls (P = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and 95.8% of dry right eyes compared to 61.1% of their controls had ocular surface abnormalities (P = 0.001), while 89.5% of dry left eyes compared to 62.7% of controls had surface abnormalities (P = 0.07). A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms, surface abnormalities and functional evidence of tear instability. Such patients should be treated empirically or screened for dry eyes.

  16. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Left, right, left, right, eyes to the front! Müller-Lyer bias in grasping is not a function of hand used, hand preferred or visual hemifield, but foveation does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kamp, J.; de Wit, M.M.; Masters, R.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the control of movement of the left hand is more likely to involve the use of allocentric information than movements performed with the right hand. Previous studies (Gonzalez et al. in J Neurophys 95:3496-3501, 2006; De Grave et al. in Exp Br Res 193:421-427, 2009) have

  18. Left, right, left, right, eyes to the front! Müller-Lyer bias in grasping is not a function of hand used, hand preferred or visual hemifield, but foveation does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, John; de Wit, Matthieu M; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether the control of movement of the left hand is more likely to involve the use of allocentric information than movements performed with the right hand. Previous studies (Gonzalez et al. in J Neurophys 95:3496-3501, 2006; De Grave et al. in Exp Br Res 193:421-427, 2009) have reported contradictory findings in this respect. In the present study, right-handed participants (N = 12) and left-handed participants (N = 12) made right- and left-handed grasps to foveated objects and peripheral, non-foveated objects that were located in the right or left visual hemifield and embedded within a Müller-Lyer illusion. They were also asked to judge the size of the object by matching their hand aperture to its length. Hand apertures did not show significant differences in illusory bias as a function of hand used, handedness or visual hemifield. However, the illusory effect was significantly larger for perception than for action, and for the non-foveated compared to foveated objects. No significant illusory biases were found for reach movement times. These findings are consistent with the two-visual system model that holds that the use of allocentric information is more prominent in perception than in movement control. We propose that the increased involvement of allocentric information in movements toward peripheral, non-foveated objects may be a consequence of more awkward, less automatized grasps of nonfoveated than foveated objects. The current study does not support the conjecture that the control of left-handed and right-handed grasps is predicated on different sources of information.

  19. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  20. The Effect of Sensory Uncertainty Due to Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) on the Planning and Execution of Visually-Guided 3D Reaching Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C.; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing in amblyopia has been studied extensively, but its effects on visuomotor tasks have rarely been examined. Here, we investigate how visual deficits in amblyopia affect motor planning and online control of visually-guided, unconstrained reaching movements. Methods Thirteen patients with mild amblyopia, 13 with severe amblyopia and 13 visually-normal participants were recruited. Participants reached and touched a visual target during binocular and monocular viewing. Motor planning was assessed by examining spatial variability of the trajectory at 50–100 ms after movement onset. Online control was assessed by examining the endpoint variability and by calculating the coefficient of determination (R2) which correlates the spatial position of the limb during the movement to endpoint position. Results Patients with amblyopia had reduced precision of the motor plan in all viewing conditions as evidenced by increased variability of the reach early in the trajectory. Endpoint precision was comparable between patients with mild amblyopia and control participants. Patients with severe amblyopia had reduced endpoint precision along azimuth and elevation during amblyopic eye viewing only, and along the depth axis in all viewing conditions. In addition, they had significantly higher R2 values at 70% of movement time along the elevation and depth axes during amblyopic eye viewing. Conclusion Sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia leads to reduced precision of the motor plan. The ability to implement online corrections depends on the severity of the visual deficit, viewing condition, and the axis of the reaching movement. Patients with mild amblyopia used online control effectively to compensate for the reduced precision of the motor plan. In contrast, patients with severe amblyopia were not able to use online control as effectively to amend the limb trajectory especially along the depth axis, which could be due to their

  1. Evidence of multisensory plasticity: Asymmetrical medial geniculate body in people with one eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Moro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: volume asymmetry in the MGB in people with one eye may represent increased interactions between the left MGB and primary auditory cortex. This interaction could contribute to increased auditory and other left hemisphere-dominant processing, including language, as compensation for the loss of one half of visual inputs early in life. The positive correlation between MGB and LGN volume is not due to space constraints but rather indicates increased plasticity in both auditory and visual sensory systems following early eye enucleation.

  2. Study of the structure of buffalo's eye lens and scleroretinal rim in Tabriz by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Assadnassab

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasonographic condition of lens and posterior wall of buffalo's eye in Tabriz area were investigated due to their important role in vision and also measurements were made in anterior-posterior axial B-mode display methods. The ultrasonographic images were similar to the images obtained from other particularly the cow. Total thickness of the lens was 1.133 ± 0.052 cm with the thickness being 1.135 ± 0.052 cm in the right eye and 1.132 ± 0.053 cm in the left eye. Thickness of the posterior wall of the right and left eyes were 1.677 ± 0.042 mm and 1.672 ± 0.041 mm respectively with the total thickness of the posterior wall measuring 1.674 ± 0.040 mm. There was no significant difference between the left and right eyes regarding these parameters.

  3. Evaluation of noncoronary sources of left ventricular perfusion to intercoronary collateral-dependent myocardium due to chronic major vessel occlusion: absent contribution of luminal and extracardiac channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, G.J.; Downey, H.F.; Bashour, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    Liminal contribution to perfusion of collateral-dependent left ventricular (LV) myocardium was evaluated in six dogs. A portion of LV free wall was rendered collateral-dependent by gradual occlusion of left circumflex artery with Ameroid constrictor. Eight to 10 weeks after implantation of constrictor, measurements of LV myocardial flow were made by left atrial injections of 9-10 micro radioactive microspheres. To measure total collateral flow, microspheres were injected under control conditions, and to measure luminal contribution to collateral flow, microspheres were injected after ligation of right coronary artery during extracorporeal perfusion of left common coronary artery (LCCA) with microsphere-free arterial blood, and during stoppage of flow through LCCA. Under control conditions, myocardial blood flow in collateral-dependent region, 1.01 +/- 0.31 ml/min/gm, was not significantly different from that in normal region, 1.06 +/- 0.32 ml/min/gm. Flow from luminal collateral vessels was negligible (less than 0.005 ml/min/gm) in both collateral-dependent and normal myocardium, and was not affected by stoppage of flow through LCCA. These results indicate that luminal collateral vessels, as well as collateral vessels originating from other noncoronary sources, do not contribute significantly to perfusion of normal or collateral-dependent LV myocardium

  4. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  5. Histological study on the effect of He-Ne laser on the compound eyes of the locust Schistocerca Gregaria Forsk (Orthoptera-Acridiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Meguid, A.; El-Gundi, A.M.; Osiris, W.G.; El-Kes, N.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the He-Ne laser beam at different exposure periods (10,30 and 60 minutes) on the histological structure of the compound eyes of Schistocerca Gregaria Forsk is investigated. This study shows that various remarkable changes occurred in the histological structure of the right exposed eye (R) as in the left eye (L) (unexposed eye of the same insect), which may be due to a change in the micro-environment of the compound eyes, affected by the laser beam, furthermore, damage in the photoreceptors of the compound eyes of the insect was observed. 23 figs

  6. An interesting case of cryptogenic stroke in a young man due to left ventricular non-compaction: role of cardiac MRI in the accurate diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Das, Anindita; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-06-24

    A 28-year-old man arrived for an outpatient cardiac MRI (CMR) study to evaluate cardiac structure. At the age of 24 the patient presented with acute onset expressive aphasia and was diagnosed with ischaemic stroke. Echocardiography at that time was reported as 'apical wall thickening consistent with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy'. CMR revealed a moderately dilated left ventricle with abnormal appearance of the left ventricular (LV) apical segments. Further evaluation was consistent with a diagnosis of LV non-compaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy with a ratio of non-compacted to compacted myocardium measuring 3. There was extensive delayed hyperenhancement signal involving multiple segments representing a significant myocardial scar which is shown to have a prognostic role. Our patient, with no significant cerebrovascular risk factors, would likely have had an embolic stroke. This case demonstrates the role of CMR in accurately diagnosing LVNC in a patient with young stroke where prior echocardiography was non-diagnostic. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Correlation of 6-min walk test with left ventricular function and quality of life in heart failure due to Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambela, Mayara C; Mediano, Mauro F F; Ferreira, Roberto R; Japiassú, André M; Waghabi, Mariana C; da Silva, Gilberto M S; Saraiva, Roberto M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the correlation of the total distance walked during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) with left ventricular function and quality of life in patients with Chagas Disease (ChD) complicated by heart failure. This is a cross-sectional study of adult patients with ChD and heart failure diagnosed based on Framingham criteria. 6MWT was performed following international guidelines. New York Heart Association functional class, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels, echocardiographic parameters and quality of life (SF-36 and MLHFQ questionnaires) were determined and their correlation with the distance covered at the 6MWT was tested. Forty adult patients (19 male; 60 ± 12 years old) with ChD and heart failure were included in this study. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 35 ± 12%. Only two patients (5%) ceased walking before 6 min had elapsed. There were no cardiac events during the test. The average distance covered was 337 ± 105 metres. The distance covered presented a negative correlation with BNP (r = -0.37; P = 0.02), MLHFQ quality-of-life score (r = -0.54; P = 0.002), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = -0.42; P = 0.02) and the degree of diastolic dysfunction (r = -0.36; P = 0.03) and mitral regurgitation (r = -0.53; P = 0.0006) and positive correlation with several domains of the SF-36 questionnaire. The distance walked during the 6MWT correlates with BNP, quality of life and parameters of left ventricular diastolic function in ChD patients with heart failure. We propose this test to be adopted in endemic areas with limited resources to aid in the identification of patients who need referral for tertiary centres for further evaluation and treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  9. Sensory exotropia due to keratoconus and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciftci S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suleyman Ciftci,1 Ali Simsek,2 Eyup Dogan,1 Leyla Ciftci31Department of Ophthalmology, Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman; 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, TurkeyAbstract: This case report describes a 17-year-old boy with sensory strabismus due to keratoconus and an ipsilateral nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva. The aligned eye was the right eye and keratoconus in this eye was of late onset. Vision in the left eye was poor and keratoconus was advanced in this eye. Due to the longstanding nature of the keratoconus and its occurrence in a developmentally sensitive period, sensory exotropia had developed in the left eye. There was a nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the ipsilateral eye. If keratoconus occurs before the age of 7 years and the prolonged visual loss is not corrected, sensory strabismus can develop, as in this patient.Keywords: keratoconus, sensory exotropia, childhood

  10. Smooth pursuit adaptation (SPA exhibits features useful to compensate changes in the properties of the smooth pursuit eye movement system due to usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadeep eDash

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Smooth-pursuit adaptation (SPA refers to the fact that pursuit gain in the early, still open-loop response phase of the pursuit eye movement can be adjusted based on experience. For instance, if the target moves initially at a constant velocity for approximately 100-200ms and then steps to a higher velocity, subjects learn to up-regulate the pursuit gain associated with the initial target velocity (gain-increase SPA in order to reduce the retinal error resulting from the velocity step. Correspondingly, a step to a lower target velocity leads to a decrease in gain (gain-decrease SPA. In this study we demonstrate that the increase in peak eye velocity during gain-increase SPA is a consequence of expanding the duration of the eye acceleration profile while the decrease in peak velocity during gain-decrease SPA results from reduced peak eye acceleration but unaltered duration. Furthermore, we show that carrying out stereotypical smooth pursuit eye movements elicited by constant velocity target ramps for several hundred trials (= test of pursuit resilience leads to a clear drop in initial peak acceleration, a reflection of oculomotor and/ or cognitive fatigue. However, this drop in acceleration gets compensated by an increase in the duration of the acceleration profile, thereby keeping initial pursuit gain constant. The compensatory expansion of the acceleration profile in the pursuit resilience experiment is reminiscent of the one leading to gain-increase SPA, suggesting that both processes tap one and the same neuronal mechanism warranting a precise acceleration/ duration trade-off. Finally, we show that the ability to adjust acceleration duration during pursuit resilience depends on the integrity of the oculomotor vermis (OMV as indicated by the complete loss of the duration adjustment following a surgical lesion of the OMV in one rhesus monkey we could study.

  11. Histopathologic evaluation of the anterior segment of eyes enucleated due to glaucoma secondary to primary lens displacement in 13 canine globes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Pizzirani, Stefano; Pirie, Christopher G

    2013-07-01

    PURPOSE  To describe histologic anterior segment changes in eyes affected with primary lens displacement (PLD) and secondary glaucoma. METHODS  Histologic sections stained with H&E from canine eyes enucleated because of PLD and secondary glaucoma were examined. RESULTS  Thirteen eyes from 12 patients were evaluated. Four dogs were castrated males and eight spayed females. Median age was 8 years of age (range 3-13). Breeds included seven terriers and five other breeds. All eyes examined demonstrated varying degrees of inflammation involving the iris and cleft. Mononuclear and melanophagic infiltration of the cleft was found in all specimens. Four globes also showed polymorphonuclear infiltrate. Pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes were clearly identified in 10 of 13 eyes. Total inflammatory score was significantly greater in all globes examined compared with an age-matched group of normal dogs. The posterior pigmented iris epithelium demonstrated a consistent pattern of hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy and cystic degeneration, more prominent in the more central regions. In some cases, hyperplasia was of greatest severity in the mid-iris and associated with thinning or flattening of the pupillary region. CONCLUSIONS  These results suggest that lens instability may be associated with chronic inflammation and secondary glaucoma. Mechanical irritation from an unstable lens may result in hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the posterior pigmented iris epithelium and subsequent cellular exfoliation and release of melanin. An inflammatory reaction directly or indirectly related to melanin release may obstruct the outflow pathways ultimately leading to glaucoma and loss of vision. Use of topical steroids may be warranted in dogs with PLD. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Hidden Markov model analysis reveals the advantage of analytic eye movement patterns in face recognition across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    It remains controversial whether culture modulates eye movement behavior in face recognition. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding whether cultural differences in eye movement patterns exist, whether these differences affect recognition performance, and whether participants use similar eye movement patterns when viewing faces from different ethnicities. These inconsistencies may be due to substantial individual differences in eye movement patterns within a cultural group. Here we addressed this issue by conducting individual-level eye movement data analysis using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each individual's eye movements were modeled with an HMM. We clustered the individual HMMs according to their similarities and discovered three common patterns in both Asian and Caucasian participants: holistic (looking mostly at the face center), left-eye-biased analytic (looking mostly at the two individual eyes in addition to the face center with a slight bias to the left eye), and right-eye-based analytic (looking mostly at the right eye in addition to the face center). The frequency of participants adopting the three patterns did not differ significantly between Asians and Caucasians, suggesting little modulation from culture. Significantly more participants (75%) showed similar eye movement patterns when viewing own- and other-race faces than different patterns. Most importantly, participants with left-eye-biased analytic patterns performed significantly better than those using either holistic or right-eye-biased analytic patterns. These results suggest that active retrieval of facial feature information through an analytic eye movement pattern may be optimal for face recognition regardless of culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Dose Propofol-induced Amnesia Is Not Due to a Failure of Encoding: Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Is Still Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, Robert A.; Pryor, Kane O.; Reinsel, Ruth A.; Mehta, Meghana; Pan, Hong; Johnson, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Background Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. Methods 17 volunteer participants (12 M, 30.4±6.5 years old) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O15 positron emission tomography during complex and simple encoding tasks (deep vs. shallow level of processing), to identify a region of interest in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPFC). The effect of either propofol (n=6, 0.9 mcg/ml target concentration), placebo with a divided attention task (n=5), or thiopental at sedative doses (n=6, 3 mcg/ml) on regional cerebral blood flow activation in the LIPFC was tested. The divided attention task was expected to decrease activation in the LIPFC. Results Propofol did not impair encoding performance or reaction times, but impaired recognition memory of deeply encoded words 4 hours later (median recognition of 35% (17–54 interquartile) of words presented during propofol versus 65% (38–91) before drug, pdeep encoding was present in this region of interest in each group before drug (T>4.41, pprocesses. PMID:18648230

  14. Low-dose propofol-induced amnesia is not due to a failure of encoding: left inferior prefrontal cortex is still active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, Robert A; Pryor, Kane O; Reinsel, Ruth A; Mehta, Meghana; Pan, Hong; Johnson, Ray

    2008-08-01

    Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. Seventeen volunteer participants (12 men; aged 30.4 +/- 6.5 yr) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O positron emission tomography during complex and simple encoding tasks (deep vs. shallow level of processing) to identify a region of interest in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPFC). The effect of either propofol (n = 6, 0.9 microg/ml target concentration), placebo with a divided attention task (n = 5), or thiopental at sedative doses (n = 6, 3 microg/ml) on regional cerebral blood flow activation in the LIPFC was tested. The divided attention task was expected to decrease activation in the LIPFC. Propofol did not impair encoding performance or reaction times, but impaired recognition memory of deeply encoded words 4 h later (median recognition of 35% [interquartile range, 17-54%] of words presented during propofol vs. 65% [38-91%] before drug; P deep encoding was present in this region of interest in each group before drug (T > 4.41, P memory processes.

  15. Eye Absence Does Not Regulate Planarian Stem Cells during Eye Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCascio, Samuel A; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2017-02-27

    Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disfunção ventricular esquerda transitória por cardiomiopatia induzida por estresse Transient left ventricular dysfunction due to stress-induced cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Simões

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de uma paciente de 71 anos que preencheu os critérios diagnósticos para cardiomiopatia induzida por estresse que foi desencadeada por intenso estresse emocional após atropelamento por bicicleta. O quadro clínico mimetizou o infarto agudo do miocárdio, manifestando-se com dor precordial, supradesnivelamento do segmento ST, seguido por ondas T profundas e prolongamento do intervalo QT, elevação discreta de enzimas cardíacas e cursando com disfunção sistólica apical do ventrículo esquerdo e hipercinesia das porções basais (conferindo o aspecto de "abaloamento apical", mas na ausência de obstrução coronariana subepicárdica. A função ventricular normalizou-se após a segunda semana de evolução.The case presented here is of a 71-yr-old female patient who met the diagnostic criteria for stress-induced cardiomyopathy, which was triggered by intense emotional stress after being hit by a bicycle. The clinical picture mimicked that of an acute myocardial infarction, manifesting as precordial pain, ST-segment depression followed by deep negative T waves and prolonging of the QT interval, slight increase in cardiac enzymes and coursing with transient apical ballooning of the left ventricle and hyperkinesis of the basal walls (conferring the aspect of "apical ballooning", although in the absence of subepicardial coronary obstruction. Ventricular function normalized after the second week of clinical evolution.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement of Left Ventricular Blood Flow and Coronary Flow Reserve in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure due to Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aras, A.; Anik, Y.; Demirci, A.; Balci, N.C.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuoglu, B. (Radiology Dept. and Cardiology Dept., Kocaeli Univ. School of Medicine, Kocaeli (Turkey))

    2007-11-15

    Background: Coronary sinus flow reflects global cardiac perfusion and has been used for the assessment of myocardial flow reserve, which is reduced in chronic heart failure (CHF). Coronary flow reserve (CFR) can be measured by using phase-contrast (PC) velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To quantify and compare global left ventricular (LV) perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF and in a healthy control group by measuring coronary sinus flow with PC VEC MRI, and to correlate this with global LV perfusion, segmental first-pass perfusion, and viability in the same patients. Material and Methods: Cardiac MRI was performed in 20 patients with CHF of ischemic origin and in a control group of healthy subjects (n 11) at rest and after pharmacological stress induced by i.v. dipyridamole. The MRI protocol included cine MRI, VEC MRI, first-pass perfusion, and delayed contrast-enhanced MRI for viability. Global LV perfusion was quantified by measuring coronary sinus flow on VEC MRI at rest in all subjects. CFR was determined as the ratio of global LV perfusion before and after pharmacologic stress. Results: At rest, global LV perfusion was not significantly different in patients with CHF and the control group. After administration of dipyridamole, global LV perfusion and CFR were significantly lower in patients with CHF compared to the control group (P<0.001). An inverse correlation was observed between CFR and the number of infarcted and/or ischemic segments (P = 0.083, P = 0.037). Conclusion: A combined cardiac MRI protocol including function and perfusion techniques together with VEC MRI can be used to evaluate global LV perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF. Global LV perfusion and CFR measurements may have potential in the monitoring of CHF. Impaired CFR may contribute to progressive decline in LV function in patients with CHF

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement of Left Ventricular Blood Flow and Coronary Flow Reserve in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure due to Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, A.; Anik, Y.; Demirci, A.; Balci, N.C.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuogl u, B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Coronary sinus flow reflects global cardiac perfusion and has been used for the assessment of myocardial flow reserve, which is reduced in chronic heart failure (CHF). Coronary flow reserve (CFR) can be measured by using phase-contrast (PC) velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To quantify and compare global left ventricular (LV) perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF and in a healthy control group by measuring coronary sinus flow with PC VEC MRI, and to correlate this with global LV perfusion, segmental first-pass perfusion, and viability in the same patients. Material and Methods: Cardiac MRI was performed in 20 patients with CHF of ischemic origin and in a control group of healthy subjects (n 11) at rest and after pharmacological stress induced by i.v. dipyridamole. The MRI protocol included cine MRI, VEC MRI, first-pass perfusion, and delayed contrast-enhanced MRI for viability. Global LV perfusion was quantified by measuring coronary sinus flow on VEC MRI at rest in all subjects. CFR was determined as the ratio of global LV perfusion before and after pharmacologic stress. Results: At rest, global LV perfusion was not significantly different in patients with CHF and the control group. After administration of dipyridamole, global LV perfusion and CFR were significantly lower in patients with CHF compared to the control group (P<0.001). An inverse correlation was observed between CFR and the number of infarcted and/or ischemic segments (P = 0.083, P 0.037). Conclusion: A combined cardiac MRI protocol including function and perfusion techniques together with VEC MRI can be used to evaluate global LV perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF. Global LV perfusion and CFR measurements may have potential in the monitoring of CHF. Impaired CFR may contribute to progressive decline in LV function in patients with CHF

  19. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  20. Characteristics of the gait adaptation process due to split-belt treadmill walking under a wide range of right-left speed ratios in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Sato, Koji; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2018-01-01

    The adaptability of human bipedal locomotion has been studied using split-belt treadmill walking. Most of previous studies utilized experimental protocol under remarkably different split ratios (e.g. 1:2, 1:3, or 1:4). While, there is limited research with regard to adaptive process under the small speed ratios. It is important to know the nature of adaptive process under ratio smaller than 1:2, because systematic evaluation of the gait adaptation under small to moderate split ratios would enable us to examine relative contribution of two forms of adaptation (reactive feedback and predictive feedforward control) on gait adaptation. We therefore examined a gait behavior due to on split-belt treadmill adaptation under five belt speed difference conditions (from 1:1.2 to 1:2). Gait parameters related to reactive control (stance time) showed quick adjustments immediately after imposing the split-belt walking in all five speed ratios. Meanwhile, parameters related to predictive control (step length and anterior force) showed a clear pattern of adaptation and subsequent aftereffects except for the 1:1.2 adaptation. Additionally, the 1:1.2 ratio was distinguished from other ratios by cluster analysis based on the relationship between the size of adaptation and the aftereffect. Our findings indicate that the reactive feedback control was involved in all the speed ratios tested and that the extent of reaction was proportionally dependent on the speed ratio of the split-belt. On the contrary, predictive feedforward control was necessary when the ratio of the split-belt was greater. These results enable us to consider how a given split-belt training condition would affect the relative contribution of the two strategies on gait adaptation, which must be considered when developing rehabilitation interventions for stroke patients.

  1. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  2. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  3. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  4. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology.

  5. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  6. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  7. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  8. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  9. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  10. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  11. Communication Aid with Human Eyes Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Yajima, Kenro

    A communication aid with human eyes only is proposed. A set of candidate character is displayed onto computer screen of relatively small and light Head Mount Display: HMD that is mounted on glasses of which user wears on. When user looks at a candidate character with his/hers left eye while right eye picture is taken with small and light web camera that also is mounted on the glasses. The proposed system can selects 81 characters with two layers of 9 by 9 character candidate image. Other than these there is another selective image including control keys and frequently use of sentences. By using image matching between previously acquired template image for each candidate character and the currently acquired image, the proposed system realizes that which character in the candidates is selected. By using blinking and fix one's eye on combine together, the proposed system recognizes that user determines the selected key from the candidates. The blinking detection method employs a morphologic filter to avoid misunderstanding of dark eye detection due to eyebrows and shadows. Thus user can input sentences. User also may edit the sentences and then the sentences are read with Text to Speech: TTS software tool. Thus the system allows support conversations between handicapped and disabled persons without voice and the others peoples because only the function required for conversation is human eyes. Also the proposed system can be used as an input system for wearable computing systems. Test results by the 6 different able persons show that the proposed system does work with acceptable speed, around 1.5 second / character.

  12. [Trauma induced left maxillary sinus dislocation of eyeball--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Liu, Cuiping; Cui, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Patient male, 27 year old. Left facial and head trauma for 6 hours, due to motor vehicle accident. Patient state of mind was clear at arrival to hospital. Body temperature: 36C; Pulse: 80 Time/Minute; Breath: 20 Time/Minute; Blood pressure: 120/80 mm Hg. An irregular, horizontal laceration at arch of left eyebrow, approximately 8-10 cm. A laceration on left wing of nose skin, approximately 1 cm. A laceration also under lower eyelid skin of right eye, approximately 2 cm. Left blepharedema and enophthalmos. Orbital and nasal sinuses CT indications:contusion and laceration of the left frontal lobe of brain; fracture of the left orbital frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid bone, left nasal, maxillary sinus and zygoma with soft tissue contusion and laceration; the left eyeball and optic nerve sunk into the maxillary sinus (See figure 1). (1) Multiple orbital fractures; (2) Left maxillary sinus dislocation of eyeball; (3) The left frontal lobe contusion and laceration of brain.

  13. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  14. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  15. Efficient feature for classification of eye movements using electrooculography signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phukpattaranont Pornchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrooculography (EOG signal is widely and successfully used to detect activities of human eye. The advantages of the EOG-based interface over other conventional interfaces have been presented in the last two decades; however, due to a lot of information in EOG signals, the extraction of useful features should be done before the classification task. In this study, an efficient feature extracted from two directional EOG signals: vertical and horizontal signals has been presented and evaluated. There are the maximum peak and valley amplitude values, the maximum peak and valley position values, and slope, which are derived from both vertical and horizontal signals. In the experiments, EOG signals obtained from five healthy subjects with ten directional eye movements were employed: up, down, right, left, up-right, up-left, down-right down-left clockwise and counterclockwise. The mean feature values and their standard deviations have been reported. The difference between the mean values of the proposed feature from different eye movements can be clearly seen. Using the scatter plot, the differences in features can be also clearly observed. Results show that classification accuracy can approach 100% with a simple distinction feature rule. The proposed features can be useful for various advanced human-computer interface applications in future researches.

  16. In the Eye of the Beholder-  A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzner Hansen, Dan; Ji, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Despite active research and significant progress in the last 30 years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have numerous applications and...

  17. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  18. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  1. An improved likelihood model for eye tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2007-01-01

    While existing eye detection and tracking algorithms can work reasonably well in a controlled environment, they tend to perform poorly under real world imaging conditions where the lighting produces shadows and the person's eyes can be occluded by e.g. glasses or makeup. As a result, pixel clusters...... associated with the eyes tend to be grouped together with background-features. This problem occurs both for eye detection and eye tracking. Problems that especially plague eye tracking include head movement, eye blinking and light changes, all of which can cause the eyes to suddenly disappear. The usual...... approach in such cases is to abandon the tracking routine and re-initialize eye detection. Of course this may be a difficult process due to missed data problem. Accordingly, what is needed is an efficient method of reliably tracking a person's eyes between successively produced video image frames, even...

  2. Analysis of the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye, then provide clinical references for better treatment. METHODS: Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were taken as the observation group, the control group was selected based on 1:1 case control theory, and we chose 50 health volunteers without ocular surface diseases, xerophthalmia and systematic diseases randomly, then fluorescein(FLstaining, break-up time(BUT, Schirner I test(SⅠt, tear meniscus high(TMHand slit-lamp examinations were performed in the two groups. RESULTS: In the observation group, FL, BUT, SIt, TMH of right eyes and left eyes were statistically significant correlated(PPPCONCLUSION: Due to inflammatory mediators participation, allergic conjunctivitis could lead to the stability changes of tear film which cause in dry eye. The stability changes of allergic conjunctivitis correlate to the damage degree of epithelium.

  3. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, Romain; Blouin, Jean; Guillaume, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD) analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP) that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE). Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization.

  4. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Chaumillon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE. Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization.

  5. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, Romain; Blouin, Jean; Guillaume, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD) analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP) that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE). Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization. PMID:29515351

  6. EFFECT OF ISRADIPINE AND NIFEDIPINE ON DIASTOLIC FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT-VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION DUE TO CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE - A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, NUCLEAR, STETHOSCOPE STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENTOREN, EW; DEVRIES, RJM; PORTEGIES, MCM; BLANKSMA, PK; VANGILST, WH; HILLEGE, HJ; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; LIE, KI

    To elucidate the effect of isradipine and nifedipine on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, each drug was given intravenously (i.v.) in equihypotensive doses to 10 patients accepted for coronary arteriography for stable angina pectoris. All 20 patients had LV ejection fraction

  7. Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a cervicomediastinal ... Her voice was hoarse but there was no eye signs suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. ... A presumptive diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with retrosternal extension was made.

  8. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  9. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  10. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  11. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  15. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  19. Analysis of EEG Related Saccadic Eye Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funase, Arao; Kuno, Yoshiaki; Okuma, Shigeru; Yagi, Tohru

    Our final goal is to establish the model for saccadic eye movement that connects the saccade and the electroencephalogram(EEG). As the first step toward this goal, we recorded and analyzed the saccade-related EEG. In the study recorded in this paper, we tried detecting a certain EEG that is peculiar to the eye movement. In these experiments, each subject was instructed to point their eyes toward visual targets (LEDs) or the direction of the sound sources (buzzers). In the control cases, the EEG was recorded in the case of no eye movemens. As results, in the visual experiments, we found that the potential of EEG changed sharply on the occipital lobe just before eye movement. Furthermore, in the case of the auditory experiments, similar results were observed. In the case of the visual experiments and auditory experiments without eye movement, we could not observed the EEG changed sharply. Moreover, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a right-side target, a change in EEG potential was found on the right occipital lobe. On the contrary, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a left-side target, a sharp change in EEG potential was found on the left occipital lobe.

  20. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Madhavi; Soumya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified) secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour) for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye). Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and rig...

  1. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  2. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  3. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  6. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  8. Punctal occlusion for dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Law, Andrew; Pucker, Andrew D

    2017-06-26

    punctal plugs was combined with artificial tears and compared with artificial tears alone. There was very low-certainty evidence on symptomatic improvement. Low-certainty evidence of little or no improvement in ocular surface staining comparing punctal plugs with artificial tears (MD right eye 0.10 points higher, 0.56 lower to 0.76 higher, MD left eye 0.60 points higher, 0.10 to 1.10 higher) and low-certainty evidence of little or no difference in aqueous tear production (MD 0.00 mm/5 min, 0.33 lower to 0.33 higher)Three trials compared punctal plugs in the upper versus the lower puncta, and none of them reported the review outcomes at long-term follow-up. One trial with very low-certainty evidence reported no observed complications, but it was unclear which complications were collected.One trial compared acrylic punctal plugs with silicone punctal plugs and the trial reported outcomes at approximately 11 weeks of follow-up (36 eyes). The evidence was judged to be very low-certainty due to a combination of risk of bias and imprecision.One trial compared intracanalicular punctal plugs with silicone punctal plugs at three months follow-up (57 eyes). The evidence was judged to be very low-certainty due to a combination of risk of bias and imprecision.Finally, two trials with very low-certainty evidence compared collagen punctal plugs versus silicone punctal plugs (98 eyes). The evidence was judged to be very low-certainty due to a combination of risk of bias and imprecision. Although the investigators of the individual trials concluded that punctal plugs are an effective means for treating dry eye signs and symptoms, the evidence in this systematic review suggests that improvements in symptoms and commonly tested dry eye signs are inconclusive. Despite the inclusion of 11 additional trials, the findings of this updated review are consistent with the previous review published in 2010. The type of punctal plug investigated, the type and severity of dry eye being treated, and

  9. Design for the sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) compared with enalapril study of pediatric patients with heart failure due to systemic left ventricle systolic dysfunction (PANORAMA-HF study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddy, Robert; Canter, Charles; Halnon, Nancy; Kochilas, Lazaros; Rossano, Joseph; Bonnet, Damien; Bush, Christopher; Zhao, Ziqiang; Kantor, Paul; Burch, Michael; Chen, Fabian

    2017-11-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor approved for the treatment of adult heart failure (HF); however, the benefit of sacubitril/valsartan in pediatric HF patients is unknown. This global multi-center study will use an adaptive, seamless two-part design. Part 1 will assess the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of single ascending doses of sacubitril/valsartan in pediatric (1 month to sacubitril/valsartan or enalapril. A novel global rank primary endpoint derived by ranking patients (worst-to-best outcome) based on clinical events such as death, initiation of mechanical life support, listing for urgent heart transplant, worsening HF, measures of functional capacity (NYHA/Ross scores), and patient-reported HF symptoms will be used to assess efficacy. The PANORAMA-HF study, which will be the largest prospective pediatric HF trial conducted to date and the first to use a global rank primary endpoint, will determine whether sacubitril/valsartan is superior to enalapril for treatment of pediatric HF patients with reduced systemic left ventricular systolic function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  11. Left Atrial Decompression by Percutaneous Left Atrial Venting Cannula Insertion during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO frequently suffer from pulmonary edema due to left ventricular dysfunction that accompanies left heart dilatation, which is caused by left atrial hypertension. The problem can be resolved by left atrium (LA decompression. We performed a successful percutaneous LA decompression with an atrial septostomy and placement of an LA venting cannula in a 38-month-old child treated with venoarterial ECMO for acute myocarditis.

  12. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  13. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  14. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  18. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  19. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  20. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  1. [Firework-related eye trauma from 2005 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterlauft, J D; Wiedemann, P; Meier, P

    2014-09-01

    Fireworks combusted during New Year's Eve festivities can cause different eye traumas which often need complex reconstructive surgery. It was our aim to systematically analyse these eye trauma cases which were treated at our clinic during the last eight years. Age, gender, side, trauma mechanism, treatment methods and outcome were analysed for all eye trauma cases caused by fireworks during the New Year's Eve celebrations from 2006 to 2013. For statistical analysis all trauma cases were divided into two groups of major and non-major eye trauma. The total number of patients treated was 122 (28 women, 94 men, mean age 26.2±13.0 years) with 137 traumatised eyes (77 right, 60 left). 24.6% of patients were ≤18 years of age. 76.2% were bystanders. 50 eyes from 46 patients (37.7%) suffered from major eye trauma. 26 patients (21.3%) were hospitalised. 8 eyes (5.8%) suffered from a penetrating injury or globe rupture and underwent primary reconstructive surgery. Further 16 eyes (11.7%) suffered from major eye trauma without open globe injury. In the aftermath 11 eyes (8.0%) went blind (visual acuityfireworks. However older patients suffer from major eye trauma more often. More education and prophylaxis of eye trauma caused by fireworks is desirable. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  3. Relationship between eye dominance and pattern electroretinograms in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Umit; Gunduz, Kemal; Okudan, Nilsel; Gokbel, Hakki; Bodur, Sait; Tan, Uner

    2005-02-01

    The authors conducted a study in 100 non-smoker healthy normal human subjects to find a relationship between eye dominance and macular function as tested by using transient stimulus and electroretinography. Eye preference procedure was carried out using two reference points and pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) were recorded using black and white checks, each check subtending 23'. Trace averager was retriggered every 300 milliseconds (ms) with data collection time of 150 ms. The difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between right and left eyes was analyzed using Student's t test. There was no significant difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between the right and left eye dominant subjects as well as no significant differences between the right and left eyes in right eye dominants and left eye dominants, but in the left-eye dominant group the left eye PERG P50 amplitudes were significantly higher in females than males. Although pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials of healthy subjects provide electrophysiological evidence of lateralization in the nervous system, sensory eye dominance seems to have no correlation with macular function.

  4. Perceptions of Eye Health and Eye Health Services among Adults Attending Outreach Eye Care Clinics in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Anthea; Yu, Mitasha; Paudel, Prakash; Naduvilath, Thomas; Fricke, Tim R; Hani, Yvonne; Garap, Jambi

    2015-01-01

    To determine how people attending outreach eye care clinics in Papua New Guinea (PNG) perceive eye health and eye health services. An interview-based questionnaire was administrated to a convenience sample of 614 adult participants across four provinces and perceptions of eye health and eye health services were recorded. Presenting and near visual acuity were measured and cause of visual impairment (VI) determined. In this sample, 113/614 participants (18.4%) presented with distance VI, 16 (2.6%) with distance blindness, and 221 (47.6%) with near VI. Older participants and those with near VI were more likely to indicate that it is hard to have an eye examination due to travel time, lack of transport and transport costs. Female participants and those from underserved areas were more likely to report shame and fear of jealousy from others when asked about their attitudes towards spectacles. Participants reporting that they were willing to pay higher amounts for testing and spectacles/treatment also reported higher education levels, higher household incomes and were more likely to be male. A quarter of participants (25.9%) indicated that they did not like having an eye examination because their reading and writing was poor. People attending outreach eye care clinics in PNG reported finding it difficult to attend eye health services due to transport difficulties and anticipated high costs. Negative attitudes towards spectacles were also prevalent, and negative perceptions appeared more frequently among older participants and those with less education.

  5. The eye amputated - consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie Louise Roed

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the term eye amputation (EA) covers the removing of an eye by: evisceration, enucleation and exenteration. Amputation of an eye is most frequently the end-stage in a complicated disease, or the primary treatment in trauma and neoplasm. In 2010 the literature is extensive due...... to knowledge about types of surgery, implants and surgical technique. However, not much is known about the time past surgery. THE PURPOSE OF THE PHD THESIS WAS: To identify the number of EA, the causative diagnosis and the indication for surgical removal of the eye, the chosen surgical technique...... and to evaluate a possible change in surgical technique in Denmark from 1996 until 2003 (paper I); To describe the phantom eye syndrome and its prevalence of visual hallucinations, phantom pain and phantom sensations (paper II); To characterise the quality of phantom eye pain, including its intensity...

