Sample records for left cheek pose

  1. Celebrity chefs put their left cheek forward: Cover image orientation in celebrity cookbooks. (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K


    Portrait pose orientations influence perception: the left cheek is more emotionally expressive; females' right cheeks appear more attractive. Posing biases are established in paintings, photographs, and advertisements, however, book covers have not previously been examined. This paper assesses cover image orientation in a book genre that frequently features a cover portrait: the celebrity cookbook. If marketers intuitively choose to enhance chefs' emotional expressivity, left cheek poses should predominate; if attractiveness is more important, right cheek poses will be more frequent for females, with a left or no cheek bias for males. Celebrity cookbook covers (N = 493) were sourced online; identity, portrait orientation, photo type, and sex were coded. For celebrity cookbooks, left cheek covers (39.6%) were more frequent than right cheek (31.6%) or midline covers (28.8%); sex did not predict pose orientation. An interaction between photo type and sex bordered on significance: photo type did not influence females' pose orientation; for males, the left cheek bias present for head and torso images was absent for full body and head only photos. Overall, the left cheek bias for celebrity cookbook covers implies that marketers intuitively select images that make the chefs appear happier and/or more emotionally expressive, enhancing engagement with the audience.

  2. Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3-7 years. (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Aznar, Ana


    As the left hemiface is controlled by the emotion-dominant right hemisphere, emotion is expressed asymmetrically. Portraits showing a model's left cheek consequently appear more emotive. Though the left cheek bias is well established in adults, it has not been investigated in children. To determine whether the left cheek biases for emotion perception and expression are present and/or develop between the ages of 3 and 7 years, 145 children (71 male, 74 female; M age = 65.49 months) completed two experimental tasks: one assessing biases in emotion perception, and the other assessing biases in emotion expression. Regression analysis confirmed that children aged 3-7 years find left cheek portraits happier than right cheek portraits, and age does not predict the magnitude of the bias. In contrast when asked to pose for a photo expressing happiness children did not show a left cheek bias, with logistic regression confirming that age did not predict posing orientations. These findings indicate that though the left cheek bias for emotion perception is established by age 3, a similar bias for emotion expression is not evident by age 7. This implies that tacit knowledge of the left cheek's greater expressivity is not innate but develops in later childhood/adolescence.

  3. Do the Big Five personality traits predict individual differences in the left cheek bias for emotion perception? (United States)

    Galea, Samantha; Lindell, Annukka K


    Like language, emotion is a lateralized function. Because the right hemisphere typically dominates emotion processing, people express stronger emotion on the left side of their face. This prompts a left cheek bias: we offer the left cheek to express emotion and rate left cheek portraits more emotionally expressive than right cheek portraits. Though the majority of the population show this left cheek bias (60-70%), individual differences exist but remain largely unexplained. Given that people with higher self-rated emotional expressivity show a stronger left cheek bias, personality variables associated with increased emotional expressivity and emotional intelligence, such as extraversion and openness, may help account for individual differences. The present study thus examined whether the Big Five traits predict left cheek preferences. Participants (M = 58, F = 116) completed the NEO-Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa, P. T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources] and viewed pairs of left and right cheek images (half mirror-reversed); participants made forced-choice decisions, indicating which image in each pair looked happier. Hierarchical regression indicated that neither trait extraversion nor openness predicted left cheek selections, with NEO-FFI personality subscales accounting for negligible variance in preferences. As the Big Five traits have been discounted, exploration of other potential contributors to individual differences in the left cheek bias is clearly needed.

  4. Did Buddha turn the other cheek too? A comparison of posing biases between Jesus and Buddha. (United States)

    Duerksen, Kari N; Friedrich, Trista E; Elias, Lorin J


    People tend to exhibit a leftward bias in posing. Various studies suggest that posing to the left portrays a stronger emotion, whereas posing to the right portrays a more neutral emotion. Religions such as Christianity emphasize the role of strong emotions in religious experience, whereas religions such as Buddhism emphasize the calming of emotions as being important. In the present study, we investigated if the emphasis on emotionality of a religion influences the depiction of their religious figures. Specifically, we coded 484 paintings of Jesus and Buddha from online art databases for whether the deity exhibited a left bias, right bias, or central face presentation. The posing biases were analysed to discover whether paintings of Jesus would more frequently depict a leftward bias than paintings of Buddha. Jesus is more commonly depicted with a leftward bias than Buddha, and Buddha is more commonly depicted with a central face presentation than Jesus. These findings support the idea that the amount of emotionality that is to be conveyed in artwork influences the whether the subject is posed with a leftward bias.

  5. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.


    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  6. Filler Cheeks (United States)

    Fried, Richard G.


    The evolving field of facial volume restoration is changing our concept of facial rejuvenation. The older concept that “tighter is better” has been largely supplanted by a philosophy recognizing the importance of volume distribution as a defining characteristic of a more youthful face. It is well recognized that restoration of volume in the upper face can lessen or reverse the bottom-heavy, deflated appearance of the aging face. Perhaps of equal or greater importance is the change in light-reflectance patterns that illuminate the upper cheeks and the eyes. The resultant brighter and “perkier” cheeks can change the objective appearance and the patient's self perception of youthfulness. In this commentary, the author describes techniques to enhance outcomes and patient satisfaction and presents the results of a patient self-report pilot study assessing patient post-injection mood state and functioning. PMID:21607194

  7. Actinomycosis of the cheek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Bruno


    Full Text Available Introduction. Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infection first described by Bollinger in 1877. The infection is caused by actinomyces species and it is characterized by slow contiguous spread and suppurative inflammation, formation of multiple abscesses and sinus tracts with possible drainage of “sulfur granules”. Case Outline. We report an unusual case of actinomycosis of the cheek that occurred 6 years after buccal odontogenic abscess. A 56-year-old male was referred to the Department of Oral Surgery because of a painless swelling of the left cheek, which initiated three weeks prior to the referral. The diagnosis of actinomycosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. In accordance with the diagnosis oral penicillin was prescribed for four months with complete resolution. Conclusion. This case of actinomycosis is presented as a rarity. For proper diagnosis, careful examination and a high degree of clinical suspicion are necessary.

  8. The lighter side of advertising: investigating posing and lighting biases. (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole A; Burkitt, Jennifer A; Patrick, Regan E; Elias, Lorin J


    People tend to display the left cheek when posing for a portrait; however, this effect does not appear to generalise to advertising. The amount of body visible in the image and the sex of the poser might also contribute to the posing bias. Portraits also exhibit lateral lighting biases, with most images being lit from the left. This effect might also be present in advertisements. A total of 2801 full-page advertisements were sampled and coded for posing direction, lighting direction, sex of model, and amount of body showing. Images of females showed an overall leftward posing bias, but the biases in males depended on the amount of body visible. Males demonstrated rightward posing biases for head-only images. Overall, images tended to be lit from the top left corner. The two factors of posing and lighting biases appear to influence one another. Leftward-lit images had more leftward poses than rightward, while the opposite occurred for rightward-lit images. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the posing biases in advertisements are dependent on the amount of body showing in the image, and that biases in lighting direction interact with these posing biases.

  9. The use of large bilobed flap in the management of cheek defect: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: bilobed flaps are versatile reconstructive tools which have been used extensively in the management of nasal, shoulder and neck defects. Although its use in the cheek has been reported, it is uncommonly utilized. Case report: This is a case report of a 22yr old lady with traumatic left cheek defect managed with ...

  10. [The eyelid-cheek junction]. (United States)

    Volpei, Ch; Fernandez, J; Chignon-Sicard, B


    The eyelid-cheek junction is a key area which generates many comments: from looking tired to looking good or rested, without forgetting charm, beauty, and a youthful appearance. In spite of many interesting medical and surgical procedures, treating this area is sometimes difficult and results are not always up to our expectations. Standardized blepharoplasty, which has often been improperly used, has shown its limits. Since the latest refinements, lipostructure has revolutionised blepharoplasty and serving as a reference, it has become an established technique. Subperiostal mediofacial lift allows outstanding results at the cost of a certain technical aggressiveness. Aesthetic medicine proposes worthy alternative and/or appropriate complementary solutions. Different procedures we dispose of have been reviewed together with their assets and their limits. A codification of therapeutic indications is proposed. The positioning of the eyelid-cheek clinical junction in relation with the low orbital bone rim influences our strategy in choosing the appropriate technique. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Steroid-Resistant Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman Disease of Cheek Mass and Ptosis Treated with Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Marzouk Maklad


    Full Text Available Background. Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD is rare benign hematologic disorder of histiocytes, which usually manifests as painless lymphadenopathy, fever, leukocytosis and hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal RDD has been reported in 43% of cases, with skin as commonly involved site followed by head and neck region. However, soft tissue cheek mass is rare presentation of extra-nodal RDD. Case Presentation. A 26-year-old Saudi man presented with a six-month history of right cheek swelling and left upper eyelid swelling. Physical examination revealed right cheek mass of size  cm and left upper eyelid mass of size  cm and no palpable cervical lymphadenopathy. Incisional biopsy of cheek mass showed positivity for S100 and negativity for CD1a, consistent with extra-nodal RDD. Patient did not respond to systemic steroids and was given radiation therapy to left orbit with minimal response. Then, he was started on chemotherapy Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (RCVP 8 cycles followed by reirradiation 10 Gy in 10 fractions with 6 MeV electron with complete response. After 12 months of followup, patient had recurrence in right cheek and was started on radiotherapy to the cheek mass. Conclusion. Extra-nodal RDD with involvement of cheek is a rare presentation. Incorporation of S100 and CD1a is helpful in diagnoses of RDD and differentiating it from other benign histiocytosis. Treatment consists of surgery, steroids, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

  12. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder? (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed


    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative cheek-tooth size in Australopithecus. (United States)

    McHenry, H M


    Until the discovery of Australopithecus afarensis, cheek-tooth megadontia was unequivocally one of the defining characteristics of the australopithecine grade in human evolution along with bipedalism and small brains. This species, however, has an average postcanine area of 757 mm2, which is more like Homo habilis (759 mm2) than A. africanus (856 mm2). But what is its relative cheek-tooth size in comparison to body size? One approach to this question is to compare postcanine tooth area to estimated body weight. By this method all Australopithecus species are megadont: they have cheek teeth 1.7 to 2.3 times larger than modern hominoids of similar body size. The series from A. afarensis to A. africanus to A. robustus to A. boisei shows strong positive allometry indicating increasing megadontia through time. The series from H. habilis to H. erectus to H. sapiens shows strong negative allometry which implies a sharp reduction in the relative size of the posterior teeth. Postcanine megadontia in Australopithecus species can also be demonstrated by comparing tooth size and body size in associated skeletons: A. afarensis (represented by A.L. 288-1) has a cheek-tooth size 2.8 times larger than expected from modern hominoids; A. africanus (Sts 7) and A. robustus (TM 1517) are over twice the expected size. The evolutionary transition from the megadont condition of Australopithecus to the trend of decreasing megadontia seen in the Homo lineage may have occurred between 3.0 and 2.5 m.y. from A. afarensis to H.habilis but other evidence indicates that it is more likely to have occurred between 2.5 to 2.0 m.y. from an A. africanus-like form to H. habilis.

  14. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos


    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante; Renata Janaína Sousa de Paula; Leonardo Peres de Souza; Fabrício Bitu Sousa; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves


    PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g) were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistic...

  15. Carcinoma cheek: regional pattern and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M.A.; Jawad, I.; Marfani, S.; Khambaty, Y.; Jalisi, M.


    Oral cancer varies globally and regionally, and is closely linked with geographical, social, economical, biological, ethnic, dietary and environmental factors. In western countries it accounts for about 2 - 5% while in the south-east Asia for about 40% of all cancers. In Pakistan it is second commonest tumour after bronchogenic carcinoma in males and breast carcinoma in females. The objectives of this study were to find out the pattern of carcinoma cheek in our region, its etiological associations, management and prognosis. This study was conducted in the Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Department of Civil Hospital, Karachi from April 1995 to December 1998. It was prospective study. Methods: Forty-five cases of primary carcinoma cheek were diagnosed and investigations including OPG and CT scan were carried out along with other required investigations to evaluate the extension of tumour, bony erosion and metastasis. TNM staging was done. All patients were treated surgically, sent for post-operative radiotherapy or chemo radiation and followed up for 3 years. Result: Among 45 cases of oral cancer, 28 were females and 17 were males. Common presenting symptom was growth or ulcer. It was more common in 41 - 50 years of age. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was found in 95.5% of the cases. Most of the patients 31 (68%) were in T4 stage. Surgical excision was done in all cases with reconstruction in 23 cases and neck dissection in 39 cases. In the follow up for 3 years, 30 patient remained disease free. Conclusion: Carcinoma cheek is a common entity in our region and now it is seen in relatively younger patients. Oral cancer is a self preventable disease. What is required is to develop awareness of oral hygiene and discourage the habit of social carcinogens use. Early diagnosis and treatment offers better chance of cure whereas advance disease has a poor prognosis. (author)

  16. Complications associated with cheek tooth extraction in the horse. (United States)

    Earley, Edward T; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Baratt, Robert M


    Common indications for cheek tooth extraction in the horse include dental fracture, periodontal disease, severe decay/ caries, mandibular fracture with alveolar/tooth involvement, and periapical abscess. Complications secondary to extraction of cheek teeth are prevalent. Typical complications may include retained root tip(s), collateral damage of neighboring teeth and alveolar bone, mandibular fracture non-union or delayed union, cemental ankylosis, dilacerated root(s), oroantral/oronasal fistula, palatal deviation of cheek teeth, bone sequestration, sinus involvement, alveolar plug failure, and palatine artery laceration. This paper presents a series of cases that had complications following cheek tooth extraction. Anticipation of problematic extractions, recognition of complications, and appropriate treatment will aid the clinician in managing the inevitable cheek tooth extraction complication.

  17. MAP Estimation of Chin and Cheek Contours in Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampmann Markus


    Full Text Available An algorithm for the estimation of chin and cheek contours in video sequences is proposed. This algorithm exploits a priori knowledge about shape and position of chin and cheek contours in images. Exploiting knowledge about the shape, a parametric 2D model representing chin and cheek contours is introduced. Exploiting knowledge about the position, a MAP estimator is developed taking into account the observed luminance gradient as well as a priori probabilities of chin and cheek contours positions. The proposed algorithm was tested with head and shoulder video sequences (image resolution CIF. In nearly 70% of all investigated video frames, a subjectively error free estimation could be achieved. The 2D estimate error is measured as on average between 2.4 and .

  18. Which Cheek did the Resurrected Jesus Turn? (United States)

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M


    Secular portraits are likely to show more of the left than right side of the face (hemiface). Prior research has shown that emotions are more strongly expressed by the left hemiface. In addition, the valence theory of emotion proposes that the right hemisphere is dominant for mediating negative emotions, and the left hemisphere for positive emotions. Since religious art depicting a scene such as the Resurrection of Jesus is more likely to be associated with positive emotions, we postulated that there would be a significant smaller percentage number of artistic works of the Resurrection that reveal the left side of the face of Jesus than in those art works portraying the Crucifixion. Thus, we analyzed artistic portrayals of the Resurrection of Jesus and compared them to the artistic scenes of the Crucifixion. This analysis revealed that the left side of the face of Jesus is less commonly depicted in portraits of the Resurrection than the Crucifixion. In addition, both the right hemiface, and forward-facing faces were also more commonly portrayed in painting of the Resurrection than the Crucifixion. Whereas this right-left hemiface, Resurrection-Crucifixion dichotomy may be related to right-left hemispheric difference in the mediation of emotional valence other factors such as agency, action-intention, and biblical text may have influenced these differences.

  19. Ebishushani: people poses places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrea Stultiens


    Ebifananyi II – People Poses Places Andrea Stultiens People Poses Places is the second part of Ebifananyi, a book series that visualises historical Ugandan photo collections. In People Poses Places we delve into the archive of the photographer Musa Katuramu. In the mid 1930s, teacher and carpenter

  20. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  1. Foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of the Black-cheeked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of the Black-cheeked Lovebird Agapornis nigrigenis were studied in Zambia. The birds fed on at least 39 species, and food items included seeds, leaves, flowers (especially nectar), fruit pulp, invertebrates, bark, lichen and resin. Terrestrial foraging was dominant, whereas arboreal ...

  2. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks. (United States)

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu


    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Chromosomal Inversion Unique to the Northern White-Cheeked Gibbon (United States)

    Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R.; Nadler, Tilo; Moisson, Pierre; Ryder, Oliver; Roos, Christian; de Jong, Pieter J.


    The gibbon family belongs to the superfamily Hominoidea and includes 15 species divided into four genera. Each genus possesses a distinct karyotype with chromosome numbers varying from 38 to 52. This diversity is the result of numerous chromosomal changes that have accumulated during the evolution of the gibbon lineage, a quite unique feature in comparison with other hominoids and most of the other primates. Some gibbon species and subspecies rank among the most endangered primates in the world. Breeding programs can be extremely challenging and hybridization plays an important role within the factors responsible for the decline of captive gibbons. With less than 500 individuals left in the wild, the northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys leucogenys, NLE) is the most endangered primate in a successful captive breeding program. We present here the analysis of an inversion that we show being specific for the northern white-cheeked gibbon and can be used as one of the criteria to distinguish this subspecies from other gibbon taxa. The availability of the sequence spanning for one of the breakpoints of the inversion allows detecting it by a simple PCR test also on low quality DNA. Our results demonstrate the important role of genomics in providing tools for conservation efforts. PMID:19319194

  4. Psychometric properties of the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale. (United States)

    Hopko, Derek R; Stowell, Jessica; Jones, Warren H; Armento, Maria E A; Cheek, Jonathan M


    Although the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale (RCBS; Cheek, 1983) is widely used, its psychometric properties largely are unknown. In this investigation, we examined the normative data, factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of the RCBS using a sample of 261 university students. Results provided strong support for the stability of normative data over time, reliability of the measure, and its predicted associations with contemporary measures of shyness, social anxiety, and related constructs. Although support was obtained for a unifactorial conceptualization of shyness, an exploratory factor analysis revealed an alternative 3-factor solution that was supportive of a previously proposed meta-analytic model of shyness (Jones, Briggs, & Smith, 1986) and was consistent with other prominent shyness theories (Buss, 1980; Pilkonis, 1977a, 1977b; Zimbardo, 1977). This factor model was replicable on a holdout sample, and there were some data to support the discriminant validity of factors.

  5. Development of coronal cementum in hypsodont horse cheek teeth. (United States)

    Sahara, Noriyuki


    The horse is a grazing herbivore whose cheek teeth are hypsodon; that is, they possess long crowns that are completely covered by coronal cement at eruption. For elucidation of the sequential events in the formation of this coronal cementum in the mandibular horse cheek teeth, in the present study the lower 3rd permanent premolar teeth (PM4 ) from 3.5-, 4-, and 5-year-old horses were compared by using radiography, microcomputed tomography (Miro-CT), light microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present study clearly showed that prior to coronal cementogenesis tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive odontoclasts resorbed on the enamel surface of the reserve crown in horse cheek tooth. Enamel resorption areas were relatively narrow, and started from the cuspal tips, and moved in the apical direction during tooth development. A primary cementum was initially deposited on the irregularly pitted enamel-cementum junction (ECJ) of the infolding and peripheral enamel. The infolding cementum filled grooves completely by the time of tooth eruption. On the other hand, in the peripheral cementum, the secondary and tertiary cementum layers were sequentially deposited on the primary cementum. These two cementum layers were sites for the insertion of the periodontal ligaments, and were continually laid down on the primary cementum coronally rather than apically throughout the life. The results of the present study suggest that the coronal cementum of horse cheek teeth is a multistructural and multifunctional tissue, meeting the requirements of its many different functions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portu, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Schwint, A.; Saint Martin, G.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.


    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  7. The Effect of Steri-Strip Dressing on Patients' Satisfaction and Reduction of Ecchymosis in Lower Eyelid, Malar and Cheek Following Rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Farahvash, Mohammad Reza; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Mahdiani, Yadollah; Taheri, Ahmad Reza


    Early postoperative edema and ecchymosis are the most common factors to complicate initial patient perceptions about rhinoplasty. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of longer steri-strip tape on patient malar and cheek in terms of ecchymosis control and reduction. Through a randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients who underwent rhinoplasty were randomly enrolled. One side of the patients' face was randomly selected for different experience of dressing while the main intervention was different length of tape and steri-strip dressing. In one group, the right side and in the rest, the left side of face was applied with steri-stip from the nose to lateral malar and cheek. In the opposite side of the face, steri-strip taping was done from the nose to medical malar and cheek. The mean area of ecchymosis after rhinoplasty through our trial was 1.55 mm and 2.31 mm, respectively in sides with and without steri-strip which differed significantly. When patients' age and sex were taken into account, the distribution of ecchymosis had no significant difference in this regard. The present study showed significant reduction in the area of post-rhinoplasty ecchymosis in lower lid, malar and cheek soft tissues as well as the obvious increase in satisfaction rate among intervention side of face in comparison to the control side. But longer steri-strip tape failed to control sub conjunctival bleeding or decrease it.

  8. The Effect of Steri-Strip Dressing on Patients’ Satisfaction and Reduction of Ecchymosis in Lower Eyelid, Malar and Cheek Following Rhinoplasty (United States)

    Farahvash, Mohammad Reza; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Mahdiani, Yadollah; Taheri, Ahmad Reza


    BACKGROUND Early postoperative edema and ecchymosis are the most common factors to complicate initial patient perceptions about rhinoplasty. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of longer steri-strip tape on patient malar and cheek in terms of ecchymosis control and reduction. METHODS Through a randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients who underwent rhinoplasty were randomly enrolled. One side of the patients’ face was randomly selected for different experience of dressing while the main intervention was different length of tape and steri-strip dressing. In one group, the right side and in the rest, the left side of face was applied with steri-stip from the nose to lateral malar and cheek. In the opposite side of the face, steri-strip taping was done from the nose to medical malar and cheek. RESULTS The mean area of ecchymosis after rhinoplasty through our trial was 1.55 mm and 2.31 mm, respectively in sides with and without steri-strip which differed significantly. When patients’ age and sex were taken into account, the distribution of ecchymosis had no significant difference in this regard. CONCLUSION The present study showed significant reduction in the area of post-rhinoplasty ecchymosis in lower lid, malar and cheek soft tissues as well as the obvious increase in satisfaction rate among intervention side of face in comparison to the control side. But longer steri-strip tape failed to control sub conjunctival bleeding or decrease it. PMID:27308241

  9. High SMAS facelift: combined single flap lifting of the jawline, cheek, and midface. (United States)

    Marten, Timothy J


    The traditional low cheek SMAS flap elevated below the zygomatic arch suffers the drawback that it cannot, by design, exert an effect on tissues of the midface and infraorbital region. Low designs target the lower cheek and jaw only and produce little if any improvement in the upper anterior cheek and midface area. Planning the flap higher, along the superior border of the zygomatic arch, and extending the dissection medially to mobilize midface tissue overcomes this problem and allows a combined, simultaneous lift of the jawline, cheek, and midface with a single unified flap. An improved outcome is obtained, and no separate midface lift procedure is needed.

  10. Chronic cheek ulcer caused by odontogenic cutaneous sinus tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Sato


    Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are often misdiagnosed, and they lead to facial wounds and scarring. Therefore, we must be aware of the possibility of this condition. A dental origin must be considered for chronic ulcers involving the cheek, chin and submental areas. The clinical course of this patient suggests two important clinical issues for prompt diagnosis. First, physical examination, including palpation and probing, are helpful for exploration of sinus tracts. Second, computed tomography is useful to detect the sinus tract and affected teeth. Computed tomography provides radiographic evidence of the relationship between the tooth and cutaneous region, and it may be superior to radiography.

  11. Nest-site characteristics and breeding biology of the Black-cheeked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nest-site characteristics and breeding biology of the Black-cheeked Lovebird Agapornis nigrigenis in their natural habitat and in captivity were investigated as part of a wider study of the ecology of the species. Seventy-eight nests were found. Black-cheeked Lovebirds nested inside naturally formed cavities in live ...

  12. A quantitative evaluation method of skin texture affected by skin ageing using replica images of the cheek. (United States)

    Ryu, J H; Seo, Y K; Boo, Y C; Chang, M Y; Kwak, T J; Koh, J S


    Skin texture is a fine structure of skin surface where the hill and furrow were crossed to form a star shape. This study was performed to establish a quantitative evaluation method of skin texture affected by skin ageing using replica images of the cheek. After producing replicas of the left cheek areas of 80 female subjects, representative replica images were chosen to establish six-level facial skin texture index. Using this new index, skin texture of different-aged subjects was visually assessed by multiple examiners. The number of star configurations was also analysed using the same replica images. Other factors contributing to skin texture, such as skin elasticity, roughness, dermal density, moisture and gloss, were also analysed. The concordance between skin texture scores evaluated by three researchers was high (0.896), and there was a high correlation between skin texture score and age (r = 0.642). The number of star configurations showed high correlations with skin texture scores (r = 0.753) and with age (r = 0.776). Skin texture scores were highly correlated with skin roughness and dermal density, but not with moisture, gloss and elasticity. This study suggests that visual grading of skin texture score based on new facial skin texture index and quantification of star configurations will be useful in evaluating skin ageing. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Cheek and Chin Implants to Enhance Facelift Results. (United States)

    Kridel, Russell W H; Patel, Sagar


    The traditional rhytidectomy addresses facial and neck aging as it relates to soft tissue laxity. The modern volumetric facelift provides optimal results by addressing not only skin laxity but also the loss of volume secondary to tissue atrophy and bony resorption. While multiple techniques including fat grafting, dermal fillers, and tissue resuspension are used to correct the tissue loss, alloplastic midface augmentation remains the most permanent method. In our practice we often address midface cheek hollowness or atrophy with the placement of submalar implants at the time of rhytidectomy. In addition to midface volumetric rejuvenation, alloplastic chin implantation can help strengthen and further define a retrusive chin and weak jawline. In this article we discuss technique, indications, and benefits of performing alloplastic augmentation as an adjunct to rhytidectomy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny


    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  15. Proposal of a Smile Sensor Using Light Reflected from a Cheek (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Kitazono, Yuhki; Miyauchi, Makoto; Serikawa, Seiichi

    A new sensor to detect a smile of a person is proposed in this paper. When a person smiles, the shape of cheeks changes. The change is used for the detection of the smile. The sensor consists of a infrared LED, a photodiode and a few electronic parts. When the sensor detects a smile, at first infrared light is irradiated on a cheek. Then the sensor detects the smile by using the strength of light reflected from the cheek. As a result, the sensor is simple and can detect a smile.

  16. Demographics of the Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) on Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jette, Leslie


    .... To assist in conservation and recovery of the Golden-cheeked Warbler and comply with the Endangered Species Act, environmental managers need information on the demographic parameters of the population on Fort Hood...

  17. Magnet retained cheek plumper in complete denture esthetics: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant Chhagan Deogade


    Full Text Available This clinical report describes a technique to improve support for sunken cheeks using magnet retained detachable acrylic cheek plumpers. The new generation of magnets with improved technology provides sufficient denture retention for clinical application. However, further follow-up may be necessary to ascertain the long-term usefulness of the magnet-retained prosthesis, because of corrosion and further loss of magnetism.

  18. Complete mobilization of the cheek zone for orbit exenteration. (United States)

    Moretti, Ernesto; Ortiz, Sebastián; Gómez García, Fernando; Barrovechio, Juan Carlos; Valvo, Conrado


    Patients with malignant orbital tumors often undergo eyeball excision, orbital tissues and lids, which results in severe deformities. Our experience concerns the use of a skin fascial flap of the cheek zone, the V-Y design, in 10 patients after ocular malignant tumor resection. Seven patients had basal cell carcinomas of the lower lids with invasion of the ocular tissues. The complete tumor resection was controlled by frozen-section biopsy in all patients. The results were evaluated from an oncologic, functional, and aesthetic point of view. We noticed 2 recurrences in a minimum follow up of 2 years. The functional and aesthetic results were quite satisfactory and no serious complications were noticed in our series. The primary advantage of this interesting flap is the dominant vasculature derived from arteria transversa faciei, arteria facialis, and arteria infraorbitalis that secure good vascular contribution. It should be regarded as very useful for surface coverage problems at the orbit because it performs in a one-stage procedure with minimum morbility and good functional result.

  19. Pose estimation with correspondences determination (United States)

    Dong, Hang; Sun, Changku; Zhu, Ruizhe; Wang, Peng


    Pose estimation by monocular is finding the pose of the object by a single image of feature points on the object, which must meet the requirements of detecting all the feature points and matching them in the image. But it will be difficult to obtain the correct pose if part of the feature points are occluded when the object moving a large scale. We proposed a method for finding the pose on the condition that the correspondences between the object points and the image points are unknown. The method combines two algorithms: one algorithm is SoftAssign, which constructs a weight matrix of feature points and image points, and determines the correspondences by iteration loop processing; the other algorithm is OI(orthogonal iteration), which derives an iterative algorithm which directly computes orthogonal and globally convergent rotation matrices.We nest the two algorithms into one iteration loop.An appropriate pose will be chosen from a set of reference poses as the initial pose of object at the beginning of the loop, then we process the weight matrix to confirm the correspondences and calculate the optimal solution of rotation matrices alternately until the object space collinearity error is less than the threshold, each estimation will be closer to the truth pose than the last one through every iteration loop. Experimentally, the method proved to be efficient and have a high precision pose estimation of 3D object with large-scale motion.

  20. Removal of 11 incompletely erupted, impacted cheek teeth in 10 horses using a dental alveolar transcortical osteotomy and buccotomy approach. (United States)

    Tremaine, W Henry; McCluskie, Laura K


    To describe surgical technique and outcome in 10 horses with impacted cheek teeth that were removed by a transcortical osteotomy and buccotomy technique. Case series. Horses (n=10) with impacted cheek teeth. Medical records (2002-2008) of horses with impacted cheek teeth requiring removal were reviewed; surgical technique and outcome were determined. Exodontia of 11 cheek teeth was performed surgically in 10 horses; 3 horses had complications (residual swelling of the mandible) that resolved and all horses returned to their previous use. Transcortical buccotomy technique is effective for removal of incompletely erupted impacted cheek teeth in horses and has a good long-term prognosis for remission of clinical signs. Transcortical buccotomy approach is an effective technique for removal of unerupted impacted equine cheek teeth. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I


    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Longhino, Juan; Blaumann, Herman; Calzetta, Osvaldo


    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  3. Modernizing emergency alerts poses challenges


    Center for Homeland Defense and Security


    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM Download the paper: Paper: IPAWS (Integrated Public Alert and Warning System)” Modernizing emergency alerts poses challenges Anthony Cox is interested in the next generation of emergency alert systems.Any television viewer...

  4. Customized Cheek Plumper with Friction Lock Attachment for a Completely Edentulous Patient to Enhance Esthetics: A Clinical Report. (United States)

    Bhushan, Prem; Aras, Meena A; Coutinho, Ivy; Rajagopal, Praveen; Mysore, Ashwin R; Kumar, Swati


    Prosthetic rehabilitation of a completely edentulous patient should never be restricted to the replacement of missing teeth. The ultimate aim of complete denture treatment should be restoration of the full range of oral functions and esthetics. Slumped cheeks are always a concern for esthetically demanding complete denture patients. This article describes a simple, scientific, cost-effective technique to improve facial esthetics in a completely edentulous patient with the help of a cheek plumper. The technique used here implements the concept of neutral zone to precisely determine the amount of space available for the cheek plumper. The simple friction lock attachments that retained the cheek plumpers on the prosthesis were also fabricated after determining the space available in the appropriate areas. Thus an effort was made to keep the cheek plumpers unobtrusive yet effective to ensure complete integration of the prosthesis into the stomatognathic system. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Factors affecting golden-cheeked warbler nest survival in urban and rural landscapes (United States)

    Jenifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak


    We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate...

  6. Is supergravity well-posed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenberg, J.; Bao, D.; Yasskin, P.B.


    One rather fundamental question concerning supergravity remains unresolved: Is supergravity a well-posed field theory? That is, does a set of certain (Cauchy) data specified on some initial spacelike surface determine a unique, causally propagating spacetime solution of the supergravity field equations (at least in some finite neighborhood of the initial surface)? In this paper, the authors give a very brief report on work directed towards answering this question. (Auth.)

  7. Refining Visually Detected Object poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Preben; Petersen, Henrik Gordon


    Automated industrial assembly today require that the 3D position and orientation (hereafter ''pose`) of the objects to be assembled are known precisely. Today this precision is mostly established by a dedicated mechanical object alignment system. However, such systems are often dedicated to the p......Automated industrial assembly today require that the 3D position and orientation (hereafter ''pose`) of the objects to be assembled are known precisely. Today this precision is mostly established by a dedicated mechanical object alignment system. However, such systems are often dedicated...... to the particular object and in order to handle the demand for flexibility, there is an increasing demand for avoiding such dedicated mechanical alignment systems. Rather, it would be desirable to automatically locate and grasp randomly placed objects from tables, conveyor belts or even bins with a high accuracy...... that enables direct assembly. Conventional vision systems and laser triangulation systems can locate randomly placed known objects (with 3D CAD models available) with some accuracy, but not necessarily a good enough accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel method for refining the pose accuracy of an object...

  8. Squamous Cell Cancer Arising in an African American Male Cheek from Discoid Lupus: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel A. Shapera


    Full Text Available A 50-year-old African American male with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE presented to the dermatology clinic for a rapidly enlarging left cheek mass. The mass failed to resolve with conservative measures. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC. He was referred to Head and Neck Surgery and successfully underwent a resection with free flap reconstruction. Postoperatively he did well. Squamous cell skin carcinomas arising from lesions of Discoid Lupus are rare and aggressive tumors with greater likelihood of metastases. Cases have been reported among patients with different clinical characteristics; we present a rare case arising in an African American male on the face and involving the ear.

  9. Perspective projection for variance pose face recognition from camera calibration (United States)

    Fakhir, M. M.; Woo, W. L.; Chambers, J. A.; Dlay, S. S.


    Variance pose is an important research topic in face recognition. The alteration of distance parameters across variance pose face features is a challenging. We provide a solution for this problem using perspective projection for variance pose face recognition. Our method infers intrinsic camera parameters of the image which enable the projection of the image plane into 3D. After this, face box tracking and centre of eyes detection can be identified using our novel technique to verify the virtual face feature measurements. The coordinate system of the perspective projection for face tracking allows the holistic dimensions for the face to be fixed in different orientations. The training of frontal images and the rest of the poses on FERET database determine the distance from the centre of eyes to the corner of box face. The recognition system compares the gallery of images against different poses. The system initially utilises information on position of both eyes then focuses principally on closest eye in order to gather data with greater reliability. Differentiation between the distances and position of the right and left eyes is a unique feature of our work with our algorithm outperforming other state of the art algorithms thus enabling stable measurement in variance pose for each individual.

  10. Methadone as an inducer of apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stępień


    Full Text Available Methadone is an opioid medication which can reduce withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin and other drugs. Methadone is used also as a pain reliever and as part of drug addiction detoxification program. Apoptosis is the physiological process that plays a critical role in development and tissue homeostasis. The progress of apoptosis is regulated by signal cascades. The aim of this study was to asses how methadone induces apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats. Forty albino rats wares divided into two parts and five subgroups each. The biggest histological changes of cheek mucosae was observed in the groups with methadone. There is no indication of ability to regeneration in short time after treatment.

  11. Development of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth in fallow deer (Dama dama). (United States)

    Kierdorf, H; Hommelsheim, S; Kierdorf, U


    The study describes crown and root formation of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth of fallow deer from a gestational age of 22-23 weeks up to a post-natal age of 33 months. Tooth development was recorded using a scoring scheme based on morphological criteria ranging from crypt formation to completion of root growth. The morphological appearance of the enamel surface during three different stages (secretory-stage enamel, maturation-stage enamel and mature enamel) was described, and the approximate age at termination of the secretory stage of amelogenesis in the deciduous and permanent mandibular cheek teeth was determined. The data enable an age estimation of fallow deer up to 3 years of age and provide a basis for assessing the timing of stress episodes that affect tooth crown formation. This information is useful for the management of the species as well as in bioarchaeological and bioindication studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Survival of female white-cheeked pintails during brood rearing in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.; Lancaster, Joseph D.


    Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintail) is widely distributed across the Caribbean islands and South America. The species is classified as threatened in Puerto Rico and a species of least concern across most of its range. Little demographic data exist for the species, particularly during the breeding season. During 2000-2002, we radiomarked 31 incubating females at the Humacao Nature Reserve (Humacao) in southeastern Puerto Rico and estimated daily and interval survival rates of females during brood rearing. Only one of 31 birds died; the average ±95% CI daily survival rate of pintails was 0.998 ± 0.989-0.999 for all years, and interval survival was 0.913 ± 0.527-0.987 for a 60-day brood-rearing period. High survival of females suggests their mortality during brood rearing does not influence White-cheeked Pintail populations at Humacao, but further studies of reproductive and annual ecology are needed.

  13. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet. (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei


    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A new L-curve for ill-posed problems (United States)

    Reichel, Lothar; Sadok, Hassane


    The truncated singular value decomposition is a popular method for the solution of linear ill-posed problems. The method requires the choice of a truncation index, which affects the quality of the computed approximate solution. This paper proposes that an L-curve, which is determined by how well the given data (right-hand side) can be approximated by a linear combination of the first (few) left singular vectors (or functions), be used as an aid for determining the truncation index.

  15. Problem Posing with the Multiplication Table (United States)

    Dickman, Benjamin


    Mathematical problem posing is an important skill for teachers of mathematics, and relates readily to mathematical creativity. This article gives a bit of background information on mathematical problem posing, lists further references to connect problem posing and creativity, and then provides 20 problems based on the multiplication table to be…



    Soviet Cosmonauts Valeriy Kubasov [left] and Aleksey Leonov [third from left] pose with U. S. Astronauts Donald Slayton and Tom Stafford [right] in front of a plaque commemorating Alan Shepherd, the first American to fly in space. The Cosmonauts and Astronauts were at KSC in preparation for their joint space mission, the Apollo Soyuz Test Project, schedule for mid-July.

  17. Locally Advanced Cheek Carcinoma; Radical Surgery and Reconstruction of Though and Through Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denewer, A.T.; Steet, A.E.; Mohamed, O.H.; Aly, O.F.


    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek is a locoregionally aggressive tumor. Radical resection may be curative in cases of large tumor without distant metastases. We reviewed forty eight consecutive cases of Sq.c.c. of the oral cavity to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the reconstructive method. Patients and Methods: Forty eight cases of invasive Sq.c.c. affecting the cheek performed in Mansoura University, Surgical Oncology Department. From November 2001 to October 2004 were included. Twenty cafes presented primarily, and 28 were relapsing after previous surgery or radiotherapy. Tumors of T 3 and T 4 size were included. Radical excision with adequate safety margin followed by reconstruction was done in the same setting using: A- Double layered pectorals major flap (n=30). B- Pectorals major flap for external surface and tongue flap for mucosal lining (n=10). C- Pectorals major flap plus free Latissmus dorsi flap (n=3). D- Latissmus dorsi flap plus tongue flap (n=5). Results: Nine cases (18.7%) had local and distant relapse after a median follow up period of 36 months. However, total flap loss was not encountered. There were partial loss of three tongue flaps, seven pectorals flaps corrected with debridement and re approximation. Two patients had oral incompetence. Orocutaneous salivary fistula persistent more than three weeks occurred in eight patients. Functional outcome in terms of oral competence, sensibility, chewing movements was satisfactory in all but three cases. In Conclusion: Radical resection of extensive cheek carcinoma and reconstruction using pedicled flaps is an effective, economic and reliable method for oncologic and functional purposes

  18. A histological study of peripheral dental caries of equine cheek teeth. (United States)

    Erridge, Mey E; Cox, Alistair L; Dixon, Padraic M


    Peripheral caries of equine cheek teeth is a poorly described disorder and, in particular little is known of its histopathology. Histological examinations of decalcified sections of 21 equine peripheral caries-affected cheek teeth showed two different patterns of cemental lesions; including progressive enlargement of focal, flask-like lesions leading to breakdown of the adjacent cementum, and secondly; a more generalized flaking-off of thin layers of under-run, surface cementum. A thick layer of plaque and food material usually lay on the surface of affected cementum and also within cemental defects. Gram-stained sections showed large numbers of bacteria within the lacunae and canaliculi of affected peripheral cementum and within associated plaque. Pioneer bacteria were also seen within dentinal tubules of adjacent, normal-appearing dentin. Subgingival extension of peripheral caries lesions with localized periodontal destruction was rare. Grading of peripheral caries lesions by gross examination was found to underestimate the severity of the disorder as compared to histological grading.

  19. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans. (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine


    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  20. Uneven distribution of enamel, dentine and cementum in cheek teeth of domestic horses (Equus caballus): A micro computed tomography study. (United States)

    Englisch, Lauritz Martin; Kostrzewa, Kathrin; Kopke, Susan; Failing, Klaus; Staszyk, Carsten


    Hypsodont equine cheek teeth possess large dental crowns, resting partly in the bony alveolus. Over a horse's life cheek teeth erupt continuously to compensate for occlusal wear of 3-4 mm per year. Parts of the crown initially resting in the bony alveolus become progressively exposed at the occlusal surface with time. Hitherto, it is unclear whether the typical structure of the equine occlusal surface, composed of a complex arrangement of enamel, dentin and cementum, remains constant or undergoes structural changes with age. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the occlusal surface composition does not remain constant by a quantitative analysis of the dental substances at multiple levels along the dental crown of equine cheek teeth. Micro-computed tomography scans of 20 upper cheek teeth and 16 lower cheek teeth from 19 domestic horses were morphologically analysed using imaging and measurement software. Area for individual dental substances was measured at different levels from the apex to the occlusal surface. The data was statistically analysed to detect changes in the area of individual substance along the dental crown. The area of peripheral cementum was measured separately for levels inside and outside the bony alveolus. In both, upper and lower cheek teeth, enamel area decreased in an apical direction, while dentine area increased. Peripheral Cementum increased dramatically in the occlusal/coronal extra-alveolar position. With increasing age the occlusal surface content of dentine increases while the content of enamel decreases. These changes are considered relevant for the detailed explanation of forage disruption in horses as well as for the recommendation of concepts in equine dentistry.

  1. Posing Problems that Matter: Investigating School Overcrowding (United States)

    Turner, Erin E.; Font Strawhun, Beatriz T.


    This article shows how sixth graders engaged in authentic problem posing related to overcrowding at their school. Students posed authentic problems about their school space and then used mathematics as a tool to investigate and act on the situation. (Contains 6 figures.)

  2. Evaluation of a reproductive index for estimating songbird productivity: Case study of the golden-cheeked warbler (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Lisa O' Donnell; Frank R. Thompson


    It is critically important to determine and understand relationships between endangered species populations and landscape and habitat features to effectively manage and conserve populations and the habitats they rely on. Several recent studies focused on the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), an endangered songbird that breeds...

  3. Seasonal productivity and nest survival of Golden-cheeked Warblers vary with forest type and edge density (United States)

    Rebecca G. Peak; Frank R., III Thompson


    Knowledge of the demography and habitat requirements of the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is needed for its recovery, including measures of productivity instead of reproductive indices. We report on breeding phenology and demography, calculate model-based estimates of nest survival and seasonal productivity and evaluate...

  4. The Factor Structure of the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale in an Undergraduate University Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrum Vahedi


    Full Text Available The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale (RCBS using confirmatory factor analysis among (n = 300 college students. Results indicated that unidimensional measurement model of the RCBS did not provide the best fit for the data. Then three measurement models were tested, and the results showed that a two-factor model taking into account differences in the direction of item wording provided a satisfactory and parsimonious fit to the data. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to better understand the factorial invariance of the scale across genders, and indicated that two-factor structure of the RCBS was equivalent across genders. Supplementary t-tests revealed no other gender differences on shyness.

  5. The island cheek flap: repair of cervical esophageal stricture and new extended indications. (United States)

    Sasaki, T M; Standage, B A; Baker, H W; McConnell, D B; Vetto, R M


    Seven patients had reconstruction with an island cheek flap based on the facial vein and artery. The flap carries a swatch of buccal mucosa that can be rotated inferiorly as far as the superior mediastinum and superiorly to the oral cavity. Five patients had repair of cervical esophageal strictures and fistulas. In four, results were very successful. One patient had diminished but persistent dysphagia which was shown to be secondary to a carcinomatous polyneuropathy; however, he had complete resolution of aspiration after correction of his mechanical obstruction and tracheoesophageal fistula. Morbidity was minimal. Parotiditis developed in one patient who had Stensen's duct ligated. Minor numbness of the lip and a single case of Frey's syndrome were also observed. In another patient, reconstruction of the floor of the mouth preserved normal speech and swallowing. Finally, a permanent speech fistula was also created but was substantially taken down because of functional dissatisfaction. Other potential applications need to be explored.

  6. Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® hyaluronic acid volumizer injected for cheek augmentation has additional positive effect on nasolabial folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauglitz G


    Full Text Available Gerd Gauglitz,1 Stephanie Steckmeier,1 Julian Pötschke,2 Hannah Schwaiger,1 1Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum St Georg gGmbH, Leipzig, Germany Purpose: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® hyaluronic acid (CPM-HA volumizer has been used successfully for several years to reverse biometric volume loss during facial aging. This observational study explored the additive effect on nasolabial folds when CPM-HA volumizer is injected into the neighboring cheek area.Patients and methods: In this open-label, prospective, postmarketing noninterventional study, 18 adult patients seeking esthetic enhancement of the lateral cheek hollows and cheekbone area were injected with CPM-HA volumizer integrated with lidocaine (CPM-HA-VL in the upper or lower cheek area. Safety and performance of CPM-HA-VL up to 12 months after injection with follow-up visits at week 4 and month 3, 6, and 12 were assessed. The primary endpoint was improvement of cheek fullness on the validated Merz Aesthetics Scales. Additionally, changes in nasolabial folds were quantified using a phaseshift rapid in vivo measurement of skin optical three-dimensional (3D in vivo measurement device. Results: Patients (94.4% female, median age 52 years, age range 39–69 years were injected with a mean volume of 2.5±1.1 mL CPM-HA-VL per side. Immediately after injection, mean severity for upper and lower cheek fullness assessed on the validated MAS improved from 2.5±0.6 and 2.8±0.5, respectively, to 1.0±0.0, and remained unchanged through month 12. Improvement in relation to baseline was attested on the Global Aesthetics Improvement Scale for all assessments. Compared with baseline, the following assessments offered a statistical significance in the reduction of wrinkle depth of nasolabial folds (maximum depth reduction by 30.4% at 3 months according to optical 3D in vivo measurements. Pain during

  7. Learning toward practical head pose estimation (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; He, Feixiang; Zhu, Rong; Xuan, Shibin


    Head pose is useful information for many face-related tasks, such as face recognition, behavior analysis, human-computer interfaces, etc. Existing head pose estimation methods usually assume that the face images have been well aligned or that sufficient and precise training data are available. In practical applications, however, these assumptions are very likely to be invalid. This paper first investigates the impact of the failure of these assumptions, i.e., misalignment of face images, uncertainty and undersampling of training data, on head pose estimation accuracy of state-of-the-art methods. A learning-based approach is then designed to enhance the robustness of head pose estimation to these factors. To cope with misalignment, instead of using hand-crafted features, it seeks suitable features by learning from a set of training data with a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), such that the training data can be best classified into the correct head pose categories. To handle uncertainty and undersampling, it employs multivariate labeling distributions (MLDs) with dense sampling intervals to represent the head pose attributes of face images. The correlation between the features and the dense MLD representations of face images is approximated by a maximum entropy model, whose parameters are optimized on the given training data. To estimate the head pose of a face image, its MLD representation is first computed according to the model based on the features extracted from the image by the trained DCNN, and its head pose is then assumed to be the one corresponding to the peak in its MLD. Evaluation experiments on the Pointing'04, FacePix, Multi-PIE, and CASIA-PEAL databases prove the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation (United States)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.


    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  9. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistical analysis, a value of pOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos para utilização em futuros testes de terapias alternativas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos, adultos, machos, pesando entre 250 a 300g. A ulceração na mucosa jugal esquerda foi provocada por meio da abrasão desta com uma lâmina de bisturi número 15. Os animais foram observados por um período de 10 dias, sendo estes pesados e suas escoriações mensuradas. As características histológicas foram analisadas e descritas adotando escores para comparação dos estágios da fase da úlcera. Na análise estatística um valor de p<0,01 foi considerado uma resposta estatisticamente significante em todos os casos. RESULTADOS: Durante os cinco primeiros dias os animais perderam peso ("t" Student - p<0,01. A área da úlcera regrediu linearmente com o tempo, estando quase que completamente cicatrizada ao final de dez dias (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tendência - p<0,0001. Os grupos do 1º, 2º e 3º dias tiveram comportamento semelhante havendo uma diminuição dos escores a partir do 4º dia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de úlcera na mucosa jugal de ratos proposto pode ser considerado eficaz, apresentando reprodutibilidade confiável e baixo custo.

  10. An improved silhouette for human pose estimation (United States)

    Hawes, Anthony H.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.


    We propose a novel method for analyzing images that exploits the natural lines of a human poses to find areas where self-occlusion could be present. Errors caused by self-occlusion cause several modern human pose estimation methods to mis-identify body parts, which reduces the performance of most action recognition algorithms. Our method is motivated by the observation that, in several cases, occlusion can be reasoned using only boundary lines of limbs. An intelligent edge detection algorithm based on the above principle could be used to augment the silhouette with information useful for pose estimation algorithms and push forward progress on occlusion handling for human action recognition. The algorithm described is applicable to computer vision scenarios involving 2D images and (appropriated flattened) 3D images.

  11. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to 'Power Poses'. (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah


    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body ( n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body ( n = 22), two expansive, high power poses ( n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses ( n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  12. Non-standard and improperly posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian; Ames, William F


    Written by two international experts in the field, this book is the first unified survey of the advances made in the last 15 years on key non-standard and improperly posed problems for partial differential equations.This reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers provides an overview of the methodology typically used to study improperly posed problems. It focuses on structural stability--the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions and the modeling equations--and on problems for which data are only prescribed on part of the boundary.The book addresses continuou

  13. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel


    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.



    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan


    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  15. Head Pose Estimation from Passive Stereo Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenstein, Michael D.; Jensen, Jeppe; Høilund, Carsten


    function. Our algorithm incorporates 2D and 3D cues to make the system robust to low-quality range images acquired by passive stereo systems. It handles large pose variations (of ±90 ° yaw and ±45 ° pitch rotation) and facial variations due to expressions or accessories. For a maximally allowed error of 30...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE CHALLENGES POSED BY INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) FACILITIES TO. STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN BAUCHI STATE. Umaru F. Aliyu. Page 2 all-important technological tool in the production, marketing and use of information worldwide, (Ajala, 2010). The impact of ICTs ...

  17. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong


    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  18. Pose Sentences: A new representation for action recognition using sequence of pose words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatun, Kardelen; Duygulu, Pinar


    We propose a method for recognizing human actions in videos. Inspired from the recent bag-of-words approaches, we represent actions as documents consisting of words, where a word refers to the pose in a frame. Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features are used to describe poses, which are then

  19. Computed tomographic features of apical infection of equine maxillary cheek teeth: a retrospective study of 49 horses. (United States)

    Bühler, M; Fürst, A; Lewis, F I; Kummer, M; Ohlerth, S


    Computed tomographic (CT) studies evaluating the relevance of individual CT features of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth are lacking. To study the prevalence and relationship of single CT features in horses with and without clinical evidence of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. Retrospective case-control study. Multislice CT scans of the head of 49 horses were evaluated retrospectively. Changes of the infundibulum, pulp, root, lamina dura, periodontal space and alveolar bone in maxillary cheek teeth were recorded. Single CT changes were much more prevalent in the 28 horses with clinical signs. However, infundibular changes and a nondetectable lamina dura were also common in the 21 horses without clinical evidence of apical infection. Computed tomographic abnormalities of the pulp, root, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture were significantly related. Infundibular changes were not associated with other CT signs of apical infection. Although nondetectable lamina dura was the most frequent CT change in all teeth in both studied groups, it was most commonly a solitary feature in otherwise normal teeth. Apical infections, defined as ≥3 CT changes, occurred mainly in the 108/208, 109/209 and 110/210 (Triadan numbers) and were found only in horses with clinical evidence of apical infection, except in one horse without clinical signs that had one affected root. Combined CT changes of the pulp, root, lamina dura, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture appear to be reliable features to diagnose apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. As a solitary feature, a nondetectable lamina dura should be interpreted cautiously and may even be considered normal due to its minor thickness and/or too low resolution of the imaging modality. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Estimating golden-cheeked warbler immigration: Implications for the spatial scale of conservation (United States)

    Duarte, A.; Weckerly, F.W.; Schaub, M.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.


    Understanding the factors that drive population dynamics is fundamental to species conservation and management. Since the golden-cheeked warbler Setophaga chrysoparia was first listed as endangered, much effort has taken place to monitor warbler abundance, occupancy, reproduction and survival. Yet, despite being directly related to local population dynamics, movement rates have not been estimated for the species. We used an integrated population model to investigate the relationship between immigration rate, fledging rate, survival probabilities and population growth rate for warblers in central Texas, USA. Furthermore, using a deterministic projection model, we examined the response required by vital rates to maintain a viable population across varying levels of immigration. Warbler abundance fluctuated with an overall positive trend across years. In the absence of immigration, the abundance would have decreased. However, the population could remain viable without immigration if both adult and juvenile survival increased by almost half or if juvenile survival more than doubled. We also investigated the response required by fledging rates across a range of immigration in order to maintain a viable population. Overall, we found that immigration was required to maintain warbler target populations, indicating that warbler conservation and management programs need to be implemented at larger spatial scales than current efforts to be effective. This study also demonstrates that by using limited data within integrated population models, biologists are able to monitor multiple key demographic parameters simultaneously to gauge the efficacy of strategies designed to maximize warbler viability in a changing landscape.

  1. Carcinogenic effects of MGP-7 and B(a)P on the Hamster Cheek Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.L.; Conti, C.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; DiGiovanni, J.; Gimenez-Conti, I.B. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX (United States). Dept. of Carcinogenesis


    This study was performed to examine the carcinogenic effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues on the hamster cheek pouch (HCP). Syrian hamsters were treated topically with a suspension of 2%, 10%, or 20% B(a)P or 50% or 100% MGP-7 (a mixture of residues from 7 MGP sites) in mineral oil for eight (short-term study) and sixteen, twenty, twenty-eight, and thirty-two weeks (long-term study). The short-term study showed that B(a)P induced p53 protein accumulation, indicative of genotoxic damage, as well as increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and inflammation, which is usually associated with promotional activity. In contrast, the MGP-7 presented only marginal p53 accumulation and induction of BrdU incorporation. In the long-term experiments, animals treated with 2% and 10% of B(a)P continued to show p53 protein accumulation as well as hyperplasia and increased cell proliferation and inflammation. By thirty weeks, all the animals treated with B(a)P had a 100% incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Animals treated with 50% and 100% MGP-7 showed only weak hyperplasia and a low proliferation rate and accumulation of p53 protein through thirty-two weeks. Benzo(a)pyrene was highly carcinogenic when used at adequate doses. Manufactured gas plant residue, however, was not carcinogenic in this model.

  2. Periodontal biomechanics: finite element simulations of closing stroke and power stroke in equine cheek teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordes Vanessa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In equine dentistry periodontal diseases, especially periapical inflammation, are frequently occurring problems. Anachoresis is believed to be the most common cause for the development of such disorders. Nevertheless, there is still no substantiated explanation why settlement of pathogen microorganisms occurs in equine periodontal tissues. It is expected that excessive strains and stresses occurring in the periodontal ligament (PDL during the horse’s chewing cycle might be a predisposing factor. In this study this assumption was examined by finite element (FE analyses on virtual 3-D models of equine maxillary and mandibular cheek teeth, established on the basis of μCT datasets. Calculations were conducted both under conditions of closing and power stroke. Results Results showed a uniform distribution of low stresses and strain energy density (SED during closing stroke, whereas during power stroke an occurrence of high stresses and SED could be observed in the PDL near the alveolar crest and in periapical regions. Conclusion The concentration of forces during power stroke in these specific areas of the PDL may cause local tissue necrosis and inflammation and thus establish a suitable environment for the settlement of microorganisms.

  3. Effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on chemically-induced carcinoma of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah K. Ezzat


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application. Group VI hamsters were handled as group III and additionally received DMBA for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of ACE supplementation. Hamsters of each group were euthanized according to the experimental schedule. The buccal pouches were and prepared for H&E stain, PAS reagent, CD3 and PDGF immunohistochemical reactivity. All groups showed dysplastic changes with varying degrees except groups I and III. Deep invasive carcinomas were recorded in 90% of the samples of group II, 60% of group IV, 50% of group V and 40% of group VI. From the previous results, it can be concluded that ACE has the potentiality preventing oral cancer initiation better than inhibiting oral cancer progression.

  4. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopke Susan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. Results Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth ≤5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05. In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most

  5. Tridimensional pose estimation of a person head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Berenguer, Elisa; Soria, Carlos; Nasisi, Oscar; Mut, Vicente


    In this work, we present a method for estimating 3-D motion parameters; this method provides an alternative way for 3D head pose estimation from image sequence in the current computer vision literature. This method is robust over extended sequences and large head motions and accurately extracts the orientation angles of head from a single view. Experimental results show that this tracking system works well for development a human-computer interface for people that possess severe motor incapacity

  6. Driver head pose tracking with thermal camera (United States)

    Bole, S.; Fournier, C.; Lavergne, C.; Druart, G.; Lépine, T.


    Head pose can be seen as a coarse estimation of gaze direction. In automotive industry, knowledge about gaze direction could optimize Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Pose estimation systems are often based on camera when applications have to be contactless. In this paper, we explore uncooled thermal imagery (8-14μm) for its intrinsic night vision capabilities and for its invariance versus lighting variations. Two methods are implemented and compared, both are aided by a 3D model of the head. The 3D model, mapped with thermal texture, allows to synthesize a base of 2D projected models, differently oriented and labeled in yaw and pitch. The first method is based on keypoints. Keypoints of models are matched with those of the query image. These sets of matchings, aided with the 3D shape of the model, allow to estimate 3D pose. The second method is a global appearance approach. Among all 2D models of the base, algorithm searches the one which is the closest to the query image thanks to a weighted least squares difference.

  7. Vimentin and laminin are altered on cheek pouch microvessels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Fuentes R Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Normal endothelial cells respond to shear stress by elongating and aligning in the direction of fluid flow. Hyperglycemia impairs this response and contributes to microvascular complications, which result in deleterious effects to the endothelium. This work aimed to evaluate cheek pouch microvessel morphological characteristics, reactivity, permeability, and expression of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components in hamsters after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin. METHODS: Syrian golden hamsters (90-130 g were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle either 6 (the diabetes mellitus 6 group or 15 (the diabetes mellitus 15 group days before the experiment. Vascular dimensions and density per area of vessels were determined by morphometric and stereological measurements. Changes in blood flow were measured in response to acetylcholine, and plasma extravasation was measured by the number of leakage sites. Actin, talin, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, type IV collagen, and laminin were detected by immunohistochemistry and assessed through a semiquantitative scoring system. RESULTS: There were no major alterations in the lumen, wall diameters, or densities of the examined vessels. Likewise, vascular reactivity and permeability were not altered by diabetes. The arterioles demonstrated increased immunoreactivity to vimentin and laminin in the diabetes mellitus 6 and diabetes mellitus 15 groups. DISCUSSION: Antibodies against laminin and vimentin inhibit branching morphogenesis in vitro. Therefore, laminin and vimentin participating in the structure of the focal adhesion may play a role in angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated the existence of changes related to cell-matrix interactions, which may contribute to the pathological remodeling that was already underway one week after induction of experimental diabetes.

  8. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.


    Population abundance estimates using predictive models are important for describing habitat use and responses to population-level impacts, evaluating conservation status of a species, and for establishing monitoring programs. The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is a neotropical migratory bird that was listed as federally endangered in 1990 because of threats related to loss and fragmentation of its woodland habitat. Since listing, abundance estimates for the species have mainly relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species\\' breeding range. We first conducted occupancy surveys to determine range-wide distribution. We then conducted standard point-count surveys on a subset of the initial sampling locations to estimate density of males. Mean observed patch-specific density was 0.23 males/ha (95% CI = 0.197-0.252, n = 301). We modeled the relationship between patch-specific density of males and woodland patch characteristics (size and landscape composition) and predicted patch occupancy. The probability of patch occupancy, derived from a model that used patch size and landscape composition as predictor variables while addressing effects of spatial relatedness, best predicted patch-specific density. We predicted patch-specific densities as a function of occupancy probability and estimated abundance of male warblers across 63,616 woodland patches accounting for 1.678 million ha of potential warbler habitat. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, our approach yielded a range-wide male warbler population estimate of 263,339 (95% CI: 223,927-302,620). Our results provide the first abundance estimate using habitat and count data from a sampling design focused on range-wide inference. Managers can use the resulting model as a tool to support conservation planning

  9. Numerical Regularization of Ill-Posed Problems. (United States)


    a 073 CINCINNATI UNIV O DEPT OF MATHENATICAL SCIENCES P/S ll1 NUMERICAL REGULARIZATION OF ILL-POSEO PROBLENS(U) JULso C 0 GROTSCH AFOSR-9 -OO9...regularization and projection methods, Proc. Annual Conference of the Association of Computing Machinery (1973), 415-419. [7) A. Sard, Approximations based on...solving incorreitly posed problems, U.S.S.R. Computational Math. and Math. Phys. 14(1974), 24-33. 4 I, I 11 4. L. J. Lardy, A series representation of

  10. STS-47 crew poses for portrait after having been named to the SLJ mission (United States)


    STS-47 crewmembers pose for portrait after having been named to the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mission scheduled for flight aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) recently named the four to the mission. Posing in front of the flags of the United States (U.S.) and Japan are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, Japanese NASDA Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, MS N. Jan Davis, and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee.

  11. Posing the first LEAR vacuum chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    The photo shows one of the four bending magnets of LEAR. They were of C-type with the opening ('mouth') to the outside of the ring (yoke to the inside). Last preparations are made before the vacuum chamber is slid through the mouth into the magnet. Stochastic cooling pickups/kickers were installed inside the chamber. One can distinguish a large number of feed-throughs on the chamber (leading to the pickup/kicker gaps). The free space in the middle of the block was left to offer room for an internal target in the magnet. This possibility was never exploited. Instead it is used here, to accommodate a pumping port for the high vacuum system. Michel Chanel (left) and Pierre Lefevre admire the mechanics at work.

  12. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing (United States)

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan


    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  13. Design and characterization of a novel neutron shield for BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch at RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.; Monti Hughes, A.; Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Trivillin, V.A.; Thorp, S.I.


    Our research group at the Radiation Pathology Division of the Department of Radiobiology (National Atomic Energy Commission) has previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols to treat oral cancer in an experimental hamster cheek pouch model. In particular, to perform studies in this experimental model at the thermal facility constructed at RA-3, we designed and constructed a shielding device for thermal neutrons, to be able to expose the cheek pouch while minimizing the dose to the rest of the body. This device allowed for the irradiation of one animal at a time. Given the usage rate of the device, the aim of the present study was to design and construct an optimized version of the existing shielding device that would allow for the simultaneous irradiation of 2 animals at the thermal facility of RA-3. Taking into account the characteristics of the neutron source and preliminary biological assays, we designed the shielding device for the body of the animal, i.e. a rectangular shaped box with double acrylic walls. The space between the walls contains a continuous filling of 6Li 2 CO 3 (95% enriched in 6Li), approximately 6 mm thick. Two small windows interrupt the shield at one end of the box through which the right pouch of each hamster is everted out onto an external acrylic shelf for exposure to the neutron flux. The characterization of the shielding device showed that the neutron flux was equivalent at both irradiation positions confirming that we were able to design and construct a new shielding device that allows for the irradiation of 2 animals at the same time at the thermal facility of RA-3. This new version of the shielding device will reduce the number of interventions of the reactor operators, reducing occupational exposure to radiation and will make the procedure more efficient for researchers. In addition, we addressed the generation of tritium as a product of the capture reaction in lithium. It was considered as a

  14. Occlusal fissures of the equine cheek tooth: prevalence, location and association with disease in 91 horses referred for dental investigation. (United States)

    Ramzan, P H L; Palmer, L


    Fissures of the occlusal surface of the equine cheek tooth are poorly understood and their association with dental disease is unknown. To describe the prevalence and location of occlusal fissures in the cheek teeth (CT) of a group of horses referred for dental investigation/treatment, and determine association with intercurrent dental disease. Digital video recordings of oral endoscopic examinations for all horses referred to the Rossdales Equine Hospital for dental investigation from November 2006 to June 2009 were reviewed. Location of occlusal fissures in relation to both Triadan tooth position and pulpar secondary dentine was recorded; direction of fissure and concurrent involvement of enamel was also documented. The CT location considered at the time of examination to be the primary site/s of disease was correlated with presence of fissures on these teeth. 91 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Occlusal fissures were documented in 58.2% (53/91) cases, with a total of 227 CT being affected. Fissures were most prevalent mid-arcade. The majority (92.1%) of fissures in maxillary CT were associated with the caudal palatal pulp horn. Fissures in mandibular CT were predominantly associated with the buccal pulp horns (95.7%). There was no significant difference in the median number of CT with fissures in relation to gender. There was no correlation between age (r(2)= 0.01) of horse and number of CT with fissures. A significantly greater number of CT with multiple occlusal fissures was found in mandibular compared to maxillary arcades. No correlation was found between presence of fissures and location of individual CT considered to be primarily responsible for presentation. Occlusal fissures in this group of animals were common and not correlated to primary site of dental disease. In horses subjected to dental investigation, occlusal fissures of the cheek teeth should not be considered an indicator of tooth compromise. Location and direction of

  15. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others


    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Relative Pose Estimation Algorithm with Gyroscope Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wei


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vision and inertial fusion algorithm S2fM (Simplified Structure from Motion for camera relative pose estimation. Different from current existing algorithms, our algorithm estimates rotation parameter and translation parameter separately. S2fM employs gyroscopes to estimate camera rotation parameter, which is later fused with the image data to estimate camera translation parameter. Our contributions are in two aspects. (1 Under the circumstance that no inertial sensor can estimate accurately enough translation parameter, we propose a translation estimation algorithm by fusing gyroscope sensor and image data. (2 Our S2fM algorithm is efficient and suitable for smart devices. Experimental results validate efficiency of the proposed S2fM algorithm.

  17. Pose optimization and port placement for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery in cholecystectomy. (United States)

    Feng, Mei; Jin, Xingze; Tong, Weihua; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Ji; Fu, Yili


    Pose optimization and port placement are critical issues for preoperative preparation in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS), and affect the robot performance and surgery quality. This paper proposes a method for pose optimization and port placement for RMIS in cholecystectomy that considers both the robot and surgery requirements. The robot pose optimization was divided into optimization of the positioning joint configuration and optimization of the end effector configuration. To determine the optimal location for the trocar port placement, the operational workspace was defined as the evaluation index. The port area was divided into many sub-areas, and that with the maximum operational workspace was selected as the location for the port placement. Considering the left robotic arm as an example, the location for the port placement and joints angles for robotic arm configuration were discussed and simulated using the proposed method. This research can provide guidelines for surgeons in preoperative preparation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matasová K.


    Full Text Available North American crayfish species are natural hosts of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci. The spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in Central Europe, is the main reservoir of A. astaci in Czech Republic. We tested if there are temporal changes in the prevalence of infected individuals (i.e., the proportion of individuals in which the pathogen is detected in spiny-cheek crayfish populations. Crayfish from three populations shown previously to be infected to different extents (high, intermediate and low, were repeatedly sampled in different years (2004–2010 and seasons. The presence of A. astaci in the soft abdominal crayfish cuticle was tested by specific amplification of the pathogen DNA. There was no substantial temporal variation in pathogen prevalence in the highly and very lowly infected populations. However, a significant long-term as well as seasonal decrease was found in the intermediately infected population. This decline could be related to a decrease in population density over the studied years, and to crayfish seasonal moulting, respectively. A reliable estimate of pathogen prevalence in American crayfish populations thus requires repeated monitoring over years, preferably during the same season before the main period of crayfish moulting.

  19. Phylogenetic position of the white-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys), a newly described primate from southeastern Tibet. (United States)

    Fan, Pengfei; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhechun; Zhao, Chao; Li, Cheng; Liu, Wulin; Liu, Zhijin; Li, Ming


    The white-cheeked macaque Macaca leucogenys is a recently described species that was only diagnosed based on photos, without any specimen measurements or molecular genetic diagnosis. Using DNA extracted from four newly collected skin specimens, we studied the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of M. leucogenys using multilocus sequence data, including mitochondrial and Y chromosomal genes. Skin measurements of four individuals showed that the white-cheeked macaque is robust and larger than M. assamensis but is similar in body size to M. thibetana. Although the holotype male of M. leucogenys was observed to have a round glans penis in three photos and a 15-s video, the current phylogenetic analysis placed this species in the sinica group, which has a sagittate glans penis. Our results confirm full species status of M. leucogenys and indicate that this species might have diverged from its closest relatives c. 2.5million years ago. The mitochondrial gene tree showed that M. leucogenys is phylogenetically close to M. munzala and M. radiata within the sinica group; however, their relationships were unresolved by Y chromosomal phylogenies, which indicates possible historical episode of male introgression. Further studies using an integrative approach that combines morphological and ecological characterizations and population-based genome-wide analysis are needed to investigate divergence and reproductive isolation, which are very likely to elucidate mechanisms underlying these Asian macaque radiations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The STS-93 crew pose in front of Columbia (United States)


    The STS-93 crew pose in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following their landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. From left to right, they are Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins, and Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander.

  1. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.


    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine

  2. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    Automatic estimation of the human pose enables many interesting applications and has therefore achieved much attention in recent years. One of the most successful approaches for estimating unconstrained poses has been the pictorial structures framework. However, occlusions between interacting...

  3. Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses (United States)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier


    We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

  4. 2D Methods for pose invariant face recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Ntabiseng


    Full Text Available The ability to recognise face images under random pose is a task that is done effortlessly by human beings. However, for a computer system, recognising face images under varying poses still remains an open research area. Face recognition across pose...

  5. Effects of prescribed fire on fuels, vegetation, and Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) demographics in Texas juniper-oak woodlands (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R., III Thompson; Carl Schwope; Scott Rowin; James M. Mueller


    The Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is an endangered songbird that breeds in mature juniper-oak woodlands restricted to Central Texas. This habitat is increasingly susceptible to crown fire due to climate change, land use change, and fire suppression. Prescribed fire is a potential tool to reduce the risk of crown fire and may be a...

  6. Biodistribution study with combined administration of BPA and BSH for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M A; Heber, E M; Monti Hughes, A; Pzzi, E C C; Molinari, A J; Niggg, D W; Bauer, W; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E


    We previously proved the therapeutic potential of the chemically non-selective boron compound decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as a stand-alone boron carrier for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model with no toxic effects in normal or precancerous tissue. Although GB-10 is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue, selective tumor lethality would result from selective aberrant tumor blood vessel damage. Furthermore, BNCT efficacy was enhanced when GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered jointly. The fact that sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically as a stand-alone boron agent for BNCT of brain tumors and in combination with BPA for recurrent head and neck malignancies makes it a particularly interesting boron compound to explore. Based on the working hypothesis that BSH would conceivably behave similarly to GB-10 in oral cancer, we previously performed biodistribution studies with BSH alone in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH + BPA administered jointly in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model as a starting point to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology and optimize therapeutic efficacy. The right cheek pouch of Syrian hamsters was subjected to topical administration of a carcinogen twice a week for 12 weeks. Once the exophytic tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinomas, had developed, the animals were used for biodistribution studies with BSH + BPA. Three administration protocols with different proportions of each of the compounds were assessed: 1. BSH, 50 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 15.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 2. BSH, 34.5 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 31 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 3. BSH, 20 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 46.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip. Groups of animals were euthanized 4 h after the administration of BSH and 3 h after the administration of BPA. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous and normal pouch and other tissues with

  7. Extrapair paternity in golden-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in the secondary lowland forest of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. (United States)

    Kenyon, Marina; Roos, Christian; Binh, Vo Thanh; Chivers, David


    We observed 18 groups of golden-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in the secondary lowland forest in Cat Tien National Park from January 2004 to December 2005 to obtain information about the social organization of this little-studied species, in an area where the population is recovering through increased protection and forest regeneration. DNA from faecal samples of 10 infants and juveniles identified 1 case of extrapair paternity. DNA from faecal samples of 18 adults from three communities revealed the majority of adults sampled of both sexes to be related to adults in neighbouring territories. Overall, the indications are that in this empty habitat, gibbons appear to be able to establish territories adjacent to those of their kin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. [Histologic study on impeding leukoplakia carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch about Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz]. (United States)

    Zhou, C T; Zhong, W J; Hua, L; Hu, H F; Jin, Z G


    To observe the effect of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand Mazz (HEr) in impeding oral leukoplakia carcinogenesis, and to seek effective Chinese herb medicine that can impede precarcinoma of oral mucosas. 132 golden hamsters were randomly divided into model group (60 animals), HEr group (60 animals), and control group 12 animals. Salley's leukoplakia carcinogenesis model of golden hamster cheek pouch was used in this study. HEr was injected into the stomach to impede evolution of carcinogenesis. Pathological specimens were observed via naked eye and light microscope between model group and HEr group. Results were compared. Observation via naked-eye showed that leukoplakia rate of HEr group (18.2%) was lower than that of model group (27.3%). Observation via light microscope showed that carcinogenesis rate descended one fold and displasia rate descended 0.4 fold in HEr group. HEr has exact effect in impeding leukoplakia carcinogenesis.

  9. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger


    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  10. Pose Planning for the Feed Support System of FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yao


    Full Text Available A six-cable driven parallel manipulator and an A-B rotator in the feed support system of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST are adopted for realizing the position and pose of nine feeds. The six-cable driven parallel manipulator is a flexible mechanism, which may not be stably controlled due to a small cable tension. The A-B rotator is a rigid mechanism, and its stability and accuracy can be improved by small pose angle. Based on the different characteristics, a pose planning function is presented. The optimization target of the pose planning function is to get the smallest pose angle of the A-B rotator, and the constraint condition can reflect the controllability of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator. Then, the pose planning realization process of the feed support system is proposed. Based on the pose planning method, optimized pose angles of the feed support system for the nine feeds are obtained, which suggests that the pose angle of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator changes from 0° to 14° and the pose angle of the A-B rotator changes from 0° to 26.4°.

  11. Head pose estimation algorithm based on deep learning (United States)

    Cao, Yuanming; Liu, Yijun


    Head pose estimation has been widely used in the field of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and intelligent human-computer interaction and so on. Good head pose estimation algorithm should deal with light, noise, identity, shelter and other factors robustly, but so far how to improve the accuracy and robustness of attitude estimation remains a major challenge in the field of computer vision. A method based on deep learning for pose estimation is presented. Deep learning with a strong learning ability, it can extract high-level image features of the input image by through a series of non-linear operation, then classifying the input image using the extracted feature. Such characteristics have greater differences in pose, while they are robust of light, identity, occlusion and other factors. The proposed head pose estimation is evaluated on the CAS-PEAL data set. Experimental results show that this method is effective to improve the accuracy of pose estimation.

  12. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua


    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  13. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik


    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  14. Estimating 2D Upper Body Poses from Monocular Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, Jeroen; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Poel, Mannes


    Automatic estimation and recognition of poses from video allows for a whole range of applications. The research described here is an important step towards automatic extraction of 3D poses. We describe our research to extract the 2D joint locations of the people in meeting videos. The key point of

  15. Helping Young Students to Better Pose an Environmental Problem (United States)

    Pruneau, Diane; Freiman, Viktor; Barbier, Pierre-Yves; Langis, Joanne


    Grade 3 students were asked to solve a sedimentation problem in a local river. With scientists, students explored many aspects of the problem and proposed solutions. Graphic representation tools were used to help students to better pose the problem. Using questionnaires and interviews, researchers observed students' capacity to pose the problem…

  16. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien


    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  17. Formulas in inverse and ill-posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Anikonov, Yu E


    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  18. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm (United States)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen


    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  19. Real-Time Head Pose Estimation on Mobile Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Ren


    Full Text Available Many computer vision applications such as augmented reality require head pose estimation. As far as the real-time implementation of head pose estimation on relatively resource limited mobile platforms is concerned, it is required to satisfy real-time constraints while maintaining reasonable head pose estimation accuracy. The introduced head pose estimation approach in this paper is an attempt to meet this objective. The approach consists of the following components: Viola-Jones face detection, color-based face tracking using an online calibration procedure, and head pose estimation using Hu moment features and Fisher linear discriminant. Experimental results running on an actual mobile device are reported exhibiting both the real- time and accuracy aspects of the developed approach.

  20. Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Panchanathan


    Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1∘. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2∘ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.

  1. STS-47 crew and backups pose for portrait in SLJ module at KSC during training (United States)


    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers and backup payload specialists, wearing clean suits, pose for a group portrait in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module. The team is at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to inspect SLJ configuration and OV-105 preparations. Kneeling, from left, are backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai; Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis; and backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi. Standing, from the left, are Pilot Curtis L. Brown,Jr; MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee; MS Jerome Apt; Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri; Commander Robert L. Gibson; MS Mae C. Jemison; and backup Payload Specialist Stanely L. Koszelak. Mohri, Mukai, and Doi represent the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-92PC-1647.

  2. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions. (United States)

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun


    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  3. Cheek Tooth Morphology and Ancient Mitochondrial DNA of Late Pleistocene Horses from the Western Interior of North America: Implications for the Taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus


    Barron-Ortiz, Christina; Rodrigues, Antonia; Theodor, Jessica; Kooyman, Brian; Yang, Dongya; Speller, Camilla Filomena


    Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Inter...

  4. The Effect of Steri-Strip Dressing on Patients? Satisfaction and Reduction of Ecchymosis in Lower Eyelid, Malar and Cheek Following Rhinoplasty


    Farahvash, Mohammad Reza; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Mahdiani, Yadollah; Taheri, Ahmad Reza


    BACKGROUND Early postoperative edema and ecchymosis are the most common factors to complicate initial patient perceptions about rhinoplasty. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of longer steri-strip tape on patient malar and cheek in terms of ecchymosis control and reduction. METHODS Through a randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients who underwent rhinoplasty were randomly enrolled. One side of the patients? face was randomly selected for different experience of ...

  5. On Pose Estimation for Human-Robot Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Al-Amin Bhuiyan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision based pose estimation system using knowledge based approach for human-robot symbiosis. The system is based on visual information of the face by connected component analysis of the skin color segmentation of images in HSV color model and is commenced with the face recognition and pose classification scheme using subspace PCA based pattern-matching strategies. With the knowledge of the known user's profile, face poses are then classified by multilayer perceptron. Based on the frame-based knowledge representation approach, face poses are being interpreted using the Software Platform for Agent and Knowledge (SPAK management. On face pose recognition, robot is then instructed to perform some specific tasks by issuing pose commands. Experimental results demonstrate that the subspace method is better than that of the standard PCA method for face pose classification. The system has been demonstrated with the implementation of the algorithm to interact with an entertainment robot named, AIBO for human-robot symbiotic relationship.

  6. The prevalence of secondary dentinal lesions in cheek teeth from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis compared to controls. (United States)

    Casey, M B; Tremaine, W H


    With the advent of detailed oral examination in horses using dental mirrors and rigid endoscopy, secondary dentinal lesions are observed more frequently. More information regarding the association of secondary dentinal defects with apical dental disease would improve the sensitivity of oral examination as a diagnostic aid for pulpitis. To assess prevalence and severity of secondary dentinal defects observed on examination of occlusal surfaces of cheek teeth (CT) from horses showing clinical signs of pulpitis compared to asymptomatic controls. Records from all cases of equine CT exodontia at the University of Bristol over a 4 year period were examined. Case selection criteria included the presence of clinical signs of pulpitis, an intact extracted tooth and availability of a complete history and follow up. Cases where coronal fracture or periodontal pocketing featured were excluded. CT from cadavers with no history of dental disease served as normal controls. Triadan positions and eruption ages of control teeth were matched with those of teeth extracted from cases. CT from selected cases and control teeth were examined occlusally. Secondary dentinal defects were identified and graded. Prevalence of occlusal lesions in CT with pulpitis and controls was compared. From the records of 120 horses where exodontia was performed, 40 cases matched selection criteria. Twenty-three mandibular and 21 maxillary CT were extracted from cases. The controls consisted of 60 mandibular and 60 maxillary CT from 7 cadaver skulls. Secondary dentinal defects were significantly over-represented in CT extracted from cases of pulpitis (P pulpitis in equine CT.

  7. Methods of RVD object pose estimation and experiments (United States)

    Shang, Yang; He, Yan; Wang, Weihua; Yu, Qifeng


    Methods of measuring a RVD (rendezvous and docking) cooperative object's pose from monocular and binocular images respectively are presented. The methods solve the initial values first and optimize the object pose parameters by bundle adjustment. In the disturbance-rejecting binocular method, chosen measurement system parameters of one camera's exterior parameters are modified simultaneously. The methods need three or more cooperative target points to measure the object's pose accurately. Experimental data show that the methods converge quickly and stably, provide accurate results and do not need accurate initial values. Even when the chosen measurement system parameters are subjected to some amount of disturbance, the binocular method manages to provide fairly accurate results.

  8. Left heart catheterization (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheng


    Full Text Available To solve the problem of relative camera pose estimation, a method using optimization with respect to the manifold is proposed. Firstly from maximum-a-posteriori (MAP model to nonlinear least squares (NLS model, the general state estimation model using optimization is derived. Then the camera pose estimation model is applied to the general state estimation model, while the parameterization of rigid body transformation is represented by Lie group/algebra. The jacobian of point-pose model with respect to Lie group/algebra is derived in detail and thus the optimization model of rigid body transformation is established. Experimental results show that compared with the original algorithms, the approaches with optimization can obtain higher accuracy both in rotation and translation, while avoiding the singularity of Euler angle parameterization of rotation. Thus the proposed method can estimate relative camera pose with high accuracy and robustness.

  10. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón


    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  11. Pose estimation of industrial objects towards robot operation (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Zhou, Fuqiang; Tan, Haishu; Cao, Yu


    With the advantages of wide range, non-contact and high flexibility, the visual estimation technology of target pose has been widely applied in modern industry, robot guidance and other engineering practices. However, due to the influence of complicated industrial environment, outside interference factors, lack of object characteristics, restrictions of camera and other limitations, the visual estimation technology of target pose is still faced with many challenges. Focusing on the above problems, a pose estimation method of the industrial objects is developed based on 3D models of targets. By matching the extracted shape characteristics of objects with the priori 3D model database of targets, the method realizes the recognition of target. Thus a pose estimation of objects can be determined based on the monocular vision measuring model. The experimental results show that this method can be implemented to estimate the position of rigid objects based on poor images information, and provides guiding basis for the operation of the industrial robot.

  12. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard? (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  13. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ESPRIT: an Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, in support of NASA's effort in developing crew exercise technologies for...

  14. Assessing the Biological Threat Posed by Suicide Bombers (United States)


    ASSESSING THE BIOLOGICAL THREAT POSED BY SUICIDE BOMBERS ECBC-TR-1363 Jerry B. Cabalo Jana Kesavan David W...Assessing the Biological Threat Posed by Suicide Bombers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Cabalo ...RDCB-DRI-T ATTN: J. Cabalo J. Kesavan D. Sickenberger A. Goad RDCB-DEJ-P ATTN: G. Diviacchi Defense

  15. Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kabanikhin, S I


    The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.

  16. Contactless and pose invariant biometric identification using hand surface. (United States)

    Kanhangad, Vivek; Kumar, Ajay; Zhang, David


    This paper presents a novel approach for hand matching that achieves significantly improved performance even in the presence of large hand pose variations. The proposed method utilizes a 3-D digitizer to simultaneously acquire intensity and range images of the user's hand presented to the system in an arbitrary pose. The approach involves determination of the orientation of the hand in 3-D space followed by pose normalization of the acquired 3-D and 2-D hand images. Multimodal (2-D as well as 3-D) palmprint and hand geometry features, which are simultaneously extracted from the user's pose normalized textured 3-D hand, are used for matching. Individual matching scores are then combined using a new dynamic fusion strategy. Our experimental results on the database of 114 subjects with significant pose variations yielded encouraging results. Consistent (across various hand features considered) performance improvement achieved with the pose correction demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach for hand based biometric systems with unconstrained and contact-free imaging. The experimental results also suggest that the dynamic fusion approach employed in this work helps to achieve performance improvement of 60% (in terms of EER) over the case when matching scores are combined using the weighted sum rule.

  17. Robust head pose estimation via supervised manifold learning. (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Xubo


    Head poses can be automatically estimated using manifold learning algorithms, with the assumption that with the pose being the only variable, the face images should lie in a smooth and low-dimensional manifold. However, this estimation approach is challenging due to other appearance variations related to identity, head location in image, background clutter, facial expression, and illumination. To address the problem, we propose to incorporate supervised information (pose angles of training samples) into the process of manifold learning. The process has three stages: neighborhood construction, graph weight computation and projection learning. For the first two stages, we redefine inter-point distance for neighborhood construction as well as graph weight by constraining them with the pose angle information. For Stage 3, we present a supervised neighborhood-based linear feature transformation algorithm to keep the data points with similar pose angles close together but the data points with dissimilar pose angles far apart. The experimental results show that our method has higher estimation accuracy than the other state-of-art algorithms and is robust to identity and illumination variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuromorphic Event-Based 3D Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eReverter Valeiras


    Full Text Available Pose estimation is a fundamental step in many artificial vision tasks. It consists of estimating the 3D pose of an object with respect to a camera from the object's 2D projection. Current state of the art implementations operate on images. These implementations are computationally expensive, especially for real-time applications. Scenes with fast dynamics exceeding 30-60Hz can rarely be processed in real-time using conventional hardware. This paper presents a new method for event-based 3D object pose estimation, making full use of the high temporal resolution (1textmu s of asynchronous visual events output from a single neuromorphic camera. Given an initial estimate of the pose, each incoming event is used to update the pose by combining both 3D and 2D criteria. We show that the asynchronous high temporal resolution of the neuromorphic camera allows us to solve the problem in an incremental manner, achieving real-time performance at an update rate of several hundreds kHz on a conventional laptop. We show that the high temporal resolution of neuromorphic cameras is a key feature for performing accurate pose estimation. Experiments are provided showing the performance of the algorithm on real data, including fast moving objects, occlusions, and cases where the neuromorphic camera and the object are both in motion.

  19. The Dynamic Features of Lip Corners in Genuine and Posed Smiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Guo


    Full Text Available The smile is a frequently expressed facial expression that typically conveys a positive emotional state and friendly intent. However, human beings have also learned how to fake smiles, typically by controlling the mouth to provide a genuine-looking expression. This is often accompanied by inaccuracies that can allow others to determine that the smile is false. Mouth movement is one of the most striking features of the smile, yet our understanding of its dynamic elements is still limited. The present study analyzes the dynamic features of lip corners, and considers how they differ between genuine and posed smiles. Employing computer vision techniques, we investigated elements such as the duration, intensity, speed, symmetry of the lip corners, and certain irregularities in genuine and posed smiles obtained from the UvA-NEMO Smile Database. After utilizing the facial analysis tool OpenFace, we further propose a new approach to segmenting the onset, apex, and offset phases of smiles, as well as a means of measuring irregularities and symmetry in facial expressions. We extracted these features according to 2D and 3D coordinates, and conducted an analysis. The results reveal that genuine smiles have higher values for onset, offset, apex, and total durations, as well as offset displacement, and a variable we termed Irregularity-b (the SD of the apex phase than do posed smiles. Conversely, values tended to be lower for onset and offset Speeds, and Irregularity-a (the rate of peaks, Symmetry-a (the correlation between left and right facial movements, and Symmetry-d (differences in onset frame numbers between the left and right faces. The findings from the present study have been compared to those of previous research, and certain speculations are made.

  20. Optimal accelerometer placement on a robot arm for pose estimation (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Sanford, Joseph D.; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Das, Sumit K.; Popa, Dan O.


    The performance of robots to carry out tasks depends in part on the sensor information they can utilize. Usually, robots are fitted with angle joint encoders that are used to estimate the position and orientation (or the pose) of its end-effector. However, there are numerous situations, such as in legged locomotion, mobile manipulation, or prosthetics, where such joint sensors may not be present at every, or any joint. In this paper we study the use of inertial sensors, in particular accelerometers, placed on the robot that can be used to estimate the robot pose. Studying accelerometer placement on a robot involves many parameters that affect the performance of the intended positioning task. Parameters such as the number of accelerometers, their size, geometric placement and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are included in our study of their effects for robot pose estimation. Due to the ubiquitous availability of inexpensive accelerometers, we investigated pose estimation gains resulting from using increasingly large numbers of sensors. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed with a two-link robot arm to obtain the expected value of an estimation error metric for different accelerometer configurations, which are then compared for optimization. Results show that, with a fixed SNR model, the pose estimation error decreases with increasing number of accelerometers, whereas for a SNR model that scales inversely to the accelerometer footprint, the pose estimation error increases with the number of accelerometers. It is also shown that the optimal placement of the accelerometers depends on the method used for pose estimation. The findings suggest that an integration-based method favors placement of accelerometers at the extremities of the robot links, whereas a kinematic-constraints-based method favors a more uniformly distributed placement along the robot links.

  1. Investigation of the sensitivity and specificity of radiological signs for diagnosis of periapical infection of equine cheek teeth. (United States)

    Townsend, N B; Hawkes, C S; Rex, R; Boden, L A; Barakzai, S Z


    Radiography is commonly used for the diagnosis of equine cheek teeth (CT) infection but, to our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the relative values of individual specific radiographic signs when making a diagnosis. To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of individual radiographic signs identified from the literature for the diagnosis of CT apical infection using a retrospective case-control study. Cropped radiographs taken using computed radiography of 41 apically infected CT and 41 control CT were independently blindly evaluated by 3 clinicians for the presence of 12 predetermined radiographic signs associated with CT apical infection. A final diagnosis of either noninfected or infected was made. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the presence or absence of each radiographic sign for each clinician. Uni- and multivariable conditional logistic regression were used to determine strength of association of the 12 radiographic signs with apical infection. Median sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CT apical infection were 76 and 90%, respectively. Periapical sclerosis, clubbing of one or 2 roots, degree of clubbing and periapical halo formation had the highest sensitivities (73-90%), with moderate specificity (61-63%). Multivariable conditional logistic regression revealed that severity of periapical sclerosis and extensive periapical halo were strongly associated with CT apical infection. The presence of periapical sclerosis and formation of a periapical halo were strongly associated with CT apical infection. Computed radiography appears to have a higher sensitivity but similar specificity to previously published results using film radiography to detect CT apical infection. These findings may aid practitioners when interpreting radiographs of equine CT as to the relative significance of their findings. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  2. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma]. (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J


    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  3. Students’ Mathematical Creative Thinking through Problem Posing Learning (United States)

    Ulfah, U.; Prabawanto, S.; Jupri, A.


    The research aims to investigate the differences in enhancement of students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach assisted by manipulative media and students who received problem posing approach without manipulative media. This study was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. Population of this research was third-grade students of a primary school in Bandung city in 2016/2017 academic year. Sample of this research was two classes as experiment class and control class. The instrument used is a test of mathematical creative thinking ability. Based on the results of the research, it is known that the enhancement of the students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach with manipulative media aid is higher than the ability of those who received problem posing approach without manipulative media aid. Students who get learning problem posing learning accustomed in arranging mathematical sentence become matter of story so it can facilitate students to comprehend about story

  4. Multi-task pose-invariant face recognition. (United States)

    Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng


    Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.

  5. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance. (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R


    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi


    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  7. Pose-Invariant Face Recognition via RGB-D Images. (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; Li, Jing; Zhao, Qijun


    Three-dimensional (3D) face models can intrinsically handle large pose face recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel pose-invariant face recognition method via RGB-D images. By employing depth, our method is able to handle self-occlusion and deformation, both of which are challenging problems in two-dimensional (2D) face recognition. Texture images in the gallery can be rendered to the same view as the probe via depth. Meanwhile, depth is also used for similarity measure via frontalization and symmetric filling. Finally, both texture and depth contribute to the final identity estimation. Experiments on Bosphorus, CurtinFaces, Eurecom, and Kiwi databases demonstrate that the additional depth information has improved the performance of face recognition with large pose variations and under even more challenging conditions.

  8. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi


    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  9. Pose Estimation of Interacting People using Pictorial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Pose estimation of people have had great progress in recent years but so far research has dealt with single persons. In this paper we address some of the challenges that arise when doing pose estimation of interacting people. We build on the pictorial structures framework and make important...... contributions by combining color-based appearance and edge information using a measure of the local quality of the appearance feature. In this way we not only combine the two types of features but dynamically find the optimal weighting of them. We further enable the method to handle occlusions by searching...

  10. A direct method for nonlinear ill-posed problems (United States)

    Lakhal, A.


    We propose a direct method for solving nonlinear ill-posed problems in Banach-spaces. The method is based on a stable inversion formula we explicitly compute by applying techniques for analytic functions. Furthermore, we investigate the convergence and stability of the method and prove that the derived noniterative algorithm is a regularization. The inversion formula provides a systematic sensitivity analysis. The approach is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear ill-posed problems. We test the algorithm on a nonlinear problem of travel-time inversion in seismic tomography. Numerical results illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  11. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO


    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  12. A Comparison of Computed Tomographic, Radiographic, Gross and Histological, Dental, and Alveolar Findings in 30 Abnormal Cheek Teeth from Equine Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Liuti


    Full Text Available BackgroundEquine cheek teeth disorders, especially pulpar/apical infections, can have very serious consequences due to the frequent extension of infection to the supporting bones and/or adjacent paranasal sinuses. Limited studies have assessed the accuracy of computed tomographic (CT imaging in the diagnosis of these disorders, and no study has directly compared imaging and pathological findings of the alveoli of diseased equine cheek teeth.ObjectiveTo validate the accuracy of CT and radiographic imaging of cheek teeth disorders by comparing CT and radiographic imaging, gross and histological findings in abnormal cheek teeth and their alveoli extracted from equine cadaver heads.Study designEx vivo original study.MethodsFifty-four cadaver heads from horses with unknown histories that had died or been euthanized on humane grounds obtained from a rendering plant had radiography, CT imaging, and gross pathological examinations performed. Based on imaging and gross examination findings, 30 abnormal cheek teeth (26 maxillary and 4 mandibular identified in 26 heads were extracted along with their dental alveoli where possible, and further CT imaging, gross, and histological examinations were performed. Eight maxillary cheek teeth (including four with attached alveolar bone from these heads, that were normal on gross and CT examinations, were used as controls.ResultsGross pathological and histological examinations indicated that 28/30 teeth, including two supernumerary teeth, had pulpar/apical infection, including pulpar and apical changes. A further supernumerary and a dysplastic tooth were also identified. Abnormal calcified tissue architecture was present in all three supernumerary and in the dysplastic tooth. CT imaging strongly indicated the presence of pulpar/apical infection in 27 of the 28 (96.4% pulpar/apically infected teeth, including the presence of intrapulpar gas (N = 19/28, apical clubbing (N = 20, periapical halo (N = 4, root

  13. Division within the North American boreal forest: Ecological niche divergence between the Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) and Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus). (United States)

    FitzGerald, Alyssa M


    Sister species that diverged in allopatry in similar environments are expected to exhibit niche conservatism. Using ecological niche modeling and a multivariate analysis of climate and habitat data, I test the hypothesis that the Bicknell's Thrush ( Catharus bicknelli ) and Gray-cheeked Thrush ( C. mimimus ), sister species that breed in the North American boreal forest, show niche conservatism. Three tree species that are important components of breeding territories of both thrush species were combined with climatic variables to create niche models consisting of abiotic and biotic components. Abiotic-only, abiotic+biotic, and biotic-only models were evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) criterion. Abiotic+biotic models had higher AUC scores and did not over-project thrush distributions compared to abiotic-only or biotic-only models. From the abiotic+biotic models, I tested for niche conservatism or divergence by accounting for the differences in the availability of niche components by calculating (1) niche overlap from ecological niche models and (2) mean niche differences of environmental values at occurrence points. Niche background similarity tests revealed significant niche divergence in 10 of 12 comparisons, and multivariate tests revealed niche divergence along 2 of 3 niche axes. The Bicknell's Thrush breeds in warmer and wetter regions with a high abundance of balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ), whereas Gray-cheeked Thrush often co-occurs with black spruce ( Picea mariana ). Niche divergence, rather than conservatism, was the predominant pattern for these species, suggesting that ecological divergence has played a role in the speciation of the Bicknell's Thrush and Gray-cheeked Thrush. Furthermore, because niche models were improved by the incorporation of biotic variables, this study validates the inclusion of relevant biotic factors in ecological niche modeling to increase model accuracy.

  14. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Heber, E.M.; Monti, Hughes A.; Molinari, A.J.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, Amanda E.


    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  15. A case of D-P flap to the full thickness cheek defect induced by radio-osteomyelitis of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masamichi; Murakami, Fumihiko


    A 53-year-old man presented with a one-year history of mandibular pain and difficulty in mouth opening. The patient had received approximately 100 Gy for tongue cancer 3 years previously. He was found to have developed radio-osteomyelitis of the mandible. Inflammatory symptoms were aggravated in spite of the administration of antibiotics and antiphlogistic agents. Regional resection of the muscular process involving the tooth was finally performed. The full thickness cheek defect was reconstructed with double pedicle flap, resulting in both functionally and cosmetically satisfactory outcome. There was no evidence of cancer relapse or metastasis. (N.K.)

  16. Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in Geometry Learning (United States)

    Mahendra, R.; Slamet, I.; Budiyono


    One of the difficulties of students in the learning of geometry is on the subject of plane that requires students to understand the abstract matter. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of Problem Posing learning model with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in geometry learning. This quasi experimental research was conducted in one of the junior high schools in Karanganyar, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The results of this research indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students’ conceptual understanding significantly in geometry learning especially on plane topics. It is because students on the application of Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach are become to be active in constructing their knowledge, proposing, and problem solving in realistic, so it easier for students to understand concepts and solve the problems. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on geometry material. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  17. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, the smaller of the two islands in the Prince Edward. Island group, has few introduced organisms; it is cur- rently known to support only three introduced animals.

  18. Developing teachers' subject didactic competence through problem posing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie; Hošpesová, A.


    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-143 ISSN 0013-1954 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : professional development * primary school teacher s * problem posing Subject RIV: AM - Education Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2013

  19. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving (United States)

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio


    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  20. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills through Problem Posing and Presentation (United States)

    Sugito; E. S., Sri Mulyani; Hartono; Supartono


    This study was to explore how enhance communication skill through problem posing and presentation method. The subjects of this research were the seven grade students Junior High School, including 20 male and 14 female. This research was conducted in two cycles and each cycle consisted of four steps, they were: planning, action, observation, and…

  1. Astronaut Linda Godwin poses with spacesuit she wore for launch (United States)


    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, STS-59 payload commander, poses with the spacesuit she wore for launch. She will eventually wear the partial pressure suit for the entry phase of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's week and a half mission in Earth orbit.

  2. Regularization of Ill-Posed Point Neuron Models. (United States)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik


    Point neuron models with a Heaviside firing rate function can be ill-posed. That is, the initial-condition-to-solution map might become discontinuous in finite time. If a Lipschitz continuous but steep firing rate function is employed, then standard ODE theory implies that such models are well-posed and can thus, approximately, be solved with finite precision arithmetic. We investigate whether the solution of this well-posed model converges to a solution of the ill-posed limit problem as the steepness parameter of the firing rate function tends to infinity. Our argument employs the Arzelà-Ascoli theorem and also yields the existence of a solution of the limit problem. However, we only obtain convergence of a subsequence of the regularized solutions. This is consistent with the fact that models with a Heaviside firing rate function can have several solutions, as we show. Our analysis assumes that the vector-valued limit function v, provided by the Arzelà-Ascoli theorem, is threshold simple: That is, the set containing the times when one or more of the component functions of v equal the threshold value for firing, has zero Lebesgue measure. If this assumption does not hold, we argue that the regularized solutions may not converge to a solution of the limit problem with a Heaviside firing function.

  3. Effects of pose and image resolution on automatic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khan, Samee U.

    The popularity of face recognition systems have increased due to their use in widespread applications. Driven by the enormous number of potential application domains, several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Face pose and image resolutions are among the two important factors that

  4. 3D Facial Landmarking under Expression, Pose, and Occlusion Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dibeklioğ lu; A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); L. Akarun


    htmlabstractAutomatic localization of 3D facial features is important for face recognition, tracking, modeling and expression analysis. Methods developed for 2D images were shown to have problems working across databases acquired with different illumination conditions. Expression variations, pose

  5. Problem Posing Based on Investigation Activities by University Students (United States)

    da Ponte, Joao Pedro; Henriques, Ana


    This paper reports a classroom-based study involving investigation activities in a university numerical analysis course. The study aims to analyse students' mathematical processes and to understand how these activities provide opportunities for problem posing. The investigations were intended to stimulate students in asking questions, to trigger…

  6. Pose-invariant face recognition using Markov random fields. (United States)

    Ho, Huy Tho; Chellappa, Rama


    One of the key challenges for current face recognition techniques is how to handle pose variations between the probe and gallery face images. In this paper, we present a method for reconstructing the virtual frontal view from a given nonfrontal face image using Markov random fields (MRFs) and an efficient variant of the belief propagation algorithm. In the proposed approach, the input face image is divided into a grid of overlapping patches, and a globally optimal set of local warps is estimated to synthesize the patches at the frontal view. A set of possible warps for each patch is obtained by aligning it with images from a training database of frontal faces. The alignments are performed efficiently in the Fourier domain using an extension of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm that can handle illumination variations. The problem of finding the optimal warps is then formulated as a discrete labeling problem using an MRF. The reconstructed frontal face image can then be used with any face recognition technique. The two main advantages of our method are that it does not require manually selected facial landmarks or head pose estimation. In order to improve the performance of our pose normalization method in face recognition, we also present an algorithm for classifying whether a given face image is at a frontal or nonfrontal pose. Experimental results on different datasets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Developing teachers' subject didactic competence through problem posing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie; Hošpesová, A.


    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-143 ISSN 0013-1954 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : professional development * primary school teachers * problem posing Subject RIV: AM - Education Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2013

  8. Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters


    Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Weigmann, Diana L.; Speenburgh, Renee M.; Neves, Richard J.; Kitchel, Lisie; Bruenderman, Sue A., 1962-


    Provides an brief introduction to the invasion of the zebra mussel into American waters, explains the economic consequences they pose, and discusses if Virginia will inherit the problem, what the public can do to help, the general lifecycle of the zebra mussel and if they can be controlled, and who is working on the zebra mussel problem.

  9. Meanings Given to Algebraic Symbolism in Problem-Posing (United States)

    Cañadas, María C.; Molina, Marta; del Río, Aurora


    Some errors in the learning of algebra suggest that students might have difficulties giving meaning to algebraic symbolism. In this paper, we use problem posing to analyze the students' capacity to assign meaning to algebraic symbolism and the difficulties that students encounter in this process, depending on the characteristics of the algebraic…

  10. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David


    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  11. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron


    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  12. The administration of beta carotene to prevent and regress oral carcinoma in the hamster cheek pouch and the associated enhancement of the immune response. (United States)

    Schwartz, J L; Shklar, G; Flynn, E; Trickler, D


    In the past four years this laboratory has utilized the hamster cheek pouch tumor model to investigate the anticancer activities of antioxidants, such as beta carotene. These molecules, which have exhibited no evidence of toxicity, have been administered systemically (oral ingestion), and locally to the tumor site in the hamster cheek pouch. The results have been either the inhibition of tumor growth, or the regression of tumor. Adjacent to the degenerating tumors a dense inflammatory infiltrate was observed. Specifically, the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta, have been immunohistochemically localized to the site of regressed oral carcinoma. Recently, liposomes composed of phosphaditylcholine, phosphaditylserine, and phosphodityelanolamine were combined with beta carotene and injected locally to oral squamous cell carcinoma of the hamster. The results indicated that tumor cells accumulated the liposomes and were lysed while normal mucosal cells did not demonstrate this effect. Therefore antioxidants such as beta carotene can be localized to a tumor site, without a toxic response. Future studies on the anticancer activity of the antioxidants need to focus on the cellular and molecular changes produced in the immune effectors and in the mucosal cells following administration of the antioxidants.

  13. Postnatal mandibular cheek tooth development in the miniature pig based on two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray analyses. (United States)

    Ide, Yoshiaki; Nakahara, Taka; Nasu, Masanori; Matsunaga, Satoru; Iwanaga, Takehiro; Tominaga, Noriko; Tamaki, Yuichi


    The miniature pig is a useful large laboratory animal model. Various tissues and organs of miniature pigs are similar to those of humans in terms of developmental, anatomical, immunological, and physiological characteristics. The oral and maxillofacial region of miniature pigs is often used in preclinical studies of regenerative dentistry. However, there is limited information on the dentition and tooth structure of miniature pigs. The purpose of this study was to examine the time-course changes of dentition and tooth structure (especially the root) of the miniature pig mandibular cheek teeth through X-ray analyses using soft X-ray for two-dimensional observations and micro-CT for three-dimensional observations. The mandibles of male Clawn strain miniature pigs (2 weeks and 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, and 29 months of age) were used. X-ray analysis of the dentition of miniature pig cheek teeth showed that the eruption pattern of the miniature pig is diphyodont and that the replacement pattern is vertical. Previous definitions of deciduous and permanent teeth often varied and there has been no consensus on the number of teeth (dentition); however, we found that three molars are present in the deciduous dentition and that four premolars and three molars are present in the permanent dentition. Furthermore, we confirmed the number of tooth roots and root canals. We believe that these findings will be highly useful in future studies using miniature pig teeth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Observation on alpha-SMA during Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz obstructs the evolution of carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch]. (United States)

    Zhou, C T; Zhang, S L; Ding, R Y; Hua, L; Zhong, W J


    To observe dynamically that Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz (HEr) affects the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). To discuss the probable mechanism of obstructing leukoplakia carcinogenesis of this medicine. 120 golden hamsters were randomly divided into model group (48), HEr group (48) and control group (6). HEr was applied to obstruct the evolution of carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression level of alpha-SMA with cheek pouch specimen that besmears DMBA in 4-9 weeks. Results were compared with model group. Vessel density dyed with alpha-SMA continuously of HEr group was 65.76 significantly higher than that of model group 42.12 (P<0.001). High classification cases in HEr group were much more than model group when cases were divided into five groups as follow: 100%, 50%, 20%, 10%, 3% (P<0.01). HEr can raise the expression level of alpha-SMA exactly during the evolution of leukoplakia carcinogenesis of golden hamster, which shows that this medicine obstructs carcinogenesis by keeping the normal physiological function of vascular myoepithelial cell and integrity of vascular basement membrane.

  15. Prevalence and some clinical characteristics of equine cheek teeth diastemata in 471 horses examined in a UK first-opinion equine practice (2008 to 2009). (United States)

    Walker, H; Chinn, E; Holmes, S; Barwise-Munro, L; Robertson, V; Mould, R; Bradley, S; Shaw, D J; Dixon, P M


    Cheek teeth (CT) diastemata are now recognised as a clinically significant equine disorder, but their prevalence in the general equine population is unknown. There is also limited information on the signalment of affected horses; the more commonly affected Triadan sites; and the shape and clinical characteristics of CT diastemata. During the 12-month study period (2008 to 2009), standardised records were obtained during routine dental examinations performed by five veterinarians in a first-opinion equine practice. Cheek teeth diastemata were identified in 49.9 per cent of all horses (n=471) of mean age 11 years (range one to 30 years), with 83.5 per cent of all diastemata affecting mandibular CT and 16.5 per cent affecting maxillary CT. The mean number of diastemata per case was 1.7 (range one to 20) and the mandibular 07 to 08 position was most commonly affected. Valve diastemata were more common (72.1 per cent prevalence) than open diastemata (27.9 per cent). Food trapping was present in 91.4 per cent of diastemata, with gingivitis and periodontal pockets adjacent to 34.2 per cent and 43.7 per cent, respectively. Halitosis was present in 45.5 per cent of affected horses. There was an age-related increase in both the prevalence of diastemata, and in the numbers of diastemata per affected horse, and horses over 15 years old had a significantly increased proportion of open diastemata.

  16. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen


    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  17. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda


    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  18. A New Full Pose Measurement Method for Robot Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jun Kang


    Full Text Available Identification of robot kinematic errors during the calibration process often requires accurate full pose measurements (position and orientation of robot end-effectors in Cartesian space. This paper proposes a new method of full pose measurement of robot end-effectors for calibration. This method is based on an analysis of the features of a set of target points (placed on a rotating end-effector on a circular trajectory. The accurate measurement is validated by computational simulation results from the Puma robot. Moreover, experimental calibration and validation results for the Hyundai HA-06 robot prove the effectiveness, correctness, and reliability of the proposed method. This method can be applied to robots that have entirely revolute joints or to robots for which only the last joint is revolute.

  19. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, R.A. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations.

  20. Sensing Strategies for Disambiguating among Multiple Objects in Known Poses. (United States)



  1. Robustifying Correspondence Based 6D Object Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietanen, Antti; Halme, Jussi; Buch, Anders Glent


    We propose two methods to robustify point correspondence based 6D object pose estimation. The first method, curvature filtering, is based on the assumption that low curvature regions provide false matches, and removing points in these regions improves robustness. The second method, region pruning....... For the experiments, we evaluated three correspondence selection methods, Geometric Consistency (GC) [1], Hough Grouping (HG) [2] and Search of Inliers (SI) [3] and report systematic improvements for their robustified versions with two distinct datasets....

  2. Dual Path Networks for Multi-Person Human Pose Estimation


    Ning, Guanghan; He, Zhihai


    The task of multi-person human pose estimation in natural scenes is quite challenging. Existing methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches. The main advantage of bottom-up methods is its excellent tradeoff between estimation accuracy and computational cost. We follow this path and aim to design smaller, faster, and more accurate neural networks for the regression of keypoints and limb association vectors. These two regression tasks are naturally dependent on each other. In this wo...

  3. Iterative regularization methods for nonlinear ill-posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scherzer, Otmar; Kaltenbacher, Barbara


    Nonlinear inverse problems appear in many applications, and typically they lead to mathematical models that are ill-posed, i.e., they are unstable under data perturbations. Those problems require a regularization, i.e., a special numerical treatment. This book presents regularization schemes which are based on iteration methods, e.g., nonlinear Landweber iteration, level set methods, multilevel methods and Newton type methods.

  4. How to measure the pose robustness of object views

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peters, G.; Zitová, Barbara; von der Malsburg, C.


    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2002), s. 249-256 ISSN 0262-8856 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : object perception * pose robustness * matching/tracking object features Subject RIV: JD - Comput er Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.029, year: 2002


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono


    Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI:

  6. Ill Posed Problems: Numerical and Statistical Methods for Mildly, Moderately and Severely Ill Posed Problems with Noisy Data. (United States)


    AD-A 7 .SA92 925 WISCONSIN UN ! V-MADISON DEFT OF STATISTICS F/S 11,𔃻 ILL POSED PRORLEMS: NUMERICAL ANn STATISTICAL METHODS FOR MILOL-ETC(U FEB 80 a...Numerical aspects of some regularization methods and apolication to data collected in isolated dog heart experiments. Laboratorio di Analisi Numerica...minimum d’une fonction convexe sur une intersection de convexes. Proceedings of the Symposium on Optimization, held in Nice, France, June 23-July 5

  7. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy


    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  8. Has My Algorithm Succeeded? An Evaluator for Human Pose Estimators


    Jammalamadaka, Nataraj; Zisserman, Andrew; Eichner, M.; Ferrari, Vittorio; Jawahar, C. V.


    Most current vision algorithms deliver their output ‘as is’, without indicating whether it is correct or not. In this paper we propose evaluator algorithms that predict if a vision algorithm has succeeded. We illustrate this idea for the case of Human Pose Estimation (HPE).We describe the stages required to learn and test an evaluator, including the use of an annotated ground truth dataset for training and testing the evaluator (and we provide a new dataset for the HPE case), and the developm...

  9. Regularization theory for ill-posed problems selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shuai


    Thismonograph is a valuable contribution to thehighly topical and extremly productive field ofregularisationmethods for inverse and ill-posed problems. The author is an internationally outstanding and acceptedmathematicianin this field. In his book he offers a well-balanced mixtureof basic and innovative aspects.He demonstrates new,differentiatedviewpoints, and important examples for applications. The bookdemontrates thecurrent developments inthe field of regularization theory,such as multiparameter regularization and regularization in learning theory. The book is written for graduate and PhDs

  10. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro


    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  11. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian


    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  12. [Left-handedness and health]. (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka


    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  13. Probabilistic Mapping of Human Visual Attention from Head Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Veronese


    Full Text Available Effective interaction between a human and a robot requires the bidirectional perception and interpretation of actions and behavior. While actions can be identified as a directly observable activity, this might not be sufficient to deduce actions in a scene. For example, orienting our face toward a book might suggest the action toward “reading.” For a human observer, this deduction requires the direction of gaze, the object identified as a book and the intersection between gaze and book. With this in mind, we aim to estimate and map human visual attention as directed to a scene, and assess how this relates to the detection of objects and their related actions. In particular, we consider human head pose as measurement to infer the attention of a human engaged in a task and study which prior knowledge should be included in such a detection system. In a user study, we show the successful detection of attention to objects in a typical office task scenario (i.e., reading, working with a computer, studying an object. Our system requires a single external RGB camera for head pose measurements and a pre-recorded 3D point cloud of the environment.

  14. Toward active pose estimation of a grasped object (United States)

    Abbott, A. Lynn


    This paper concerns the use of visual feedback to verify whether an object has been properly grasped by a manipulator. The work is motivated by the fact that many general-purpose manipulators are equipped with very simple grippers which may not be well suited to grasping common objects. Furthermore, many robotic systems do not verify that a grasp operation has been successfully executed. This paper describes a system under development at Virginia Tech which utilizes visual feedback to guide relative camera-object movements for the purpose of estimating the pose of the object. The goal is to assist in computing object pose relative to a coordinate system embedded in the gripper. Object shape is assumed to be known in advance. Two methods are discussed, both of which utilize visually guided movements to search for a minimum in an objective function. The first method is to align the gripper with the image plane, facilitating the computation of object orientation about the normal to the image plane. The second involves moving the object to align its image with a desired view of the object. Extensive calibration of the camera or manipulator is not required. The methods discussed here are still at the conceptual stage, but illustrate the potential of the active approach.

  15. Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using computerised axial tomography with histological and ultrastructural examinations. (United States)

    Toit, Nicole du; Burden, Faith A; Kempson, Sue A; Dixon, Padraic M


    Post-mortem examination of 16 donkey cheek teeth (CT) with caries (both peripheral and infundibular) and pulpar exposure were performed using computerised axial tomography (CAT), histology and scanning electron microscopy. CAT imaging was found to be useful to assess the presence and extent of caries and pulp exposure in individual donkey CT. Histology identified the loss of occlusal secondary dentine, and showed pulp necrosis in teeth with pulpar exposure. Viable pulp was present more apically in one exposed pulp horn, with its occlusal aspect sealed off from the exposed aspect of the pulp horn by a false pulp stone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the amelo-cemental junction to be a possible route of bacterial infection in infundibular cemental caries. The basic pathogenesis of dental caries in donkeys appears very similar to its description in other species.

  16. Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: Observation in the hamster cheek pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Maria do


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The babassu palm tree is native to Brazil and is most densely distributed in the Cocais region of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. In addition to the industrial use of refined babassu oil, the milk, the unrefined oil and the nuts in natura are used by families from several communities of African descendants as one of the principal sources of food energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of babassu oil on microvascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation as experimental model. Methods Twice a day for 14 days, male hamsters received unrefined babassu oil (0.02 ml/dose [BO-2 group], 0.06 ml/dose [BO-6 group], 0.18 ml/dose [BO-18 group] or mineral oil (0.18 ml/dose [MO group]. Observations were made in the cheek pouch and macromolecular permeability increase induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or topical application of histamine, as well as leukocyte-endothelial interaction after I/R were evaluated. Results The mean value of I/R-induced microvascular leakage, determined during reperfusion, was significantly lower in the BO-6 and BO-18 groups than in the MO one (P Conclusions Our findings suggest that unrefined babassu oil reduced microvascular leakage and protected against histamine-induced effects in postcapillary venules and highlights that these almost unexploited nut and its oil might be secure sources of food energy.

  17. Cheek tooth morphology and ancient mitochondrial DNA of late Pleistocene horses from the western interior of North America: Implications for the taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina I Barrón-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction. Based on the morphological and molecular data analyzed, a caballine (Equus ferus and a non-caballine (E. conversidens species were identified from different localities across most of the Western Interior. A second non-caballine species (E. cedralensis was recognized from southern localities based exclusively on the morphological analyses of the cheek teeth. Notably the separation into caballine and non-caballine species was observed in the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of ancient mtDNA as well as in the geometric morphometric analyses of the upper and lower premolars. Teeth morphologically identified as E. conversidens that yielded ancient mtDNA fall within the New World stilt-legged clade recognized in previous studies and this is the name we apply to this group. Geographic variation in morphology in the caballine species is indicated by statistically different occlusal enamel patterns in the specimens from Bluefish Caves, Yukon Territory, relative to the specimens from the other geographic regions. Whether this represents ecomorphological variation and/or a certain degree of geographic and genetic isolation of these Arctic populations requires further study.

  18. Gross, computed tomographic and histological findings in mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis due to apical infection. (United States)

    Casey, M B; Pearson, G R; Perkins, J D; Tremaine, W H


    The most prevalent type of equine dental pulpitis due to apical infection is not associated with coronal fractures or periodontal disease. The pathogenesis of this type of pulpitis is not fully understood. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to investigate equine dental disorders. However, gross, tomographic and histopathological changes in equine dental pulpitis have not been compared previously. To compare gross, CT and histological appearances of sectioned mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis without coronal fractures or periodontal disease. To contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of equine dental pulpitis. Descriptive study using diseased and healthy teeth. Mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis (cases), and from cadavers with no history of dental disease (controls), were compared using CT in the transverse plane at 1 mm intervals. Teeth were then sectioned transversely, photographed and processed for histopathological examination. Tomographs were compared with corresponding gross and histological sections. Cement, dentine and bone had similar ranges of attenuation (550-2000 Hounsfield Units, HU) in tomographs but could be differentiated from pulp (-400 to 500 HU) and enamel (> 2500 HU). Twelve discrete dental lesions were identified grossly, 10 of which were characterised histologically. Reactive and reparative dentinogenesis and extensive pulpar mineralisation, previously undescribed, were identified. Pulpar oedema, neutrophilic inflammation, cement and enamel defects, and reactive cemental deposition were also observed. The CT and pathological findings corresponded well where there was mineralised tissue deposited, defects in mineralised tissue, or food material in the pulpar area. Pulpar and dentinal necrosis and cement destruction, evident grossly and histologically, did not correspond to CT changes. Computed tomography is useful for identifying deposition and

  19. Cheek tooth morphology and ancient mitochondrial DNA of late Pleistocene horses from the western interior of North America: Implications for the taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus. (United States)

    Barrón-Ortiz, Christina I; Rodrigues, Antonia T; Theodor, Jessica M; Kooyman, Brian P; Yang, Dongya Y; Speller, Camilla F


    Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction. Based on the morphological and molecular data analyzed, a caballine (Equus ferus) and a non-caballine (E. conversidens) species were identified from different localities across most of the Western Interior. A second non-caballine species (E. cedralensis) was recognized from southern localities based exclusively on the morphological analyses of the cheek teeth. Notably the separation into caballine and non-caballine species was observed in the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of ancient mtDNA as well as in the geometric morphometric analyses of the upper and lower premolars. Teeth morphologically identified as E. conversidens that yielded ancient mtDNA fall within the New World stilt-legged clade recognized in previous studies and this is the name we apply to this group. Geographic variation in morphology in the caballine species is indicated by statistically different occlusal enamel patterns in the specimens from Bluefish Caves, Yukon Territory, relative to the specimens from the other geographic regions. Whether this represents ecomorphological variation and/or a certain degree of geographic and genetic isolation of these Arctic populations requires further study.

  20. Radiometric temperature reading of a hot ellipsoidal object inside the oral cavity by a shielded microwave antenna put flush to the cheek. (United States)

    Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein; Birkelund, Yngve


    A new scheme for detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children has recently been proposed in the literature. The idea is to warm bladder urine via microwave exposure to at least fever temperatures and observe potential urine reflux from the bladder back to the kidney(s) by medical radiometry. As a preliminary step toward realization of this detection device, we present non-invasive temperature monitoring by use of microwave radiometry in adults to observe temperature dynamics in vivo of a water-filled balloon placed within the oral cavity. The relevance of the approach with respect to detection of VUR in children is motivated by comparing the oral cavity and cheek tissue with axial CT images of young children in the bladder region. Both anatomical locations reveal a triple-layered tissue structure consisting of skin-fat-muscle with a total thickness of about 8-10 mm. In order to mimic variations in urine temperature, the target balloon was flushed with water coupled to a heat exchanger, that was moved between water baths of different temperatures, to induce measurable temperature gradients. The applied radiometer has a center frequency of 3.5 GHz and provides a sensitivity (accuracy) of 0.03 °C for a data acquisition time of 2 s. Three different scenarios were tested and included observation through the cheek tissue with and without an intervening water bolus compartment present. In all cases, radiometric readings observed over a time span of 900 s were shown to be highly correlated (R ~ 0.93) with in situ temperatures obtained by fiberoptic probes.

  1. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)


    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  2. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso


    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  3. Interpolation spaces in the resolution of ill-posed problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logon, T.B.


    A number of applied problems connected with the interpretation of geophysical data leads to the resolution of ill-posed problems of the form A x = y δ , where A is an integral operator and y δ - some measurements. In the resolution of these problems by the Tikhonov's variational method, the choice of the stabilizing functional is crucial and needs some a-priori informations about the exact solution. Here the norm of the interpolation spaces X θ,q, which depends on two parameters 0 < θ < 1, 1 ≤ q < ∞ is proposed as a stabilizing functional. The a-priori information about the exact solution is characterized by its membership in one of the interpolation spaces. (author). 9 refs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Lia Susanti


    Full Text Available Abstract Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan metode Problem Posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania pada materi garis singgung lingkaran efektif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah peserta didik di SMP N 2 Pati. Sampel dalam penelitian ini diambil dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Variabel dalam penelitian ini yaitu keaktifan sebagai variabel independen dan prestasi belajar sebagai variabel dependen. Cara pengambilan data dengan lembar pengamatan dan tes. Data diolah dengan uji banding t dan uji pengaruh regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 secara statistik melebihi KKM (75. Dengan uji regresi linear sederhana diperoleh persamaan regresi ?=-15,847 + 1,194X dan R^2=0,829. Koefisien X merupakan bilangan positif sehingga keaktifan berpengaruh positif pada prestasi belajar sebesar 82,9%. Rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 dan rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas kontrol (72,91. Secara uji stastistik prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil analisis disimpulkan (1 pembelajaran mencapai tuntas belajar; (2 adanya pengaruh positif pada keaktifan terhadap prestasi belajar; dan (3 prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol; sehingga pembelajaran matematika dengan metode problem posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania merupakan pembelajaran yang efektif. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the learning of mathematics by Problem Posing method in a TeenZania laboratory based character education in circle tangent material effectively. The population in this study were students in SMP N 2 Pati. The sample in this study were drawn by cluster random sampling technique. The variables in this study is the activity as an independent variable and learning achievement as the dependent variable

  5. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae. (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U


    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and is a major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly challenging because it is considered the fifth most threatened large taxonomic group in the world; several species are among the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and the 11 largest online auction sites selling cacti, we documented the international cactus trade. To provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (a hotspot of cactus trade and invasions). We purchased seeds of every available species and used DNA barcoding to identify species to the genus level. Although <20% of this trade involved threatened species and <3% involved known invasive species, many species were identified by a common name. However, only 0.02% of the globally traded cacti were collected from wild populations. Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which 15% and 1.5% were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. With DNA barcoding, we identified 24% of the species to genus level. Based on our results, we believe that if trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, then the commercial trade in cactus poses a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana


    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  7. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes. (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H


    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  8. The Left-Handed Writer. (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  9. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  10. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher


    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  11. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja


    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  12. Left ventricular wall stress compendium. (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S


    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  13. Asynchronous vehicle pose correction using visual detection of ground features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnarinesingh, Randy E S; Syan, Chanan S


    The inherent noise associated with odometry manifests itself as errors in localization for autonomous vehicles. Visual odometry has been previously used in order to supplement classical vehicle odometry. However, visual odometry is limited in its ability to reduce errors in localization for large travel distances that entail the cumulative summing of individual frame-to-frame image errors. In this paper, a novel machine vision approach for tiled surfaces is proposed to address this problem. Tile edges in a laboratory environment are used to define a travel trajectory for the Quansar Qbot (autonomous vehicle) built on the iRobot iRoomba platform with a forward facing camera. Tile intersections are used to enable asynchronous error recovery for vehicle position and orientation. The proposed approach employs real-time image classification and is feasible for error mitigation for large travel distances. The average position error for an 8m travel distance using classical odometry was measured to be 0.28m. However, implementation of the proposed approach resulted in an error of 0.028m. The proposed approach therefore significantly reduces pose estimation error and could be used to supplement existing modalities such as GPS and Laser-based range sensors

  14. The role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics. (United States)

    Havens, David C; McNamara, James A; Sigler, Lauren M; Baccetti, Tiziano


    To evaluate the role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics, as determined by laypersons and orthodontists. Twenty orthodontists and 20 lay evaluators were asked to perform six Q-sorts on different photographs of 48 white female subjects. The six Q-sorts consisted of three different photographs for each of two time points (pre- and posttreatment), as follows: (1) smile-only, (2) face without the smile, and (3) face with the smile. The evaluators determined a split-line for attractive and unattractive images at the end of each Q-sort. The proportions of attractive patients were compared across Q-sorts using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data. The evaluators also ranked nine facial/dental characteristics at the completion of the six Q-sorts. Evaluators found the pretreatment face without the smile to be significantly more attractive than the face with the smile or the smile-only photographs. Dissimilar results were seen posttreatment; there was not a significant difference between the three posttreatment photographs. The two panels agreed on the proportion of "attractive" subjects but differed on the attractiveness level of each individual subject. The presence of a malocclusion has a negative impact on facial attractiveness. Orthodontic correction of a malocclusion affects overall facial esthetics positively. Laypeople and orthodontists agree on what is attractive. Overall facial harmony is the most important characteristic used in deciding facial attractiveness.

  15. Robust Sonar ATR Through Bayesian Pose-Corrected Sparse Classification (United States)

    McKay, John; Monga, Vishal; Raj, Raghu G.


    Sonar imaging has seen vast improvements over the last few decades due in part to advances in synthetic aperture Sonar (SAS). Sophisticated classification techniques can now be used in Sonar automatic target recognition (ATR) to locate mines and other threatening objects. Among the most promising of these methods is sparse reconstruction-based classification (SRC) which has shown an impressive resiliency to noise, blur, and occlusion. We present a coherent strategy for expanding upon SRC for Sonar ATR that retains SRC's robustness while also being able to handle targets with diverse geometric arrangements, bothersome Rayleigh noise, and unavoidable background clutter. Our method, pose corrected sparsity (PCS), incorporates a novel interpretation of a spike and slab probability distribution towards use as a Bayesian prior for class-specific discrimination in combination with a dictionary learning scheme for localized patch extractions. Additionally, PCS offers the potential for anomaly detection in order to avoid false identifications of tested objects from outside the training set with no additional training required. Compelling results are shown using a database provided by the United States Naval Surface Warfare Center.

  16. STS-93 Commander Collins poses in front of Columbia (United States)


    STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins poses in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following her textbook landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander. Also on board were her fellow STS-93 crew members: Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  17. Mendalami Dasar-Dasar dalam Pengambilan Pose pada Pemotretan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Paulina Gunawan


    Full Text Available There are many activities and numerous objects in this universe, which make them interesting for photographers to explore as their masterpiece. One of the things that has been enjoyed and is always developing over time is the use of human as an object, whether as a candid photography or as a posing model in accordance to photographer's concept and theme. Using human being as an object is always popular among beginners and professional photographers. Even nowadays people often hold photo shoot as a media in many social network sites. And so if they understand the simple theories in basic knowledge of using human object, the results will be maximized, and of course, much more interesting. The more a photographer does his job, the better his experience is, and his work will develop. Thus, it makes him more alert to the situation and character of a model, which will then become more observant in predicting their outcome in photography.   

  18. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention. (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J


    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter


    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  20. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar


    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  1. Apraxia in left-handers. (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg


    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  2. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.


    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  3. Counterfeit phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors pose significant safety risks. (United States)

    Jackson, G; Arver, S; Banks, I; Stecher, V J


    Counterfeit drugs are inherently dangerous and a growing problem; counterfeiters are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Growth of the counterfeit medication market is attributable in part to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) medications for erectile dysfunction (ED). Millions of counterfeit PDE5is are seized yearly and account for the bulk of all counterfeit pharmaceutical product seizures. It has been estimated that up to 2.5 million men in Europe are exposed to illicit sildenafil, suggesting that there may be as many illegal as legal users of sildenafil. Analysis of the contents of counterfeit PDE5is shows inconsistent doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (from 0% to > 200% of labelled dose), contaminants (including talcum powder, commercial paint and printer ink) and alternative ingredients that are potentially hazardous. In one analysis, only 10.1% of samples were within 10% of the labelled tablet strength. Estimates place the proportion of counterfeit medications sold over the Internet from 44% to 90%. Of men who purchase prescription-only medication for ED without a prescription, 67% do so using the Internet. Counterfeit PDE5is pose direct and indirect risks to health, including circumvention of the healthcare system. More than 30% of men reported no healthcare interaction when purchasing ED medications. Because > 65% actually had ED, these men missed an opportunity for evaluation of comorbidities (e.g. diabetes and hypertension). Globally, increased obstacles for counterfeiters are necessary to combat pharmaceutical counterfeiting, including fines and penalties. The worldwide nature of the counterfeit problem requires proper coordination between countries to ensure adequate enforcement. Locally, physicians who treat ED need to inform patients of the dangers of ordering PDE5is via the Internet.

  4. Internet poses multiple risks to children and adolescents. (United States)

    McColgan, Maria D; Giardino, Angelo P


    Computers and Internet usage, whether by children at home or at public places such as schools and libraries, are here to stay. Tremendous benefits in terms of educational opportunities, communication, and recreation can be expected. With all the benefits that such information technology provides, however, there is an element of risk that should not inhibit its use but must be attended to and managed. The methods child sexual offenders use to pursue their criminal interests will continue to evolve as technology evolves. The first and most important line of defense calls for parents and other caregivers to remain directly responsible for the safety of the children in their care. Parents, teachers, healthcare providers, and other caregivers need to learn continually about the Internet and remain aware of how best to protect children who use the computer and the Internet. Law enforcement agencies must also continue to prepare for advances in computer technology, to better anticipate the behavior of child sexual offenders, and to investigate and prosecute offenders. All law enforcement, medical, and social services personnel who have contact with children on a regular basis must continue to educate children and their parents or guardians about the dangers posed by the Internet. After a child is victimized, law enforcement, medical, and social services personnel also must remain cognizant that the victim's computer may contain evidence that may help identify and prosecute the offender. In short, all those charged with the protection of children and the prosecution of child sexual offenders must continue to adapt to our ever-evolving computer technology.

  5. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists. (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor


    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  6. Cultural adaptations to the differential threats posed by hot versus cold climates. (United States)

    Murray, Damian R


    Hot and cold climates have posed differential threats to human survival throughout history. Cold temperatures can pose direct threats to survival in themselves, whereas hot temperatures may pose threats indirectly through higher prevalence of infectious disease. These differential threats yield convergent predictions for the relationship between more demanding climates and freedom of expression, but divergent predictions for freedom from discrimination.

  7. Image-based aircraft pose estimation: a comparison of simulations and real-world data (United States)

    Breuers, Marcel G. J.; de Reus, Nico


    The problem of estimating aircraft pose information from mono-ocular image data is considered using a Fourier descriptor based algorithm. The dependence of pose estimation accuracy on image resolution and aspect angle is investigated through simulations using sets of synthetic aircraft images. Further evaluation shows that god pose estimation accuracy can be obtained in real world image sequences.

  8. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


    ’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...... that demonstrate the potential of the combined pose estimation and adaptive potential function approach....

  9. Multi-view 3D Human Pose Estimation in Complex Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.


    We introduce a framework for unconstrained 3D human upper body pose estimation from multiple camera views in complex environment. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model texture adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery

  10. Coupled Gaussian Process Regression for pose-invariant facial expression recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Patras, Ioannis; Pantic, Maja; Daniilidis, Kostas; Maragos, Petros; Paragios, Nikos


    We present a novel framework for the recognition of facial expressions at arbitrary poses that is based on 2D geometric features. We address the problem by first mapping the 2D locations of landmark points of facial expressions in non-frontal poses to the corresponding locations in the frontal pose.

  11. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami


    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  12. Right colon cancer: Left behind. (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C


    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint


    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  14. Non-invasive characterization of normal and pathological tissues through dynamic infrared imaging in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model (United States)

    Herrera, María. S.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Salva, Natalia; Padra, Claudio; Schwint, Amanda; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.


    Biomedical infrared thermography, a non-invasive and functional imaging method, provides information on the normal and abnormal status and response of tissues in terms of spatial and temporal variations in body infrared radiance. It is especially attractive in cancer research due to the hypervascular and hypermetabolic activity of solid tumors. Moreover, healthy tissues like skin or mucosa exposed to radiation can be examined since inflammation, changes in water content, exudation, desquamation, erosion and necrosis, between others, are factors that modify their thermal properties. In this work we performed Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) to contribute to the understanding and evaluation of normal tissue, tumor and precancerous tissue response and radiotoxicity in an in vivo model, the hamster cheek pouch, exposed to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In this study, we particularly focused on the observation of temperature changes under forced transient conditions associated with mass moisture transfer in the tissue-air interface, in each tissue with or without treatment. We proposed a simple mathematical procedure that considerers the heat transfer from tissue to ambient through convection and evaporation to model the transient (exponential decay o recover) thermal study. The data was fitted to determined the characteristic decay and recovery time constants of the temperature as a function of time. Also this model allowed to explore the mass flux of moisture, as a degree of evaporation occurring on the tissue surface. Tissue thermal responses under provocation tests could be used as a non-invasive method to characterize tissue physiology.

  15. 'Sequential' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Ana J.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Heber, Elisa M.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.


    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel 'Tandem' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with 'Tandem BNCT', i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly ((BPA + GB-10)-BNCT) was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. 'Tandem' BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  16. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Spiny-Cheek Crayfish (Orconectes limosus) from Lake Gopło: Effect of Age and Sex. (United States)

    Stanek, Magdalena; Dąbrowski, Janusz; Różański, Szymon; Janicki, Bogdan; Długosz, Jacek


    The aim of the present work was to assess the concentrations of metals in the abdominal muscle and exoskeleton of 3-year-old males and 4-year-old females and males of spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) collected from Lake Gopło. A total of 93 males and 35 females were collected in autumn (October 2014). The analyzes of heavy metals were conducted by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with a PU9100X spectrometer. The content of mercury was determined using AMA 254 mercury analyser. As analyses indicated heavy metals accumulated in the muscle and exoskeleton in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ni > Hg and Mn > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu > Hg, respectively. Statistically significant differences between 3- and 4-year-old males were found for all analyzed metals. Gender dependent differences were calculated only for Ni in the muscle tissue and for Mn and Hg in the exoskeleton. In comparison with the study carried out 2 years ago notably higher concentrations of Pb were found in the muscle and a higher content of Zn, Pb, Mn and Ni was determined in the exoskeleton.

  17. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.


    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  18. The association between electronic-cigarette use and self-reported oral symptoms including cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among adolescents: A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Cho, Jun Ho


    Little is known about oral health related to electronic-cigarette (EC) use, even though EC use is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between EC use and oral health, including 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 'cracked or broken teeth' among adolescents. A total of 65,528 students in 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study. For EC use, 0.5% (n = 297) students were daily users, 1.9% (n = 1259) were '1 to 29 days past month users', and 5.9% (n = 3848) were former users. Overall, 18.5% students reported they had experienced 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 11.0% reported 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 11.4% reported a 'cracked or broken tooth' within the past 12 months. When comparing 'daily EC users', '1 to 29 days past month EC users', and 'former EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted ORs for 'cracked or broken tooth' were 1.65 (95% CI: 1.19-2.27), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51), and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04-1.30), respectively. Comparing 'daily EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted OR for 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain' was 1.54 (1.05-2.26). However, EC use among adolescents was not associated with 'gingival pain and/or bleeding' when adjusted for the potential confounders. Based on the results, the odds of cracked or broken teeth among daily, '1 to 29 days past month', and former EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. The odds of tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among daily EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. In conclusion, the results suggest that daily EC use among adolescents may be a risk factor for cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain.

  19. The association between electronic-cigarette use and self-reported oral symptoms including cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Cho

    Full Text Available Little is known about oral health related to electronic-cigarette (EC use, even though EC use is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between EC use and oral health, including 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 'cracked or broken teeth' among adolescents.A total of 65,528 students in 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study.For EC use, 0.5% (n = 297 students were daily users, 1.9% (n = 1259 were '1 to 29 days past month users', and 5.9% (n = 3848 were former users. Overall, 18.5% students reported they had experienced 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 11.0% reported 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 11.4% reported a 'cracked or broken tooth' within the past 12 months. When comparing 'daily EC users', '1 to 29 days past month EC users', and 'former EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted ORs for 'cracked or broken tooth' were 1.65 (95% CI: 1.19-2.27, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04-1.30, respectively. Comparing 'daily EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted OR for 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain' was 1.54 (1.05-2.26. However, EC use among adolescents was not associated with 'gingival pain and/or bleeding' when adjusted for the potential confounders.Based on the results, the odds of cracked or broken teeth among daily, '1 to 29 days past month', and former EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. The odds of tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among daily EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. In conclusion, the results suggest that daily EC use among adolescents may be a risk factor for cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain.

  20. A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Lindsey, Currie and Clark (United States)


    A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Astronauts (from left) Steven W. Lindsey, Nancy Jane Currie and Laurel B. Clark. The team arrived at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  1. Creativity of Field-dependent and Field-independent Students in Posing Mathematical Problems (United States)

    Azlina, N.; Amin, S. M.; Lukito, A.


    This study aims at describing the creativity of elementary school students with different cognitive styles in mathematical problem-posing. The posed problems were assessed based on three components of creativity, namely fluency, flexibility, and novelty. The free-type problem posing was used in this study. This study is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. Data collections were conducted through written task and task-based interviews. The subjects were two elementary students. One of them is Field Dependent (FD) and the other is Field Independent (FI) which were measured by GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Further, the data were analyzed based on creativity components. The results show thatFD student’s posed problems have fulfilled the two components of creativity namely fluency, in which the subject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, and flexibility, in whichthe subject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas. Meanwhile,FI student’s posed problems have fulfilled all three components of creativity, namely fluency, in which thesubject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, flexibility, in which thesubject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas, and novelty, in which the subject posed problems that are purely the result of her own ideas and different from problems they have known.

  2. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope


    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  3. Prediction of ICP Pose Uncertainties Using Monte Carlo Simulation with Synthetic Depth Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær; Buch, Anders Glent; Kraft, Dirk


    on the generation of synthetic depth images in a Monte Carlo simulation. In this paper we demonstrate our method for depth sensors which rely on Kinect v1 like technology. We evaluate our method using real depth sensor recordings from the publicly available BigBird dataset. The evaluation shows that the uncertainty......In robotics, vision sensors are used to estimate the poses of objects in the environment. However, it is a fundamental problem that the estimated poses are not always accurate enough for a given robotic task. Proper sensor placement can mitigate this problem. We present a method which can predict...... the pose uncertainties in the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, which is often used as the last critical pose refinement step in a pose estimation system. With our method we thus provide a crucial tool needed for the optimization of a robust pose estimation system. Our method relies...

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model. (United States)

    Heber, Elisa M; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Kueffer, Peter J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Maitz, Charles A; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Nigg, David W; Curotto, Paula; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E


    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by liposomes containing (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and carborane derivatives for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model is presented. These liposomes are composed of an equimolar ratio of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] (MAC) in the bilayer membrane while encapsulating the hydrophilic species Na3[ae-B20H17NH3] (TAC) in the aqueous core. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 83 nm were administered i.v. in hamsters. After 48 h, the boron concentration in tumors was 67 ± 16 ppm whereas the precancerous tissue contained 11 ± 6 ppm, and the tumor/normal pouch tissue boron concentration ratio was 10:1. Neutron irradiation giving a 5-Gy dose to precancerous tissue (corresponding to 21 Gy in tumor) resulted in an overall tumor response (OR) of 70% after a 4-wk posttreatment period. In contrast, the beam-only protocol gave an OR rate of only 28%. Once-repeated BNCT treatment with readministration of liposomes at an interval of 4, 6, or 8 wk resulted in OR rates of 70-88%, of which the complete response ranged from 37% to 52%. Because of the good therapeutic outcome, it was possible to extend the follow-up of BNCT treatment groups to 16 wk after the first treatment. No radiotoxicity to normal tissue was observed. A salient advantage of these liposomes was that only mild mucositis was observed in dose-limiting precancerous tissue with a sustained tumor response of 70-88%.

  5. A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus). (United States)

    Rodrigues, J B; Dixon, P M; Bastos, E; San Roman, F; Viegas, C


    Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the 25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.

  6. Attributed Relational Graph Based Feature Extraction of Body Poses In Indian Classical Dance Bharathanatyam


    Athira. Sugathan; Suganya. R


    Articulated body pose estimation in computer vision is an important problem because of convolution of the models. It is useful in real time applications such as surveillance camera, computer games, human computer interaction etc. Feature extraction is the main part in pose estimation which helps for a successful classification. In this paper, we propose a system for extracting the features from the relational graph of articulated upper body poses of basic Bharatanatyam steps, ...

  7. Vehicle Pose Estimation for Vehicle Detection and Tracking Based on Road Direction


    Prahara, Adhi; Azhari, Ahmad; Murinto, Murinto


    Vehicle has several types and each of them has different color, size, and shape. The appearance of vehicle also changes if viewed from different viewpoint of traffic surveillance camera. This situation can create many possibilities of vehicle poses. However, the one in common, vehicle pose usually follows road direction. Therefore, this research proposes a method to estimate the pose of vehicle for vehicle detection and tracking based on road direction. Vehicle training data are generated fro...

  8. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo


    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  9. Using Online Modelled Spatial Constraints for Pose Estimation in an Industrial Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kenneth Korsgaard; Wolniakowski, Adam; Hagelskjær, Frederik


    We introduce a vision system that is able to on-line learn spatial constraints to improve pose estimation in terms of correct recognition as well as computational speed. By making use of a simulated industrial robot system performing various pick and place tasks, we show the effect of model...... building when making use of visual knowledge in terms of visually extracted pose hypotheses as well as action knowledge in terms of pose hypotheses verified by action execution. We show that the use of action knowledge significantly improves the pose estimation process....

  10. ROS wrapper for real-time multi-person pose estimation with a single camera


    Arduengo García, Miguel; Jorgensen, Steven Jens; Hambuchen, Kimberly; Sentis, Luis; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Alenyà Ribas, Guillem


    For robots to be deployable in human occupied environments, the robots must have human-awareness and generate human-aware behaviors and policies. OpenPose is a library for real-time multi-person keypoint detection. We have considered the implementation of a ROS package that would allow the estimation of 2d pose from simple RGB images, for which we have introduced a ROS wrapper that automatically recovers the pose of several people from a single camera using OpenPose. Additionally, a ROS node ...

  11. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...

  12. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing any...

  13. An Investigation of Relationships between Students' Mathematical Problem-Posing Abilities and Their Mathematical Content Knowledge (United States)

    Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.


    The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…

  14. An Analysis of Problem-Posing Tasks in Chinese and US Elementary Mathematics Textbooks (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa; Jiang, Chunlian


    This paper reports on 2 studies that examine how mathematical problem posing is integrated in Chinese and US elementary mathematics textbooks. Study 1 involved a historical analysis of the problem-posing (PP) tasks in 3 editions of the most widely used elementary mathematics textbook series published by People's Education Press in China over 3…

  15. The Problems Posed and Models Employed by Primary School Teachers in Subtraction with Fractions (United States)

    Iskenderoglu, Tuba Aydogdu


    Students have difficulties in solving problems of fractions in almost all levels, and in problem posing. Problem posing skills influence the process of development of the behaviors observed at the level of comprehension. That is why it is very crucial for teachers to develop activities for student to have conceptual comprehension of fractions and…

  16. Example-based pose estimation in monocular images using compact fourier descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Poel, Mannes


    Automatically estimating human poses from visual input is useful but challenging due to variations in image space and the high dimensionality of the pose space. In this paper, we assume that a human silhouette can be extracted from monocular visual input. We compare the recovery performance of

  17. The Effects of Problem Posing on Student Mathematical Learning: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Rosli, Roslinda; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.


    The purpose of the study was to meta-synthesize research findings on the effectiveness of problem posing and to investigate the factors that might affect the incorporation of problem posing in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The eligibility criteria for inclusion of literature in the meta-analysis was: published between 1989 and 2011,…

  18. Making 2D face recognition more robust using AAMs for pose compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Peter; Munster, Ruud; Moro-Ellenberger, Stephanie; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.


    The problem of pose in 2D face recognition is widely acknowledged. Commercial systems are limited to near frontal face images and cannot deal with pose deviations larger than 15 degrees from the frontal view. This is a problem, when using face recognition for surveillance applications in which

  19. Prospective Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Linear Graphs in Context of Problem-Posing (United States)

    Kar, Tugrul


    This study examined prospective middle school mathematics teachers' problem-posing skills by investigating their ability to associate linear graphs with daily life situations. Prospective teachers were given linear graphs and asked to pose problems that could potentially be represented by the graphs. Their answers were analyzed in two stages. In…

  20. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.


    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  1. Trajectory Planning with Pose Feedback for a Dual-Arm Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu


    Full Text Available In order to obtain high precision path tracking for a dual-arm space robot, a trajectory planning method with pose feedback is proposed to be introduced into the design process in this paper. Firstly, pose error kinematic models are derived from the related kinematics and desired pose command for the end-effector and the base, respectively. On this basis, trajectory planning with pose feedback is proposed from a control perspective. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed trajectory planning algorithm can guarantee that pose error converges to zero exponentially for both the end-effector and the base when the robot is out of singular configuration. Compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm can lead to higher precision path tracking for the end-effector. Furthermore, the algorithm renders the system good anti-interference property for the base. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory planning algorithm.

  2. Multi-view space object recognition and pose estimation based on kernel regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haopeng


    Full Text Available The application of high-performance imaging sensors in space-based space surveillance systems makes it possible to recognize space objects and estimate their poses using vision-based methods. In this paper, we proposed a kernel regression-based method for joint multi-view space object recognition and pose estimation. We built a new simulated satellite image dataset named BUAA-SID 1.5 to test our method using different image representations. We evaluated our method for recognition-only tasks, pose estimation-only tasks, and joint recognition and pose estimation tasks. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-arts in space object recognition, and can recognize space objects and estimate their poses effectively and robustly against noise and lighting conditions.

  3. Coupled bias-variance tradeoff for cross-pose face recognition. (United States)

    Li, Annan; Shan, Shiguang; Gao, Wen


    Subspace-based face representation can be looked as a regression problem. From this viewpoint, we first revisited the problem of recognizing faces across pose differences, which is a bottleneck in face recognition. Then, we propose a new approach for cross-pose face recognition using a regressor with a coupled bias-variance tradeoff. We found that striking a coupled balance between bias and variance in regression for different poses could improve the regressor-based cross-pose face representation, i.e., the regressor can be more stable against a pose difference. With the basic idea, ridge regression and lasso regression are explored. Experimental results on CMU PIE, the FERET, and the Multi-PIE face databases show that the proposed bias-variance tradeoff can achieve considerable reinforcement in recognition performance.

  4. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P


    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  5. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD


    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  6. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy poses physical injury risk to surgeons: analysis of hand technique and standing position. (United States)

    Youssef, Yassar; Lee, Gyusung; Godinez, Carlos; Sutton, Erica; Klein, Rosemary V; George, Ivan M; Seagull, F Jacob; Park, Adrian


    This study compares surgical techniques and surgeon's standing position during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), investigating each with respect to surgeons' learning, performance, and ergonomics. Little homogeneity exists in LC performance and training. Variations in standing position (side-standing technique vs. between-standing technique) and hand technique (one-handed vs. two-handed) exist. Thirty-two LC procedures performed on a virtual reality simulator were video-recorded and analyzed. Each subject performed four different procedures: one-handed/side-standing, one-handed/between-standing, two-handed/side-standing, and two-handed/between-standing. Physical ergonomics were evaluated using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Mental workload assessment was acquired with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Virtual reality (VR) simulator-generated performance evaluation and a subjective survey were analyzed. RULA scores were consistently lower (indicating better ergonomics) for the between-standing technique and higher (indicating worse ergonomics) for the side-standing technique, regardless of whether one- or two-handed. Anatomical scores overall showed side-standing to have a detrimental effect on the upper arms and trunk. The NASA-TLX showed significant association between the side-standing position and high physical demand, effort, and frustration (p<0.05). The two-handed technique in the side-standing position required more effort than the one-handed (p<0.05). No difference in operative time or complication rate was demonstrated among the four procedures. The two-handed/between-standing method was chosen as the best procedure to teach and standardize. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy poses a risk of physical injury to the surgeon. As LC is currently commonly performed in the United States, the left side-standing position may lead to increased physical demand and effort, resulting in ergonomically unsound conditions for

  7. Attribute And-Or Grammar for Joint Parsing of Human Pose, Parts and Attributes. (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Nie, Xiaohan; Zhu, Song-Chun


    This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style. The parse graph outputs human detection, pose estimation, and attribute prediction simultaneously, which are intuitive and interpretable. We conduct experiments on two tasks on two datasets, and experimental results demonstrate the advantage of joint modeling in comparison with computing poses and attributes independently. Furthermore, our model obtains better performance over existing methods for both pose estimation and attribute prediction tasks.

  8. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chung-Min


    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  9. Coupled multiview autoencoders with locality sensitivity for three-dimensional human pose estimation (United States)

    Yu, Jialin; Sun, Jifeng; Luo, Shasha; Duan, Bichao


    Estimating three-dimensional (3D) human poses from a single camera is usually implemented by searching pose candidates with image descriptors. Existing methods usually suppose that the mapping from feature space to pose space is linear, but in fact, their mapping relationship is highly nonlinear, which heavily degrades the performance of 3D pose estimation. We propose a method to recover 3D pose from a silhouette image. It is based on the multiview feature embedding (MFE) and the locality-sensitive autoencoders (LSAEs). On the one hand, we first depict the manifold regularized sparse low-rank approximation for MFE and then the input image is characterized by a fused feature descriptor. On the other hand, both the fused feature and its corresponding 3D pose are separately encoded by LSAEs. A two-layer back-propagation neural network is trained by parameter fine-tuning and then used to map the encoded 2D features to encoded 3D poses. Our LSAE ensures a good preservation of the local topology of data points. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  10. No Child Left Behind and the teaching of character education. (United States)

    Brown, Esther


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the perceptions of administrators and educators and to ascertain if the No Child Left behind Legislation is having a negative impact on students in terms of character building and moral development. Middle school administrators and educators from public and Catholic schools completed a 17 item questionnaire and interviews to obtain the views of the legislation. The questionnaire was a 4 point likert scale with the opportunity for comments. A total of seventy-six teachers and administrators involved in the study. They were given the survey to complete and asked if they would consider a face to face interview. A total of 162 educators invited to participate 76 responded expressing the need for the legislation however they noted that the changing of the curriculum has posed a real challenge in terms developing character and moral development.

  11. Head Pose Estimation on Eyeglasses Using Line Detection and Classification Approach (United States)

    Setthawong, Pisal; Vannija, Vajirasak

    This paper proposes a unique approach for head pose estimation of subjects with eyeglasses by using a combination of line detection and classification approaches. Head pose estimation is considered as an important non-verbal form of communication and could also be used in the area of Human-Computer Interface. A major improvement of the proposed approach is that it allows estimation of head poses at a high yaw/pitch angle when compared with existing geometric approaches, does not require expensive data preparation and training, and is generally fast when compared with other approaches.

  12. Prospective evaluation of shape similarity based pose prediction method in D3R Grand Challenge 2015. (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y J


    Evaluation of ligand three-dimensional (3D) shape similarity is one of the commonly used approaches to identify ligands similar to one or more known active compounds from a library of small molecules. Apart from using ligand shape similarity as a virtual screening tool, its role in pose prediction and pose scoring has also been reported. We have recently developed a method that utilizes ligand 3D shape similarity with known crystallographic ligands to predict binding poses of query ligands. Here, we report the prospective evaluation of our pose prediction method through the participation in drug design data resource (D3R) Grand Challenge 2015. Our pose prediction method was used to predict binding poses of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase (MAP4K4) ligands and it was able to predict the pose within 2 Å root mean square deviation (RMSD) either as the top pose or among the best of five poses in a majority of cases. Specifically for HSP90 protein, a median RMSD of 0.73 and 0.68 Å was obtained for the top and the best of five predictions respectively. For MAP4K4 target, although the median RMSD for our top prediction was only 2.87 Å but the median RMSD of 1.67 Å for the best of five predictions was well within the limit for successful prediction. Furthermore, the performance of our pose prediction method for HSP90 and MAP4K4 ligands was always among the top five groups. Particularly, for MAP4K4 protein our pose prediction method was ranked number one both in terms of mean and median RMSD when the best of five predictions were considered. Overall, our D3R Grand Challenge 2015 results demonstrated that ligand 3D shape similarity with the crystal ligand is sufficient to predict binding poses of new ligands with acceptable accuracy.

  13. Robustness of Input features from Noisy Silhouettes in Human Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Fihl, Preben; Gonzàlez, Jordi


    Silhouettes are frequently extracted and described to compose inputs for learning methods in solving human pose estimation problem. Although silhouettes extracted from background subtraction methods are usually noisy, the effect of noisy inputs to pose estimation accuracies is seldom studied....... In this paper, we explore this problem. First, We compare performances of several image features widely used for human pose estimation and explore their performances against each other and select one with best performance. Second, iterative closest point algorithm is introduced for a new quantitative...... of silhouette samples of different noise levels and compare with the selected feature on a public dataset: Human Eva dataset....

  14. On Mathematical Problem Posing by Elementary Pre-teachers: The Case of Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich


    Full Text Available This article concerns the use of an electronic spreadsheet in mathematical problem posing by prospective elementary teachers. It introduces a didactic construct dealing with three types of a problem's coherence -- numerical, contextual and pedagogical. The main thesis of the article is that technological support of problem posing proves to be insufficient without one's use of this construct. The article reflects on work done with the teachers in a number of education courses. It suggests that including mathematics problem posing with spreadsheets into a coursework for the teachers provides them with research-like experience in curriculum development.

  15. Left-handed Children in Singapore. (United States)

    Gan, Linda


    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  16. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History. (United States)

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  17. Well-posed continuum equations for granular flow with compressibility and μ(I)-rheology (United States)

    Schaeffer, D. G.; Shearer, M.; Gray, J. M. N. T.


    Continuum modelling of granular flow has been plagued with the issue of ill-posed dynamic equations for a long time. Equations for incompressible, two-dimensional flow based on the Coulomb friction law are ill-posed regardless of the deformation, whereas the rate-dependent μ(I)-rheology is ill-posed when the non-dimensional inertial number I is too high or too low. Here, incorporating ideas from critical-state soil mechanics, we derive conditions for well-posedness of partial differential equations that combine compressibility with I-dependent rheology. When the I-dependence comes from a specific friction coefficient μ(I), our results show that, with compressibility, the equations are well-posed for all deformation rates provided that μ(I) satisfies certain minimal, physically natural, inequalities. PMID:28588402

  18. The Tendency of Turkish Pre-service Teachers’ to Pose Word Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kılıç


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the problem posing tendency of preservice teachers (primary and mathematics in structured problem posing situations. Participants were selected using a two-step sampling process in order to prevent bias. In the first sampling process, a total of 109 pre-service teachers participated in the study. Of these participants, 48 were pre-service primary school mathematics teachers and 61 were pre-service primary teachers who were in their sixth term of school. In the second sampling process, 10 volunteer participants were selected using purposeful sampling. It was found that participants had a tendency to pose result-centered problems (contextually inappropriate and irrelevant result-focused problems and context-centered problems (standard and non-standard word problems. In some cases, participants did not pose any word problems.

  19. Estimating aquatic hazards posed by prescription pharmaceutical residues from municipal wastewater (United States)

    Risks posed by pharmaceuticals in the environment are hard to estimate due to limited monitoring capacity and difficulty interpreting monitoring results. In order to partially address these issues, we suggest a method for prioritizing pharmaceuticals for monitoring, and a framewo...

  20. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon


    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  1. A review of cooperative and uncooperative spacecraft pose determination techniques for close-proximity operations (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele


    The capability of an active spacecraft to accurately estimate its relative position and attitude (pose) with respect to an active/inactive, artificial/natural space object (target) orbiting in close-proximity is required to carry out various activities like formation flying, on-orbit servicing, active debris removal, and space exploration. According to the specific mission scenario, the pose determination task involves both theoretical and technological challenges related to the search for the most suitable algorithmic solution and sensor architecture, respectively. As regards the latter aspect, electro-optical sensors represent the best option as their use is compatible with mass and power limitation of micro and small satellites, and their measurements can be processed to estimate all the pose parameters. Overall, the degree of complexity of the challenges related to pose determination largely varies depending on the nature of the targets, which may be actively/passively cooperative, uncooperative but known, or uncooperative and unknown space objects. In this respect, while cooperative pose determination has been successfully demonstrated in orbit, the uncooperative case is still under study by universities, research centers, space agencies and private companies. However, in both the cases, the demand for space applications involving relative navigation maneuvers, also in close-proximity, for which pose determination capabilities are mandatory, is significantly increasing. In this framework, a review of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms developed in the last decades for cooperative and uncooperative pose determination by processing data provided by electro-optical sensors is herein presented. Specifically, their main advantages and drawbacks in terms of achieved performance, computational complexity, and sensitivity to variability of pose and target geometry, are highlighted.

  2. A Well-Posed Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability Test and Comparison


    McNally, Colin P.; Lyra, Wladimir; Passy, Jean-Claude


    Recently, there has been a significant level of discussion of the correct treatment of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the astrophysical community. This discussion relies largely on how the KHI test is posed and analyzed. We pose a stringent test of the initial growth of the instability. The goal is to provide a rigorous methodology for verifying a code on two dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We ran the problem in the Pencil Code, Athena, Enzo, NDSPHMHD, and Phurbas. A strict compari...

  3. Multi-Task Convolutional Neural Network for Pose-Invariant Face Recognition (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Liu, Xiaoming


    This paper explores multi-task learning (MTL) for face recognition. We answer the questions of how and why MTL can improve the face recognition performance. First, we propose a multi-task Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for face recognition where identity classification is the main task and pose, illumination, and expression estimations are the side tasks. Second, we develop a dynamic-weighting scheme to automatically assign the loss weight to each side task, which is a crucial problem in MTL. Third, we propose a pose-directed multi-task CNN by grouping different poses to learn pose-specific identity features, simultaneously across all poses. Last but not least, we propose an energy-based weight analysis method to explore how CNN-based MTL works. We observe that the side tasks serve as regularizations to disentangle the variations from the learnt identity features. Extensive experiments on the entire Multi-PIE dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work using all data in Multi-PIE for face recognition. Our approach is also applicable to in-the-wild datasets for pose-invariant face recognition and achieves comparable or better performance than state of the art on LFW, CFP, and IJB-A datasets.

  4. Pose Estimation with a Kinect for Ergonomic Studies: Evaluation of the Accuracy Using a Virtual Mannequin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Plantard


    Full Text Available Analyzing human poses with a Kinect is a promising method to evaluate potentials risks of musculoskeletal disorders at workstations. In ecological situations, complex 3D poses and constraints imposed by the environment make it difficult to obtain reliable kinematic information. Thus, being able to predict the potential accuracy of the measurement for such complex 3D poses and sensor placements is challenging in classical experimental setups. To tackle this problem, we propose a new evaluation method based on a virtual mannequin. In this study, we apply this method to the evaluation of joint positions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist, joint angles (shoulder and elbow, and the corresponding RULA (a popular ergonomics assessment grid upper-limb score for a large set of poses and sensor placements. Thanks to this evaluation method, more than 500,000 configurations have been automatically tested, which would be almost impossible to evaluate with classical protocols. The results show that the kinematic information obtained by the Kinect software is generally accurate enough to fill in ergonomic assessment grids. However inaccuracy strongly increases for some specific poses and sensor positions. Using this evaluation method enabled us to report configurations that could lead to these high inaccuracies. As a supplementary material, we provide a software tool to help designers to evaluate the expected accuracy of this sensor for a set of upper-limb configurations. Results obtained with the virtual mannequin are in accordance with those obtained from a real subject for a limited set of poses and sensor placements.

  5. Muscle utilization patterns vary by skill levels of the practitioners across specific yoga poses (asanas). (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Mooney, Kiersten; Balachandran, Anoop; Richards, Luca; Harriell, Kysha; Signorile, Joseph F


    To compare muscle activation patterns in 14 dominant side muscles during different yoga poses across three skill levels. Mixed repeated-measures descriptive study. University neuromuscular research laboratory, Miami, US. A group of 36 yoga practitioners (9 M/27 F; mean ± SD, 31.6 ± 12.6 years) with at least 3 months yoga practice experience. Each of the 11 surya namaskar poses A and B was performed separately for 15s and the surface electromyography for 14 muscles were recorded. Normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (NrmsEMG) for 14 muscles (5 upper body, 4 trunk, 5 lower body). There were significant main effects of pose for all fourteen muscles except middle trapezius (p<.02) and of skill level for the vastus medialis; p=.027). A significant skill level × pose interaction existed for five muscles (pectoralis major sternal head, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, upper rectus abdominis and gastrocnemius lateralis; p<.05). Post hoc analyses using Bonferroni comparisons indicated that different poses activated specific muscle groups; however, this varied by skill level. Our results indicate that different poses can produce specific muscle activation patterns which may vary due to practitioners' skill levels. This information can be used in designing rehabilitation and training programs and for cuing during yoga training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Postural Communication of Emotion: Perception of Distinct Poses of Five Discrete Emotions. (United States)

    Lopez, Lukas D; Reschke, Peter J; Knothe, Jennifer M; Walle, Eric A


    Emotion can be communicated through multiple distinct modalities. However, an often-ignored channel of communication is posture. Recent research indicates that bodily posture plays an important role in the perception of emotion. However, research examining postural communication of emotion is limited by the variety of validated emotion poses and unknown cohesion of categorical and dimensional ratings. The present study addressed these limitations. Specifically, we examined individuals' (1) categorization of emotion postures depicting 5 discrete emotions (joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust), (2) categorization of different poses depicting the same discrete emotion, and (3) ratings of valence and arousal for each emotion pose. Findings revealed that participants successfully categorized each posture as the target emotion, including disgust. Moreover, participants accurately identified multiple distinct poses within each emotion category. In addition to the categorical responses, dimensional ratings of valence and arousal revealed interesting overlap and distinctions between and within emotion categories. These findings provide the first evidence of an identifiable posture for disgust and instantiate the principle of equifinality of emotional communication through the inclusion of distinct poses within emotion categories. Additionally, the dimensional ratings corroborated the categorical data and provide further granularity for future researchers to consider in examining how distinct emotion poses are perceived.

  7. The Effect of Problem Solving and Problem Posing Models and Innate Ability to Students Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Kartika Irawati


    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Problem Solving dan Problem Posing serta Kemampuan Awal terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa   Abstract: Chemistry concepts understanding features abstract quality and requires higher order thinking skills. Yet, the learning on chemistry has not boost the higher order thinking skills of the students. The use of the learning model of Problem Solving and Problem Posing in observing the innate ability of the student is expected to resolve the issue. This study aims to determine the learning model which is effective to improve the study of the student with different level of innate ability. This study used the quasi-experimental design. The research data used in this research is the quiz/test of the class which consist of 14 multiple choice questions and 5 essay questions. The data analysis used is ANOVA Two Ways. The results showed that Problem Posing is more effective to improve the student compared to Problem Solving, students with high level of innate ability have better outcomes in learning rather than the students with low level of innate ability after being applied with the Problem solving and Problem posing model, further, Problem Solving and Problem Posing is more suitable to be applied to the students with high level of innate ability. Key Words: problem solving, problem posing, higher order thinking skills, innate ability, learning outcomes   Abstrak: Pemahaman konsep-konsep kimia yang bersifat abstrak membutuhkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Pembelajaran kimia belum mendorong siswa melakukan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Penggunaan model pembelajaran Problem Solving dan Problem Posing dengan memperhatikan kemampuan awal siswa diduga dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model pembelajaran yang efektif dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar dengan kemampuan awal siswa yang berbeda. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan eksperimen semu. Data penelitian menggunakan tes hasil belajar

  8. Isolated persistent left superior vena cava: A case report and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bisoyi


    Full Text Available The venous anomaly of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC affects 0.3%-0.5% of the general population. PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava, also termed as "isolated PLSVC," is an extremely rare venous anomaly. Almost half of the patients with isolated PLSVC have cardiac anomalies in the form of atrial septal defect, endocardial cushion defects, or tetralogy of Fallot. Isolated PLSVC is usually innocuous. Its discovery, however, has important clinical implications. It can pose clinical difficulties with central venous access, cardiothoracic surgeries, and pacemaker implantation. When it drains to the left atrium, it may create a right to left shunt. In this case report, we present the incidental finding of isolated PLSVC in a patient who underwent aortic valve replacement. Awareness about this condition and its variations is important to avoid complications.

  9. Generalized Hough transform based time invariant action recognition with 3D pose information (United States)

    Muench, David; Huebner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael


    Human action recognition has emerged as an important field in the computer vision community due to its large number of applications such as automatic video surveillance, content based video-search and human robot interaction. In order to cope with the challenges that this large variety of applications present, recent research has focused more on developing classifiers able to detect several actions in more natural and unconstrained video sequences. The invariance discrimination tradeoff in action recognition has been addressed by utilizing a Generalized Hough Transform. As a basis for action representation we transform 3D poses into a robust feature space, referred to as pose descriptors. For each action class a one-dimensional temporal voting space is constructed. Votes are generated from associating pose descriptors with their position in time relative to the end of an action sequence. Training data consists of manually segmented action sequences. In the detection phase valid human 3D poses are assumed as input, e.g. originating from 3D sensors or monocular pose reconstruction methods. The human 3D poses are normalized to gain view-independence and transformed into (i) relative limb-angle space to ensure independence of non-adjacent joints or (ii) geometric features. In (i) an action descriptor consists of the relative angles between limbs and their temporal derivatives. In (ii) the action descriptor consists of different geometric features. In order to circumvent the problem of time-warping we propose to use a codebook of prototypical 3D poses which is generated from sample sequences of 3D motion capture data. This idea is in accordance with the concept of equivalence classes in action space. Results of the codebook method are presented using the Kinect sensor and the CMU Motion Capture Database.

  10. Pose measurement method with six parameters for microassembly based on an optical micrometer (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-jing; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-feng


    This paper presents a new pose measurement method of microminiature parts that is capable of transforming one dimension (1D) contour size obtained by optical micrometer to three dimension (3D) data with six parameters for microassembly. Pose measurement is one of the most important processes for microminiature parts' alignment and insertion in microassembly. During the past few years, researchers have developed their microassembly systems focusing on visual identification to obtain two or three dimension data with no more than three parameters. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and stereomicroscope are applied in their systems. However, as structures of microminiature parts become increasingly complex, six parameters to represent their position and orientation are specifically needed. Firstly, The pose measurement model is established based on the introduction of measuring objects and measuring principle of optical micrometer. The measuring objects are microminiature parts with complex 3D structure. Two groups of two dimension (2D) data are gathered at two different measurement positions. Then part pose with 6 parameters is calculated, including 3 position parameters of feature point of the part and 3 orientation parameters of the part axis. Secondly, pose measurement process for a small shaft, vertical orientation determination, and position parameters obtaining are presented. 2D data is gathered by scanning the generatrix of the part, and valid data is extracted and saved in arrays. A vertical orientation criterion is proposed to determine whether the part is parallel to the Z-axis of the coordinate. If not, 2D data will be fixed into a linear equation using least square algorithm. Then orientation parameters are calculated. Center of Part End (CPE) is selected as feature point of the part, and its position parameters are extracted form two group of 2D data. Finally, a fast pose measurement device is developed and representative

  11. Combining Front Vehicle Detection with 3D Pose Estimation for a Better Driver Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peng


    Full Text Available Driver assistant systems enhance traffic safety and efficiency. The accurate 3D pose of a front vehicle can help a driver to make the right decision on the road. We propose a novel real-time system to estimate the 3D pose of the front vehicle. This system consists of two parallel threads: vehicle rear tracking and mapping. The vehicle rear is first identified in the video captured by an onboard camera, after license plate localization and foreground extraction. The 3D pose estimation technique is then employed with respect to the extracted vehicle rear. Most current 3D pose estimation techniques need prior models or a stereo initialization with user cooperation. It is extremely difficult to obtain prior models due to the varying appearance of vehicles' rears. Moreover, it is unsafe to ask for drivers' cooperation when a vehicle is running. In our system, two initial keyframes for stereo algorithms are automatically extracted by vehicle rear detection and tracking. Map points are defined as a collection of point features extracted from the vehicle's rear with their 3D information. These map points are inferences that relate the 2D features detected in following vehicles' rears with the 3D world. The relative 3D pose of the onboard camera to the front vehicle rear is then estimated through matching the map points with point features detected on the front vehicle rear. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system by testing on real-time and synthesized videos. In order to make the experimental analysis visible, we demonstrated an estimated 3D pose through augmented reality, which needs accurate and real-time 3D pose estimation.

  12. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.


    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  13. Inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm for low-cost modular manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhan Lin


    Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.

  14. Mobile Robot Aided Silhouette Imaging and Robust Body Pose Recognition for Elderly-Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu


    Full Text Available This article introduces a mobile infrared silhouette imaging and sparse representation-based pose recognition for building an elderly-fall detection system. The proposed imaging paradigm exploits the novel use of the pyroelectric infrared (PIR sensor in pursuit of body silhouette imaging. A mobile robot carrying a vertical column of multi-PIR detectors is organized for the silhouette acquisition. Then we express the fall detection problem in silhouette image-based pose recognition. For the pose recognition, we use a robust sparse representation-based method for fall detection. The normal and fall poses are sparsely represented in the basis space spanned by the combinations of a pose training template and an error template. The ℓ1 norm minimizations with linear programming (LP and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP are used for finding the sparsest solution, and the entity with the largest amplitude encodes the class of the testing sample. The application of the proposed sensing paradigm to fall detection is addressed in the context of three scenarios, including: ideal non-obstruction, simulated random pixel obstruction and simulated random block obstruction. Experimental studies are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method for nursing and homeland healthcare.

  15. A Bayesian framework for human body pose tracking from depth image sequences. (United States)

    Zhu, Youding; Fujimura, Kikuo


    This paper addresses the problem of accurate and robust tracking of 3D human body pose from depth image sequences. Recovering the large number of degrees of freedom in human body movements from a depth image sequence is challenging due to the need to resolve the depth ambiguity caused by self-occlusions and the difficulty to recover from tracking failure. Human body poses could be estimated through model fitting using dense correspondences between depth data and an articulated human model (local optimization method). Although it usually achieves a high accuracy due to dense correspondences, it may fail to recover from tracking failure. Alternately, human pose may be reconstructed by detecting and tracking human body anatomical landmarks (key-points) based on low-level depth image analysis. While this method (key-point based method) is robust and recovers from tracking failure, its pose estimation accuracy depends solely on image-based localization accuracy of key-points. To address these limitations, we present a flexible Bayesian framework for integrating pose estimation results obtained by methods based on key-points and local optimization. Experimental results are shown and performance comparison is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Fringe-reflection photogrammetry based on poses calibration with planar mirror reflection (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Zhong, Jianxin; Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; You, Zhisheng


    Since liquid crystal display (LCD) screen locates outside of the camera's field of view in fringe-reflection photogrammetry, fringes displayed on LCD screen are obtained through specular reflection by a fixed camera. Thus, the pose calibration between camera and LCD screen is one of the main challenges in fringe-reflection photogrammetry. A markerless planar mirror is used to reflect the LCD screen more than three times, and the fringes are mapped into the fixed camera. The geometrical calibration can be accomplished by estimating the pose between the camera and virtual image of fringes. With the help of the relation between their pose, incidence and reflection ray can be unified in the camera frame, forward triangulation intersection can be operated in the camera frame to measure 3D coordinate of specular surface. In the final optimization, constraint bundle adjustment is operated to refine simultaneously the camera intrinsic parameters including distortion coefficients, estimated geometrical pose between LCD screen and camera, 3D coordinate of specular surface, with the help of absolute phase collinear constraint. Results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the pose calibration with planar mirror reflection is simple, feasible and constraint bundle adjustment can enhance the three-dimensional coordinate measurement accuracy in fringe-reflection photogrammetry.

  17. Constructing a Database from Multiple 2D Images for Camera Pose Estimation and Robot Localization (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Ansar, Adnan I.; Brennan, Shane; Clouse, Daniel S.; Padgett, Curtis W.


    The LMDB (Landmark Database) Builder software identifies persistent image features (landmarks) in a scene viewed multiple times and precisely estimates the landmarks 3D world positions. The software receives as input multiple 2D images of approximately the same scene, along with an initial guess of the camera poses for each image, and a table of features matched pair-wise in each frame. LMDB Builder aggregates landmarks across an arbitrarily large collection of frames with matched features. Range data from stereo vision processing can also be passed to improve the initial guess of the 3D point estimates. The LMDB Builder aggregates feature lists across all frames, manages the process to promote selected features to landmarks, and iteratively calculates the 3D landmark positions using the current camera pose estimations (via an optimal ray projection method), and then improves the camera pose estimates using the 3D landmark positions. Finally, it extracts image patches for each landmark from auto-selected key frames and constructs the landmark database. The landmark database can then be used to estimate future camera poses (and therefore localize a robotic vehicle that may be carrying the cameras) by matching current imagery to landmark database image patches and using the known 3D landmark positions to estimate the current pose.

  18. Enhancing students’ mathematical problem posing skill through writing in performance tasks strategy (United States)

    Kadir; Adelina, R.; Fatma, M.


    Many researchers have studied the Writing in Performance Task (WiPT) strategy in learning, but only a few paid attention on its relation to the problem-posing skill in mathematics. The problem-posing skill in mathematics covers problem reformulation, reconstruction, and imitation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of WiPT strategy on students’ mathematical problem-posing skill. The research was conducted at a Public Junior Secondary School in Tangerang Selatan. It used a quasi-experimental method with randomized control group post-test. The samples were 64 students consists of 32 students of the experiment group and 32 students of the control. A cluster random sampling technique was used for sampling. The research data were obtained by testing. The research shows that the problem-posing skill of students taught by WiPT strategy is higher than students taught by a conventional strategy. The research concludes that the WiPT strategy is more effective in enhancing the students’ mathematical problem-posing skill compared to the conventional strategy.

  19. Improving attitudes toward mathematics learning with problem posing in class VIII (United States)

    Vionita, Alfha; Purboningsih, Dyah


    This research is classroom action research which is collaborated to improve student's behavior toward math and mathematics learning at class VIII by using problem posing approach. The subject of research is all of students grade VIIIA which consist of 32 students. This research has been held on two period, first period is about 3 times meeting, and second period is about 4 times meeting. The instrument of this research is implementation of learning observation's guidance by using problem posing approach. Cycle test has been used to measure cognitive competence, and questionnaire to measure the students' behavior in mathematics learning process. The result of research shows the students' behavior has been improving after using problem posing approach. It is showed by the behavior's criteria of students that has increasing result from the average in first period to high in second period. Furthermore, the percentage of test result is also improve from 68,75% in first period to 78,13% in second period. On the other hand, the implementation of learning observation by using problem posing approach has also improving and it is showed by the average percentage of teacher's achievement in first period is 89,2% and student's achievement 85,8%. These results get increase in second period for both teacher and students' achievement which are 94,4% and 91,11%. As a result, students' behavior toward math learning process in class VIII has been improving by using problem posing approach.

  20. The Mirror to Our Soul? Comparisons of Spontaneous and Posed Vocal Expression of Emotion. (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N; Laukka, Petri; Bänziger, Tanja


    It has been the subject of much debate in the study of vocal expression of emotions whether posed expressions (e.g., actor portrayals) are different from spontaneous expressions. In the present investigation, we assembled a new database consisting of 1877 voice clips from 23 datasets, and used it to systematically compare spontaneous and posed expressions across 3 experiments. Results showed that (a) spontaneous expressions were generally rated as more genuinely emotional than were posed expressions, even when controlling for differences in emotion intensity, (b) there were differences between the two stimulus types with regard to their acoustic characteristics, and (c) spontaneous expressions with a high emotion intensity conveyed discrete emotions to listeners to a similar degree as has previously been found for posed expressions, supporting a dose-response relationship between intensity of expression and discreteness in perceived emotions. Our conclusion is that there are reliable differences between spontaneous and posed expressions, though not necessarily in the ways commonly assumed. Implications for emotion theories and the use of emotion portrayals in studies of vocal expression are discussed.

  1. Single leg balancing in ballet: effects of shoe conditions and poses. (United States)

    Lobo da Costa, Paula H; Azevedo Nora, Fernanda G S; Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter


    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of lower limb positioning and shoe conditions on stability levels of selected single leg ballet poses performed in demi-pointe position. Fourteen female non-professional ballet dancers (mean age of 18.4±2.8 years and mean body mass index of 21.5±2.8kg/m(2)) who had practiced ballet for at least seven years, without any musculoskeletal impairment volunteered to participate in this study. A capacitive pressure platform allowed for the assessment of center of pressure variables related to the execution of three single leg ballet poses in demi pointé position: attitude devant, attitude derriére, and attitude a la second. Peak pressures, contact areas, COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral COP oscillations and velocities were compared between two shoe conditions (barefoot versus slippers) and among the different poses. Barefoot performances produced more stable poses with significantly higher plantar contact areas, smaller COP oscillation areas and smaller anterior-posterior COP oscillations. COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior COP oscillations and medio-lateral COP velocities indicated that attitude a la second is the least challenging and attitude derriére the most challenging pose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combining in silico and in cerebro approaches for virtual screening and pose prediction in SAMPL4. (United States)

    Voet, Arnout R D; Kumar, Ashutosh; Berenger, Francois; Zhang, Kam Y J


    The SAMPL challenges provide an ideal opportunity for unbiased evaluation and comparison of different approaches used in computational drug design. During the fourth round of this SAMPL challenge, we participated in the virtual screening and binding pose prediction on inhibitors targeting the HIV-1 integrase enzyme. For virtual screening, we used well known and widely used in silico methods combined with personal in cerebro insights and experience. Regular docking only performed slightly better than random selection, but the performance was significantly improved upon incorporation of additional filters based on pharmacophore queries and electrostatic similarities. The best performance was achieved when logical selection was added. For the pose prediction, we utilized a similar consensus approach that amalgamated the results of the Glide-XP docking with structural knowledge and rescoring. The pose prediction results revealed that docking displayed reasonable performance in predicting the binding poses. However, prediction performance can be improved utilizing scientific experience and rescoring approaches. In both the virtual screening and pose prediction challenges, the top performance was achieved by our approaches. Here we describe the methods and strategies used in our approaches and discuss the rationale of their performances.

  3. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad


    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  4. Anarchy, socialism and a Darwinian left. (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen


    In A Darwinian left Peter Singer aims to reconcile Darwinian theory with left wing politics, using evolutionary game theory and in particular a model proposed by Robert Axelrod, which shows that cooperation can be an evolutionarily successful strategy. In this paper I will show that whilst Axelrod's model can give support to a kind of left wing politics, it is not the kind that Singer himself envisages. In fact, it is shown that there are insurmountable problems for the idea of increasing Axelrodian cooperation within a welfare state. My surprising conclusion will be that a Darwinian left worthy of the name would be anarchistic.

  5. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech


    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  6. Accurate three-dimensional pose recognition from monocular images using template matched filtering (United States)

    Picos, Kenia; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Montemayor, Antonio S.; Pantrigo, Juan J.


    An accurate algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) pose recognition of a rigid object is presented. The algorithm is based on adaptive template matched filtering and local search optimization. When a scene image is captured, a bank of correlation filters is constructed to find the best correspondence between the current view of the target in the scene and a target image synthesized by means of computer graphics. The synthetic image is created using a known 3-D model of the target and an iterative procedure based on local search. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm in synthetic and real-life scenes are presented and discussed in terms of accuracy of pose recognition in the presence of noise, cluttered background, and occlusion. Experimental results show that our proposal presents high accuracy for 3-D pose estimation using monocular images.

  7. Critical steps in camera pose estimation: an evaluation using LTI-LIB2 library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cabrera-Quirós


    Full Text Available An evaluation of camera pose estimation methods using a chessboard pattern is presented. Steps evaluated in the estimation process are landmark point detection and camera parameter estimation, due to their critical role in the entire process. The ChESS method and a custom heuristic method are compared for chessboard pattern detection.  Both methods are objectively contrasted using True Positive and False Negative criteria. Meanwhile, Zhang’s method for pose estimation based on planar surface point distribution is used as a first approach, and then refined with a nonlinear regression through the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. This pose estimation algorithm is evaluated through a comparison with a stable tool, such as the Camera Calibration Toolbox for Matlab®.

  8. Hierarchical graphical-based human pose estimation via local multi-resolution convolutional neural network (United States)

    Zhu, Aichun; Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem


    This paper addresses the problems of the graphical-based human pose estimation in still images, including the diversity of appearances and confounding background clutter. We present a new architecture for estimating human pose using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Firstly, a Relative Mixture Deformable Model (RMDM) is defined by each pair of connected parts to compute the relative spatial information in the graphical model. Secondly, a Local Multi-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (LMR-CNN) is proposed to train and learn the multi-scale representation of each body parts by combining different levels of part context. Thirdly, a LMR-CNN based hierarchical model is defined to explore the context information of limb parts. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed deep learning approach for human pose estimation.

  9. Hierarchical graphical-based human pose estimation via local multi-resolution convolutional neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aichun Zhu


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of the graphical-based human pose estimation in still images, including the diversity of appearances and confounding background clutter. We present a new architecture for estimating human pose using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. Firstly, a Relative Mixture Deformable Model (RMDM is defined by each pair of connected parts to compute the relative spatial information in the graphical model. Secondly, a Local Multi-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (LMR-CNN is proposed to train and learn the multi-scale representation of each body parts by combining different levels of part context. Thirdly, a LMR-CNN based hierarchical model is defined to explore the context information of limb parts. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed deep learning approach for human pose estimation.

  10. PoseShop: human image database construction and personalized content synthesis. (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Tan, Ping; Ma, Li-Qian; Cheng, Ming-Ming; Shamir, Ariel; Hu, Shi-Min


    We present PoseShop--a pipeline to construct segmented human image database with minimal manual intervention. By downloading, analyzing, and filtering massive amounts of human images from the Internet, we achieve a database which contains 400 thousands human figures that are segmented out of their background. The human figures are organized based on action semantic, clothes attributes, and indexed by the shape of their poses. They can be queried using either silhouette sketch or a skeleton to find a given pose. We demonstrate applications for this database for multiframe personalized content synthesis in the form of comic-strips, where the main character is the user or his/her friends. We address the two challenges of such synthesis, namely personalization and consistency over a set of frames, by introducing head swapping and clothes swapping techniques. We also demonstrate an action correlation analysis application to show the usefulness of the database for vision application.

  11. Methods for intraoperative, sterile pose-setting of patient-specific microstereotactic frames (United States)

    Vollmann, Benjamin; Müller, Samuel; Kundrat, Dennis; Ortmaier, Tobias; Kahrs, Lüder A.


    This work proposes new methods for a microstereotactic frame based on bone cement fixation. Microstereotactic frames are under investigation for minimal invasive temporal bone surgery, e.g. cochlear implantation, or for deep brain stimulation, where products are already on the market. The correct pose of the microstereotactic frame is either adjusted outside or inside the operating room and the frame is used for e.g. drill or electrode guidance. We present a patientspecific, disposable frame that allows intraoperative, sterile pose-setting. Key idea of our approach is bone cement between two plates that cures while the plates are positioned with a mechatronics system in the desired pose. This paper includes new designs of microstereotactic frames, a system for alignment and first measurements to analyze accuracy and applicable load.

  12. An investigation of U.S. and Chinese students' mathematical problem posing and problem solving (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa


    This study explored the mathematical problem posing and problem solving of 181 U.S. and 223 Chinese sixth-grade students. It is part of a continuing effort to examine U.S. and Chinese students' performance by conducting a cognitive analysis of student responses to mathematical problem-posing and problem-solving tasks. The findings of this study provide further evidence that, while Chinese students outperform U.S. students on computational tasks, there are many similarities and differences between U.S. and Chinese students in performing relatively novel tasks. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that a direct link between mathematical problem posing and problem solving found in earlier studies for U.S. students is true for Chinese students as well.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abdi


    Full Text Available GNSS/IMU navigation systems offer low-cost and robust solution to navigate UAVs. Since redundant measurements greatly improve the reliability of navigation systems, extensive researches have been made to enhance the efficiency and robustness of GNSS/IMU by additional sensors. This paper presents a method for integrating reference data, images taken from UAVs, barometric height data and GNSS/IMU data to estimate accurate and reliable pose parameters of UAVs. We provide improved pose estimations by integrating multi-sensor observations in an EKF algorithm with IMU motion model. The implemented methodology has demonstrated to be very efficient and reliable for automatic pose estimation. The calculated position and attitude of the UAV especially when we removed the GNSS from the working cycle clearly indicate the ability of the purposed methodology.

  14. Categorization of questions posed before and after inquiry-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena García González


    Full Text Available Posing research questions is the central ability of the scientific thought. This article examines the ability of sixth grade children to pose researchable questions before and after a three months’ work on a didactic sequence based on the inquiry school model. According to their purpose, the questions asked by children, after reading a text, were classified into researchable questions -susceptible to be empirically explored-, questions about a cause, and questions on a piece of data. The results show that the amount and the type of questions the students were able to pose during the intervention changed, from most of questions on data or information, to most of researchable questions, subsequently, the importance of designing teaching approaches to foster this ability was proved.

  15. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.


    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... with larger left ventricular diameter and higher left ventricular mass index (both P hypertrophy was greater (84 vs. 64%; P ..., transmitral peak E velocities and peak A velocities; and lower E/A ratio (all P hypertrophy, but normal left ventricular chamber systolic function with increased...

  16. Structural interface parameters are discriminatory in recognising near-native poses of protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Malhotra

    Full Text Available Interactions at the molecular level in the cellular environment play a very crucial role in maintaining the physiological functioning of the cell. These molecular interactions exist at varied levels viz. protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acid interactions or protein-small molecules interactions. Presently in the field, these interactions and their mechanisms mark intensively studied areas. Molecular interactions can also be studied computationally using the approach named as Molecular Docking. Molecular docking employs search algorithms to predict the possible conformations for interacting partners and then calculates interaction energies. However, docking proposes number of solutions as different docked poses and hence offers a serious challenge to identify the native (or near native structures from the pool of these docked poses. Here, we propose a rigorous scoring scheme called DockScore which can be used to rank the docked poses and identify the best docked pose out of many as proposed by docking algorithm employed. The scoring identifies the optimal interactions between the two protein partners utilising various features of the putative interface like area, short contacts, conservation, spatial clustering and the presence of positively charged and hydrophobic residues. DockScore was first trained on a set of 30 protein-protein complexes to determine the weights for different parameters. Subsequently, we tested the scoring scheme on 30 different protein-protein complexes and native or near-native structure were assigned the top rank from a pool of docked poses in 26 of the tested cases. We tested the ability of DockScore to discriminate likely dimer interactions that differ substantially within a homologous family and also demonstrate that DOCKSCORE can distinguish correct pose for all 10 recent CAPRI targets.

  17. Are predefined decoy sets of ligand poses able to quantify scoring function accuracy? (United States)

    Korb, Oliver; ten Brink, Tim; Victor Paul Raj, Fredrick Robin Devadoss; Keil, Matthias; Exner, Thomas E.


    Due to the large number of different docking programs and scoring functions available, researchers are faced with the problem of selecting the most suitable one when starting a structure-based drug discovery project. To guide the decision process, several studies comparing different docking and scoring approaches have been published. In the context of comparing scoring function performance, it is common practice to use a predefined, computer-generated set of ligand poses (decoys) and to reevaluate their score using the set of scoring functions to be compared. But are predefined decoy sets able to unambiguously evaluate and rank different scoring functions with respect to pose prediction performance? This question arose when the pose prediction performance of our piecewise linear potential derived scoring functions (Korb et al. in J Chem Inf Model 49:84-96, 2009) was assessed on a standard decoy set (Cheng et al. in J Chem Inf Model 49:1079-1093, 2009). While they showed excellent pose identification performance when they were used for rescoring of the predefined decoy conformations, a pronounced degradation in performance could be observed when they were directly applied in docking calculations using the same test set. This implies that on a discrete set of ligand poses only the rescoring performance can be evaluated. For comparing the pose prediction performance in a more rigorous manner, the search space of each scoring function has to be sampled extensively as done in the docking calculations performed here. We were able to identify relative strengths and weaknesses of three scoring functions (ChemPLP, GoldScore, and Astex Statistical Potential) by analyzing the performance for subsets of the complexes grouped by different properties of the active site. However, reasons for the overall poor performance of all three functions on this test set compared to other test sets of similar size could not be identified.

  18. A deep learning approach for pose estimation from volumetric OCT data. (United States)

    Gessert, Nils; Schlüter, Matthias; Schlaefer, Alexander


    Tracking the pose of instruments is a central problem in image-guided surgery. For microscopic scenarios, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly used as an imaging modality. OCT is suitable for accurate pose estimation due to its micrometer range resolution and volumetric field of view. However, OCT image processing is challenging due to speckle noise and reflection artifacts in addition to the images' 3D nature. We address pose estimation from OCT volume data with a new deep learning-based tracking framework. For this purpose, we design a new 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture to directly predict the 6D pose of a small marker geometry from OCT volumes. We use a hexapod robot to automatically acquire labeled data points which we use to train 3D CNN architectures for multi-output regression. We use this setup to provide an in-depth analysis on deep learning-based pose estimation from volumes. Specifically, we demonstrate that exploiting volume information for pose estimation yields higher accuracy than relying on 2D representations with depth information. Supporting this observation, we provide quantitative and qualitative results that 3D CNNs effectively exploit the depth structure of marker objects. Regarding the deep learning aspect, we present efficient design principles for 3D CNNs, making use of insights from the 2D deep learning community. In particular, we present Inception3D as a new architecture which performs best for our application. We show that our deep learning approach reaches errors at our ground-truth label's resolution. We achieve a mean average error of 14.89 ± 9.3 µm and 0.096 ± 0.072° for position and orientation learning, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive relative pose control of spacecraft with model couplings and uncertainties (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Zheng, Zewei


    The spacecraft pose tracking control problem for an uncertain pursuer approaching to a space target is researched in this paper. After modeling the nonlinearly coupled dynamics for relative translational and rotational motions between two spacecraft, position tracking and attitude synchronization controllers are developed independently by using a robust adaptive control approach. The unknown kinematic couplings, parametric uncertainties, and bounded external disturbances are handled with adaptive updating laws. It is proved via Lyapunov method that the pose tracking errors converge to zero asymptotically. Spacecraft close-range rendezvous and proximity operations are introduced as an example to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Material Properties and Pose for Deformable Objects from Depth and Color Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Andreas Rune; Jordt, Andreas; Petersen, Henrik Gordon


    In this paper we consider the problem of estimating 6D pose and material properties of a deformable object grasped by a robot grip- per. To estimate the parameters we minimize an error function incorpo- rating visual and physical correctness. Through simulated and real-world experiments we demons...... demonstrate that we are able to find realistic 6D poses and elasticity parameters like Young’s modulus. This makes it possible to perform subsequent manipulation tasks, where accurate modelling of the elastic behaviour is important....

  1. Robust Pose Estimation using the SwissRanger SR-3000 Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Sigurjon Arni; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    In this paper a robust method is presented to classify and estimate an objects pose from a real time range image and a low dimensional model. The model is made from a range image training set which is reduced dimensionally by a nonlinear manifold learning method named Local Linear Embedding (LLE)......). New range images are then projected to this model giving the low dimensional coordinates of the object pose in an efficient manner. The range images are acquired by a state of the art SwissRanger SR-3000 camera making the projection process work in real-time....

  2. A modified quasi-boundary value method for an abstract ill-posed biparabolic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besma Khelili


    Full Text Available In this paper, we are concerned with the problem of approximating a solution of an ill-posed biparabolic problem in the abstract setting. In order to overcome the instability of the original problem, we propose a modified quasi-boundary value method to construct approximate stable solutions for the original ill-posed boundary value problem. Finally, some other convergence results including some explicit convergence rates are also established under a priori bound assumptions on the exact solution. Moreover, numerical tests are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of this method.

  3. Human Pose Estimation and Activity Recognition from Multi-View Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Tran, Cuong; Trivedi, Mohan


    –computer interaction (HCI), assisted living, gesture-based interactive games, intelligent driver assistance systems, movies, 3D TV and animation, physical therapy, autonomous mental development, smart environments, sport motion analysis, video surveillance, and video annotation. Next, we review and categorize recent......This paper presents a review and comparative study of recent multi-view approaches for human 3D pose estimation and activity recognition. We discuss the application domain of human pose estimation and activity recognition and the associated requirements, covering: advanced human...

  4. Using a single RGB frame for real time 3D hand pose estimation in the wild


    Panteleris, Paschalis; Oikonomidis, Iason; Argyros, Antonis


    We present a method for the real-time estimation of the full 3D pose of one or more human hands using a single commodity RGB camera. Recent work in the area has displayed impressive progress using RGBD input. However, since the introduction of RGBD sensors, there has been little progress for the case of monocular color input. We capitalize on the latest advancements of deep learning, combining them with the power of generative hand pose estimation techniques to achieve real-time monocular 3D ...

  5. Estimation of Antenna Pose in the Earth Frame Using Camera and IMU Data from Mobile Phones. (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Jin, Bingwen; Geng, Weidong


    The poses of base station antennas play an important role in cellular network optimization. Existing methods of pose estimation are based on physical measurements performed either by tower climbers or using additional sensors attached to antennas. In this paper, we present a novel non-contact method of antenna pose measurement based on multi-view images of the antenna and inertial measurement unit (IMU) data captured by a mobile phone. Given a known 3D model of the antenna, we first estimate the antenna pose relative to the phone camera from the multi-view images and then employ the corresponding IMU data to transform the pose from the camera coordinate frame into the Earth coordinate frame. To enhance the resulting accuracy, we improve existing camera-IMU calibration models by introducing additional degrees of freedom between the IMU sensors and defining a new error metric based on both the downtilt and azimuth angles, instead of a unified rotational error metric, to refine the calibration. In comparison with existing camera-IMU calibration methods, our method achieves an improvement in azimuth accuracy of approximately 1.0 degree on average while maintaining the same level of downtilt accuracy. For the pose estimation in the camera coordinate frame, we propose an automatic method of initializing the optimization solver and generating bounding constraints on the resulting pose to achieve better accuracy. With this initialization, state-of-the-art visual pose estimation methods yield satisfactory results in more than 75% of cases when plugged into our pipeline, and our solution, which takes advantage of the constraints, achieves even lower estimation errors on the downtilt and azimuth angles, both on average (0.13 and 0.3 degrees lower, respectively) and in the worst case (0.15 and 7.3 degrees lower, respectively), according to an evaluation conducted on a dataset consisting of 65 groups of data. We show that both of our enhancements contribute to the performance

  6. Real-Time Biologically Inspired Action Recognition from Key Poses Using a Neuromorphic Architecture. (United States)

    Layher, Georg; Brosch, Tobias; Neumann, Heiko


    Intelligent agents, such as robots, have to serve a multitude of autonomous functions. Examples are, e.g., collision avoidance, navigation and route planning, active sensing of its environment, or the interaction and non-verbal communication with people in the extended reach space. Here, we focus on the recognition of the action of a human agent based on a biologically inspired visual architecture of analyzing articulated movements. The proposed processing architecture builds upon coarsely segregated streams of sensory processing along different pathways which separately process form and motion information (Layher et al., 2014). Action recognition is performed in an event-based scheme by identifying representations of characteristic pose configurations (key poses) in an image sequence. In line with perceptual studies, key poses are selected unsupervised utilizing a feature-driven criterion which combines extrema in the motion energy with the horizontal and the vertical extendedness of a body shape. Per class representations of key pose frames are learned using a deep convolutional neural network consisting of 15 convolutional layers. The network is trained using the energy-efficient deep neuromorphic networks ( Eedn ) framework (Esser et al., 2016), which realizes the mapping of the trained synaptic weights onto the IBM Neurosynaptic System platform (Merolla et al., 2014). After the mapping, the trained network achieves real-time capabilities for processing input streams and classify input images at about 1,000 frames per second while the computational stages only consume about 70 mW of energy (without spike transduction). Particularly regarding mobile robotic systems, a low energy profile might be crucial in a variety of application scenarios. Cross-validation results are reported for two different datasets and compared to state-of-the-art action recognition approaches. The results demonstrate, that (I) the presented approach is on par with other key pose based

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban [Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Department of Nuclear Engineering, San Carlos de Bariloche, Province Rio Negro (Argentina); Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J. [National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA), Laboratory of Tumoral Biology and Inflammation, School of Medical Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED CONICET-UCA), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, Maria E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, Romina F. [UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)


    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  8. Using Biomechanical Optimization To Interpret Dancers’ Pose Selection For A Partnered Spin (United States)


    physical contact. For example, a male dancer leads his partner by increasing or letting off pressure on the females shoulder blade to communicate his...the connection between the two dancers. In reality the dancers have multiple points of connection: leader’s right hand around follower’s left shoulder ... blade , follower’s left hand on leader’s right shoulder, the cou- ple’s arms touching, and leader’s left hand holding the follower’s right hand. To

  9. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter


    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  10. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani


    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  11. Left ventricular hypertrophy, geometric patterns and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy can be due to various reasons including hypertension. It constitutes an increased cardiovascular risk. Various left ventricular geometric patterns occur in hypertension and may affect the cardiovascular risk profile of hypertensive subjects. Methods: One hundred and eighty eight ...

  12. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the scale of left-right symmetry breaking. Keywords. Leptogenesis; baryogenesis; domain walls; left-right symmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 98.80.Cq; 98.80.Ft. Explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem.

  13. On establishing coreference in Left Dislocation constructions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenomenon of left dislocation (LD) has received relatively little attention in the generative literature. In Government & Binding theory and early versions of Minimalist Syntax, the left-dislocated expression is conventionally taken to be base-generated in its sentence-initial surface position and the resumptive pronoun in ...

  14. A new clinical sign probably associated to left hemiplegia with left hemineglect syndrome: the crossed legs. (United States)

    Bazan, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Thiago; Braga, Gabriel; Luvizutto, Gustavo; Resende, Luiz


    To describe a new clinical sign associated with left unilateral neglect syndrome (UNS) in patients with ischemic stroke. Head computed tomography (CT) and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale were obtained in 150 patients with ischemic stroke. Those with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia and right leg persistently crossed over the left were submitted to specific tests for UNS. The tests were also applied to 30 patients with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia but without crossed legs. From 9 patients with persistent tendency to cross the right leg over the left, UNS was detected in 8. One patient died before the clinical tests were applied. Of the 30 patients without the crossed legs, 20 had normal clinical tests for UNS and 10 had minimal alterations, not sufficient for the diagnosis of UNS. The right leg crossed over the left may represent a new neurological semiotic sign associated with left hemiplegia and left UNS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  16. Hierarchical online appearance-based tracking for 3D head pose, eyebrows, lips, eyelids, and irises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, Javier; Rudovic, Ognjen; Gonzalez Garcia, Jordi; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper, we propose an On-line Appearance-Based Tracker (OABT) for simultaneous tracking of 3D head pose, lips, eyebrows, eyelids and irises in monocular video sequences. In contrast to previously proposed tracking approaches, which deal with face and gaze tracking separately, our OABT can

  17. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz ...

  18. Pose Measurement Method and Experiments for High-Speed Rolling Targets in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyuan Jia


    Full Text Available High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  19. Teach it Yourself - Fast Modeling of Industrial Objects for 6D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Thomas; Rajeeth Savarimuthu, Thiusius; Glent Buch, Anders


    In this paper, we present a vision system that allows a human to create new 3D models of novel industrial parts by placing the part in two different positions in the scene. The two shot modeling framework generates models with a precision that allows the model to be used for 6D pose estimation wi...

  20. A problem-posing approach to teaching the topic of radioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, C.W.J.M.


    This thesis highlights a problem-posing approach to science education. By this is meant an approach that explicitly aims at providing students with content-related motives for extending their existing conceptual resources, experiential base and belief system in a certain direction, such that a

  1. Minimization of Linear Functionals Defined on| Solutions of Large-Scale Discrete Ill-Posed Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elden, Lars; Hansen, Per Christian; Rojas, Marielba


    The minimization of linear functionals de ned on the solutions of discrete ill-posed problems arises, e.g., in the computation of con dence intervals for these solutions. In 1990, Elden proposed an algorithm for this minimization problem based on a parametric-programming reformulation involving...

  2. Exploiting residual information in the parameter choice for discrete ill-posed problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Kilmer, Misha E.; Kjeldsen, Rikke Høj


    Most algorithms for choosing the regularization parameter in a discrete ill-posed problem are based on the norm of the residual vector. In this work we propose a different approach, where we seek to use all the information available in the residual vector. We present important relations between...

  3. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [3] Engl H W, Kunisch K and Neubauer A, Convergence rates for Tikhonov regularization of nonliner problems, Inverse Problems 5 (1989) 523–540. [4] Hanke M, Neubauer A and Scherzer O, A convergence analysis of Landweber iteration for nonlinear ill-posed problems, Numer. Math. 72 (1995) 21–37. [5] Hofmann B and ...

  4. Utilizing Semantic Interpretation of Junctions for 3D-2D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Yan, Shi; Grest, Daniel


    In this paper we investigate the quality of 3D-2D pose estimates using hand labeled line and point correspondences. We select point correspondences from junctions in the image, allowing to construct a meaningful interpretation about how the junction is formed, as proposed in e.g. [1], [2], [3]. W...

  5. Multispectral embedding-based deep neural network for three-dimensional human pose recovery (United States)

    Yu, Jialin; Sun, Jifeng


    Monocular image-based three-dimensional (3-D) human pose recovery aims to retrieve 3-D poses using the corresponding two-dimensional image features. Therefore, the pose recovery performance highly depends on the image representations. We propose a multispectral embedding-based deep neural network (MSEDNN) to automatically obtain the most discriminative features from multiple deep convolutional neural networks and then embed their penultimate fully connected layers into a low-dimensional manifold. This compact manifold can explore not only the optimum output from multiple deep networks but also the complementary properties of them. Furthermore, the distribution of each hierarchy discriminative manifold is sufficiently smooth so that the training process of our MSEDNN can be effectively implemented only using few labeled data. Our proposed network contains a body joint detector and a human pose regressor that are jointly trained. Extensive experiments conducted on four databases show that our proposed MSEDNN can achieve the best recovery performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Simulated Lidar Images of Human Pose using a 3DS Max Virtual Laboratory (United States)


    Images of Human Pose using a 3DS Max Virtual Laboratory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6...tight-fitting garment worn by the volunteer, based on a modified Helen Hayes type marker set. Marker trajectories are captured during the subject’s

  7. The Analysis of the Problems the Pre-Service Teachers Experience in Posing Problems about Equations (United States)

    Isik, Cemalettin; Kar, Tugrul


    The present study aimed to analyse the potential difficulties in the problems posed by pre-service teachers about first degree equations with one unknown and equation pairs with two unknowns. It was carried out with 20 pre-service teachers studying in the Department of Elementary Mathematics Educations at a university in Eastern Turkey. The…

  8. Towards real-time body pose estimation for presenters in meeting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes


    This paper describes a computer vision-based approach to body pose estimation. The algorithm can be executed in real-time and processes low resolution, monocular image sequences. A silhouette is extracted and matched against a projection of a 16 DOF human body model. In addition, skin color is used

  9. Effect of operating conditions on thin layers of titanium posed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of operating conditions on thin layers of titanium posed on steel 100C6 substrates with PVD method. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... reaction between the two parts of the system which results the formation of carbides of Ti due to the diffusion of carbon from the substrate towards deposited layers.

  10. Comparison On Matching Methods Used In Pose Tracking For 3D Shape Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Kyu Kyu Win


    Full Text Available In this work three different algorithms such as Brute Force Delaunay Triangulation and k-d Tree are analyzed on matching comparison for 3D shape representation. It is intended for developing the pose tracking of moving objects in video surveillance. To determine 3D pose of moving objects some tracking system may require full 3D pose estimation of arbitrarily shaped objects in real time. In order to perform 3D pose estimation in real time each step in the tracking algorithm must be computationally efficient. This paper presents method comparison for the computationally efficient registration of 3D shapes including free-form surfaces. Matching of free-form surfaces are carried out by using geometric point matching algorithm ICP. Several aspects of the ICP algorithm are investigated and analyzed by using specified surface setup. The surface setup processed in this system is represented by simple geometric primitive dealing with objects of free-from shape. Considered representations are a cloud of points.

  11. An Investigation of Pattern Problems Posed by Middle School Mathematics Preservice Teachers Using Multiple Representation (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yasemin; Durmus, Soner; Yaman, Hakan


    This study investigated the pattern problems posed by middle school mathematics preservice teachers using multiple representations to determine both their pattern knowledge levels and their abilities to transfer this knowledge to students. The design of the study is the survey method, one of the quantitative research methods. The study group was…

  12. Locating binding poses in protein-ligand systems using reconnaissance metadynamics (United States)

    Söderhjelm, Pär; Tribello, Gareth A.; Parrinello, Michele


    A molecular dynamics-based protocol is proposed for finding and scoring protein-ligand binding poses. This protocol uses the recently developed reconnaissance metadynamics method, which employs a self-learning algorithm to construct a bias that pushes the system away from the kinetic traps where it would otherwise remain. The exploration of phase space with this algorithm is shown to be roughly six to eight times faster than unbiased molecular dynamics and is only limited by the time taken to diffuse about the surface of the protein. We apply this method to the well-studied trypsin–benzamidine system and show that we are able to refind all the poses obtained from a reference EADock blind docking calculation. These poses can be scored based on the length of time the system remains trapped in the pose. Alternatively, one can perform dimensionality reduction on the output trajectory and obtain a map of phase space that can be used in more expensive free-energy calculations. PMID:22440749

  13. A Monocular SLAM Method to Estimate Relative Pose During Satellite Proximity Operations (United States)


    19 SIFT Scale Invariant Feature Transform...typically performed experi- mentally through the use of a calibration checkerboard. Zhang describes the theory behind this process [49]. Numerous packages...calibration, constraining a point in one image to a corresponding epipolar line in a second image (through a change in camera pose, and at a mini - mum, a non

  14. Pose Estimation using a Hierarchical 3D Representation of Contours and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders Glent; Kraft, Dirk; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian


    descriptor of the contour and texture features to provide a sparse, yet descriptive object representation. Using our descriptors, we do a search in the correspondence space to perform outlier removal and compute the object pose. We perform an extensive evaluation of our approach with stereo images...

  15. Perturbation-Based Regularization for Signal Estimation in Linear Discrete Ill-posed Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag


    Estimating the values of unknown parameters from corrupted measured data faces a lot of challenges in ill-posed problems. In such problems, many fundamental estimation methods fail to provide a meaningful stabilized solution. In this work, we propose a new regularization approach and a new regularization parameter selection approach for linear least-squares discrete ill-posed problems. The proposed approach is based on enhancing the singular-value structure of the ill-posed model matrix to acquire a better solution. Unlike many other regularization algorithms that seek to minimize the estimated data error, the proposed approach is developed to minimize the mean-squared error of the estimator which is the objective in many typical estimation scenarios. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to a large set of real-world discrete ill-posed problems. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms a set of benchmark regularization methods in most cases. In addition, the approach also enjoys the lowest runtime and offers the highest level of robustness amongst all the tested benchmark regularization methods.

  16. Tooth display and lip position during spontaneous and posed smiling in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P.A.A.M. van der; Oosterveld, P.; Berge, S.J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in tooth display, lip-line height, and smile width between the posed smiling record, traditionally produced for orthodontic diagnosis, and the spontaneous (Duchenne) smile of joy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The faces of 122 male participants were each filmed during

  17. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song


    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  18. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement ...

  19. An Error Analysis in Division Problems in Fractions Posed by Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Isik, Cemalettin; Kar, Tugrul


    The present study aimed to make an error analysis in the problems posed by pre-service elementary mathematics teachers about fractional division operation. It was carried out with 64 pre-service teachers studying in their final year in the Department of Mathematics Teaching in an eastern university during the spring semester of academic year…

  20. Collaborative Random Faces-Guided Encoders for Pose-Invariant Face Representation Learning. (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Zhang, Yizhe; Fu, Yun


    Learning discriminant face representation for pose-invariant face recognition has been identified as a critical issue in visual learning systems. The challenge lies in the drastic changes of facial appearances between the test face and the registered face. To that end, we propose a high-level feature learning framework called "collaborative random faces (RFs)-guided encoders" toward this problem. The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, we propose a novel supervised autoencoder that is able to capture the high-level identity feature despite of pose variations. Second, we enrich the identity features by replacing the target values of conventional autoencoders with random signals (RFs in this paper), which are unique for each subject under different poses. Third, we further improve the performance of the framework by incorporating deep convolutional neural network facial descriptors and linking discriminative identity features from different RFs for the augmented identity features. Finally, we conduct face identification experiments on Multi-PIE database, and face verification experiments on labeled faces in the wild and YouTube Face databases, where face recognition rate and verification accuracy with Receiver Operating Characteristic curves are rendered. In addition, discussions of model parameters and connections with the existing methods are provided. These experiments demonstrate that our learning system works fairly well on handling pose variations.

  1. A Comparison of Iterative 2D-3D Pose Estimation Methods for Real-Time Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel; Krüger, Volker; Petersen, Thomas


    This work compares iterative 2D-3D Pose Estimation methods for use in real-time applications. The compared methods are available for public as C++ code. One method is part of the openCV library, namely POSIT. Because POSIT is not applicable for planar 3Dpoint congurations, we include the planar...

  2. Posing the historical Jesus question and the goal of African biblical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the third quest in the late 20th century, posed the question of understanding Jesus as a human person among his contemporaries and sought to reconstruct the historical figure of the man Jesus against the background of the history, culture and society of first century Palestine and the Roman Empire. The study ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisma Puspita Dewi


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui apakah metode problem posing berbantuan media prezi dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar dan lebih efektif dibandingkan metode ceramah pada materi jurnal penyesuaian. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi experiment dengan pola nonequivalent control group design. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI IPS di SMA N 1 Padamara Kabupaten Purbalingga tahun pelajaran 2014/2015. Sampel penelitian dipilih secara cluster random sampling yang kemudian diperoleh kelas XI IPS 3 sebagai kelas eksperimen dan XI IPS 4 sebagai kelas kontrol. Metode pengumpulan data yaitu dokumentasi, tes, observasi. Pengujian H1 yaitu menggunakan uji paired sample t-test dan H2 menggunakan uji independent sample t-test. Hasil uji menunjukkan adanya peningkatan hasil belajar setelah adanya perlakuan. Kemudian dari hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa metode problem posing berbantuan media prezi lebih efektif dibandingkan metode ceramah. Oleh karena itu, guru disarankan unuk menggunakan metode problem posing berbantuan media prezi pada materi jurnal penyesuaian atau pada materi lain. Pihak sekolah juga disarankan untuk mengadakan pelatihan bagi guru mengenai penggunaan media prezi.. The purposes of this study were to find out whether implementing problem posing method by using prezi media could improve learning achievement and to find out whether implementing problem posing method by using prezi media was more effective than by using lecture method in adjusting journal subject. This study conducted a quasi-experimental design (nonequivalent control group design. The population of the study was all students of XI IPS in SMA N 1 Padamara, the regency of Purbalingga, in the academic year of 2014/2015. The sample of this study was selected by using cluster random sampling. Students of class XI IPS 3 were chosen as the experimental group and students of class XI IPS 4 were chosen as the control group. The methods of collecting

  4. Social aspects of left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belojević Goran


    Full Text Available Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a “good” - right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioral patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behavior and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  5. Left ventricular performance during triggered left ventricular pacing in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy and left bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Christoffer Tobias; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard


    PURPOSE: To assess the acute effect of triggered left ventricular pacing (tLVp) on left ventricular performance and contraction pattern in patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with pre-implant QRS...... complex >150 ms, QRS complex narrowing under CRT, and sinus rhythm were included ≥3 months after CRT implantation. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS), and contraction pattern by 2D strain was performed during intrinsic......V pacing. CONCLUSIONS: The acute effect of tLVp on LV systolic function and contraction pattern is significantly lower than the effect of BiV pacing and not different from intrinsic conduction in patients with LBBB and CRT....

  6. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left intraventricular conduction disorders]. (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A


    Both, the vectorcardiographic changes produced by the various degrees of left bundle branch block and these observed with the different types of left distal block, are described. When a "wave jumping" phenomenon exists, the vectorcardiographic changes are more characteristic in the horizontal plane than in the frontal plane and can be interpreted satisfactorily in basis of the ventricular activation sequence. The normal counterclockwise rotation of the horizontal vectorcardiogram persists in the presence of left bundle branch block of slight and moderate degrees, since the electromotive forces of the free left ventricular wall are still predominant. In the majority of intermediate degree blocks, the middle portion of the RH loop develops with a clockwise rotation and general aspect with a clockwise rotation and the general aspect of the ventricular loop resembles an eight figure. This is due to the electromotive forces originated by the delayed depolarization of the left septal mass that starts to predominate. With advanced degrees of block, the largest portion of the RH loop shows a clockwise rotation, as well as marked notchings and slurrings. The initial anterior portion of the horizontal vectorcardiogram does not disappear, but is situated to the left of the anterior-posterior axis with a counterclockwise rotation (first right septal vector). Otherwise, the direct electrical sign of left distal block emphasized: evidence of delayed activation in a limited zone of the homolateral ventricle. This local delay gives rise to an asynchronism of the activation phenomenon between the upper and lower regions of the ventricle. The diagnosis of left bifascicular block is based essentially on the evidence of unequal delay of the activation sequence in the basal regions and in the inferior ones of the homolateral ventricle and also on the frequent persistence of the first left septal vector.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Win Afgani


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana untuk menghasilkan materi pembelajaran matematika problem possing berbasis komputer dan untuk mengetahui bagaimana kuantitas dan kualitas pertanyaan siswa dari masalah pendekatan problem possing berbasis komputer. Pertanyaan dan respon siswa dikumpulkan dari 35 siswa kelas satu SMA di Bandung. Data dianalisis dengan deskriptif dengan menggunakan rubrik Leung dan taksonomi Bloom. Untuk menghasilkan materi problem posing berbasis komputer, pertama, guru harus memilih konsep yang diharapkan dapat mengembangkan kemampuan siswa. Setelah itu, guru mencari konteks yang sesuai dengan konsep. Setelah konteks yang dipilih dan cocok tersebut, guru harus memilih software untuk melakukan ide dalam bentuk yang dinamis. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dari 240 pertanyaan yang diberikan oleh siswa, hanya 35% yang masuk akal dan cukup masalah matematika. Dari 35% pertanyaan tersebut menunjukkan bahwa 75% siswa di tingkat pemahaman berdasarkan Bloom taksonomi. Dari 75% siswa yang merespon tersebut menunjukkan bahwa mereka senang terhadap materi yang menggunakan pendekatan problem possing matematika berbasis komputer.     This study aims to know how to produce mathematics problem posing material based on computer and to know how the quantity and quality of students’ question from mathematics problem posing based on computer. Students’ questions and respond is collected from 35 first grade students of senior high school in Bandung. The data is analysed with descriptively by using Leung’s rubric and Bloom taxonomy. To produce problem posing material based on computer, first, teacher must choose a concept that wish to be gifted to students. After that, the teacher searchs a context that according to the concept. After the context is selected and match with it, the teacher must choose a software to perform the idea in dynamic form. The result of this study shows that there is 240 questions that pose by

  8. 6-DOF Pose Estimation of a Robotic Navigation Aid by Tracking Visual and Geometric Features. (United States)

    Ye, Cang; Hong, Soonhac; Tamjidi, Amirhossein


    This paper presents a 6-DOF Pose Estimation (PE) method for a Robotic Navigation Aid (RNA) for the visually impaired. The RNA uses a single 3D camera for PE and object detection. The proposed method processes the camera's intensity and range data to estimates the camera's egomotion that is then used by an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) as the motion model to track a set of visual features for PE. A RANSAC process is employed in the EKF to identify inliers from the visual feature correspondences between two image frames. Only the inliers are used to update the EKF's state. The EKF integrates the egomotion into the camera's pose in the world coordinate system. To retain the EKF's consistency, the distance between the camera and the floor plane (extracted from the range data) is used by the EKF as the observation of the camera's z coordinate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method results in accurate pose estimates for positioning the RNA in indoor environments. Based on the PE method, a wayfinding system is developed for localization of the RNA in a home environment. The system uses the estimated pose and the floorplan to locate the RNA user in the home environment and announces the points of interest and navigational commands to the user through a speech interface. This work was motivated by the limitations of the existing navigation technology for the visually impaired. Most of the existing methods use a point/line measurement sensor for indoor object detection. Therefore, they lack capability in detecting 3D objects and positioning a blind traveler. Stereovision has been used in recent research. However, it cannot provide reliable depth data for object detection. Also, it tends to produce a lower localization accuracy because its depth measurement error quadratically increases with the true distance. This paper suggests a new approach for navigating a blind traveler. The method uses a single 3D time-of-flight camera for both 6-DOF PE and 3D object

  9. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo


    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  10. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, and is defined as a gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres and the falciform ligament.1 LSGB was first described by Hochstetter in 1886, and its identification is important because of the numerous and potentially hazardous.

  11. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.


    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  12. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  13. No Child Left Inside Week: Pilot Program


    Clark, Jamie C.


    This program evaluation assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a free No Child Left Inside (NCLI) week-long outdoor program to coincide with the Utah state-designated No Child Left Inside Week. The pilot program was implemented at the community level in Cache Valley, Utah, in 2012. Families attended eleven activities throughout the week that included hands-on experience and participation. A community BioBlitz was also planned as a conclusion to the week. Survey results demonstrate incr...

  14. Theory research of seam recognition and welding torch pose control based on machine vision (United States)

    Long, Qiang; Zhai, Peng; Liu, Miao; He, Kai; Wang, Chunyang


    At present, the automation requirement of the welding become higher, so a method of the welding information extraction by vision sensor is proposed in this paper, and the simulation with the MATLAB has been conducted. Besides, in order to improve the quality of robot automatic welding, an information retrieval method for welding torch pose control by visual sensor is attempted. Considering the demands of welding technology and engineering habits, the relative coordinate systems and variables are strictly defined, and established the mathematical model of the welding pose, and verified its feasibility by using the MATLAB simulation in the paper, these works lay a foundation for the development of welding off-line programming system with high precision and quality.

  15. NUI framework based on real-time head pose estimation and hand gesture recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunduk


    Full Text Available The natural user interface (NUI is used for the natural motion interface without using device or tool such as mice, keyboards, pens and markers. In this paper, we develop natural user interface framework based on two recognition module. First module is real-time head pose estimation module using random forests and second module is hand gesture recognition module, named Hand gesture Key Emulation Toolkit (HandGKET. Using the head pose estimation module, we can know where the user is looking and what the user’s focus of attention is. Moreover, using the hand gesture recognition module, we can also control the computer using the user’s hand gesture without mouse and keyboard. In proposed framework, the user’s head direction and hand gesture are mapped into mouse and keyboard event, respectively.

  16. Solving ill-posed control problems by stabilized finite element methods: an alternative to Tikhonov regularization (United States)

    Burman, Erik; Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.


    Tikhonov regularization is one of the most commonly used methods for the regularization of ill-posed problems. In the setting of finite element solutions of elliptic partial differential control problems, Tikhonov regularization amounts to adding suitably weighted least squares terms of the control variable, or derivatives thereof, to the Lagrangian determining the optimality system. In this note we show that the stabilization methods for discretely ill-posed problems developed in the setting of convection-dominated convection-diffusion problems, can be highly suitable for stabilizing optimal control problems, and that Tikhonov regularization will lead to less accurate discrete solutions. We consider some inverse problems for Poisson’s equation as an illustration and derive new error estimates both for the reconstruction of the solution from the measured data and reconstruction of the source term from the measured data. These estimates include both the effect of the discretization error and error in the measurements.

  17. PRA has many faces - can the safety goal be well-posed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargmann, H.


    The question is discussed whether probabilistic reliability problems can, principally, be well-posed in practical situations. The problem is reduced to the question whether an underlying probabilistic experiment which is, essentially, the set of outcomes can be precisely specified such that the solution of the problem is unique. Upon reexamination of a classical paradox due to Bertrand and consideration of a typical problem of structural reliability we conclude that the possibility of well-posing a reliability problem should be considered illusory, for fundamental reasons which are inherent in practical situations. In particular, it should not be assumed that a quantitative safety goal could be verified. Generally, a probabilistic assessment should be considered as a quantitative method for establishing rational results which should, however, not be viewed as quantitative measures but as qualitative guides

  18. Convergence rates for regularization of ill-posed problems in Banach spaces by approximate source conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Torsten


    In this paper we deal with convergence rates for regularizing ill-posed problems with operator mapping from a Hilbert space into a Banach space. Since we cannot transfer the well-established convergence rates theory in Hilbert spaces, only few convergence rates results are known in the literature for this situation. Therefore we present an alternative approach for deriving convergence rates. Hereby we deal with so-called distance functions which quantify the violation of a reference source condition. With the aid of these functions we present error bounds and convergence rates for regularized solutions of linear and nonlinear problems when the reference source condition is not satisfied. We show that the approach of applying distance functions carries over the idea of considering generalized source conditions in Hilbert spaces to inverse problems in Banach spaces in a natural way. Introducing this topic for linear ill-posed problems we additionally show that this theory can be easily extended to nonlinear problems

  19. Numerical methods for the design of large-scale nonlinear discrete ill-posed inverse problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, E; Horesh, L; Tenorio, L


    Design of experiments for discrete ill-posed problems is a relatively new area of research. While there has been some limited work concerning the linear case, little has been done to study design criteria and numerical methods for ill-posed nonlinear problems. We present an algorithmic framework for nonlinear experimental design with an efficient numerical implementation. The data are modeled as indirect, noisy observations of the model collected via a set of plausible experiments. An inversion estimate based on these data is obtained by a weighted Tikhonov regularization whose weights control the contribution of the different experiments to the data misfit term. These weights are selected by minimization of an empirical estimate of the Bayes risk that is penalized to promote sparsity. This formulation entails a bilevel optimization problem that is solved using a simple descent method. We demonstrate the viability of our design with a problem in electromagnetic imaging based on direct current resistivity and magnetotelluric data

  20. Cartesian Control of a 3-DOF Electro-Pneumatic Actuated Motion Platform with Exteroceptive Pose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Izaguirre


    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinematic cartesian control scheme of 3 degree of freedom parallel robot driven by electro-pneumatic actuators based on exteroceptive pose measurement system. The inverse kinematics model is used to obtain the desired joint position coordinates from the time-varying trajectory given in task space. The proposal cascade control scheme in task space is based in two loops, the inner loop consisting in a decoupled joint position control and the outer loop which is designed to obtain an appropriate task space trajectory tracking. In order to avoid the on-line computation of direct kinematics an arrangement of inertial sensor and optical encoders are employed to provide the accurate pose measurement of end-effector. The experiment's results demonstrate the great performance of the proposed control scheme in industrial motion tracking application.

  1. Rider trunk and bicycle pose estimation with fusion of force/inertial sensors. (United States)

    Zhang, Yizhai; Chen, Kuo; Yi, Jingang


    Estimation of human pose in physical human-machine interactions such as bicycling is challenging because of highly-dimensional human motion and lack of inexpensive, effective motion sensors. In this paper, we present a computational scheme to estimate both the rider trunk pose and the bicycle roll angle using only inertial and force sensors. The estimation scheme is built on a rider-bicycle dynamic model and the fusion of the wearable inertial sensors and the bicycle force sensors. We take advantages of the attractive properties of the robust force measurements and the motion-sensitive inertial measurements. The rider-bicycle dynamic model provides the underlying relationship between the force and the inertial measurements. The extended Kalman filter-based sensor fusion design fully incorporates the dynamic effects of the force measurements. The performance of the estimation scheme is demonstrated through extensive indoor and outdoor riding experiments.

  2. A Case Study into the Effects of Posing Good Question on the Students' Math Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soleymanpour


    Full Text Available Numerous methods are employed to teach mathematics. One of them is posing questions in the math class. This study is intended to investigate the effects of Posing-Good-Questions Method (PGQM on math achievement of the high school first graders in comparison to traditional math teaching methods. The present study is quasi-experimental with experiment and control groups. Research sample consists of 71 girl high school first graders selected through cluster sampling. Instrumentation used by the study is a teacher-made school achievement test. The results obtained from paired samples test, Mann-Whitney and Wilcaxon test found that there is no significant difference between experiment and control groups with this regard. It suggests that owing to some unknown educational barriers, PGQM yields no math achievement among high school students.

  3. Real-time surgical tool tracking and pose estimation using a hybrid cylindrical marker. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ye, Menglong; Chan, Po-Ling; Yang, Guang-Zhong


    To provide an integrated visualisation of intraoperative ultrasound and endoscopic images to facilitate intraoperative guidance, real-time tracking of the ultrasound probe is required. State-of-the-art methods are suitable for planar targets while most of the laparoscopic ultrasound probes are cylindrical objects. A tracking framework for cylindrical objects with a large work space will improve the usability of the intraoperative ultrasound guidance. A hybrid marker design that combines circular dots and chessboard vertices is proposed for facilitating tracking cylindrical tools. The circular dots placed over the curved surface are used for pose estimation. The chessboard vertices are employed to provide additional information for resolving the ambiguous pose problem due to the use of planar model points under a monocular camera. Furthermore, temporal information between consecutive images is considered to minimise tracking failures with real-time computational performance. Detailed validation confirms that our hybrid marker provides a large working space for different tool sizes (6-14 mm in diameter). The tracking framework allows translational movements between 40 and 185 mm along the depth direction and rotational motion around three local orthogonal axes up to [Formula: see text]. Comparative studies with the current state of the art confirm that our approach outperforms existing methods by providing nearly 100% detection rates and accurate pose estimation with mean errors of 2.8 mm and 0.72[Formula: see text]. The tracking algorithm runs at 20 frames per second for [Formula: see text] image resolution videos. Experiments show that the proposed hybrid marker can be applied to a wide range of surgical tools with superior detection rates and pose estimation accuracies. Both the qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our framework can be used not only for assisting intraoperative ultrasound guidance but also for tracking general surgical tools in

  4. Soft tissue navigation for laparoscopic prostatectomy: evaluation of camera pose estimation for enhanced visualization (United States)

    Baumhauer, M.; Simpfendörfer, T.; Schwarz, R.; Seitel, M.; Müller-Stich, B. P.; Gutt, C. N.; Rassweiler, J.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wolf, I.


    We introduce a novel navigation system to support minimally invasive prostate surgery. The system utilizes transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and needle-shaped navigation aids to visualize hidden structures via Augmented Reality. During the intervention, the navigation aids are segmented once from a 3D TRUS dataset and subsequently tracked by the endoscope camera. Camera Pose Estimation methods directly determine position and orientation of the camera in relation to the navigation aids. Accordingly, our system does not require any external tracking device for registration of endoscope camera and ultrasonography probe. In addition to a preoperative planning step in which the navigation targets are defined, the procedure consists of two main steps which are carried out during the intervention: First, the preoperatively prepared planning data is registered with an intraoperatively acquired 3D TRUS dataset and the segmented navigation aids. Second, the navigation aids are continuously tracked by the endoscope camera. The camera's pose can thereby be derived and relevant medical structures can be superimposed on the video image. This paper focuses on the latter step. We have implemented several promising real-time algorithms and incorporated them into the Open Source Toolkit MITK ( Furthermore, we have evaluated them for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) navigation scenarios. For this purpose, a virtual evaluation environment has been developed, which allows for the simulation of navigation targets and navigation aids, including their measurement errors. Besides evaluating the accuracy of the computed pose, we have analyzed the impact of an inaccurate pose and the resulting displacement of navigation targets in Augmented Reality.

  5. Mickey Mouse poses with a portrait of Ronald McNair (United States)


    In the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla., Mickey Mouse poses with a portrait of NASA astronaut Ronald McNair. The portrait was presented to the school by Walt Disney World during a tribute to McNair. The school had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut who was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  6. Dr. David Brown poses with a portrait of Ronald McNair (United States)


    In the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla., Dr. David Brown, a NASA astronaut, poses with a portrait of NASA astronaut Ronald McNair. The portrait was presented to the school by Walt Disney World during a tribute to McNair. The school had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut who was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  7. An Analog Model of Computation for the Ill-Posed Problems of Early Vision, (United States)


    the negative impedance regions in such highly nonlinear systems as the tunnel diode or a Hodgkin - Huxley like membrane. a) , -24,, 4 , v42 ,. - .I- O...recent years (see especially Tikhonov and Arsenin, 1977; and Nashed, 1974). Ill-posed S problems of the form y - Az, (’) where A is a possibly nonlinear...operator on the unknown solution z, and y is the data, can be regularized by introducing suitable norms 1-11, usually quadratic, and a "stabilizing

  8. Review and Synthesis of Evidence Regarding Environmental Risks Posed by Munitions Constituents (MC) in Aquatic Systems (United States)


    Risks Posed by Munitions Constituents (MC) in Aquatic Systems En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Guilherme R. Lotufo, Mark A. Chappell, Cynthia L...public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering ...and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and

  9. Certainty Posing: The Motives and Morality of Exaggerating One's Degree of Certainty


    Van Zant, Alexander Bryant


    In this dissertation I examine a form of deception that I refer to as certainty posing, or exaggerating one’s degree of certainty. People are often expected to convey certainty in their ability to know the truth or forecast the future. As I argue, this expectation can motivate them to deliberately exaggerate their degree of certainty. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I find support for this assertion across a series of six experiments. Specifically, I find evidence that certainty po...

  10. Right-Hand Side Dependent Bounds for GMRES Applied to Ill-Posed Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer


    © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014. In this paper we apply simple GMRES bounds to the nearly singular systems that arise in ill-posed problems. Our bounds depend on the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix, the right-hand side vector and the nonnormality of the system. The bounds show that GMRES residuals initially decrease, as residual components associated with large eigenvalues are reduced, after which semi-convergence can be expected because of the effects of small eigenvalues.

  11. On Landweber–Kaczmarz methods for regularizing systems of ill-posed equations in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitão, A; Alves, M Marques


    In this paper, iterative regularization methods of Landweber–Kaczmarz type are considered for solving systems of ill-posed equations modeled (finitely many) by operators acting between Banach spaces. Using assumptions of uniform convexity and smoothness on the parameter space, we are able to prove a monotony result for the proposed method, as well as to establish convergence (for exact data) and stability results (in the noisy data case). (paper)

  12. Monocular Vision- and IMU-Based System for Prosthesis Pose Estimation During Total Hip Replacement Surgery. (United States)

    Su, Shaojie; Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Zhihua; Chen, Hong


    The average age of population increases worldwide, so does the number of total hip replacement surgeries. Total hip replacement, however, often involves a risk of dislocation and prosthetic impingement. To minimize the risk after surgery, we propose an instrumented hip prosthesis that estimates the relative pose between prostheses intraoperatively and ensures the placement of prostheses within a safe zone. We create a model of the hip prosthesis as a ball and socket joint, which has four degrees of freedom (DOFs), including 3-DOF rotation and 1-DOF translation. We mount a camera and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) inside the hollow ball, or "femoral head prosthesis," while printing customized patterns on the internal surface of the socket, or "acetabular cup." Since the sensors were rigidly fixed to the femoral head prosthesis, measuring its motions poses a sensor ego-motion estimation problem. By matching feature points in images of the reference patterns, we propose a monocular vision based method with a relative error of less than 7% in the 3-DOF rotation and 8% in the 1-DOF translation. Further, to reduce system power consumption, we apply the IMU with its data fused by an extended Kalman filter to replace the camera in the 3-DOF rotation estimation, which yields a less than 4.8% relative error and a 21.6% decrease in power consumption. Experimental results show that the best approach to prosthesis pose estimation is a combination of monocular vision-based translation estimation and IMU-based rotation estimation, and we have verified the feasibility and validity of this system in prosthesis pose estimation.

  13. Drilling simulated temporal bones with left-handed tools: a left-hander's right? (United States)

    Torgerson, Cory S; Brydges, Ryan; Chen, Joseph M; Dubrowski, Adam


    Left-handed trainees can be at a disadvantage in the surgical environment because of a right-handed bias. The effectiveness of teaching left-handed trainees to use an otologic drill designed for their dominant hand versus the conventional right-handed drill was examined. Novice medical students were recruited from the university community. Twenty-four subjects were left-handed, and 12 were right-handed. Eight left-handed surgeons also participated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the performance of left-handed trainees using novel left-handed drills to that of left-handed trainees using right-handed tools and to that of right-handed trainees using right-handed tools. The evaluation consisted of 3 phases: pretest, skill acquisition, and 2 post-tests. The measurement tools included expert assessment of performance, and subjective and objective final product analyses. An initial construct validity phase was conducted in which validity of the assessment tools was ensured. Both the left-handers using left-handed tools and the right-handers using right-handed tools significantly outperformed the left-handers using right-handed tools at pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest. All participants improved their performance as a function of practice. The left-handed trainees learned bone drilling better with tools designed for the left hand. These tools may be incorporated into residency training programs for the development of surgical technical skills. Future studies should assess skill transfer between the left-handed and right-handed drills.

  14. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Left Main Disease: Pre- and Post-EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Everolimus Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) and NOBLE (Nordic-Baltic-British Left Main Revascularization Study) Era. (United States)

    Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Seung-Jung


    For nearly half a century, coronary artery bypass grafting has been the standard treatment for patients with obstructive left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease. However, there has been considerable evolution in the field of percutaneous coronary intervention, and especially, percutaneous coronary intervention for LMCA disease has been rapidly expanded with adoption of drug-eluting stents. Some, but not all randomized trials, have shown that percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents might be a suitable alternative for selected patients with LMCA disease instead of bypass surgery. However, none of previous trials involving early-generation drug-eluting stents was sufficiently powered and comparative trials using contemporary drug-eluting stents were limited. Recently, primary results of 2 new trials of EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Everolimus Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) and NOBLE (Nordic-Baltic-British Left Main Revascularization Study) were reported. However, these trials showed conflicting results, which might pose uncertainty on the optimal revascularization strategy for LMCA disease. In this article, with the incorporation of a key review on evolution of LMCA treatment, we summarize the similarity or disparity of the EXCEL and NOBLE trials, focus on how they relate to previous trials in the field, and finally speculate on how the treatment strategy may be changed or recommended for LMCA treatment. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The Left and Minority Representation: The Labour Party, Muslim Candidates, and Inclusion Tradeoffs. (United States)

    Dancygier, Rafaela


    As ethnic diversity rises across Europe, the Left faces a trade-off between incorporating new minorities while retaining support from settled, working-class voters. Focusing on the Labour Party's selection of Muslims and employing a dataset containing over 42,000 local election candidates in England, this article argues that inclusion is less likely where core voters are most concerned about the representation of Muslims' material and religious interests: economically deprived areas with sizable Muslim populations. It shows that in these areas Muslim candidates underperform at the polls and Labour Parties are less likely to choose Muslim candidates here as a result. Selection thus varies based on the economic and cultural threats that Muslim representation poses to the Left's core constituency. These findings contribute to our understanding of the forces that shape ethnic minority political incorporation across contexts.

  16. The Pose Estimation of Mobile Robot Based on Improved Point Cloud Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzi Miao


    Full Text Available Due to GPS restrictions, an inertial sensor is usually used to estimate the location of indoor mobile robots. However, it is difficult to achieve high-accuracy localization and control by inertial sensors alone. In this paper, a new method is proposed to estimate an indoor mobile robot pose with six degrees of freedom based on an improved 3D-Normal Distributions Transform algorithm (3D-NDT. First, point cloud data are captured by a Kinect sensor and segmented according to the distance to the robot. After the segmentation, the input point cloud data are processed by the Approximate Voxel Grid Filter algorithm in different sized voxel grids. Second, the initial registration and precise registration are performed respectively according to the distance to the sensor. The most distant point cloud data use the 3D-Normal Distributions Transform algorithm (3D-NDT with large-sized voxel grids for initial registration, based on the transformation matrix from the odometry method. The closest point cloud data use the 3D-NDT algorithm with small-sized voxel grids for precise registration. After the registrations above, a final transformation matrix is obtained and coordinated. Based on this transformation matrix, the pose estimation problem of the indoor mobile robot is solved. Test results show that this method can obtain accurate robot pose estimation and has better robustness.

  17. Fast eigenspace decomposition of images of objects with variation in illumination and pose. (United States)

    Hoover, Randy C; Maciejewski, Anthony A; Roberts, Rodney G


    Many appearance-based classification problems such as principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and locally preserving projections involve computing the principal components (eigenspace) of a large set of images. Although the online expense associated with appearance-based techniques is small, the offline computational burden becomes prohibitive for practical applications. This paper presents a method to reduce the expense of computing the eigenspace decomposition of a set of images when variations in both illumination and pose are present. In particular, it is shown that the set of images of an object under a wide range of illumination conditions and a fixed pose can be significantly reduced by projecting these data onto a few low-frequency spherical harmonics, producing a set of "harmonic images." It is then shown that the dimensionality of the set of harmonic images at different poses can be further reduced by utilizing the fast Fourier transform. An eigenspace decomposition is then applied in the spectral domain at a much lower dimension, thereby significantly reducing the computational expense. An analysis is also provided, showing that the principal eigenimages computed assuming a single illumination source are capable of recovering a significant amount of information from images of objects when multiple illumination sources exist.

  18. Pose Self-Calibration of Stereo Vision Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Applications. (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; Martín, David; Armingol, José María; de la Escalera, Arturo


    Nowadays, intelligent systems applied to vehicles have grown very rapidly; their goal is not only the improvement of safety, but also making autonomous driving possible. Many of these intelligent systems are based on making use of computer vision in order to know the environment and act accordingly. It is of great importance to be able to estimate the pose of the vision system because the measurement matching between the perception system (pixels) and the vehicle environment (meters) depends on the relative position between the perception system and the environment. A new method of camera pose estimation for stereo systems is presented in this paper, whose main contribution regarding the state of the art on the subject is the estimation of the pitch angle without being affected by the roll angle. The validation of the self-calibration method is accomplished by comparing it with relevant methods of camera pose estimation, where a synthetic sequence is used in order to measure the continuous error with a ground truth. This validation is enriched by the experimental results of the method in real traffic environments.

  19. Pose Self-Calibration of Stereo Vision Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basam Musleh


    Full Text Available Nowadays, intelligent systems applied to vehicles have grown very rapidly; their goal is not only the improvement of safety, but also making autonomous driving possible. Many of these intelligent systems are based on making use of computer vision in order to know the environment and act accordingly. It is of great importance to be able to estimate the pose of the vision system because the measurement matching between the perception system (pixels and the vehicle environment (meters depends on the relative position between the perception system and the environment. A new method of camera pose estimation for stereo systems is presented in this paper, whose main contribution regarding the state of the art on the subject is the estimation of the pitch angle without being affected by the roll angle. The validation of the self-calibration method is accomplished by comparing it with relevant methods of camera pose estimation, where a synthetic sequence is used in order to measure the continuous error with a ground truth. This validation is enriched by the experimental results of the method in real traffic environments.

  20. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis (United States)

    Viirman, Olov


    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  1. Drogue pose estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle autonomous aerial refueling system based on infrared vision sensor (United States)

    Chen, Shanjun; Duan, Haibin; Deng, Yimin; Li, Cong; Zhao, Guozhi; Xu, Yan


    Autonomous aerial refueling is a significant technology that can significantly extend the endurance of unmanned aerial vehicles. A reliable method that can accurately estimate the position and attitude of the probe relative to the drogue is the key to such a capability. A drogue pose estimation method based on infrared vision sensor is introduced with the general goal of yielding an accurate and reliable drogue state estimate. First, by employing direct least squares ellipse fitting and convex hull in OpenCV, a feature point matching and interference point elimination method is proposed. In addition, considering the conditions that some infrared LEDs are damaged or occluded, a missing point estimation method based on perspective transformation and affine transformation is designed. Finally, an accurate and robust pose estimation algorithm improved by the runner-root algorithm is proposed. The feasibility of the designed visual measurement system is demonstrated by flight test, and the results indicate that our proposed method enables precise and reliable pose estimation of the probe relative to the drogue, even in some poor conditions.

  2. Improving head and body pose estimation through semi-supervised manifold alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Heili, Alexandre


    In this paper, we explore the use of a semi-supervised manifold alignment method for domain adaptation in the context of human body and head pose estimation in videos. We build upon an existing state-of-the-art system that leverages on external labelled datasets for the body and head features, and on the unlabelled test data with weak velocity labels to do a coupled estimation of the body and head pose. While this previous approach showed promising results, the learning of the underlying manifold structure of the features in the train and target data and the need to align them were not explored despite the fact that the pose features between two datasets may vary according to the scene, e.g. due to different camera point of view or perspective. In this paper, we propose to use a semi-supervised manifold alignment method to bring the train and target samples closer within the resulting embedded space. To this end, we consider an adaptation set from the target data and rely on (weak) labels, given for example by the velocity direction whenever they are reliable. These labels, along with the training labels are used to bias the manifold distance within each manifold and to establish correspondences for alignment.

  3. Hardware in the Loop Performance Assessment of LIDAR-Based Spacecraft Pose Determination. (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele


    In this paper an original, easy to reproduce, semi-analytic calibration approach is developed for hardware-in-the-loop performance assessment of pose determination algorithms processing point cloud data, collected by imaging a non-cooperative target with LIDARs. The laboratory setup includes a scanning LIDAR, a monocular camera, a scaled-replica of a satellite-like target, and a set of calibration tools. The point clouds are processed by uncooperative model-based algorithms to estimate the target relative position and attitude with respect to the LIDAR. Target images, acquired by a monocular camera operated simultaneously with the LIDAR, are processed applying standard solutions to the Perspective- n -Points problem to get high-accuracy pose estimates which can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the accuracy attained by the LIDAR-based techniques. To this aim, a precise knowledge of the extrinsic relative calibration between the camera and the LIDAR is essential, and it is obtained by implementing an original calibration approach which does not need ad-hoc homologous targets (e.g., retro-reflectors) easily recognizable by the two sensors. The pose determination techniques investigated by this work are of interest to space applications involving close-proximity maneuvers between non-cooperative platforms, e.g., on-orbit servicing and active debris removal.

  4. A New 3D Object Pose Detection Method Using LIDAR Shape Set. (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Un; Kang, Hang-Bong


    In object detection systems for autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors provide very useful information. However, problems occur because the object representation is greatly distorted by changes in distance. To solve this problem, we propose a LIDAR shape set that reconstructs the shape surrounding the object more clearly by using the LIDAR point information projected on the object. The LIDAR shape set restores object shape edges from a bird's eye view by filtering LIDAR points projected on a 2D pixel-based front view. In this study, we use this shape set for two purposes. The first is to supplement the shape set with a LIDAR Feature map, and the second is to divide the entire shape set according to the gradient of the depth and density to create a 2D and 3D bounding box proposal for each object. We present a multimodal fusion framework that classifies objects and restores the 3D pose of each object using enhanced feature maps and shape-based proposals. The network structure consists of a VGG -based object classifier that receives multiple inputs and a LIDAR-based Region Proposal Networks (RPN) that identifies object poses. It works in a very intuitive and efficient manner and can be extended to other classes other than vehicles. Our research has outperformed object classification accuracy (Average Precision, AP) and 3D pose restoration accuracy (3D bounding box recall rate) based on the latest studies conducted with KITTI data sets.

  5. Camera pose estimation for augmented reality in a small indoor dynamic scene (United States)

    Frikha, Rawia; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad


    Camera pose estimation remains a challenging task for augmented reality (AR) applications. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)-based methods are able to estimate the six degrees of freedom camera motion while constructing a map of an unknown environment. However, these methods do not provide any reference for where to insert virtual objects since they do not have any information about scene structure and may fail in cases of occlusion of three-dimensional (3-D) map points or dynamic objects. This paper presents a real-time monocular piece wise planar SLAM method using the planar scene assumption. Using planar structures in the mapping process allows rendering virtual objects in a meaningful way on the one hand and improving the precision of the camera pose and the quality of 3-D reconstruction of the environment by adding constraints on 3-D points and poses in the optimization process on the other hand. We proposed to benefit from the 3-D planes rigidity motion in the tracking process to enhance the system robustness in the case of dynamic scenes. Experimental results show that using a constrained planar scene improves our system accuracy and robustness compared with the classical SLAM systems.

  6. Pose control of the chain composed of magnetic particles using external uniform and gradient magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J. F.; Shao, C. L.; Gu, B. Q.


    Magnetic particles (MPs) are known to respond to a magnetic field and can be moved by magnetic force, which make them good carriers in bioengineering and pharmaceutical engineering. In this paper, a pose control method for the straight chain composed of MPs is proposed, and the chain with one pose can be moved to another position with another pose using alternately employed uniform and gradient magnetic fields. Based on computer simulations, it is revealed that in the uniform magnetic field, the MPs form a straight chain with the same separation space along the field lines, and once the uniform magnetic field rotates, the chain also rotates with the field. In the gradient magnetic field, the MPs move toward the higher field so that the translation of the chain can be realized. The simulation results indicate that while the uniform magnetic field is rotating, there exists certain hysteresis between the chain and the field, and the chain is not straight anymore. So the uniform magnetic field should rest at the target angle for a period to make the chain fully relax to be straight. For nanoMP, its magnetic moment directly determines the gradient magnetic force which is much smaller than the dipole–dipole force among MPs. Therefore, the translation of the chain is much more time-consuming than rotation. To enlarge the translational velocity, it is suggested to increase the size of MPs or the magnetic field gradient


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, Colin P.; Lyra, Wladimir; Passy, Jean-Claude, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)


    Recently, there has been a significant level of discussion of the correct treatment of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in the astrophysical community. This discussion relies largely on how the KHI test is posed and analyzed. We pose a stringent test of the initial growth of the instability. The goal is to provide a rigorous methodology for verifying a code on two-dimensional KHI. We ran the problem in the Pencil Code, Athena, Enzo, NDSPMHD, and Phurbas. A strict comparison, judgment, or ranking, between codes is beyond the scope of this work, though this work provides the mathematical framework needed for such a study. Nonetheless, how the test is posed circumvents the issues raised by tests starting from a sharp contact discontinuity yet it still shows the poor performance of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We then comment on the connection between this behavior to the underlying lack of zeroth-order consistency in SPH interpolation. We comment on the tendency of some methods, particularly those with very low numerical diffusion, to produce secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz billows on similar tests. Though the lack of a fixed, physical diffusive scale in the Euler equations lies at the root of the issue, we suggest that in some methods an extra diffusion operator should be used to damp the growth of instabilities arising from grid noise. This statement applies particularly to moving-mesh tessellation codes, but also to fixed-grid Godunov schemes.

  8. A Well-posed Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability Test and Comparison (United States)

    McNally, Colin P.; Lyra, Wladimir; Passy, Jean-Claude


    Recently, there has been a significant level of discussion of the correct treatment of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in the astrophysical community. This discussion relies largely on how the KHI test is posed and analyzed. We pose a stringent test of the initial growth of the instability. The goal is to provide a rigorous methodology for verifying a code on two-dimensional KHI. We ran the problem in the Pencil Code, Athena, Enzo, NDSPMHD, and Phurbas. A strict comparison, judgment, or ranking, between codes is beyond the scope of this work, though this work provides the mathematical framework needed for such a study. Nonetheless, how the test is posed circumvents the issues raised by tests starting from a sharp contact discontinuity yet it still shows the poor performance of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We then comment on the connection between this behavior to the underlying lack of zeroth-order consistency in SPH interpolation. We comment on the tendency of some methods, particularly those with very low numerical diffusion, to produce secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz billows on similar tests. Though the lack of a fixed, physical diffusive scale in the Euler equations lies at the root of the issue, we suggest that in some methods an extra diffusion operator should be used to damp the growth of instabilities arising from grid noise. This statement applies particularly to moving-mesh tessellation codes, but also to fixed-grid Godunov schemes.

  9. A Neural-Dynamic Architecture for Concurrent Estimation of Object Pose and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lomp


    Full Text Available Handling objects or interacting with a human user about objects on a shared tabletop requires that objects be identified after learning from a small number of views and that object pose be estimated. We present a neurally inspired architecture that learns object instances by storing features extracted from a single view of each object. Input features are color and edge histograms from a localized area that is updated during processing. The system finds the best-matching view for the object in a novel input image while concurrently estimating the object’s pose, aligning the learned view with current input. The system is based on neural dynamics, computationally operating in real time, and can handle dynamic scenes directly off live video input. In a scenario with 30 everyday objects, the system achieves recognition rates of 87.2% from a single training view for each object, while also estimating pose quite precisely. We further demonstrate that the system can track moving objects, and that it can segment the visual array, selecting and recognizing one object while suppressing input from another known object in the immediate vicinity. Evaluation on the COIL-100 dataset, in which objects are depicted from different viewing angles, revealed recognition rates of 91.1% on the first 30 objects, each learned from four training views.

  10. Personal privacy, information assurance, and the threat posed by malware techology (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.


    In spite of our best efforts to secure the cyber world, the threats posed to personal privacy by attacks upon networks and software continue unabated. While there are many reasons for this state of affairs, clearly one of the reasons for continued vulnerabilities in software is the inability to assess their security properties and test their security systems while they are in development. A second reason for this growing threat to personal privacy is the growing sophistication and maliciousness of malware coupled with the increasing difficulty of detecting malware. The pervasive threat posed by malware coupled with the difficulties faced when trying to detect its presence or an attempted intrusion make addressing the malware threat one of the most pressing issues that must be solved in order to insure personal privacy to users of the internet. In this paper, we will discuss the threat posed by malware, the types of malware found in the wild (outside of computer laboratories), and current techniques that are available for from a successful malware penetration. The paper includes a discussion of anti-malware tools and suggestions for future anti-malware efforts.

  11. Poses, posses e cenários: as fotografias como narrativas da conquista da Europa Poses, possessions and scenarios: the photographs as narratives of the conquest of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Goulart Carrijo


    Full Text Available As experiências narrativas etnográficas articulando imagens e textos podem acionar as sensibilidades, os saberes e os sentidos estéticos e culturais presentes na relação ver-o-que-se-diz/dizer-o-que-se-vê. Entre as possibilidades de exploração do universo de imagens estão as fotográficas. A partir das imagens capturadas no cotidiano das travestis, argumento que a pose é um componente sígnico capaz de oferecer vestígios para a compreensão/interpretação de aspectos singulares desse universo que não se esgotam na interpretação usual dos signos letrados. Para o artigo em questão, recorto fragmentos da migração das travestis para a Itália. Um projeto significativamente marcado pela expectativa de trabalho e sobrevivência, mas também que se reveste de glamour num cenário em que as imagens - fotografias enviadas à família e também disponibilizadas na plataforma virtual - compõem narrativas de um sucesso inscrito no corpo, nas joias, nos carros, mas também ancoradas em espaços geográficos diferenciados, capazes de informar sobre "a conquista da Europa".The ethnographic narrative experiences articulating images and texts may trigger the sensitivities, knowledge and esthetical and cultural senses existing in the see-what-is-said/say-what-is-seen relation. The photographs are among the possibilities of exploration of the universe of images. From the images taken from the daily lives of the transvestites, I argue that the posing is a signifying component capable of offering hints for the comprehension/ interpretation of some particular aspects of that universe, not based only on the usual interpretations of the written words. For this article, I gathered fragments of the transvestites' migration to Italy, a project significantly marked by the expectation of working and making a living, but which is also immerse in glamour in a scenario where the images - photographs sent to the families and also made available in the virtual

  12. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes


    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  13. Left behind radiological investigations: An inherent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar A Govindswamy


    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the number of investigations left behind by patients in radiology department, their cost, and the possible methods of reducing the problem. Materials and Methods: A total of 1424 radiographs, 160 computed tomography (CT scans, 300 ultrasonography (USG reports, and 46 Doppler reports were left behind by patients in one financial year. The total cost of these left behind investigations was calculated and the reports were categorized into normal and abnormal for each modality. Results: Of the radiographs left behind 658 were abnormal, with 211 among these being radiographs of postoperative patients. Thirty-seven percent of CT scans had positive findings. Sixty-eight percent of USG reports had positive findings while 46% of Doppler reports were abnormal. Conclusion: We believe that the cost and number of these left behind investigations over a period of time would definitely be significant for the health care system in a developing country. It is time to think of the possible reasons and methods for containing this problem.

  14. Left atrial laceration with epicardial ligation device. (United States)

    Keating, Vincent P; Kolibash, Christopher P; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Bajwa, Tanvir; Sra, Jasbir; Kress, David C


    Many new devices and techniques are being developed to attempt a reduction in embolic stroke risk for patients with atrial fibrillation who are either unable or unwilling to maintain long-term anticoagulation. One of these new devices (LARIAT®, SentreHEART Inc., Redwood City, California, USA) employs delivery of an epicardial suture to ligate the left atrial appendage after percutaneous pericardial and transseptal access. This series presents three clinical cases that demonstrate a serious and recurrent complication of left atrial laceration and cardiac tamponade shortly following delivery of an epicardial suture ligation to the left atrial appendage. Three clinical cases are described in detail with pre- and postprocedure angiography and echocardiography as well as illustrations reflecting the surgeon's findings on direct visualization of the left atrial lacerations postligation. Potential hypotheses of each injury are examined in light of the case timelines and findings at sternotomy. There was no suggestion that tamponade was related to pericardial or transseptal access, but rather a complication with device delivery. These three patients quickly progressed to clinical cardiac tamponade despite attempted drainage, stressing the importance of cardiovascular surgery backup, including a cardiopulmonary bypass pump, when delivering novel, percutaneous ligation devices for the left atrial appendage.

  15. A New Problem-Posing Approach Based on Problem-Solving Strategy: Analyzing Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Performance (United States)

    Kiliç, Çigdem


    This study examined pre-service primary school teachers' performance in posing problems that require knowledge of problem-solving strategies. Quantitative and qualitative methods were combined. The 120 participants were asked to pose a problem that could be solved by using the find-a-pattern a particular problem-solving strategy. After that,…

  16. Multi-view 3D human pose estimation combining single-frame recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.


    We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body movement from multiple cameras. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery consists of a hypothesis

  17. Multi-view 3D human pose estimation combining single-frame recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrilla, D.M.


    We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body movement from multiple cameras. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation. Single frame pose recovery consists of a hypothesis

  18. An Inertial and Optical Sensor Fusion Approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom Pose Estimation (United States)

    He, Changyu; Kazanzides, Peter; Sen, Hasan Tutkun; Kim, Sungmin; Liu, Yue


    Optical tracking provides relatively high accuracy over a large workspace but requires line-of-sight between the camera and the markers, which may be difficult to maintain in actual applications. In contrast, inertial sensing does not require line-of-sight but is subject to drift, which may cause large cumulative errors, especially during the measurement of position. To handle cases where some or all of the markers are occluded, this paper proposes an inertial and optical sensor fusion approach in which the bias of the inertial sensors is estimated when the optical tracker provides full six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) pose information. As long as the position of at least one marker can be tracked by the optical system, the 3-DOF position can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6-DOF pose information. When all the markers are occluded, the position tracking relies on the inertial sensors that are bias-corrected by the optical tracking system. Experiments are performed with an augmented reality head-mounted display (ARHMD) that integrates an optical tracking system (OTS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU). Experimental results show that under partial occlusion conditions, the root mean square errors (RMSE) of orientation and position are 0.04° and 0.134 mm, and under total occlusion conditions for 1 s, the orientation and position RMSE are 0.022° and 0.22 mm, respectively. Thus, the proposed sensor fusion approach can provide reliable 6-DOF pose under long-term partial occlusion and short-term total occlusion conditions. PMID:26184191

  19. Self-Organizing Neural Integration of Pose-Motion Features for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Ignacio Parisi


    Full Text Available The visual recognition of complex, articulated human movements is fundamental for a wide range of artificial systems oriented towards human-robot communication, action classification, and action-driven perception. These challenging tasks may generally involve the processing of a huge amount of visual information and learning-based mechanisms for generalizing a set of training actions and classifying new samples. To operate in natural environments, a crucial property is the efficient and robust recognition of actions, also under noisy conditions caused by, for instance, systematic sensor errors and temporarily occluded persons. Studies of the mammalian visual system and its outperforming ability to process biological motion information suggest separate neural pathways for the distinct processing of pose and motion features at multiple levels and the subsequent integration of these visual cues for action perception. We present a neurobiologically-motivated approach to achieve noise-tolerant action recognition in real time. Our model consists of self-organizing Growing When Required (GWR networks that obtain progressively generalized representations of sensory inputs and learn inherent spatiotemporal dependencies. During the training, the GWR networks dynamically change their topological structure to better match the input space. We first extract pose and motion features from video sequences and then cluster actions in terms of prototypical pose-motion trajectories. Multi-cue trajectories from matching action frames are subsequently combined to provide action dynamics in the joint feature space. Reported experiments show that our approach outperforms previous results on a dataset of full-body actions captured with a depth sensor, and ranks among the best 21 results for a public benchmark of domestic daily actions.

  20. Ms. Rodriquez and Mickey Mouse pose with a portrait of Ronald McNair (United States)


    In the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla., Ms. Maria Rodriguez, an Walt Disney World Ambassador, and Mickey Mouse pose with a portrait of NASA astronaut Ronald McNair. The portrait was presented to the school by Walt Disney World during a tribute to McNair. The school had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut, who was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  1. Nonstationary iterated Tikhonov regularization for ill-posed problems in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Qinian; Stals, Linda


    Nonstationary iterated Tikhonov regularization is an efficient method for solving ill-posed problems in Hilbert spaces. However, this method may not produce good results in some situations since it tends to oversmooth solutions and hence destroy special features such as sparsity and discontinuity. By making use of duality mappings and Bregman distance, we propose an extension of this method to the Banach space setting and establish its convergence. We also present numerical simulations which indicate that the method in Banach space setting can produce better results. (paper)

  2. Problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: tentative global interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, R.

    This paper discusses the basic problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: the conditions in which the reactions are triggered and propagated and how they have been controlled. The reactions were maintained by the destruction of neutron poisons in the ore and were controlled by temperature. Oklo is made up of a large number of contiguous reactors. Geological problems of the origin of the clays, desilification, and uranium concentration are discussed. Oklo is shown to be a very complex phenomenon which developed in space and time. Besides the thermal, neutron, and geochemical coupling, there is also a tectonic coupling


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Ardi Saputro


    Full Text Available This study aims to develop learning media quadrilateral with problem posing approach based GeoGebra. 8 teachers from three different schools have stated that this media can be used to teach the nature - the nature of the quadrilateral. After the learning is done using this media, this media can facilitate students in asking about the nature - the nature of wake quadrilateral, facilitating students to learn the relationship between the type - the type of wake rectangles that have the same properties, and provides the opportunity for teachers in the evaluation of mathematical communication current students ask and write.

  4. A new benchmark for pose estimation with ground truth from virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlette, Christian; Buch, Anders Glent; Aksoy, Eren Erdal


    assembly tasks. Following the eRobotics methodology, a simulatable 3D representation of this platform was modelled in virtual reality. Based on a detailed camera and sensor simulation, we generated a set of benchmark images and point clouds with controlled levels of noise as well as ground truth data...... such as object positions and time stamps. We demonstrate the application of the benchmark to evaluate our latest developments in pose estimation, stereo reconstruction and action recognition and publish the benchmark data for objective comparison of sensor setups and algorithms in industry....

  5. Pose Estimation using Local Structure-Specific Shape and Appearance Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders Glent; Kraft, Dirk; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian


    We address the problem of estimating the alignment pose between two models using structure-specific local descriptors. Our descriptors are generated using a combination of 2D image data and 3D contextual shape data, resulting in a set of semi-local descriptors containing rich appearance and shape...... information for both edge and texture structures. This is achieved by defining feature space relations which describe the neighborhood of a descriptor. By quantitative evaluations, we show that our descriptors provide high discriminative power compared to state of the art approaches. In addition, we show how...

  6. A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects. (United States)

    Davis, Michelle L; Papini, Santiago; Rosenfield, David; Roelofs, Karin; Kolb, Sarah; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J


    This manuscript details a randomized controlled study designed to test the efficacy of power posing (i.e., briefly holding postures associated with dominance and power) as an augmentative strategy for exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Seventy-three individuals diagnosed with SAD were assigned to one of three conditions: power posing, submissive posing, or rest (no posing) prior to participating in an exposure therapy session. Participants were assessed for between-group differences in pre- and post-manipulation salivary hormone levels, within-session subjective experiences of fear, and pre- and 1-week post-treatment SAD severity outcome measures. Though the intervention resulted in decreased SAD symptom severity one week later, analyses revealed no significant between-group differences on any tested variables. Accordingly, this study provides no evidence to suggest that power posing impacts hormone levels or exposure therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.


    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  8. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J


    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  9. “Getting the Left Right”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Marianne E.; Zahavi, Dan; Hjaltason, Haukur


    experience was captured in the overarching theme, “getting the left right,” which encompasses the two subthemes of (a) surreal awareness of the left and (b) emergence of a different world. Patients had unclear perceptions of their own body and surroundings, their attention was brittle, and they encountered...... bewildering reactions from other people. They simultaneously pursued the ineffable neglected space and searched for coherence. The vulnerability, loss, and conflicting perceptions that patients with neglect face should be acknowledged and alleviation sought. Facilitating methods should provide additional...

  10. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.


    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  11. Left paraduodenal hernias; Hernias paraduodenales izquierdas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Tejeiro, A.; Sala, J. [Hospital Valle del Nalon. Riano-Sama. Asturias (Spain)


    We report two cases of left paraduodenal internal hernias located in the fossa of Landzert that were diagnosed by CT. Internal hernias are an infrequent cause of acute abdomen, due to the intestinal sub occlusion they produce. Left paraduodenal hernias are responsible for about 50% of internal hernias. CT makes it possible to demonstrate the group of herniated loops between the stomach, fourth segment of the duodenum, descending colon, and tail of the pancreas. The identification of the loops in an atypical position together with displaced blood vessels (mesenteric vessels) and colon gives concerns on them a typical radiological semiology that makes them easily identifiable. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy. (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F


    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  13. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb


    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  14. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to ‘Power Poses’ (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah


    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of ‘power poses,’ which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to ‘high power’ and ‘low power’ poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body (n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body (n = 22), two expansive, high power poses (n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses (n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to ‘power poses’ increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses’ association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min. PMID:28553249

  15. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to ‘Power Poses’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golec de Zavala


    Full Text Available Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of ‘power poses,’ which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010. The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to ‘high power’ and ‘low power’ poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body (n = 19, two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body (n = 22, two expansive, high power poses (n = 21, or two constrictive, low power poses (n = 20 for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to ‘power poses’ increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses’ association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  16. A problem-posing approach to teaching the topic of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, J.M.


    This thesis highlights a problem-posing approach to science education. By this is meant an approach that explicitly aims at providing students with content-related motives for extending their existing conceptual resources, experiential base and belief system in a certain direction, such that a further development in that direction eventually leads to a proper understanding of science. An elaboration of that approach consists in designing, testing, improving, etc, concrete didactical structures. The eventual aim of the approach is a coherent, and by means of developmental research empirically supported, didactical structure that covers the whole of science education. The thesis also contains a few steps in the direction suggested by this programmatic view. It contains an illustration of the heuristic value of an articulation of a didactical structure in some main substructures, based on the work of van Hiele and ten Voorde. It further contains a discussion of some methodological aspects relating to the design and evaluation of a didactical structure, and of the role that a further developed version of Davidson's theory of interpretation could play in this respect. A detailed didactical structure of the topic of radioactivity is presented, evaluated and, on the basis of the evaluation, judged as 'good enough'. Also the role of the teacher in a problem-posing approach is discussed, and in particular the consequences for that role of giving students control over and responsibility for the progress of their learning process with respect to content. refs

  17. Position and pose detection of active camera-head in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Yasuyo; Kita, Nobuyuki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Research Institute of Intelligent Systems, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    A method to determine the position and pose of an active camera-head by aligning a 3D model of its surrounding environment with an observed 2D image is proposed. The camera-head is mounted on a mobile robot and freely moves in a 3D space. We aim at visual feedback to correct the estimation error of its position and pose obtained from dead reckoning. Since the nuclear power plant where the robot moves about consists of many pipes without particular marks, most of features in the observed images are occluding edges of the pipes. For robustly finding 3D-2D point correspondences on the occluding edges, two-type predicted images which are calculated from the 3D environmental model by a graphics system (eg. OpenGL etc) are used as follows: 1) 3D model points which correspond to the observed occluding edges are quickly obtained from the predicted depth image; 2) The predicted intensity image is used to select only the 3D model points which are expected to appear clearly in the observed image. As a result, point correspondences between the observed image and the 3D model can be robustly found even in complicated scenes. Preliminary experiments using actual plant mock-up have shown that the method is promising. (author)

  18. Robust and Accurate Multiple-Camera Pose Estimation toward Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu


    Full Text Available Pose estimation methods in robotics applications frequently suffer from inaccuracy due to a lack of correspondence and real-time constraints, and instability from a wide range of viewpoints, etc. In this paper, we present a novel approach for estimating the poses of all the cameras in a multi-camera system in which each camera is placed rigidly using only a few coplanar points simultaneously. Instead of solving the orientation and translation for the multi-camera system from the overlapping point correspondences among all the cameras directly, we employ homography, which can map image points with 3D coplanar-referenced points. In our method, we first establish the corresponding relations between each camera by their Euclidean geometries and optimize the homographies of the cameras; then, we solve the orientation and translation for the optimal homographies. The results from simulations and real case experiments show that our approach is accurate and robust for implementation in robotics applications. Finally, a practical implementation in a ping-pong robot is described in order to confirm the validity of our approach.

  19. A cross docking pipeline for improving pose prediction and virtual screening performance (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y. J.


    Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of a molecular docking method depend on the choice of protein structures used for docking. Multiple structures for a target protein are often used to take into account the receptor flexibility and problems associated with a single receptor structure. However, the use of multiple receptor structures is computationally expensive when docking a large library of small molecules. Here, we propose a new cross-docking pipeline suitable to dock a large library of molecules while taking advantage of multiple target protein structures. Our method involves the selection of a suitable receptor for each ligand in a screening library utilizing ligand 3D shape similarity with crystallographic ligands. We have prospectively evaluated our method in D3R Grand Challenge 2 and demonstrated that our cross-docking pipeline can achieve similar or better performance than using either single or multiple-receptor structures. Moreover, our method displayed not only decent pose prediction performance but also better virtual screening performance over several other methods.

  20. Approximate source conditions for nonlinear ill-posed problems—chances and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Torsten; Hofmann, Bernd


    In the recent past the authors, with collaborators, have published convergence rate results for regularized solutions of linear ill-posed operator equations by avoiding the usual assumption that the solutions satisfy prescribed source conditions. Instead the degree of violation of such source conditions is expressed by distance functions d(R) depending on a radius R ≥ 0 which is an upper bound of the norm of source elements under consideration. If d(R) tends to zero as R → ∞ an appropriate balancing of occurring regularization error terms yields convergence rates results. This approach was called the method of approximate source conditions, originally developed in a Hilbert space setting. The goal of this paper is to formulate chances and limitations of an application of this method to nonlinear ill-posed problems in reflexive Banach spaces and to complement the field of low order convergence rates results in nonlinear regularization theory. In particular, we are going to establish convergence rates for a variant of Tikhonov regularization. To keep structural nonlinearity conditions simple, we update the concept of degree of nonlinearity in Hilbert spaces to a Bregman distance setting in Banach spaces


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Priambodo


    Full Text Available Verbal creativity is the ability to think fluent, flexible, and original that manifested through the words. Psychological freedom is one factor that can develop creativity. One alternative teaching methods that provide freedom in an atmosphere of learning is the Problem Posing Method (PPM which is triggered by Paulo Freire. This research aims to determine the presence or absence of the influence of PPM on verbal creativity. Characteristic of the subjects was junior high school students in grade 7th, received conventional learning materials, and have never had learning by using PPM. This study used a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Subjects in the study were divided into two, experimental group (N = 33 and control group (N= 35. The data was collected using the Verbal Creativity Test. The results of hypothesis testing used Independent Sample T Test techniques showed the differences of mean = 3.294, α = 0.014 with (p<0.05. Keywords: Verbal creativity, problem posing method, a test of verbal creativity, junior high school students

  2. 3D head pose estimation and tracking using particle filtering and ICP algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi


    This paper addresses the issue of 3D head pose estimation and tracking. Existing approaches generally need huge database, training procedure, manual initialization or use face feature extraction manually extracted. We propose a framework for estimating the 3D head pose in its fine level and tracking it continuously across multiple Degrees of Freedom (DOF) based on ICP and particle filtering. We propose to approach the problem, using 3D computational techniques, by aligning a face model to the 3D dense estimation computed by a stereo vision method, and propose a particle filter algorithm to refine and track the posteriori estimate of the position of the face. This work comes with two contributions: the first concerns the alignment part where we propose an extended ICP algorithm using an anisotropic scale transformation. The second contribution concerns the tracking part. We propose the use of the particle filtering algorithm and propose to constrain the search space using ICP algorithm in the propagation step. The results show that the system is able to fit and track the head properly, and keeps accurate the results on new individuals without a manual adaptation or training. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

  3. [Evaluation of Educational Effect of Problem-Posing System in Nursing Processing Study]. (United States)

    Tsuji, Keiko; Takano, Yasuomi; Yamakawa, Hiroto; Kaneko, Daisuke; Takai, Kiyako; Kodama, Hiromi; Hagiwara, Tomoko; Komatsugawa, Hiroshi


    The nursing processing study is generally difficult, because it is important for nursing college students to understand knowledge and utilize it. We have developed an integrated system to understand, utilize, and share knowledge. We added a problem-posing function to this system, and expected that students would deeply understand the nursing processing study through the new system. This system consisted of four steps: create a problem, create an answer input section, create a hint, and verification. Nursing students created problems related to nursing processing by this system. When we gave a lecture on the nursing processing for second year students of A university, we tried to use the creating problem function of this system. We evaluated the effect by the number of problems and the contents of the created problem, that is, whether the contents consisted of a lecture stage or not. We also evaluated the correlation between those and regular examination and report scores. We derived the following: 1. weak correlation between the number of created problems and report score (r=0.27), 2. significant differences between regular examination and report scores of students who created problems corresponding to the learning stage, and those of students who created problems not corresponding to it (P<0.05). From these results, problem-posing is suggested to be effective to fix and utilize knowledge in the lecture of nursing processing theory.

  4. A Layered Approach for Robust Spatial Virtual Human Pose Reconstruction Using a Still Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyu Guo


    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection and human pose estimation are instructive for reconstructing a three-dimensional scenario and for robot navigation, particularly when large amounts of vision data are captured using various data-recording techniques. Using an unrestricted capture scheme, which produces occlusions or breezing, the information describing each part of a human body and the relationship between each part or even different pedestrians must be present in a still image. Using this framework, a multi-layered, spatial, virtual, human pose reconstruction framework is presented in this study to recover any deficient information in planar images. In this framework, a hierarchical parts-based deep model is used to detect body parts by using the available restricted information in a still image and is then combined with spatial Markov random fields to re-estimate the accurate joint positions in the deep network. Then, the planar estimation results are mapped onto a virtual three-dimensional space using multiple constraints to recover any deficient spatial information. The proposed approach can be viewed as a general pre-processing method to guide the generation of continuous, three-dimensional motion data. The experiment results of this study are used to describe the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach.

  5. Probabilistic Elastic Part Model: A Pose-Invariant Representation for Real-World Face Verification. (United States)

    Li, Haoxiang; Hua, Gang


    Pose variation remains to be a major challenge for real-world face recognition. We approach this problem through a probabilistic elastic part model. We extract local descriptors (e.g., LBP or SIFT) from densely sampled multi-scale image patches. By augmenting each descriptor with its location, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is trained to capture the spatial-appearance distribution of the face parts of all face images in the training corpus, namely the probabilistic elastic part (PEP) model. Each mixture component of the GMM is confined to be a spherical Gaussian to balance the influence of the appearance and the location terms, which naturally defines a part. Given one or multiple face images of the same subject, the PEP-model builds its PEP representation by sequentially concatenating descriptors identified by each Gaussian component in a maximum likelihood sense. We further propose a joint Bayesian adaptation algorithm to adapt the universally trained GMM to better model the pose variations between the target pair of faces/face tracks, which consistently improves face verification accuracy. Our experiments show that we achieve state-of-the-art face verification accuracy with the proposed representations on the Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) dataset, the YouTube video face database, and the CMU MultiPIE dataset.

  6. Emotional Interaction with a Robot Using Facial Expressions, Face Pose and Hand Gestures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Ho Ju


    Full Text Available Facial expression is one of the major cues for emotional communications between humans and robots. In this paper, we present emotional human robot interaction techniques using facial expressions combined with an exploration of other useful concepts, such as face pose and hand gesture. For the efficient recognition of facial expressions, it is important to understand the positions of facial feature points. To do this, our technique estimates the 3D positions of each feature point by constructing 3D face models fitted on the user. To construct the 3D face models, we first construct an Active Appearance Model (AAM for variations of the facial expression. Next, we estimate depth information at each feature point from frontal- and side-view images. By combining the estimated depth information with AAM, the 3D face model is fitted on the user according to the various 3D transformations of each feature point. Self-occlusions due to the 3D pose variation are also processed by the region weighting function on the normalized face at each frame. The recognized facial expressions - such as happiness, sadness, fear and anger - are used to change the colours of foreground and background objects in the robot displays, as well as other robot responses. The proposed method displays desirable results in viewing comics with the entertainment robots in our experiments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Müller


    Full Text Available The number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is increasing since low-cost airborne systems are available for a wide range of users. The outdoor navigation of such vehicles is mostly based on global navigation satellite system (GNSS methods to gain the vehicles trajectory. The drawback of satellite-based navigation are failures caused by occlusions and multi-path interferences. Beside this, local image-based solutions like Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM and Visual Odometry (VO can e.g. be used to support the GNSS solution by closing trajectory gaps but are computationally expensive. However, if the trajectory estimation is interrupted or not available a re-localization is mandatory. In this paper we will provide a novel method for a GNSS-free and fast image-based pose regression in a known area by utilizing a small convolutional neural network (CNN. With on-board processing in mind, we employ a lightweight CNN called SqueezeNet and use transfer learning to adapt the network to pose regression. Our experiments show promising results for GNSS-free and fast localization.

  8. Squeezeposenet: Image Based Pose Regression with Small Convolutional Neural Networks for Real Time Uas Navigation (United States)

    Müller, M. S.; Urban, S.; Jutzi, B.


    The number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing since low-cost airborne systems are available for a wide range of users. The outdoor navigation of such vehicles is mostly based on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) methods to gain the vehicles trajectory. The drawback of satellite-based navigation are failures caused by occlusions and multi-path interferences. Beside this, local image-based solutions like Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and Visual Odometry (VO) can e.g. be used to support the GNSS solution by closing trajectory gaps but are computationally expensive. However, if the trajectory estimation is interrupted or not available a re-localization is mandatory. In this paper we will provide a novel method for a GNSS-free and fast image-based pose regression in a known area by utilizing a small convolutional neural network (CNN). With on-board processing in mind, we employ a lightweight CNN called SqueezeNet and use transfer learning to adapt the network to pose regression. Our experiments show promising results for GNSS-free and fast localization.

  9. Stereo-Vision-Based Relative Pose Estimation for the Rendezvous and Docking of Noncooperative Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu


    Full Text Available Autonomous on-orbit servicing is expected to play an important role in future space activities. Acquiring the relative pose information and inertial parameters of target is one of the key technologies for autonomous capturing. In this paper, an estimation method of relative pose based on stereo vision is presented for the final phase of the rendezvous and docking of noncooperative satellites. The proposed estimation method utilizes the sparse stereo vision algorithm instead of the dense stereo algorithm. The method consists of three parts: (1 body frame reestablishment, which establishes the body-fixed frame for the target satellite using the natural features on the surface and measures the relative attitude based on TRIAD and QUEST; (2 translational parameter estimation, which designs a standard Kalman filter to estimate the translational states and the location of mass center; (3 rotational parameter estimation, which designs an extended Kalman filter and an unscented Kalman filter, respectively, to estimate the rotational states and all the moment-of-inertia ratios. Compared to the dense stereo algorithm, the proposed method can avoid degeneracy when the target has a high degree of axial symmetry and reduce the number of sensors. The validity of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

  10. Greedy solution of ill-posed problems: error bounds and exact inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L; Lorenz, D A; Trede, D


    The orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a greedy algorithm to solve sparse approximation problems. Sufficient conditions for exact recovery are known with and without noise. In this paper we investigate the applicability of the OMP for the solution of ill-posed inverse problems in general, and in particular for two deconvolution examples from mass spectrometry and digital holography, respectively. In sparse approximation problems one often has to deal with the problem of redundancy of a dictionary, i.e. the atoms are not linearly independent. However, one expects them to be approximatively orthogonal and this is quantified by the so-called incoherence. This idea cannot be transferred to ill-posed inverse problems since here the atoms are typically far from orthogonal. The ill-posedness of the operator probably causes the correlation of two distinct atoms to become huge, i.e. that two atoms look much alike. Therefore, one needs conditions which take the structure of the problem into account and work without the concept of coherence. In this paper we develop results for the exact recovery of the support of noisy signals. In the two examples, mass spectrometry and digital holography, we show that our results lead to practically relevant estimates such that one may check a priori if the experimental setup guarantees exact deconvolution with OMP. Especially in the example from digital holography, our analysis may be regarded as a first step to calculate the resolution power of droplet holography

  11. STS-47 crew poses for Official onboard (in space) portrait in SLJ module (United States)


    STS-47 crewmembers assemble for their traditional onboard (in-flight) portrait in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right (front) are Mission Specialist N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri; and (rear) Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, MS Jerome Apt, Commander Robert L. Gibson, and MS Mae C. Jemison.

  12. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K


    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  13. Left ventricular mass: Myxoma or thrombus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Raut


    Full Text Available Patient with embolic episode should always be evaluated for cardiac mass. Mass in left ventricular can be a myxoma or thrombus even in a normal functioning heart . In either case, mobile mass with embolic potential should be surgically resected.

  14. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S. Raut


    Full Text Available Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research.

  15. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction. (United States)

    Raut, Monish S; Shad, Sujay; Maheshwari, Arun


    Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vergisson 4: a left-handed Neandertal. (United States)

    Condemi, Silvana; Monge, Janet; Quertelet, Sylvain; Frayer, David W; Combier, Jean


    Handedness is an important marker for lateralization of humans in the modern and fossil record. For the most part, Neandertals and their ancestors are strongly right-handed. We describe a single tooth from a Neandertal level at Vergisson 4 (Vg 4-83). This left upper central incisor shows all the features typical of Neandertal incisors. It also exhibits a predominance of left-handed striations. Striations on the incisor's labial surface were mapped at 20x magnification using Photoshop. Angulations of the striations were determined from their deviation from the maximum mesio-distal line and were analyzed using NIH's freeware, Image J. Of the 60 labial surface striations, Vg 4-83 shows a strong predominance of left-handed striations (46; 76.7%), which are statistically significantly different (p handed striations. The identification of another left-handed Neandertal adds to our understanding about handedness variation in this fossil hominin. Given the high frequency of right-handed Neandertals, the 90: 10 modern ratio is still preserved in this group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 1983 ... sniper with an Armourlite assault rifle in Ireland. He had received a single bullet injury to the left ... His history negated any cardiovascular impairment, angina or limitation in effort tolerance. He plays ... In view of the patient's age, history and the cardiovascular findings, we would like to postulate that the ...

  18. Radiative left-right Dirac neutrino mass (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal


    We consider the conventional left-right gauge extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons without a scalar bidoublet. We study systematically how one-loop radiative Dirac neutrino masses may be obtained. In addition to two well-known cases from almost 30 years ago, we find two new scenarios with verifiable predictions.

  19. Giant melanoma of the left thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    A 74-year-old female patient is described with a giant melanoma of the left thenar and concomitant bilateral pulmonary metastases. Palliative treatment consisted of a two-staged procedure in order to save the limb from amputation. Firstly, perfusion with gamma-interferon, tumour necrosis

  20. Submitral Left Ventricular Aneurysm Associated with Thrombus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2018 ... She was given drugs for management of heart failure and ... treatment abroad. KEYWORDS: Ethiopia, heart failure, submitral aneurysm, thrombus. INTRODUCTION. Submitral left ventricle aneurysm is a rare cardiovascular disorder worldwide, but ... grade 2 pulmonary edema, and bilateral pleural effusion.

  1. Left-Right Symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran


    We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. We find that the usual lower limit on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson from the K mass difference, M_WR>2.5TeV, is subject to a possible small reduction due to the difference between right and left Cabibbo angles. In the case of charge conjugation the limit on M_WR is somewhat more robust. However, the more severe bounds from CP-violating observables are absent in this case. In fact, the free phases can also resolve the present mild discrepancy between the Standard Model and CP-violat...

  2. Left Dislocation: a typological overview | Westbury | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Left Dislocation construction is a typologically universal phenomenon that has received detailed analysis, from both formal and functional perspectives, in a number of genetically and areally diverse languages. The present paper aims to provide a general overview of this cross-linguistic research with a concentration ...

  3. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.


    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010

  4. Left Ventricular Thrombus among patients undergoing Transthoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Left Ventricular Thrombus (LVT) is a well recognized complication of various cardiac conditions, particularly following an acute anterior myocardial infarction and in those with systolic congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the most common imaging modality to make the diagnosis ...

  5. Modern Democratic Left and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Radošević


    Full Text Available Political left, notably social democracy, implies acceptance of market economy and parliamentary democracy, as a political framework within which the interests of large sections of the population could be preserved. Does the modern political left have a chance to revive, after the global economic crisis? We believe it does. The core idea of social democracy is the idea of equality. It is the growing inequality that could help the return of social democracy. In Croatia, during transition, there was predominantly the process of neoliberalization, and the democratic left accepted a neoliberal economic agenda. Currently Croatia has a structural economic problem and deep recession. Due to the global crisis, the democratic left in Croatia should abandon economic neoliberalism. Macroeconomic policy decision-makers in Croatia should reject orthodox policies, and it is necessary to implement heterodox economic policies. There is an urgent need to achieve a new (postKeynesian consensus, a new combination of post-Keynesian economics and social democracy

  6. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti


    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  7. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.


    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  8. Investigation of learning environment for arithmetic word problems by problem posing as sentence integration in Indonesian language (United States)

    Hasanah, N.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirashima, T.


    Arithmetic word problems remain one of the most difficult area of teaching mathematics. Learning by problem posing has been suggested as an effective way to improve students’ understanding. However, the practice in usual classroom is difficult due to extra time needed for assessment and giving feedback to students’ posed problems. To address this issue, we have developed a tablet PC software named Monsakun for learning by posing arithmetic word problems based on Triplet Structure Model. It uses the mechanism of sentence-integration, an efficient implementation of problem-posing that enables agent-assessment of posed problems. The learning environment has been used in actual Japanese elementary school classrooms and the effectiveness has been confirmed in previous researches. In this study, ten Indonesian elementary school students living in Japan participated in a learning session of problem posing using Monsakun in Indonesian language. We analyzed their learning activities and show that students were able to interact with the structure of simple word problem using this learning environment. The results of data analysis and questionnaire suggested that the use of Monsakun provides a way of creating an interactive and fun environment for learning by problem posing for Indonesian elementary school students.

  9. Assessment of stiffness of the hypertrophied left ventricle of bicyclists using left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry. (United States)

    Fagard, R; Van den Broeke, C; Bielen, E; Vanhees, L; Amery, A


    Sixteen male bicyclists and 16 control subjects were studied to assess whether the left ventricular hypertrophy of athletes is associated with changes in diastolic left ventricular function. The cyclists had a larger left ventricular internal diameter on echocardiography (55.2 versus 47.9 mm; p less than 0.001) and a disproportionate increase in wall thickness relative to the internal diameter (0.48 versus 0.41; p less than 0.01), indicating a mixed eccentric-concentric type of hypertrophy. Left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry showed similar results in athletes and control subjects for peak flow velocities in the atrial contraction phase (30 versus 32 cm/s; p = NS) and in the early diastolic rapid filling phase (71 versus 67 cm/s; p = NS). The similar ratio of both velocities, that is, 0.43 in the cyclists and 0.49 in the control subjects, suggests that left ventricular distensibility is unaltered in cyclists. It is concluded that the left ventricular hypertrophy observed in cyclists is not associated with changes in ventricular stiffness, as estimated from left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry.

  10. Winners, losers, and posers: The effect of power poses on testosterone and risk-taking following competition. (United States)

    Smith, Kristopher M; Apicella, Coren L


    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The effect of postural power displays (i.e. power poses) on hormone levels and decision-making has recently been challenged. While Carney et al. (2010) found that holding brief postural displays of power leads to increased testosterone, decreased cortisol and greater economic risk taking, this failed to replicate in a recent high-powered study (Ranehill et al. 2015). It has been put forward that subtle differences in social context may account for the differences in results. Power displays naturally occur within the context of competitions, as do changes in hormones, and researchers have yet to examine the effects of poses within this ecologically relevant context. Using a large sample of 247 male participants, natural winners and losers of a physical competition were randomly assigned to hold a low, neutral or high-power postural display. We found no main effect of pose type on testosterone, cortisol, risk or feelings of power. Winners assigned to a high-power pose had a relative, albeit small, rise in testosterone compared to winners who held neutral or low-power poses. For losers, we found little evidence that high-power poses lead to increased testosterone relative to those holding neutral or low-powered poses. If anything, the reverse was observed - losers had a reduction in testosterone after holding high-power poses. To the extent that changes in testosterone modulate social behaviors adaptively, it is possible that the relative reduction in testosterone observed in losers taking high-powered poses is designed to inhibit further "winner-like" behavior that could result in continued defeat and harm. Still, effects were small, multiple comparisons were made, and the results ran counter to our predictions. We thus treat these conclusions as preliminary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch ranges between 1% and 5.8%.1,2 This anomaly has important implications for thoracic surgery and interventional procedures. The left vertebral artery may originate from: • the left common carotid artery. • the root of the left subclavian artery ...

  12. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  13. Left bronchial artery arising from a replaced left hepatic artery in a patient with massive hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    A 70-year-old man with a 3-year history of bronchiectasis presented with massive hemoptysis that had lasted for 3 days. In our attempt to perform bronchial artery embolization, upper abdominal angiography was required to locate the left bronchial artery, which in this case was of anomalous origin, arising from a replaced left hepatic artery, which arose from the left gastric artery-a very unusual anatomical variant. We performed embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely, with no additional complications after conservative treatment.

  14. A fast slam approach to freehand 3-d ultrasound reconstruction for catheter ablation guidance in the left atrium. (United States)

    Koolwal, Aditya B; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher R; Liang, David H


    We present a method for real-time, freehand 3D ultrasound (3D-US) reconstruction of moving anatomy, with specific application towards guiding the catheter ablation procedure in the left atrium. Using an intracardiac echo (ICE) catheter with a pose (position/orientation) sensor mounted to its tip, we continually mosaic 2D-ICE images of a left atrium phantom model to form a 3D-US volume. Our mosaicing strategy employs a probabilistic framework based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a technique commonly used in mobile robotics for creating maps of unexplored environments. The measured ICE catheter tip pose provides an initial estimate for compounding 2D-ICE image data into the 3D-US volume. However, we simultaneously consider the overlap-consistency shared between 2D-ICE images and the 3D-US volume, computing a "corrected" tip pose if need be to ensure spatially-consistent reconstruction. This allows us to compensate for anatomic movement and sensor drift that would otherwise cause motion artifacts in the 3D-US volume. Our approach incorporates 2D-ICE data immediately after acquisition, allowing us to continuously update the registration parameters linking sensor coordinates to 3D-US coordinates. This, in turn, enables real-time localization and display of sensorized therapeutic catheters within the 3D-US volume for facilitating procedural guidance. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of the Risks Posed to Drinking Water by Man-Made Nanoparticels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiede, K.; Westerhoff, P.; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    There is increasing concern over the health effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Humans can be exposed to these particles directly during product use or indirectly following release to the natural environment. One potential indirect exposure route is through the consumption of contaminated...... drinking waters. In order to address these concerns, the U.K. Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) has published a "Review of the risks posed to drinking water by man-made nanoparticles"(DWI 70/2/246). The study, which was funded by the Department for Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), was undertaken by the Food...... the significance of the drinking water exposure route compared to other routes of exposure. Risk was examined in the sense of likelihood of exposure to nanoparticles via drinking water; analysis of health risks was beyond the scope of the project. The first stage of the study consisted of a detailed review...

  16. Research on Multi-Directional Pose Accuracy Variation to a Welding Robot (United States)

    Vacarescu, V.; Lovasz, E. Ch.; Buciuman, C. F.

    Evaluation of functional characteristics of industrial robots is one aspect of their development. If one examines the many robotic applications, it is found that in most cases the performance characteristics involve aspects of positioning and orientation. Parameter analyzed in this paper refers precisely to this type of performance. In the robotics field, there are different methods and techniques in order to determine the performance characteristics of the industrial robots. In this paper the authors used a method for measuring and evaluating multi-directional pose accuracy variation performance for a welding robot, through 3D triangulation with two digital theodolite. For this purpose it uses a calibrated cube, mounted on the robot end—effector. The method allows the determination of the performances in concordance with the ISO 9283 recommendations and is validated of experimentally researches.

  17. Rigorous Numerics for ill-posed PDEs: Periodic Orbits in the Boussinesq Equation (United States)

    Castelli, Roberto; Gameiro, Marcio; Lessard, Jean-Philippe


    In this paper, we develop computer-assisted techniques for the analysis of periodic orbits of ill-posed partial differential equations. As a case study, our proposed method is applied to the Boussinesq equation, which has been investigated extensively because of its role in the theory of shallow water waves. The idea is to use the symmetry of the solutions and a Newton-Kantorovich type argument (the radii polynomial approach) to obtain rigorous proofs of existence of the periodic orbits in a weighted ℓ1 Banach space of space-time Fourier coefficients with exponential decay. We present several computer-assisted proofs of the existence of periodic orbits at different parameter values.

  18. Pose and Expression Independent Facial Landmark Localization Using Dense-SURF and the Hausdorff Distance. (United States)

    Sangineto, Enver


    We present an approach to automatic localization of facial feature points which deals with pose, expression, and identity variations combining 3D shape models with local image patch classification. The latter is performed by means of densely extracted SURF-like features, which we call DU-SURF, while the former is based on a multiclass version of the Hausdorff distance to address local classification errors and nonvisible points. The final system is able to localize facial points in real-world scenarios, dealing with out of plane head rotations, expression changes, and different lighting conditions. Extensive experimentation with the proposed method has been carried out showing the superiority of our approach with respect to other state-of-the-art systems. Finally, DU-SURF features have been compared with other modern features and we experimentally demonstrate their competitive classification accuracy and computational efficiency.

  19. Vessels 6-DOF poses measurement based on key points tracking via binocular camera (United States)

    Ji, Zhengnan; Tao, Limin; Cui, Wei; Lv, Wei


    Offshore accurate replenishment technology is the foundation for conducting ocean research for every country. However, it is difficult to keep the security and accuracy of hoisting due to the fact that waves will let vessels generate 6-DOF motions. This paper regards accurate offshore supplying as a background, and takes into consideration that vessel acts as a rigid body to perform algorithm research on the AHC (Active Heaving Compensation) detection system. The binocular camera installed on the hoisting equipment can calculate the 6-DOF pose of vessel via detecting landmarks on the deck. The system can achieve all-weather operations, adopting Shi-Tomasi algorithm to identify and L-K Optical Flow algorithm to track sub-pixel points. Lastly, the scheme has been verified in the 6-DOF motion platform, which indicates that its accuracy meets the requirements of the control experiment in the next step.

  20. A scheme to analyses the statements of the student in context of problem posing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Espinoza-González


    Full Text Available The problem posing is considered as an important activity in the formation of mathematical skills of students, so they have made efforts to study it as a process of instruction in math classes; however, few investigations addressed strategies designed to assess student productions at this type of task. Thus, the construction and implementation of a analyses scheme that was used in a broader research study that aimed to characterize the arithmetic performance of a group of talented students in mathematics is presented. To do an analysis of the study variables of arithmetic problems and a study of the tools used in previous research was conducted, which allowed define three categories of analysis and in each study variables. The results show the feasibility of such a scheme to characterize the problems invented by students, identify different levels of complexity in the same and to assess the degree of profundity and appropriation of the knowledge learned.

  1. Well-posed Euler model of shock-induced two-phase flow in bubbly liquid (United States)

    Tukhvatullina, R. R.; Frolov, S. M.


    A well-posed mathematical model of non-isothermal two-phase two-velocity flow of bubbly liquid is proposed. The model is based on the two-phase Euler equations with the introduction of an additional pressure at the gas bubble surface, which ensures the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for a system of governing equations with homogeneous initial conditions, and the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for radial pulsations of gas bubbles. The applicability conditions of the model are formulated. The model is validated by comparing one-dimensional calculations of shock wave propagation in liquids with gas bubbles with a gas volume fraction of 0.005-0.3 with experimental data. The model is shown to provide satisfactory results for the shock propagation velocity, pressure profiles, and the shock-induced motion of the bubbly liquid column.

  2. Problems mixed wastes pose in implementing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.T.


    Inclusion of Mixed Wastes, wastes which are both radioactive and hazardous, into the RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)-regulated wastes poses some problems in establishing procedures that are both safe in terms of handling radioactive substances and which are responsive to the requirements of RCRA, particularly as these requirements are interpreted in several RCRA procedural guidelines. As stated in RCRA, safe handling of radioactive waste takes precedence over RCRA requirements. However, the applicant must still implement RCRA procedures where possible. To date there are no real guidelines on how to treat RCRA requirements which are contrary to the safe handling of radioactive wastes. Examples of such problems are the classification of facilities, inspection procedures, emergency procedures, and closure requirements. These problems have been addressed by the Savannah River Plant in several RCRA operating permit applications and post-closure permit applications. Examination of incompatibilities addressed by these applications provides insight into the options available for permitting Mixed Waste facilities

  3. The refined analytic torsion and a well-posed boundary condition for the odd signature operator (United States)

    Huang, Rung-Tzung; Lee, Yoonweon


    In this paper we discuss the refined analytic torsion on an odd dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold with boundary under some assumption. For this purpose we introduce two boundary conditions which are complementary to each other and well-posed for the odd signature operator B in the sense of Seeley. We then show that the zeta-determinants of B2 and eta-invariants of B subject to these boundary conditions are well defined by using the method of the asymptotic expansions of the traces of the heat kernels. We use these facts to define the refined analytic torsion on a compact manifold with boundary and show that it is invariant on the change of metrics in the interior of the manifold. We finally describe the refined analytic torsion under these boundary conditions as an element of the determinant line.

  4. Vector extrapolation enhanced TSVD for linear discrete ill-posed problems (United States)

    Jbilou, K.; Reichel, L.; Sadok, H.


    The truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is a popular solution method for small to moderately sized linear ill-posed problems. The truncation index can be thought of as a regularization parameter; its value affects the quality of the computed approximate solution. The choice of a suitable value of the truncation index generally is important, but can be difficult without auxiliary information about the problem being solved. This paper describes how vector extrapolation methods can be combined with TSVD, and illustrates that the determination of the proper value of the truncation index is less critical for the combined extrapolation-TSVD method than for TSVD alone. The numerical performance of the combined method suggests a new way to determine the truncation index.

  5. Lossless divide and conquer for time-order sorting of N facial poses (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Kai; Szu, Harold


    Law enforcement agencies need a quick decision in May 1 2010 NY Time Square for quickly spot wanted car bomb individuals in a crowd. This goal requires real-time smart firmware and a smart search algorithm to know how to order the faces in a geometric way. We demonstrate such a sorting problem of N facial poses time ordering is like the TSP of N cities, NP-complete, having no exact deterministic solution. Here we demonstrated a heuristic working solution to answer the ONR grand challenge called Empire 2010. How could the N boxes of faces detected and cut by the efficient COST parallel color-hue-algorithm, without time mark, at a single CPU (or even with the time marks but collected videos from multiple vintage points) to determine automatically who speaks what, where, and when? There must be a cross platform sensory association from our different sensors.

  6. Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Ogawa


    Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.

  7. Particle Filter with Binary Gaussian Weighting and Support Vector Machine for Human Pose Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Agustien


    Full Text Available Human pose interpretation using Particle filter with Binary Gaussian Weighting and Support Vector Machine is proposed. In the proposed system, Particle filter is used to track human object, then this human object is skeletonized using thinning algorithm and classified using Support Vector Machine. The classification is to identify human pose, whether a normal or abnormal behavior. Here Particle filter is modified through weight calculation using Gaussiandistribution to reduce the computational time. The modified particle filter consists of four main phases. First, particles are generated to predict target’s location. Second, weight of certain particles is calculated and these particles are used to build Gaussian distribution. Third, weight of all particles is calculated based on Gaussian distribution. Fourth, update particles based on each weight. The modified particle filter could reduce computational time of object tracking since this method does not have to calculate particle’s weight one by one. To calculate weight, the proposed method builds Gaussian distribution and calculates particle’s weight using this distribution. Through experiment using video data taken in front of cashier of convenient store, the proposed method reduced computational time in tracking process until 68.34% in average compare to the conventional one, meanwhile the accuracy of tracking with this new method is comparable with particle filter method i.e. 90.3%. Combination particle filter with binary Gaussian weighting and support vector machine is promising for advanced early crime scene investigation.

  8. Is Attribute-Based Zero-Shot Learning an Ill-Posed Strategy?

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim


    One transfer learning approach that has gained a wide popularity lately is attribute-based zero-shot learning. Its goal is to learn novel classes that were never seen during the training stage. The classical route towards realizing this goal is to incorporate a prior knowledge, in the form of a semantic embedding of classes, and to learn to predict classes indirectly via their semantic attributes. Despite the amount of research devoted to this subject lately, no known algorithm has yet reported a predictive accuracy that could exceed the accuracy of supervised learning with very few training examples. For instance, the direct attribute prediction (DAP) algorithm, which forms a standard baseline for the task, is known to be as accurate as supervised learning when as few as two examples from each hidden class are used for training on some popular benchmark datasets! In this paper, we argue that this lack of significant results in the literature is not a coincidence; attribute-based zero-shot learning is fundamentally an ill-posed strategy. The key insight is the observation that the mechanical task of predicting an attribute is, in fact, quite different from the epistemological task of learning the “correct meaning” of the attribute itself. This renders attribute-based zero-shot learning fundamentally ill-posed. In more precise mathematical terms, attribute-based zero-shot learning is equivalent to the mirage goal of learning with respect to one distribution of instances, with the hope of being able to predict with respect to any arbitrary distribution. We demonstrate this overlooked fact on some synthetic and real datasets. The data and software related to this paper are available at https://mine. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  9. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct. (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P


    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  10. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  11. Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy and left ventricular assist device: a word of caution. (United States)

    Kornberger, A; Stock, U A; Risteski, P; Beiras Fernandez, A


    In patients with left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may be performed as a bridge to transplantation. In this respect, the particular characteristics of the left ventricular myocardium may represent a challenge. We report a patient with LVNC who required urgent heart transplantation for inflow cannula obstruction nine months after receiving a LVAD. LVAD parameters, echocardiography and examination of the explanted heart suggested changes of left ventricular configuration brought about by LVAD support as the most likely cause of inflow cannula obstruction. We conclude that changes experienced by non-compacted myocardium during LVAD support may give rise to inflow cannula obstruction and flow reduction. Presence of LVNC mandates tight surveillance for changes in LV configuration and LVAD flow characteristics and may justify urgent transplantation listing status.

  12. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment]. (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel


    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  13. Left-right symmetric electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.


    We present a critical analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs sector of the conventional SU(2) L circle-times SU(2) R circle-times U(1) B-L left-right symmetric theory involving bi-doublet and triplet Higgs fields. We examine the phenomenological constraints imposed on the minimization of the Higgs potential arising from experimental observations, and explore the resulting consequences including the problem of ''fine- tuning'' arising from the hierarchy of mass scales involved. We show that it is non-trivial to satisfy all of these constraints. We contrast the benefits of this general class left-right models against the required ''fine-tuning'' necessary to force the phenomenology to conform to experimental fact. 17 refs., 1 fig

  14. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter. (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa


    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  15. How academics face the world: a study of 5829 homepage pictures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Churches

    Full Text Available It is now standard practice, at Universities around the world, for academics to place pictures of themselves on a personal profile page maintained as part of their University's web-site. Here we investigated what these pictures reveal about the way academics see themselves. Since there is an asymmetry in the degree to which emotional information is conveyed by the face, with the left side being more expressive than the right, we hypothesised that academics in the sciences would seek to pose as non-emotional rationalists and put their right cheek forward, while academics in the arts would express their emotionality and pose with the left cheek forward. We sourced 5829 pictures of academics from their University websites and found that, consistent with the hypotheses, there was a significant difference in the direction of face posing between science academics and English academics with English academics showing a more leftward orientation. Academics in the Fine Arts and Performing Arts however, did not show the expected left cheek forward bias. We also analysed profile pictures of psychology academics and found a greater bias toward presenting the left check compared to science academics which makes psychologists appear more like arts academics than scientists. These findings indicate that the personal website pictures of academics mirror the cultural perceptions of emotional expressiveness across disciplines.

  16. Total agenesis of the left pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Fº


    Full Text Available This is the report of a 46-year-old patient with the preoperative diagnosis of an atrial septal defect (ASD of the ostium secudum type. After sternectomy, partial agenesis of the left pericardium was diagnosed. It is our opinion that, if the radiographic picture is suggestive of this entity, a clinical search for cardiopulmonary anomalies should be performed, because the majority of these associated anomalies can and should be surgically corrected.

  17. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune


    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  18. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm


    Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam


    Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 1 4 × 2 8  mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and ...

  19. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsekhar Varda


    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14×28 mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms.

  20. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma involving the left pulmonary vein presenting as a left atrial tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Bandyopadhyay


    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman presented with 4 months history of progressively increasing intermittent dyspnea and hemoptysis. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a loculated mass in the left atrium (LA. A provisional diagnosis of LA myxoma was made. Intraoperatively the tumor was found extending into and closely adherent to the left pulmonary vein and could not be completely cleared off from the pulmonary venous wall. The histopathological examination of the tumor revealed it to be a myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma.