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Sample records for left caudate nucleus

  1. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?

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    Villablanca, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the

  2. Finding of increased caudate nucleus in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

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    Persson, K; Bohbot, V D; Bogdanovic, N; Selbaek, G; Braekhus, A; Engedal, K

    2018-02-01

    A recently published study using an automated MRI volumetry method (NeuroQuant®) unexpectedly demonstrated larger caudate nucleus volume in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) compared to patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment (SCI and MCI). The aim of this study was to explore this finding. The caudate nucleus and the hippocampus volumes were measured (both expressed as ratios of intracranial volume) in a total of 257 patients with SCI and MCI according to the Winblad criteria and AD according to ICD-10 criteria. Demographic data, cognitive measures, and APOE-ɛ4 status were collected. Compared with non-dementia patients (SCI and MCI), AD patients were older, more of them were female, and they had a larger caudate nucleus volume and smaller hippocampus volume (P<.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, age and female sex were associated with larger caudate nucleus volume, but neither diagnosis nor memory function was. Age, gender, and memory function were associated with hippocampus volume, and age and memory function were associated with caudate nucleus/hippocampus ratio. A larger caudate nucleus volume in AD patients was partly explained by older age and being female. These results are further discussed in the context of (1) the caudate nucleus possibly serving as a mechanism for temporary compensation; (2) methodological properties of automated volumetry of this brain region; and (3) neuropathological alterations. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of the caudate nucleus in AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychotic Symptoms Associated with Left Caudate Infarction

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    Ying-Chih Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic symptoms following acquired brain lesion are relatively rare, and thus, the specific association linking such symptoms to the distinct brain structure remains unclear. The frontal–subcortical circuits are thought to modulate motor activity and human behavior, and have been reported to be associated with many neuropsychiatric symptoms. We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man without previous psychiatric disorder who developed a new onset of psychotic symptoms following left caudate infarction. The presented case supports the fact that psychosis might arise from alteration of the distinct brain structure. The functional impairment of the frontal–subcortical circuits may be a critical factor linking the pathogenesis of psychosis associated with acquired brain lesion.

  4. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Jiji, Sudevan; Smitha, Karavallil Achuthan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Mahadevan; Jayasree, Ramapurath S

    2013-09-01

    A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease

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    Jiji, Sudevan, E-mail: jijiaiswaryap@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581, Kerala (India); Smitha, Karavallil Achuthan, E-mail: mithamahesh@gmail.com [Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Gupta, Arun Kumar, E-mail: gupta209@gmail.com [Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore (India); Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Mahadevan, E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581, Kerala (India); Jayasree, Ramapurath S., E-mail: jayashreemenon@gmail.com [Biophotonics and Imaging Lab, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India)

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Results: Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. Conclusion: The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD.

  6. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiji, Sudevan; Smitha, Karavallil Achuthan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Mahadevan; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Results: Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. Conclusion: The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD

  7. Measurement of caudate nucleus area - a more accurate measurement for Huntington's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Abernethy, L.J.; Sellar, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Caudate nucleus atrophy occurs in Huntington's disease and methods of measuring this have been described using axial CT, but these are indirect and lack sensitivity. We measured caudate nucleus area (blind to the subjects' clinical state) in 30 subjects with or at risk of Huntington's disease, and in 100 normal age matched controls. Fifteen subjects with established symptomatic Huntington's disease, 3 with early symptoms, and 3 presymptomatic subjects (2 showing a high probability for the Huntington's disease gene on genetic testing, and one who has since developed symptoms) were correctly identified. Three normal (gene negative) family members were also correctly identified. Outcome is awaited in 6. CT caudate area measurement is simple and reproducible and we have found it to be a useful confirmatory test for Huntington's disease. (orig.)

  8. Increased glia density in the caudate nucleus in williams syndrome: Implications for frontostriatal dysfunction in autism.

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    Hanson, Kari L; Lew, Caroline H; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Groeniger, Kimberly M; Halgren, Eric; Bellugi, Ursula; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-described, known genetic etiology. In contrast to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), WS has a unique phenotype characterized by global reductions in IQ and visuospatial ability, with relatively preserved language function, enhanced reactivity to social stimuli and music, and an unusual eagerness to interact socially with strangers. A duplication of the deleted region in WS has been implicated in a subset of ASD cases, defining a spectrum of genetic and behavioral variation at this locus defined by these opposite extremes in social behavior. The hypersociability characteristic of WS may be linked to abnormalities of frontostriatal circuitry that manifest as deficits in inhibitory control of behavior. Here, we examined the density of neurons and glia in associative and limbic territories of the striatum including the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens regions in Nissl stained sections in five pairs of age, sex, and hemisphere-matched WS and typically-developing control (TD) subjects. In contrast to what is reported in ASD, no significant increase in overall neuron density was observed in this study. However, we found a significant increase in the density of glia in the dorsal caudate nucleus, and in the ratio of glia to neurons in the dorsal and medial caudate nucleus in WS, accompanied by a significant increase in density of oligodendrocytes in the medial caudate nucleus. These cellular abnormalities may underlie reduced frontostriatal activity observed in WS, with implications for understanding altered connectivity and function in ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Shape Abnormalities of the Caudate Nucleus Correlate with Poorer Gait and Balance

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    Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey C L; Walterfang, Mark

    2015-01-01

    published method and volumes calculated. The relationships between volume and physical performance on the SPPB were investigated with shape analysis using the spherical harmonic shape description toolkit. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the severity of WMHs and striatal volumes. Caudate nuclei...... volume correlated with performance on the SPPB at baseline but not at follow-up, with subsequent shape analysis showing left caudate changes occurred in areas corresponding to inputs of the dorsolateral prefrontal, premotor, and motor cortex. There was no correlation between putamen volumes...

  10. T196. CALRETININ INTERNEURON DENSITY IN THE CAUDATE NUCLEUS IS LOWER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Adorjan, Istvan; Sun, Bin; Feher, Virginia; Tyler, Teadora; Damo-Csorba, Bori; Pour, Benedek; Veres, Daniel; Ansorge, Olaf; Chance, Steven Andrew; Szele, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The excitatory/inhibitory imbalance theory is widely accepted in the pathology of autism spectrum disorder. Recent results suggest its relevance in the aetiology of schizophrenia as well (Jardri 2016, Yang 2017, Gao and Penzes 2015). In order to discover the possibly altered neuronal composition in schizophrenia numerous studies have been focussing mainly on different cortical regions such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In particular, various interneuronal populations have been found altered.2 However, relatively little is known about the neuroanatomical changes of subcortical structures, such as the caudate nucleus, in the pathology of schizophrenia. Methods Therefore, we examined the immunohistochemical distribution of calretinin (CR) and NPY-immunopositive neurons in the caudate nucleus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The state of microglial activation was controlled by the detection of Iba1 and TMEM119. In order to corroborate our results obtained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) qPCR analyses were also conducted. Results The present study provides evidence for the altered interneuronal composition of caudate nucleus in schizophrenia without signs of microglial activation. There were small, medium and large CR-immunopositive (CR-ip) interneurons detected in the caudate nucleus. There was a 32% decrease in the density of all CR-ip interneurons (p=0.020, statistical power=0.747) that was driven by the loss of the small CR-ip interneurons (p=0.017, statistical power=0.777) while the densities of the medium and large CR-ip and NPY-ip interneurons were not significantly altered (p=0.078, p=0.436, p=0.125, respectively). Our experiments were also extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus) where no significant changes were seen by IHC. However, qPCR analyses revealed a trend of decreased CR mRNA levels in schizophrenia (p=0.061, statistical power=0

  11. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

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    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

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    Maheen M Adamson

    Full Text Available The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66 were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land. Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8 or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12. High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01. Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80 compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16 (p<.05. These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions

  13. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2–5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

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    Ting Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs. However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2–3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD at baseline (Time 1 and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2. The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  14. Dissociable contributions of the prefrontal cortex to hippocampus- and caudate nucleus-dependent virtual navigation strategies.

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    Dahmani, Louisa; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and the caudate nucleus are critical to spatial- and stimulus-response-based navigation strategies, respectively. The hippocampus and caudate nucleus are also known to be anatomically connected to various areas of the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in these processes. In the current study, we sought to identify the prefrontal areas involved in spatial and response learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry to compare the neural activity and grey matter density of spatial and response strategy users. Twenty-three healthy young adults were scanned in a 1.5 T MRI scanner while they engaged in the Concurrent Spatial Discrimination Learning Task, a virtual navigation task in which either a spatial or response strategy can be used. In addition to increased BOLD activity in the hippocampus, spatial strategy users showed increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the ventral area of the medial prefrontal cortex, especially in the orbitofrontal cortex. On the other hand, response strategy users exhibited increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the dorsal area of the medial prefrontal cortex. Given the prefrontal cortex's role in reward-guided decision-making, we discuss the possibility that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the orbitofrontal cortex, supports spatial learning by encoding stimulus-reward associations, while the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex supports response learning by encoding action-reward associations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond cytoarchitectonics: the internal and external connectivity structure of the caudate nucleus.

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    Sonja A Kotz

    Full Text Available While there is ample evidence on the functional and connectional differentiation of the caudate nucleus (CN, less is known about its potential microstructural subdivisions. However, this latter aspect is critical to the local information processing capabilities of the tissue. We applied diffusion MRI, a non-invasive in vivo method that has great potential for the exploration of the brain structure-behavior relationship, in order to characterize the local fiber structure in gray matter of the CN. We report novel evidence of a functionally meaningful structural tri-partition along the anterior-posterior axis of this region. The connectivity of the CN subregions is in line with connectivity evidence from earlier invasive studies in animal models. In addition, histological validation using polarized light imaging (PLI confirms these results, corroborating the notion that cortico-subcortico-cortical loops involve microstructurally differentiated regions in the caudate nucleus. Methodologically speaking, the comparison with advanced analysis of diffusion MRI shows that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI yields a simplified view of the CN fiber architecture which is refined by advanced high angular resolution imaging methods.

  16. Modulation of neurotransmitter release in the region of the caudate nucleus by diet and neurotoxins

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    Kurstjens, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of dietary manipulation, ethanol and neurotoxins on the basal and electrically evoked release of dopamine and acetylcholine from the caudate nucleus of mature animals are presented together with an evaluation of the presynaptic acetylcholine and dopamine receptors controlling acetylcholine and dopamine release. A standardised superfusion technique was used to monitor the effect of apomorphine, in the presence of (R-S)- sulpiride or haloperidol, on the electrically induced release of ( 3 H)-acetylcholine in slices of rat corpus striatum. The effect of ethanol and dietary manipulation on the basal and electrically evoke release of ( 3 H)-acetylfholine from rat striatal slices, in the presence of specific agonists and antagonists was evaluated. From this study it is possible to deduce that diet and neurotoxins exerted a measurable effect on the mechanisms controlling release of neurotransmitters in the region of the caudate nucleus. These changes were determined in mature animals previously considered to have cerebral activity, which was not subject to dietary fluctuaations. No changes in the activity of the presynaptic dopamine receptor of the acetylcholine nerve terminals of the striatal slice could be measured

  17. Alzheimer's disease detection via automatic 3D caudate nucleus segmentation using coupled dictionary learning with level set formulation.

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    Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood Salman; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method for Alzheimer's disease classification via an automatic 3D caudate nucleus segmentation. The proposed method consists of segmentation and classification steps. In the segmentation step, we propose a novel level set cost function. The proposed cost function is constrained by a sparse representation of local image features using a dictionary learning method. We present coupled dictionaries: a feature dictionary of a grayscale brain image and a label dictionary of a caudate nucleus label image. Using online dictionary learning, the coupled dictionaries are learned from the training data. The learned coupled dictionaries are embedded into a level set function. In the classification step, a region-based feature dictionary is built. The region-based feature dictionary is learned from shape features of the caudate nucleus in the training data. The classification is based on the measure of the similarity between the sparse representation of region-based shape features of the segmented caudate in the test image and the region-based feature dictionary. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method over the state-of-the-art methods by achieving a high segmentation (91.5%) and classification (92.5%) accuracy. In this paper, we find that the study of the caudate nucleus atrophy gives an advantage over the study of whole brain structure atrophy to detect Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Profiling and sequencing of gangliosides from human caudate nucleus by chip-nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

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    Serb, Alina F; Sisu, Eugen; Vukelić, Zeljka; Zamfir, Alina D

    2012-12-01

    Gangliosides (GGs), sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids are involved in many brain functions at the cell and molecular level. Compositional and structural elucidation of GGs in mixtures extracted from human brain is essential for correlating their profile with the specialized function of each brain area in health and disease. As a part of our ongoing study on GG expression and structure in different healthy and diseased brain regions, in this work, a preliminary investigation of GGs in a specimen of human caudate nucleus (CN) was carried out using an advanced mass spectrometry (MS) technique. By chip-nanoelectrospray MS performed on a NanoMate robot coupled to a high capacity ion trap instrument, 81 GG components were detected in human CN in only 1.5 min of signal acquisition. Although the native GG mixture from CN was found dominated by mono-, di- and trisialylated GGs with a slight dominance of disialylated forms (GD), four tetrasialylated structures (GQ) and two pentasialylated (GP) species were also identified. Additionally, species with unusually long fatty acid chains, exceeding 30 carbon atoms in their ceramide (Cer) composition, and several glycoforms modified by fucosyl (Fuc), O-acetyl (O-Ac) and/or lactonization were discovered. By tandem MS (MS(2) ) using collision-induced dissociation, two atypical mono and disialylated species with long-chain fatty acids in their Cer could be confirmed and structurally characterized. These results may be a starting point for new GG-based approaches in the study of CN functions and ethiopathogenesis of CN-related neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Distinct presynaptic control of dopamine release in striosomal and matrix areas of the cat caudate nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemel, M.L.; Desban, M.; Glowinski, J.; Gauchy, C.

    1989-01-01

    By use of a sensitive in vitro microsuperfusion method, the cholinergic presynaptic control of dopamine release was investigated in a prominent striosome (areas poor in acetylcholinesterase activity) located within the core of cat caudate nucleus and also in adjacent matrix area. The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]dopamine continuously synthesized from [ 3 H]tyrosine in the matrix area was found to be twice that in the striosomal area; the spontaneous and potassium-evoked releases of [ 3 H]dopamine were calcium-dependent in both compartments. With 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin, 5 x 10 -5 M acetylcholine stimulated [ 3 H]dopamine release in both striosomal and matrix areas, effects completely antagonized by atropine, thus showing the involvement of muscarinic receptors located on dopaminergic nerve terminals. Experiments without tetrodotoxin revealed a more complex regulation of dopamine release in the matrix: (i) in contrast to results seen in the striosome, acetylcholine induced only a transient stimulatory effect on matrix dopamine release. (ii) Although 10 -6 M atropine completely abolished the cholinergic stimulatory effect on [ 3 H]dopamine release in striosomal area, delayed and prolonged stimulation of [ 3 H] dopamine release was seen with atropine in the matrix. The latter effect was completely abolished by the nicotinic antagonist pempidine. Therefore, in the matrix, in addition to its direct (tetrodotoxin-insensitive) facilitatory action on [ 3 H]dopamine release, acetylcholine exerts two indirect (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) opposing effects: an inhibition and a stimulation of [ 3 H]dopamine release mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, respectively

  20. Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies.

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    West, Greg L; Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Konishi, Kyoko; Jackson, Jonathan; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bohbot, Veronique D

    2015-06-07

    The habitual playing of video games is associated with increased grey matter and activity in the striatum. Studies in humans and rodents have shown an inverse relationship between grey matter in the striatum and hippocampus. We investigated whether action video game playing is also associated with increased use of response learning strategies during navigation, known to be dependent on the caudate nucleus of the striatum, when presented in a dual solution task. We tested 26 action video game players (actionVGPs) and 33 non-action video game players (nonVGPs) on the 4-on-8 virtual maze and a visual attention event-related potential (ERP) task, which elicits a robust N-2-posterior-controlateral (N2pc) component. We found that actionVGPs had a significantly higher likelihood of using a response learning strategy (80.76%) compared to nonVGPs (42.42%). Consistent with previous evidence, actionVGPs and nonVGPs differed in the way they deployed visual attention to central and peripheral targets as observed in the elicited N2pc component during an ERP visual attention task. Increased use of the response strategy in actionVGPs is consistent with previously observed increases in striatal volume in video game players (VGPs). Using response strategies is associated with decreased grey matter in the hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that decreased volume in the hippocampus precedes the onset of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. If actionVGPs have lower grey matter in the hippocampus, as response learners normally do, then these individuals could be at increased risk of developing neurological and psychiatric disorders during their lifetime. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Repeated methamphetamine administration differentially alters fos expression in caudate-putamen patch and matrix compartments and nucleus accumbens.

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    Jakub P Jedynak

    Full Text Available The repeated administration of psychostimulant drugs produces a persistent and long-lasting increase ("sensitization" in their psychomotor effects, which is thought to be due to changes in the neural circuitry that mediate these behaviors. One index of neuronal activation used to identify brain regions altered by repeated exposure to drugs involves their ability to induce immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Numerous reports have demonstrated that past drug experience alters the ability of drugs to induce c-fos in the striatum, but very few have examined Fos protein expression in the two major compartments in the striatum--the so-called patch/striosome and matrix.In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of pretreatment with methamphetamine on the ability of a subsequent methamphetamine challenge to induce Fos protein expression in the patch and matrix compartments of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen and in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. Animals pretreated with methamphetamine developed robust psychomotor sensitization. A methamphetamine challenge increased the number of Fos-positive cells in all areas of the dorsal and ventral striatum. However, methamphetamine challenge induced Fos expression in more cells in the patch than in the matrix compartment in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen. Furthermore, past experience with methamphetamine increased the number of methamphetamine-induced Fos positive cells in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate putamen, but not in the matrix or in the core or shell of the nucleus accumbens.These data suggest that drug-induced alterations in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate-putamen may preferentially contribute to some of the enduring changes in brain activity and behavior produced by repeated treatment with methamphetamine.

  2. A fully-automatic caudate nucleus segmentation of brain MRI: Application in volumetric analysis of pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Igual Laura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate automatic segmentation of the caudate nucleus in magnetic resonance images (MRI of the brain is of great interest in the analysis of developmental disorders. Segmentation methods based on a single atlas or on multiple atlases have been shown to suitably localize caudate structure. However, the atlas prior information may not represent the structure of interest correctly. It may therefore be useful to introduce a more flexible technique for accurate segmentations. Method We present Cau-dateCut: a new fully-automatic method of segmenting the caudate nucleus in MRI. CaudateCut combines an atlas-based segmentation strategy with the Graph Cut energy-minimization framework. We adapt the Graph Cut model to make it suitable for segmenting small, low-contrast structures, such as the caudate nucleus, by defining new energy function data and boundary potentials. In particular, we exploit information concerning the intensity and geometry, and we add supervised energies based on contextual brain structures. Furthermore, we reinforce boundary detection using a new multi-scale edgeness measure. Results We apply the novel CaudateCut method to the segmentation of the caudate nucleus to a new set of 39 pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients and 40 control children, as well as to a public database of 18 subjects. We evaluate the quality of the segmentation using several volumetric and voxel by voxel measures. Our results show improved performance in terms of segmentation compared to state-of-the-art approaches, obtaining a mean overlap of 80.75%. Moreover, we present a quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate abnormalities in pediatric ADHD, the results of which show strong correlation with expert manual analysis. Conclusion CaudateCut generates segmentation results that are comparable to gold-standard segmentations and which are reliable in the analysis of differentiating neuroanatomical abnormalities

  3. Activity levels in the left hemisphere caudate-fusiform circuit predict how well a second language will be learned.

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    Tan, Li Hai; Chen, Lin; Yip, Virginia; Chan, Alice H D; Yang, Jing; Gao, Jia-Hong; Siok, Wai Ting

    2011-02-08

    How second language (L2) learning is achieved in the human brain remains one of the fundamental questions of neuroscience and linguistics. Previous neuroimaging studies with bilinguals have consistently shown overlapping cortical organization of the native language (L1) and L2, leading to a prediction that a common neurobiological marker may be responsible for the development of the two languages. Here, by using functional MRI, we show that later skills to read in L2 are predicted by the activity level of the fusiform-caudate circuit in the left hemisphere, which nonetheless is not predictive of the ability to read in the native language. We scanned 10-y-old children while they performed a lexical decision task on L2 (and L1) stimuli. The subjects' written language (reading) skills were behaviorally assessed twice, the first time just before we performed the fMRI scan (time 1 reading) and the second time 1 y later (time 2 reading). A whole-brain based analysis revealed that activity levels in left caudate and left fusiform gyrus correlated with L2 literacy skills at time 1. After controlling for the effects of time 1 reading and nonverbal IQ, or the effect of in-scanner lexical performance, the development in L2 literacy skills (time 2 reading) was also predicted by activity in left caudate and fusiform regions that are thought to mediate language control functions and resolve competition arising from L1 during L2 learning. Our findings suggest that the activity level of left caudate and fusiform regions serves as an important neurobiological marker for predicting accomplishment in reading skills in a new language.

  4. Metabolite measurements in the caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus among patients with mitochondrial disorders: a case–control study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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    Rosebush, Patricia I.; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Weber, Alexander M.; Soreni, Noam; Mazurek, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial disorders are clinical syndromes associated with mutations in the mitochondrial or nuclear genome that result in impaired oxidative phosphorylation and deficient energy production. Metabolic abnormalities in brain areas associated with cognitive functions could give rise to neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of this study was to use single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify metabolic abnormalities in regions implicated in neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mitochondrial disorders. Methods N-acetyl-aspartate and creatine levels were measured in the caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in 15 patients with mitochondrial disorders compared with 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Results N-acetyl-aspartate levels were significantly lower in the caudate nucleus among patients with mitochondrial disorders (mean 7.04 ± 1.19 standard deviation [SD] institutional units) compared with healthy controls (mean 8.19 ± 1.18 SD institutional units; p = 0.02). Creatine levels were lower in the caudate nucleus among patients compared with controls (patients: mean 6.84 ± 1.42 SD institutional units; controls: mean 7.52 ± 0.76 SD institutional units; p = 0.03), but the results were no longer significant after correction for multiple comparisons. There were no significant differences in metabolite measurements between patients and controls in the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus. Interpretation Metabolic abnormalities were identified exclusively in the caudate nucleus, with significantly lower N-acetyl-aspartate levels among patients compared with controls. These results suggest that the corpus striatum may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defects and resultant cell loss. Given the role of the caudate nucleus in cognitive and executive functions, our findings raise the possibility that metabolic abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may contribute

  5. Dissociation between vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and blood vessel density in the caudate nucleus after chronic hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Leichliter, Anna; Krajcir, Natalie; Zingales, Nicholas; Inoue, Masahiro; Schenk, Soren; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Luciano, Mark G

    2009-11-01

    Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is characterized by the presence of ventricular enlargement, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and brain tissue oxygen delivery. Although the underlying pathophysiological role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is not clear, ischemic-hypoxic events in CH are known to trigger its release. Previously, we have shown increased VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and blood vessel density (BVd) in the hippocampus after CH. We investigated changes in neuronal and glial VEGFR-2 density and BVd in the caudate nucleus in an experimental model of CH. Animals with CH were divided into short term (ST, 2 to 4 weeks) and long term (LT, 12 to 16 weeks) and were compared with surgical controls (SCs, 12 to 16 weeks). The cellular and BVds were estimated using immunohistochemical and stereological counting methods. Overall, percentage (%)VEGFR-2 neurons were approximately two times greater in CH (ST, LT) than in SC. By comparison, glial cell %VEGFR-2 was greater by 10% to 17% in ST and 4% to 11% lower in LT compared with that in SC. Blood vessel density was significantly lower in CH than in SC in the superficial caudate. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid ventricular volume and pressure, as well as in CBF did not correlate with either VEGFR-2 or BVd. These observed findings suggest that destructive forces may outweigh angiogenic forces and possibly show a disassociation between VEGFR-2 and BV expressions.

  6. Direct evidence of the left caudate's role in bilingual control: an intra-operative electrical stimulation study.

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    Wang, Xin; Wang, Yin-Yan; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Wu, Chen-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals need control mechanisms in order to switch between languages in different communication contexts (Green, 1998, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1; Price, Green, & von Studnitz, 1999, Brain, 122). There has been neural evidence showing competition to control output in L2 vs. L1 in both cortical and sub-cortical areas, when language selection is carried out (Abutalebi & Green, 2007, Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20). Here we use intra-operative direct electrical stimulation to demonstrate that the head of the left caudate is critical not only in language switching tasks but other control tasks. A bilingual Chinese-English patient was instructed to perform both language switching and switching in color-shape naming tasks during awake glioma surgery. When stimulation was applied on the left caudate, failures or difficulties in both language switching and color-shape naming were observed, with the effects greater on language switching. Stimulation to neighboring brain regions either did not affect performance or generated mild problems specific to language switching. The results provide direct evidence of the necessary role of the left caudate in language control.

  7. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  8. Expression of Osteogenic Molecules in the Caudate Nucleus and Gray Matter and Their Potential Relevance for Basal Ganglia Calcification in Hypoparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millo, Tabin; Mishra, Shruti; Das, Madhuchhanda; Kapoor, Mansi; Tomar, Neeraj; Saha, Soma; Roy, Tara Shankar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is an interesting example of ectopic calcification in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Its pathogenesis and reasons for predilection of calcification at basal ganglia are not clear. Objective: To assess the expression of osteogenesis-related molecules in the caudate nucleus and surface gray matter (an area spared from calcification) and discuss potential relevance of the results in context of BGC in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Methods: Caudate nucleus and gray matter were obtained from 14 autopsies performed in accidental deaths. The mRNA expression of bone transcription factors (RUNX2/osterix), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2 and 4, osteonectin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing-receptor, Na phosphate transporters (PiTs) 1 and 2, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NMDAR2B), carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), PTH1 receptor (PTH1R), PTH2R, and PTHrP were assessed by RT-PCR. Western blot, spot densitometry, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess protein expression of molecules showing differences in mRNA expression between caudate and gray tissues. Results: The mean mRNA expression of PiT1 (11.0 ± 10.39 vs 32.9 ± 20.98, P = .003) and PTH2R (1.6 ± 1.47 vs 13.7 ± 6.11, P = .001) were significantly lower in the caudate nucleus than the gray matter. The expression of osteonectin, osteopontin, and CA-II were significantly higher in the caudate nucleus than the gray matter (P = .01, .001, and .04, respectively). The mRNA expression of other molecules was comparable in the 2 tissues. The protein expression of both CA-II and osteonectin was 24% higher and PiT1 17% lower in caudate than the gray matter. The differences in the PTH2R and osteopontin protein expression were not appreciable. Conclusions: The presence of several osteogenic molecules in caudate nucleus indicates that BGC would probably be the outcome of an active process. The differences in expression of these molecules in

  9. Increased turnover of dopamine in caudate nucleus of detoxified alcoholic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Gjedde, Albert; Caprioli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    (k(loss)), and we also calculated the total distribution volume of decarboxylated metabolites and unmetabolized FDOPA as a steady-state index of the dopamine storage capacity (V(d)) in brain. The craving scores in the 12 alcoholics correlated positively with the rate of loss (k(loss)) in the left...

  10. Executive dysfunction correlates with caudate nucleus atrophy in patients with white matter changes on MRI: A subset of LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Matthew Duncan; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Walterfang, Mark

    2013-01-01

    and falls in cross-sectional and follow-up studies. Frontostriatal (or frontosubcortical) brain circuits may serve many of these functions, with the caudate nuclei playing a role in convergence of cognitive functions. This study aimed to determine whether reduced caudate volume relates to cognitive...... functions (executive functions, memory functions and speed of processing) and WMC. We determined caudate nuclei volumes, through manual tracing, on a subgroup of the LADIS study (n=66) from four centres with baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI scans. Regression analysis was used to assess relationships...

  11. A Heuristic Image Search Algorithm for Active Shape Model Segmentation of the Caudate Nucleus and Hippocampus in Brain MR Images of Children with FASD

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    A A Eicher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging provides a non-invasive means to study the neural correlates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD - the most common form of preventable mental retardation worldwide. One approach aims to detect brain abnormalities through an assessment of volume and shape of two sub-cortical structures, the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. We present a method for automatically segmenting these structures from high-resolution MR images captured as part of an ongoing study into the neural correlates of FASD. Our method incorporates an Active Shape Model, which is used to learn shape variation from manually segmented training data. A modified discrete Geometrically Deformable Model is used to generate point correspondence between training models. An ASM is then created from the landmark points. Experiments were conducted on the image search phase of ASM segmentation, in order to find the technique best suited to segmentation of the hippocampus and caudate nucleus. Various popular image search techniques were tested, including an edge detection method and a method based on grey profile Mahalanobis distance measurement. A novel heuristic image search method was also developed and tested. This heuristic method improves image segmentation by taking advantage of characteristics specific to the target data, such as a relatively homogeneous tissue colour in target structures. Results show that ASMs that use the heuristic image search technique produce the most accurate segmentations. An ASM constructed using this technique will enable researchers to quickly, reliably, and automatically segment test data for use in the FASD study.

  12. Estradiol receptors mediate estradiol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial Ca^{2+} efflux in rat caudate nucleus and brain stem

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC, SNJEZANA; MILOSEVIC, MAJA; RISTIC-MEDIC, DANIJELA; VELICKOVIC, NATASA; DRAKULIC, DUNJA; GRKOVIC, IVANA; HORVAT, ANICA

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier studies found that in vitro estradiol modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in discrete brain regions. The present study examined the role of estradiol receptors (ERs) in estradiol-induced inhibition of Ca^{2+} efflux from synaptosomal mitochondria isolated from rat caudate nuclei and brain stems. Radioactively labeled CaCl_2 (0.6?0.75 µCi ^45CaCl_{2}) was used for Ca^{2+} transport monitoring. The results revealed that in the presence of ER antagonist 7\\alpha,17ß-[9[(4,4,5,5,5-...

  13. Fibromyalgia patients had normal distraction related pain inhibition but cognitive impairment reflected in caudate nucleus and hippocampus during the Stroop Color Word Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Sofia; Flodin, Pär; Berrebi, Jonathan; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ingvar, Martin; Fransson, Peter; Kosek, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms causing cognitive problems in chronic pain patients are not well understood. We used the Stroop color word task (SCWT) to investigate distraction-induced analgesia, cognitive performance, and cerebral activation patterns in 29 fibromyalgia (FM) patients (mean age 49.8 years, range 25-64 years) and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 46.3 years, range 20-63 years). In the first study, SCWT was used to investigate distraction-induced analgesia in FM patients. Two versions of the task were applied, one with only congruent color-word images and one with incongruent images. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed using a pressure algometer before, during, and following SCWT. In the second study, reaction times (RTs) were assessed and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate cerebral activation patterns in FM patients and HC during the SCWT. An event-related task mixing incongruent and congruent images was used. In study one, we found reduced pressure pain sensitivity during SCWT in both groups alike and no statistically significant differences were seen between the incongruent and congruent conditions. The study two revealed longer RTs during the incongruent compared to the congruent condition in both groups. FM patients had longer RTs than HC in both conditions. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between group and congruency; that is, the group differences in RTs were more pronounced during the incongruent condition. This was reflected in a reduced activation of the caudate nucleus, lingual gyrus, temporal areas, and the hippocampus in FM patients compared to HC. In conclusion, we found normal pain inhibition during SWTC in FM patients. The cognitive difficulties seen in FM patients, reflected in longer RTs, were related to reduced activation of the caudate nucleus and hippocampus during incongruent SCWT, which most likely affected the mechanisms of cognitive learning in FM patients.

  14. Expression profiles of mitochondrial genes in the frontal cortex and the caudate nucleus of developing humans and mice selectively bred for high and low fear.

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    Kwang H Choi

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial function may be important in brain development and psychiatric disorders. However, detailed expression profiles of those genes in human brain development and fear-related behavior remain unclear. Using microarray data available from the public domain and the Gene Ontology analysis, we identified the genes and the functional categories associated with chronological age in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and the caudate nucleus (CN of psychiatrically normal humans ranging in age from birth to 50 years. Among those, we found that a substantial number of genes in the PFC (115 and the CN (117 are associated with the GO term: mitochondrion (FDR qv <0.05. A greater number of the genes in the PFC (91% than the genes in the CN (62% showed a linear increase in expression during postnatal development. Using quantitative PCR, we validated the developmental expression pattern of four genes including monoamine oxidase B (MAOB, NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein (NDUFV1, mitochondrial uncoupling protein 5 (SLC25A14 and tubulin beta-3 chain (TUBB3. In mice, overall developmental expression pattern of MAOB, SLC25A14 and TUBB3 in the PFC were comparable to the pattern observed in humans (p<0.05. However, mice selectively bred for high fear did not exhibit normal developmental changes of MAOB and TUBB3. These findings suggest that the genes associated with mitochondrial function in the PFC play a significant role in brain development and fear-related behavior.

  15. Effects of heavy in utero cocaine exposure on adolescent caudate morphology.

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    Avants, Brian B; Hurt, Hallam; Giannetta, Joan M; Epstein, Charles L; Shera, David M; Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Jiongjiong; Gee, James C

    2007-10-01

    We assess the effects of in utero cocaine and polysubstance exposure on the adolescent caudate nucleus through high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Cocaine exposure may compromise the developing brain through disruption of neural ontogeny in dopaminergic systems, effects secondary to fetal hypoxemia, or altered cerebrovascular reactivity. Cocaine exposure may also lead to neonatal lesions in the caudate. However, long-term or latent effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure are rarely found. We use T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to quantify caudate nucleus morphology in matched control and exposed groups. The literature suggests that in utero cocaine exposure consequences in adolescents may be subtle, or masked by other variables. Our comparison focuses on contrasting the control group with high-exposure subjects (mothers who reported 2 median of 117 days of cocaine use during pregnancy; 82% tested positive for cocaine use at term). We use advanced image registration and segmentation tools to quantify left and right caudate morphology. Our results indicate that the caudate is significantly larger in controls versus subjects (P < 0.0025), implying cocaine exposure-related detriments to the dopaminergic system. The right (P < 0.025) and left (P < 0.035) caudate, studied independently, show the same significant trend. Permutation testing and the false discovery rate were used to assess significance.

  16. Egocentric and allocentric visuospatial working memory in premotor Huntington's disease: A double dissociation with caudate and hippocampal volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L; Kim, Hosung; Geschwind, Michael D; Moskowitz, Tacie; Johnson, Erica T; Sha, Sharon J; Apple, Alexandra; Xu, Duan; Miller, Bruce L; Finkbeiner, Steven; Hess, Christopher P; Kramer, Joel H

    2017-07-01

    Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays. The only difference between these otherwise identical tests was that locations could only be coded in self-based or landmark-based coordinates. We applied a multiatlas-based segmentation algorithm and computed point-wise Jacobian determinants to measure regional variations in caudate and hippocampal volumes from 3T MRI. As predicted, the pmHD patients were significantly more impaired on egocentric working memory. Only egocentric accuracy correlated with caudate volumes, specifically the dorsolateral caudate head, right more than left, a region that receives dense efferents from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, only allocentric accuracy correlated with hippocampal volumes, specifically intermediate and posterior regions that connect strongly with parahippocampal and posterior parietal cortices. These results indicate that the distinction between egocentric and allocentric navigation applies to working memory. The dorsolateral caudate is important for egocentric working memory, which can explain the disproportionate impairment in pmHD. Allocentric working memory, in contrast, relies on the hippocampus and is relatively spared in pmHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diminished caudate and superior temporal gyrus responses to effort-based decision making in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-04

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphology of the ligament of Treitz likely depends on its fetal topographical relationship with the left adrenal gland and liver caudate lobe as well as the developing lymphatic tissues: a histological study using human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Do; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Hwang, Hong Pil; Yu, Hee Chul; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the factors affecting the development of the ligament of Treitz, we examined sagittal and frontal histological sections of 35 human fetuses with a crown-rump length of 100-300 mm (approximately 16-38 weeks of gestation). The retropancreatic fascia consistently extended in a layer behind the pancreatic body and the splenic artery and vein, and also in front of the left renal vein and left adrenal. In 18 specimens, a connective tissue band was seen originating from the diaphragmatic crus around the esophageal opening and ending at the retropancreatic fascia to the left of the origin of the celiac artery. In 10 of these 18 specimens, these putative upper parts of the ligament contained striated muscles, or so-called Hilfsmuskel. Although most of other 17 specimens were larger fetuses, the left adrenal, the liver caudate lobe and the celiac ganglion made space for the ligament very limited. In 22 specimens including the above 18, the retropancreatic fascia extended inferiorly to approach the fourth portion of the duodenum (D4) or the duodenojejunal junction (DJJ). However, in 11 of the 22 examples of the putative lower part of the ligament, the connection between the duodenal muscle coat and the fascia was interrupted by developing lymphatic tissues. Consequently, the ligament of Treitz seemed to develop from both pleuroperitoneal membrane-derived cells and the retropancreatic fusion fascia, although the morphology was markedly modified by adjacent structures such as the adrenal gland. The ligament may "recover" after the adrenal becomes reduced in size after birth.

  19. Asymmetric right/left encoding of emotions in the human subthalamic nucleus

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    Renana eEitan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN, an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12-30Hz, the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs.In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and

  20. Do Left- and Right-Handed People Have Similar Iron Deposition in the Basal Ganglia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Yue-Hua; Wang, He

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether right-, left-, or mixed-handed people differ in terms of iron deposition using susceptibility weighted imaging in healthy subjects. A total of 87 people (right-handed, 51 subjects; left-handed, 19 subjects; mixed-handed, 17 subjects) aged 20 to 40 years participated. All underwent magnetic resonance examination, including conventional and susceptibility weighted imaging sequences. Phase images were used to quantify iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus. The radian angle value was calculated and compared between the 3 (right-, left-, or mixed-handed) groups. There was no significant difference in the radian angle values between left-, right-, or mixed-handed people for either the right or left side of the caudate nucleus head. However, the amount of iron deposition in the left lenticular nucleus was significantly higher for right-handed than for the left-handed subjects (P handed than for left-handed subjects (P = 0.006). In addition, the amount of iron deposition in the right lenticular nucleus was significantly lower for left-handed than for right-handed subjects (P left- and right-handed subjects and between left- and mixed-handed subjects.

  1. Caudate volumes in childhood predict symptom severity in adults with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H; Leckman, James F; Zhu, Hongtu; Peterson, Bradley S

    2005-10-25

    Most children with Tourette syndrome (TS) experience a marked decline in the severity of tic symptoms during adolescence. Currently no clinical measures can predict whose tic symptoms will persist into adulthood. Previous cross-sectional imaging studies have identified reduced caudate nucleus volumes in subjects with TS. To evaluate whether caudate nucleus volumes in childhood can predict the severity of tic or obsessive-compulsive symptoms at follow-up in early adulthood. In a prospective longitudinal study, clinical status and basal ganglia volumes of 43 children with TS were measured on high-resolution magnetic resonance images before age 14 years. Follow-up clinical assessments were conducted after age 16 years, an average of 7.5 years later. Linear regression and Tobit regression analyses were used to assess the association of basal ganglia volumes measured in childhood with the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms at the time of childhood MRI and at follow-up in early adulthood. Volumes of the caudate nucleus correlated significantly and inversely with the severity of tic and OCD symptoms in early adulthood. Caudate volumes did not correlate with the severity of symptoms at the time of the MRI scan. Caudate volumes in children with Tourette syndrome predict the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in early adulthood. This study provides compelling evidence that morphologic disturbances of the caudate nucleus within cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits are central to the persistence of both tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms into adulthood.

  2. Somatostatin regulates dopamine release in rat striatal slices and cat caudate nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesselet, M.F.; Reisine, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of somatostatin on the release of tritiated dopamine (DA) formed continuously from tritiated tyrosine were studied in vitro in superfused striatal slices and in vivo in both caudate nuclei and both substantiae nigrae of halothane-anesthetized cats using a push-pull cannula technique. Somatostatin (3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-7) M) increased the spontaneous tritiated dopamine release from rat striatal slices. This effect was dose dependent and was completely prevented by tetrodotoxin (5 X 10(-7) M). When applied for 30 min in one cat caudate nucleus, somatostatin (10(-7) M) immediately increased the local release of tritiated DA, while a gradual inhibition of the tritiated amine's efflux was observed in the contralateral caudate nucleus. No changes in tritiated dopamine were seen in either substantia nigra during or after the peptide's application in the caudate nucleus. These results suggest that somatostatin in the striatum may play a role in the local and the distal control of dopamine release from the terminals of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons

  3. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  4. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Increased binding of [3H]apomorphine in caudate membranes after dopamine pretreatment in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, C.; Hartley, E.J.; Seeman, P.

    1978-01-01

    Most patients with Parkinson's disease treated with L-dopa show a progressively deteriorating response which may possibly be attributed to an L-dopa-induced process of unknown origin. Long-term administration of dopamine-mimetic drugs to animals sometimes produces behavioural facilitation. To investigate one possible molecular mechanism of this facilitation or sensitization the effects of prolonged exposure, in vitro, of dopamine on the dopamine/neuroleptic receptors in the caudate nucleus of the calf were tested. Calf caudate homogenates pretreated with dopamine or other drugs were tested for the binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine, [ 3 H]haloperidol, 3H-WB-4101, or [ 3 H]naloxine. Pre-exposure with dopamine or noradrenaline lead to an increased binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine. The significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  6. Neural control of left ventricular contractility in the dog heart: synaptic interactions of negative inotropic vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Dickerson, L W; Gray, A L; Lauenstein, J M; Blinder, K J; Newsome, J T; Rodak, D J; Fleming, T J; Gatti, P J; Gillis, R A

    1998-08-17

    Recent physiological evidence indicates that vagal postganglionic control of left ventricular contractility is mediated by neurons found in a ventricular epicardial fat pad ganglion. In the dog this region has been referred to as the cranial medial ventricular (CMV) ganglion [J.L. Ardell, Structure and function of mammalian intrinsic cardiac neurons, in: J.A. Armour, J.L. Ardell (Eds.). Neurocardiology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1994, pp. 95-114; B.X. Yuan, J.L. Ardell, D.A. Hopkins, A.M. Losier, J.A. Armour, Gross and microscopic anatomy of the canine intrinsic cardiac nervous system, Anat. Rec., 239 (1994) 75-87]. Since activation of the vagal neuronal input to the CMV ganglion reduces left ventricular contractility without influencing cardiac rate or AV conduction, this ganglion contains a functionally selective pool of negative inotropic parasympathetic postganglionic neurons. In the present report we have defined the light microscopic distribution of preganglionic negative inotropic neurons in the CNS which are retrogradely labeled from the CMV ganglion. Some tissues were also processed for the simultaneous immunocytochemical visualization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH: a marker for catecholaminergic neurons) and examined with both light microscopic and electron microscopic methods. Histochemically visualized neurons were observed in a long slender column in the ventrolateral nucleus ambiguus (NA-VL). The greatest number of retrogradely labeled neurons were observed just rostral to the level of the area postrema. TH perikarya and dendrites were commonly observed interspersed with vagal motoneurons in the NA-VL. TH nerve terminals formed axo-dendritic synapses upon negative inotropic vagal motoneurons, however the origin of these terminals remains to be determined. We conclude that synaptic interactions exist which would permit the parasympathetic preganglionic vagal control of left ventricular contractility to be modulated monosynaptically by

  7. Surprised at all the entropy: hippocampal, caudate and midbrain contributions to learning from prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Ahlheim, Christiane; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2012-01-01

    Influential concepts in neuroscientific research cast the brain a predictive machine that revises its predictions when they are violated by sensory input. This relates to the predictive coding account of perception, but also to learning. Learning from prediction errors has been suggested for take place in the hippocampal memory system as well as in the basal ganglia. The present fMRI study used an action-observation paradigm to investigate the contributions of the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and midbrain dopaminergic system to different types of learning: learning in the absence of prediction errors, learning from prediction errors, and responding to the accumulation of prediction errors in unpredictable stimulus configurations. We conducted analyses of the regions of interests' BOLD response towards these different types of learning, implementing a bootstrapping procedure to correct for false positives. We found both, caudate nucleus and the hippocampus to be activated by perceptual prediction errors. The hippocampal responses seemed to relate to the associative mismatch between a stored representation and current sensory input. Moreover, its response was significantly influenced by the average information, or Shannon entropy of the stimulus material. In accordance with earlier results, the habenula was activated by perceptual prediction errors. Lastly, we found that the substantia nigra was activated by the novelty of sensory input. In sum, we established that the midbrain dopaminergic system, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus were to different degrees significantly involved in the three different types of learning: acquisition of new information, learning from prediction errors and responding to unpredictable stimulus developments. We relate learning from perceptual prediction errors to the concept of predictive coding and related information theoretic accounts.

  8. Morphometric and volumetric study of caudate and putamen nuclei in normal individuals by MRI: Effect of normal aging, gender and hemispheric differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedelahi, Ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Hadizadeh, Homaioon; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine age, gender, and hemispheric differences in the volume of the human neostriatum (striatum) nucleus in healthy humans. This study was performed on 120 normal human subjects (60 males, 60 females, right-handed) 15–65 years old, divided into two groups: young (<40 yrs) and old (=≥40 yrs). Sectional brain images were obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyzed and processed using the Image-J software, and the striatum volume was calculated using the Cavalieri’s principle, retrospectively. The analyses revealed bilateral age-related shrinkage of the putamen in both genders and the putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in older than in younger subjects (P-value <0.001). The age-related shrinkage of the caudate and putamen nucleus in men and women was about 5%, 5% and 4%, 4%, respectively, and there were statistically significant volume differences between males and females (P-value <0.05). In both genders, a significant rightward asymmetry was observed in the caudate and putamen nucleus (3.89%, 4.21% in men and 4.51%, 3.32% in women). Bilateral age-related shrinkage and rightward asymmetry of the striate nucleus was found in healthy adults and there were significant volume differences between men and women. Obtained results provide useful baseline data on age and gender-related changes of the volume of the striatum

  9. Cognitive and behavioral correlates of caudate subregion shape variation in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daniel X; Kelley, Ryan G; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Raman, Mira; Thompson, Paul M; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired general cognitive abilities, perseverative behaviors, and social difficulties. Neural signals related to these functions are communicated through frontostriatal circuits, which connect with distinct regions of the caudate nucleus (CN). Enlargement of the CN is the most robust and reproduced neuroanatomical abnormality in FXS, but very little is known on how this affects behavioral/cognitive outcomes in this condition. Here, we investigated topography within focal regions of the CN associated with prefrontal circuitry and its link with aberrant behavior and intellect in FXS. Imaging data were acquired from 48 individuals with FXS, 28 IQ-matched controls without FXS (IQ-CTL), and 36 typically developing controls (TD-CTL). Of the total participant count, cognitive and behavioral assessment data were obtained from 44 individuals with FXS and 27 participants in the IQ-CTL group. CN volume and topography were compared between groups. Correlations were performed between CN topography and cognitive as well as behavioral measures within FXS and IQ-CTL groups. As expected, the FXS group had larger CN compared with both IQ-CTL and TD-CTL groups. Correlations between focal CN topography and frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits in the FXS group supported the hypothesis that CN enlargement is related to abnormal orbitofrontal-caudate and dorsolateral-caudate circuitry in FXS. These findings deepen our understanding of neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavioral problems in FXS and hold promise for informing future behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions targeting specific neural pathways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Portal venous branches to the caudate lobe: number and origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six livers from adult black Kenyans were obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi – Kenya. The porta hepatis was carefully dissected and the number and origin of the portal venous branches to the caudate lobe observed and recorded. The collected data was analyzed using ...

  11. Aggression and quantitative MRI measures of caudate in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pál; Gerig, Guido; Chakos, Miranda; Blocher, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie L; Sheitman, Brain; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Bilder, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Caudate dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the relationship between aggression and caudate volumes. Forty-nine patients received magnetic resonance imaging scanning in a double-blind treatment study in which aggression was measured. Caudate volumes were computed using a semiautomated method. The authors measured aggression with the Overt Aggression Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Larger caudate volumes were associated with greater levels of aggression. The relationship between aggression and caudate volumes may be related to the iatrogenic effects of long-term treatment with typical antipsychotic agents or to a direct effect of schizophrenic processes on the caudate.

  12. Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne A Taren

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression. Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes.

  13. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-Varies with Smaller Amygdala and Caudate Volumes in Community Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A.; Creswell, J. David; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions) may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression). Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes. PMID:23717632

  14. Aggression and Quantitative MRI Measures of Caudate in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pál; Gerig, Guido; Chakos, Miranda; Blocher, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie L.; Sheitman, Brain; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Bilder, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Caudate dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the relationship between aggression and caudate volumes. Forty-nine patients received magnetic resonance imaging scanning in a double-blind treatment study in which aggression was measured. Caudate volumes were computed using a semiautomated method. The authors measured aggression with the Overt Aggression Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Larger caudate volumes were associated with greater le...

  15. Impaired somatosensory discrimination of shape in Parkinson's disease : Association with caudate nucleus dopaminergic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weder, BJ; Leenders, KL; Vontobel, P; Nienhusmeier, M; Keel, A; Zaunbauer, W; Vonesch, T; Ludin, HP

    1999-01-01

    Tactile discrimination of macrogeometric objects in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure represents a demanding task involving somatosensory pathways and higher cognitive processing. The objects for somatosensory discrimination, i.e., rectangular parallelepipeds differing only in oblongness,

  16. Adaptive local multi-atlas segmentation: application to the heart and the caudate nucleus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikxoort, E.M. van; Isgum, I.; Arzhaeva, Y.; Staring, M.; Klein, S.; Viergever, M.A.; Pluim, J.P.; Ginneken, B. van

    2010-01-01

    Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful generic technique for automatic delineation of structures in volumetric images. Several studies have shown that multi-atlas segmentation methods outperform schemes that use only a single atlas, but running multiple registrations on volumetric data is

  17. Flexible and Stable Value Coding Areas in Caudate Head and Tail Receive Anatomically Distinct Cortical and Subcortical Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S. Griggs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014, but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh and caudate tail (CDt of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus. Superior temporal cortex and inferior temporal cortex projected to both CDh and CDt, with more CDt-projecting than CDh-projecting neurons. In superior temporal cortex and dorsal inferior temporal cortex, layers 3 and 5 projected to CDh while layers 3 and 6 projected to CDt. Prefrontal and cingulate cortex projected mostly to CDh bilaterally, less to CDt unilaterally. A cluster of neurons in the basolateral amygdala projected to CDt. Rostral-dorsal claustrum projected to CDh while caudal-ventral claustrum projected to CDt. Within the thalamus, different nuclei projected to either CDh or CDt. The medial centromedian nucleus and lateral parafascicular nucleus projected to CDt while the medial parafascicular nucleus projected to CDh. The inferior pulvinar and lateral dorsal nuclei projected to CDt. The ventral anterior and medial dorsal nuclei projected to CDh. We found little evidence of neurons projecting to both CDh and CDt across the brain. These data suggest that CDh and CDt can control separate functions using anatomically separate circuits. Understanding the roles of these striatal projections will be important for understanding how value memories are created and stored.

  18. Feedback on Trait or Action Impacts on Caudate and Paracingulum Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Alva; Bengtsson, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    There is a general conception that positive associations to one’s trait, e.g. ‘I’m clever’, are beneficial for cognitive performance. Scientific evidence shows that this is a simplification. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we used written trial-based trait feedback ‘you are clever’, or task feedback ‘your choice was correct’, on each correct response of a rule-switching task, to investigate how the character of positive self-associations influences performance outcome. Twenty participants took part in this crossover design study. We found that trait feedback was less beneficial for motivation and performance improvement, and resulting in enhanced neural activation on more difficult bivalent rule trials. This indicates that the task was treated as more complex in this condition. For example, ‘you are clever’ feedback led to enhanced activation in anterior caudate nucleus, an area known to process uncertainty. We further observed that activation in anterior paracingulate cortex was sensitive to whether self-reflection was imposed by external feedback or generated from internal processes, where the latter activation correlated positively with performance when following after task feedback. Our results illustrate how feedback can evoke self-reflections that either help or hinder motivation and performance, most likely by impacting on processes of uncertainty. The results support social psychological models stipulating that trait focus take resources away from task focus. PMID:26102501

  19. Caudate lobe resections: a single-center experience and evaluation of factors predictive of outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Prejesh; Farmer, Russell W; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert CG

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing frequency of liver resection for multiple types of disease, caudate lobe resection remains a rare surgical event. The goal of this study is to review our experience and evaluate possible predictors of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing caudate lobectomy. Methods We reviewed a 1,900-patient prospective hepato-pancreatico-biliary database from January 2000 to December 2011, identifying 36 hepatectomy patients undergoing caudate lobe resection. Clinicopatho...

  20. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei: a potential mimic of germinal matrix hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Shackelford, G.D.; Adcock, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have encountered bilateral hyperechoic foci in the region of the germinal matrix on cranial sonograms in neonates that have an appearance similar to germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), but are unusual either due to the age of the patient at presentation or to the evolution of the foci on follow-up. We believe that these findings represent hyperechoic caudate nuclei (HCN) rather than GMH. Objective. To demonstrate that bilateral HCN can be seen on cranial sonography in neonates and can mimic bilateral GMH. Materials and methods. The cranial sonograms were reviewed in nine neonates (three term and six premature) who had HCN identified on at least one sonographic examination. CT (two patients) and MR (one patient) studies were also reviewed, as well as the neuropathological examination in one patient who died and had an autopsy. The patients' medical records were reviewed to identify any clinical markers for significant risk of perinatal ischemia. Results. There was clinical evidence for risk of ischemia in five of the nine neonates. All nine patients had bilateral HCN on the initial or follow-up studies. Small cysts were seen sonographically in two patients. CT was normal in one patient and revealed a small unilateral focus of increased attenuation in one infant (very small compared to the bilateral HCN). MR was normal in one patient. Histopathological examination of the brain was normal in the one patient who died and had an autopsy. Conclusion. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei can occur in neonates either as a normal finding, or possibly related to ischemia, and should not always be attributed to GMH. (orig.)

  1. Evidence for a caudate role in aphasia from FDG positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    In a recent study correlations between language function and regional glucose metabolism from FDG positron computed tomography were examined. Caudate metabolism correlated with PICA speaking and comprehension factors, as well as BDAE mean writing and reading scores. To identify the language function implicated with caudate metabolism in these eleven patients, twenty subtests making up these two PICA factors and mean BDAE scores were correlated to caudate metabolism. Also a principle components analysis on the twenty subtests identified three factors, only one of which correlated with caudate metabolism. Evidence was found that the caudate has a functional relationship to recognition or motor planning of simple and overlearned materials. This involved simple syntax, low levels of abstraction, identification or sequencing of phonetic and semantic material. This role appeared related to but independent of Broca and frontal lobe function, and may involve the focusing of cortical functions, by allowing two or more regions to interact together

  2. Reduced frontal cortical thickness and increased caudate volume within fronto-striatal circuits in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Cai, Chenxi; Feng, Dan; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; von Deneen, Karen M; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during early adulthood results in neurophysiological and brain structural changes that may promote nicotine dependence later in life. Previous studies have revealed the important roles of fronto-striatal circuits in the pathology of nicotine dependence; however, few studies have focused on both cortical thickness and subcortical striatal volume differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-seven young male adult smokers and 22 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers were recruited in the present study. The cortical thickness and striatal volume differences of young adult smokers and age-matched nonsmokers were investigated in the present study and then correlated with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). The following results were obtained: (1) young adult smokers showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal cortex (left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)), left insula, left middle temporal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, and right parahippocampus; (2) in regards to subcortical striatal volume, the volume of the right caudate was larger in young adult smokers than nonsmokers; and (3) the cortical thickness of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and OFC were associated with nicotine dependence severity (FTND) and cumulative amount of nicotine intake (pack-years) in smokers, respectively. This study revealed reduced frontal cortical thickness and increased caudate volume in the fronto-striatal circuits in young adult smokers compared to nonsmokers. These deficits suggest an imbalance between cognitive control (reduced protection factors) and reward drive behaviours (increased risk factors) associated with nicotine addiction and relapse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Hepatocellular carcinoma originated in the caudate lobe. Surgical strategy for resection. A propos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mier, Gustavo; Esquivel-Torres, Sergio; Calzada-Grijalva, José Francisco; Grube-Pagola, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma originating from the caudate lobe has a worse prognosis than other hepatocellular carcinoma in another segment of the liver. An isolated caudate lobe resection of the liver represents a significant technical challenge. Caudate lobe resection can be performed along with a lobectomy or as an isolated liver resection. There are very few reports about isolated caudate lobe liver resection. We report a case of successful isolated resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe with excellent long-term survival. A 74 years old female with 8cm mass lesion in the caudate lobe without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver cirrhosis, serum alpha-fetoprotein 3.7 U/l, and negative hepatitis serology was evaluated for surgery. Complete resection of the lesion in 270minutes with Pringle maneuver for 13minutes was satisfactorily performed. Patient was discharged ten days after surgery without complications. Patient is currently asymptomatic, without deterioration of liver function and 48 month tumor free survival after the procedure. Isolated caudate lobe resection is an uncommon but technically possible procedure. In order to achieve a successful resection, one must have a detailed knowledge of complete liver anatomy. Tumor free margins must be obtained to provide long survival for these patients who have a malignancy in this anatomic location. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  4. Developmentally stable whole-brain volume reductions and developmentally sensitive caudate and putamen volume alterations in those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Bralten, Janita; Mennes, Maarten; O'Dwyer, Laurence; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Rommelse, Nanda; Schweren, Lizanne J S; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the neuroanatomical substrates of ADHD have shown considerable variability. Moreover, it remains unclear whether neuroanatomical alterations linked to ADHD are also present in the unaffected siblings of those with ADHD. To examine whether ADHD is linked to alterations in whole-brain and subcortical volumes and to study familial underpinnings of brain volumetric alterations in ADHD. In this cross-sectional study, we included participants from the large and carefully phenotyped Dutch NeuroIMAGE sample (collected from September 2009-December 2012) consisting of 307 participants with ADHD, 169 of their unaffected siblings, and 196 typically developing control individuals (mean age, 17.21 years; age range, 8-30 years). Whole-brain volumes (total brain and gray and white matter volumes) and volumes of subcortical regions (nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, hippocampus, putamen, thalamus, and brainstem) were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans using automated tissue segmentation. Regression analyses revealed that relative to control individuals, participants with ADHD had a 2.5% smaller total brain (β = -31.92; 95% CI, -52.69 to -11.16; P = .0027) and a 3% smaller total gray matter volume (β = -22.51; 95% CI, -35.07 to -9.96; P = .0005), while total white matter volume was unaltered (β = -10.10; 95% CI, -20.73 to 0.53; P = .06). Unaffected siblings had total brain and total gray matter volumes intermediate to participants with ADHD and control individuals. Significant age-by-diagnosis interactions showed that older age was linked to smaller caudate (P brain volume) in control individuals, whereas age was unrelated to these volumes in

  5. The Caudate Lobe: The Blind Spot in Radioembolization or an Overlooked Opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braat, Manon N. G. J. A., E-mail: M.N.G.Braat-3@umcutrecht.nl; Hoven, Andor F. van den, E-mail: a.f.vandenhoven@umcutrecht.nl; Doormaal, Pieter J. van, E-mail: P.J.vanDoormaal-4@umcutrecht.nl; Bruijnen, Rutger C., E-mail: R.Bruijnen@umcutrecht.nl; Lam, Marnix G. E. H., E-mail: M.Lam@umcutrecht.nl; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeThe caudate lobe (CL) is impartial to the functional left and right hemi-liver and has outspoken inter-individual differences in arterial vascularization. Unfortunately, this complexity is not specifically taken into account during radioembolization treatment (RE), potentially resulting in under- or overtreatment of the CL. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CL coverage in RE and determine the detection rate of the CL arteries on CT angiography during work-up.MethodsIn all consecutive patients who underwent RE treatment between May 2012–January 2015, {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and posttreatment scans ({sup 90}Y-bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT, {sup 90}Y-PET/CT, or {sup 166}Ho-SPECT/CT) were reviewed for activity in the CL. Pretreatment CT angiographies were reviewed for the visibility of the CL arteries.ResultsEighty-two patients were treated. In 32/82 (39 %) the CL was involved. In 6/32 (19 %) patients, no activity was seen on the posttreatment scan in the CL, whereas in 40/50 (80 %) patients without CL tumor involvement, the CL was treated. {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and final posttreatment scans were discordant in 16/78 (21 %). {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT had a positive and negative predictive value of 94 % and 46 %, respectively, for activity in the CL after RE. In untreated CLs, significant hypertrophy was observed with a median volume increase of 33 % (p = 0.02). CL arteries were seldom visible on the pretreatment CT; the identification rate was 12–17 %.ConclusionCurrently in RE treatments, targeting or sparing of the CL is highly erratic and independent of tumor involvement. Intentional treatment or bypassing of the CL seems worthwhile to either improve tumor coverage or enhance the functional liver remnant.

  6. Decline in verbal fluency after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a microlesion effect of the electrode trajectory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Floriane; Derrey, Stéphane; Lefaucheur, Romain; Borden, Alaina; Fetter, Damien; Jan, Maryvonne; Wallon, David; Maltête, David

    2015-01-01

    Decline in verbal fluency (VF) is frequently reported after chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson disease (PD). We investigated whether the trajectory of the implanted electrode correlate with the VF decline 6 months after surgery. We retrospectively analysed 59 PD patients (mean age, 61.9 ± 7; mean disease duration, 13 ± 4.6) who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. The percentage of VF decline 6 months after STN-DBS in the on-drug/on-stimulation condition was determined in respect of the preoperative on-drug condition. The patients were categorised into two groups (decline and stable) for each VF. Cortical entry angles, intersection with deep grey nuclei (caudate, thalamic or pallidum), and anatomical extent of the STN affected by the electrode pathway, were compared between groups. A significant decline of both semantic and phonemic VF was found after surgery, respectively 14.9% ± 22.1 (P < 0.05) and 14.2% ± 30.3 (P < 0.05). Patients who declined in semantic VF (n = 44) had a left trajectory with a more anterior cortical entry point (56 ± 53 versus 60 ± 55 degree, P = 0.01) passing less frequently trough the thalamus (P = 0.03). Microlesion of left brain regions may contribute to subtle cognitive impairment following STN-DBS in PD.

  7. Caudate neuronal recording in freely behaving animals following acute and chronic dose response methylphenidate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Catherine M; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-09-01

    The misuse and abuse of the psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD) the drug of choice in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has seen a sharp uprising in recent years among both youth and adults for its cognitive enhancing effects and for recreational purposes. This uprise in illicit use has lead to many questions concerning the long-term consequences of MPD exposure. The objective of this study was to record animal behavior concomitantly with the caudate nucleus (CN) neuronal activity following acute and repetitive (chronic) dose response exposure to methylphenidate (MPD). A saline control and three MPD dose (0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg) groups were used. Behaviorally, the same MPD dose in some animals following chronic MPD exposure elicited behavioral sensitization and other animals elicited behavioral tolerance. Based on this finding, the CN neuronal population recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization was also evaluated separately from CN neurons recorded from animals expressing behavioral tolerance to chronic MPD exposure, respectively. Significant differences in CN neuronal population responses between the behaviorally sensitized and the behaviorally tolerant animals were observed for the 2.5 and 10.0mg/kg MPD exposed groups. For 2.5mg/kg MPD, behaviorally sensitized animals responded by decreasing their firing rates while behaviorally tolerant animals showed mainly an increase in their firing rates. The CN neuronal responses recorded from the behaviorally sensitized animals following 10.0mg/kg MPD responded by increasing their firing rates whereas the CN neuronal recordings from the behaviorally tolerant animals showed that approximately half decreased their firing rates in response to 10.0mg/kg MPD exposure. The comparison of percentage change in neuronal firing rates showed that the behaviorally tolerant animals trended to exhibit increases in their neuronal firing rates at ED1 following initial MPD exposure and

  8. Recovery of akinetic mutism and injured prefronto-caudate tract following shunt operation for hydrocephalus and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Lee, Han Do

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A 76-year-old female patient was diagnosed with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Patient concerns: She was treated surgically with clipping of the aneurysmal neck. Six months after onset, when starting rehabilitation at our hospital, she showed no spontaneous movement or speech. Diagnoses: aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Interventions: During 2 months’ rehabilitation, her AM did not improve significantly. As there was no apparent change, she underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation for hydrocephalus 8 months after her stroke. After the surgery, she remained in the AM state, but participated in a comprehensive rehabilitative management program similar to that before shunt operation. During 1 month's intensive rehabilitation, her AM gradually improved. At 9 months after onset, she became able to perform some daily activities by herself including eating, washing, and dressing. In addition, she could speak with some fluency. Outcomes: On 6-month DTT, the neural connectivity of the caudate nucleus (CN) to the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC, Broadmann area [BA]: 10 and 12) and orbito-frontal cortex (BA 11 and 13) was low in both hemispheres. However, the neural connectivity of the CN to the medial PFC increased on both sides on 9-month DTT. The integrity of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) was preserved in both hemispheres on both 6- and 9-month DTTs. Lessons: Recovery of AM and injured PCTs was observed in a stroke patient. PMID:29390310

  9. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...... healthy controls by use of a 3-T scanner. We warped the brain images to each other by use of a high-dimensional intersubject registration algorithm. We performed voxel-wise group comparisons with permutation tests. We performed small volume correction for the hippocampus, caudate and ventricles by use...... that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume reductions appeared...

  10. Perspective of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the lectures given at the International School of nuclear physics, Erice, 1985, which survey the expectations for the field of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The primary motivation for the field, the organization of the lectures, and a description of the NA 34 experiment, are all briefly given. (U.K.)

  11. Atypically diffuse functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Katherine C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting sociocommunicative behavior, but also sensorimotor skill learning, oculomotor control, and executive functioning. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the caudate nuclei, which have been reported for autism. Methods Our sample was comprised of 8 high-functioning males with autism and 8 handedness, sex, and age-matched controls. Subjects underwent functional MRI scanning during performance on simple visuomotor coordination tasks. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI effects were identified as interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal cross-correlation, using the caudate nuclei as seed volumes. Results In the control group, fcMRI effects were found in circuits with known participation of the caudate nuclei (associative, orbitofrontal, oculomotor, motor circuits. Although in the autism group fcMRI effects within these circuits were less pronounced or absent, autistic subjects showed diffusely increased connectivity mostly in pericentral regions, but also in brain areas outside expected anatomical circuits (such as visual cortex. Conclusion These atypical connectivity patterns may be linked to developmental brain growth disturbances recently reported in autism and suggest inefficiently organized functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, potentially accounting for stereotypic behaviors and executive impairments.

  12. Morphology and morphometry of the caudate lobe of the liver in two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Aland, R Claire; Gosden, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The caudate lobe of the liver has portal blood supply and hepatic vein drainage independent of the remainder of the liver and may be differentially affected in liver pathologies. Ultrasonographic measurement of the caudate lobe can be used to generate hepatic indices that may indicate cirrhosis. This study investigated the relationship of metrics of the caudate lobe and other morphological features of human livers from a northwest Indian Punjabi population (n = 50) and a UK Caucasian population (n = 25), which may affect the calculation of hepatic indices. The width of the right lobe of the liver was significantly smaller, while the anteroposterior diameter of the caudate lobe and both Harbin's Index and the Hess Index scores were significantly larger in NWI livers than in UKC livers. The Hess Index score, in particular, is much larger in the NWI population (265 %, p morphological features of the liver. These differences may affect the calculation of hepatic indices, resulting in a greater percentage of false positives of cirrhosis in the NWI population. Population-specific data are required to correctly determine normal ranges.

  13. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...

  14. Onuf's nucleus X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1981-01-01

    in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...

  15. Hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative picture of high energy hadron-nucleus collision process, emerging from the analysis of experimental data, is presented. Appropriate description procedure giving a possibility of reproducing various characteristics of this process in terms of the data on elementary hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. Formula reproducing hadron-nucleus collision cross sections is derived. Inelastic collision cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus reactions at wide energy interval are calculated for Pb, Ag, and Al targets. A-dependence of cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions at nearly 50 GeV/c momentum were calculated and compared with existing experimental data. Energy dependence of cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions is determined simply by energy dependence of corresponding cross sections for hadron-nucleon collisions; A-dependence is determined simply by nuclear sizes and nucleon density distributions in nuclei

  16. The visual corticostriatal loop through the tail of the caudate: Circuitry and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Seger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although high level visual cortex projects to a specific region of the striatum, the tail of the caudate, and participates in corticostriatal loops, the function of this visual corticostriatal system is not well understood. This article first reviews what is known about the anatomy of the visual corticostriatal loop across mammals, including rodents, cats, monkeys, and humans. Like other corticostriatal systems, the visual corticostriatal system includes both closed loop components (recurrent projections that return to the originating cortical location and open loop components (projections that terminate in other neural regions. The article then reviews what previous empircal research has shown about the function of the tail of the caudate. The article finally addresses the possible functions of the closed and open loop connections of the visual loop in the context of theories and computational models of corticostriatal function.

  17. Treating and Downstaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe with Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Saad M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kulik, Laura [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (United States); Baker, Talia [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Ryu, Robert K. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J., E-mail: r-lewandowski@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the technical feasibility, safety, efficacy, and potential to downstage patients to within transplantation criteria when treating patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the caudate lobe using Y90 radioembolization. Methods: During a 4-year period, 8 of 291 patients treated with radioembolization for unresectable HCC had disease involving the caudate lobe. All patients were followed for treatment-related clinical/biochemical toxicities, serum tumor marker response, and treatment response. Imaging response was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) classification schemes. Pathologic response was reported as percent necrosis at explantation. Results: Caudate lobe radioembolization was successfully performed in all eight patients. All patients presented with both cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Half were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) stage T3 (n = 4, 50%). Fatigue was reported in half of the patients (n = 4, 50%). One (13%) grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was reported. One patient (13%) showed complete tumor response by WHO criteria, and three patients (38%) showed complete response using EASL guidelines. Serum AFP decreased by more than 50% in most patients (n = 6, 75%). Four patients (50%) were UNOS downstaged from T3 to T2, three of who underwent transplantation. One specimen showed histopathologic evidence of 100% complete necrosis, and two specimens demonstrated greater than 50% necrosis. Conclusions: Radioembolization with yttrium-90 appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable caudate lobe HCC. It has the potential to downstage patients to transplantation.

  18. K+-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be associated with caudate denervation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Tayyabah; Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2018-04-15

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the earliest and most common non-motor symptoms of PD, substantially impacting on patient's quality of life. Using the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database, we performed a case-control study to investigate whether dopaminergic deficit is associated with the development of EDS using dopaminergic specific single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) molecular imaging of dopamine transporters (DAT). We enrolled 84 early de novo PD patients with EDS and 84 without EDS, who were matched for age, gender, age of diagnosis, years of education and disease duration. We assessed and compared semi-quantified [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT, and motor and non-motor features among these two groups, alongside exploring the clinical and imaging correlates of EDS and the predictive significance of these markers in the development of EDS. PD patients with EDS had worse non-motor (MDS-UPDRS Part-I, P < 0.001) and motor (MDS-UPRDS Part-II, P = 0.005) experiences of daily living, as well as worse autonomic (SCOPA-AUT, P < 0.0001) and cognitive (MoCA P = 0.05) function, depression (GDS, P = 0.002), and reduced caudate DAT ([ 123 I]FP-CIT, P = 0.024) compared to PD patients without EDS. Lower caudate [ 123 I]FP-CIT values correlated with higher EDS scores (r = -0.192, P = 0.013). Among patients without EDS, 47 PD patients (56%) developed EDS over a median follow-up of 36 months. Cox multivariate analysis, including all clinical and imaging data available, revealed that abnormal caudate [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake (P = 0.030) and disease duration (P = 0.018) were predictors for the development of EDS. Although our findings indicate that dopaminergic deficits in the caudate may be associated to EDS in patients with PD, the pathophysiological causality is debateable, given that dopamine caudate denervation may covary with dopaminergic involvement at other targets and with non-dopaminergic involvement

  20. Flexible and Stable Value Coding Areas in Caudate Head and Tail Receive Anatomically Distinct Cortical and Subcortical Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Griggs, Whitney S.; Kim, Hyoung F.; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Gabriela Costello, M.; Wall, Kathryn M.; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2017-01-01

    Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We foun...

  1. [Effect of injection of enkephalin and bestatin in caudate-putamen on operant conditioning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S Y; Zhang, Y P; Zhang, M L; Qi, H X; Wang, B

    1992-10-01

    Female Wistar rats were trained in a Skinner-box, 30 trials per day in a dark room to establish operant defence conditioning. Training started with a light (15 s), then combined with footshock for further 8 s. When the rats learned to press the key to avoid footshock within 15 s, conditioned response was considered established. After the rats reached a conditioning rate (CR) above 80% for 5 days, cannulae were implanted into caudate-putamen. Two to three days later, Met-enkephalin (MEK) or bestatin (an aminopeptidase inhibitor) was injected bilaterally into caudate-putamen. 30 min, 2 h, 24 h and 48 h after injection, conditioning tests were conducted, with each session consisting of 30 trials. Control experiments were done when 0.9% NaCl (NS) was injected. After injection of NS, CR maintained above 80% in all 4 test sessions. MEK (60 ng/rat) or bestatin (10 micrograms/rat) significantly lowered the CR during the 30 min and 2 h test session. In the latter case, the latency (L) was also prolonged. However both CR and L returned to the control level in the 24 h and 48 h test sessions. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the conditioning-depression effect of bestatin. No significant alteration was seen in locomotor activity after MEK or bestatin injection. The results suggest that enkephalin in caudate-putamen may be involved in the regulation of retrieval of conditioning. Bestatin mimics the effect of MEK on conditioning reflex probably by increasing production of endogenous enkephalin.

  2. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  3. Robotic resection of the liver caudate lobe: technical description and initial consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marco Vito; Glagolieva, Anastasiia; Guarrasi, Domenico

    2018-03-01

    Firstly described in 2002, the robotic liver surgery has not spread widely due to its high cost and the lack of a standardized training program. Still being considered as a 'development in progress' technique, it has however a potential to overcome the traditional limitations of the laparoscopic approach in liver interventions. We analyzed the postoperative outcomes of 10 patients who had undergone robotic partial resection of the caudate lobe (Spiegel lobe) from March 2014 to May 2016 in order to evaluate the advantages of robotic technique in hands of a young surgeon. The mean operative time was 258min (150-522) and the estimated blood loss 137ml (50-359), in none of the cases a blood transfusion was required. No patient underwent a conversion to open surgery; the overall morbidity was 2/10 (20%) and all the complications occurred (biliary fistula and pleural effusion) did not require a surgical revision. At histological examination, the mean tumour size was 2.63cm and we achieved R0-resection rate of 100%. The 90-day mortality rate was null. The 1-year overall and disease free-survival rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Despite several concerns regarding the cost-effectiveness, a fully robotic partial resection of caudate lobe is an advantageous, implementable technique providing promising short-term postoperative outcomes with acceptable benefit-risk profile. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential vulnerability of primate caudate-putamen and striosome-matrix dopamine systems to the neurotoxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratalla, R; Quinn, B; DeLanney, L E; Irwin, I; Langston, J W; Graybiel, A M

    1992-01-01

    The meperidine analogue derivative 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces nigrostriatal fiber damage and severe parkinsonism in humans and animals. MPTP-induced parkinsonism has been proposed as a model of Parkinson disease, but doubts have been raised about whether the patterns of nigrostriatal fiber loss in the two conditions are similar. We report here observations on [3H]mazindol monoamine (principally dopamine) uptake-site binding in the striatum of monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) exposed to low doses of MPTP. We show that this treatment can produce a pattern of nigrostriatal degeneration characteristic of that seen in Parkinson disease, in which there is greater depletion of dopaminergic markers in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus, especially posteriorly. Moreover, within the regions of diminished uptake-site binding in the MPTP-treated monkeys, there is differential preservation of binding in striosomes relative to the surrounding matrix. We suggest that both regional and striosome/matrix patterns of nigrostriatal depletion are key features of MPTP-induced neurodegeneration and that both patterns may provide clues to the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease as well. Images PMID:1570304

  5. Statistical simulation of hadron-nucleus and light nucleus-nucleus interaction. Intranuclear cascade model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobov, G.A.; Stepanov, N.V.; Sibirtsev, A.A.; Trebukhovskij, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    A new version of the program of statistical simulation of hadron-nucleus and light nucleus-nucleus interaction is elaborated. The cascade part of the program is described. The comparison of model predictions with the proton-nucleus interaction experiments is performed. A satisfactory calculations-experiment agreement is obtained

  6. High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)

  7. Morphological alterations in the caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus in Parkinson’s disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanmeet eGarg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Like many neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD do not manifest until significant progression of the disease has already taken place, motivating the need for sensitive biomarkers of the disease. While structural imaging is a potentially attractive method due to its widespread availability and non-invasive nature, global morphometric measures (e.g. volume have proven insensitive to subtle disease change. Here we use individual surface displacements from deformations of an average surface model to capture disease related changes in shape of the subcortical structures in Parkinson’s disease. Data were obtained from both the University of British Columbia (UBC (n=54 healthy controls (HC & n=55 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and the publicly available Parkinson’s Progression Marker’s Initiative (PPMI(n=137(HC & n=189 (PD database. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was used to register target segmentation labels (caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus to a set of segmentation labels defined on the average-template. The vertex-wise surface displacements were significantly different between PD and HC in thalamic and caudate structures. However overall displacements did not correlate with disease severity, as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. The results from this study suggest disease-relevant shape abnormalities can be robustly detected in subcortical structures in Parkinson’s disease. Future studies will be required to determine if shape changes in subcortical structures are seen in the prodromal phases of the disease.

  8. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1993-10-01

    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  9. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  10. Study of Relativistic Nucleus - Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to survey the reaction mechanisms involved in the collision of 60~GeV/nucleon and 200~GeV/nucleon light ions ($^{16}$0 and $^{32}$S provided by a new GSI-LBL injector) with different nuclei, to determine the stopping power of nuclear matter and to search for evidence of the formation of quark matter by comparison to hadron-nucleus reactions at the same incident energies. \\\\ The experimental set-up consists of a 2 m Streamer Chamber in the Vertex Magnet used to detect all the charged particles emerging from the interaction as well as the neutral strange particles that decay inside the chamber. The high energy of the forward-going particles are detected by four sets of calorimeters. A highly segmented Photon Position Detector (PPD) backed up by a 240 segment Ring Calorimeter will cover one unit of rapidity around mid-rapidity. An Intermediate Calorimeter will cover the rest of the forward phase space except for the region around beam rapidity, where a Veto Calorimeter will detect be...

  11. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding

    2010-11-12

    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  12. The imaginary part of the nucleus - nucleus optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1978-01-01

    The contribution to the imaginary nucleus - nucleus optical potential has been estimated by evaluating the energy - conserving seocond-order term in the perturbation series. The incoming nuclear field is supposed to excite nucleons in a nucleus in this calculation and the nuclear excitations are approximated by particle-hole excitations in a Fermi gas. The resulting imaginary potential compares favourably with phenomenological potentials. (author)

  13. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    HIJING generator simulation of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. It is shown that the global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as distribution of a charged multiplicity, total and electromagnetic transverse energy over pseudorapidity are rather sensitive to some predictions of models of high-exited nuclear medium formation, namely parton energy losses in dense nuclear matter. These losses result in appearance of a broad maximum in global variable distributions over pseudorapidity. The most profound of this effect occurs at central heavy ion collisions at LHC energy

  15. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter F; Spivak, Mark; Berns, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog's respective handler), an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog's general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer). A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI) connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications pertinent to the training and

  16. DTI-based connectome analysis of adolescents with major depressive disorder reveals hypoconnectivity of the right caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymofiyeva, Olga; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Henje Blom, Eva; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Xu, Duan; Yang, Tony T

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). While some studies have shown white matter alterations in adolescent MDD, there is still a gap in understanding how the brain is affected at a network level. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based brain networks in a cohort of 57 adolescents with MDD and 41 well-matched healthy controls who completed self-reports of depression symptoms and stressful life events. Using atlas-based brain regions as network nodes and tractography streamline count or mean fractional anisotropy (FA) as edge weights, we examined weighted local and global network properties and performed Network-Based Statistic (NBS) analysis. While there were no significant group differences in the global network properties, the FA-weighted node strength of the right caudate was significantly lower in depressed adolescents and correlated positively with age across both groups. The NBS analysis revealed a cluster of lower FA-based connectivity in depressed subjects centered on the right caudate, including connections to frontal gyri, insula, and anterior cingulate. Within this cluster, the most robust difference between groups was the connection between the right caudate and middle frontal gyrus. This connection showed a significant diagnosis by stress interaction and a negative correlation with total stress in depressed adolescents. Use of DTI-based tractography, one atlas-based parcellation, and FA values to characterize brain networks represent this study's limitations. Our results allowed us to suggest caudate-centric models of dysfunctional processes underlying adolescent depression, which might guide future studies and help better understand and treat this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Cook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog’s respective handler, an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog’s general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer. A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications

  18. Changing the mind? Not really-activity and connectivity in the caudate correlates with changes of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takehito; Wu, Daw-An; Marutani, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Manami; Suzuki, Hidenori; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    Changes in preference are inherently subjective and internal psychological events. We have identified brain events that presage ultimate (rather than intervening) choices, and signal the finality of a choice. At the first exposure to a pair of faces, caudate activity reflected the face of final choice, even if an initial choice was different. Furthermore, the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus exhibited correlations only when the subject had made a choice that would not change. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Resting-state functional connectivity bias of middle temporal gyrus and caudate with altered gray matter volume in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiong Ma

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have indicated that the structure deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC imbalances in cortico-limbic circuitry might underline the pathophysiology of MDD. Using structure and functional MRI, our aim is to investigate gray matter abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD and treatment-responsive depression (TSD, and test whether the altered gray matter is associated with altered FC. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormality and FC analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Using one-way analysis of variance, we found significant gray matter abnormalities in the right middle temporal cortex (MTG and bilateral caudate among the TRD, TSD and healthy controls. For the FC of the right MTG, we found that both the patients with TRD and TSD showed altered connectivity mainly in the default-mode network (DMN. For the FC of the right caudate, both patient groups showed altered connectivity in the frontal regions. Our results revealed the gray matter reduction of right MTG and bilateral caudate, and disrupted functional connection to widely distributed circuitry in DMN and frontal regions, respectively. These results suggest that the abnormal DMN and reward circuit activity might be biomarkers of depression trait.

  20. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  1. Antiproton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastry, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of low energy antiproton ring at CERN has initiated antiproton-nucleus(antip - A) collision experiments. These give information on antiproton-nucleon(antiproton - N) interaction in the nuclei, structure of antiprotonic atoms, antiprotonic bound states in the nucleus, strange particle production etc. Considerable data on antiproton - A scattering cross sections at several incident energies for targets like 12 C, 16 O, 18 Ca etc. have become available. Both elastic and inelastic antiproton-A cross sections show diffractive oscillatory behaviour. As a result, it is possible to qualitatively understand antiproton-A cross sections by treating the target as a black sphere with diffused surface. Phenomenological optical potentials including those generated by the model independent Fourier-Bessel method show that the potential is highly absorptive; imaginary part dominates and has longer range than real part and the latter decreases with energy. Spin-orbit term is less important. Some of these can be understood in terms of meson exchange antiproton-N potentials. The large imaginary part is due to the availability of additional channels initiated by antiproton annihilation. Optical potentials show several ambiguities including the Igo ambiguity. More fundamental approaches to the potential based on antiproton-N t matrix and folding models have been attempted. A comparison of heavy ion scatering and antiproton-A scattering is made. It is shown that semi-classical WKB method is applicable for antiproton-A scattering. Some recent work on antiproton-p potentials, antiprotonic states and strange particle production is discussed. (author). 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tables

  2. Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-04-16

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization.

  3. Diabatic interaction potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Lukasiak, A.

    1984-01-01

    Within a refined method for the construction of diabatic states allowing for the treatment of the full spin-orbit coupling, characteristic features of the diabatic potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions are investigated. Approximately 90% of the strong repulsion results from diabatic particle-hole excitations, while only 10% is due to compression. The diabatic interaction potential describes a physical situation intermediate between adiabatic and sudden approximations. (orig.)

  4. Left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Takuya; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2017-12-01

    Repeat hepatectomy is beneficial for selected patients with recurrence of liver malignancies. However, the operative procedure becomes technically demanding when the previous hepatectomy was complex, with hepatic veins and stump of portal pedicles exposed on the liver transection surface. We performed left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy (RPMS) for three patients. Here, we describe our surgical technique and the postoperative outcomes achieved. This procedure allowed for safe adhesiolysis between the middle and right hepatic veins by following a fibrous plane. The mean operative time was 8.7 h, including 4.9 h of adhesiolysis. The mean remnant liver volume (right lateral sector and the caudate lobe) was calculated as 704 ml, being 62% of total liver volume. There was no postoperative liver failure or mortality. In conclusion, left hepatectomy after RPMS is a feasible procedure for patients with sufficient remnant liver volume, even though the middle and right hepatic veins run side by side after liver regeneration.

  5. The subthalamic nucleus, Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.

    2008-01-01

    Part I. Development, cytology, topography and connections. This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology

  6. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  7. Deep brain stimulation of the bilateral nucleus accumbens in normal rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Gao, Li; Wang, Xue-lian; Chen, Lei; Fang, Wei; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Guo-dong

    2013-01-09

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been considered as a novel target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for intractable psychiatric disorders. Quite a few questions exist about this new treatment, and might be explored in nonhuman primate models. There are several reports on DBS of brain nucleus other than NAc in nonhuman primates. Therefore, we stereotactically implanted the electrodes into bilateral NAc under the guidance of MRI using a clinical Leksell stereotactic system in normal rhesus monkeys. NAc could be recognized as the area of continuity between the caudate nucleus and putamen in the coronal sections, which is beneath the internal capsule, and the gray matter nucleus between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior commissure in axial sections, which is medial to the putamen. NAc is mainly at a point 2.0-3.0 mm inferior, 3.0-4.0 mm anterior, and 4.5-5.5 mm lateral to the anterior commissure. The electrodes were implanted accurately and connected to an implantable pulse generator subcutaneously. After recovery from surgery, stimulation with a variety of parameters was trialed, and continuous stimulation at 90 μs, 3.5 V, 160, or 60 Hz was administered individually for 7 days. The behaviors and spontaneous locomotor activity of the animals did not change significantly during stimulation. This is the first report on DBS of NAc in nonhuman primates to the best of our knowledge. Bilateral electrical stimulation of NAc is a safe treatment. This model could be helpful in further studies on the clinical use of NAc stimulation for psychiatric disorders and for a better understanding of the functions of this nucleus.

  8. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Krishna E; Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Cote, Samantha R; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-07-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression have been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady-state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within 30 min when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated with the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within 5 min of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggest a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Kokal

    Full Text Available Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.

  10. Neutrino anomaly and -nucleus interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    neutrino nucleus interactions in the domain of low and intermediate energy. The nuclear physics inputs mainly enter through two types of processes. These are: A. The nuclear processes responsible for neutrino production in the calculation of solar and atmospheric neutrino fluxes. B. The nuclear processes in which ...

  11. The nucleus as a laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin-Stoyle, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The nucleus is a complicated many-body structure whose properties when carefully studied can frequently give important information about the underlying elementary particle interactions. This article reviews progress in research of this kind over the last twenty-five years. (author)

  12. Higgs and Particle Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe

    We apply a diagrammatic approach to study Higgs boson, a color-neutral heavy particle, pro- duction in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the saturation framework without quantum evolution. We assume the strong coupling constant much smaller than one. Due to the heavy mass and colorless nature of Higgs particle, final state interactions are absent in our calculation. In order to treat the two nuclei dynamically symmetric, we use the Coulomb gauge which gives the appropriate light cone gauge for each nucleus. To further eliminate initial state interactions we choose specific prescriptions in the light cone propagators. We start the calculation from only two nucleons in each nucleus and then demonstrate how to generalize the calculation to higher orders diagrammatically. We simplify the diagrams by the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward identities. The resulting cross section is factorized into a product of two Weizsacker-Williams gluon distributions of the two nuclei when the transverse momentum of the produced scalar particle is around the saturation momentum. To our knowledge this is the first process where an exact analytic formula has been formed for a physical process, involving momenta on the order of the saturation momentum, in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the quasi-classical approximation. Since we have performed the calculation in an unconventional gauge choice, we further confirm our results in Feynman gauge where the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution is interpreted as a transverse momentum broadening of a hard gluons traversing a nuclear medium. The transverse momentum factorization manifests itself in light cone gauge but not so clearly in Feynman gauge. In saturation physics there are two different unintegrated gluon distributions usually encountered in the literature: the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution and the dipole gluon distribution. The first gluon distribution is constructed by solving classical Yang-Mills equation of motion in the Mc

  13. Color oscillations of nucleons in a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Possibility of nucleus description as an object consisting of quarks and gluons is considered. A model of two-nucleon interaction in a nucleus is presented and analytical expressions for the nucleus nucleon ground state wave functions and also for nuclear nucleon structure functions are obtained. The carried out analysis shows that the suggested model permits to express the nucleus structure functions at quark level only by means of nucleon and Δ-isobaric degrees of freedom

  14. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  15. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  16. Right/left symmetry of the intrahepatic distribution and terminology of the hepatic artery proper and the intrahepatic bile duct system: proposals to revise the Terminologia Anatomica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Petru

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical terminology is the foundation of medical terminology and it is important that doctors and scientists throughout the world use the same name for each structure. It is also important that the anatomical terms for a specific anatomical structure are presented in a logical order. To eliminate confusion, it is crucial that the same name is not attributed to two or more anatomical elements. However, the term artery of caudate lobe is used for two distinct anatomic elements with different origins (right/left branch of hepatic proper artery). Also, I draw attention to the incorrect positioning of right/left duct of caudate lobe in the description of terms homologated for the intrahepatic bile duct system. These proposals to amend the terminology in the liver anatomy are a necessary step in the evolution of the Terminologia Anatomica.

  17. Bilateral innervation of syringeal muscles by the hypoglossal nucleus in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Naoki; Kamata, Naoki; Nagasawa, Miyuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2009-08-01

    Bird vocalizations are produced by contractions of syringeal muscles, which are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus. In oscines, syringeal muscles are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus ipsilaterally, whereas syringeal innervation is bilateral in non-oscines. We have determined the course of hypoglossal nerves in the jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos. Our results indicate a cross-over of the hypoglossal nerve from the left side to the right side on the trachea 7 mm rostral to the Musculus sternotrachealis. We also investigated the innervation of the syringeal muscles of jungle crows from the hypoglossal nucleus using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method. After HRP was injected into the syringeal muscles on each side, HRP-labeled cells were found bilaterally in the hypoglossal nerve. These results suggest that the syringeal muscles of jungle crows are innervated bilaterally from the hypoglossal nucleus, although these birds are categorized as oscines.

  18. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  19. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, G.S.; RAGAB, H.S.; SEDDEEK, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  20. Pion production at 1800 in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chessin, S.A.

    1983-05-01

    A survey experiment of pion production at 180 0 in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. Beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 2.1 GeV/A protons, alphas, and carbon were used, as well as proton beams of 0.80 GeV, 3.5 GeV, and 4.89 GeV, and argon beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 1.83 GeV/A. This is the first such experiment to use the heavier beams. Targets used ranged from carbon to lead. An in-depth review of the literature, both experimental and theoretical, is also presented. The systematics of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made both with prior experiments and with the predictions of the models reviewed. The cross sections appear consistent with a simple single nucleon-nucleon collision picture, without the need for collective or other exotic effects. Suggestions for future work are made

  1. The nucleus-nucleus proximity potential and superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using up-to-date values of nuclear radii and of the nuclear surface tension, the 1977 proximity treatment of nucleus-nucleus interaction is confronted with 113 measured fusion barriers. The ∼4% overestimate of theory with respect to experiment, seen in a similar comparison in 1981, is no longer present. The calculated proximity barriers, when applied to fusion reactions used to produce heavy elements with atomic number Z = 102-118, suggest that the unexpectedly large cross section observed in the reaction 86 Kr + 208 Pb r a rrow 293 118 + 1n may be due to the sinking of the Coulomb barrier below the level of the bombarding energy. Tests of this hypothesis are suggested. Some consequences of the appearance of such unshielded reactions for very heavy systems are discussed. An Appendix supplies very accurate analytic formulas for the universal nuclear proximity force and potential functions φand Φ. This does away with the need to consult the tables published in 1977

  2. GABA-A and NMDA receptor expression is altered in the caudate but not the putamen of the postmortem brains of alcoholics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol K Bhandage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic consumption of alcohol by humans has been shown to lead to impairment of executive and cognitive functions. Here we have studied the changes that take place in the dorsal striatum in post-mortem brains of alcoholics and normal controls. The results show a significant change in the expression of both the excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor and the inhibitory GABA-A receptor subunit genes in the caudate but not the putamen of the striatum. The mRNA levels in the caudate encoding the glutamate receptor subunit GluN2A and the GABA-A receptor subunits δ, ε and ρ2 were significantly decreased whereas the GluD1, GluD2 and the GABA-A γ1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the alcoholics as compared to controls. Interestingly in controls, 11 glutamate and 5 GABA-A receptor genes were more prominently (fold-increase varied from 1.24 to 2.91 expressed in the caudate than the putamen. We have previously shown in post-mortem samples from alcoholics that the expression level of glutamate and GABA-A receptor genes in the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex is similar to that of normal controls (Jin et al., 2011a;Jin et al., 2014b. This is in contrast to the present study. As the caudate is vital for automatic thinking, the results indicate that the balance between voluntary and automatic control of behaviours is altered in alcoholics. Our results suggest that there may be diminished executive control on goal-directed alcohol-seeking behaviour and, rather, a shift to greater striatal control over behaviours that may be critical in the progress of becoming an alcoholic.

  3. CRFR1 in the ventromedial caudate putamen modulates acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Wang, Zhiyan; Li, Yijing; Sun, Xiaowei; Ge, Feifei; Yang, Mingda; Wang, Xinjuan; Wang, Na; Wang, Junkai; Cui, Cailian

    2017-07-15

    Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces a long-lasting enhancement of locomotor activity called behavioral sensitization, which is often reinforced by stress after drug withdrawal. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain elusive. Here we explored the effects of acute stress 3 or 14 days after the cessation of chronic cocaine treatment on the expression of locomotor sensitization induced by a cocaine challenge in rats and the key brain region and molecular mechanism underlying the phenomenon. A single session of forced swimming, as an acute stress (administered 2 days after the cessation of cocaine), significantly enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization 14 days after the final cocaine injection (challenge at 12 days after acute stress) but not 3 days after the cessation of cocaine (challenge at 1 day after acute stress). The result indicated that acute stress enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization after incubation for 12 days rather than 1 day after the last cocaine injection. Moreover, the enhancement in locomotor sensitization was paralleled by a selective increase in the number of the c-Fos + cells, the level of CRFR1 mRNA in the ventromedial caudate putamen (vmCPu). Furthermore, the enhancement was significantly attenuated by CRFR1 antagonist NBI-27914 into the vmCPu, implying that the up-regulation of CRFR1 in the vmCPu seems to be critical in the acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization. The findings demonstrate that the long-term effect of acute stress on the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization is partially mediated by CRFR1 in the vmCPu. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  5. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  6. Nucleus behavior in violent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.

    1985-01-01

    Thanks to new heavy ion beams (Argon, Krypton...) accelerated at Ganil and Sara to velocities of about 0.2 to 0.5 times the light one, very violent collisions, between complex nuclei can be made. During peripheral collisions, the projectile is strongly heated in '' wearing away'' the target and follows its way at high velocity in loosing nucleons. Resulting fragments can present themselves as nuclei very different from usual stable nuclei, often at existence limit. In more central collisions, the energy transferred is such that fusion of both leads to a new type of very hot nucleus near the immediate boiling. Another existence limit is reached by this way: where the bound nucleon system tend to become nucleon gas or a bulk of little fragments [fr

  7. Action potentials: to the nucleus and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ramendra N; Dudek, Serena M

    2008-04-01

    The neuronal nucleus is now widely accepted as playing a vital role in maintaining long-term changes in synaptic effectiveness. To act, however, the nucleus must be appropriately relayed with information regarding the latest round of synaptic plasticity. Several constraints of doing so in a neuron pertain to the often significant spatial distance of synapses from the nucleus and the number of synapses required for such a signal to reach functional levels in the nucleus. Largely based on the sensitivity of transcriptional responses to NMDA receptor antagonists, it has been postulated that the signals are physically relayed by biochemical messengers from the synapse to the nucleus. Alternatively, a second, less often considered but equally viable method of signal transduction may be initiated by action potentials generated proximal to the nucleus, wherefrom the signal can be relayed directly by calcium or indirectly by biochemical second messengers. We consider action potential-dependent signaling to the nucleus to have its own computational advantages over the synapse-to-nucleus signal for some functions. This minireview summarizes the logic and experimental support for these two modes of signaling and attempts to validate the action potential model as playing an important role in transcriptional regulation relating specifically to long-term synaptic plasticity.

  8. Do migrating cells need a nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2018-03-05

    How the nucleus affects cell polarity and migration is unclear. In this issue, Graham et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201706097) show that enucleated cells polarize and migrate in two but not three dimensions and propose that the nucleus is a necessary component of the molecular clutch regulating normal mechanical responses. © 2018 Hawkins.

  9. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells. PMID:24445418

  10. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  11. Pedunculopontine nucleus cholinergic deficiency in cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Karin; Edwards, Nancy A; Urbano, Demelio; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Iacono, Diego; Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Amaro, Edson; Horovitz, Silvina G; Hallett, Mark

    2018-03-06

    The etiology of cervical dystonia is unknown. Cholinergic abnormalities have been identified in dystonia animal models and human imaging studies. Some animal models have cholinergic neuronal loss in the striatum and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of cholinergic abnormalities in the putamen and pedunculopontine nucleus in cervical dystonia human brain donors. Formalin-fixed brain tissues were obtained from 8 cervical dystonia and 7 age-matched control brains (controls). Pedunculopontine nucleus was available in only 6 cervical dystonia and 5 controls. Neurodegeneration was evaluated pathologically in the putamen, pedunculopontine nucleus, and other regions. Cholinergic neurons were detected using choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry in the putamen and pedunculopontine nucleus. Putaminal cholinergic neurons were quantified. A total of 6 cervical dystonia patients and 6 age-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging to determine if there were white matter microstructural abnormalities around the pedunculopontine nucleus. Decreased or absent choline acetyltransferase staining was identified in all 6 pedunculopontine nucleus samples in cervical dystonia. In contrast, strong choline acetyltransferase staining was present in 4 of 5 pedunculopontine nucleus controls. There were no differences in pedunculopontine nucleus diffusion tensor imaging between cervical dystonia and healthy controls. There was no difference in numbers of putaminal cholinergic neurons between cervical dystonia and controls. Our findings suggest that pedunculopontine nucleus choline acetyltransferase deficiency represents a functional cholinergic deficit in cervical dystonia. Structural lesions and confounding neurodegenerative processes were excluded by absence of neuronal loss, gliosis, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities, and beta-amyloid, tau, and alpha

  12. Strangeness production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehring, H.; Ranft, J.; Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1993-01-01

    Λ, bar Λ, and K S 0 production is studied in a Monte Carlo dual parton model for hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions with an SU(3) symmetric sea for chain formation (chain ends) but strangeness suppression in the chain fragmentation process. Additionally, (qq)-(bar q bar q) production from the sea was introduced into the chain formation process with the same probability as for the q→qq branching within the chain decay process. With these assumptions, multiplicity ratios and Feynman-x distributions for strange particles in h-h and multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions are reasonably well reproduced

  13. Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C; Marsh, Abigail A; Blair, Karina S; Reid, Marguerite E; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2011-02-01

    Dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. The specific nature of the functional irregularities within these structures remains poorly understood. The authors used a passive avoidance task to examine the responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. While performing the passive avoidance learning task, 15 youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus a high level of psychopathic traits and 15 healthy subjects completed a 3.0-T fMRI scan. Relative to the comparison youths, the youths with a disruptive behavior disorder plus psychopathic traits showed less orbitofrontal responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as less caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. There were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness to these two task measures, but amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was lower in the youths with psychopathic traits. Compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information in the orbitofrontal cortex of youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits suggests that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate, and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted. This provides a functional neural basis for why such youths are more likely to repeat disadvantageous decisions. New treatment possibilities are raised, as pharmacologic modulations of serotonin and dopamine can affect this form of learning.

  14. Disrupted Reinforcement Signaling in Orbital Frontal Cortex and Caudate in Youths with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C.; Marsh, Abigail A.; Blair, Karina S.; Reid, Marguerite. E.; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysfunction in amygdala and orbital frontal cortex functioning has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. However, the specific nature of the computational irregularities within these brain structures remains poorly understood. The current study used the passive avoidance task to examine responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. METHOD 30 youths (N=15 with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus high psychopathic traits and N=15 comparison subjects) completed a 3.0 T fMRI scan while performing a passive avoidance learning task. RESULTS Relative to comparison youth, youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits showed reduced orbitofrontal cortex responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as reduced caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. Contrary to other predictions, however, there were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness specifically to these two task parameters. However, amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was reduced in the youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits are marked by a compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in both orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information within orbitofrontal cortex. They further suggest that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted in individuals with this disorder. PMID:21078707

  15. Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma (≤2 cm) in the Caudate Lobe with Sequential Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki, E-mail: sungkismc.cho@samsung.com; Shin, Sung Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeTo evaluate technical feasibility and treatment results of sequential transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and cone-beam computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (CBCT-RFA) for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe.Materials and MethodsInstitutional review board approved this retrospective study. Radiologic database was searched for the patients referred to perform TACE and CBCT-RFA for small caudate HCCs (≤2 cm) between February 2009 and February 2014. A total of 14 patients (12 men and 2 women, mean age; 61.3 years) were included. Percutaneous ultrasonography-guided RFA (pUS-RFA) and surgery were infeasible due to poor conspicuity, inconspicuity or no safe electrode pathway, and poor hepatic reserve. Procedural success (completion of both TACE and CBCT-RFA), technique efficacy (absence of tumor enhancement at 1 month after treatment), and complication were evaluated. Treatment results including local tumor progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed.ResultsProcedural success and technique efficacy rates were 78.6 % (11/14) and 90.9 % (10/11), respectively. Average follow-up period was 45.3 months (range, 13.4–64.6 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year LTP probabilities were 0, 12.5, and 12.5 %, respectively. IDR occurred in seven patients (63.6 %, 7/11). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS probabilities were 81.8, 51.9, and 26 %, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS probabilities were 100, 80.8, and 80.8 %, respectively.ConclusionCombination of TACE and CBCT-RFA seems feasible for small HCC in the caudate lobe not amenable to pUS-RFA and effective in local tumor control.

  16. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  17. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  18. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  19. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Klochkov, V; Herve, A E; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Matulewicz, T N; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Mathes, H; Roehrich, D; Marcinek, A J; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Koziel, M E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Strikhanov, M; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Blondel, A P P; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Di luise, S; Veberic, D; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Morgala, S J; Paolone, V; Damyanova, A; Gazdzicki, M; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B

    2007-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  20. Nucleus accumbens surgery for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xue-lian; Chang, Chong-wang; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Li; Wu, He-ming; Zhao, Hai-kang; Geng, Ning; Gao, Guo-dong

    2013-01-01

    Opiate addiction remains intractable in a large percentage of patients, and relapse is the biggest hurdle to recovery because of psychological dependence. Multiple studies identify a central role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in addiction; several studies note decreased addictive behavior after interventions in this area. Based on animal experiments, our institute started the clinical trial for the treatment of drug addicts' psychological dependence by making lesions in the bilateral NAc with stereotactic surgery from July 2000. The short-term outcomes were encouraging and triggered rapid application of this treatment in China from 2003 to 2004. However, lack of long-term outcomes and controversy eventually led to halting the surgery for addiction by the Ministry of Health of China in November 2004 and a nationwide survey about it later. Our institute had performed this surgery in 272 patients with severe heroin addiction. The follow-up study showed that the 5-year nonrelapse rate was 58% and the quality of life was significantly improved. Patients had several kinds of side effects, but the incidence rate was relatively low. The patients gradually recovered more than 5 years after the surgery. The side effects did not severely influence an individual's life or work. Nationwide surgery showed that the nonrelapse rate was 50% in the sample of 150 cases, from 1167 patients overall who underwent stereotactic surgery in China. Although sometimes accompanied by neuropsychological adverse events, stereotactic ablation of NAc may effectively treat opiate addiction. Lesion location has a significant impact on treatment efficacy and requires further study. Because ablation is irreversible, the NAc surgery for addiction should be performed with cautiousness, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an ideal alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus improves Reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelleke Corine Van Wouwe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the subthalamic nucleus (STN has been shown to be critically involved in decision-making, action selection, and motor control. Here we investigate the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS of the STN on reward-based decision-learning in patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD. We determined computational measures of outcome evaluation and reward prediction from PD patients who performed a probabilistic reward-based decision-learning task. In previous work, these measures covaried with activation in the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning. We observed that stimulation of the STN motor regions in PD patients served to improve reward-based decision-learning, probably through its effect on activity in frontostriatal motor loops (prominently involving the putamen and, hence, reward prediction. In a subset of relatively younger patients with relatively shorter disease duration, the effects of DBS appeared to spread to more cognitive regions of the STN, benefitting loops that connect the caudate to various prefrontal areas important for outcome evaluation. These results highlight positive effects of STN stimulation on cognitive functions that may benefit PD patients in daily-life association-learning situations.

  3. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Transport of glutathione into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH) is present in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. However, the functions of GSH in the nucleus remain poorly characterised. GSH appears to become sequestered in the nucleus at the early stages of the cell cycle. As part of our search for proteins that may be involved in GSH transport into the nucleus, we studied the functions of the nucleoporin called Alacrima Achalasia aDrenal Insufficiency Neurologic disorder (ALADIN). ALADIN is encoded by the Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia (AAAS) gene in mammalian cells. Defects in ALADIN promote adrenal disorders and lead to the triple A syndrome in humans. The ALADIN protein localizes to the nuclear envelope in Arabidopsis thaliana and interacts with other components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We characterised the functions of the ALADIN protein in an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion knockout mutant, which shows slow growth compared to the wild type. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  6. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  7. Kaon-nucleus reactions and hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in hypernuclear physics and kaon-nucleus scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the spectroscopy of Λ single particle states in heavy systems, as revealed by the (π + ,K + ) reaction. 26 refs., 8 figs

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG PET uptake in the pre-Huntington disease caudate affects the time-to-onset independently of CAG expansion size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bruselli, Laura [Nuclear Medicine Department, S. Andrea Hospital, La Spezia (Italy); Orobello, Sara; Elifani, Francesca; Squitieri, Ferdinando [Centre for Neurogenetics and Rare Diseases, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    To test in a longitudinal follow-up study whether basal glucose metabolism in subjects with a genetic risk of Huntington disease (HD) may influence the onset of manifest symptoms. The study group comprised 43 presymptomatic (preHD) subjects carrying the HD mutation. They underwent a {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan and were prospectively followed-up for at least 5 years using the unified HD rating scale to detect clinical changes. Multiple regression analysis included subject's age, CAG mutation size and glucose uptake as variables in a model to predict age at onset. Of the 43 preHD subjects who manifested motor symptoms, suggestive of HD, after 5 years from the PET scan, 26 showed a mean brain glucose uptake below the cut-off of 1.0493 in the caudate, significantly lower than the 17 preHD subjects who remained symptom-free (P < 0.0001). This difference was independent of mutation size. Measurement of brain glucose uptake improved the CAG repeat number and age-based model for predicting age at onset by 37 %. A reduced level of glucose metabolism in the brain caudate may represent a predisposing factor that contributes to the age at onset of HD in preHD subjects, in addition to the mutation size. (orig.)

  9. 18F-FDG PET uptake in the pre-Huntington disease caudate affects the time-to-onset independently of CAG expansion size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bruselli, Laura; Orobello, Sara; Elifani, Francesca; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2012-01-01

    To test in a longitudinal follow-up study whether basal glucose metabolism in subjects with a genetic risk of Huntington disease (HD) may influence the onset of manifest symptoms. The study group comprised 43 presymptomatic (preHD) subjects carrying the HD mutation. They underwent a 18 F-FDG PET scan and were prospectively followed-up for at least 5 years using the unified HD rating scale to detect clinical changes. Multiple regression analysis included subject's age, CAG mutation size and glucose uptake as variables in a model to predict age at onset. Of the 43 preHD subjects who manifested motor symptoms, suggestive of HD, after 5 years from the PET scan, 26 showed a mean brain glucose uptake below the cut-off of 1.0493 in the caudate, significantly lower than the 17 preHD subjects who remained symptom-free (P < 0.0001). This difference was independent of mutation size. Measurement of brain glucose uptake improved the CAG repeat number and age-based model for predicting age at onset by 37 %. A reduced level of glucose metabolism in the brain caudate may represent a predisposing factor that contributes to the age at onset of HD in preHD subjects, in addition to the mutation size. (orig.)

  10. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  11. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  12. Targeting the red nucleus for cerebellar tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, M; Manto, M; Merle, P; Tir, M; Montpellier, D; Constant, J-M; Le Gars, D; Macron, J-M; Krystkowiak, P

    2014-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the thalamus (and especially the ventral intermediate nucleus) does not significantly improve a drug-resistant, disabling cerebellar tremor. The dentato-rubro-olivary tract (Guillain-Mollaret triangle, including the red nucleus) is a subcortical loop that is critically involved in tremor genesis. We report the case of a 48-year-old female patient presenting with generalized cerebellar tremor caused by alcohol-related cerebellar degeneration. Resistance to pharmacological treatment and the severity of the symptoms prompted us to investigate the effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the red nucleus. Intra-operative microrecordings of the red nucleus revealed intense, irregular, tonic background activity but no rhythmic components that were synchronous with upper limb tremor. The postural component of the cerebellar tremor disappeared during insertion of the macro-electrodes and for a few minutes after stimulation, with no changes in the intentional (kinetic) component. Stimulation per se did not reduce postural or intentional tremor and was associated with dysautonomic symptoms (the voltage threshold for which was inversed related to the stimulation frequency). Our observations suggest that the red nucleus is (1) an important centre for the genesis of cerebellar tremor and thus (2) a possible target for drug-refractory tremor. Future research must determine how neuromodulation of the red nucleus can best be implemented in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

  13. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  14. Influence of preoperative nucleus pulposus status and radiculopathy on outcomes in mono-segmental lumbar total disc replacement: results from a nationwide registry

    OpenAIRE

    Zweig Thomas; Hemmeler Christoph; Aghayev Emin; Melloh Markus; Etter Christian; Röder Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) with radiculopathy and other preconditions are regarded as relative or absolute contraindications for lumbar total disc replacement (TDR). In Switzerland it is left to the surgeon's discretion when to operate. The present study is based on the dataset of SWISSspine, a governmentally mandated health technology assessment registry. We hypothesized that preoperative nucleus pulposus status and presence or absence of radiculopathy ha...

  15. High density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.; Hofmann, J.; Scheid, W.; Greiner, W.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of high density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and related phenomena, as density isomers, highly isobaric and hot nuclear matter, pionization and granulation of dense matter, compressibility and soundwaves in nuclear matter, are discussed

  16. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using ...

  17. Cell Biology of the Caenorhabditis elegans Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Fix, Orna; Askjaer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleus have provided fascinating insight to the organization and activities of eukaryotic cells. Being the organelle that holds the genetic blueprint of the cell, the nucleus is critical for basically every aspect of cell biology. The stereotypical development of C. elegans from a one cell-stage embryo to a fertile hermaphrodite with 959 somatic nuclei has allowed the identification of mutants with specific alterations in gene expression programs, nuclear morphology, or nuclear positioning. Moreover, the early C. elegans embryo is an excellent model to dissect the mitotic processes of nuclear disassembly and reformation with high spatiotemporal resolution. We review here several features of the C. elegans nucleus, including its composition, structure, and dynamics. We also discuss the spatial organization of chromatin and regulation of gene expression and how this depends on tight control of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Finally, the extensive connections of the nucleus with the cytoskeleton and their implications during development are described. Most processes of the C. elegans nucleus are evolutionarily conserved, highlighting the relevance of this powerful and versatile model organism to human biology. PMID:28049702

  18. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  19. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  20. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  1. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  2. Decoding calcium signaling across the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Guimarães, Erika S; Andrade, Lídia M; Menezes, Gustavo B; Fatima Leite, M

    2014-09-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an important multifaceted second messenger that regulates a wide range of cellular events. A Ca(2+)-signaling toolkit has been shown to exist in the nucleus and to be capable of generating and modulating nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) transients. Within the nucleus, Ca(2+) controls cellular events that are different from those modulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). This review focuses on nuclear Ca(2+) signals and their role in regulating physiological and pathological processes. ©2014 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  3. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  4. The effects of nicotine injection in rat nucleus accumbens on anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Yekta B

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports showed that nucleus accumbens involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of major depression, anxiety and addiction. It is not clear that how these mechanisms occur in the brain. In the present study, the influence of direct nicotine injection in the nucleus accumbens in rats’ anxiety-related behavior was investigated. Methods: Wistar rats were used in this study. Male Wistar rats bred in an animal house, in a temperature-controlled (22±2 ◦C room with a 12 hour light/darkcycle. Rats were anesthetized using intraperitoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine, then placed in an stereotactic instrument for microinjection cannula implantation The stainless steel guide cannula was implanted bilaterally in the right and left dorsal the nucleus accumbens shell according to Paxinos and Watson atlas. After recovery, anxiety behavior and locomotor activity were tested. We used the elevated plus maze to test anxiety. This apparatus has widely been employed to test parameters of anxiety-related behaviors including the open armtime percentage (%OAT, open arm entries percentage (%OAE, locomotor activity and we record effect of drugs after injection directly in the nucleus accumbens on anxiety-related behavior.Results: Experiments showed that bilateral injections into the nucleus accumbens Nicotine, acetylcholine receptor agonist, dose 0.1 of the dose (0.05 and 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 microgram per rat caused a significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms (%OAT, compared to the control group. We did not record any significant change locomotor activity and open arm entries percentage (%OAE in rats.Conclusion: Nicotinic receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell involved to anxiety-like behavior in male rats.

  5. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  6. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  7. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  8. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  9. Selective hypertrophy of the lobus caudatus as a novel approach enabling extended right hepatectomy in the presence of a non-perfused left lateral liver lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Thelen, Armin; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Krenzien, Felix; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Moche, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a well-established technique to enhance functional hepatic reserves of segments II and III before curative extended right hepatectomy for tumors of the right liver lobe. However, an adequate hepatopetal flow of the left lateral portal vein branches is required for a sufficient PVE-associated hypertrophy. Here, we report a 65-year old patient suffering from a locally advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the right liver lobe and segment IV. A curative extended right hepatectomy after preoperative PVE of liver segments IV-VIII was initially impossible because of partial thrombosis of the left lateral portal vein branches resulting in an ischemic-type atrophy of segments II and III. However, due to a massive hypertrophy of the caudate lobe following PVE of liver segments IV-VIII, subsequent extended right hepatectomy with intraoperative thrombectomy of segments II and III was made possible. To our knowledge this is the first case in which an extended right hepatectomy for a liver malignancy, in the presence of atrophic left lateral section, was made possible by a massive PVE-associated hypertrophy of the caudate lobe.

  10. Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)

  11. The Nucleus Retroambiguus Control of Respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert

    2009-01-01

    The role of the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the context of respiration control has been subject of debate for considerable time. To solve this problem, we chemically (using D, L-homocysteic acid) stimulated the NRA in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats and studied the respiratory

  12. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs

  13. Correlations in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1976-09-01

    The correlations between the particles produced in interactions of hadrons with emulsion nuclei were investigated. The data are in qualitative agreement with the models which describe the interactions with nuclei as subsequent collisions of the fast part of excited hadronic matter inside the nucleus. (author)

  14. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia. E-mail: kanchanp@magnum.barc.ernet.in. Abstract. We locate resonances in η-light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the t-matrices and hence ...

  15. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  16. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2015), s. 1627-1640 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cell nucleus * chromatin * genome function Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  17. Iliacus Abscess with Radiculopathy Mimicking Herniated Nucleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... radiculopathy mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus: Aadditional diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:392-3. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows ...

  18. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic ...

  19. The suprachiasmatic nucleus-paraventricular nucleus interactions: a bridge to the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, R. M.; Hermes, M. H.; Kalsbeek, A.

    1998-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is one of the principal neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By means of anatomical, physiological and electrophysiological techniques we have demonstrated that VP containing pathways from the SCN serve to affect neuroendocrine and 'autonomic' neurons in the

  20. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  1. Theory of and effects from elastoplasticity in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1985-02-01

    Elastoplasticity of finite Fermi systems results from a coherent coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom and subsequent equilibration essentially due to two-body collisions. Within a non-markovian transport-theoretical approach referred to as dissipative diabatic dynamics (DDD), elastoplastical forms the link between giant vibrations and overdamped motion of nuclear. Obersvable effects resulting from this non-markovian behaviour in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. May 2006 physics pp. 943–946. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus bound state. V JHA1, B J ROY1, A CHATTERJEE1 and H MACHNER2 ... are being carried out or proposed in different laboratories around the world. In this work we .... be due to a virtual state near the η-threshold. 4.

  3. Stereological analysis of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in schizophrenia: volume, neuron number, and cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph N; Sun, Zhuoxin

    2004-01-01

    The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is the principal relay nucleus for the prefrontal cortex, a brain region thought to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Several, but not all, postmortem studies of the MD in schizophrenia have reported decreased volume and total neuronal number. However......, it is not clear whether the findings are specific for schizophrenia nor is it known which subtypes of thalamic neurons are affected. We studied the left MD in 11 subjects with schizophrenia, 9 control subjects, and 12 subjects with mood disorders. Based on morphological criteria, we divided the neurons into two...... subclasses, presumably corresponding to projection neurons and local circuit neurons. We estimated MD volume and the neuron number of each subclass using methods based on modern unbiased stereological principles. We also estimated the somal volumes of each subclass using a robust, but biased, approach...

  4. The Baryon Production and Baryon Number Transfer in Hadron-Hadron, Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, P.

    2006-09-01

    This work concerns soft hadronic interactions which in the Standard Model carry most of the observable cross-section but are not amenable to quantitative predictions due to the very nature of the QCD (Theory of Strong Interactions). In the low momentum transfer region the evolving coupling constant caused perturbation theory to break down. In this situation better experimental understanding of the physics phenomena is needed. One aspect of the soft hadronic interactions will be discussed in this work: transfer of the baryon number from the initial to the final state of the interaction. The past experimental knowledge on this process is presented, reasons for its unsatisfactory status are discussed and condition necessary for improvement are outlined: that is experimental apparatus with superior performance over the full range of available interactions: hadron-hadron collision, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. A consistent model-independent picture of the baryon number transfer process emerging from the data on the full range of interactions is shown. It offers serious challenge to theory to provide quantitative and detailed explanation of the measurements. (author)

  5. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  6. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  7. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  8. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  9. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  10. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  11. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  12. Nucleus spectroscopy: extreme masses and deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, Ch.

    2009-12-01

    The author proposes a synthesis of research activities performed since 1995 in the field of experimental nuclear physics, and more particularly in the investigation of two nucleus extreme states: deformation on the one hand, heavy and very heavy nuclei on the other hand. After a presentation of the context of investigations on deformation, rotation, and heavy nuclei, he gives an overview of developments regarding instruments (gamma spectrometers, detection of fission fragments, and detection at the focal plane of spectrometers or separators) and analysis techniques. Experiments and results are then reported and discussed, concerning super-deformed states with a high angular moment, spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, very heavy nuclei close to nucleus map borders. He finally draws perspectives for middle and long term studies on the heaviest nuclei

  13. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about......In their natural environment, cells are regularly exposed to various stress conditions that may lead to protein misfolding, but also in the absence of stress, misfolded proteins occur as the result of mutations or failures during protein synthesis. Since such partially denatured proteins are prone...... to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...

  14. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  15. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We locate resonances in η-light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body ... We planned to study the resonances in η-light nuclei systems since the few-body systems can be treated .... In an eigenphase formu- lation of the S-matrix, S = ηe2iδ (with η being the inelasticity factor), one can.

  16. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  17. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs

  18. Jefferson Lab's Journey into the Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2004-01-01

    The year 1969 saw the publication of the first results indicating that hard scattering centres exist deep inside protons. A collaboration between the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was using SLAC's new high-energy electron LINAC to pioneer a rich new field in the study of the nucleus--deep inelastic scattering. Their measurements revealed that nucleons are made up of point-like particles, which Richard Feynman dubbed ''partons''. Thirty-five years on, studies of the parton-nature of the nucleus continue, not only at the traditional high-energy centres, but also at lower-energy laboratories, and in particular at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Virginia. Jefferson Lab is home to the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Its main mission is to explore the atomic nucleus and the fundamental building-blocks of matter. As part of this mission, researchers there study the transition from the picture of the nucleus as a bound state of neutrons and protons to its deeper structure in terms of quarks and gluons--in other words, the transition from the hadronic degrees of freedom of nuclear physics to the quark-gluon degrees of freedom of high-energy physics. In exploring this transition, a wide range of experiments has been performed, from measurements of elastic form factors at large momentum transfers to studies of deep inelastic scattering. An array of spectrometers together with electron-beam energies of up to 5.7 GeV has allowed the laboratory to make significant contributions to this field. This article describes three experiments, each aimed at improving our understanding of a different aspect of the partonic nature of matter. The first, a classic deep inelastic scattering experiment, seeks to further our understanding of the composition of nucleon spin. The second experiment studies the concept of quark-hadron duality--a link between the deep inelastic

  19. Morphological differences in the lateral geniculate nucleus associated with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Giraldo-Chica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability characterized by normal intelligence but difficulty in skills associated with reading, writing and spelling. One of the most prominent, albeit controversial, theories of dyslexia is the magnocellular theory, which suggests that malfunction of the magnocellular system in the brain is responsible for the behavioral deficits. We sought to test the basis of this theory by directly measuring the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, the only location in the brain where the magnocellular and parvocellular streams are spatially disjoint. Using high-resolution proton-density weighted MRI scans, we precisely measured the anatomical boundaries of the LGN in 13 subjects with dyslexia (five female and 13 controls (three female, all 22–26 years old. The left LGN was significantly smaller in volume in subjects with dyslexia and also differed in shape; no differences were observed in the right LGN. The functional significance of this asymmetry is unknown, but these results are consistent with the magnocellular theory and support theories of dyslexia that involve differences in the early visual system.

  20. Quantitative analysis of axon bouton distribution of subthalamic nucleus neurons in the rat by single neuron visualization with a viral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Yoshinori; Fujiyama, Fumino; Nakamura, Kouichi C; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2013-06-15

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia plays a key role in motor control, and STN efferents are known to mainly target the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), entopeduncular nucleus (Ep), and substantia nigra (SN) with some axon collaterals to the other regions. However, it remains to be clarified how each STN neuron projects axon fibers and collaterals to those target nuclei of the STN. Here we visualized the whole axonal arborization of single STN neurons in the rat brain by using a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein, and examined the distribution of axon boutons in those target nuclei. The vast majority (8-9) of 10 reconstructed STN neurons projected to the GPe, SN, caudate-putamen (CPu), and Ep, which received, on average ± SD, 457 ± 425, 400 ± 347, 126 ± 143, and 106 ± 100 axon boutons per STN neuron, respectively. Furthermore, the density of axon boutons in the GPe was highest among these nuclei. Although these target nuclei were divided into calbindin-rich and -poor portions, STN projection showed no exclusive preference for those portions. Since STN neurons mainly projected not only to the GPe, SN, and Ep but also to the CPu, the subthalamostriatal projection might serve as a positive feedback path for the striato-GPe-subthalamic disinhibitory pathway, or work as another route of cortical inputs to the striatum through the corticosubthalamostriatal disynaptic excitatory pathway. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. J/$\\psi$ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (quark-gluon plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ psi yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (9 refs).

  2. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  4. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  5. Limits to the formation of hot fusion nuclei in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, J.; Tamain, B.

    1987-01-01

    The maximum temperature which can be sustained by a nucleus is discussed. Methods used to measure the temperature; values measured in fusion reactors; theoretical investigations on the value of the limiting temperature; and information about dynamical limitations on excitation energy storage in nuclei are reviewed. It is concluded that thermalized fusion nuclei are formed at temperatures up to 5 MeV for heavy systems and 6 MeV for medium mass systems. Thermal energy in central nucleus-nucleus collisions might not exceed some saturation value due to two effects: a sharing of the deposited energy into compressional and thermal energies; and a dynamical competition between thermal energy deposition and fast pre-equilibrium emission

  6. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  7. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  8. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  9. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

  11. Proton rapidity distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The proton rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies are analysed by the revised thermalized cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to he in agreement with the experimental data of Si-AI and Si-Pb collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c, Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c, and S-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c. (Author)

  12. Subthreshold pion production from nucleus-nucleus collisions around 100 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalá, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A. C.

    1993-12-01

    Several global variables were tested with the aim to determine the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions producing pions at incident energies around 100 MeV/nucleon. The experimental set-up includes the MEDEA multidetector, part of which is used as a π 0 spectrometer, and an additional hodoscope of plastic scintillators to cover very forward angles. A statistical model was used to generate both inclusive and pion-triggered events. Selection of well measured events was made through the measured total parallel momentum. Among the different global variables which were tested, the average parallel velocity was seen to give the best correlation with the impact parameter.

  13. The basic elementary particles as martensitic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguinaco-Bravo, V. J.; Onoro, J.

    1999-01-01

    The martensitic transformation is a diffusional structural change that produces an important modification of the microstructure and properties of materials. In this paper we propose how the martensitic phase is nucleated from a basic elementary particle (bep). The bep is formed in several stages. Vacancies, divacancies, etc. are formed at high temperature, which collapse into prismatic dislocation loops during the cooling process. We define a bep as a dislocation loop reaching a critical radius and fulfilling certain elastic energy conditions. A martensitic nucleus is a bep that coincides crystallographically with the habit plane of the matrix. (Author) 16 refs

  14. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  15. From the nucleus discovery to DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a brief review of the main events in the field of nuclear reactions that are acknowledged as milestones because of their importance due to either experimental setting or physical interpretation. It is shown that the pace of discoveries has been strongly dependent on the technical progress in detection means at the beginning of nuclear physics and now is linked to the development of simulation means. The discovery of the neutron, the development of the Geiger counter, the theory of the compound nucleus or the first direct reactions are among these milestones

  16. Lectures on the theory of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, Aleksej Grigorevich

    1975-01-01

    Provides an advanced and up-to-date account of the theory of nuclear structure and discusses in considerable detail both the superfluid and collective models of the nucleus, in addition to earlier complementary models and theories. The book also examines other important topics such as the rotational and vibrational spectra of nuclei which have not previously been treated in such depth. To summarize, it covers a large amount of theoretical ground in one volume and attempts to fill a serious gap in the literature. Many problems are included

  17. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Crawford, B.E.; Grossmann, C.A.; Lowie, L.Y.; Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S.J.; Smith, D.A.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Delheij, P.P.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N.R.; Sharapov, E.I.; Stephenson, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  19. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  20. Double dissociation of the anterior and posterior dorsomedial caudate-putamen in the acquisition and expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charntikov, Sergios; Pittenger, Steven T; Swalve, Natashia; Li, Ming; Bevins, Rick A

    2017-07-15

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. This habit is not only debilitating to individual users but also to those around them (second-hand smoking). Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco products and is a moderate stimulant and a mild reinforcer. Importantly, besides its unconditional effects, nicotine also has conditioned stimulus effects that may contribute to the tenacity of the smoking habit. Because the neurobiological substrates underlying these processes are virtually unexplored, the present study investigated the functional involvement of the dorsomedial caudate putamen (dmCPu) in learning processes with nicotine as an interoceptive stimulus. Rats were trained using the discriminated goal-tracking task where nicotine injections (0.4 mg/kg; SC), on some days, were paired with intermittent (36 per session) sucrose deliveries; sucrose was not available on interspersed saline days. Pre-training excitotoxic or post-training transient lesions of anterior or posterior dmCPu were used to elucidate the role of these areas in acquisition or expression of associative learning with nicotine stimulus. Pre-training lesion of p-dmCPu inhibited acquisition while post-training lesions of p-dmCPu attenuated the expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus. On the other hand, post-training lesions of a-dmCPu evoked nicotine-like responding following saline treatment indicating the role of this area in disinhibition of learned motor behaviors. These results, for the first time, show functionally distinct involvement of a- and p-dmCPu in various stages of associative learning using nicotine stimulus and provide an initial account of neural plasticity underlying these learning processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with left hepatectomy after pre-operative embolization of the proper hepatic artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Larsen, Peter N; Ishibashi, Toshimitsu

    2010-01-01

    to obtain radical resection. The close relationship between the right hepatic artery and the HC in these patients frequently limits the ability to achieve a radial R0-resection without difficult vascular reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to describe the outcome of patients who underwent pre......Right or right-extended hepatectomy including the caudate lobe is the most common treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). A 5-year survival of up to 60% can be achieved using this procedure if R0-resection is obtained. However, for some patients a left-sided liver resection is necessary......-operative embolization of the proper hepatic artery in an effort to induce development of arterial collaterals thus allowing the resection of the proper and right hepatic artery without vascular reconstruction....

  2. Role of nucleon exchange in dissipative and absorptive nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Santanu

    1988-01-01

    When a heavy nucleus impinges upon another, a number of nucleons can be exchanged between them. The number of such exchanges is a measure of the flux (a part of it) removed from the elastic channel and hence could give rise to an absorptive component in the nucleus-nucleus optical model potential. The transferred nucleons also carry certain amount of momentum which can cause an energy dissipation from the relative motion between the two nuclei. Both of these approaches have been studied in the last few years. However calculations of the flux to obtain the absorptive potential were based on nuclear models, such as fermi gas, where the tail region of the nucleus (which should be the most important region for transfer to occur) is treated inadequately. On the other hand, the proximity type of nuclear friction relies on a nucleon flux which is defined in pure classical terms. A model is presented to obtain a quantum mechanically defined particle flux. The time-dependent wave functions of single particle states in the field of two moving potential pockets are calulated. From the calculated flux, both the absorptive potential and the radial friction coefficient are obtained. The results are compared with phenomenological values for sup(16)O+sup(40)Ca and sup(40)Ca+sup(40)Ca systems. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs

  3. Experimental study of collective flow phenomena in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chkhaidze, L V; Kharkhelauri, L L

    2002-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of collective flow phenomena, such as the sideward and elliptic flow of nuclear matter, discovered during the last 10-15 years in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are presented in this review. Sideward (often termed directed) and elliptic flows have been observed for protons, antiprotons, light nuclei, pions, kaons, and lambdas emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 0.1-1.8 GeV/nucleon of LBL Bevalac and GSI/SIS by Plastic-Ball, Streamer Chamber, EOS-NPC, FOPI, LAND, TAPS, and KAOS collaborations; at 2-4 GeV/nucleon of Dubna JINR by SKM-200-GIBS, Propane Buble Chamber, and Emulsion Chamber collaborations; at 2-14 GeV/nucleon of BNL AGS, by the E877, E895, and E917 collaborations; and at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon of CERN SPS, by the WA98 and NA49 collaborations and more recently by the STAR at RHIC BNL. In the review, the results of the SKM-200-GIBS collaboration of JINR are presented and compared with the results of different experiments by Bevalac, GSI/SIS, BNL, and...

  4. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The question of possible existence of η-mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. An- swer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of η-nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of η-mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it.

  5. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Enterria, D.G.

    2000-05-01

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E γ > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar 36 + Au 197 , Ag 107 , Ni 58 , C 12 at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4π. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pnγ) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  6. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The question of possible existence of -mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the ...

  7. Music reduces pain and increases resting state fMRI BOLD signal amplitude in the left angular gyrus in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Jiang, Zhiguo; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic pain disease, but the functional neural correlates of music-induced analgesia (MIA) are still largely unknown. We recruited FM patients (n = 22) who listened to their preferred relaxing music and an auditory control (pink noise) for 5 min without...... external noise from fMRI image acquisition. Resting state fMRI was then acquired before and after the music and control conditions. A significant increase in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signal was evident in the left angular gyrus (lAnG) after listening to music, which in turn......, correlated to the analgesia reports. The post-hoc seed-based functional connectivity analysis of the lAnG showed found higher connectivity after listening to music with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rdlPFC), the left caudate (lCau), and decreased connectivity with right anterior cingulate cortex (r...

  8. Prestress mediates force propagation into the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shaohua; Chen Jianxin; Butler, James P.; Wang Ning

    2005-01-01

    Several reports show that the nucleus is 10 times stiffer than the cytoplasm. Hence, it is not clear if intra-nuclear structures can be directly deformed by a load of physiologic magnitudes. If a physiologic load could not directly deform intra-nuclear structures, then signaling inside the nucleus would occur only via the mechanisms of diffusion or translocation. Using a synchronous detection approach, we quantified displacements of nucleolar structures in cultured airway smooth muscle cells in response to a localized physiologic load (∼0.4 μm surface deformation) via integrin receptors. The nucleolus exhibited significant displacements. Nucleolar structures also exhibited significant deformation, with the dominant strain being the bulk strain. Increasing the pre-existing tensile stress (prestress) in the cytoskeleton significantly increased the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus (defined as nucleolus displacement per surface deformation) whereas decreasing the prestress significantly lowered the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus. Abolishing the stress fibers/actin bundles by plating the cells on poly-L-lysine-coated dishes dramatically inhibited stress propagation to the nucleolus. These results demonstrate that the prestress in the cytoskeleton is crucial in mediating stress propagation to the nucleolus, with implications for direct mechanical regulation of nuclear activities and functions

  9. Individuals with more severe depression fail to sustain nucleus accumbens activity to preferred music over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Skerrett, Kristy A; DelDonno, Sophie R; Patrón, Víctor G; Meyers, Kortni K; Peltier, Scott; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A; Starkman, Monica N

    2018-05-30

    We investigated the ability of preferred classical music to activate the nucleus accumbens in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). Twelve males with MDD and 10 never mentally ill male healthy controls (HC) completed measures of anhedonia and depression severity, and listened to 90-second segments of preferred classical music during fMRI. Compared to HCs, individuals with MDD showed less activation of the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Individuals with MDD showed attenuation of the left NAcc response in later compared to earlier parts of the experiment, supporting theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation. Counter intuitively, we found that NAcc activity during early music listening was associated with greater depression severity. In whole-brain analyses, anhedonia scores predicted activity in regions within the default mode network, supporting previous findings. Our results support theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation. It also highlights that pleasant classical music can engage critical neural reward circuitry in MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The pulvinar nucleus is associated with the presence of dysarthria in patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Yoon Ghil

    2017-08-10

    Dysarthria is a frequent symptom in patients with stroke. The anatomical structures responsible for dysarthria have been reported in patients with lacunar infarcts, but the related lesions in patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify associations between the lesion location and the presence/absence of dysarthria in patients with BGH using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 26 patients with acute BGH (mean age, 54.0 years; men:women, 14:12) who underwent conservative management. The patients were classified into groups based on the presence or absence of dysarthria at the time of admission, which was determined by reviewing the patients' medical records. Brain lesions were traced on magnetic resonance images that were acquired within the first 3 weeks after BGH onset, and then separate high-resolution region-of-interest images were generated. Associations between dysarthria and the lesion location were determined with the VLSM analyses. The average volume of the delimited lesions was 7.38±5.75cm 3 . The VLSM analyses identified several voxel clusters, mainly in the pulvinar nucleus of the left thalamus, that were significantly related to the presence of dysarthria at admission. These findings suggest that patients with BGH extending into the left pulvinar nucleus should be monitored for dysarthria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com; Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com; Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  12. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  13. Spectroscopic Studies of the Nucleus GOLD-195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Susan Marie

    The nucleus ^{195}Au has been studied via in-beam gamma -ray and electron spectroscopy with the reactions ^{196}Pt(p,2n)^ {195}Au at beam energies of 12 and 16 MeV, and the reaction ^{rm nat }Ir(alpha,2n) ^{195}Au at a beam energy of 26 MeV. All experiments were performed at the University of Notre Dame tandem accelerator facility and utilized elements of the University of Pittsburgh multi-detector gamma-array and ICEBall mini-orange electron spectrometer. Fifty-five new transitions and thirty-six new energy levels have been observed. The U(6/4) supersymmetric algebra has been proposed to provide a simultaneous description for the positive parity states of the pair of nuclei ^{194 }Pt and ^{195}Au. The observed energy spectra for these nuclei show satisfactory agreement with the U(6/4) predicted spectra. The collective properties including relative B(E2) values for the Pt and Au nuclei in this mass region are also consistent with theoretical predictions. However, the measured E2/M1 mixing ratios for transitions in ^{195} Au indicate that the single particle description for the odd-A nucleus is incomplete. The new data for ^{195}Au is further combined with the existing data for ^{194} Pt and ^{195}Pt within the context of the larger U_{ nu}(6/12) otimes U_{pi}(6/4) supersymmetry. A consistent fit to the energy eigenvalue equation is obtained and a modified prediction for the negative parity states in the odd-odd nucleus ^{196} Au is made. Thus, the proposal of an underlying supersymmetry for the quartet of nuclei ^ {194}Pt-^{195} Pt-^{195}Au- ^{196}Au also appears valid. New transitions and levels involved in the negative parity h_{11/2} decoupled band in ^{195}Au have also been observed. The band appears to be much more fragmented at high spins than the analogous structures in the lighter odd-A Au nuclei, but it is unclear what the source of this difference is. It is, however, proposed that a consistent description for both the positive and negative parity

  14. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  15. Severe personality changes after unilateral left paramedian thalamic infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Toshio; Akada, Koichi; Ito, Shoichi; Okuda, Tomoko; Ueki, Yoshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Personality changes are not uncommon after paramedian thalamic infarction, but usually bilateral or relatively large lesions, often complicated by other neurological or neuropsychological deficits, are present. 'Pure' cases of unilateral lesions are extremely rare. We report that a right-handed, 48-year-old man, who was hypertensive and diabetic but had no prior psychiatric history, developed severe personality changes and a frontal-like syndrome after recovery from acute-onset impairment of consciousness at the age of 43. Other neurological and neuropsychological disturbances, especially verbal and visual amnesia, were unremarkable. MRI showed a very small infarct in the left paramedian area of the thalamus, mainly involving the dorsomedial nucleus. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  17. High energy hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Fujio

    1983-02-01

    This is a lecture note concerning high energy hadron-nucleus collision. The lecture gives the inelastic total cross section and the Glanber approximate multiple scattering formula at first. The mechanism of nuclear spallation is described in a cylindrical image. The multiplicity, the one particle distribution and the time-space structure of particle production are discussed. Various models are presented. The attenuation of forward particles and the structure of hadrons are discussed for each model. The atomic number (A) dependence of the production of large transverse momentum particles and jet, and the A dependence of charged multiplicity are presented. The backward production of particles and many body correlation are discussed. Lepton pair production and the initial interaction of constituents, collective interaction, multi quark state and phase transition are described. (Kato, T.)

  18. Electronic equipment for atomic nucleus structure studying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Vasilev, D.; Vylov, Ts.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Salamatin, A.V.; Sidorov, V.T.; Sinaev, A.N.; Churin, I.N.

    1985-01-01

    The CAMAC electronic equipment used in data acquisition systems for spectrometers intended for investigation of the structure of an atomic nucleus is considered. Specific features of electronic units forming a part of spectrometers for determination of neutrino helicity and three-dimensional amplitude-time measurements as well as electrostatic beta-spectrometer are discussed. Parameters of the MAK-1, the MAK-2 and the MAK-3 multichannel amplitude analyzers developed specially for these spectrometers are given. Accumulation of data coming from analog-to-digital converters and output of recorded spectra on the screens of displays is realized without use of the crate dataway that permits to avoid time losses and to place several analyzers in a crate. Observation of spectra is realized simultaneously with their registration

  19. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttilae, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stevenson, S.I.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Sharapov, E.I.; Postma, H.; Masuda, Y.; Shimizu, H.M.; Iinuma, M.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Fukuda, K.

    1995-01-01

    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  1. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  2. Calcium microdomains in mitochondria and nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Teresa; Villalobos, Carlos; Chamero, Pablo; Alvarez, Javier; García-Sancho, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Endomembranes modify the progression of the cytosolic Ca(2+) wave and contribute to generate Ca(2+) microdomains, both in the cytosol and inside the own organella. The concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol ([Ca(2+)](C)), the mitochondria ([Ca(2+)](M)) and the nucleus ([Ca(2+)](N)) are similar at rest, but may become very different during cell activation. Mitochondria avidly take up Ca(2+) from the high [Ca(2+)](C) microdomains generated during cell activation near Ca(2+) channels of the plasma membrane and/or the endomembranes and prevent propagation of the high Ca(2+) signal to the bulk cytosol. This shaping of [Ca(2+)](C) signaling is essential for independent regulation of compartmentalized cell functions. On the other hand, a high [Ca(2+)](M) signal is generated selectively in the mitochondria close to the active areas, which tunes up respiration to the increased local needs. The progression of the [Ca(2+)](C) signal to the nucleus may be dampened by mitochondria, the nuclear envelope or higher buffering power inside the nucleoplasm. On the other hand, selective [Ca(2+)](N) signals could be generated by direct release of stored Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm. Ca(2+) release could even be restricted to subnuclear domains. Putative Ca(2+) stores include the nuclear envelope, their invaginations inside the nucleoplasm (nucleoplasmic reticulum) and nuclear microvesicles. Inositol trisphosphate, cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate have all been reported to produce release of Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm, but contribution of these mechanisms under physiological conditions is still uncertain.

  3. Weak and strong factorization properties in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy region 290-2100 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Tessa, C. . E-mail chiara@nephy.chalmers.se; Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.; Zeitlin, C.; Miller, J.; Guetersloh, S.; Heilbronn, L.

    2007-01-01

    We have collected from the literature partial charge-changing cross sections for projectiles with charge 6=< Z=<26, energy ranging from 290 up to 2100 MeV/nucleon and interacting with several targets, in order to investigate weak and strong factorization properties. The same analysis methods as in our previous work have been applied to the data: we have shown that, except for hydrogen targets, weak and strong factorization properties are valid within 5%, thus confirming the results obtained in the first paper [C. La Tessa, et al., Test of weak and strong factorization in nucleus-nucleus collisions at several hundred MeV/nucleon, Nucl. Phys. A, in press]. Factorization parameters have been calculated and, in particular, target factors have been expressed with ad hoc analytical functions which describe the data trend very well. New expressions for weak and strong factorization properties can then be obtained by substituting the target factors with these functions: this formulation partially isolates the dependence of the partial charge-changing cross sections on the target and projectile mass numbers; moreover, fragment factors are the only parameters left in the formulas thus facilitating the future task of interpolating them with appropriate analytical expressions

  4. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  5. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestfall, D. Gary

    1997-01-01

    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  6. Study of Strange and Multistrange Particles in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Vande vyvre, P; Feofilov, G; Snoeys, W; Hetland, K F; Campbell, M; Klempt, W

    2002-01-01

    % NA57\\\\ \\\\ The goal of the experiment is to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This study was initiated at the OMEGA spectrometer, where three ion experiments have been performed: WA85 (S-W and p-W collisions at 200 A GeV/c), WA94 (S-S and p-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c) and WA97 (Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-Be collisions at 160 A GeV/c).\\\\ \\\\ The experiment aims at extending the scope of WA97 by:\\\\ \\\\ - investigating the beam energy dependence of the enhancements of multi-strange particle production reported by the previous experiments, and by\\\\ \\\\\\\\ \\\\- measuring the yields of strange and multi-strange particles over an extended centrality range compared with the previous experiments.\\\\ \\\\ The apparatus consists mainly of silicon pixel detector planes.

  7. Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph

    1997-07-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions.

  8. Peculiarities of Λ hyperon and π meson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazdzicki, M.; Skrzypscak, E.; Iovchev, K.; Kladnitskaya, E.; Okonov, E.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data on the production of lambda hyperons and anti π mesons in He-Li, C-C, C-Ne and O-Ne collisions at 4.5 Gev/c per nucleon and C-C collisions at 4.2 Gev/c per nucleon is presented. Kinematical features of lambda are shown to depend on the collision centrality in contrast to the stable behaviour of the pion characteristics. The correlation between the characteristics of lambda and accompanying pions is observed. The effects seem to be incompatible with the intranuclear cascade approach. The data suggest the formation of a fully stopped and themalized hot source in central nucleus-nucleus collisions in which lambda hyperons are produced

  9. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-15

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  10. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  11. Method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Malakhov, A.I.; Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the HIJING generator simulation of heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energy scale, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions is proposed for the CMS experiment at LHC. The basic idea is to use the time coincidence of signals with resolution better than 1 ns from the two very forward calorimeter arms covering the acceptance 3<|η|<5. The method efficiency is investigated by variation of energy thresholds in the calorimeters for different colliding ion species, namely, PbPb, NbNb, CaCa, OO, pPb, pCa, pp. It is shown that a stable efficiency of event selection (∼98%) is provided in an energy threshold range up to 100 GeV for nuclear collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon in the centre of mass system. In the pp collision case the relevant efficiency drops from 93% down to 80%

  12. HIJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for P-nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Pfoh, A.; Shor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons are shown for the HIJET generated data and measured data for average multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and leading proton spectra in proton-nucleus and heavy ion reactions. The algorithm for the generator is one of an incident particle on a target of uniformly distributed nucleons. The dynamics of the interaction limit secondary interactions in that only the leading baryon may re-interact with the nuclear volume. Energy and four momentum are globally conserved in each event. 6 refs., 6 figs

  13. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  14. Impact parameter measurements in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, S.

    1981-01-01

    There are two complementary ways to measure impact parameters in nucleus-nucleus collisions. A collision between two nuclei with atomic number A is illustrated, the overlap of N nucleons in each nucleus determined by the geometric impact parameter. The non-interacting A-N nucleons, the spectators, are roughly confined to an inner cone surrounding the incident projectile direction. They consist of fragments from A-N to 1. The transverse momentum distributions has been measured at energies of 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon and recently at the ISR (by group 418) at 500GeV/nucleon. The distribution at both energies fall exponentially with the square of the transverse momentum. The falloff is twice as slow at 1000 as compared with 2 GeV/c. This is the result of the very large multiplicity at ISR energies, the pions blowing out the fragments. The important feature to understand is that these fragments are essentially independent of the mechanisms that take place in the interaction between the 2N interacting nucleons. Therefore the detection of the number of nucleons in this region is a mechanism independent way to measure the impact parameter

  15. Transverse-momentum distribution of produced particles in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-Hao, S.; Wong, C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to discern coherent or collective processes from incoherent processes in nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies, we study the transverse-momentum distribution of the produced particles with an incoherent-multiple-collision model. In this model, the projectile nucleon makes successive inelastic collisions with nucleons in the target nucleus, the probability of such collisions being given by the thickness function and the nucleon-nucleon inelastic cross section. It is assumed that each baryon-baryon collision produces particles and degrades momenta just as a baryon-baryon collision in free space, and that there are no secondary collisions between the produced particles and the nucleons. We found that the average transverse momentum and the charged-multiplicity data at Fermilab and CERN ISR energies can be well explained by such a model. However, the average transverse momentum for some events observed by the Japanese-American cooperative emulsion experiment (JACEE) associated with large energy density in the central rapidity region differ markedly from the model results. Such a deviation indicates the presence of coherent or collective effects for these collisions and may indicate the possibility of a formation of quark-gluon plasma

  16. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior.

  17. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  18. Study on microstructure of corpus striatum in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-meng ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the structure of corpus striatum and the integrity of white matter fiber in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD.  Methods Twelve patients with iRBD, 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy subjects that were well matched in gender, age and education were enrolled in this study. Head MRI examination was performed to all subjects to observe the changes of corpus striatum structure (the gray matter volume and the integrity of white matter fiber [fractional anisotropy (FA] by combining voxel?based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI.  Results Compared with healthy subjects, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus was significantly decreased (P < 0.005, and FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.005, right caudate nucleus (P < 0.001 and right putamen (P < 0.05 were all significantly reduced in iRBD patients; FA value of right putamen was significantly decreased in PD patients (P < 0.05. Compared with PD patients, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus of iRBD patients was significantly reduced (P < 0.001, FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.01 and right caudate nucleus (P < 0.005 of iRBD patients were significantly reduced.  Conclusions There is atrophy of gray matter volume and extensive white matter fiber impairment in corpus striatum of patients with iRBD, and the white matter fiber impairment was similar to PD, which provides an anatomical evidence for iRBD being presymptom of PD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.008

  19. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...

  20. Nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Reanalysis of the Weizsaecker-Williams method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbury, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses of the comparison of Weizsaecker-Williams theory to experiment for nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions have not been definitive because of different assumptions concerning the value of the minimum impact parameter. This situation is corrected by providing criteria that allow one to make definitive statements concerning agreement or disagreement between Weizsaescker-Williams theory and experiment

  1. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  2. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-04-04

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  3. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, Marek; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear proteins are a vital component of eukaryotic cell nuclei and have a profound effect on the way in which genetic information is stored, expressed, replicated, repaired, and transmitted to daughter cells and progeny. Because of the plethora of functions, nuclear proteins represent the most abundant components of cell nuclei in all eukaryotes. However, while the plant genome is well understood at the DNA level, information on plant nuclear proteins remains scarce, perhaps with the exception of histones and a few other proteins. This lack of knowledge hampers efforts to understand how the plant genome is organized in the nucleus and how it functions. This review focuses on the current state of the art of the analysis of the plant nuclear proteome. Previous proteome studies have generally been designed to search for proteins involved in plant response to various forms of stress or to identify rather a modest number of proteins. Thus, there is a need for more comprehensive and systematic studies of proteins in the nuclei obtained at individual phases of the cell cycle, or isolated from various tissue types and stages of cell and tissue differentiation. All this in combination with protein structure, predicted function, and physical localization in 3D nuclear space could provide much needed progress in our understanding of the plant nuclear proteome and its role in plant genome organization and function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  5. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parity Measurements in the 70Ga Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas Vargas, D. C.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Jones, K. D.; Le, K. Q.; Harbin, B. L.; Döring, J.; Abromeit, B.; Dungan, R.; Lubna, R.; Tabor, S. L.; Tai, P.-L.; Tripati, Vandana; Vonmoss, J. M.; Morrow, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    The odd-odd 70Ga nucleus was studied at high spin after being produced at Florida State University using the 62Ni(14C,αpn) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. The resulting γ rays were detected in coincidence using an array of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The linear polarizations of eight γ-ray transitions in 70Ga were measured by comparing their scattering yields within a Clover detector in the parallel and perpendicular directions relative to the beam axis, under the requirement that at least one other γ ray in 70Ga was recorded by a single-crystal detector in the array. As a result of these measurements, the parities of six states were confirmed and those of two other states were established for the first time based on a comparison of the experimental polarizations with the predicted ones determined from known spin assignments. The resulting level spectrum of 70Ga shows both similarities and differences with the predictions of previous shell-model calculations. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Ohio Wesleyan University Summer Science Research Program.

  7. Aripiprazole Increases the PKA Signalling and Expression of the GABAA Receptor and CREB1 in the Nucleus Accumbens of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-05-01

    The GABAA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and regulated by PKA signalling. Current antipsychotics bind with D2-like receptors, but not the GABAA receptor. The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) is also associated with PKA signalling and may be related to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This study investigated the effects of antipsychotics in modulating D2-mediated PKA signalling and its downstream GABAA receptors and CREB1. Rats were treated orally with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, ter in die (t.i.d.)), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, t.i.d.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) or vehicle for 1 week. The levels of PKA-Cα and p-PKA in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by Western blots. The mRNA levels of Gabrb1, Gabrb2, Gabrb3 and Creb1, and their protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Aripiprazole elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in the NAc, but not the PFC and CPu. Correlated with this elevated PKA signalling, aripiprazole elevated the mRNA and protein expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc. While haloperidol elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in both NAc and CPu, it only tended to increase the expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, but not the CPu. Bifeprunox had no effects on PKA signalling in these brain regions. These results suggest that aripiprazole has selective effects on upregulating the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, probably via activating PKA signalling.

  8. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  9. From Di-Nucleus to Mono-Nucleus - Neck Evolution in Fusion of Massive Systems -

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Y.; Shen, Caiwan; Boilley, D.; Giraud, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    6 pages, 3 figures, Proceedings of the Japanese French Symposium - New paradigms in Nuclear Physics, Paris, 29th September - 2nd October, to be published in Int. J. of Modern Physics E; International audience; Dynamics of the neck degree of freedom during fusioning process between heavy ions is studied. Time scales of the three degrees of freedom (the relative distance, the neck and the mass-asymmetry) are studied, showing an early equilibration of the neck. This means that a di-nucleus forme...

  10. On angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of amplitudes of quadrupole and hexadecapole components of angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by neutrons with the energies E n < or approx. 6 MeV is conducted. Stability of this amplitude to permeability optical coefficient variations for neutrons is revealed. It is shown, that the ratio of these amplitudes as well as the character of their dependence on the target nucleus orientation degree are sensitive to the type of fission probability distribution along K projection if fissile nucleus J spin to the fragment scattering axis. This sensitivity may be used for fragment angular distribution anisotropy formation statistical model verification

  11. Theoretical interpretation of medium energy nucleon nucleus inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, Christian

    1970-06-01

    A theoretical study is made of the medium energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering (direct interaction), by applying the distorted wave Born approximation such as can be deduced from the paired equation method. It is applied to the interpretation of the inelastic scattering of 12 MeV protons by 63 Cu; this leads us to make use of different sets of wave functions to describe the various states of the target nucleus. We analyze the nature of these states and the shape of the nucleon-nucleus interaction potential, and we compare the results with those obtained from other theoretical and experimental work. (author) [fr

  12. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S.  R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S.  D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M.  J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  13. Formation and identification of Centauro and Strangelets in nucleus- nucleus collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Filippov, S N; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wlodarczyk, Z

    1999-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model for the formation and decay of a cosmic ray Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Our model naturally incorporates the $9 possibility of strangelet formation, Strangelets being conjectured to be the "strongly penetrating component" observed in hadron-rich cosmic ray events. Based on this model we have performed Monte-Carlo simulations to study the $9 Centauro and strangelet dynamic and kinematic characteristics in central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies, as well as their identification by the detector system CASTOR. CASTOR is being developed for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at $9 the LHC and will probe the very forward pseudorapidity region 5.6

  14. Experiment NA 38: a study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The research being reported consists of a study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions using the enlarged Dimuon Spectrometer. The main goal of the experiment is to search for evidence of a quark-gluon plasma by studying correlations in the distributions of mass, transverse momentum, transverse energy and rapidity on an event by event basis, and comparing these distributions to those at similar energies where the incident particle is a proton rather than an ion. The experiment uses a multimuons spectrometer supplemented with a new detectors in the target region. New equipment in the target region is required to measure the transverse electromagnetic energy as a function of rapidity (electromagnetic calorimeter), detect reinteractions in the target and identify the vertex of the interaction (active target), identify incident ions and possible outgoing fragments, center beam on targets, and fight against pile-up in the detector (Cherenkov quartz counters and beam hodoscope). Design, testing, and calibration of this new equipment and associated electronics and software is discussed. 1 ref

  15. Study of chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at AGS and SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Becattini, F; Keränen, A; Manninen, J; Stock, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of centre of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark non-equilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from larg...

  16. Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

  17. Experimental problems of search for quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonov, Eh.O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental problems for searching for quark-gluon (quagma) plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions (NbNb,CaCa, ArPb, CnE, ONe) in the energy range E=0.4-1 GeV/A and 3.67 GeV/A and 200 GeV/A energies are discussed. Peculiarities of performing experiments on Dubna synchrophasotron and SPS Bevalac are discussed. The first results prove hadron matter thermalization sufficient for quagma manifestation. It is found that such characteristics of studied interactions as relative λ-hyperon yield, spectral (temperature) characteristics of λ k -hyperons (with higher values of transferred transverse momenta) and associatively produced peons are of greatest interest. The necessity of precise establishment of λ-hyperon group as excessive and differing in its origin from the other particles of the hadron phase is noted. It is shown that experimental approach used in Dubna research proved efficient and requires further development. It includes : selection of rare events (fluctuations) in central interactions of nuclei with high local excitation; search and research of peculiarities in the production of strange particles and in associative pion production; use of streamer spectrometer with a trigger system of rigid selection of central interactions

  18. Resting-state functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Jean, Théberge; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-03-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is a subcortical structure involved in anticipatory and sustained reactivity to threat and is thus essential to the understanding of anxiety and stress responses. Although chronic stress and anxiety represent a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to date, few studies have examined the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD. Here, we used resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD (n = 70), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50). In comparison to controls, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with regions of the reward system (ventral and dorsal striatum), possibly underlying stress-induced reward-seeking behaviors in PTSD. By contrast, comparing PTSD + DS to controls, we observed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with the claustrum, a brain region implicated in consciousness and a primary site of kappa-opioid receptors, which are critical to the dynorphin-mediated dysphoric stress response. Moreover, PTSD + DS showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with brain regions involved in attention and salience detection (anterior insula and caudate nucleus) as compared to PTSD and controls. Finally, BNST functional connectivity positively correlated with default-mode network regions as a function of state identity dissociation, suggesting a role of BNST networks in the disruption of self-relevant processing characterizing the dissociative subtype. These findings represent an important first step in elucidating the role of the BNST in aberrant functional networks underlying PTSD and its dissociative subtype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pathological gambling after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, H. M. M.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Schuurman, P. R.; Speelman, J. D.; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease who developed pathological gambling within a month after successful bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. There was no history of gambling. On neuropsychological testing, slight cognitive decline was evident 1 year after surgery.

  20. Excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus F-25

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajta, Zs.; Stanoiu, M.; Sohler, D.; Jansen, G. R.; Azaiez, F.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Sorlin, O.; Brown, B. A.; Belleguic, M.; Borcea, C.; Bourgeois, C.; Dlouhý, Zdeněk; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Zs.; Grévy, S.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Hagen, G.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Kerek, A.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lukyanov, S.; Mandal, S.; Mayet, P.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Negoita, F.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Podolyák, Zs.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Savajols, H.; Sletten, G.; Timár, J.; Timis, C.; Yamamoto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), 054323 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nucleus F-25 * gamma-ray spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.733, year: 2014

  1. Radiological study of the calcanean ossification secondary nucleus development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Filho, Guaracy.

    1994-01-01

    This work describes the normal aspects of the calcanean ossification secondary nucleus radiological development, the appearing time, his form, localization, fragmentation and evolution of area, from a sample of normal individuals. (author). 14 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Strangeness production in proton–proton and proton–nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) and proton–nucleus () reactions within an effective Lagrangian model. The kaon production proceeds mainly via excitations of * (1650), * (1710), and * (1720) resonant intermediate nucleonic states, in the collision of two initial state ...

  3. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  4. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  5. The picture of the nuclei disintegration mechanism - from hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions experimental investigations at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.; Chmielowski, W.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the nuclei disintegration process in collisions of high-energy hadrons with nuclei is revealed experimentally. The disintegration appears as a complicated nuclear process developing in time and space in intranuclear matter, consisting at least of three stages which last together about 10 -24 - 10 -17 s after the impact. At the first stage, which lasts about 10 -24 - 10 -22 s, fast nucleons are densely emitted and the target-nucleus is locally damaged. At the second stage, lasting about 10 -22 - 10 -1 7 s, the damaged and unstable residual target nucleus uses to evaporate light fragments - mainly nucleons, deuterons, tritons, α-particles. At the final stage, the residual target-nucleus uses to split sometimes into two or more nuclear fragments

  6. Di-nucleus dynamics towards fusion of heavy nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Y.; Shen, Caiwan; Kosenko, G.; Boilley, D.; Giraud, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The Two-Step Model for fusion of massive systems is briefly recapitulated, which clar- ifies the mechanism of so-called fusion hindrance. Since the neck changes the potential landscape, especially the height of the conditional saddle point, time evolution of the neck degree of freedom plays a crucial role in fusion. We analytically solve time-evolution of nuclear shape of the composite system from di-nucleus to mono-nucleus. The time- dependent distribution function of...

  7. Ion-beam spectroscopic studies of the 69As nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Cojocaru, V.; Olariu, A.; Petre, M.; Popescu, I. V.; Gheboianu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Excited state of the neutron deficient 69 As nucleus were investigated in the 58 Ni( 14 N,2pn) reaction by ion-beam γ spectroscopic methods (excitation functions, γγ-coincidences, angular distributions and linear polarization gated with neutrons). A new more complete level scheme of 69 As has been proposed with spin-parity values. The structure of the nucleus is discussed in the framework of the interaction boson-fermion model (IBFM). (authors)

  8. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  9. New computational methods for determining antikaon-nucleus bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, P.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Optical potential for antikaon-nucleus strong interactions are constructed using elementary antikaon-nucleus potentials determined previously. The optical potentials are used to determine the existence of a kaon hypernucleus. Modern three dimensional visualization techniques are used to study model dependences, new methods for speeding the calculation of the optical potential are developed, and previous approximation to avoid full Fermi averaging are eliminated. 19 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Violation of time reversal symmetry in compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a general formulation for the description of time-reversal violation in compound-nucleus reactions on the base of the S matrix and calculates an expression describing this violation by means of the statistical model of Bose, Harney, and Weidenmueller (1986). The result is applied to the compound-nucleus 28 Si for which a time-reversal parameter has been explicitely calculated. (HSI)

  11. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  12. Music reduces pain and increases resting state fMRI BOLD signal amplitude in the left angular gyrus in fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Garza-Villarreal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic pain disease, but the functional neural correlates of music-induced analgesia are still largely unknown. We recruited FM patients (n = 22 who listened to their preferred relaxing music and an auditory control (pink noise for 5 minutes without external noise from fMRI image acquisition. Resting state fMRI was then acquired before and after the music and control conditions. A significant increase in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signal was evident in the left angular gyrus after listening to music, which in turn, correlated to the analgesia reports. The post-hoc seed-based functional connectivity analysis of the left angular gyrus showed found higher connectivity after listening to music with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left caudate, and decreased connectivity with right anterior cingulate cortex, right supplementary motor area, precuneus and right precentral gyrus. Pain intensity analgesia was correlated (r = .61 to the connectivity of the left angular gyrus with the right precentral gyrus. Our results show that music-induced analgesia in FM is related to top-down regulation of the pain modulatory network by the default-mode network.

  13. Autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation to lumbar 5 dorsal root ganglion after epineurium dissection in rats: a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-jun; Song, Wu; Luo, Wen-ying; Wei, Ming; Sun, Lai-bao; Zou, Xue-nong; Liao, Wei-ming

    2011-07-05

    Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs has proinflammatory characteristics that play a key role in neuropathic pain in lumbar herniated intervertebral disc. One of the most commonly used animal models (the traditional model) of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc is created by L4-L5 hemilaminectomy and the application of autologous nucleus pulposus to cover the left L4 and L5 nerve roots in rats. However, such procedures have the disadvantages of excessive trauma and low success rate. We proposed a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc in which only the left L5 dorsal root ganglion is exposed and transplanted with autologous nucleus pulposus following incision of epineurium. We aimed to compare the modified model with the traditional one with regard to trauma and success rate. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into three groups: sham operation group (n = 6), traditional group (n = 12), and modified group (n = 12). The amount of blood loss and operative time for each group were analyzed. The paw withdrawal threshold of the left hind limb to mechanical stimuli and paw withdrawal latency to heat stimuli were examined from the day before surgery to day 35 after surgery. Compared with the traditional group, the modified group had shorter operative time, smaller amount of blood loss, and higher success rate (91.7% versus 58.3%, P herniated intervertebral disc with less trauma and more stable pain ethology.

  14. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  15. First-person perspective effects on theory of mind without self-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko

    2011-04-29

    This study examined dissociations between brain networks involved in theory of mind, which is needed for guessing others' mental states, and the self, which might constitute the basis for theory of mind's development. We used event-related fMRI to compare a condition that required participants to guess the mental state of a subject featured in first-person perspective sentences (1stPP condition) with a third-person perspective sentence condition (3rdPP condition). The caudate nucleus was marginally more activated in the 1stPP than in the 3rdPP condition, while the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was significantly more activated in the 3rdPP condition as compared to the 1stPP condition. Furthermore, we examined the correlation between activation (signal intensity) of the caudate nucleus and left DLPFC with that of the right DLPFC, which is thought to be closely connected with sense of self. We found a significant correlation between caudate nucleus and right DLPFC activation in the 1stPP condition, and between left and right DLPFC activation in the 3rdPP condition. Although theory of mind and the self both appear to recruit the right DLPFC, this region seems to be accessed through the left DLPFC during theory of mind tasks, but through the caudate nucleus when tasks require self reference.

  16. First-person perspective effects on theory of mind without self-reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Otsuka

    Full Text Available This study examined dissociations between brain networks involved in theory of mind, which is needed for guessing others' mental states, and the self, which might constitute the basis for theory of mind's development. We used event-related fMRI to compare a condition that required participants to guess the mental state of a subject featured in first-person perspective sentences (1stPP condition with a third-person perspective sentence condition (3rdPP condition. The caudate nucleus was marginally more activated in the 1stPP than in the 3rdPP condition, while the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC was significantly more activated in the 3rdPP condition as compared to the 1stPP condition. Furthermore, we examined the correlation between activation (signal intensity of the caudate nucleus and left DLPFC with that of the right DLPFC, which is thought to be closely connected with sense of self. We found a significant correlation between caudate nucleus and right DLPFC activation in the 1stPP condition, and between left and right DLPFC activation in the 3rdPP condition. Although theory of mind and the self both appear to recruit the right DLPFC, this region seems to be accessed through the left DLPFC during theory of mind tasks, but through the caudate nucleus when tasks require self reference.

  17. Homonymous Hemianopia with Macular Sparing: Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Osoba

    infarct in left caudate nucleus (figure 5). A diagnosis of occipital lobe infarction was made and she was started on symptomatic treatment. Figure 1. Automated perimetry showing a highly congruous maximum luminance right homonymous hemianopia affecting inferior and superior quadrants. Figure 2. CT scan showing ill- ...

  18. Study of high energy densities over extended nuclear volumes via nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment examines in detail the characteristics of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions using $^{16}$O beams of 200 GeV/A from the SPS. The experiment combines 4$\\pi$ calorimeter coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two-particle correlations, low and high-mass lepton pairs and photons. A multiwire active target allows maximum interaction rates with a minimum of secondary interactions. Additional data are taken with an emulsion target.

  19. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-01-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the optimal

  20. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-10-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  1. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, S. D.; Soloy, E.; Kanka, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nucleus transfer for the production of multiple embryos derived from a donor embryo relies upon the reprogramming of the donor nucleus so that it behaves similar to a zygotic nucleus. One indication of nucleus reprogramming is the RNA synthetic activity. In normal bovine embryogenesis, the embryo...

  2. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  3. Heterogeneous calretinin expression in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, S; Williams, A; MacLeod, K M

    2014-08-01

    Multiple calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are expressed at high levels and in complementary patterns in the auditory pathways of birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, but whether specific members of the CaBP family can be used to identify neuronal subpopulations is unclear. We used double immunofluorescence labeling of calretinin (CR) in combination with neuronal markers to investigate the distribution of CR-expressing neurons in brainstem sections of the cochlear nucleus in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). While CR was homogeneously expressed in cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, CR expression was highly heterogeneous in cochlear nucleus angularis (NA), a nucleus with diverse cell types analogous in function to neurons in the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus. To quantify the distribution of CR in the total NA cell population, we used antibodies against neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), a postmitotic neuron-specific nuclear marker. In NA neurons, NeuN label was variably localized to the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the intensity of NeuN immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with the intensity of CR immunoreactivity. The percentage of CR + neurons in NA increased from 31 % in embryonic (E)17/18 chicks, to 44 % around hatching (E21), to 51 % in postnatal day (P) 8 chicks. By P8, the distribution of CR + neurons was uniform, both rostrocaudal and in the tonotopic (dorsoventral) axis. Immunoreactivity for the voltage-gated potassium ion channel Kv1.1, used as a marker for physiological type, showed broad and heterogeneous postsynaptic expression in NA, but did not correlate with CR expression. These results suggest that CR may define a subpopulation of neurons within nucleus angularis.

  4. Classical cadherins control nucleus and centrosome position and cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Isabelle; Camand, Emeline; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2009-06-01

    Control of cell polarity is crucial during tissue morphogenesis and renewal, and depends on spatial cues provided by the extracellular environment. Using micropatterned substrates to impose reproducible cell-cell interactions, we show that in the absence of other polarizing cues, cell-cell contacts are the main regulator of nucleus and centrosome positioning, and intracellular polarized organization. In a variety of cell types, including astrocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, calcium-dependent cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions induce nucleus and centrosome off-centering toward cell-cell contacts, and promote orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis toward free cell edges. Nucleus and centrosome off-centering is controlled by N-cadherin through the regulation of cell interactions with the extracellular matrix, whereas the orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis is determined by the geometry of N-cadherin-mediated contacts. Our results demonstrate that in addition to the specific function of E-cadherin in regulating baso-apical epithelial polarity, classical cadherins control cell polarization in otherwise nonpolarized cells.

  5. Qualitative analysis neurons in the adult human dentate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many relevant findings regarding to the morphology and cytoarchitectural development of the dentate nucleus have been presented so far, very little qualitative information has been collected on neuronal morphology in the adult human dentate nucleus. The neurons were labelled by Golgi staining from thirty human cerebella, obtained from medico-legal forensic autopsies of adult human bodies and free of significant brain pathology. The human dentate neurons were qualitatively analyzed and these cells were classified into two main classes: the small and the large multipolar neurons. Considering the shape of the cell body, number of the primary dendrites, shape of the dendritic tree and their position within the dentate nucleus, three subclasses of the large multipolar neurons have been recognized. The classification of neurons from the human dentate nucleus has been qualitatively confirmed in fetuses and premature infants. This study represents the first qualitative analysis and classification of the large multipolar neurons in the dentate nucleus of the adult human.

  6. Alteration of Paramecium candatum germinal nucleus morphology after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokin, S.I. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.)

    1982-09-01

    A study was made on morphologic changes of micronucleus (Mi) after whole-body ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of paramecia as well as after local irradiation of this nucleus or the area of macronucleus (Ma). The whole-body irradiation of its Ma part leads to generative nucleus growth in sizes and chromatin structure change, which is expressed in occurence of large chromatin bodies. Aftereffects of local action on Mi for viable descendants are expressed in nucleus size transformation (usually in reduction), gaining ''comet-shaped'' form and probably in reduction of dna amount. Irradiation of Ma and total effect on cell cause Mi changes of reversible character. All morphologic changes of Mi after local ultraviolet irradiation are conserved in descendants and are not photoreactivated. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The results obtained make it possible to speak about different mechanisms of action on Mi in the case of local and whole-body UV irradiation of cell. The effect of irradiated Ma on generative nucleus, but not direct damage of this nucleus is the reason for Mi morphologic reconstruction after whole-body action on paramecium.

  7. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  8. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  9. Why the Left Hemisphere Is Dominant for Speech Production: Connecting the Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Martin Sussman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from seemingly disparate areas of speech/language research is reviewed to form a unified theoretical account for why the left hemisphere is specialized for speech production. Research findings from studies investigating hemispheric lateralization of infant babbling, the primacy of the syllable in phonological structure, rhyming performance in split-brain patients, rhyming ability and phonetic categorization in children diagnosed with developmental apraxia of speech, rules governing exchange errors in spoonerisms, organizational principles of neocortical control of learned motor behaviors, and multi-electrode recordings of human neuronal responses to speech sounds are described and common threads highlighted. It is suggested that the emergence, in developmental neurogenesis, of a hard-wired, syllabically-organized, neural substrate representing the phonemic sound elements of one’s language, particularly the vocalic nucleus, is the crucial factor underlying the left hemisphere’s dominance for speech production.

  10. Anarchy, socialism and a Darwinian left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2006-03-01

    In A Darwinian left Peter Singer aims to reconcile Darwinian theory with left wing politics, using evolutionary game theory and in particular a model proposed by Robert Axelrod, which shows that cooperation can be an evolutionarily successful strategy. In this paper I will show that whilst Axelrod's model can give support to a kind of left wing politics, it is not the kind that Singer himself envisages. In fact, it is shown that there are insurmountable problems for the idea of increasing Axelrodian cooperation within a welfare state. My surprising conclusion will be that a Darwinian left worthy of the name would be anarchistic.

  11. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  12. Statistical emission of complex fragments from highly excited compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuse, T.

    1991-01-01

    A full statistical analysis has been given in terms of the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method. The charge and kinetic energy distributions of 35 Cl+ 12 C reaction at E lab = 180, 200 MeV and 23 Na+ 24 Mg reaction at E lab = 89 MeV which form the 47 V compound nucleus are investigated as a prototype of the light mass system. The measured kinetic energy distributions of the complex fragments are shown to be well reproduced by the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, so the observed complex fragment production is understood as the statistical binary decay from the compound nucleus induced by heavy-ion reaction. Next, this method is applied to the study of the complex production from the 111 In compound nucleus which is formed by the 84 Kr+ 27 Al reaction at E lab = 890 MeV. (K.A.) 18 refs., 10 figs

  13. Proton decay in a nucleus: Nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.A.; Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.; Sanchez-Gomez, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, proton decay in a large nucleus is studied in the framework of SU(5) grand unification theory (GUT). By using a method based upon the Green's-function technique of many-body physics, nuclear effects on spectator and pole terms are computed. The decay width in the nucleus is found to be practically the same as in free space. However, nuclear effects are of considerable importance concerning the positron spectrum. A density-correlation expansion is introduced which is useful for carrying out a systematic study of nuclear effects in proton decay in a large nucleus. The method presented here can be easily extended to other GUT's or supersymmetric GUT's

  14. Analysis of a deep nucleus of Tehuantepec Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J. J.; Machain C, M. L.

    2009-10-01

    A nucleus of sediments obtained in the deep of Tehuantepec Gulf is analyzed; this nucleus has the particularity of to be a sampling of longitude of 18.3 m that include the total of last period glacial, few times obtained in our country. The physical chemistry composition of 10 selected fractions are analyzed with the purpose of to understand the formation processes of deep ocean along the period of 120 000 years, that includes the extracted fraction. Crystallography analysis, morphology, physical chemistry characterization and activity gamma were made. Finding that the content of organic matter falls as the superficial area increases, also was found the presence of natural uranium in similar concentration and balance with its radiogenic descendants along the nucleus profile what suggests the uranium migration to interior of mineral grains. (Author)

  15. Insulin induces calcium signals in the nucleus of rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A; Andrade, Viviane A; Leite, M Fatima; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    Insulin is an hepatic mitogen that promotes liver regeneration. Actions of insulin are mediated by the insulin receptor, which is a receptor tyrosine kinase. It is currently thought that signaling via the insulin receptor occurs at the plasma membrane, where it binds to insulin. Here we report that insulin induces calcium oscillations in isolated rat hepatocytes, and that these calcium signals depend upon activation of phospholipase C and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but not upon extracellular calcium. Furthermore, insulin-induced calcium signals occur in the nucleus, and are temporally associated with selective depletion of nuclear phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and translocation of the insulin receptor to the nucleus. These findings suggest that the insulin receptor translocates to the nucleus to initiate nuclear, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium signals in rat hepatocytes. This novel signaling mechanism may be responsible for insulin's effects on liver growth and regeneration.

  16. Models of the atomic nucleus. With interactive software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    This book-and-CD-software package supplies users with an interactive experience for nuclear visualization via a computer-graphical interface, similar in principle to the molecular visualizations already available in chemistry. Models of the Atomic Nucleus, a largely non-technical introduction to nuclear theory, explains the nucleus in a way that makes nuclear physics as comprehensible as chemistry or cell biology. The book/software supplements virtually any of the current textbooks in nuclear physics by providing a means for 3D visual display of the diverse models of nuclear structure. For the first time, an easy-to-master software for scientific visualization of the nucleus makes this notoriously ''non-visual'' field become immediately 'visible.' After a review of the basics, the book explores and compares the competing models, and addresses how the lattice model best resolves remaining controversies. The appendix explains how to obtain the most from the software provided on the accompanying CD. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear radius deduced from proton diffraction by a black nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2004-06-01

    We find a new method to deduce nuclear radii from proton-nucleus elastic scattering data. In this method, a nucleus is viewed as a “black” sphere. A diffraction pattern of protons by this sphere is equivalent to that of the Fraunhofer diffraction by a circular hole of the same radius embedded in a screen. We determine the black sphere radius in such a way as to reproduce the empirical value of the angle of the observed first diffraction peak. It is useful to identify this radius multiplied by √(3/5 ) with the root-mean-square matter radius of the target nucleus. For most stable isotopes of masses heavier than 50, it agrees, within the error bars, with the values that were deduced in previous elaborate analyses from the data obtained at proton incident energies higher than ˜800 MeV .

  18. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar eMeshi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our reputation is important to us; we’ve experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one’s character has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others’ behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one’s degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior.

  19. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... with larger left ventricular diameter and higher left ventricular mass index (both P hypertrophy was greater (84 vs. 64%; P ..., transmitral peak E velocities and peak A velocities; and lower E/A ratio (all P hypertrophy, but normal left ventricular chamber systolic function with increased...

  20. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Meifeng; Du, Lilong; Zhang, Jiamin; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Baoshan; Wang, Lianyong

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus

  1. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour. © The

  2. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: xubaoshan99@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  3. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  4. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  5. Hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus impacts perception of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Palla, Antonella; Marti, Sarah; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Straumann, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the dentato-olivary projections, interconnecting the dentate nucleus (DN) and the contralateral inferior olivary nucleus (ION), is predicted to interfere with the DN' role in estimating direction of gravity. In a patient with pendular nystagmus due to hypertrophy of the ION secondary to predominantly right-sided ponto-mesencephalic hemorrhage, perceived vertical shifted from clockwise to counter-clockwise deviations within 4 months. We hypothesize that synchronized oscillations of ION neurons induce a loss of inhibitory control, leading to hyperactivity of the contralateral DN and, as a result, to perceived vertical roll-tilt to the side of the over-active DN.

  6. On the hadron formation time in pion-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravina, L.V.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Differences in the observable characteristics of pion-nucleus interactions at high energy are investigated for two definitions of the hadron formation time. The Monte Carlo simulation of hadron-nucleus interactions and quark-gluon string model for hadron-hadron collisions are used. It is shown that the momentum spectrum of the protons in the target fragmentation region is most sensitive to the definition of the formation time. The inclusive meson and meson resonance spectra are similar in the both versions. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-[ 14 C]deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state

  8. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  9. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  10. Left ventricular hypertrophy, geometric patterns and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy can be due to various reasons including hypertension. It constitutes an increased cardiovascular risk. Various left ventricular geometric patterns occur in hypertension and may affect the cardiovascular risk profile of hypertensive subjects. Methods: One hundred and eighty eight ...

  11. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the scale of left-right symmetry breaking. Keywords. Leptogenesis; baryogenesis; domain walls; left-right symmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 98.80.Cq; 98.80.Ft. Explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem.

  12. On establishing coreference in Left Dislocation constructions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenomenon of left dislocation (LD) has received relatively little attention in the generative literature. In Government & Binding theory and early versions of Minimalist Syntax, the left-dislocated expression is conventionally taken to be base-generated in its sentence-initial surface position and the resumptive pronoun in ...

  13. A new clinical sign probably associated to left hemiplegia with left hemineglect syndrome: the crossed legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Thiago; Braga, Gabriel; Luvizutto, Gustavo; Resende, Luiz

    2014-06-01

    To describe a new clinical sign associated with left unilateral neglect syndrome (UNS) in patients with ischemic stroke. Head computed tomography (CT) and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale were obtained in 150 patients with ischemic stroke. Those with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia and right leg persistently crossed over the left were submitted to specific tests for UNS. The tests were also applied to 30 patients with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia but without crossed legs. From 9 patients with persistent tendency to cross the right leg over the left, UNS was detected in 8. One patient died before the clinical tests were applied. Of the 30 patients without the crossed legs, 20 had normal clinical tests for UNS and 10 had minimal alterations, not sufficient for the diagnosis of UNS. The right leg crossed over the left may represent a new neurological semiotic sign associated with left hemiplegia and left UNS.

  14. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  15. Photon and neutral pion distributions in 60 and 200 A.GeV 16O + nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Plasil, F.; Young, G.R.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Franz, A.; Kristiansson, P.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Obenshain, F.E.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1987-12-01

    Transverse momentum (p T ) distributions of inclusive photons and neutral pions at midrapidity are measured with a lead glass calorimeter in 60 and 200 A.GeV 16 O + nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions. The variation of the average transverse momentum is investigated as function of centrality, determined by measurements of the remaining energy of the projectile and the charged particle multiplicity. For small values of the entropy, deduced from the multiplicity density, an increase in average p T is observed levelling off for larger values of entropy. The target-mass and energy dependence of π 0 p T distributions are presented. (orig.)

  16. Photon and neutral pion distributions in 60 and 200 A GeV 16O + nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Plasil, F.; Young, G.R.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Franz, A.; Kristiansson, P.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Obenshain, F.E.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Transverse momentum (p T ) distributions of inclusive photons and neutral pions at midrapidity are measured with a lead glass calorimeter in 60 and 200 A GeV 16 O+ nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions. The variation of the average transverse momentum is investigated as function of centrality, determined by measurements of the remaining energy of the projectile and the charged particle multiplicity. For small values of the entropy, deduced from the multiplicity density, and increase in average p T is observed levelling off for larger values of entropy. The target-mass and energy dependence of π 0 p T distributions are presented. (orig.)

  17. Experimental limits on the production of fractionally charged particles in proton-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jonker, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbielli, G.; Barone, L.; Capone, A.; Flegel, W.; Lanceri, L.; Metcalf, M.; Panman, J.; Plunkett, R.; Santoni, C.; Winter, K.; Abt, I.; Aspiazu, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Daumann, H.; Gall, P.D.; Hebbeker, T.; Niebergall, F.; Schuett, P.; Staehelin, P.

    1984-01-01

    A search for fractionally charged Q=1/3 (2/3) particles of different properties of interaction produced in (anti)neutrino-nucleus and in proton-nucleus collisions was performed using the scintillator system of the CHARM neutrino detector at the CERN SPS. No events of the cases considered were found. In (anti)neutrino beams production was found to be less than a few times 10 -5 per interaction of a beam particle. In a proton beam an upper limit on the production cross section of proportional10 -40 cm 2 was obtained. (orig.)

  18. On the Measurement of D-meson Yield in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, M; Gazdzicki, Marek; Markert, Christina

    2000-01-01

    We argue that the measurement of open charm gives a unique opportunity to test the validity of pQCD-based and statistical models of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies. We show that various approaches used to estimate D-meson multiplicity in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 A GeV give predictions which differ by more than a factor of 100. Finally we demonstrate that decisive experimental results concerning the open charm yield in A+A collisions can be obtained using data of the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS.

  19. Manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the HIJING model, global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy scale. An interesting model prediction is the presence of a central bump over a pseudorapidity plateau of a total transverse energy distribution. The bump is induced by a jet quenching effect in a dense nuclear matter. It is shown that a wide acceptance calorimeter with a pseudorapidity coverage -5<η<5 allows one to obtain experimental confirmation of such an effect

  20. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  1. The pedunculopontine nucleus as alternative target for deep brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, Marcel Antonius Johannes; Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Heida, Tjitske; van Gils, Stephanus A.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with motor and nonmotor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment where an electrode is implanted in a certain area in the brain. In PD this is mostly done in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus

  2. Fission probability of nucleus of sup(232)Th mesoatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Gavrilov, Yu.K.; Kim Si wan; Krogulski, T.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Ortlepp, H.-G.; Polikanov, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The fission probability of the nucleus of the sup(232)Th muonic atom has been measured. The fission yield was measured simultaneously with the intensity of 5g-4f transition in the muonic atom sup(232)Th. A good agreement with previous result obtained in measurements with the fission chamber and evident disagreement with the photoemulsion data have been obtained

  3. Strangeness production in proton–proton and proton–nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strangeness production; proton–proton collisions; proton–nucleus collisions; role of baryonic resonances. PACS Nos 13.60.Le; 13.75.Cs; 11.80.-m; 12.40.Vv. 1. Introduction. In the low-energy domain, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is not amenable to the perturbation theory techniques. A compelling description of the ...

  4. Nucleus geometry and mechanical properties of resistance spot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depending on the weld current and time, effects of zinc coating on tensile properties, microhardness values as well as microstructure nugget geometry and nucleus size ratio have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis has been used to investigate the phase that formed at the joint interface. Result of the experiment ...

  5. Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meson production; meson–nucleus interaction; charge symmetry. PACS Nos 13.60.Le; 13.75.-n. 1. Introduction ... sibility to investigate isospin symmetry violation in the pseudoscalar meson sector is by comparing the cross-section of the .... A test measurement was performed with this set-up and more measurements are in ...

  6. Nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2006 physics pp. 899–914. Nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: A review. JEAN-YVES OLLITRAULT. Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, .... advantage of the fact that the density of partons at small Bjorken x is high, ... Kostyuk et. al hep-ph/0305277 (SCM).

  7. Transient state of matter in hadron and nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss properties of the specific strongly interacting transient collective state of matter in hadron and nuclei reactions and emphasize similarity in their dynamics. We consider elliptic flow introduced for description of nucleus collisions and discuss its possible behavior in hadronic reactions.

  8. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2016-06-01

    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the nucleus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Chantale; Choufani, Faten; Avedanian, Levon; Bkaily, Ghassan; Gobeil, Fernand; Jacques, Danielle

    2010-03-01

    Recent work from our group showed that the nuclear envelope membranes contain several G protein-coupled receptors, including prostaglandin E2 (EP3R) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors. Activation of EP3R increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) RNA expression in nuclei. eNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) are reported to also be present at the nuclear level. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also localized at the nuclear level. In this review, we show that stimulation with NO donor sodium nitroprusside results in an increase of intranuclear calcium that was dependent on guanylate cyclase activation, but independent of MAPK. This increase in nuclear calcium correlated with an increase in nuclear transcription of iNOS. H2O2 and ET-1 increase both cytosolic and nuclear ROS in human endocardial endothelial cells and in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. This increase in ROS levels by H2O2 and ET-1 was reversed by the antioxidant glutathione. In addition, our results strongly suggest that cytosolic signalization is not only transmitted to the nucleus but is also generated by the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oxidative stress can be sensed by the nucleus. These results highly suggest that ROS formation is also generated directly by the nucleus and that free radicals may contribute to ET-1 regulation of nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis.

  10. Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Square Kilometre Array ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Square Kilometre Array and Implications for Cluster Physics and Cosmology. Asif Iqbal Ruta Kale Subhabrata Majumdar Biman B. Nath Mahadev Pandge Prateek Sharma Manzoor A. Malik Somak Raychaudhury. Research Article Volume 38 Issue 4 December ...

  11. Transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, S.C.; Borges, A.M.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet, is studied. It is used a technique aiming to put in the detection area (region of low background) the recoils, produced by nuclear reactions between target and particle beams, those produced with the help of cyclotron CV-28. (E.G.) [pt

  12. From the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear- reaction theory is equivalent to the theory of waveguides . We will concentrate on processes in which the incident wave goes through a highly complicated motion in the nu- cleus . We will picture the nucleus as a closed cavity, with ...

  13. Attention alters orientation processing in the human lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sam; Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Orientation selectivity is a cornerstone property of vision, commonly believed to emerge in the primary visual cortex. We found that reliable orientation information could be detected even earlier, in the human lateral geniculate nucleus, and that attentional feedback selectively altered these orientation responses. This attentional modulation may allow the visual system to modify incoming feature-specific signals at the earliest possible processing site.

  14. Oscillations in subthalamic nucleus measured by multi electrode arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, J.; Heida, Tjitske; Bamidis, P D; Konstantindis, S Th; Bliznikova, K; Pallikaris, N

    2010-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia, is involved in the generation of Parkinsonian symptoms and forms one of the main targets for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Effective frequencies of DBS are around 130 Hz. The effect of such stimuli in the STN is largely unknown but has been

  15. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses mediofrontal influence over decision threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanagh, J.F.; Wiecki, T.V.; Cohen, M.X.; Figueroa, C.M.; Samanta, J.; Sherman, S.J.; Frank, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    It takes effort and time to tame one's impulses. Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to contribute by acting as a brake on cortico-striatal function during decision conflict, buying

  16. Inelastic magnetic electron scattering form factors of the Mg nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with higher energy as first-order perturbations; these are called 'core polarization (CP) effects'. The scattering of electrons from the nucleon and nuclei at high energies has provided important information about the size of the nucleus. The electron energies are in the region of 100 MeV and higher, such that the de Broglie ...

  17. Antiproton-nucleus experiments at LEAR and KAON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavin, A.I.

    1989-12-01

    Antimatter and matter-antimatter systems are briefly discussed. Results of the antiproton-nucleus scattering experiments at LEAR are described, with the emphasis on unfinished experiments and on proposed experiments yet untouched. A few remarks on antiproton and antideuteron experiments at KAON are then presented

  18. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    barrier energy have been performed using a potential obtained from the double folding model and are compared with the ... In double folding (DF) model, the real nucleus–nucleus optical potential is given by the expression [9]. V DF(r) = ∫ dr1. ∫ ... expressed as a sum of three Yukawa terms. It is obtained from the fitting of ...

  19. Towards a computational model for stimulation of the Pedunculopontine nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, Marcel Antonius Johannes; Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Heida, Tjitske; van Gils, Stephanus A.

    2009-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has recently been suggested as a new therapeutic target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, particularly those with severe gait and postural impairment [1]. Stimulation at this site is typically delivered at low

  20. S-wave π-nucleus repulsion and dirac phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, S.; Jennings, B.K.

    1993-12-01

    A relativistic π-nucleon potential is extended to m* ≠ m to investigate the possibility of generating s-wave π-nucleus repulsion. We find that relativity does indeed generate significant repulsion, the exact amount depending on the details of the calculation. In contradistinction the tp approximation gives very little repulsion. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Systematic study of multiparticle production in nucleus–nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in nucleus–nucleus interactions at 14.6 A GeV. ASHWINI KUMAR1,∗, G SINGH2 and B K SINGH1. 1High Energy Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University,. Varanasi 221 005, India. 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, State University of New York at Fredonia,. New York 14063 ...

  2. Nucleus-acoustic shock waves in white dwarfs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Jannat

    2018-03-09

    Mar 9, 2018 ... Abstract. The nucleus-acoustic shock waves (NASWs) propagating in a white dwarf plasma system, which contain non-relativistically or ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons, non-relativistically degenerate, viscous fluid of light nuclei, and immobile nuclei of heavy elements, have been theoretically ...

  3. Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The experiment was perfomed at the cooler synchrotron accelerator. COSY, Jülich at several beam energies close to the corresponding production threshold. We also have ongoing programmes on -nucleus final-state interaction studies via + 6Li → 7Be + reactions, high resolution search for dibaryonic resonances ...

  4. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  5. Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulle, Marco; Alice Team; Stern, Alan; CONSTERT Team; Kofman, Wlodek; COSIMA Team; Hilchenbach, Martin; GIADA Team; Rotundi, Alessandra; MIDAS Team; Bentley, Mark; MIRO Team; Hofstadter, Mark; OSIRIS Team; Sierks, Holger; ROSINA Team; Altwegg, Kathrin; RPC Team; Nilsson, Hans; Burch, James; Eriksson, Anders; Heinz-Glassmeier, Karl; Henri, Pierre; Carr, Christopher; RSI Team; Paetzold, Martin; , VIRTIS Team; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Lander Team; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; IDS Team; Gruen, Eberhard; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Weissman, Paul; Project Scientist Team; Taylor, Matt; Buratti, Bonnie; Altobelli, Nicolas; Choukroun, Mathieu; Ground-Based Observations Team; Snodgrass, Colin

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta mission has been taking measurements of its target comet Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since early 2014 and will complete operations at the end of September 2016. The mission Science Management Plan, in 1994, laid out the the prime goals and themes of the mission. These five themes were: 1) To study the global characterisation of the Nuclues, the determination of the dynamics properties , surface morpholy and composition of the comet. 2) Examination of the Chemical, Mineralogical and isotopic compositions of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus.3) Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus4) Study the development of cometary activity and the process in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the inner coma5) The origins of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the solar system,To cover all aspects of the Rosetta mission in this special Show case session, this abstracts is one of 5, with this particular presentation focusing on theme 3, in particular on a) The dust-to-gas ratio; b) distributed sources of volatiles; c) seasonal evolution of the dust size distribution.a) The dust-to-gas ratio has been provided by coma observations measuring the gas and dust loss rates from the nucleus surface. The ratio of these two loss rates provides a lower limit of the dust-to-gas ratio at the nucleus surface, since it does not take into account the largest chunks unable to leave the nucleus, or falling back due to the dominant gravity. We review the value inferred so far, its time evolution, and new techniques to directly measure it in the nucleus.b) Evidences offered by Rosetta observations of gas sublimating from dust particles are up to now faint. We report the few available observations and an estimate of the probable average water content in dust particles inferred by 3D gas-dynamical codes of 67P coma.c) The dust-size distribution tunes the sizes

  6. Pion production and fragmentation of nuclei in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskarsson, A.

    1983-01-01

    In collisions between nuclei at high energies one can study the behaviour of nuclear matter under extreme conditions, regarding nuclear density and temperature. The Bevalac and the CERN SC beams have been used and nuclear emulsion and scintillation telescopes have measured the reaction products. Collisions at 50A-200A MeV and at 2A GeV have been investigated. Proton spectra from 12 C induced reactions at 85A MeV have been recorded for different targets. Energetic protons at large angles can be assumed to be emitted from a source moving with half the beam velocity and a temperature between 13 and 17 MeV, depending on the target. In collisions between nuclei, pions can be produced below 290A MeV due to the internal Fermi motion of the nucleons. Subthreshold pion production has been studied for 12 C induced reactions at 85A and 75A Mev. The cross-sections are consistent with a quasi-free nucleon-nucleon scattering picture, involving Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and pion reabsorption. 16 C induced reactions in emulsion have been studied at 75A, 175A and 2000A MeV. It is shown that the excitation of the parts of the nuclei which are not overlapping (the spectators) increases with the beam energy. The 16 O projectile frequently breaks up into multiple He fragments. These events are associated with large impact parameters. Central collisions with Ag, Br target at 50A-110A MeV have been analysed separately. It is shown that the momentum transfer to the target nucleus is limited to a value considerably lower than the full momentum transfer in a fusion reactions. Events are observed where there are numerous fragments with 3< Z<8. These multifragmentation events cannot be understood in a thermal approach. (author)

  7. Cochlear nucleus neuron analysis in individuals with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Raul; Nelson, Erik G

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cochlear nucleus neuron population in individuals with normal hearing and presbycusis. Retrospective study of archival human temporal bone and brain stem tissues. Using strict inclusion criteria, the temporal bones and cochlear nuclei from six normal hearing individuals and four individuals with presbycusis were selected for analysis. The spiral ganglion cell population, the cochlear nucleus neuron population, and the cell body size of the neurons were quantified in these cases. A relationship was not observed between age and the spiral ganglion cell population in the normal hearing group. Presbycusis subjects exhibited a reduced spiral ganglion cell population. The mean cochlear nucleus neuron population was observed to be significantly higher in the presbycusis group (mean ± standard deviation: 114,170 ± 10,570) compared to the normal hearing group (91,470 ± 9,510) (P = .019). This difference was predominantly the result of greater multipolar and granule cell neuron populations. Only the fusiform neuron type exhibited a significantly different mean cell body cross-sectional area between the normal hearing group (242 ± 27) and the presbycusis group (300 ± 37) (P = .033). This investigation is the first time, to our knowledge, that the populations of the eight neuron types in the cochlear nucleus have been quantified in both normal hearing individuals and individuals with presbycusis. The data support the concept that presbycusis is not an effect of aging alone but instead may be a condition that predisposes one to hearing loss with advancing age and is characterized by a congenitally elevated cochlear nucleus neuron population. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Social aspects of left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a “good” - right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioral patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behavior and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  9. Left ventricular performance during triggered left ventricular pacing in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy and left bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Christoffer Tobias; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the acute effect of triggered left ventricular pacing (tLVp) on left ventricular performance and contraction pattern in patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with pre-implant QRS...... complex >150 ms, QRS complex narrowing under CRT, and sinus rhythm were included ≥3 months after CRT implantation. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS), and contraction pattern by 2D strain was performed during intrinsic......V pacing. CONCLUSIONS: The acute effect of tLVp on LV systolic function and contraction pattern is significantly lower than the effect of BiV pacing and not different from intrinsic conduction in patients with LBBB and CRT....

  10. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left intraventricular conduction disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1979-01-01

    Both, the vectorcardiographic changes produced by the various degrees of left bundle branch block and these observed with the different types of left distal block, are described. When a "wave jumping" phenomenon exists, the vectorcardiographic changes are more characteristic in the horizontal plane than in the frontal plane and can be interpreted satisfactorily in basis of the ventricular activation sequence. The normal counterclockwise rotation of the horizontal vectorcardiogram persists in the presence of left bundle branch block of slight and moderate degrees, since the electromotive forces of the free left ventricular wall are still predominant. In the majority of intermediate degree blocks, the middle portion of the RH loop develops with a clockwise rotation and general aspect with a clockwise rotation and the general aspect of the ventricular loop resembles an eight figure. This is due to the electromotive forces originated by the delayed depolarization of the left septal mass that starts to predominate. With advanced degrees of block, the largest portion of the RH loop shows a clockwise rotation, as well as marked notchings and slurrings. The initial anterior portion of the horizontal vectorcardiogram does not disappear, but is situated to the left of the anterior-posterior axis with a counterclockwise rotation (first right septal vector). Otherwise, the direct electrical sign of left distal block emphasized: evidence of delayed activation in a limited zone of the homolateral ventricle. This local delay gives rise to an asynchronism of the activation phenomenon between the upper and lower regions of the ventricle. The diagnosis of left bifascicular block is based essentially on the evidence of unequal delay of the activation sequence in the basal regions and in the inferior ones of the homolateral ventricle and also on the frequent persistence of the first left septal vector.

  11. Nucleus-to-nucleus gene transfer and protein retargeting into a remnant cytoplasm of cryptophytes and diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Sven B; Sommer, Maik S; Kroth, Peter G; Gile, Gillian H; Keeling, Patrick J; Maier, Uwe-G

    2006-12-01

    The complex plastid of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can both be traced back to an engulfed eukaryotic red alga. The eukaryotic origin of these plastids is most obvious in cryptophytes, where the organelle still possesses a remnant nucleus, the nucleomorph. The nucleomorph itself is embedded in the periplastid compartment (PPC), the remnant of the former red algal cytosol. In the cryptophyte and diatom, the complex plastid is surrounded by 4 membranes, the outer one being continuous with the host rough endoplasmatic reticulum. In a recent report, we have shown that a nuclear encoded PPC protein of G. theta expressed in P. tricornutum leads to a localization, recently described as being a "bloblike structure," which can be obtained by mutation of plastid protein-targeting sequences of the diatom itself. Here we present further nucleus-encoded PPC proteins from G. theta, such as the eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1alpha, evidence for their nucleus-to-nucleus gene transfer, and retargeting of the proteins. We also investigated the first nuclear encoded PPC-targeted protein of P. tricornutum (Hsp70) and analyzed it for in vivo localization together with the identified G. theta PPC proteins. This revealed that all localize to the bloblike structures, which we suggest is the highly reduced PPC of P. tricornutum. Furthermore, the described cryptophyte PPC proteins possibly allow the elucidation of the processes by which proteins are involved in different levels of host control over its eukaryotic organelle.

  12. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusnáková-Aulická, Š.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, P.; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, M.; Bočková, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2014), s. 1287-1296 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ERD/S * Anterior cingulate cortex * Subthalamic nucleus * Flanker test * Executive functions Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  13. Dynorphin/KOP and nociceptin/NOP gene expression and epigenetic changes by cocaine in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Di Benedetto, Manuela; Carretta, Donatella; Bastias del Carmen Candia, Sussy; D'Addario, Claudio; Cavina, Chiara; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2014-03-03

    Cocaine induces neurochemical changes of endogenous prodynorphin-kappa opioid receptor (pDYN-KOP) and pronociceptin/orphaninFQ-nociceptin receptor (pN/OFQ-NOP) systems. Both systems play an important role in rewarding mechanisms and addictive stimulus processing by modulating drug-induced dopaminergic activation in the mesocortico-limbic brain areas. They are also involved in regulating stress mechanisms related to addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes of gene expression of the dynorphinergic and nociceptinergic system components in the nucleus accumbens (NA) and in medial and lateral caudate putamen (mCPu and lCPu, respectively) of rats, following chronic subcutaneous infusion of cocaine. In addition, the epigenetic histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (an activating and a repressive marker, respectively) at the promoter level of the pDYN, KOP, pN/OFQ and NOP genes were investigated. Results showed that cocaine induced pDYN gene expression up-regulation in the NA and lCPu, and its down-regulation in the mCPu, whereas KOP mRNA levels were unchanged. Moreover, cocaine exposure decreased pN/OFQ gene expression in the NA and lCPu, while NOP mRNA levels appeared significantly increased in the NA and decreased in the lCPu. Specific changes of the H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 levels were found at pDYN, pN/OFQ, and NOP gene promoter, consistent with the observed gene expression alterations. The present findings contribute to better define the role of endogenous pDYN-KOP and pN/OFQ-NOP systems in neuroplasticity mechanisms following chronic cocaine treatment. The epigenetic histone modifications underlying the gene expression changes likely mediate the effects of cocaine on transcriptional regulation of specific gene promoters that result in long-lasting drug-induced plasticity. © 2013.

  14. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  15. Projections from the raphe nuclei to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)......Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)...

  16. IHW COMET HALLEY NEAR NUCLEUS IMAGE DATA, V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents images of the nucleus of comet 1P/Halley obtained by the various contributing observers of the International Halley Watch (IHW) Near-Nucleus...

  17. Preservation of the nucleus X-pelvic floor motosystem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were investigated neuropathologically, emphazising the sacral spinal cord which contains Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus innervates the pelvic sphincters. In two cases, small striated pelvic muscles were studied. No changes characteristic of ALS...

  18. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, and is defined as a gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres and the falciform ligament.1 LSGB was first described by Hochstetter in 1886, and its identification is important because of the numerous and potentially hazardous.

  19. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  20. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  1. No Child Left Inside Week: Pilot Program

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jamie C.

    2013-01-01

    This program evaluation assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a free No Child Left Inside (NCLI) week-long outdoor program to coincide with the Utah state-designated No Child Left Inside Week. The pilot program was implemented at the community level in Cache Valley, Utah, in 2012. Families attended eleven activities throughout the week that included hands-on experience and participation. A community BioBlitz was also planned as a conclusion to the week. Survey results demonstrate incr...

  2. Research of cerebral activation in Uygur-speaking and Chinese-speaking participants during verb generation task with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yanling; Liu, Ling; Hao, Grace; Abudusadike, Zulipinuer; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Junran; Wang, Baolan

    2017-07-01

    The aims are to investigate and compare the activated cerebral regions of Uygur-speaking and Chinese-speaking participants during verb generation task.A total of 31 cases of Uygur and 28 cases of Han healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were requested to take verb generation tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was performed. The fMRI images were collected and activated brain regions were analyzed.In Chinese-speaking participants, the main activated cerebral regions were as follows: the left caudate nucleus, the left occipital gyrus, the left fusiform gyrus, bilateral supplementary motor area (BA8/ 6), the left BA32, left precuneus, the left superior parietal lobule, the left inferior parietal lobule (BA7), the left angular gyrus, the right side of the central gyrus (BA9), the left inferior frontal gyrus triangular section, the right pars opercularis gyri frontalis inferiorista, and bilateral cerebellum. In Uygur-speaking subjects, the main activated cerebral regions included left precentral gyrus (BA9 region), inferior frontal gyrus of left opercular part, inferior frontal gyrus of left triangle part, and left cerebellum. Left caudate nucleus, left orbital frontal gyrus, right caudate nucleus, and bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA32 region) of Chinese group were significantly activated compared with Uygur group. By contrast, Uygur group showed no region that was more activated than Chinese group.The present study demonstrates that activated brain regions in verb generation tasks are different between Uygur and Chinese languages. Processing of Uygur characters is mainly in the left hemisphere of the brain, while the processing of Chinese characters needs more participation by the right hemisphere of the brain.

  3. Drilling simulated temporal bones with left-handed tools: a left-hander's right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Cory S; Brydges, Ryan; Chen, Joseph M; Dubrowski, Adam

    2007-11-01

    Left-handed trainees can be at a disadvantage in the surgical environment because of a right-handed bias. The effectiveness of teaching left-handed trainees to use an otologic drill designed for their dominant hand versus the conventional right-handed drill was examined. Novice medical students were recruited from the university community. Twenty-four subjects were left-handed, and 12 were right-handed. Eight left-handed surgeons also participated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the performance of left-handed trainees using novel left-handed drills to that of left-handed trainees using right-handed tools and to that of right-handed trainees using right-handed tools. The evaluation consisted of 3 phases: pretest, skill acquisition, and 2 post-tests. The measurement tools included expert assessment of performance, and subjective and objective final product analyses. An initial construct validity phase was conducted in which validity of the assessment tools was ensured. Both the left-handers using left-handed tools and the right-handers using right-handed tools significantly outperformed the left-handers using right-handed tools at pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest. All participants improved their performance as a function of practice. The left-handed trainees learned bone drilling better with tools designed for the left hand. These tools may be incorporated into residency training programs for the development of surgical technical skills. Future studies should assess skill transfer between the left-handed and right-handed drills.

  4. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease) : severe destruction of the lateral reticular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rub, U; de Vos, RAI; Schultz, C; Brunt, ER; Paulson, H; Braak, H

    The lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) of the medulla oblongata is a precerebellar nucleus involved in proprioception and somatomotor automatisms. We investigated this nucleus in five individuals with clinically diagnosed and genetically confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, Machado-Joseph

  5. DMPD: TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10611754 TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Roberts AB. Microbes Inf...ect. 1999 Dec;1(15):1265-73. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nuc...leus. PubmedID 10611754 Title TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Authors Roberts AB. Publicat

  6. Problems of physics of atomic nucleus and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.; Plyujko, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The book is dedicated to actual problems, which are connected to the structure of atomic nuclei and to the description of nuclear reactions. The application of macro-microscopic methods to studies of nuclear properties and mechanisms of nuclear reactions is discussed. Some problems discussed in the book have been only presented in the original papers and have not discussed in books or textbooks previously. The book consists of 15 chapters: Thomas - Fermi approximation and its extension; self-consistent mean field; nucleon-nucleon forces; manifestations of the mean field; the density distribution of nucleons in nuclei; properties of mirror-asymmetric nuclei; giant multipole resonances; alpha decay; proton and cluster decays; properties and decay of the compound nuclei; the optical model of nuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus potential; sub-barrier fusion of nuclei; reactions with transfer of nucleons; superheavy nuclei. The book is recommended for scientists, professors, master and post-graduate students of physics or applied physics.

  7. Pion, pion-pion, and pion-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhin, K N; Tikhonov, V N

    2002-01-01

    This survey is devoted to describing the early studies of 1.1. Gurevich on pion physics that were performed by the photoemulsion method and the studies of the pion-pion interaction that were made by his colleagues on the basis of the hydrogen-bubble-chamber and the magnetic-spectrometer method (as well-as on the basis of the photoemulsion method). Two approaches-an extrapolation of experimental data from the physical region to the pion pole and a theoretical calculation based on the Roy integral equations-are used to deduce information about the pion-pion interaction. The first results obtained for pion-pion and pion-nucleus interactions in the experiments that are being currently performed in Brookhaven and at CERN ( pi pi interaction) and at TRIUMF (Canada) and in Brookhaven (pion-nucleus interaction) are presented, along with the existing theoretical concepts in these realms of physics. (80 refs).

  8. Epilepsy, electroacupuncture and the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur

    2006-12-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation and electroacupuncture have some promise as neuroprotective therapies for patients with poorly controlled epilepsy. It has been demonstrated that stimulation of acupuncture points on the extremities results in stimulation of the vagus nerve. It is possible that the antiepileptic effects of these two applications might be targeting the same centre in the brain. The nucleus of the solitary tract, which is a primary site at which vagal afferents terminate, is also the site for afferent pathways of facial, scalp and auricular acupuncture via trigeminal, cervical spinal and glossopharyngeal nerves. Taken together with laboratory findings, the neuroprotective pathways of electroacupuncture in epileptic models may stem from the collaboration of its anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic actions through the nucleus of the solitary tract via vagus nerve stimulation.

  9. From Nucleons to Nucleus Concepts of Microscopic Nuclear Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jouni

    2007-01-01

    From Nucleons to Nucleus deals with single-particle and collective features of spherical nuclei. Each nuclear model is introduced and derived in detail. The formalism is then applied to light and medium-heavy nuclei in worked-out examples, and finally the acquired skills are strengthened by a wide selection of exercises, many relating the models to experimental data. Nuclear properties are discussed using particles, holes and quasiparticles. A large number of matrix elements of standard operators have been tabulated for reference. From Nucleons to Nucleus is based on lectures on nuclear physics given by the author. Its main scope is thus to serve as a textbook for advanced students. But also researchers will appreciate it as wellbalanced reference to theoretical nuclear physics.

  10. Monopole excitation of nucleus in the bound muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirov, B.M.; Abazov, V.M.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The work is aimed at theoretical and experimental investigation into the possibility of nucleus excitation under the muon decay on mesic atom K-shell. The process of mesic atom formation is briefly considered. The stage of muon presence in the mesic atom orbit is completed by mesoatomic cascade, muon decay or muon nuclear capture. Recording of electron coincidences from decay of muon with nuclear transition γ-quanta makes up the base of experiment on the search for the nucleus excitation under the bound muon decay. Muon 158 Sm atom is considered in detail. The experimental data obtained allow one to ascertain the upper limit of probability of the first 152 SmO + level excitation under the bound muon decay W -3

  11. Problems of the π meson-nucleus interaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopaleishvili, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of multiple scattering as applied to PI-meson scattering on nuclei is outlined on the base of optical potential method: first in neglecting the real absorption of a pion by a nucleus and then for the case when this effect is taken into account. The pion interaction with a deuteron is considered both neglecting the pion absorption channel (the relativisitic problem of three bodies) and with account of the absorption channels and pion emission (in this case the problem is solved within the frames of the channel coupling theory for the pion-two nucleus system and the system of two nucleons). Approximate or model solutions to the problem of elastic pion-nuclear scattering primarily in the range of (3.3)-resonance are presented. The formulated theory permits to uniquely describe the observed processes caused by the strong pion interaction with a two-nucleon system

  12. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: Basic Concepts and Novel Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Gerson; Heinsen, Helmut; Plantinga, Birgit R.; Uludag, Kamil; Alho, Eduardo; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Fonoff, Erich T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decades, extensive basic and clinical knowledge has been acquired on the use of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is now clear that mechanisms involved in the effects of this therapy are far more complex than previously anticipated. At frequencies commonly used in clinical practice, neural elements may be excited or inhibited and novel dynamic states of equilibrium are reached. Electrode contacts used for chronic DBS in PD are placed near the dorsal border of the nucleus, a highly cellular region. DBS may thus exert its effects by modulating these cells, hyperdirect projections from motor cortical areas, afferent and efferent fibers to the motor STN. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques may allow us to identify these structures optimizing surgical targeting. In this review, we provide an update on mechanisms and the neural elements modulated by STN DBS. PMID:28966978

  13. Inclusive spectra of hadrons in photon-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, S.R.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusive hadron productin in the #betta#A → hX photon-nucleus interaction is investigated. It is shown that, as in the case of the photoabsorption total cross sections, in the inclusive spectra of hadrons with the rise of photon energy the hadron component of the photon begins to dominate. This leads to the charge in the A-dependence of inclusive spectra which does not contradict the available experimental data

  14. Observation for really cold fragmentation of heavy nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goverdovskij, A.A.; Ketlerov, V.V.; Mitrofanov, V.F.; Ostapenko, Yu.B.; Khryachkov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of the detailed study on mass-energy charged correlations of the thorium-232 fission fragments, produced by the 5 MeV neutrons are presented. The event of the thorium nucleus really cold fragmentation into tellurium-134 and strontium-99 at the basic quantum states is identified. It is shown that the whole reaction energy is exhausted by the motion kinetic energy of the fragments in the mutual field

  15. Hidden Glashow resonance in neutrino–nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alikhanov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today it is widely believed that s-channel excitation of an on-shell W boson, commonly known as the Glashow resonance, can be initiated in matter only by the electron antineutrino in the process ν¯ee−→W− at the laboratory energy around 6.3 PeV. In this Letter we argue that the Glashow resonance within the Standard Model also occurs in neutrino–nucleus collisions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1 The Glashow resonance can be excited by both neutrinos and antineutrinos of all the three flavors scattering in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. 2 The Glashow resonance in a neutrino–nucleus reaction does not manifest itself as a Breit–Wigner-like peak in the cross section but the latter exhibits instead a slow logarithmic-law growth with the neutrino energy. The resonance turns thus out to be hidden. 3 More than 98% of W bosons produced in the sub-PeV region in neutrino-initiated reactions in water/ice will be from the Glashow resonance. 4 The vast majority of the Glashow resonance events in a neutrino detector are expected at energies from a few TeV to a few tens of TeV, being mostly initiated by the conventional atmospheric neutrinos dominant in this energy range. Calculations of the cross sections for Glashow resonance excitation on the oxygen nucleus as well as on the proton are carried out in detail. The results of this Letter can be useful for studies of neutrino interactions at large volume water/ice neutrino detectors. For example, in the IceCube detector one can expect 0.3 Glashow resonance events with shower-like topologies and the deposited energies above 300 TeV per year. It is therefore likely already to have at least one Glashow resonance event in the IceCube data set.

  16. Pathological gambling after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smeding, H M M; Goudriaan, A E; Foncke, E M J; Schuurman, P R; Speelman, J D; Schmand, B

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease who developed pathological gambling within a month after successful bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. There was no history of gambling. On neuropsychological testing, slight cognitive decline was evident 1 year after surgery. Stimulation of the most dorsal contact with and without medication induced worse performances on decision making tests compared with the more ventral contact. Pathological gambling disappeared after d...

  17. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic rotation in the nucleus 141Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkowska, Z.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Droste, C.; Morek, T.; Czajkowska, B.; Urban, W.; Marcinkowski, R.; Olbratowski, P.; Lieder, R. M.; Brans, H.; Gast, W.; Jager, H. M.; Mihailescu, L.; Bazzacco, D.; Falconi, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D. R.; Podolyak, Z.

    2003-04-01

    The previously known level scheme of 141 Eu nucleus was revised and substantially extended. Three dipole cascades, characterized by large B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, have been found. Spin and parity assignments were based on the angular distribution ratios and linear polarizations of γ-rays. The experimental results have been compared with the calculations of Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) model.

  19. Hypoxia Silences Retrotrapezoid Nucleus Respiratory Chemoreceptors via Alkalosis

    OpenAIRE

    Basting, Tyler M.; Burke, Peter G.R.; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Daniel S.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2015-01-01

    In conscious mammals, hypoxia or hypercapnia stimulates breathing while theoretically exerting opposite effects on central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs). We tested this theory by examining how hypoxia and hypercapnia change the activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a putative CRC and chemoreflex integrator. Archaerhodopsin-(Arch)-transduced RTN neurons were reversibly silenced by light in anesthetized rats. We bilaterally transduced RTN and nearby C1 neurons with Arch (PRSx8-ArchT...

  20. Does the excited state of the 3He nucleus exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    The suggestion is made that the excited state of the 3 He nucleus found out recently in the reaction has spin and parity 1/2 + and the same configuration that the ground open of 6 He. It is shown that in an elastic nd-scattering a resonance associated with the excited state may be absent due to destructive interference of potential and resonant scattering phases

  1. Dynamics of Galectin-3 in the Nucleus and Cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Spronk, Kimberly J.; Voss, Patricia G.; Patterson, Ronald J.; Wang, John L.; Arnoys, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes selected studies on galectin-3 (Gal3) as an example of the dynamic behavior of a carbohydrate-binding protein in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. Within the 15-member galectin family of proteins, Gal3 (Mr ~30,000) is the sole representative of the chimera subclass in which a proline- and glycine-rich NH2-terminal domain is fused onto a COOH-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain responsible for binding galactose-containing glycoconjugates. The protein shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus on the basis of targeting signals that are recognized by importin(s) for nuclear localization and exportin-1 (CRM1) for nuclear export. Depending on the cell type, specific experimental conditions in vitro, or tissue location, Gal3 has been reported to be exclusively cytoplasmic, predominantly nuclear, or distributed between the two compartments. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of the protein must reflect, then, some balance between nuclear import and export, as well as mechanisms of cytoplasmic anchorage or binding to a nuclear component. Indeed, a number of ligands have been reported for Gal3 in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Most of the ligands appear to bind Gal3, however, through protein-protein interactions rather than through protein-carbohydrate recognition. In the cytoplasm, for example, Gal3 interacts with the apoptosis repressor Bcl-2 and this interaction may be involved in Gal3’s anti-apoptotic activity. In the nucleus, Gal3 is a required pre-mRNA splicing factor; the protein is incorporated into spliceosomes via its association with the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. Although the majority of these interactions occur via the carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal3 and saccharide ligands such as lactose can perturb some of these interactions, the significance of the protein’s carbohydrate-binding activity, per se, remains a challenge for future investigations. PMID:19616076

  2. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  3. Coulomb problem for a Z>Z_cr nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, V. M.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Fedotov, A. M.; Lozovik, Yu E.; Popov, V. S.

    2015-08-01

    A closed-form equation is derived for the critical nucleus charge Z=Z_cr at which a discrete level with the Dirac quantum number touches the lower continuum of the Dirac equation solutions. For the Coulomb potential cut off rectangularly at the short distance r0 = R{\\hbar}/(mc), R \\ll {1}, the critical nucleus charge values are obtained for several values of κ and R. It is shown that the partial scattering matrix of elastic positron-nucleus scattering, Sκ = \\exp(2iδκ(\\varepsilon_p)), is also unitary for Z>Z_cr. For this range, the scattering phase δ κ (\\varepsilon _p) is calculated as a function of the positron energy E_p = \\varepsilonp mc2, as are the positions and widths of quasidiscrete levels corresponding to the scattering matrix poles. The implication is that the single-particle approximation for the Dirac equation is valid not only for Z but also for Z>Z_cr and that there is no spontaneous creation of e^+e^- pairs from the vacuum.

  4. Using of exponential integrals for atomic nucleus: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinchev, E.; Karastoyanov, A.

    1986-01-01

    A possibility for direct calculation of the potential of homogenous spherical nucleus using exponential integrals is found. The-two particle static Laplace potential is U=-gE 2 (μr)/4πr, where g is the nuclear charge, μ is a constant and r is the distance between the nucleons. The potential and force curves for a nucleus with the radius R for μr=3,4,5,6,7 are shown. The saturation of the nuclear forces is demonstrated. The limit potential depth is U m =-42.2 MeV for R=1.36 A 1/3 fm, where A is the atomic number. The limit potential at the end of the nucleus is twice as small. A comparison is made with the Yukawa potential, which gives a limit depth triple as large, and with the Woods-Saxon potential, which gives the force in the nuclear centre not equal to zero. The formulae and method are also applicable for more complicated nucleon distributions. (author). 4 figs, 9 refs

  5. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Action at a Distance in the Cell's Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondev, Jane

    Various functions performed by chromosomes involve long-range communication between DNA sequences that are tens of thousands of bases apart along the genome, and microns apart in the nucleus. In this talk I will discuss experiments and theory relating to two distinct modes of long-range communication in the nucleus, chromosome looping and protein hopping along the chromosome, both in the context of DNA-break repair in yeast. Yeast is an excellent model system for studies that link chromosome conformations to their function as there is ample experimental evidence that yeast chromosome conformations are well described by a simple, random-walk polymer model. Using a combination of polymer physics theory and experiments on yeast cells, I will demonstrate that loss of polymer entropy due to chromosome looping is the driving force for homology search during repair of broken DNA by homologous recombination. I will also discuss the spread of histone modifications along the chromosome and away from the DNA break point in the context of simple physics models based on chromosome looping and kinase hopping, and show how combining physics theory and cell-biology experiment can be used to dissect the molecular mechanism of the spreading process. These examples demonstrate how combined theoretical and experimental studies can reveal physical principles of long-range communication in the nucleus, which play important roles in regulation of gene expression, DNA recombination, and chromatin modification. This work was supported by the NSF DMR-1206146.

  7. Integration of sensory quanta in cuneate nucleus neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Bengtsson

    Full Text Available Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4-8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4-8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways.

  8. Chemical anatomy of the human paraventricular thalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, Victoria; Prensa, Lucía; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel

    2004-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (Pa) lies in the most medial aspect of the thalamus and is considered one of the midline thalamic nuclei. In the present study, we carried out histochemical and immunohistochemical procedures in the Pa of normal individuals to visualize the pattern of distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin D-28k (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), substance P (SP), and enkephalin (ENK). Other cytoarchitectural and myeloarchitectural techniques, such as Nissl and Gallyas, were also employed to delineate the boundaries of the Pa. The main findings of this study are: 1) AChE staining in the Pa was heterogeneously distributed along its anteroposterior and mediolateral axes; 2) the Pa harbored numerous CB- and CR-immunoreactive (ir) cells and neuropil, but this nucleus was largely devoid of PV; 3) the Pa was highly enriched in LAMP and this protein appeared uniformly distributed through its whole extent; and, 4) the SP and ENK immunoreactivities in the Pa revealed numerous highly varicose fibers scattered throughout this nucleus, but no stained cells. This morphological study demonstrates that the Pa is a heterogeneous chemical structure in humans. The functional significance of these results is discussed in the light of similar data gathered in several mammalian species. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. An Automatic Learning-Based Framework for Robust Nucleus Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuyong; Xie, Yuanpu; Yang, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Computer-aided image analysis of histopathology specimens could potentially provide support for early detection and improved characterization of diseases such as brain tumor, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and breast cancer. Automated nucleus segmentation is a prerequisite for various quantitative analyses including automatic morphological feature computation. However, it remains to be a challenging problem due to the complex nature of histopathology images. In this paper, we propose a learning-based framework for robust and automatic nucleus segmentation with shape preservation. Given a nucleus image, it begins with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to generate a probability map, on which an iterative region merging approach is performed for shape initializations. Next, a novel segmentation algorithm is exploited to separate individual nuclei combining a robust selection-based sparse shape model and a local repulsive deformable model. One of the significant benefits of the proposed framework is that it is applicable to different staining histopathology images. Due to the feature learning characteristic of the deep CNN and the high level shape prior modeling, the proposed method is general enough to perform well across multiple scenarios. We have tested the proposed algorithm on three large-scale pathology image datasets using a range of different tissue and stain preparations, and the comparative experiments with recent state of the arts demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  10. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting π 0 mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized 3 He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure

  11. Magnetic dipole excitations of the 163Dy nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenginerler, Zemine; Tabar, Emre; Yakut, Hakan; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Guliyev, Ekber

    2014-03-01

    In this study some properties of the magnetic dipole excitations of the deformed odd mass 163Dy nucleus were studied by using Quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model (QPNM). The several of the ground-state and low-lying magnetic dipole (M1) mode characteristics were calculated for deformed odd-mass nuclei using a separable Hamiltonian within the QPNM. The M1 excited states, reduced transition probabilities B(M1), the ground-state magnetic properties such as magnetic moment (μ), intrinsic magnetic moment (gK) , effective spin factor (gseff.) are the fundamental characteristics of the odd-mass nucleus and provide key information to understand nuclear structure. The theoretical results were compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical approaches. Calculations show that the spin-spin interaction in this isotopes leads to polarization effect influencing the magnetic moments. Furthermore we found a strong fragmentation of the M1 strength in 163Dy nucleus which was in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Sakarya University, Project Number: 2012-50-02-007 and Z.Zenginerler acknowledge to TUBITAK-TURKEY 2013, fellowship No: 2219.

  12. Distribution of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNAs in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J.D.; Larsen, Philip J.; Ebling, Francis J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Anatomi, neurobiologi, glutamate receptor, circadian rhythms, suprachiasmatic nucleus, in situ hybridization, rat......Anatomi, neurobiologi, glutamate receptor, circadian rhythms, suprachiasmatic nucleus, in situ hybridization, rat...

  13. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  14. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  15. Distinct effect of orphanin FQ in nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis on the rat tail flick reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wu, G

    2001-06-22

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of orphanin FQ (OFQ) microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) on pain modulation. The tail-flick latency (TFL) was used as a behavioral index of nociceptive responsiveness. The result showed microinjection of OFQ into the NRM significantly increased the TFL, whereas microinjection of OFQ into the NGC decreased the TFL, suggesting the analgesic effect of OFQ in the NRM and the hyperalgesic effect of OFQ in the NGC. As there are three classes of putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the hyperalgesic or analgesic effect of OFQ in the RVM might depend upon the different class of the neurons being acted.

  16. Charged pion coherent production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at incident energies between 86 and 330 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassnacht, P.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at foward angles for about twenty projectile target combinations. The incident energies were below or around 300 MeV/nucleon which is the threshold of the elementary reaction NN → NNπ. The study of the inclusive spectra shows some new ideas: shell effects in pion production, collective resonances excitations. These spectra have been analyzed following different models: hard-scattering models which describe the interaction on the basis of the elementary reaction NN → NNπ, statistical model and the pionic cloud model which is a coherent description of the interaction. In the study of the exclusive reactions, we established some empiric rules concerning the cross-section variations. These exclusive spectra were then analyzed in the framework of two-models: the semi-phenomenological model and the pionic fusion [fr

  17. Long noncoding RNAs coordinate functions between mitochondria and the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaru; Yoshitomi, Takeshi; Hu, Ji-Fan; Cui, Jizhe

    2017-08-23

    In animal cells, mitochondria are the primary powerhouses and metabolic factories. They also contain genomes and can produce mitochondrial-specific nucleic acids and proteins. To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) contain characteristic structures, and they are involved in the regulation of almost every stage of gene expression, as well as being implicated in a variety of disease states, such as cancer. In the coordinated signaling system, several lncRNAs, transcribed in the nucleus but residing in mitochondria, play a key role in regulating mitochondrial functions or dynamics. For example, RMRP, a component of the mitochondrial RNase MRP, is important for mitochondrial DNA replication and RNA processing, and the steroid receptor RNA activator, SRA, is a key modulator of hormone signaling and is present in both the nucleus and mitochondria. Some RNA-binding proteins maybe play a role in the lncRNAs transport system, such as HuR, GRSF1, SHARP, SLIRP, PPR, and PNPASE. Furthermore, a series of nuclear DNA-encoded lncRNAs were implicated in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, mitochondrial bioenergetics and biosynthesis, and glutamine metabolism. The mitochondrial genome can also encode a set of lncRNAs, and they are divided into three categories: (1) lncND5, lncND6, and lncCyt b RNA; (2) chimeric mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs; and (3) putative mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs. It has been reported that the mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs appear to operate in the nucleus. The molecular mechanisms underlying trafficking of the mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs to the nucleus in mammals are only now beginning to emerge. In conclusion, both nuclear- and mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs mediate an intense intercompartmental cross-talk, which opens a rich field for investigation of the mechanism

  18. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  19. Left behind radiological investigations: An inherent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar A Govindswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the number of investigations left behind by patients in radiology department, their cost, and the possible methods of reducing the problem. Materials and Methods: A total of 1424 radiographs, 160 computed tomography (CT scans, 300 ultrasonography (USG reports, and 46 Doppler reports were left behind by patients in one financial year. The total cost of these left behind investigations was calculated and the reports were categorized into normal and abnormal for each modality. Results: Of the radiographs left behind 658 were abnormal, with 211 among these being radiographs of postoperative patients. Thirty-seven percent of CT scans had positive findings. Sixty-eight percent of USG reports had positive findings while 46% of Doppler reports were abnormal. Conclusion: We believe that the cost and number of these left behind investigations over a period of time would definitely be significant for the health care system in a developing country. It is time to think of the possible reasons and methods for containing this problem.

  20. Left atrial laceration with epicardial ligation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Vincent P; Kolibash, Christopher P; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Bajwa, Tanvir; Sra, Jasbir; Kress, David C

    2014-01-01

    Many new devices and techniques are being developed to attempt a reduction in embolic stroke risk for patients with atrial fibrillation who are either unable or unwilling to maintain long-term anticoagulation. One of these new devices (LARIAT®, SentreHEART Inc., Redwood City, California, USA) employs delivery of an epicardial suture to ligate the left atrial appendage after percutaneous pericardial and transseptal access. This series presents three clinical cases that demonstrate a serious and recurrent complication of left atrial laceration and cardiac tamponade shortly following delivery of an epicardial suture ligation to the left atrial appendage. Three clinical cases are described in detail with pre- and postprocedure angiography and echocardiography as well as illustrations reflecting the surgeon's findings on direct visualization of the left atrial lacerations postligation. Potential hypotheses of each injury are examined in light of the case timelines and findings at sternotomy. There was no suggestion that tamponade was related to pericardial or transseptal access, but rather a complication with device delivery. These three patients quickly progressed to clinical cardiac tamponade despite attempted drainage, stressing the importance of cardiovascular surgery backup, including a cardiopulmonary bypass pump, when delivering novel, percutaneous ligation devices for the left atrial appendage.

  1. Modafinil augments brain activation associated with reward anticipation in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Takuya; Ikeda, Yumiko; Tateno, Amane; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Okubo, Yoshiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) works as a key brain structure of the reward system, in which reward-related neural activity is well correlated with dopamine release from mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. Since modafinil can modulate dopaminergic transmission through re-uptake inhibition of dopamine, we investigated whether modafinil affects the reward-related brain activity in the NAc in healthy subjects. Twenty healthy participants underwent two series of functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing monetary incentive delay task in which they were cued to anticipate and respond to a rapidly presented target to gain or avoid losing varying amounts of money, under modafinil or placebo condition. Blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signals during gain and loss anticipations were analyzed in the NAc as an a priori region of interest as well as the whole brain. Modafinil significantly changed subjective feelings toward positive ones. The activation of BOLD signals was observed during gain anticipation under the placebo and modafinil conditions in the left and bilateral NAc, respectively. The modafinil condition showed significantly higher BOLD signal change at the highest gain (+¥500) cue compared to the placebo condition. The present study showed that modafinil affects reward processing in the NAc in healthy subjects through enhancing more positive anticipation, and it may provide a basis for the use of this drug for treating anhedonia observed in psychiatric disorders.

  2. Effects of substance P on identified neurons of the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M W; Travagli, R A

    2001-07-01

    Previous evidence suggests that substance P (SP) activates subpopulations of neurons within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). In this study we aimed at identifying these subpopulations in relation to their gastrointestinal projection organs or vagal branches and characterizing pharmacologically the SP response. Using whole cell patch-clamp recordings from identified gastrointestinal-projecting vagal motoneurons, we found that SP induced an inward current in all neuronal groups except for cecum-projecting cells. The lowest percentage of SP-responding neurons was found in fundus-projecting cells, where SP also had a concentration-response curve that was shifted to the left (P < 0.05). Independently from the projections, the SP response was reduced by sendide and MEN 10,376 and mimicked by a combination of [Sar(9)-Met(O(2))(11)]SP and alpha-neurokinin. SP and alpha-neurokinin also increased the frequency, but not the amplitude, of postsynaptic currents. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SP induces both pre- and postsynaptic effects on DMV neurons via activation of neurokinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptors. The magnitude of the SP response was correlated to the peripheral target organ.

  3. Holmes’ Tremor with Shoulder Pain Treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of Unilateral Ventral Intermediate Thalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Internus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Aydın

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male was admitted with severe right arm and hand tremors after a thalamic hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident. He was also suffering from agonizing pain in his right shoulder that manifested after the tremor. Neurologic examination revealed a disabling, severe, and irregular kinetic and postural tremor in the right arm during target-directed movements. There was also an irregular ipsilateral rest tremor and dystonic movements in the distal part of the right arm. The amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. The patient underwent left globus pallidum internus and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The patient improved by more than 80% as rated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale and Visual Analog Scale six months after surgery.

  4. 61. International conference NUCLEUS-2011 on problems of nuclear spectroscopy and structure of atomic nucleus. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The program of the 61th International conference NUCLEUS-2011 covers almost all actual problems of nuclear physics. The recent results of theoretical and experimental investigations of nuclear structure as well as nuclear reactions are presented. The fundamental problems of nuclear physics are discussed. The current achievements in the field of nuclear instrumentation and experimental techniques are considered. The considerable attention is given to modern nuclear databases as scientific research tools [ru

  5. Music reduces pain and increases resting state fMRI BOLD signal amplitude in the left angular gyrus in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Jiang, Zhiguo; Vuust, Peter; Alcauter, Sarael; Vase, Lene; Pasaye, Erick H; Cavazos-Rodriguez, Roberto; Brattico, Elvira; Jensen, Troels S; Barrios, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    Music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic pain disease, but the functional neural correlates of music-induced analgesia (MIA) are still largely unknown. We recruited FM patients (n = 22) who listened to their preferred relaxing music and an auditory control (pink noise) for 5 min without external noise from fMRI image acquisition. Resting state fMRI was then acquired before and after the music and control conditions. A significant increase in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signal was evident in the left angular gyrus (lAnG) after listening to music, which in turn, correlated to the analgesia reports. The post-hoc seed-based functional connectivity analysis of the lAnG showed found higher connectivity after listening to music with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rdlPFC), the left caudate (lCau), and decreased connectivity with right anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), right supplementary motor area (rSMA), precuneus and right precentral gyrus (rPreG). Pain intensity (PI) analgesia was correlated (r = 0.61) to the connectivity of the lAnG with the rPreG. Our results show that MIA in FM is related to top-down regulation of the pain modulatory network by the default mode network (DMN).

  6. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  7. Selective left, right and bilateral stimulation of subthalamic nuclei in Parkinson's disease: differential effects on motor, speech and language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Geralyn M; Hosey, Lara A; Bradberry, Trent J; Stager, Sheila V; Lee, Li-Ching; Pawha, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but may produce a worsening of speech and language performance at rates and amplitudes typically selected in clinical practice. The possibility that these dissociated effects might be modulated by selective stimulation of left and right STN has never been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we analyzed motor, speech and language functions of 12 patients implanted with bilateral stimulators configured for optimal motor responses. Behavioral responses were quantified under four stimulator conditions: bilateral DBS, right-only DBS, left-only DBS and no DBS. Under bilateral and left-only DBS conditions, our results exhibited a significant improvement in motor symptoms but worsening of speech and language. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that bilateral STN DBS compromises speech and language function and suggests that these negative effects may be principally due to left-sided stimulation. These findings may have practical clinical consequences, suggesting that clinicians might optimize motor, speech and language functions by carefully adjusting left- and right-sided stimulation parameters.

  8. Open-nucleus theory for beef cattle breeding systems: A revisitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Packer, I.U.; Tenorio Vasconselos, M.

    1990-07-01

    A theoretical model for Open-Nucleus Systems is herein described in the case of beef cattle breeding. One of the starting points is the observation that the majority of the standard theoretical models for open-nucleus breeding systems were constructed for the case of discrete generations, i.e. for the cases in which the dam average fertility coefficient is f>2. In the case of cattle herds, when only a fraction of the breeding dams can be replaced, it is therefore worthwhile to build up anew a rather rigorous theoretical model, with overlapping generations, and check its predictions. Namely, we apply the new formulae - explicitly depending on β F , ν F , ν M , K and R - to the system in which all breeding sires are in the Nucleus (and are reared in the nucleus itself), and are mated to both Nucleus and Base dams via artificial insemination. Optimal system design has been looked for by the NAG and MINOS computation programs, operated on Vax computers. Opening the nucleus in this situation results to be very effective since the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain per generation for ''closed nucleus'' systems (x=0) results to be, when e.g. R≡F/M≅200, more than 40% lower than the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain, G*, for open nucleus systems. Optimal design corresponds to: (i) having a fraction p≅16% of the female population in the nucleus; (ii) replacing practically all the (nucleus) breeding sires by the best (nucleus born) males: ν M =97/98%; (iii) using for dam replacement all (b≅100%) the (base and nucleus born) females; (iv) implementing a high upward gene migration (x≅80%), while all the surplus nucleus-born females are to be used as base replacements. This corresponds to replace, at each generation, also almost all the nucleus dams (ν F ≅95/100%), and the largest possible fraction of base dams (β F ≅30%, a value changing with p). 17 refs

  9. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  10. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  11. “Getting the Left Right”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Marianne E.; Zahavi, Dan; Hjaltason, Haukur

    2015-01-01

    experience was captured in the overarching theme, “getting the left right,” which encompasses the two subthemes of (a) surreal awareness of the left and (b) emergence of a different world. Patients had unclear perceptions of their own body and surroundings, their attention was brittle, and they encountered...... bewildering reactions from other people. They simultaneously pursued the ineffable neglected space and searched for coherence. The vulnerability, loss, and conflicting perceptions that patients with neglect face should be acknowledged and alleviation sought. Facilitating methods should provide additional...

  12. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  13. Left paraduodenal hernias; Hernias paraduodenales izquierdas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Tejeiro, A.; Sala, J. [Hospital Valle del Nalon. Riano-Sama. Asturias (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases of left paraduodenal internal hernias located in the fossa of Landzert that were diagnosed by CT. Internal hernias are an infrequent cause of acute abdomen, due to the intestinal sub occlusion they produce. Left paraduodenal hernias are responsible for about 50% of internal hernias. CT makes it possible to demonstrate the group of herniated loops between the stomach, fourth segment of the duodenum, descending colon, and tail of the pancreas. The identification of the loops in an atypical position together with displaced blood vessels (mesenteric vessels) and colon gives concerns on them a typical radiological semiology that makes them easily identifiable. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  15. Neutrino–nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino–nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino–nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino–nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors

  16. Chronic cocaine-regulated epigenomic changes in mouse nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports a role for altered gene expression in mediating the lasting effects of cocaine on the brain, and recent work has demonstrated the involvement of chromatin modifications in these alterations. However, all such studies to date have been restricted by their reliance on microarray technologies that have intrinsic limitations. Results We use next generation sequencing methods, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq for RNA polymerase II and several histone methylation marks, to obtain a more complete view of cocaine-induced changes in gene expression and associated adaptations in numerous modes of chromatin regulation in the mouse nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region. We demonstrate an unexpectedly large number of pre-mRNA splicing alterations in response to repeated cocaine treatment. In addition, we identify combinations of chromatin changes, or signatures, that correlate with cocaine-dependent regulation of gene expression, including those involving pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Through bioinformatic prediction and biological validation, we identify one particular splicing factor, A2BP1(Rbfox1/Fox-1), which is enriched at genes that display certain chromatin signatures and contributes to drug-induced behavioral abnormalities. Together, this delineation of the cocaine-induced epigenome in the nucleus accumbens reveals several novel modes of regulation by which cocaine alters the brain. Conclusions We establish combinatorial chromatin and transcriptional profiles in mouse nucleus accumbens after repeated cocaine treatment. These results serve as an important resource for the field and provide a template for the analysis of other systems to reveal new transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of neuronal regulation. PMID:24758366

  17. Separable representation of multichannel nucleon-nucleus optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.

    2017-05-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship is cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Including excitations of the nucleus in the calculation requires a multichannel optical potential. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent multichannel representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that contain excitations of the nucleus and that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from energy-dependent multichannel optical potentials for neutron and proton scattering from 12C, separable representations based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme are constructed which fulfill reciprocity exactly. Applications to n +12C and p +12C scattering are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological multichannel optical potentials describes scattering data with the same quality as the original potential.

  18. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  19. Left ventricular mass: Myxoma or thrombus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Raut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient with embolic episode should always be evaluated for cardiac mass. Mass in left ventricular can be a myxoma or thrombus even in a normal functioning heart . In either case, mobile mass with embolic potential should be surgically resected.

  20. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S. Raut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research.

  1. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Monish S; Shad, Sujay; Maheshwari, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vergisson 4: a left-handed Neandertal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Silvana; Monge, Janet; Quertelet, Sylvain; Frayer, David W; Combier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Handedness is an important marker for lateralization of humans in the modern and fossil record. For the most part, Neandertals and their ancestors are strongly right-handed. We describe a single tooth from a Neandertal level at Vergisson 4 (Vg 4-83). This left upper central incisor shows all the features typical of Neandertal incisors. It also exhibits a predominance of left-handed striations. Striations on the incisor's labial surface were mapped at 20x magnification using Photoshop. Angulations of the striations were determined from their deviation from the maximum mesio-distal line and were analyzed using NIH's freeware, Image J. Of the 60 labial surface striations, Vg 4-83 shows a strong predominance of left-handed striations (46; 76.7%), which are statistically significantly different (p handed striations. The identification of another left-handed Neandertal adds to our understanding about handedness variation in this fossil hominin. Given the high frequency of right-handed Neandertals, the 90: 10 modern ratio is still preserved in this group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... sniper with an Armourlite assault rifle in Ireland. He had received a single bullet injury to the left ... His history negated any cardiovascular impairment, angina or limitation in effort tolerance. He plays ... In view of the patient's age, history and the cardiovascular findings, we would like to postulate that the ...

  4. Radiative left-right Dirac neutrino mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-01-01

    We consider the conventional left-right gauge extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons without a scalar bidoublet. We study systematically how one-loop radiative Dirac neutrino masses may be obtained. In addition to two well-known cases from almost 30 years ago, we find two new scenarios with verifiable predictions.

  5. Giant melanoma of the left thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    A 74-year-old female patient is described with a giant melanoma of the left thenar and concomitant bilateral pulmonary metastases. Palliative treatment consisted of a two-staged procedure in order to save the limb from amputation. Firstly, perfusion with gamma-interferon, tumour necrosis

  6. Submitral Left Ventricular Aneurysm Associated with Thrombus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... She was given drugs for management of heart failure and ... treatment abroad. KEYWORDS: Ethiopia, heart failure, submitral aneurysm, thrombus. INTRODUCTION. Submitral left ventricle aneurysm is a rare cardiovascular disorder worldwide, but ... grade 2 pulmonary edema, and bilateral pleural effusion.

  7. Left-Right Symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. We find that the usual lower limit on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson from the K mass difference, M_WR>2.5TeV, is subject to a possible small reduction due to the difference between right and left Cabibbo angles. In the case of charge conjugation the limit on M_WR is somewhat more robust. However, the more severe bounds from CP-violating observables are absent in this case. In fact, the free phases can also resolve the present mild discrepancy between the Standard Model and CP-violat...

  8. Left Dislocation: a typological overview | Westbury | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Left Dislocation construction is a typologically universal phenomenon that has received detailed analysis, from both formal and functional perspectives, in a number of genetically and areally diverse languages. The present paper aims to provide a general overview of this cross-linguistic research with a concentration ...

  9. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  10. Left Ventricular Thrombus among patients undergoing Transthoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Left Ventricular Thrombus (LVT) is a well recognized complication of various cardiac conditions, particularly following an acute anterior myocardial infarction and in those with systolic congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the most common imaging modality to make the diagnosis ...

  11. Modern Democratic Left and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Radošević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political left, notably social democracy, implies acceptance of market economy and parliamentary democracy, as a political framework within which the interests of large sections of the population could be preserved. Does the modern political left have a chance to revive, after the global economic crisis? We believe it does. The core idea of social democracy is the idea of equality. It is the growing inequality that could help the return of social democracy. In Croatia, during transition, there was predominantly the process of neoliberalization, and the democratic left accepted a neoliberal economic agenda. Currently Croatia has a structural economic problem and deep recession. Due to the global crisis, the democratic left in Croatia should abandon economic neoliberalism. Macroeconomic policy decision-makers in Croatia should reject orthodox policies, and it is necessary to implement heterodox economic policies. There is an urgent need to achieve a new (postKeynesian consensus, a new combination of post-Keynesian economics and social democracy

  12. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  13. Theory of scattering of nonrelativistic protons on nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabutalybov, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Within the bounds of quasi-classics in HES with distorted waves, on the basis of three-dimensional formulation in the form of analytical receipt formula amplitude of scattering of protons of intermediate energy on the atom nuclear. In the wake of the short-range nature of proton nucleonic interaction proton scattering on the atomic nucleus, represented as sequence of single dispersion. With the help of introduced mathematical method was received recurrence formula which allows expressing form factor in perverted-wave through Born and its derivatives. For density distribution of nucleon was used Fermi-Function

  14. Dust photometry in the near nucleus region of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegoe, K.; Szatmary, Z.; Kondor, A.; Merenyi, E.; Toth, I.; Smith, B.A.

    1988-08-01

    The dust-jet radial brightness has been analyzed along jet cores on images taken by the tv experiment aboard VEGA 2 spacecraft, during the close encounter with comet Halley in 1986 March. Applying the RFIT code for fitting the data obtained it was shown that there is a breakpoint in the radial brightness distribution which occurs at about 40 km above the surface. These results are interpreted as consequences of the heat shock induced disintegration of dust particles as they are ejected into the near-nucleus environment. (R.P.) 22 refs.; 4 tabs

  15. Vacuum oscillations around a large-Z ''nucleus''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, S.; Iwazaki, A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate a possible explanation of sharp e + peaks in heavy-ion collisions by analyzing QED with a large atomic number external source. We show that a highly polarized vacuum around a large Z ''nucleus'' has at least two neutral oscillation modes, whose energies are calculated to be 1.8 MeV and 1.5 MeV with an appropriate choice of the nuclear radius. They decay into a pair of e/sup +-/ through electromagnetic interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig

  16. Pathological gambling after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, H M M; Goudriaan, A E; Foncke, E M J; Schuurman, P R; Speelman, J D; Schmand, B

    2007-05-01

    We describe a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease who developed pathological gambling within a month after successful bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. There was no history of gambling. On neuropsychological testing, slight cognitive decline was evident 1 year after surgery. Stimulation of the most dorsal contact with and without medication induced worse performances on decision making tests compared with the more ventral contact. Pathological gambling disappeared after discontinuation of pergolide and changing the stimulation parameters. Pathological gambling does not seem to be associated with decision making but appears to be related to a combination of bilateral STN stimulation and treatment with dopamine agonists.

  17. Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that were accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the workshop on the analysis of returned comet nucleus samples held in Milpitas, California, January 16 to 18, 1989. The abstracts deal with the nature of cometary ices, cryogenic handling and sampling equipment, origin and composition of samples, and spectroscopic, thermal and chemical processing methods of cometary nuclei. Laboratory simulation experimental results on dust samples are reported. Some results obtained from Halley's comet are also included. Microanalytic techniques for examining trace elements of cometary particles, synchrotron x ray fluorescence and instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA), are presented

  18. Magnetic moment of extremely proton-rich nucleus 23Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomo, T; Matsuta, K; Ozawa, A; Nakashima, Y; Matsumiya, R; Mihara, M; Yasuno, T; Chiba, A; Yamada, K; Momota; Ohtsubo, T; Ohta, M; Shinojima, D; Izumikawa, T; Tanaka, H; Yamaguchi, T; Nakajima, S; Maemura, H; Muranaka, K; Kumashiro, S; Fujiwara, H; Yoshida, K; Sumikama, T; Tanaka, K; Ogura, M; Minamisono, K; Fukuda, M; Minamisono, T; Nojiri, Y; Suzuki, T; Tanihata, I; Alonso, J R; Krebs, G F; Symons, T J M

    2005-01-01

    The g-factor of the extremely proton-rich nucleus 23 Al (T 1/2 = 0.47 s) has been measured by means of the β-NMR method for the first time. The g-factor were determined as |g| = 1.557(88) from the obtained NMR spectra. From the comparison between the experimental value and the shell model calculation, the spin parity of the ground state of 23 Al was determined as I π = 5/2 + . Thus, the magnetic moment of 23 Al was determined as vertical bar μvertical bar = 3.89(22)μ N

  19. W-Z interference in ν-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusevic, R.; Smith, J.

    1988-05-01

    The creation of muon pairs by (anti)neutrinos in the Coulomb field of the nucleus provides a direct test of the interference between the intermediate-vector-boson amplitudes, as predicted by the weak-interaction theory. This paper summarizes the main features of the above process and discusses the feasibility of measuring the W-Z interference by searching for recoilless dimuon events using fine-grained counter neutrino detectors. The result from an earlier experiment which searched for this process is discussed in the context of the present calculation.

  20. W-Z interference in. nu. -nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belusevic, R.; Smith, J.

    1988-05-01

    The creation of muon pairs by (anti)neutrinos in the Coulomb field of the nucleus provides a direct test of the interference between the intermediate-vector-boson amplitudes, as predicted by the weak-interaction theory. This paper summarizes the main features of the above process and discusses the feasibility of measuring the W-Z interference by searching for recoilless dimuon events using fine-grained counter neutrino detectors. The result from an earlier experiment which searched for this process is discussed in the context of the present calculation.

  1. Total reaction cross section calculations in proton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, H.P.; Axen, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a general semiempirical total reaction cross section formula for proton-nucleus reactions. It is applicable for all materials with nuclear charge Z greater than 5, and all proton kinetic energies from the lowest measured energies up to ≅20 GeV. While the regime of applicability is greatly enlarged, agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is comparable to or better than all earlier published results in their regime of applicability. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Level density of radioactive doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Kumar, S.; Rengaiyan, R.; Victor Babu, A.; Preetha, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the single particle energies are obtained by diagonalising the Nilsson Hamiltonian in the cylindrical basis and are generated up to N =11 shells for the isotopes of Ni from A = 48-70, emphasizing the three magic nuclei viz, 48 Ni, 56 Ni and 68 Ni. The statistical quantities like excitation energy, level density parameter and nuclear level density which play the important roles in the nuclear structure and nuclear reactions can be calculated theoretically by means of the Statistical or Partition function method. Hence the statistical model approach is followed to probe the dynamical properties of the nucleus in the microscopic level

  3. Alpha-nucleus elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Alamanos, N.; Berthier, B.; Bruge, G.; Faraggi, H.; Lugol, J.C.; Mittig, W.; Papineau, L.; Yavin, A.I.; Buenerd, M.; Bauhoff, W.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 288, 340, 480 and 699 MeV Alpha-particles was measured on 208 Pb, 116 Sn and 58 Ni. The data were analysed in terms of a phenomenological optical model. The optical potentials obtained were found to vary consistently with the target nucleus and the incident energy. The radial zone where the potentials are well determined was studied in detail. The data for 208 Pb were also analysed with a folding model. The energy dependence of the strong-absorption radius and of the reaction cross section shows that the nuclear surface becomes slightly transparent for incident energies above 150 MeV per nucleon. (orig.)

  4. Tools for visualization of phosphoinositides in the cell nucleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalasová, Ilona; Fáberová, Veronika; Kalendová, Alžběta; Uličná, Lívia; Yildirim, Sukriye; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 4 (2016), s. 485-496 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03403S; GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA CR GA16-03403S Grant - others:Human Frontier Science Program(FR) RGP0017/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nucleus * Phosphoinositides * PI(4,5)P2 * PI(4)P Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  5. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  6. Abnormal subcortical brain morphology in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Ping eMao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the involvement of subcortical brain structures in the pathogenesis of chronic pain and persistent pain as the defining symptom of knee osteoarthritis (KOA, little attention has been paid to the morphometric measurements of these subcortical nuclei in patients with KOA. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential morphological abnormalities of subcortical brain structures in patients with KOA as compared to healthy control subjects by using high resolution MRI. Structural MRI data were acquired from 26 patients with KOA and 31 demographically similar healthy individuals. The MR data were analyzed by using FMRIB's integrated registration and segmentation tool (FIRST. Both volumetric analysis and surface-based shape analysis were performed to characterize the subcortical morphology. The normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in the KOA group than in the control group (P = 0.004. There was also a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus in KOA as compared to the control group (P = 0.027. Detailed surface analyses further localized these differences with a greater involvement of the left hemisphere (P < 0.05, corrected for the caudate nucleus. Hemispheric asymmetry (right larger than left of the caudate nucleus was found in both KOA and control groups. Besides, no significant correlation was found between the structural data and pain intensities. Our results indicated that patients with KOA had statistically significant smaller normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus and a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus as compared to the control subjects. Further investigations are necessary to characterize the role of caudate nucleus in the course of chronicity of pain associated with KOA.

  7. Assessment of stiffness of the hypertrophied left ventricle of bicyclists using left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R; Van den Broeke, C; Bielen, E; Vanhees, L; Amery, A

    1987-06-01

    Sixteen male bicyclists and 16 control subjects were studied to assess whether the left ventricular hypertrophy of athletes is associated with changes in diastolic left ventricular function. The cyclists had a larger left ventricular internal diameter on echocardiography (55.2 versus 47.9 mm; p less than 0.001) and a disproportionate increase in wall thickness relative to the internal diameter (0.48 versus 0.41; p less than 0.01), indicating a mixed eccentric-concentric type of hypertrophy. Left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry showed similar results in athletes and control subjects for peak flow velocities in the atrial contraction phase (30 versus 32 cm/s; p = NS) and in the early diastolic rapid filling phase (71 versus 67 cm/s; p = NS). The similar ratio of both velocities, that is, 0.43 in the cyclists and 0.49 in the control subjects, suggests that left ventricular distensibility is unaltered in cyclists. It is concluded that the left ventricular hypertrophy observed in cyclists is not associated with changes in ventricular stiffness, as estimated from left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry.

  8. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch ranges between 1% and 5.8%.1,2 This anomaly has important implications for thoracic surgery and interventional procedures. The left vertebral artery may originate from: • the left common carotid artery. • the root of the left subclavian artery ...

  9. Left bronchial artery arising from a replaced left hepatic artery in a patient with massive hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 70-year-old man with a 3-year history of bronchiectasis presented with massive hemoptysis that had lasted for 3 days. In our attempt to perform bronchial artery embolization, upper abdominal angiography was required to locate the left bronchial artery, which in this case was of anomalous origin, arising from a replaced left hepatic artery, which arose from the left gastric artery-a very unusual anatomical variant. We performed embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely, with no additional complications after conservative treatment.

  10. Centrality dependence of pseudorapidity spectra of charged particles produced in the nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Z.; Suleymanov, M. K.; Belashev, B. Z.; Vokal, S.; Vrláková, J.; Zahir, A.; Mehmood, S.; Ajaz, M.; Khalilova, Sh.; Tufail, M.

    2014-07-01

    We have analyzed the pseudorapidity spectra of charged relativistic particles with β > 0.7 produced in Pb + Em (at energy 158 A GeV) reactions as a function of centrality. The relativistic nucleus beams were obtained from SPS machine. The number of g-particles (particles with 0.23 ≤ β ≤ 0.7) has been used to fix the centrality. We have applied the maximum entropy method to analyses the spectra and found some selected pseudorapidity values—nontrivial structure.

  11. A Review of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel T. French

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc and pars dissipatus (PPNd, and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The BG controls locomotion and posture via GABAergic output of the substantia nigra pars reticulate (SNr. In PD patients, GABAergic BG output levels are abnormally increased, and gait disturbances are produced via abnormal increases in SNr-induced inhibition of the MLR. Since the PPN is vastly connected with the BG and the brainstem, dysfunction within these systems lead to advanced symptomatic progression in Parkinson's disease (PD, including sleep and cognitive issues. To date, the best treatment is to perform deep brain stimulation (DBS on PD patients as outcomes have shown positive effects in ameliorating the debilitating symptoms of this disease by treating pathological circuitries within the parkinsonian brain. It is therefore important to address the challenges and develop this procedure to improve the quality of life of PD patients.

  12. Calcium signaling in synapse-to-nucleus communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenston, Anna M; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-11-01

    Changes in the intracellular concentration of calcium ions in neurons are involved in neurite growth, development, and remodeling, regulation of neuronal excitability, increases and decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, and the activation of survival and programmed cell death pathways. An important aspect of the signals that trigger these processes is that they are frequently initiated in the form of glutamatergic neurotransmission within dendritic trees, while their completion involves specific changes in the patterns of genes expressed within neuronal nuclei. Accordingly, two prominent aims of research concerned with calcium signaling in neurons are determination of the mechanisms governing information conveyance between synapse and nucleus, and discovery of the rules dictating translation of specific patterns of inputs into appropriate and specific transcriptional responses. In this article, we present an overview of the avenues by which glutamatergic excitation of dendrites may be communicated to the neuronal nucleus and the primary calcium-dependent signaling pathways by which synaptic activity can invoke changes in neuronal gene expression programs.

  13. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  14. Tools for visualization of phosphoinositides in the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalasova, Ilona; Fáberová, Veronika; Kalendová, Alžběta; Yildirim, Sukriye; Uličná, Lívia; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are glycerol-based phospholipids containing hydrophilic inositol ring. The inositol ring is mono-, bis-, or tris-phosphorylated yielding seven PIs members. Ample evidence shows that PIs localize both to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus. However, tools for direct visualization of nuclear PIs are limited and many studies thus employ indirect approaches, such as staining of their metabolic enzymes. Since localization and mobility of PIs differ from their metabolic enzymes, these approaches may result in incomplete data. In this paper, we tested commercially available PIs antibodies by light microscopy on fixed cells, tested their specificity using protein-lipid overlay assay and blocking assay, and compared their staining patterns. Additionally, we prepared recombinant PIs-binding domains and tested them on both fixed and live cells by light microscopy. The results provide a useful overview of usability of the tools tested and stress that the selection of adequate tools is critical. Knowing the localization of individual PIs in various functional compartments should enable us to better understand the roles of PIs in the cell nucleus.

  15. Nucleus-acoustic shock waves in white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The nucleus-acoustic shock waves (NASWs) propagating in a white dwarf plasma system, which contain non-relativistically or ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons, non-relativistically degenerate, viscous fluid of light nuclei, and immobile nuclei of heavy elements, have been theoretically investigated. We have used the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite-amplitude NASWs to derive the Burgers equation. The NASWs are, in fact, associated with the nucleus-acoustic (NA) waves in which the inertia is provided by the light nuclei, and restoring force is provided by the degenerate pressure of electrons. On the other hand, the stationary heavy nuclei participate only in maintaining the background charge neutrality condition at equilibrium. It is found that the viscous force acting in the fluid of light nuclei is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of NASWs. It is also observed that the basic features (polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the NASWs are significantly modified by the presence of heavy nuclei, and that NASWs are formed with either positive or negative potential depending on the values of the charge density of the heavy nuclei. The basic properties are also found to be significantly modified by the effects of ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons. The implications of our results in white dwarfs are briefly discussed.

  16. Suprachiasmatic modulation of noradrenaline release in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mleux, Benoît; Bayer, Laurence; Eggermann, Emmanuel; Jones, Barbara E; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2007-06-13

    As the major brain circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is known to influence the timing of sleep and waking. We thus investigated here the effect of SCN stimulation on neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) thought to be involved in promoting sleep. Using an acute in vitro preparation of the rat anterior hypothalamus/preoptic area, we found that whereas single-pulse stimulations of the SCN evoked standard fast ionotropic IPSPs and EPSPs, train stimulations unexpectedly evoked a long-lasting inhibition (LLI). Such LLIs could also be evoked in VLPO neurons by pressure application of NMDA within the SCN, indicating the specific activation of SCN neurons. This LLI was shown to result from the presynaptic facilitation of noradrenaline release, because it was suppressed in presence of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of alpha2-adrenoreceptors. The LLI depended on the opening of a potassium conductance, because it was annulled at E(K) and could be reversed below E(K). These results show that the SCN can provide an LLI of the sleep-promoting VLPO neurons that could play a role in the circadian organization of the sleep-waking cycle.

  17. Fusion reaction using low energy neutron-excess nucleus beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu

    1994-01-01

    The present state and the plan of the experiment of measuring the fusion reaction near barriers by using neutron-excess nucleus beam, which has been advanced at RIKEN are reported. One of the purposes of this experiment is the feasibility investigation of the fusion reaction by using neutron-excess nuclei, which is indispensable for synthesizing superheavy elements. It is intended to systematically explore some enhancing mechanism in the neutron-excess nuclei which are unfavorable in beam intensity. This research can become the good means to prove the dynamic behavior of the neutrons on the surfaces of nuclei in reaction. The fusion reaction of 27 Al + Au was measured by using the stable nucleus beam of 27 Al, and the results are shown. In order to know the low energy fusion reaction of 11 Li and 11 Be which are typical halo nuclei, the identification by characteristic α ray of composite nuclei is carried out in 7,9,11 Li + 209 Bi and 9,10,11 Be + 208 Pb. A new detector having high performance, New MUSIC, is being developed. As the experiment by using this detector, the efficient measurement of the fusion reaction by using heavy neutron-excess nuclei up to Ni is considered. An example of 8 Li + α → 11 B + n reaction for celestial body physics is mentioned. (K.I.)

  18. Lifetime measurements in shape transition nucleus {sup 188}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohilla, Aman; Gupta, C.K.; Chamoli, S.K. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, New Delhi (India); Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India); Chakraborty, S.; Sharma, H.P. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Varanasi (India); Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Biswas, D.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Nuclear level lifetimes of high spin states in yrast and non-yrast bands of {sup 188}Pt nucleus have been measured using recoil distance plunger setup present at IUAC, Delhi. In the experiment nuclear states of interest were populated via {sup 174}Yb({sup 18}O,4n){sup 188}Pt reaction at a beam energy of 79MeV provided by 15 UD Pelletron accelerator. The extracted B(E2 ↓) values show an initial rise up to 4{sup +} state and then a nearly constant behavior with spin along yrast band, indicating change of nuclear structure in {sup 188}Pt at low spins. The good agreement between experimental and TPSM model B(E2 ↓) values up to 4{sup +} state suggests an increase in axial deformation of the nucleus. The average absolute β{sub 2} = 0.20 (3) obtained from measured B(E2 ↓) values matches well the values predicted by CHFB and IBM calculations for oblate (β{sub 2} ∝ -0.19) and prolate (β{sub 2} ∝ 0.22) shapes. As the lifetime measurements do not yield the sign of β{sub 2}, no definite conclusion can be drawn on the prolate or oblate collectivity of {sup 188}Pt on the basis of present measurements. (orig.)

  19. Lifetime measurements in shape transition nucleus 188Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohilla, Aman; Gupta, C. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Sharma, H. P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I. M.; Biswas, D. C.; Chamoli, S. K.

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear level lifetimes of high spin states in yrast and non-yrast bands of 188Pt nucleus have been measured using recoil distance plunger setup present at IUAC, Delhi. In the experiment nuclear states of interest were populated via 174Yb(18O,4 n)188Pt reaction at a beam energy of 79MeV provided by 15 UD Pelletron accelerator. The extracted B(E2\\downarrow) values show an initial rise up to 4+ state and then a nearly constant behavior with spin along yrast band, indicating change of nuclear structure in 188Pt at low spins. The good agreement between experimental and TPSM model B(E2\\downarrow) values up to 4^+ state suggests an increase in axial deformation of the nucleus. The average absolute β2 = 0.20 (3) obtained from measured B(E2\\downarrow) values matches well the values predicted by CHFB and IBM calculations for oblate ( β2 ˜ -0.19) and prolate (β2 ˜ 0.22) shapes. As the lifetime measurements do not yield the sign of β2, no definite conclusion can be drawn on the prolate or oblate collectivity of 188Pt on the basis of present measurements.

  20. Monte Carlo Simulation for Statistical Decay of Compound Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick M.B.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We perform Monte Carlo simulations for neutron and γ-ray emissions from a compound nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory. This Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach (MCHF method calculation, which gives us correlated information between emitted particles and γ-rays. It will be a powerful tool in many applications, as nuclear reactions can be probed in a more microscopic way. We have been developing the MCHF code, CGM, which solves the Hauser-Feshbach theory with the Monte Carlo method. The code includes all the standard models that used in a standard Hauser-Feshbach code, namely the particle transmission generator, the level density module, interface to the discrete level database, and so on. CGM can emit multiple neutrons, as long as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is larger than the neutron separation energy. The γ-ray competition is always included at each compound decay stage, and the angular momentum and parity are conserved. Some calculations for a fission fragment 140Xe are shown as examples of the MCHF method, and the correlation between the neutron and γ-ray is discussed.

  1. Axonal branching patterns of nucleus accumbens neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anushree; Prensa, Lucía; Cebrián, Carolina; Mengual, Elisa

    2010-11-15

    The patterns of axonal collateralization of nucleus accumbens (Acb) projection neurons were investigated in the rat by means of single-axon tracing techniques using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine. Seventy-three axons were fully traced, originating from either the core (AcbC) or shell (AcbSh) compartment, as assessed by differential calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity. Axons from AcbC and AcbSh showed a substantial segregation in their targets; target areas were either exclusively or preferentially innervated from AcbC or AcbSh. Axon collaterals in the subthalamic nucleus were found at higher than expected frequencies; moreover, these originated exclusively in the dorsal AcbC. Intercompartmental collaterals were observed from ventral AcbC axons into AcbSh, and likewise, interconnections at pallidal and mesencephalic levels were also observed, although mostly from AcbC axons toward AcbSh targets, possibly supporting crosstalk between the two subcircuits at several levels. Cell somata giving rise to short-range accumbal axons, projecting to the ventral pallidum (VP), were spatially intermingled with others, giving rise to long-range axons that innervated VP and more caudal targets. This anatomical organization parallels that of the dorsal striatum and provides the basis for possible dual direct and indirect actions from a single axon on either individual or small sets of neurons. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadhri, Comandur [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  3. A nucleus-based quality control mechanism for cytosolic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rupali; Kawaguchi, Shinichi; Ng, Davis T W

    2010-07-01

    Intracellular quality control systems monitor protein conformational states. Irreversibly misfolded proteins are cleared through specialized degradation pathways. Their importance is underscored by numerous pathologies caused by aberrant proteins. In the cytosol, where most proteins are synthesized, quality control remains poorly understood. Stress-inducible chaperones and the 26S proteasome are known mediators but how their activities are linked is unclear. To better understand these mechanisms, a panel of model misfolded substrates was analyzed in detail. Surprisingly, their degradation occurs not in the cytosol but in the nucleus. Degradation is dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase San1p, known previously to direct the turnover of damaged nuclear proteins. A second E3 enzyme, Ubr1p, augments this activity but is insufficient by itself. San1p and Ubr1p are not required for nuclear import of substrates. Instead, the Hsp70 chaperone system is needed for efficient import and degradation. These data reveal a new function of the nucleus as a compartment central to the quality control of cytosolic proteins.

  4. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  5. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  6. Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy and left ventricular assist device: a word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornberger, A; Stock, U A; Risteski, P; Beiras Fernandez, A

    2016-07-15

    In patients with left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may be performed as a bridge to transplantation. In this respect, the particular characteristics of the left ventricular myocardium may represent a challenge. We report a patient with LVNC who required urgent heart transplantation for inflow cannula obstruction nine months after receiving a LVAD. LVAD parameters, echocardiography and examination of the explanted heart suggested changes of left ventricular configuration brought about by LVAD support as the most likely cause of inflow cannula obstruction. We conclude that changes experienced by non-compacted myocardium during LVAD support may give rise to inflow cannula obstruction and flow reduction. Presence of LVNC mandates tight surveillance for changes in LV configuration and LVAD flow characteristics and may justify urgent transplantation listing status.

  7. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  8. Left-right symmetric electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.

    1989-10-01

    We present a critical analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs sector of the conventional SU(2) L circle-times SU(2) R circle-times U(1) B-L left-right symmetric theory involving bi-doublet and triplet Higgs fields. We examine the phenomenological constraints imposed on the minimization of the Higgs potential arising from experimental observations, and explore the resulting consequences including the problem of ''fine- tuning'' arising from the hierarchy of mass scales involved. We show that it is non-trivial to satisfy all of these constraints. We contrast the benefits of this general class left-right models against the required ''fine-tuning'' necessary to force the phenomenology to conform to experimental fact. 17 refs., 1 fig

  9. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  10. Total agenesis of the left pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Fº

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a 46-year-old patient with the preoperative diagnosis of an atrial septal defect (ASD of the ostium secudum type. After sternectomy, partial agenesis of the left pericardium was diagnosed. It is our opinion that, if the radiographic picture is suggestive of this entity, a clinical search for cardiopulmonary anomalies should be performed, because the majority of these associated anomalies can and should be surgically corrected.

  11. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  12. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 1 4 × 2 8  mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and ...

  13. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsekhar Varda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14×28 mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms.

  14. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma involving the left pulmonary vein presenting as a left atrial tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman presented with 4 months history of progressively increasing intermittent dyspnea and hemoptysis. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a loculated mass in the left atrium (LA. A provisional diagnosis of LA myxoma was made. Intraoperatively the tumor was found extending into and closely adherent to the left pulmonary vein and could not be completely cleared off from the pulmonary venous wall. The histopathological examination of the tumor revealed it to be a myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

  15. Implantation of left ventricular assist device in a patient with left ventricular non-compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Keki R; Bierhals, Andrew; Vader, Justin; Pasque, Michael K; Itoh, Aki

    2017-02-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) may result in systolic left ventricular (LV) failure resulting in the need for heart transplantation. LV assist devices (LVAD) have been used to bridge these patients to transplantation; however, the extensive trabeculations found in these patients predispose them to thromboembolic events and pump thrombosis. We describe a patient with LVNC in whom an aggressive surgical approach was used to debride the LV cavity of trabeculations to successfully implant an LVAD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension secondary to Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbach, Ghazal; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2017-09-12

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) related to left heart disease (LHD) is the most common form of PH, accounting for more than two third of all PH cases. The hemodynamic abnormalities seen in PH-LHD are complex, and there are currently minimal evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. While it is accepted that PH in the context of left heart disease is a marker of worse prognosis, it remains unclear whether its primary treatment is beneficial or harmful. In this article, we discuss the prevalence and significance of PH in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) as well as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and those with valvular heart disease and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interrelationship in individuals with PH due to left heart disease. Furthermore, we provide a framework for diagnostic testing and an approach to optimal management of these complex patients based on current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Anomalous Origin of Left Circumflex Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çitaku, Hajdin; Kamberi, Lulzim; Gorani, Daut; Koçinaj, Dardan; Krasniqi, Xhevdet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The coronary anatomic variation of the left circumflex artery (LCx) is considered as the most common anatomic variation with a separate ostium from the right sinus, and very unusual variation as a proximal branch of right coronary artery (RCA). Case report: We report two cases, the first case is a 64-year-old man with chest pain and with history of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and current smoker, and the second case is a 67-year-old who presented to the emergency department with chest pain and with a past medical history of arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the coronarography of the first case is detected an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the right coronary sinus with stenotic changes in RCA and LCx. The second case in the coronary angiography revealed an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the proximal part of the right coronary artery with stenotic changes in LAD, RCA and LCx. Based on guidelines for revascularization our patients successfully underwent treatment procedures. We present two cases that because of the atherosclerotic coronary artery disease leads to the need of coronarography find out the presence of coronary artery anomalies. Conclusion: During the coronarography we should think about coronary artery anomaly or missing artery knowing that type of these anomalies, considering that may be a contributing factor in the development of the atherosclerosis determines the method of the treatment. PMID:26843740

  18. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Correlations between projectile and target breakup: a comparative study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at 75, 175 and 2000A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarle, C.; Herrstroem, N.Y.; Kullberg, R.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.

    1982-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collision in three different energy intervals: 50-100, 150-200 and 1900-2100A MeV have been studied in nuclear emulsion. The reactions were 16 O + average emulsion target (H, C, N, O, Ag, Br). In each event, all emitted charged particles were recorded, projectile fragments with Z>=2 identifed and the number of charged particles from the target nucleus was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the geometrical aspects of Heavy Ion collisions and direct comparisons are made with the Coldhaber fragmentation model

  20. Role of the red nucleus in suppressing the jaw-opening reflex following stimulation of the raphe magnus nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yoshihide; Ishizuka, Ken'Ichi; Iwasaki, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study, we found that electrical and chemical stimulation of the red nucleus (RN) suppressed the high-threshold afferent-evoked jaw-opening reflex (JOR). It has been reported that the RN receives bilaterally projection fibers from the raphe magnus nucleus (RMg), and that stimulation of the RMg inhibits the tooth pulp-evoked nociceptive JOR. These facts imply that RMg-induced inhibition of the JOR could be mediated via the RN. The present study first examines whether stimulation of the RMg suppresses the high-threshold afferent-evoked JOR. The JOR was evoked by electrical stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), and was recorded as the electromyographic response of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. The stimulus intensity was 4.0 (high-threshold) times the threshold. Conditioning electrical stimulation of the RMg significantly suppressed the JOR. A further study then examined whether electrically induced lesions of the RN or microinjection of muscimol into the RN affects RMg-induced suppression of the JOR. Electrically induced lesions of the bilateral RN and microinjection of muscimol into the bilateral RN both reduced the RMg-induced suppression of the JOR. These results suggest that RMg-induced suppression of the high-threshold afferent-evoked JOR is mediated by a relay in the RN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.