  6. Iris coloboma in one eye and pigment dispersion syndrome in the fellow eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Valarezo, Paul; Prada, Angélica M

    2013-05-22

    We report a case of a 43-year-old patient with coloboma of the iris, zonule, ciliary body, choroid and retina in the right eye and pigment dispersion syndrome in the left eye. Considering the hypothesis of the pigment dispersion syndrome pathogenesis in which a difference of pressures in the anterior and posterior chambers creates a posterior convexity of the iris leading to reverse pupillary block, iris touch and consequently causing pigment dispersion, we suggest that the presence of an iris coloboma, by equalising the pressures in the two chambers, prevented the onset of syndrome in that eye.

  7. Structural neural substrates of reading the mind in the eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eSato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to read the minds of others in their eyes plays an important role in human adaptation to social environments. Behavioral studies have resulted in the development of a test to measure this ability (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version; Eyes Test, and have demonstrated that this ability is consistent over time. Although functional neuroimaging studies revealed brain activation while performing the Eyes Test, the structural neural substrates supporting consistent performance on the Eyes Test remain unclear. In this study we assessed the Eyes Test and analyzed structural magnetic resonance images using voxel-based morphometry in healthy participants. Test performance was positively associated with the gray matter volumes of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule (temporoparietal junction, and precuneus in the left hemisphere. These results suggest that the fronto-temporoparietal network structures support the consistent ability to read the mind in the eyes.

  8. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  9. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  10. Fatal case of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in an adult due to a rare serogroup O91 Entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli associated with a Clostridium difficile infection. More than meets the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guillard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, belonging to serogroup O91 has rarely been described. We report here a case of post-diarrheal HUS due to EHEC O91 in an elderly patient for whom diagnosis was delayed given a previously diagnosed C. difficile infection. This case highlights the usefulness of Shiga-toxin detection.

  11. A Retinal Detachment Case with a Delay in Diagnosis Due to Unilateral Lens Coloboma and Bilateral Ectopic Pupil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Mayalı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female patient was admitted with the complaint of decreased vision in the left eye for the last 9 months. The visual acuity was 0.4 in the right eye and hand movements in the left eye. Biomicroscopic examination revealed ectopic pupils in both eyes and lens coloboma in the left eye; her right lens was normal. There was total retinal detachment in the left fundus. Optic disc, macula, and peripheral retina were normal in the right eye at her fundus examination. In our case, reduction of vision in the left eye was associated with ectopic pupil at various centers and this situation has led to delay in the diagnosis. Therefore, the importance of careful retinal examination should be kept in mind in cases in which the reduction of vision does not correlate with clinical picture. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 75-7

  12. Eye muscle proprioception is represented bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Albert, Neil B; Miall, Chris

    2011-01-01

    eye after a virtual lesion with rTMS over the left somatosensory area. However, it is possible that the proprioceptive representation of the EOM extends to other brain sites, which were not examined in these previous studies. The aim of this fMRI study was to sample the whole brain to identify...... the proprioceptive representation for the left and the right eye separately. Data were acquired while passive eye movement was used to stimulate EOM proprioceptors in the absence of a motor command. We also controlled for the tactile stimulation of the eyelid by removing from the analysis voxels activated by eyelid......The cortical representation of eye position is still uncertain. In the monkey a proprioceptive representation of the extraocular muscles (EOM) of an eye were recently found within the contralateral central sulcus. In humans, we have previously shown a change in the perceived position of the right...

  13. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  14. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation: the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Sliney, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Under most conditions, the eye is well adapted to protect itself against ultraviolet radiation encountered in the outdoor environment as a result of the exposure geometry of the sun. Only when snow is on the ground does one experience acute effects of UV sunlight exposure (i.e. snow blindness, or photokeratitis). With regard to artificial sources, there are many occasions where one views bright light sources such as tungsten-halogen lamps, arc lamps and welding arcs. Such viewing is normally only momentary because of the aversion response to bright light and due to discomfort glare. However, such an aversion does not take place for germicidal lamps and other UV lamps which do not contain a strong visible component in their spectrum. The adverse effects from viewing such sources has been studied for decades and during the last two decades guidelines for limiting exposure to protect the eye have been developed. The guidelines were fostered to a large extent by the growing use of lasers and the quickly recognized hazard posed by viewing laser sources. (author)

  16. The Eyes Are the Windows to the Mind: Direct Eye Gaze Triggers the Ascription of Others' Minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saara; Deska, Jason C; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Eye gaze is a potent source of social information with direct eye gaze signaling the desire to approach and averted eye gaze signaling avoidance. In the current work, we proposed that eye gaze signals whether or not to impute minds into others. Across four studies, we manipulated targets' eye gaze (i.e., direct vs. averted eye gaze) and measured explicit mind ascriptions (Study 1a, Study 1b, and Study 2) and beliefs about the likelihood of targets having mind (Study 3). In all four studies, we find novel evidence that the ascription of sophisticated humanlike minds to others is signaled by the display of direct eye gaze relative to averted eye gaze. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that this differential mentalization is due, at least in part, to beliefs that direct gaze targets are more likely to instigate social interaction. In short, eye contact triggers mind perception. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  19. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  20. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... much as it does on your eyes. ... of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  3. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  8. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  13. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  19. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  20. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  2. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  3. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  4. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  5. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  6. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  7. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciganek, L.; Pasta, J.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.)

  8. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciganek, L; Pasta, J

    1986-11-01

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.).

  9. The evolutionary psychology of left and right: costs and benefits of lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2006-09-01

    Why do the left and right sides of the vertebrate brain play different functions? Having a lateralized brain, in which each hemisphere carries out different functions, is ubiquitous among vertebrates. The different specialization of the left and right side of the brain may increase brain efficiency--and some evidence for that is reported here. However, lateral biases due to brain lateralization (such as preferences in the use of a limb or, in animals with laterally placed eyes, of a visual hemifield) usually occur at the population level, with most individuals showing similar direction of bias. Individual brain efficiency does not require the alignment of lateralization in the population. Why then are not left--and right-type individuals equally common? Not only humans, but most vertebrates show a similar pattern. For instance, in the paper I report evidence that most toads, chickens, and fish react faster when a predator approaches from the left. I argue that invoking individual brain efficiency (lateralization may increase fitness), evolutionary chance or direct genetic mechanisms cannot explain this widespread pattern. Instead, using concepts from mathematical theory of games, I show that alignment of lateralization at the population level may arise as an "evolutionarily stable strategy" when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Thus, the population structure of lateralization may result from genes specifying the direction of asymmetries which have been selected under "social" pressures.

  10. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  11. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  12. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  13. Neurally Derived Tissues in Xenopus laevis Embryos Exhibit a Consistent Bioelectrical Left-Right Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent left-right asymmetry in organ morphogenesis is a fascinating aspect of bilaterian development. Although embryonic patterning of asymmetric viscera, heart, and brain is beginning to be understood, less is known about possible subtle asymmetries present in anatomically identical paired structures. We investigated two important developmental events: physiological controls of eye development and specification of neural crest derivatives, in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that the striking hyperpolarization of transmembrane potential (Vmem demarcating eye induction usually occurs in the right eye field first. This asymmetry is randomized by perturbing visceral left-right patterning, suggesting that eye asymmetry is linked to mechanisms establishing primary laterality. Bilateral misexpression of a depolarizing channel mRNA affects primarily the right eye, revealing an additional functional asymmetry in the control of eye patterning by Vmem. The ATP-sensitive K+ channel subunit transcript, SUR1, is asymmetrically expressed in the eye primordia, thus being a good candidate for the observed physiological asymmetries. Such subtle asymmetries are not only seen in the eye: consistent asymmetry was also observed in the migration of differentiated melanocytes on the left and right sides. These data suggest that even anatomically symmetrical structures may possess subtle but consistent laterality and interact with other developmental left-right patterning pathways.

  14. Fetal Eye Movements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885

  15. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  16. Eye laterality: a comprehensive analysis in refractive surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Stephan J; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Steinberg, Johannes; Richard, Gisbert; Katz, Toam

    2013-08-01

    To explore eye laterality (higher refractive error in one eye) and its association with refractive state, spherical/astigmatic anisometropia, age and sex in refractive surgery candidates. Medical records of 12 493 consecutive refractive surgery candidates were filtered. Refractive error (subjective and cycloplegic) was measured in each subject and correlated with eye laterality. Only subjects with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of >20/22 in each eye were enrolled to exclude amblyopia. Associations between eye laterality and refractive state were analysed by means of t-test, chi-squared test, Spearman's correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in spherical equivalent between right (-3.47 ± 2.76 D) and left eyes (-3.47 ± 2.76 D, p = 0.510; Pearson's r = 0.948, p laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D in myopic (-5.64 ± 2.5 D versus -4.92 ± 2.6 D; p = 0.001) and in hyperopic (4.44 ± 1.69 D versus 3.04 ± 1.79 D; p = 0.025) subjects, (II) a tendency for left eye cylindrical laterality in myopic subjects, and (III) myopic male subjects had a higher prevalence of left eye laterality. (IV) Age did not show any significant impact on laterality. Over the full refractive spectrum, this study confirmed previously described strong interocular refractive correlation but revealed a statistically significant higher rate of right eye laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D. In general, our results support the use of data from one eye only in studies of ocular refraction. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  18. Amelioration of ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice treated with astaxanthin eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennikov, Anton; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Fukase, Risa; Murata, Miyuki; Noda, Kousuke; Ando, Ryo; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) acts as low-dose ionizing radiation. Acute UVB exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid, present in seafood, that has potential clinical applications due to its high antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined whether topical administration of AST has preventive and therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice were administered with AST diluted in polyethylene glycol (PEG) in instillation form (15 μl) to the right eye. Left eyes were given vehicle alone as controls. Immediately after the instillation, the mice, under anesthesia, were irradiated with UVB at a dose of 400 mJ/cm². Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation and stained with H&E and TUNEL. In an in vitro study, mouse corneal epithelial (TKE2) cells were cultured with AST before UV exposure to quantify the UV-derived cytotoxicity. UVB exposure induced cell death and thinning of the corneal epithelium. However, the epithelium was morphologically well preserved after irradiation in AST-treated corneas. Irradiated corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in eyes treated with AST eye drops, compared to those treated with vehicles (peyes than controls after irradiation (peffect increased with the dose of AST. Topical AST administration may be a candidate treatment to limit the damages by UV irradiation with wide clinical applications.

  19. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  1. Adenocarcinoma of urethra presenting metastasis to eyes: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lages, Rafael Bandeira; Sousa, Rodrigo Beserra; Santos, Lina Gomes dos; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Tavares, Marilia Buenos Aires Cabral

    2010-01-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all female genitourinary tract cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this patient is the first reported case of primary urethral carcinoma presenting metastasis to eyes. The diagnosis of metastasis involving the choroids should be suspected in patient with history of carcinoma and a decreased visual acuity or any other visual symptom. Case presentation: A 43-year-old woman underwent a total hysterectomy, cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy due a primary adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra. Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and six cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin were performed. The patient made follow-up with no evidence of oncologic disease. However, nine months later, the patient reported visual alterations. Ophthalmoloscopic examination showed choroid lesions in both eyes that were compatible with metastatic choroids tumor and nuclear magnetic resonance suggested bilateral retinal metastasis and left meningioma parasagittal in parietal region. She was undergoing a new palliative chemotherapy, but the disease developed and there were metastasis to bone four months later. The patient died fourteen months after the surgery. (author)

  2. Adenocarcinoma of urethra presenting metastasis to eyes: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, Rafael Bandeira; Sousa, Rodrigo Beserra; Santos, Lina Gomes dos; Vieira, Sabas Carlos, E-mail: rafaelblages@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Tavares, Marilia Buenos Aires Cabral [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio; Valenca, Rodrigo Jose de Vasconcelos [Hospital Sao Marcos (HSM), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all female genitourinary tract cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this patient is the first reported case of primary urethral carcinoma presenting metastasis to eyes. The diagnosis of metastasis involving the choroids should be suspected in patient with history of carcinoma and a decreased visual acuity or any other visual symptom. Case presentation: A 43-year-old woman underwent a total hysterectomy, cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy due a primary adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra. Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and six cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin were performed. The patient made follow-up with no evidence of oncologic disease. However, nine months later, the patient reported visual alterations. Ophthalmoloscopic examination showed choroid lesions in both eyes that were compatible with metastatic choroids tumor and nuclear magnetic resonance suggested bilateral retinal metastasis and left meningioma parasagittal in parietal region. She was undergoing a new palliative chemotherapy, but the disease developed and there were metastasis to bone four months later. The patient died fourteen months after the surgery. (author)

  3. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in Vitrectomized Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Erçalık, Nimet Yeşim; İmamoğlu, Serhat

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in vitrectomized eyes. Materials and Methods. The medical records of 13 eyes that developed glaucoma due to emulsified silicon oil or neovascularization following pars plana vitrectomy and underwent AGV implantation were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Surgical...

  4. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  5. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  6. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  7. Eye Carduino: A Car Control System using Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.

  8. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  9. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  10. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  12. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  14. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  15. Burning Eye Syndrome: Do Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Underlie Chronic Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalangara, Jerry P; Galor, Anat; Levitt, Roy C; Felix, Elizabeth R; Alegret, Ramon; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a multi-factorial disorder that manifests with painful ocular symptoms and visual disturbances, which can only be partly attributed to tear dysfunction. This disorder may also involve neuroplasticity in response to neuronal injury. This review will emphasize the key characteristics of dry eye pain and its pathologic mechanisms, making the argument that a subset of dry eye represents a neuropathic pain disorder of the eye, more appropriately called "burning eye syndrome." A literature review was conducted using a PubMed search focusing on dry eye, corneal nociception, and neuropathic pain. Articles were reviewed and those discussing clinical course, pathophysiology, and neuronal regulation of chronic ocular pain as related to dry eye were summarized. We found that there is a discordance between ocular pain and dryness on the ocular surface. Although tear dysfunction may be one of the initial insults, its persistence may be associated with repeated ocular sensory nerve injury leading to an acute-to-chronic pain transition associated with neuropathologic changes (peripheral and central sensitization), neuronal dysfunction, and spontaneous ocular pain. Dry eye is becoming a major health concern due to its increasing incidence, significant morbidity, and economic burden. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of dry eye may be better represented as a chronic neuropathic pain disorder due to its features of dysesthesia, spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. Future therapies targeted at the underlying neuroplasticity may yield improved efficacy for patients with this subset of dry eye, which we term "burning eye syndrome." © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ultrasonographic biometry of the normal eye of the Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, A; Shafigh, S H; Azizzadeh, M

    2014-07-01

    To describe the normal ultrasonographic biometry of the Persian cat's eyes using B-mode ultrasonography. In a cross-sectional study, 20 healthy Persian cats with no history of previous ophthalmic disease were examined. Ocular biometry of the left and right eyes was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Comparison of the average measurements between left and right eyes and between vertical and horizontal planes was performed using paired-sample t test. Correlation of ocular parameters with sex, age, head circumference and eye colour was evaluated. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) measurements of the ocular structures of anterior chamber, lens thickness, vitreous chamber and anterior to posterior dimension of the globe in 40 eyes were 4.1 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 0.5, 8.2 ± 0.4 and 20.7 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found between the ocular biometry of the left and right eyes or the horizontal and vertical planes. Of the ocular parameters, the following had a significant positive correlation with head circumference: axial globe length, anterior chamber and lens thickness. The vitreous body had a positive correlation with age. Regarding the breed predisposition of Persian cats to ocular problems, the present study provides baseline information for further clinical investigations of ocular abnormalities using B-mode ultrasonography. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Mapping of the left-sided phrenic nerve course in patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Martin; Wutzler, Alexander; Parwani, Abdul S; Attanasio, Philipp; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been associated with left-sided phrenic nerve palsy. Knowledge of the individual left phrenic nerve course therefore is essential to prevent nerve injury. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an intraprocedural pace mapping and reconstruction of the left phrenic nerve course and to characterize which anatomical areas are affected. In patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablation, a three-dimensional map of the left atrial anatomical structures was created. The left-sided phrenic nerve course was determined by high-output pace mapping and reconstructed in the map. In this study, 40 patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardias were included. Left phrenic nerve capture was observed in 23 (57.5%) patients. Phrenic nerve was captured in 22 (55%) patients inside the left atrial appendage, in 22 (55%) in distal parts, in 21 (53%) in medial parts, and in two (5%) in ostial parts of the appendage. In three (7.5%) patients, capture was found in the distal coronary sinus and in one (2.5%) patient in the left atrium near the left atrial appendage ostium. Ablation target was changed due to direct spatial relationship to the phrenic nerve in three (7.5%) patients. No phrenic nerve palsy was observed. Left-sided phrenic nerve capture was found inside and around the left atrial appendage in the majority of patients and additionally in the distal coronary sinus. Phrenic nerve mapping and reconstruction can easily be performed and should be considered prior catheter ablations in potential affected areas. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of Ocular Firework-Related Injuries and Common Eye Traumata: a 5-year Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, S; Theusinger, O M; Kniestedt, C

    2017-04-01

    Background A comparative study of eye injuries related to fireworks or acts of violence around New Year's Eve and the Swiss National Day on August 1st. The two groups were compared with respect to the overall numbers of eye accidents within the period of review. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of emergency consultations at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich with eye accidents around the Swiss National Day on August 1st and New Year's Eve over the last 5 years. Two subgroups were formed: (1) Firework-related eye traumata, (2) Eye injuries due to acts of violence. The groups were analysed by age, gender, active participant or bystander, eye involved, severity of trauma (from clinical findings), surgical interventions, time of follow-up and visits, visual acuity and outcome. Results The study included 97 patients (100 eyes) with 74 male (76 %) and 23 female (24 %) victims. After filtering out 67 common traumata cases (all unilateral), 17 patients (18 eyes) with firework-related injuries and 13 patients (15 eyes) with damage due to an act of violence remained. Firework injuries accounted for 18 % of cases (65 % men); eye injuries caused by an act of violence accounted for 15 % of cases (92 % men). In the fireworks group, women were significantly older than men (mean age men 32 ± 14 years versus women 38 ± 16 years, p = 0.002). 65 % of cases were bystanders. The two subgroups contained 30 patients (33 eyes) with 22 left eyes (67 %, p fireworks group (28 %), than in the violence group (13 %). 87 % of the victims in the group of common traumata were mild trauma, 10 % moderate and 3 % severe. In the fireworks group the distribution was 53 % mild, 12 % moderate and 35 % severe, in the violence group 46 %, 23 % and 31 % respectively. Severe trauma cases occurred significantly more often around the New Year, with 36 % versus August 1st with 18 % (p = 0.0028). They are more often

  19. Optic Nerve Atrophy Due to Long-Standing Compression by Planum Sphenoidale Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, Alberto; Kaen, Ariel Matias; Cárdenas Ruiz-Valdepeñas, Eugenio; Cavallo, Luigi Maria

    2018-05-01

    In this study we report an uncommon endoscopic endonasal image of an atrophic optic nerve as seen after surgical removal of a suprasellar meningioma. The peculiarity of this case is the long-lasting underestimated ocular symptomatology of the patient who reported a 15-year history of impairment of vision on her left eye. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of a 15-year history of impairment of vision on her left eye. After making serendipitously the diagnosis of a suprasellar mass, we performed endoscopic endonasal surgery. The tumor was reached from below and removed safely, without manipulation of the optic pathways. At the end of tumor removal, the impressive left optic nerve atrophy due to enduring local tumor compression was visualized. To the best of our knowledge, no endoscopic endonasal image with such features has been provided in the pertinent literature. Possibly, this contribution will help identify damaged optic nerves during endoscopic endonasal surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences of accommodative responses between two eyes under binocular viewing condition mediated by polarizing glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Qing Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes under 3 different polarized viewing conditions. METHODS:Fifteen volunteers with emmetrope were recruited into this study(aged 18~38, 6 males and 9 females. Three different viewing conditions were set up by using polarizing glasses and liquid crystal display:(1right eye could see the visual target on the screen, but left eye cannot see it;(2left eye could see the visual target on the screen, but right eye cannot see it;(3both eyes could see the target. Accommodative responses were measured by infrared auto-refractor when fixating at the target at 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33m under the above 3 viewing conditions. The differences of accommodative responses under different viewing conditions were compared by using variance analysis of repeated measuring and t test. RESULTS:Significant differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes were found under condition(1and(2at all the fixating distance. The accommodative responses in used eyes which can see the visual target were higher than in non-used eyes which cannot see the visual target(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Ciliary muscles in the used eyes were more relatively tonic than non-used eyes under binocular open viewing condition. The imbalance of accommodative responses between two eyes may be one of the risk factors resulting into the occurrence of myopia.

  1. Real Time Eye Detector with Cascaded Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and efficient eye detector is essential for many computer vision applications. In this paper, we present an efficient method to evaluate the eye location from facial images. First, a group of candidate regions with regional extreme points is quickly proposed; then, a set of convolution neural networks (CNNs is adopted to determine the most likely eye region and classify the region as left or right eye; finally, the center of the eye is located with other CNNs. In the experiments using GI4E, BioID, and our datasets, our method attained a detection accuracy which is comparable to existing state-of-the-art methods; meanwhile, our method was faster and adaptable to variations of the images, including external light changes, facial occlusion, and changes in image modality.

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ...

  3. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  4. XI. THE WATERING EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause a watering eye; this condition is.called epiphora. Clearly, then, in investigating ... blockage is a common disease in the middle age-groups seen in hospital .... a dry eye, and this is so much worse than a wet one that the procedure is only ...

  5. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  7. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  8. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  9. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both ...

  10. LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the front of your eye — to improve vision. Normally, images are clearly focused on the retina in the back of your eye because the ... sharply, light rays focus in front of the retina and blur distant vision. You can see objects that are close fairly ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ...

  15. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  17. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ...

  19. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  4. Apoptosis in the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chahory , Sabine; Torriglia , Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Cells die during apoptosis in a controlled, regulated fashion. This form of cell death is very important in eye development as well as in eye pathology. We review in this chapter our current knowledge in this topic.

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ...

  6. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Breast Cancer to Avoid Chemo Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early? Experimental Drug Shows 'Modest' Benefit ... often done when bulging affects only one eye. Blood tests to measure how well the thyroid is working are done when ... When bulging leads to severe dry eyes, lubrication with artificial tears is needed to ...

  7. Metastasis of Ciliary Body Melanoma to the Contralateral Eye: A Case Report and Review of Uveal Melanoma Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouritza M. Torossian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many types of cancers metastasize to the eye. However, uveal melanoma metastasizing to the contralateral choroid is very rare. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with history of treated uveal melanoma of the right eye that developed metastasis to the liver and the choroid of the left eye. Ten years earlier, he was diagnosed to have uveal melanoma of the right eye and was initially treated with plaque radiotherapy. Two years later, upon progression of the disease in the right eye he had enucleation of the eye. We describe the patient’s clinical history, the diagnosis of recurrent disease in the contralateral eye, therapy of the left eye, and systemic metastasis. In addition, we reviewed the published medical literature and described the recent advances in the management of uveal melanoma.

  8. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  9. Eying the future: Eye movement in past and future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Lenoble, Quentin

    2017-06-07

    We investigated eye movement during past and future thinking. Participants were invited to retrieve past events and to imagine future events while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Past thinking triggered more fixation (p thinking. Past and future thinking triggered a similar duration of fixations and saccades, as well as a similar amplitude of saccades. Interestingly, participants rated past thinking as more vivid than future thinking (p thinking seems to be accompanied by an increased number of fixations and saccades. Fixations and saccades in past thinking can be interpreted as an attempt by the visual system to find (through saccades) and activate (through fixations) stored memory representations. The same interpretation can be applied to future thinking as this ability requires activation of past experiences. However, future thinking triggers fewer fixations and saccades than past thinking: this may be due to its decreased demand on visual imagery, but could also be related to a potentially deleterious effect of eye movements on spatial imagery required for future thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intraocular eyelashes and iris cyst in anterior chamber following penetrating eye injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabin Sahu,1 Lila Raj Puri,1 Sanjay Kumar Singh2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Siraha, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Biratnagar Eye Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal Background: The presence of intraocular eyelashes following penetrating eye injury or ocular surgery is relatively uncommon. The response of the eye to intraocular eyelashes is variable. The eyelash may be symptomatic or may remain asymptomatic for long periods. Objective: We report a case with two intraocular eyelashes and an iris cyst after 2 years of asymptomatic period following penetrating eye injury. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye which he had noticed for the previous 2 weeks. His visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye, improving to 6/9 with -2.5 DC × 140° correction. The intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg in both eyes. On slit-lamp examination, the left eye showed 8 mm linear peripheral corneal opacity nasally, two eyelashes in the superior anterior chamber, and an iris cyst measuring 4 mm × 4 mm in the superior iris. The right eye was normal. Dilated fundus examination of both eyes was normal. The eyelashes and cyst were removed surgically. There were no complications during the 3-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Intraocular implantation of eyelashes following penetrating eye injury can remain asymptomatic for long periods; however, late development of iris cyst may occur. Keywords: intraocular eyelashes, iris cyst, penetrating eye injury

  11. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  12. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  13. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  14. Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophy to study left almost semigroup shortly LAsemigroup. We generalize the concepts of LA-semigroup to form that for neutrosophic LA-semigroup. We also extend the ideal theory of LA-semigroup to neutrosophy and discuss different kinds of neutrosophic ideals. We also find some new type of neutrosophic ideal which is related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of neutrosophic LA-semigroup and display many properties of neutrosophic LA-semigroup in this paper.

  15. Aquaporins in the Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary...... pressure. In the retina, water is transported into the vitreous body and across the retinal pigment epithelium to regulate the extracellular environment and the hydration of the retina. Aquaporins (AQPs ) take part in the water transport throughout the eye....

  16. Defense Mechanisms, Psychosomatic Symptomatology, and Conjugate Lateral Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were classified into left movers, right movers, and bidirectionals according to the characteristic direction of their eye movements in response to questions. The three groups were compared on their preferential use of defense mechanisms and on the number of psychosomatic complaints. (Author)

  17. Whole eye wavefront aberrations in Mexican male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, Roberto; Rosales, Marco A; Tepichín, Eduardo; Curioca, Andrée; Montes, Victor; Bonilla, Julio

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics, incidence, and appearance of wavefront aberrations in undilated, normal, unoperated eyes. Eighty-eight eyes of 44 healthy male Mexican subjects (mean age 25.32 years, range 18 to 36 yr) were divided into three groups based on uncorrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 20/20, 20/30, or 20/40. UCVA measurements were obtained using an Acuity Max computer screen chart. Wavefront aberrations were measured with the Nidek OPD-Scan ARK 10000, Ver. 1.11b. All measurements were carried out at the same center by the same technician during a single session, following manufacturer instructions. Background illumination was 3 Lux. Wavefront aberration measurements for each group were statistically analyzed using StatView; an average eye was characterized and the resulting aberrations were simulated using MATLAB. We obtained wavefront aberration maps for the 20/20 undilated normal unoperated eyes for total, low, and high order aberration coefficients. Wavefront maps for right eyes were practically the same as those for left eyes. Higher aberrations did not contribute substantially to total wavefront analysis. Average aberrations of this "normal eye" will be used as criteria to decide the necessity of wavefront-guided ablation in our facilities. We will focus on the nearly zero average of high order aberrations in this normal whole eye as a reference to be matched.

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... It sends electrical impulses through the optic nerve to the brain. Watch ...

  19. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams below to ... part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows ...

  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  2. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables ... Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the retina to ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

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  5. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50% of the individuals with TSC have normal intelligence, and inasmuch as these individuals may become parents, ... of vision may be difficult or impossible. Since growth and change of TSC lesions in the eye ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

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  8. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  9. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  11. About the Eye

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  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... treated? Jan 28, 2016 Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., Scientific Director David ...

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    Full Text Available ... Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs ... Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part of the federal government’s National Institutes of ... Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI ...

  18. About the Eye

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  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the ...

  3. Using Eye Makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful chemicals. Before applying makeup, be sure your face and eyelids are very clean. Always apply makeup outside the lash line, away from the eye, to avoid blocking the oil glands of the upper or lower ...

  4. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  5. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  6. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area ... FOH-vee-uh) is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP- ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... 5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  9. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Head and eye echoencephalogram References Coleman DJ, Silverman RH, Lloyd HO, Daly S. Evaluation of the posterior ... Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  10. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Office of the Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research ... iris adjusts the size of the pupil and controls the amount of light that can enter the ...

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    Full Text Available ... System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear ... Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please Don’t Shave the Inside ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads ... eyes don’t make enough tears or something affects one or more layers of the tear film. ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. ... Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information ...

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  17. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of ...

  18. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: ... that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or hammering screws ...

  19. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry ...

  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  2. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Jagia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best of our knowledge, use of multi-detector computed tomography in aortic atresia with well developed left ventricle has not been reported in literature till date.

  3. Retinitis pigmentosa inversa with unilateral high myopia with fellow eye optic disc pitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Saumil; Rush, Ryan; Narayanan, Raja

    2011-01-01

    To report a possible rare association of bilateral retinitis pigmentosa inversa (RPI) with unilateral high myopia with fellow eye optic disc pitting. A 55-year-old man with a history of reduced vision in the right eye since childhood presented with gradually decreasing vision in the left eye. On examination, a -23.00 diopter refractive error and diffuse chorioretinal atrophy consistent with pathologic myopia was found in the right eye. An optic disc pit with posterior pole pigmentary alterations thought to be consequent to a previous neurosensory detachment was found in the left eye. Though the retinal arteriolar attenuation seen in both eyes with an inconsistent history of night blindness since childhood pointed towards the possibility of a concurrently existing rod or rod-cone dystrophy, the posterior pole pigmentary alterations characteristic of RPI were clearly masked by the above pathologies. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated prominent foveal atrophy and an optic disc pit in the left eye. Electroretinography (ERG) demonstrated moderately attenuated amplitudes with prolonged implicit times of rod and cone responses bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral RPI and anisometropic amblyopia in the right eye. This report documents a unique constellation of findings which include bilateral RPI and unilateral high myopia with an optic disc pit in the fellow eye. An ERG confirmation of a dystrophic etiology should be sought in suspicious cases, especially when findings are masked by the concurrent presence of other pathologies.

  4. Fish eye optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Michalová, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 94-99 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : fish eye optics * lobster eye optics * X-ray monitoring Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  5. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  6. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  7. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena

    2016-01-01

    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...

  8. Angle assessment by EyeCam, goniophotography, and gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Perera, Shamira A; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Tun, Tin A; Park, Judy; Kumar, Rajesh S; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2012-09-01

    To compare EyeCam (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) and goniophotography in detecting angle closure, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study, participants underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging and goniophotography by different operators. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. A masked observer categorized the eyes as per the number of closed quadrants, and an eye was classified as having angle closure if there were 2 or more quadrants of closure. Agreement between the methods was analyzed by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Eighty-five participants (85 eyes) were included, the majority of whom were Chinese. Angle closure was detected in 38 eyes (45%) with gonioscopy, 40 eyes (47%) using EyeCam, and 40 eyes (47%) with goniophotography (P=0.69 in both comparisons, McNemar test). The agreement for angle closure diagnosis (by eye) between gonioscopy and the 2 imaging modalities was high (κ=0.86; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.75-0.97), whereas the agreement between EyeCam and goniophotography was not as good (κ=0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.87); largely due to lack of agreement in the nasal and temporal quadrants (κ=0.55 to 0.67). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was similar for goniophotography and EyeCam (AUC 0.93, sensitivity=94.7%, specificity=91.5%; P>0.95). EyeCam and goniophotography have similarly high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of gonioscopic angle closure.

  9. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.

  10. Pattern of eye diseases among welders in a Nigeria community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Welders have been identified as a high risk group for eye disorders due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of eye diseases amongst welders in Ile-Ife, Osun state. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study of 405 consenting welders. Information ...

  11. Awareness and practices on eye effects among people with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently eye effects of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are an important concern due to increase in its trend especially in developing countries. Objectives: To assess the awareness related to eye effects of DM and its prevention practices among people with diabetes. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted ...

  12. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sorting occurs in such a way that the right side of the brain controls the view of objects in left visual space and the left side of the brain controls the view of objects in right visual space [See figure 3]. Visual Cortex: This ...

  13. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  14. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kouji; Takahashi, Hideki; Li, Shuguang; Sugimachi, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Kimihiko; Suda, Yoshihiro; Kato, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves), but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Research Design and Methods The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task). Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections. Results Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05), but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p right frontal eye field. Conclusions Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions

  15. NASA's "Eyes" Focus on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's "Eyes on…" suite of products continues to grow in capability and popularity. The "Eyes on the Earth", "Eyes on the Solar System" and "Eyes on Exoplanets" real-time, 3D interactive visualization products have proven themselves as highly effective demonstration and communication tools for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. This presentation will give a quick look at the latest updates to the "Eyes" suite plus what is being done to make them tools for STEM Education.

  16. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included

  17. Bilateral Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Caused by Eye Rubbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Alfonso; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Carlomusto, Laura; Savastano, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a particular condition of a 52-year-old man who showed advanced bilateral glaucomatous-like optic disc damage, even though the intraocular pressure resulted normal during all examinations performed. Visual field test, steady-state pattern electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer and retinal tomographic evaluations were performed to evaluate the optic disc damage. Over a 4-year observational period, his visual acuity decreased to 12/20 in the right eye and counting fingers in the left eye. Visual fields were severely compromised, and intraocular pressure values were not superior to 14 mm Hg during routine examinations. An accurate anamnesis and the suspicion of this disease represent a crucial aspect to establish the correct diagnosis. In fact, our patient strongly rubbed his eyes for more than 10 h per day. Recurrent and continuous eye rubbing can induce progressive optic neuropathy, causing severe visual field damage similar to the pathology of advanced glaucoma.

  18. Tutorial on Biostatistics: Linear Regression Analysis of Continuous Correlated Eye Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen G; Glynn, Robert; Rosner, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    To describe and demonstrate appropriate linear regression methods for analyzing correlated continuous eye data. We describe several approaches to regression analysis involving both eyes, including mixed effects and marginal models under various covariance structures to account for inter-eye correlation. We demonstrate, with SAS statistical software, applications in a study comparing baseline refractive error between one eye with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the unaffected fellow eye, and in a study determining factors associated with visual field in the elderly. When refractive error from both eyes were analyzed with standard linear regression without accounting for inter-eye correlation (adjusting for demographic and ocular covariates), the difference between eyes with CNV and fellow eyes was 0.15 diopters (D; 95% confidence interval, CI -0.03 to 0.32D, p = 0.10). Using a mixed effects model or a marginal model, the estimated difference was the same but with narrower 95% CI (0.01 to 0.28D, p = 0.03). Standard regression for visual field data from both eyes provided biased estimates of standard error (generally underestimated) and smaller p-values, while analysis of the worse eye provided larger p-values than mixed effects models and marginal models. In research involving both eyes, ignoring inter-eye correlation can lead to invalid inferences. Analysis using only right or left eyes is valid, but decreases power. Worse-eye analysis can provide less power and biased estimates of effect. Mixed effects or marginal models using the eye as the unit of analysis should be used to appropriately account for inter-eye correlation and maximize power and precision.

  19. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  20. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  1. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  2. Lateralization of visually guided detour behaviour in the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, a reptile with highly independent eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi

    2013-11-01

    Chameleons (Chamaeleonidae, reptilia), in common with most ectotherms, show full optic nerve decussation and sparse inter-hemispheric commissures. Chameleons are unique in their capacity for highly independent, large-amplitude eye movements. We address the question: Do common chameleons, Chamaeleo chameleon, during detour, show patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use that differ from those shown by other ectotherms? To reach a target (prey) in passing an obstacle in a Y-maze, chameleons were required to make a left or a right detour. We analyzed the direction of detours and eye use and found that: (i) individuals differed in their preferred detour direction, (ii) eye use was lateralized at the group level, with significantly longer durations of viewing the target with the right eye, compared with the left eye, (iii) during left side, but not during right side, detours the durations of viewing the target with the right eye were significantly longer than the durations with the left eye. Thus, despite the uniqueness of chameleons' visual system, they display patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use, typical of other ectotherms. These findings are discussed in relation to hemispheric functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization...... devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  4. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  5. The effects of simulating a realistic eye model on the eye dose of an adult male undergoing head computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Ebrahimi-Khankook, Atiyeh; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Then absorbed doses and distributions of energy deposition in different parts of this eye model were calculated and compared with those based on a previous simple eye model. All calculations were done using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4C for tube voltages of 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp. In spite of the similarity of total dose to the eye lens for both eye models, the dose delivered to the sensitive zone, which plays an important role in the induction of cataracts, was on average 3% higher for the sophisticated model as compared to the simple model. By increasing the tube voltage, differences between the total dose to the eye lens between the two phantoms decrease to 1%. Due to this level of agreement, use of the sophisticated eye model for patient dosimetry is not necessary. However, it still helps for an estimation of doses received by different eye substructures separately.

  6. Bilateral vision loss due to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy after long-term alcohol, nicotine and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Johanna; Matthé, Egbert

    2018-04-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is relatively rare, and no clinical pathognomonic signs exist. We present a rare case of bilateral vision loss of a patient with multiple drug abuse in the history. A 31-year-old man presented with a history of progressive, decreased vision in both eyes for 6 month. On examination, his visual acuity was hand motion in both eyes. Funduscopy demonstrated a temporal pallor of the optic disc. Goldmann visual field perimetry showed a crescent visual field in the right eye and a circular decrease to less than 50 ° in the left eye. Electroretinogram showed a scotopic b-wave amplitude reduction. Optical coherence tomographies, Heidelberg Retina tomography, visual evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast as well as blood tests were normal. The patient reported to consume various kinds of drugs as well as recreational drug use and alcohol consumption since he was 16 years old. We started a hemodilution therapy, believing the patient suffered from a bilateral, toxic optic neuropathy due to his lifestyle. Laboratory results later on showed Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a rare disease without a typical, pathognomonic presentation. Even though the patient gave good reasons for a toxic optic neuropathy, one should never stop to test for other diseases.

  7. Isolated Left Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis without any cardiovascular malformation is a rare anomaly. We present the imaging findings of a patient who was diagnosed as isolated left pulmonary artery agenesis. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea during exercise for five years. Chest X-ray revealed minimally small left pulmonary hilum and left lung. She was admitted to our clinic with the suspicion of pulmonary artery pathology. Absent perfusion of the left lung with normal ventilation was visualized on scintigraphy. MDCT angiography of pulmonary arteries showed absent left main pulmonary artery with systemic collaterals around left hemithorax. Pulmonary artery agenesis can be asymptomatic and isolated until adulthood. Both scintigraphy and CT angiography images of pulmonary artery agenesis of a patient are rare in the literature. Pulmonary ventilation- perfusion scintigraphy can be used not only for pulmonary embolism but also pathologies involving pulmonary artery and its branches. (MIRT 2012;21:80-83

  8. Macular hemorrhage after roller coaster riding in a single-eyed patient with congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Guven

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 21-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her only functional eye (right eye, OD. She had a history of multiple ocular surgeries in both eyes because of congenital glaucoma and had lost light perception in her left eye several years prior. Ophthalmological examination revealed 0.15 Snellen visual acuity, and fundoscopy revealed nearly total cupping and pallor of the optic disc and multiple retinal hemorrhagic foci in the macula in OD. Lesions spontaneously resolved over a few months. Gravitational forces during a roller coaster ride may have caused this macular hemorrhage.

  9. Bronchial compression by an enlarged left atrium in infants; a cause of hypovascularity of the left lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corr, L.; Hallidie-Smith, K.A.; McCarthy, P.A.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    In three infants seen recently at our institution we noted signs of compression of the left main bronchus associated with enlarged left atria. None of our cases demonstrated the more usual signs of hyperinflation which are a hyperlucent lung field, depressed hemidiaphragm and mediastinal shift away from the affected side. In addition, hypoperfusion of the left lung was noted in each case. We believe that bronchial compression due to an enlarged left atrium, with consequent hypoxic vasoconstriction is a clinically significant entity, which is not well described and may be unappreciated in infants in whom the typical signs of hyperinflation are absent.

  10. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in Vitrectomized Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Yeşim Erçalık

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV implantation in vitrectomized eyes. Materials and Methods. The medical records of 13 eyes that developed glaucoma due to emulsified silicon oil or neovascularization following pars plana vitrectomy and underwent AGV implantation were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Surgical success was defined as last IOP ≤21 mmHg or ≥6 mmHg and without loss of light perception. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 11.7 ± 5.5 (range, 6–23 months. The mean IOP before the AGV implantation was 37.9 ± 6.7 mmHg with an average of 3.5 ± 1.2 drugs. At the final visit, the mean IOP was 15.9 ± 4.6 mmHg (p=0.001 and the mean number of glaucoma medications decreased to 2.3 ± 1.3 (p=0.021. At the last visit, 11 eyes (84.4% had stable or improved VA and one eye (7.7% had a final VA of no light perception. Surgical success was achieved in 11 of the 13 eyes (84.4%. Postoperative complications were bleb encapsulation (69.2%, early hypotony (38.5%, hyphema (23.1%, decompression retinopathy (23.1%, choroidal detachment (15.4%, intraocular hemorrhage (7.7%, and late endophthalmitis (7.7%. One eye (7.7% was enucleated because of late endophthalmitis. Conclusions. Despite complications necessitating medical and surgical interventions, vitrectomized eyes were effectively managed with AGV implantation.

  11. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in Vitrectomized Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erçalık, Nimet Yeşim; İmamoğlu, Serhat

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in vitrectomized eyes. The medical records of 13 eyes that developed glaucoma due to emulsified silicon oil or neovascularization following pars plana vitrectomy and underwent AGV implantation were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Surgical success was defined as last IOP ≤21 mmHg or ≥6 mmHg and without loss of light perception. The mean follow-up duration was 11.7 ± 5.5 (range, 6-23) months. The mean IOP before the AGV implantation was 37.9 ± 6.7 mmHg with an average of 3.5 ± 1.2 drugs. At the final visit, the mean IOP was 15.9 ± 4.6 mmHg ( p =0.001) and the mean number of glaucoma medications decreased to 2.3 ± 1.3 ( p =0.021). At the last visit, 11 eyes (84.4%) had stable or improved VA and one eye (7.7%) had a final VA of no light perception. Surgical success was achieved in 11 of the 13 eyes (84.4%). Postoperative complications were bleb encapsulation (69.2%), early hypotony (38.5%), hyphema (23.1%), decompression retinopathy (23.1%), choroidal detachment (15.4%), intraocular hemorrhage (7.7%), and late endophthalmitis (7.7%). One eye (7.7%) was enucleated because of late endophthalmitis. Despite complications necessitating medical and surgical interventions, vitrectomized eyes were effectively managed with AGV implantation.

  12. Eye bank procedures: donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sidney Júlio de Faria E; Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E

    2018-01-01

    Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history. These lists are guardians of the Hippocratic principle "primum non nocere." However, each transplantation carries risk of transmission of potentially harmful agents to the recipient. The aim of the procedures is not to eliminate risk, but limit it to a reasonable level. The balance between safety and corneal availability needs to be maintained by exercising prudence without disproportionate rigor.

  13. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Jagia; Arun Sharma; Saurabh K Gupta; Munish Guleria

    2016-01-01

    Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best ...

  14. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  15. Radiation dose to physicians’ eye lens during interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahruddin, N A; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Sabarudin, A; Bakar, K A

    2016-01-01

    The demand of interventional radiology has increased, leading to significant risk of radiation where eye lens dose assessment becomes a major concern. In this study, we investigate physicians' eye lens doses during interventional procedures. Measurement were made using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) dosimeters and was recorded in equivalent dose at a depth of 0.07 mm, Hp(0.07). Annual Hp(0.07) and annual effective dose were estimated using workload estimation for a year and Von Boetticher algorithm. Our results showed the mean Hp(0.07) dose of 0.33 mSv and 0.20 mSv for left and right eye lens respectively. The highest estimated annual eye lens dose was 29.33 mSv per year, recorded on left eye lens during fistulogram procedure. Five physicians had exceeded 20 mSv dose limit as recommended by international commission of radiological protection (ICRP). It is suggested that frequent training and education on occupational radiation exposure are necessary to increase knowledge and awareness of the physicians’ thus reducing dose during the interventional procedure. (paper)

  16. CT evaluation of optic nerve compression in thyroid eye disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L.; Giatt, H.J.; Burde, R.M.; Gado, M.

    1986-01-01

    In thyroid eye disease, visual loss due to optic nerve compression by enlarged muscles near the orbital apex requires prompt surgical decompression and must be differentiated from visual loss due to other mechanisms. Seventy-two high-resolution orbital CT scans of patients with thyroid eye disease were analyzed. From a coronal reconstruction, an easily measured ''apical index'' was determined. Average apical indices for orbits without optic neuropathy (41.0%) and with optic neuropathy (70.2%) were significantly different (P < .001). With the aid of the apical index, CT findings can be used to predict which patients with thyroid eye disease have optic nerve compression

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 ...

  18. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold helps keep down pain and swelling. If pain continues or your vision is blurry, get to a doctor right away. ! If you get hit in the eye with flying metal, wood, or material from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If ...

  19. Robustifying eye interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a gaze typing system based on consumer hardware. Eye tracking based on consumer hardware is subject to several unknown factors. We propose methods using robust statistical principles to accommodate uncertainties in image data as well as in gaze estimates to improve accuracy. We...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to the NEI Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear ...

  4. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Refractive Surgery Procedures What Is Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)? LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Leer en Español: LASIK—Cirugía ocular con láser ... loss of close-up focusing power. How the LASIK procedure works LASIK is performed while the patient ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...

  7. Eyes on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.

  8. The Learned Eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den Marieke; Eck, van Natasja; Korevaar, Gerbrand; Tummers, Anna; Weststeijn, Thijs

    2005-01-01

    The 'learned eye' or oculus eruditus was a concept used by seventeenth-century writers on painting. It illustrated their view that the ideal artist was not only skilled in painting techniques, but also had knowledge of the history of art and an interest in poetry and literature.In this book,

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is ...

  10. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision A tear in the retina A blockage of the small veins that carry ... Since parts of the retina are burned, you may develop: Mild loss ... vision If not treated, diabetic retinopathy can cause permanent ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  13. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're wearing? In the United States, the use of color additives is strictly regulated. A number of color ... to color additives that are not approved for use in the area of the eye. Avoid color additives that are not approved for use in ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the white outer coating of the eye. Vitreous humor (VIT-ree-us HYOO-mer) is the clear ... in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information ...

  17. Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-04-15

    Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury.

  18. Using an eye tracker for accurate eye movement artifact correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, J.J.M.; Riani, J.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Boxtel, van G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method to correct eye movement artifacts in electroencephalogram (EEG) data. By using an eye tracker, whose data cannot be corrupted by any electrophysiological signals, an accurate method for correction is developed. The eye-tracker data is used in a Kalman filter to estimate which

  19. Measurement of radiation dose to the eye-lens with bilateral whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Park, Charn Il; Kang, Wee Saing; Choo, Dong Woon

    1985-01-01

    In 40 patients with metastatic brain tumor and acute lymphoblastic leukemia received whole brain irradiation, the dose delivered to the eye lens was measured using T.L.D. chips applied on the eyes as usual shield. The dose to the eye lens was expressed the relative dose to the mid brain dose. Radiotherapy was administrated using Co-60 teletherapy with bilateral whole brain irradiation. The results are as follows: 1. The dose to the right eye from its incipient field is 16.6% of tumor dose while the dose to the same eye from the opposite field is 41.2%. On left eye, 19.2% from incipient field while 39.2% from the opposite field. 2. Total received dose to right and left eyes is 28.9%, 29.8% of tumor dose respectively. 3. Comparing lens shield group with orbit shield group dose is 22.5%, 15.8% of tumor dose, respectively. 4. The dose delivered to the eye lens in ipsilateral side depends upon internal scattering, location of lead shield and penetrating dose of lead in itself. The dose in contralateral side depends upon divergency of radiation beam and patient's malposition. 5. The dose to the eye lens should be less than 10% of tumor dose with adequate shield, also not missing the chance of leptomeningeal recurrence because of overshielding.

  20. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as the sexually transmitted infection called gonorrhea. Women with untreated gonorrhea can pass the bacteria to her baby during ... conjunctivitis is less common than conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms usually include red eye(s) and ...

  1. Biosocial profile of New Zealand prosthetic eye wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith R; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert J

    2012-10-12

    To describe the biosocial profile of New Zealand (NZ) artificial eye wearers and establish a basis for future research and international comparison. This retrospective study surveyed 431 NZ artificial eye wearers to investigate their ethnicity, gender, age, causes of eye loss, age of current prosthesis, ocular prosthetic maintenance regimes and the extent and severity of discharge associated with prosthesis wear. Approximately 3000 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Accidents were the main cause of eye loss prior to 1990 and medical conditions have been the main cause since. In the 1960s, the ratio of men to women losing an eye from accidents was 5:1, but during the past decade the ratio was 1.4:1. Socket discharge occurred at least twice daily for one-third of the study group. Approximately 1 in 1440 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Decline of eye loss due to accidents is consistent with decreasing workplace and traffic accidents and may be due to improved medical management, workplace safety standards and safer roads. Mucoid discharge is prevalent in the anophthalmic population of NZ and an evidence based treatment protocol for discharge associated with prosthesis wear is needed. Research into this distressing condition is planned.

  2. Small eyes big problems: is cataract surgery the best option for the nanophthalmic eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utman, S.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Nanophthalmos refers to an eyeball of short axial length, usually less than 20 mm which leads to angle closure glaucoma due to relatively large lens. Intra-ocular lens extraction relieves the angle closure in nanophthalmos. Cataract surgery in a nanophthalmic eye is technically difficult with high risk of complications such as posterior capsular rupture, uveal effusion, choroidal haemorrhage, vitreous haemorrhage, malignant glaucoma, retinal detachment and aqueous misdirection. Various options are explained in the literature to perform cataract surgery in nanophthalmos, like extracapsular cataract extraction with or without sclerostomy; small-incision cataract extraction by phacoemulsification which not only helps maintain the anterior chamber during surgery but also reduces the incidence of complications due to less fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) during the surgery. Cataract surgery deepens and widens the anterior chamber angle in nanophthalmic eyes and has beneficial effects on IOP in eyes with nanophthalmos but is associated with a high incidence of complications. (author)

  3. Registration of eye reflection and scene images using an aspherical eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Atsushi; Nitschke, Christian; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces an image registration algorithm between an eye reflection and a scene image. Although there are currently a large number of image registration algorithms, this task remains difficult due to nonlinear distortions at the eye surface and large amounts of noise, such as iris texture, eyelids, eyelashes, and their shadows. To overcome this issue, we developed an image registration method combining an aspherical eye model that simulates nonlinear distortions considering eye geometry and a two-step iterative registration strategy that obtains dense correspondence of the feature points to achieve accurate image registrations for the entire image region. We obtained a database of eye reflection and scene images featuring four subjects in indoor and outdoor scenes and compared the registration performance with different asphericity conditions. Results showed that the proposed approach can perform accurate registration with an average accuracy of 1.05 deg by using the aspherical cornea model. This work is relevant for eye image analysis in general, enabling novel applications and scenarios.

  4. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  5. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  7. Monitoring eye movements to investigate the picture superiority effect in spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Rosen, Mitchell; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pelz, Jeff B

    2008-01-01

    Spatial memory is usually better for iconic than for verbal material. Our aim was to assess whether such effect is related to the way iconic and verbal targets are viewed when people have to memorize their locations. Eye movements were recorded while participants memorized the locations of images or words. Images received fewer, but longer, gazes than words. Longer gazes on images might reflect greater attention devoted to images due to their higher sensorial distinctiveness and/or generation with images of an additional phonological code beyond the visual code immediately available. We found that words were scanned mainly from left to right while a more heterogeneous scanning strategy characterized encoding of images. This suggests that iconic configurations tend to be maintained as global integrated representations in which all the item/location pairs are simultaneously present whilst verbal configurations are maintained through more sequential processes.

  8. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Corneal haze following PRK with mitomycin C as a retreatment versus prophylactic use in the contralateral eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Marcelo V; Chalita, Maria Regina; Krueger, Ronald R

    2007-01-01

    To report photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) treated with mitomycin C (MMC) for previous corneal haze in one eye and PRK with MMC to prevent corneal haze formation in the fellow eye. A 40-year-old woman underwent PRK with MMC to treat previous corneal haze (secondary to previous PRK without MMC) for residual refractive error of +0.50 +0.25 x 165 in the left eye and PRK with MMC to prevent corneal haze in the right eye. Postoperative slit-lamp examination revealed no haze in the right eye, but continued mild haze in the left eye. Treatment with PRK and MMC for previous corneal haze is not as effective as primary PRK with MMC in preventing postoperative corneal haze formation.

  10. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  11. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  12. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  13. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T O'Rourke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence

  14. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Colleen T; Hall, Margaret I; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-09-22

    Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while

  15. Detection and evaluation of left atrial myxoma by gated radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Adachi, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging plays an important role in diagnosising left atrial myxoma (LAM). We discussed diagnostic value of Fourier analysis with phase image and evaluated left ventricular filling function using indices such as 1/3 Filling Fraction, Rapid Filling Fraction and Peak Filling Rate derived from left ventricular volume curve. Equillibrium radionuclide angiocardiography was performed in 6 LAM patients. Phase delay in the basal portion of the left ventricle was shown in 5 of 6 LAM patients, and standard deviation of left ventricular phase was larger than these of controls. Left ventricular filling disturbance was suggested in 5 of 6 LAM patients. After surgical remove of myxoma phase delay was disappeared and standard deviation was normalized. And left ventricular filling was improved. We concluded that the phase image of Fourier analysis revealed a left atrial mass prolapsing in the left ventricule during the diastole, and that diastolic indices were useful for left ventricular filling disturbance due to LAM. (author)

  16. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  17. Mechanical injuries of the eye: Incidence, structure and possibilities for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite technological advances used in everyday clinical practice, injuries of the eye caused by various agents still produce blindness and poor vision in a significant number of people. The aim of this study was to analyze factors leading to occurrence of mechanical injuries of the eye. Methods. Mechanic injuries of the eye in patients treated at the Institute for Eye Diseases of the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade, in an eight-year period were analyzed. Investigated parameters were: sex and age of patients, their profession, time of injury (months, days and hours, place and way of injury and a visual acuity on admission and dismiss, as well as further follow-up. Type of injury (closed or opened injuries of the eyeball, with all the complications that followed were carefully noted and monitored. The time of primary surgical repair was noted and analyzed, whenever necessary. Results. In the period of eight years, 2701 patients (2 257 males and 444 females were treated in the hospital due to mechanical injury of the eye. Almost equally, both the right (50.5% and the left eye (49.5% were injured, while in 39 (1.4% patients both eyes were injured at the same time. The injuries occurred in all age groups, but mostly in adults, employed persons, aged from 16 to 65 (70%. Among injured children, 18.8% were beyond the age of 15. Most frequent injuries occurred in workers (39%, and then in pupils (16.3%. Wood was the mean of injury in 23.7% of cases, sharp and pointed objects in 16.1%, hammering and metal particles in 14.4%, glass in 10.1%, and other different objects in the rest of 35.7% of all injured persons. There were other very serious means or mechanisms of eye injuries, like hair band, dog bite, rooster’s beak, rubber bullet, etc. Considering months in the year and days in the week, the injuries were almost equally distributed, and related to the time of day even 75% occurred between 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. Most injuries (38

  18. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  19. Lateralized eye use towards video stimuli in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frohnwieser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lateralized eye use is thought to increase brain efficiency, as the two hemispheres process different information perceived by the eyes. It has been observed in a wide variety of vertebrate species and, in general, information about conspecifics appears to elicit a left eye preference whilst information about prey elicits the opposite. In reptiles, this phenomenon has only been investigated using live conspecifics in agonistic contexts, and so it is not clear whether it can be found when using video stimuli. Here, bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps were presented with videos of female conspecifics and prey that either moved or were stationary, along with a control video of an empty background. Females exhibited a left eye bias towards conspecifics but males did not; however, both sexes looked at conspecifics significantly longer than prey. Further, animals used their left eye significantly longer when viewing moving stimuli of both categories. These results suggest that, in lizards, lateralized eye use when viewing conspecifics may be controlled by sex, and strongly influenced by stimulus movement. This study, therefore, provides important insights into the role of lateralized processing in lizard perception, and sets the scene for future work investigating the role of sex on perception of conspecifics and the role of motion in lateralized eye use.

  20. Pseudophakic hyperopia in nanophthalmic eyes managed by a posterior chamber implantable collamer lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Kulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a bilateral posterior chamber implantable collamer lens (ICL implantation post-clear lens extraction, to reduce the residual hyperopia, in a patient with nanophthalmic eyes. A 30-year-old female patient, keen to reduce her dependency on glasses and contact lenses, came to our refractive surgery department. Her refractive error was +12.0 and +12.5 diopters in the right and left eye, respectively, with steep corneas on keratometry and a shallow anterior chamber depth. She underwent clear lens extraction with implantation of +35.0 D and +40.0 D IOL in the right eye and left eye, respectively. Her post-operative best-corrected visual acuity was 20/30 with +8.5 D in the right eye and +6 D in the left. She underwent bilateral ICL implantation. Postoperatively after 6 months, her unaided visual acuity was 20/30 in both eyes. In conclusion, ICL implantation can be considered to correct residual hypermetropic ametropia in pseudophakic eyes when other options have limitations.

  1. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  2. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  3. Eye lens radiation exposure in Greek interventional cardiology personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Askounis, Panagiotis; Carinou, Eleftheria; Datseris, Ioannis; Diamanti, Ramza Anastasia; Papathanasiou, Miltiadis

    2017-01-01

    The lens of the eye is one of the radiosensitive tissues of the human body; if exposed to ionizing radiation can develop radiation-induced cataract at early ages. This study was held in Greece and included 44 Interventional Cardiologists (ICs) and an unexposed to radiation control group of 22 persons. Of the note, 26 ICs and the unexposed individuals underwent special eye examinations. The detected lens opacities were classified according to LOCS III protocol. Additionally, the lens doses of the ICs were measured using eye lens dosemeters. The mean dose to the lenses of the ICs per month was 0.83 ± 0.59 mSv for the left and 0.35 ± 0.38 mSv for the right eye, while the annual doses ranged between 0.7 and 11 mSv. Regarding the lens opacities, the two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of either nuclear or cortical lens opacities, whereas four ICs were detected with early stage subcapsular sclerosis. Though no statistically difference was observed in the cohort, the measured doses indicate that the eye doses received from the ICs can be significant. To minimize the radiation-induced risk at the eye lenses, the use of protective equipment and appropriate training on this issue is highly recommended. (authors)

  4. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based...... of creativity at both process and content levels. The benefits, limitations, and possible applications of the method are considered in the broader context of creativity studies....

  5. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.

  6. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  7. Apoptosis of conjunctival epithelial cells before and after the application of autologous serum eye drops in severe dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybickova, Ivana; Vesela, Viera; Fales, Ivan; Skalicka, Pavlina; Jirsova, Katerina

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of autologous serum eye drops on the level of ocular surface apoptosis in patients with bilateral severe dry eye disease. This prospective study was conducted on 10 patients with severe dry eye due to graft versus host disease (group 1) and 6 patients with severe dry eye due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (group 2). Impression cytology specimens from the bulbar conjunctiva were obtained before and after a three-month treatment with 20% autologous serum eye drops applied a maximum of 12 times a day together with regular therapy with artificial tears. The percentage of apoptotic epithelial cells was evaluated immunochemically using anti-active caspase 3 antibody. In group 1, the mean percentage of apoptotic cells was 3.6% before the treatment. The three-month treatment led to a significant decrease to a mean percentage of 1.8% (P = 0.028). The mean percentage of apoptotic conjunctival cells decreased from 5.4% before the treatment to 3.8% in group 2; however, these results did not reach the level of significance. Three-month autologous serum treatment led to the improvement of ocular surface apoptosis, especially in the group of patients with severe dry eye due to graft versus host disease. This result supports the very positive effect of autologous serum on the ocular surface in patients suffering from severe dry eye.

  8. The current status of eye lens dose measurement in interventional cardiology personnel in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanachinda, Anchali; Srimahachota, Suphot; Matsubara, Kosuke

    2017-06-01

    Workers involved in interventional cardiology procedures receive high eye lens doses if radiation protection tools are not properly utilized. Currently, there is no suitable method for routine measurement of eye dose. In Thailand, the eye lens equivalent doses in terms of Hp(3) of the interventional cardiologists, nurses, and radiographers participating in interventional cardiology procedures have been measured at 12 centers since 2015 in the pilot study. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was used for measurement of the occupational exposure and the eye lens dose of 42 interventional cardiology personnel at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital as one of the pilot centers. For all personnel, it is recommended that a first In Light OSL badge is placed at waist level and under the lead apron for determination of Hp(10); a second badge is placed at the collar for determination of Hp(0.07) and estimation of Hp(3). Nano Dots OSL dosimeter has been used as an eye lens dosimeter for 16 interventional cardiology personnel, both with and without lead-glass eyewear. The mean effective dose at the body, equivalent dose at the collar, and estimated eye lens dose were 0.801, 5.88, and 5.70 mSv per year, respectively. The mean eye lens dose measured by the Nano Dots dosimeter was 8.059 mSv per year on the left eye and 3.552 mSv per year on the right eye. Two of 16 interventional cardiologists received annual eye lens doses on the left side without lead glass that were higher than 20 mSv per year, the new eye lens dose limit as recommended by ICRP with the risk of eye lens opacity and cataract.

  9. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  10. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  11. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    With the federal No Child Left Behind Act underscoring the wide variation in what states demand of their students, people on both sides of the political aisle are again making the case for national standards, curricula, and tests. It wasn't so long ago--during the Clinton and George H.W. Bush administrations--that similar proposals went down in…

  13. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  14. System and Method for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring the motion of one or both eyes, includes capturing a sequence of overlapping images of a subject's face including an eye and the corresponding non-eye region; identifying a plurality of keypoints in each image; mapping corresponding keypoints in two or more images...... of the sequence; assigning the keypoints to the eye and to the corresponding non-eye region; calculating individual velocities of the corresponding keypoints in the eye and the corresponding non-eye region to obtain a distribution of velocities; extracting at least one velocity measured for the eye and at least...... one velocity measured for the corresponding non-eye region; calculating the eye-in-head velocity for the eye based upon the measured velocity for the eye and the measured velocity for the corresponding non-eye region; and calculating the eye-in-head position based upon the eye- in-head velocity....

  15. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The eye amputated - consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Marie Louise Roed

    2010-12-01

    In this thesis the term eye amputation (EA) covers the removing of an eye by: evisceration, enucleation and exenteration. Amputation of an eye is most frequently the end-stage in a complicated disease, or the primary treatment in trauma and neoplasm. In 2010 the literature is extensive due to knowledge about types of surgery, implants and surgical technique. However, not much is known about the time past surgery. To identify the number of EA, the causative diagnosis and the indication for surgical removal of the eye, the chosen surgical technique and to evaluate a possible change in surgical technique in Denmark from 1996 until 2003 (paper I); To describe the phantom eye syndrome and its prevalence of visual hallucinations, phantom pain and phantom sensations (paper II); To characterise the quality of phantom eye pain, including its intensity and frequency among EA patients. We attempted to identify patients with increased risk of developing pain after EA and investigated if preoperative pain is a risk factor for a later development of phantom pain (paper III); In addition we wanted to investigate the health related quality of life, perceived stress, self rated health, job separation due to illness or disability and socio-economic position of the EA in comparison with the general Danish population (paper IV). Records on 431 EA patients, clinical ophthalmological examination and an interview study of 173 EA patients and a questionnaire answered by 120 EA patients. The most frequent indications for EA in Denmark were painful blind eye (37%) and neoplasm (34%). During the study period 1996-2003, the annual number of eye amputations was stable, but an increase in bulbar eviscerations was noticed. Orbital implants were used with an increasing tendency until 2003. The Phantom eye syndrome is frequent among EA patients. Visual hallucinations were described by 42% of the patients. The content were mainly elementary visual hallucinations, with white or colored light as a

  17. Recognition method of construction conflict based on driver's eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Li, Shiwu; Gao, Song; Tan, Derong; Guo, Dong; Wang, Yuqiong

    2018-04-01

    Drivers eye movement data in simulated construction conflicts at different speeds were collected and analyzed to find the relationship between the drivers' eye movement and the construction conflict. On the basis of the relationship between the drivers' eye movement and the construction conflict, the peak point of wavelet processed pupil diameter, the first point on the left side of the peak point and the first blink point after the peak point are selected as key points for locating construction conflict periods. On the basis of the key points and the GSA, a construction conflict recognition method so called the CCFRM is proposed. And the construction conflict recognition speed and location accuracy of the CCFRM are verified. The good performance of the CCFRM verified the feasibility of proposed key points in construction conflict recognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal fluctuation based study of aqueous deficient dry eyes by non-invasive thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharuddin, Mohammad; Bera, Sumanta Kr; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we have studied the thermal fluctuation patterns occurring at the ocular surface of the left and right eyes for aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) patients and control subjects by thermal imaging. We conducted our experiment on 42 patients (84 eyes) with aqueous deficient dry eyes and compared with 36 healthy volunteers (72 eyes) without any history of ocular surface disorder. Schirmer's test, Tear Break-up Time, tear Meniscus height and fluorescein staining tests were conducted. Ocular surface temperature measurement was done, using an FL-IR thermal camera and thermal fluctuation in left and right eyes was calculated and analyzed using MATLAB. The time series containing the sum of squares of the temperature fluctuation on the ocular surface were compared for aqueous deficient dry eye and control subjects. Significant statistical difference between the fluctuation patterns for control and ADDE was observed (p eyes are significantly correlated in controls but not in ADDE subjects. The possible origin of such correlation in control and lack of correlation in the ADDE subjects is discussed in the text. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcutaneous periorbital electrical stimulation in the treatment of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Emilio; Bosello, Francesca; Fasolo, Adriano; Frigo, Anna C; Marchesoni, Ivan; Ruggeri, Alfredo; Marchini, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of transcutaneous application of electrical current on symptoms and clinical signs of dry eye (DE). 27 patients with DE underwent transcutaneous electrostimulation with electrodes placed onto the periorbital region of both eyes and manual stimulation with a hand-piece conductor moved by the operator. Each patient underwent 12 sessions of 22 min spread over 2 months, two sessions per week in the first month and one session per week in the second month. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein staining of the cornea, Schirmer I test and adverse events were evaluated at baseline, at end of treatment and at 6 and 12 months. OSDI improved from 43.0±19.2 at baseline to 25.3±22.1 at end of treatment (mean±SD, p=0.001). These effects were substantially maintained at 6-month and 12-month follow-up evaluations. Improvement of the values of TBUT was recorded for the right eye at the end of treatment (p=0.003) and found in the left eye after 12 months (p=0.02). The Oxford scores changed in both eyes at the end of treatment and at the 6-month evaluation (peye at the 12-month evaluation (p=0.035). Schirmer I improved significantly at the end of treatment in the left eye (p=0.001) and in both eyes at the 12-month evaluation (p=0.004 and p=0.039 for the left and right eye, respectively). A significant reduction of the use of tear substitutes was found at the end of treatment (p=0.003), and was maintained during the follow-up (ptreatment satisfying. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation was shown to improve DE, both subjectively and objectively, without any adverse effects and has the potential to enlarge the armamentarium for treating DE. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Foveal hemorrhage in an eye with foveal hypoplasia associated with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naonori; Hasegawa, Taiji; Yamashita, Mariko; Ogata, Nahoko

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism is a group of congenital disorders caused by alterations of melanin biosynthesis. We report our findings in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism who presented with foveal hypoplasia and a foveal hemorrhage. A 48-year-old man noted a dark spot in the middle of the visual field of his right eye. He had depigmented skin, white hair, white eyebrows, and white cilia. He also had horizontal nystagmus and depigmented irides. His best-corrected visual acuity was 2/100 with -14.0 diopters in the right eye and 3/100 with -5.0 diopters in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed diffuse depigmentation in both eyes and a foveal hemorrhage in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography showed the absence of a foveal pit in both eyes and a subretinal hyperreflective lesion corresponding to the foveal hemorrhage in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography showed that the retinal and choroidal vessels were relatively hypofluorescent because of the lack of a blocking effect of the pigments in the retinal pigment epithelium. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography did not show any evidence of choroidal neovascularization in either eye. The foveal hemorrhage in the right eye spontaneously regressed and finally resolved at 3 months after onset. At the final examination, the patient reported that his vision had recovered. A foveal hemorrhage is a rare condition in an eye with foveal hypoplasia associated with albinism. The hemorrhage may be related to high myopia and also to the hypoplasia of the fovea associated with albinism.

  1. [Emphasis on standardization and refinement in the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z G

    2017-09-11

    Dry eye is the second most common ocular disease. In China, the incidence rate of dry eye has reached 21% to 30%, and dry eye patients have accounted for more than 30% of the total ophthalmology outpatients. Dry eye has become a common health problem that affects the working efficiency and life quality of Chinese people. Over the past decade, due to the rapid development of diagnostic equipments and new treatments for dry eye, dry eye has become one of the areas with greatest concerns in ophthalmology, and many eye institutions have set up their dry eye clinics. Although the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye has been improved in recent years, the awareness of dry eye in Chinese ophthalmologists is still too simple. In the diagnosis, the interrogation and basic examination are not given enough attention, and we are over-relying on equipments. Clinical examination and instrument operation also have not been standardized. This article emphasizes that we should pay attention to the interrogation, basic examination and standardization of clinical examination and equipment operation in diagnosing dry eye. The treatment regimen should be mostly refined and optimized to be individualized and comprehensive based on the causes, types and severity of dry eye. In addition, the physical and adjuvant therapy of dry eye should be given sufficient attention and applied reasonably. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 641-644) .

  2. Evaluation of Occupational Closed Globe Eye Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Akova-Budak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate closed glob injuries related to occupational accidents of patients who had official occupational accident records. Material and Method: The medical records of patients with ocular injuries who referred to Department of Ophthalmology or emergency of Uludag University, School of Medicine between January 2010 and December 2013 with official occupational accident report were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with closed globe injuries following trauma were included. Age, sex, the injured eye, the cause of the trauma, whether the precautions were taken or not by the patient, the damage due to trauma were recorded. Results: According to the official records, 108 patients referred to our clinic with closed globe injury related to occupational accident. One hundred twenty eyes of 108 patients ( 2 females, 106 males were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 33±8.6 years. The most frequent cause of injury was foreign bodies on the ocular surface followed by blunt trauma. The mean age of the patients injured with foreign bodies was found to be significantly lower than the patients injured with blunt objects (p=0.039. Thirteen patients reported that they had used preventive equipment. Discussion: It is of utmost importance that the awareness of the workers should be raised and they should be educated about the use of preventive equipment to prevent the occupational eye injuries. The education of particularly the younger patients about the occupational injuries when they begin to work may decrease the rate of occupational accident related eye injuries.

  3. Real time eye tracking using Kalman extended spatio-temporal context learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Farzeen; Minhas, Fayyaz ul Amir Asfar; Jalil, Abdul; Jeon, Moongu

    2017-06-01

    Real time eye tracking has numerous applications in human computer interaction such as a mouse cursor control in a computer system. It is useful for persons with muscular or motion impairments. However, tracking the movement of the eye is complicated by occlusion due to blinking, head movement, screen glare, rapid eye movements, etc. In this work, we present the algorithmic and construction details of a real time eye tracking system. Our proposed system is an extension of Spatio-Temporal context learning through Kalman Filtering. Spatio-Temporal Context Learning offers state of the art accuracy in general object tracking but its performance suffers due to object occlusion. Addition of the Kalman filter allows the proposed method to model the dynamics of the motion of the eye and provide robust eye tracking in cases of occlusion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this tracking technique by controlling the computer cursor in real time by eye movements.

  4. Anosognosia for hemiparesis after left-sided stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Vucurevic, Goran; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Glassl, Oliver; Geber, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2014-12-01

    In patients with left-sided lesions, anosognosia for hemiparesis (AHP) seems to be a rare phenomenon. It has been discussed whether this rareness might be due to an inevitable bias due to language dysfunction and whether the left hemisphere's role for our self-awareness of motor actions thus is underestimated. By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined whether patients with AHP following a left hemisphere stroke show a regular, left-sided or a reversed, right-sided lateralization of language functions. Only the former observation would argue for an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. In a consecutive series of 44 acute left-sided stroke patients, only one patient (=2%) was identified showing AHP. In this case, we could verify by using fMRI that lateralization of AHP and spatial neglect on the one hand and of language functions on the other hand were reversed. The present single case observation thus argues against an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. We discuss the data in the context of previous observations in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  6. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  7. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  8. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  9. Chapter 2. Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, P.

    1975-01-01

    Ocular scintigraphy can now be carried out with several tracers: 131 I diiodofluorescein and sup(99m)Tc, hypervascularisation indicators; 131 I iodinated chloroquine, melanoma selective. The detector used is an Anger scintillation camera coupled to a multiparameter analysis chain or a computer. The ''pin-hole'' type collimator, which has a stenopaeic opening in front of each eye, is adaptable to any inter-pupil distance. The very simple scintigraphic procedure is described. The results, taken from two statistical studies on 198 and 80 patients respectively, concern the main types of eye disease encountered: malignant melanic tumours, other tumours, metastases, choroiditis, idiopathic detachments of the retina etc... The interpretation of the scintigrams and the problems involved are considered. Finally the main indications of the method are defined with emphasis on the possibilities of double scintigraphy, diiodofluorescein only showing up the hypervascularisation often associated with the tumour whereas iodinated chloroquine, when the result is positive, points to the presence of a malignant melanoma [fr

  10. Post-LASIK dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730

  11. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  12. Owl's eye appearance: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Mukul; Asha, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Hyper-functioning thyroid nodule may present various scintigraphic appearances on thyroid scans. Autonomously hyper functioning thyroid nodules often show degenerative changes. These changes may give rise to peripheral photopenic areas on a thyroid scan. In this report we present a case of hyper functioning nodule showing appearance of an owl's eye. Although rare, such pattern can be seen in a variety of benign and malignant thyroid conditions. A 42-year-old man presented with a solitary thyroid nodule in the right lobe and weight loss for four months. The thyroid hormone profile confirmed hyperthyroidism. Thyroid function testing revealed T4=136.8 nmol/l (Normal = 66.0-181.0 nmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) = 0.283 (Normal =0.27- 4.2 μIU/ml). Antithyroglobulin antibodies and antimicrosmal antibodies were negative. The patient was referred for thyroid scan and uptake. A Thyroid scan was obtained after the intravenous injection of 5 mCi (185MBq) of 99m Tc pertechnetate. Anterior view obtained using a parallel hole collimator. The scan showed peripheral photopenic area with a central focal area of increased uptake giving the appearance of 'Owl's eye'. 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake was increased. A scintigraphic 'Owl's eye' sign has been described in thyroid cyst, benign autonomous nodule and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. This Owl's eye pattern appears to be caused by a focus of functioning tissue overlapping a large cold area in a nodule that has cystic,degenerative and necrotic changes in the middle of a benign and malignant pathology. Hyper functioning nodules may scintigraphically show Owl's eye pattern due to intra nodular degeneration, with residual hyper functioning tissue within or overlapping the degenerative area

  13. Four Eyes Are Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    sensitivity of the VLTI by a factor of almost 100. First results with four Unit Telescopes ESO PR Photo 22b/02 ESO PR Photo 22b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 573 x 400 pix - 78k] [Normal - JPEG: 1145 x 800 pix - 232k] Caption : PR Photo 22b/02 : The left panel shows the rather incomplete set of "baselines" used during the present, short interferometric test exposures (in interferometric terminology: the "UV-plane coverage"). Each baseline is represented by two opposite, short arcs, symmetric around the origin (centre) of the diagram. The colour-coded pattern reflects the telescope pairs (ANTU-KUEYEN = magenta, ANTU-MELIPAL = red, ANTU-YEPUN = green, KUEYEN-MELIPAL = cyan, KUEYEN-YEPUN = blue), as seen from the observed object. Due to the limited time available, this distribution is far from uniform and is quite elongated in one direction. To the right is shown the reconstructed, two-dimensional interferometric point-spread function (PSF) of the star Achernar (in "negative" - with most light in the darkest areas). It is the result of subsequent computer processing of the measurements with the different baselines. On the largest scale, the image consists of an inner, round distribution of light, 0.057 arcsec wide, surrounded by an outer, much weaker, broad "ring" and with a "white" zone between these two areas. This is the "Airy disk" for a single 8.2-m telescope at this infrared wavelength (the K-band at 2.2 µm). It represents the maximum resolution (image sharpness) obtainable when observing with a single telescope. As explained in the text, the interferometric "addition" of more telescopes greatly improves that resolution. The width of the individual - slightly S-shaped - lines ("fringes") in the inclined pattern visible in the inner area, about 0.003 arcsec, represents the achieved interferometric resolution in one direction (with an angular diameter of about 0.002 arcsec, the disk of Achernar is not resolved, making it a suitable object for this resolution test). The resolution in

  14. Testing of the Safety and the Effectiveness of Using Samjeong Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hyung-Sik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This experimental study was designed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of Samjeong pharmacopuncture solution (SPS manufactured by using a the lowtemperature extract on process. Methods: To identify the safety and the effectiveness of using SPS as eye drops, we performed applied eye irritation tests on rabbits and antibacterial tests for Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans. The eye irritation test was performed according to the toxicity testing regulation of the Korea Food & Drug Administration (2009. 8. 24, KFDA 2009-116. After SPS had been applied on the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation in the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 7th day. After SPS had been dropped on bacterial species that cause keratitis, the minimum inhibition concentration and the size of the inhibition zone were measured. The anti-bacterial potency was also measured by taking the size of inhibition zone. Results: After SPS had been administered on the left eye of the rabbits, none of nine rabbits were found to show abnormal signs or weight changes. After SPS had been administered on the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation in the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 7th day. No specific response was detected in MIC for bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans after SPS had been applied. Conclusions: This study suggests that SPS is a non-toxic and non-irritant medicine that does not cause any of eye irritation in rabbits, but it has no antibacterial effects on bacterial species that are well known to cause keratitis. These results suggest that more research is required on extracts from herbal medicines for treating keratitis.

  15. Scleral wound healing with cross-link technique using riboflavin and ultraviolet A on rabbit eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno NA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadyr A Damasceno,1 Nadia C Miguel,2 Marcelo Palis Ventura,3 Miguel Burnier Jr,4 Marcos P Avila,5 Eduardo F Damasceno3 1Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias, 2Laboratory of Neurohistology and Cell Ultrastructure, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Ophthalmology Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; 4Ophthalmology Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Ophthalmology Department, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiania, Brazil Purpose: The aim of study was to evaluate the cross-link using riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA for improving scleral wound healing.Materials and methods: This was an experimental study involving four New Zealand rabbits (eight eyes. Therapy procedure was chosen for the right eye and control procedure for the left one. UVA irradiation of 365 nm with a surface irradiance of 3 mW/cm2 and a photosensitizer of riboflavin drops were applied for 30 minutes on the right eye at 2 mm from the limbus. Sclerotomy incision was performed at 2 mm from the limbus in both right (on the cross-link-treated area and left eye. Then, 30 days after surgery, a morphological analysis and histological staining with hematoxylin–eosin and picrosirius red were performed, and the sclerotomy cicatrization of right and left eyes was compared. The variables investigated were as follows: sclerotomy incision pictures and measurements were made using the ImageJ Software. Scleral thickness was measured (employing the anterior optical coherence tomography and the digital caliper. Collagen fiber density stained with picrosirius red staining was measured using the Image Pro Plus software.Results: The morphological analysis showed that in all samples, the right eye presented sclerotomy closure, and in two eyes, among them, there were no visible edges of the sclerotomies incision. The left eye presented sclerotomy closure and incision edges

  16. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Madhavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye. Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and right eye showed corneal opacity with Descemet’s tear (status post hydrops. RESULT The patient was prescribed cycloplegics, hypertonic saline for left eye and was advised against scratching the eye and was given protective goggles and was told for close followup in conjunction with psychiatric management. CONCLUSION Impulse control disorders are relatively common psychiatric conditions, yet are poorly understood by clinicians, patients suffering from the disorder and public. And hence identification of this disorder and close observation of patient allows for avoiding complications such as progression of hydrops, perforation and infection.

  17. Eye tracking to explore attendance in health-state descriptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Selivanova

    Full Text Available A crucial assumption in health valuation methods is that respondents pay equal attention to all information components presented in the response task. So far, there is no solid evidence that respondents are fulfilling this condition. The aim of our study is to explore the attendance to various information cues presented in the discrete choice (DC response tasks.Eye tracking was used to study the eye movements and fixations on specific information areas. This was done for seven DC response tasks comprising health-state descriptions. A sample of 10 respondents participated in the study. Videos of their eye movements were recorded and are presented graphically. Frequencies were computed for length of fixation and number of fixations, so differences in attendance were demonstrated for particular attributes in the tasks.All respondents completed the survey. Respondents were fixating on the left-sided health-state descriptions slightly longer than on the right-sided. Fatigue was not observed, as the time spent did not decrease in the final response tasks. The time spent on the tasks depended on the difficulty of the task and the amount of information presented.Eye tracking proved to be a feasible method to study the process of paying attention and fixating on health-state descriptions in the DC response tasks. Eye tracking facilitates the investigation of whether respondents fully read the information in health descriptions or whether they ignore particular elements.

  18. The dependencies of fronto-parietal BOLD responses evoked by covert visual search suggest eye-centred coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, A; Dicke, P W; Karnath, H-O; Thier, P

    2013-04-01

    Visual scenes explored covertly are initially represented in a retinal frame of reference (FOR). On the other hand, 'later' stages of the cortical network allocating spatial attention most probably use non-retinal or non-eye-centred representations as they may ease the integration of different sensory modalities for the formation of supramodal representations of space. We tested if the cortical areas involved in shifting covert attention are based on eye-centred or non-eye-centred coding by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were scanned while detecting a target item (a regularly oriented 'L') amidst a set of distractors (rotated 'L's). The array was centred either 5° right or left of the fixation point, independent of eye-gaze orientation, the latter varied in three steps: straight relative to the head, 10° left or 10° right. A quantitative comparison of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses for the three eye-gaze orientations revealed stronger BOLD responses in the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the right frontal eye field (FEF) for search in the contralateral (i.e. left) eye-centred space, independent of whether the array was located in the right or left head-centred hemispace. The left IPS showed the reverse pattern, i.e. an activation by search in the right eye-centred hemispace. In other words, the IPS and the right FEF, members of the cortical network underlying covert search, operate in an eye-centred FOR. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Inter-eye comparison of retinal oximetry and vessel caliber between eyes with asymmetrical glaucoma severity in different glaucoma subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng CS

    2016-07-01

    differences in oximetric parameters or vessel calibers between the worse and the better eyes in POAG and NTG groups. Conclusion: Eyes with PACG showed increased arteriolar oxygen saturation and increased AV difference. This was not observed in POAG and NTG eyes. Arteriolar diameter in PACG and venular diameter in all three glaucoma groups were reduced. The difference observed in PACG eyes may be due to an increased metabolic demand in the disease process compared to open-angle glaucoma. Keywords: glaucoma, oximetry, retinal vessels, imaging

  20. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  1. Does consolidation of visuospatial sequence knowledge depend on eye movements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphné Coomans

    Full Text Available In the current study, we assessed whether visuospatial sequence knowledge is retained over 24 hours and whether this retention is dependent on the occurrence of eye movements. Participants performed two sessions of a serial reaction time (SRT task in which they had to manually react to the identity of a target letter pair presented in one of four locations around a fixation cross. When the letter pair 'XO' was presented, a left response had to be given, when the letter pair 'OX' was presented, a right response was required. In the Eye Movements (EM condition, eye movements were necessary to perform the task since the fixation cross and the target were separated by at least 9° visual angle. In the No Eye Movements (NEM condition, on the other hand, eye movements were minimized by keeping the distance from the fixation cross to the target below 1° visual angle and by limiting the stimulus presentation to 100 ms. Since the target identity changed randomly in both conditions, no manual response sequence was present in the task. However, target location was structured according to a deterministic sequence in both the EM and NEM condition. Learning of the target location sequence was determined at the end of the first session and 24 hours after initial learning. Results indicated that the sequence learning effect in the SRT task diminished, yet remained significant, over the 24 hour interval in both conditions. Importantly, the difference in eye movements had no impact on the transfer of sequence knowledge. These results suggest that the retention of visuospatial sequence knowledge occurs alike, irrespective of whether this knowledge is supported by eye movements or not.

  2. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Mao

    Full Text Available To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated.Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951.The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.

  3. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related Eye ... Six Steps to Avoid Contact Lens Infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones relacionadas ...

  4. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  5. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eCoronel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  6. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DRY EYE IN DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mahadev Sahasrabudhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes causes blindness in 20-74 year old persons. Blindness in diabetic patients may due to cataract or retinopathy. Dry eye is one of the ocular surface problem increasingly observed in diabetic patients. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients and their contributing factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done between April 2016 to September 2016. 70 patients of type 2 diabetes diagnosed at Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Hospital, Nanded, were included in this study. Patients were assessed by questionnaire about other diseases and drugs. Dry eye syndrome was assessed with Tear Breakup Time (TBUT, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining apart from routine ophthalmic examination. RESULTS Out of 60 patients, 32 (53% suffer from dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eyes appear to have a common association. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish an aetiologic relationship. As routine dilated fundus examination is an integral part of evaluation of diabetic patients in ophthalmic clinics, examination for dry eye should also be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  7. Ultrathin flexible piezoelectric sensors for monitoring eye fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chaofeng; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Bingwei; Zhang, Yangyang; Du, Yangkun; Feng, Xue

    2018-02-01

    Eye fatigue is a symptom induced by long-term work of both eyes and brains. Without proper treatment, eye fatigue may incur serious problems. Current studies on detecting eye fatigue mainly focus on computer vision detect technology which can be very unreliable due to occasional bad visual conditions. As a solution, we proposed a wearable conformal in vivo eye fatigue monitoring sensor that contains an array of piezoelectric nanoribbons integrated on an ultrathin flexible substrate. By detecting strains on the skin of eyelid, the sensors may collect information about eye blinking, and, therefore, reveal human’s fatigue state. We first report the design and fabrication of the piezoelectric sensor and experimental characterization of voltage responses of the piezoelectric sensors. Under bending stress, the output voltage curves yield key information about the motion of human eyelid. We also develop a theoretical model to reveal the underlying mechanism of detecting eyelid motion. Both mechanical load test and in vivo test are conducted to convince the working performance of the sensors. With satisfied durability and high sensitivity, this sensor may efficiently detect abnormal eyelid motions, such as overlong closure, high blinking frequency, low closing speed and weak gazing strength, and may hopefully provide feedback for assessing eye fatigue in time so that unexpected situations can be prevented.

  8. A randomized clinical evaluation of the safety of Systane® Lubricant Eye Drops for the relief of dry eye symptoms following LASIK refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Durrie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Durrie, Jason StahlDurrie Vision, Overland Park, Kansas, USAPurpose: To evaluate the safety of Systane® Lubricant Eye Drops in relieving the symptoms of dry eye following laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK surgery.Methods: This was a randomized, double-masked, single-center, placebo-controlled, contralateral eye study of 30 patients undergoing LASIK surgery. The mean age of patients was 42.4 ± 10.7 years, and the mean spherical equivalent was −3.29 (range, +1.75 to −7.38. Patients’ right and left eyes were randomized to receive either Systane® or placebo – a preserved, thimerosal-free saline solution – beginning from the day of surgery and ending 30 days following surgery. Outcome measures included tear film break up time (TFBUT, visual acuity, degree of corneal and conjunctival staining, and treatment-related adverse events.Results: Preoperatively, placebo-treated eyes had statistically significantly higher sum corneal staining score than Systane®-treated eyes (p = 0.0464; however, the difference was clinically insignificant (p = 0.27. Two weeks post operatively, the average TFBUT in the Systane®-treated eyes was 1.23 seconds longer than that of the placebo-treated eyes (p = 0.028. All other evaluated variables were comparable between the two treatments. No adverse events were reported in the study.Conclusion: Systane® Lubricant Eye Drops are safe for use following LASIK surgery to relieve the discomfort symptoms of dry eye associated with the procedure.Keywords: Systane®, safety, dry eye, LASIK

  9. Bilateral optic nerve head drusen with chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorioretinal coloboma is a congenital defect of the eye caused by improper closure of the embryonic fissure. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD are white calcareous deposits that are generally asymptomatic. We report a very rare association of both in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome. A 16-year-old man was referred to our clinic from suffering blurred vision. Best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 6/10 and 10/10 in the left one. External ocular and slit lamp examination were normal. Dilated ophthalmoscopy showed marked swelling in both optic nerves and chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye inferiorly. Ultrasonography showed an echodense structure with acoustic shadowing in both eyes consistent with buried ONHD. Visual field testing showed normal field in the left eye and moderate superior field depression in the right eye corresponding to inferior coloboma in funduscopy. Results of general medical and neurologic, cardiologic, and other examinations were normal. To the best our knowledge combination of bilateral ONHD and unilateral chorioretinal coloboma in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome has not been published in the literature. We reported this very rare association and recommended examine eyes and other body organs. In such cases that coloboma is associated with ONHD, we should keep in mind Noonan syndrome. The diagnosis of Noonan syndrome is clinical and confirm by the consultant pediatricians and clinical geneticists.

  10. Eye tracking for visual marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.; Pieters, R.

    2008-01-01

    We provide the theory of visual attention and eye-movements that serves as a basis for evaluating eye-tracking research and for discussing salient and emerging issues in visual marketing. Motivated from its rising importance in marketing practice and its potential for theoretical contribution, we

  11. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  12. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  13. Telemedicine and Diabetic Eye Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults is eye disease related to poorly managed diabetes. In a prevention research study, telemedicine was shown to increase the number of people getting screened for diabetic eye disease.

  14. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your Eyes FEB 20, 2018 By Ari Soglin Researchers at Google say a new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high ...

  15. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  16. Dry eyes: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkany, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.

  17. New Perspectives on Dry Eye Definition and Diagnosis: A Consensus Report by the Asia Dry Eye Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Kazuo; Yokoi, Norihiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Dogru, Murat; Yamada, Masakazu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kim, Hyo-Myung; Tchah, Hung-Won; Hyon, Joon Young; Yoon, Kyung-Chul; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Sun, Xuguang; Chen, Wei; Liang, Lingyi; Li, Mingwu; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    For the last 20 years, a great amount of evidence has accumulated through epidemiological studies that most of the dry eye disease encountered in daily life, especially in video display terminal (VDT) workers, involves short tear film breakup time (TFBUT) type dry eye, a category characterized by severe symptoms but minimal clinical signs other than short TFBUT. An unstable tear film also affects the visual function, possibly due to the increase of higher order aberrations. Based on the change in the understanding of the types, symptoms, and signs of dry eye disease, the Asia Dry Eye Society agreed to the following definition of dry eye: "Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by unstable tear film causing a variety of symptoms and/or visual impairment, potentially accompanied by ocular surface damage." The definition stresses instability of the tear film as well as the importance of visual impairment, highlighting an essential role for TFBUT assessment. This paper discusses the concept of Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT), which evolved from the definition of dry eye, emphasizing the importance of a stable tear film. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter for nonlinear eye tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZuTao; ZHANG JiaShu

    2009-01-01

    Non-Intrusive methods for eye tracking are Important for many applications of vision-based human computer interaction. However, due to the high nonlinearity of eye motion, how to ensure the robust-ness of external interference and accuracy of eye tracking poses the primary obstacle to the integration of eye movements into today's interfaces. In this paper, we present a strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter algorithm, aiming to overcome the difficulty In modeling nonlinear eye tracking. In filtering calculation, strong tracking factor is introduced to modify a priori covariance matrix and im-prove the accuracy of the filter. The filter uses finite-difference method to calculate partial derivatives of nonlinear functions for eye tracking. The latest experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...... that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without...

  20. Monitoring of eye lens doses in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mainly due to the ICRP recommendation to decrease the exposure limit for eye lenses, the eye lens dosimetry has to be reconsidered. This paper gives an overview of the issues raised after this recommendation; that is to say, the choice and definition of the operational quantity to be monitored, the type testing and calibration of dosimeters aimed at measuring eyes lens 'doses', the design of existing eye lens dosimeters and their wearing conditions. Finally, a criterion to choose between a direct measurement of the personal dose equivalent at three millimeters depth, H p (3), with a dedicated dosimeter, and an indirect evaluation of H p (3) through whole-body monitoring is presented. (authors)

  1. Extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff performing vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struelens, L; Schoonjans, W; Vanhavere, F; Schils, F; De Smedt, K

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of doses to hands, legs and eyes are reported for operators in four different hospitals performing vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. The results confirm that occupational doses can be high for interventional spine procedures. Extremity and eye lens doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters positioned on the ring fingers, wrists, legs and near the eyes of interventional radiologists and neurosurgeons, over a period of 15 months. Doses were generally larger on the left side for all positions monitored. The median dose to the left finger was 225 μSv per procedure, although a maximum of 7.3 mSv was found. The median dose to the right finger was 118 μSv, but with an even higher maximum of 7.7 mSv. A median left eye dose of 34 μSv (maximum 836 μSv) was found, while the legs received the lowest doses with a median of 13 μSv (maximum 332 μSv) to the left leg. Annual dose to the hand assessed by the cumulated doses almost reached the annual dose limit of 500 mSv, while annual dose to the eyes exceeded the eye lens dose limit of 20 mSv yr −1 . Different x-ray systems and radiation protection measures were tested, like the use of lead gloves and glasses, tweezers, cement delivery systems and a magnetic navigation system. These measurements showed that doses can be significantly reduced. The use of lead glasses is strongly recommended for protection of the eyes. (paper)

  2. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...

  3. UFO in the Left Atrium: How to Capture Metal Debris Floating in the Left Atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Gaetano; Moltrasio, Massimo; Conti, Sergio; Biagioli, Viviana; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Electrophysiology procedures involving left atrium navigation are becoming more frequent, mostly due to the increase of atrial fibrillation ablation. Mapping catheters of different shapes and size as well as dedicated sheaths are mandatory tools for the accomplishment of procedural end point. Therefore, technical issues are expected, usually unrelated to significant risk. However, any accidental intra-atrial device loss of integrity implies a risk of cerebrovascular embolization. The lack of clear evidence on how to manage these events and the need for a quick solution complicate the scenario. We report an empirical solution in the case of debris floating in the left atrium. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to proton beam radiotherapy: Favorable results shown after eighteen months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Eleni Loukianou, Dimitrios Brouzas, Eleni Georgopoulou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michael ApostolopoulosEye Department, University of Athens, Athens, GreecePurpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin® as a treatment option for radiation maculopathy secondary to proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.Case: A 61-year-old woman presented with a gradual decrease in left eye visual acuity (VA 29 months after proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. On presentation, her best-corrected VA (BCVA was 2/10 in the left eye and the intraocular pressure was 15 mmHg. Fundoscopy revealed cystoid macular edema, intraretinal hemorrhages, epiretinal membrane in the posterior pole, and residual tumor scar with exudative retinal detachment and hard exudates in the periphery of the superotemporal quadrant. A treatment with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin® was recommended. The injections were performed on a six-weekly basis.Results: The central retinal thickness prior to the treatment was 458 μm. After the first intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, the retinal thickness at the centre of the fovea was reduced to 322 μm. After the third injection, the central retinal thickness was 359 μm and 18 months after presentation, it reduced to 334 μm. The BCVA increased to 3/10 after the intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and remained stable during the follow-up period. The intraocular pressure was within normal range during the follow-up period.Conclusion: Bevacizumab should be regarded as a treatment option for macular edema due to proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. By reducing the central retinal thickness, intravitreal bevacizumab can improve VA or ameliorate further decline caused by radiation maculopathy.Keywords: bevacizumab (Avastin®, choroidal melanoma, macular edema, radiation retinopathy

  5. Effects of benzydamine eye drops on the rabbit's eye reaction to surgical, physical, and chemical stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazzoli, L.; Bonora, A.; Luparini, M.R.; Durando, L.; Ciarniello, M.G.; Cioli, V.; Bonomi, L.

    The effects of benzydamine eye drops on the ocular reaction to different irritating stimuli in rabbits are reported. Benzydamine at the concentration of 0.1% reduces inflammatory tissue changes induced by AgNO3 burning of the cornea and inhibits the blood-aqueous barrier breakdown due to peripheral iridectomy or laser irradiation of the iris. Benzydamine reduces the aqueous PGE2 concentration to a similar extent as a 0.5% commercially available eye drop formulation of piroxicam. This result is in contrast with previous in vitro results demonstrating that benzydamine is devoid of any effects on PG synthesis. The possibility that PGE2 reduction is an indirect effect due to other biochemical activities of benzydamine is discussed. In the normal eye benzydamine manifests a local anaesthetic effect which is not accompanied by irritative changes in the anterior segment of the eye, changes in the intraocular pressure or pupillary size. It is suggested that in the clinical use of benzydamine eye drops the local anaesthetic activity may contribute to reducing both the neurogenic component of ocular inflammation and acute pain following injuries to the eye.

  6. 125I eye plaque dose distribution including penumbra characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Zerda, A; Chiu-Tsao, S T; Lin, J; Boulay, L L; Kanna, I; Kim, J H; Tsao, H S

    1996-03-01

    The two main purposes of this work are (1) to determine the penumbra characteristics for 125I eye plaque and the relative influence of the plaque and eye-air interface on the dose distribution, and (2) to initiate development of a treatment planning algorithm for clinical dose calculations. Dose was measured in a newly designed solid water eye phantom for an 125I (6711) seed at the center of a 20 mm COMS eye plaque using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) "cubes" and "minichips" inside and outside the eye, in the longitudinal and transverse central planes. TLD cubes were used in most locations, except for short distances from the seed and in the penumbra region. In the presence of both the plaque and the eye-air interface, the dose along the central axis was found to be reduced by 10% at 1 cm and up to 20% at 2.5 cm, relative to the bulk homogeneous phantom case. In addition, the overall dose reduction was greater for larger off-axis coordinates at a given depth. The penumbra characteristics due to the lip collimation were quantified, particularly the dependence of penumbra center and width on depth. Only small differences were observed between the profiles in the transverse and longitudinal planes. In the bulk geometry (without the eye-air interface), the dose reduction due to the presence of the plaque alone was found to be 7% at a depth of 2.5 cm. The additional reduction of 13% observed, with the presence of eye-air interface (20% combined), can be attributed to the lack of backscattering from the air in front of the eye. The dose-reduction effect due to the anterior air interface alone became unnoticeable at a depth of 1.1 cm (1.5 cm from the eye-air interface). An analytic fit to measured data was developed for clinical dose calculations for a centrally loaded seed. The central axis values of the dose rates multiplied by distance squared, Dr2, were fitted with a double exponential function of depth. The off-axis profile of Dr2, at a given depth, was

  7. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    At the height of mass activity on the Left, the ascendancy of the women's liberation movement (WLM), and the beginnings of real social and personal change for men and women, the 1970s are increasingly seen as the decade when sixties permissiveness began to be truly felt in Britain. This article...... draws upon a personal archive of correspondence from this turbulent decade, between two revolutionary women, Di Parkin and Annie Howells. It argues that the women's letters form an important contribution to new understandings about the construction of the post-war gendered self. The letters represent...... an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  8. Time left in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; King, Adam Philip; Gallistel, C R

    2007-02-22

    Evidence suggests that the online combination of non-verbal magnitudes (durations, numerosities) is central to learning in both human and non-human animals [Gallistel, C.R., 1990. The Organization of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The molecular basis of these computations, however, is an open question at this point. The current study provides the first direct test of temporal subtraction in a species in which the genetic code is available. In two experiments, mice were run in an adaptation of Gibbon and Church's [Gibbon, J., Church, R.M., 1981. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 7, 87-107] time left paradigm in order to characterize typical responding in this task. Both experiments suggest that mice engaged in online subtraction of temporal values, although the generalization of a learned response rule to novel stimulus values resulted in slightly less systematic responding. Potential explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  9. Gender Classification Based on Eye Movements: A Processing Effect During Passive Face Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammaknejad, Negar; Pouretemad, Hamidreza; Eslahchi, Changiz; Salahirad, Alireza; Alinejad, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have revealed superior face recognition skills in females, partially due to their different eye movement strategies when encoding faces. In the current study, we utilized these slight but important differences and proposed a model that estimates the gender of the viewers and classifies them into two subgroups, males and females. An eye tracker recorded participant's eye movements while they viewed images of faces. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined for each face. Results showed that the gender dissimilarity in eye movements was not due to differences in frequency of fixations in the ROI s per se. Instead, it was caused by dissimilarity in saccade paths between the ROIs. The difference enhanced when saccades were towards the eyes. Females showed significant increase in transitions from other ROI s to the eyes. Consequently, the extraction of temporal transient information of saccade paths through a transition probability matrix, similar to a first order Markov chain model, significantly improved the accuracy of the gender classification results.

  10. Stars in his eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish astronaut Christer Fuglesang, a former CERN physicist now working for ESA, made his debut space flight last December. On 14 June he returned to CERN to talk about the experience. Christer Fuglesang during one of his spacewalks last December to upgrade the building of the International Space Station (ISS). Image Credit: NASA Christer Fuglesang (left) and his family visit the ATLAS experiment guided by Peter Jenni, the experiment’s spokesperson (right).Does an astronaut make a good cosmic ray detector? A particle physicist is undoubtedly very well placed to answer this kind of question. And as a former CERN physicist and now an astronaut with the European Space Agency (ESA), where he has worked since 1992, Christer Fuglesang has experience of both fields. Last December witnessed his first space journey, a 12-day mission on board the ISS International Space Station (see Bulletin No. ...

  11. Topical cyclosporine a treatment in corneal refractive surgery and patients with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Andre A M; Santhiago, Marcony R; Wilson, Steven E

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate preoperative and postoperative dry eye and the effect of cyclosporine A treatment in patients screened for corneal refractive surgery and treated with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) or LASIK. A consecutive case series of 1,056 patients screened for corneal refractive surgery from 2007 to 2012 was retrospectively analyzed. The level of preoperative and postoperative dry eye and the responsiveness to topical cyclosporine A treatment were assessed. One eye of each patient was randomly selected. A total of 642 eyes progressed to surgery: 524 (81.6%) and 118 (18.4%) underwent LASIK and PRK, respectively. Of 81 (7.7%) diagnosed as having dry eye, 55 were deemed potential candidates and optimized for refractive surgery. Thirty-seven patients with moderate dry eye were treated with topical cyclosporine A prior to surgery (mean duration: 3.2 ± 2.1 months; range: 1 to 12 months). After cyclosporine A treatment, 28 (75.7%) eyes underwent LASIK, 4 (10.8%) eyes underwent PRK, and 5 (13.5%) eyes were not operated on due to failed treatment of dry eye. Postoperative refractive surgery-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy (LINE in LASIK) was noted in 132 (27.3%) and 12 (11.1%) eyes that underwent LASIK and PRK, respectively. Topical cyclosporine A was prescribed in 79 LASIK-induced and 3 PRK-induced dry eyes. After 12 months or more of cyclosporine A treatment, 5 (6.1%) eyes continued to have dry eye symptoms or signs. Topical cyclosporine A treatment is effective therapy for optimizing patients for refractive surgery and treatment of new onset or worsened dry eye after surgery. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Management of digital eye strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme

    2018-05-23

    Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer

  13. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  14. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  15. Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Asao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods: This is an observational case report. Results: A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions: The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

  16. Keep an Eye on Your Eyes: Technologies for Protecting Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease,” Miller says. “With current technology, thousands of cells must die before it’s detected.” His team’s new method would allow eye doctors to see the damage earlier. In glaucoma, ...

  17. Eyes of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Deniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency, a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous “intelligence”. Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV, i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.

  18. Eyes of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Oscar; Vallez, Noelia; Espinosa-Aranda, Jose L; Rico-Saavedra, Jose M; Parra-Patino, Javier; Bueno, Gloria; Moloney, David; Dehghani, Alireza; Dunne, Aubrey; Pagani, Alain; Krauss, Stephan; Reiser, Ruben; Waeny, Martin; Sorci, Matteo; Llewellynn, Tim; Fedorczak, Christian; Larmoire, Thierry; Herbst, Marco; Seirafi, Andre; Seirafi, Kasra

    2017-05-21

    Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some "classic" features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous "intelligence". Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV), i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT) platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.

  19. The fellow eye in patients with unilateral retinal detachment: findings and prophylactic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, L

    1985-10-01

    During a 4-year period, 1978-1981, 312 patients were operated on for unilateral rhegmatogenous detachment of the retina. Of the fellow eyes, 11% showed moderate (VA 0.15-0.4) and 5% severe (VA less than or equal to 0.1) visual impairment. Of the fellow eyes 49% were myopic (- 1.0 D. or more), and aphakia was present in 14%. Details of the peripheral fundus were adequately recordable for 260 fellow eyes. Degenerations considered to predispose to retinal detachment were found in 98 eyes (38%): lattice degeneration in 54 (21%), granular tuft in 17 (7%), retinal tear(s) in 12 (5%), and retinoschisis in 15 (6%). Prophylactic treatment of predisposing degenerations was performed in 91 of the 98 eyes using cryo- or photocoagulation (argon laser). No intra- or permanent post-operative complications were noticed. One of the treated fellow eyes (1.1%) detached 10 months after prophylactic treatment due to new tears. In the untreated group, 6 of the 221 eyes detached (2.7%). The difference was not statistically significant, but the groups were not comparable because 93% of the eyes showing predisposing degenerations were treated. None of the eyes treated for retinal breaks or lattice degeneration has detached. In these cases prophylactic treatment of the fellow eye is recommended. In most eyes cryocoagulation seems to be preferable to photocoagulation.

  20. Eye movements in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ischebeck, B.; Vries, Jurryt; Geest, Jos; Janssen, Malou; Wingerden, Jan-Paul; Kleinrensink, Gert Jan; Frens, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) report problems with vision, some of which may be due to impaired eye movements. Better understanding of such impaired eye movements could improve diagnostics and treatment strategies. This systematic review surveys the current evidence on changes in eye movements of patients with WAD and explains how the oculomotor system is tested. Methods: Nine electronic data bases were searched for relevant articles from incepti...

  1. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125 I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained

  2. Phacoemulsification in eyes with cataract and pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Cetinkaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual outcomes and intraoperative and postoperative complications of phacoemulsification surgery in patients with cataract and pseudoexfoliation syndrome(PEXand the usage of proper surgical techniques and appropriate devices intraoperatively.METHODS: Sixty-seven eyes of 53 patients with PEX and cataract who had undergone phacoemulsification and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation surgery were evaluated retrospectively. The mean age was 71.68±9.96(53-89y, and there were 24(45%males and 29(55%females. Nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and mature cataracts were all represented.RESULTS: Nuclear cataract was significantly more common than other types(P=0.00. The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas 0.99±0.30(SD(0.40-1.50logMAR, and the mean postoperative BCVA was 0.32±0.31(SD(0.00-1.00logMAR(P=0.00. Iris retractors were used in 12(18%eyes. Capsular tension ring(CTRimplantation was used in 15(22%eyes, it was planned in 8(12%and unplanned in 7(10%. Posterior capsule rupture occurred in 4(6%eyes, and vitreous loss occurred in 2(3%eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in these 2 eyes. Conversion to extracapsular cataract extraction(ECCEwas needed in these 2(3%eyes due to large posterior capsular rupture. Persistent corneal edema was observed in 4(6%eyes, and anterior chamber reaction in 5(7%eyes. IOL dislocation occurred in 4(6%eyes, but repositioning was only needed in 1(1.5%eye. Posterior capsule opacification(PCOrequiring Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy developed in 13(20%eyes.CONCLUSION: Postoperative visual acuities of patients with cataract and PEX are satisfactory. However, intraoperative and postoperative complications like posterior capsule rupture, vitreous loss, conversion to ECCE, persistent corneal edema, anterior chamber reaction and IOL dislocation may be observed. To avoid these complications, proper surgical techniques and the use of appropriate devices intraoperatively are essential.

  3. Greek mythology: the eye, ophthalmology, eye disease, and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompoukis, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Dimitrios

    2007-06-01

    In distant eras, mythology was a form of expression used by many peoples. A study of the Greek myths reveals concealed medical knowledge, in many cases relating to the eye. An analysis was made of the ancient Greek texts for mythological references relating to an understanding of vision, visual abilities, the eye, its congenital and acquired abnormalities, blindness, and eye injuries and their treatment. The Homeric epics contain anatomical descriptions of the eyes and the orbits, and an elementary knowledge of physiology is also apparent. The concept of the visual field can be seen in the myth of Argos Panoptes. Many myths describe external eye disease ("knyzosis"), visual disorders (amaurosis), and cases of blinding that, depending on the story, are ascribed to various causes. In addition, ocular motility abnormalities, congenital anomalies (cyclopia), injuries, and special treatments, such as the "licking" method, are mentioned. The study of mythological references to the eye reveals reliable medical observations of the ancient Greeks, which are concealed within the myths.

  4. Mutations in zebrafish pitx2 model congenital malformations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome but do not disrupt left-right placement of visceral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongchang; Buel, Sharleen M; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Pitx2 is a conserved homeodomain transcription factor that has multiple functions during embryonic development. Mutations in human PITX2 cause autosomal dominant Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), characterized by congenital eye and tooth malformations. Pitx2(-/-) knockout mouse models recapitulate aspects of ARS, but are embryonic lethal. To date, ARS treatments remain limited to managing individual symptoms due to an incomplete understanding of PITX2 function. In addition to regulating eye and tooth development, Pitx2 is a target of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signaling pathway that mediates left-right (LR) asymmetry of visceral organs. Based on its highly conserved asymmetric expression domain, the Nodal-Pitx2 axis has long been considered a common denominator of LR development in vertebrate embryos. However, functions of Pitx2 during asymmetric organ morphogenesis are not well understood. To gain new insight into Pitx2 function we used genome editing to create mutations in the zebrafish pitx2 gene. Mutations in the pitx2 homeodomain caused phenotypes reminiscent of ARS, including aberrant development of the cornea and anterior chamber of the eye and reduced or absent teeth. Intriguingly, LR asymmetric looping of the heart and gut was normal in pitx2 mutants. These results suggest conserved roles for Pitx2 in eye and tooth development and indicate Pitx2 is not required for asymmetric looping of zebrafish visceral organs. This work establishes zebrafish pitx2 mutants as a new animal model for investigating mechanisms underlying congenital malformations in ARS and high-throughput drug screening for ARS therapeutics. Additionally, pitx2 mutants present a unique opportunity to identify new genes involved in vertebrate LR patterning. We show Nodal signaling-independent of Pitx2-controls asymmetric expression of the fatty acid elongase elovl6 in zebrafish, pointing to a potential novel pathway during LR organogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Opaque iris claw lens in a phakic eye to correct acquired diplopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landesz, M; Worst, JGF; Rij, GV; Houtman, WA

    1997-01-01

    A 25-year-old man had diplopia caused by abducens nerve paresis on both sides after cranial injury. Because of the patient's reports of persistent diplopia after surgical correction, a specially manufactured, tinted iris claw lens was implanted in the left eye, with the crystalline lens in situ.

  6. A Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula due to Penetrating Trauma by a Knitting Needle to the Temporal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Gocmen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic carotid-cavernous and #64257;stulas (CCF usually occur after closed head injuries. In addition, CCFs can also be caused by penetrating injuries with stab or gunshot injuries. We present the case of traumatic CCF that was caused with a knitting needle directly penetrating through the temporal region. A 46-year-old man consulted with a progressive left swollen eye. His head computed tomography (CT revealed a left temporal lobe contusion and fracture of the left temporal bone. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA showed a direct high-flow fistula (Type-A lesion. After the balloon occlusion test, which was well tolerated by the patient, the internal carotid artery was occluded by the interventional radiologist. A review of the literature demonstrated that all of the traumatic CCFs occurred due to penetrating stab injuries through the orbita. To our knowledge, such a case has not been previously reported. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 261-264

  7. Staff exposure in pediatric interventional neuroradiology: focus on the operator's eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolomey, C.; Fasel, G.; Le Coultre, R.; Ryckx, N.

    2016-01-01

    Previously at 150 mSv year -1 , the ICRP now recommends limiting the equivalent dose to the eye lens to 20 mSv year -1 . For pediatric interventional neuroradiology, the exposure of the operator's eye lens may be increased by the use of a biplane fluoroscopy system and by the proximity of the physician to the patient. In practice, the efficiency of leaded glasses depends on many factors. This study addresses both aspects. First, the eye lens dose of a neuro-radiologist was measured during 12 procedures using 36 TLDs placed on his surgical cap. Secondly, in order to determine the efficiency of leaded glasses, measurements were carried out by reproducing the clinical conditions. A detector was placed on the left eye of a phantom representing the operator. Four pairs of leaded glasses were selected to test various parameters. During the 12 procedures, an individual dose equivalent Hp(0.07) of 45μSv was obtained for the eye lens closest to the tube. This study shows an eye lens dose to DAP ratio 5 times higher than for procedures performed on adult patients. The eye lens dose might be reduced by a factor of approximately 3 with the use of appropriate leaded glasses. The eye wear model with the most coverage reduces the dose by up to 50% more than the model with the least coverage. The addition of lateral protection increases the attenuation by up to 13% compared with the same model without side protection. (authors)

  8. Lateralization for visual processes: eye preference in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus c. campbelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine S; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Brain lateralization has been the matter of extensive research over the last centuries, but it remains an unsolved issue. While hand preferences have been extensively studied, very few studies have investigated laterality of eye use in non-human primates. We examined eye preference in 14 Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus c. campbelli). We assessed eye preference to look at a seed placed inside a tube using monocular vision. Eye use was recorded for 100 independent and non-rewarded trials per individual. All of the 14 monkeys showed very strong preferences in the choice of the eye used to look inside the tube (mean preference: 97.6%). Eight subjects preferred the right eye and six subjects preferred the left eye. The results are discussed in light of previous data on eye preference in primates, and compared to data on hand preference from these subjects. Our findings would support the hypothesis for an early emergence of lateralization for perceptual processes compared to manual motor functions.

  9. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  10. Arrow injuries to the eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was positive history of application of traditional eye medicine and an unsuccessful attempt was made ... in the dry season in the northern parts of Nigeria, ... Hematocrit, serum urea and electrolytes were within normal limits. Treatment.

  11. Eyes on the Solar System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...

  12. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  13. Community Eye Health MSc dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The seven Exchange articles that follow are based on the dissertations of students at the International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who graduated in 2008.

  14. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to maintaining your child’s eye health. Follow these screening recommendations ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  15. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described ... used for analysis. ... risk due to LVH and that cardiac adaptation to ... had history taking, physical examination and ..... between the gender specific differences in cardiac ... A metaanalysis of individual.

  16. Post-LASIK dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding...

  17. Quality indicators for eye bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Acharya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Methods: Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions – “result quality” and “process quality.” The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011–2016. Results: Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%, discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. Conclusion: These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  18. Quality indicators for eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Manisha; Biswas, Saurabh; Das, Animesh; Mathur, Umang; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Ashok; Dubey, Suneeta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions - "result quality" and "process quality." The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA) program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP) with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011-2016. Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%), discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  19. 59 eyes with endogenous endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; la Cour, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the epidemiology of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective case series of 59 eyes in patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark between 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 28 to......, the visual outcome and the mortality of the patients. The epidemiology of the disease is very different in Scandinavia compared to Asia. The visual prognosis remains grave and the majority of the eyes lose useful vision....

  20. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay