WorldWideScience

Sample records for left brain injured

  1. Helping brain injured children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S J

    1998-01-01

    For many brain injured children, whether the injury is congenital or the result of subsequent illness or accident, there is little to be done to put right the underlying problem. Treatment programmes, however, can encourage better motor and cognitive function and better nutrition. NHS continuing care for brain injured children is under-resourced, often amounting to only half an hour of physiotherapy fortnightly or even monthly. The British Institute for Brain Injured Children (BIBIC) is a registered charity which exists to help families with a brain injured child to learn to apply simple, practical, inexpensive treatment programmes themselves, in their own homes. Initial assessments and training take place at the BIBIC Centre in Somerset. Families are asked to contribute towards costs if they are in a position to, but treatment does not depend on ability to pay. Treatment sessions often last about 30 minutes and families may be advised to carry out two or more sessions every day. Telephone help and continuing support is available from BIBIC, and families are encouraged to retain contact with their GP and hospital consultants, and local services.

  2. RECREATION AND SOCIALIZATION FOR THE BRAIN INJURED CHILD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLUB, RISA S.; GORDON, SOL

    DESIGNED FOR PARENTS AND SPECIALISTS PLANNING THERAPEUTICALLY ORIENTED RECREATIONAL AND SOCIALIZATION PROGRAMS FOR BRAIN INJURED CHILDREN, THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS 13 CHAPTERS BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS. ACTIVITIES DISCUSSED ARE GENERALLY NONCOMPETITIVE, EMPHASIZING STRUCTURE AND LIMIT. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE ROLE OF THE OPTOMETRIST WITH THE INADEQUATE…

  3. First clinical experience with intranasal cooling for hyperthermia in brain-injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Springborg, Karoline Kanstrup; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia is common in brain-injured patients and associated with a worse outcome. As brain rather than body temperature reduction, theoretically, is the most important in cerebral protection, there is logic in targeting cooling at the brain. Selective brain cooling can, in theory, be obtained...... by cooling the skull or by heat loss from the upper airways. In this preliminary safety and efficacy study, we report clinical data from brain-injured patients who because of hyperthermia were treated with intranasal cooling....

  4. Proximal and distal effects of play on child compliance with a brain-injured parent.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducharme, J M; Rushford, N

    2001-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury may experience severe cognitive and other impairments. For brain-injured parents, such deficits may be associated with child behavior problems, including noncompliance. We assessed the effects of a play period conducted by a brain-injured father on the compliance of his son, who had become uncooperative with his father after the injury. The child consistently demonstrated improved compliance during proximal and distal compliance sessions that followed father-son ...

  5. Teaching Creativity for Right Brain and Left Brain Thinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Joel

    Right brain and left brain dominant people process information differently and need different techniques to learn how to become more creative. Various exercises can help students take advantage of both sides of their brains. Students must feel comfortable and unthreatened to reach maximal creativity, and a positive personal relationship with…

  6. Changes of an injured fornix in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury: diffusion tensor tractography follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Do; Jang, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the changes of an injured fornix from early stage to chronic stage in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 25-year-old female suffered from head trauma resulting from a pedestrian car accident. The patient showed a total score of 86 for memory impairment on the Memory Assessment Scale at 2 weeks after onset; however, her memory has been recovered to within normal range, with a score of 105 at 9 months after onset. The middle portion of the right fornical crus showed narrowing and the discontinued left fornical crus was shortened on 9-month DTT compared with 2-week DTT. Two branches from the right fornical column and body were observed on 9-month DTT; in contrast, the two branches from the left fornical column and the left fornical body were elongated and shortened, respectively, on 9-month DTT compared with 2-week DTT. The narrowed lesion in the middle of the right fornical crus and the shortening of the discontinued left fornical crus appear to indicate degeneration following traumatic axonal injury. In contrast, the neural branches from both fornices appear to be related to the functional recovery mechanisms of the injured fornix.

  7. Region-specific disruption of synapsin phosphorylation following ethanol administration in brain-injured mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Caruso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Civilians and military personnel develop a range of physical and psychosocial impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI, including alcohol abuse. As a consequence, increased rates of alcohol misuse magnify TBI-induced pathologies and impede rehabilitation efforts. Therefore, a developed understanding of the mechanisms that foster susceptibility of the injured brain to alcohol sensitivity and the response of the injured brain to alcohol is imperative for the treatment of TBI patients. Alcohol sensitivity has been demonstrated to be increased following experimental TBI and, in additional studies, regulated by presynaptic vesicle release mechanisms, including synapsin phosphorylation. Materials and Methods: Mice were exposed to controlled midline impact of the intact skull and assessed for cortical, hippocampal, and striatal expression of phosphorylated synapsin I and II in response to high-dose ethanol exposure administered 14 days following injury, a time point at which injured mice demonstrate increased sedation after ethanol exposure. Results and Discussion: Immunoblot quantitation revealed that TBI alone, compared to sham controls, significantly increased phosphorylated synapsin I and II protein expression in the striatum. In sham controls, ethanol administration significantly increased phosphorylated synapsin I and II protein expression compared to saline-treated sham controls; however, no significant increase in ethanol-induced phosphorylated synapsin I and II protein expression was observed in the striatum of injured mice compared to saline-treated TBI controls. A similar expression pattern was observed in the cortex although restricted to increases in phosphorylated synapsin II. Conclusion: These data show that increased phosphorylated synapsin expression in the injured striatum may reflect a compensatory neuroplastic response to TBI which is proposed to occur as a result of a compromised presynaptic response of the

  8. Facial Expression Recognition for Traumatic Brain Injured Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilyas, Chaudhary Muhammad Aqdus; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the issues associated with facial expression recognition of Traumatic Brain Insured (TBI) patients in a realistic scenario. These patients have restricted or limited muscle movements with reduced facial expressions along with non-cooperative behavior, impaired reason...

  9. Intranasal MSCs: Boosting regeneration of the neonatal injured brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques Donega, V.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains a major health issue worldwide. A HI-insult results in brain damage with subsequent development of motor and cognitive impairments like cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Currently, hypothermia is the only available treatment, but is

  10. Cell death in the injured brain: roles of metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Ø; Larsen, Agnete; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2009-01-01

    oxygen species (ROS). ROS promote oxidative stress, which leads to neurodegeneration and ultimately results in programmed cell death (secondary injury). Since this delayed, secondary tissue loss occurs days to months following the primary injury it provides a therapeutic window where potential......In traumatic brain injury (TBI), the primary, irreversible damage associated with the moment of impact consists of cells dying from necrosis. This contributes to fuelling a chronic central nervous system (CNS) inflammation with increased formation of proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes and reactive...

  11. Brain injury in combination with tacrolimus promotes the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-ze He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both brain injury and tacrolimus have been reported to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, before transection of rat sciatic nerve, moderate brain contusion was (or was not induced. After sciatic nerve injury, tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant, was (or was not intraperitoneally administered. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, Masson's trichrome, hematoxylin-eosin, and toluidine blue staining results revealed that brain injury or tacrolimus alone or their combination alleviated gastrocnemius muscle atrophy and sciatic nerve fiber impairment on the experimental side, simultaneously improved sciatic nerve function, and increased gastrocnemius muscle wet weight on the experimental side. At 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, brain injury induction and/or tacrolimus treatment increased action potential amplitude in the sciatic nerve trunk. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord was greatly increased. Brain injury in combination with tacrolimus exhibited better effects on repair of injured peripheral nerves than brain injury or tacrolimus alone. This result suggests that brain injury in combination with tacrolimus promotes repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  12. Delivery of large molecules via poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles into the injured rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yong; Pan Yaohua; Huang Xianjian; Jiang Jiyao; Shi Yinfeng; Jia Nengqin

    2012-01-01

    Poly(n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles have been successfully applied to deliver small-molecule drugs to the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unclear whether PBCA nanoparticles can be used as the delivery system for large molecules to potentially treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we tested the capacity of PBCA nanoparticles in passing through the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and transporting large molecules into normal and injured brains in the rat. We first synthesized PBCA nanoparticles by dispersion polymerization and then loaded the particles with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP, 29 kDa), which were further coated with polysorbate 80. Next, the polysorbate 80-coated HRP or EGFP-loaded PBCA nanoparticles were intravenously injected into the normal and brain-injured rats. We found that, at 45 min after injection, PBCA nanoparticle-delivered HRP or EGFP was hardly detected in the normal brains of the rats, but a small amount of EGFP carried by PBCA nanoparticles was noted in the normal brains 48 h after administration, which was further confirmed by immunolocalization with anti-EGFP antibodies. In contrast, at 4 h after TBI with a circulation time of 45 min, although the penetration of HRP or EGFP alone was hampered by the BBB, the PBCA nanoparticle-delivered HRP or EGFP was widely distributed near injured sites. Together, our findings provide histological evidence that PBCA nanoparticles can be used as an efficient delivery system for large molecules to overcome the barrier in the brain with TBI. (paper)

  13. Neurodevelopment. Live imaging of adult neural stem cell behavior in the intact and injured zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rosario; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Baumgart, Emily Violette; Theis, Fabian J; Götz, Magdalena; Ninkovic, Jovica

    2015-05-15

    Adult neural stem cells are the source for restoring injured brain tissue. We used repetitive imaging to follow single stem cells in the intact and injured adult zebrafish telencephalon in vivo and found that neurons are generated by both direct conversions of stem cells into postmitotic neurons and via intermediate progenitors amplifying the neuronal output. We observed an imbalance of direct conversion consuming the stem cells and asymmetric and symmetric self-renewing divisions, leading to depletion of stem cells over time. After brain injury, neuronal progenitors are recruited to the injury site. These progenitors are generated by symmetric divisions that deplete the pool of stem cells, a mode of neurogenesis absent in the intact telencephalon. Our analysis revealed changes in the behavior of stem cells underlying generation of additional neurons during regeneration. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. On the use of dreams as a means of diagnosis of brain-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, B; Stern, J M

    1985-01-01

    In our psychotherapeutic work with brain injured patients it has become apparent that there exists a divergence between the two modes of expression with which the patient reflects his inner truth. In contrast to the patient's conscious self-perception, which is usually distorted by his cognitive deficits and by his defense mechanisms, the dream--the unconscious, uncovers another reality. The present paper cites a repeated pattern of initial dreams and an attempt is made to understand its diagnostic and prognostic meaning.

  15. TOOL USE DISORDERS AFTER LEFT BRAIN DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josselin eBaumard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review studies that investigated tool use disorders in left-brain damaged (LBD patients over the last thirty years. Four tasks are classically used in the field of apraxia: Pantomime of tool use, single tool use, real tool use and mechanical problem solving. Our aim was to address two issues, namely, (1 the role of mechanical knowledge in real tool use and (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying pantomime of tool use, a task widely employed by clinicians and researchers. To do so, we extracted data from 36 papers and computed the difference between healthy subjects and LBD patients. On the whole, pantomime of tool use is the most difficult task and real tool use is the easiest one. Moreover, associations seem to appear between pantomime of tool use, real tool use and mechanical problem solving. These results suggest that the loss of mechanical knowledge is critical in LBD patients, even if all of those tasks (and particularly pantomime of tool use might put differential demands on semantic memory and working memory.

  16. A novel strategy to activate cytoprotective genes in the injured brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jing; Redell, John B.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy to increase cytoprotective gene expression in injured tissue is outlined. → A peptide containing a DEETGE motif can increase Nrf2 responsive genes in vivo. → Gene expression in injured brains requires a calpain cleavage site. → This peptide decreases BBB compromise when infused pre- or post-brain injury. → Cleavage sites for disease-specific proteases could be used to treat that condition. -- Abstract: The transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of multiple cytoprotective genes that have been shown to offer protection in response to a number of insults. The present study describes a novel strategy to increase expression of Nrf2-responsive genes in brain injured mice. Under normal conditions, the adapter protein Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) binds to Nrf2 and promotes its proteosomal degradation in the cytoplasm. The amino acid sequence DEETGE, located at amino acid 77-82 of Nrf2, is critical for Nrf2-Keap1 interaction, and synthetic peptides containing this sequence can be used to disrupt the complex in vitro. We observed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of a peptide containing the DEETGE sequence along with the cell transduction domain of the HIV-TAT protein (TAT-DEETGE) into brain-injured mice did not increase the mRNA levels for Nrf2-driven genes. However, when a calpain cleavage sequence was introduced between the TAT sequence and the DEETGE sequence, the new peptide (TAT-CAL-DEETGE) increased the mRNA levels of these genes. Increased gene expression was not observed when the TAT-CAL-DEETGE peptide was injected into uninjured animals. Furthermore, injection of TAT-CAL-DEETGE peptides before or after brain injury reduced blood-brain barrier compromise, a prominent secondary pathology that negatively influences outcome. The present strategy to increase Nrf2-responsive gene expression can be adapted to treat other insults or diseases based on their

  17. Improving the Work Potential of Brain-Injured Adolescents and Young Adults: A Model for Evaluation and Individualized Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann V.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A work program is described that was designed for the brain-injured population. The program addresses cognitive abilities that may be affected by brain injury (orientation, attention, memory, sequencing and problem solving) and possible socioemotional changes (disinhibition, anger control, frustration tolerance, and emotional ability). Case…

  18. New neurons for injured brains? The emergence of new genetic model organisms to study brain regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Ismael; Rhiner, Christa

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal circuits in the adult brain have long been viewed as static and stable. However, research in the past 20 years has shown that specialized regions of the adult brain, which harbor adult neural stem cells, continue to produce new neurons in a wide range of species. Brain plasticity is also observed after injury. Depending on the extent and permissive environment of neurogenic regions, different organisms show great variability in their capacity to replace lost neurons by endogenous neurogenesis. In Zebrafish and Drosophila, the formation of new neurons from progenitor cells in the adult brain was only discovered recently. Here, we compare properties of adult neural stem cells, their niches and regenerative responses from mammals to flies. Current models of brain injury have revealed that specific injury-induced genetic programs and comparison of neuronal fitness are implicated in brain repair. We highlight the potential of these recently implemented models of brain regeneration to identify novel regulators of stem cell activation and regenerative neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. WAIS-III and WMS-III profiles of mildly to severely brain-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D C; Ledbetter, M F; Cohen, N J; Marmor, D; Tulsky, D S

    2000-01-01

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III; The Psychological Corporation, 1997) scores of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI, n = 23) to moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (M-S TBI, n = 22) were compared to those of 45 matched normal control patients. WAIS-III results revealed that IQ and index scores of MTBI patients did not significantly differ from those of controls, whereas M-S TBI patients received significantly lower mean scores on all measures. All M-S TBI patients' WMS-III index scores also revealed significantly lower scores in comparison to those of control participants, with the exception of Delayed Auditory Recognition. MTBI patients showed significantly lower mean index scores compared to normal controls on measures of immediate and delayed auditory memory, immediate memory, visual delayed memory, and general memory. Eta-squared analyses revealed that WMS-III visual indexes and WAIS-III processing speed showed particularly large effect sizes. These results suggest that symptomatic MTBI patients obtain some low WMS-III test scores comparable to those of more severely injured patients.

  20. Gesturing with an Injured Brain: How Gesture Helps Children with Early Brain Injury Learn Linguistic Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcaliskan, Seyda; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Children with pre/perinatal unilateral brain lesions (PL) show remarkable plasticity for language development. Is this plasticity characterized by the same developmental trajectory that characterizes typically developing (TD) children, with gesture leading the way into speech? We explored this question, comparing eleven children with PL -- matched…

  1. Gesturing with an injured brain: How gesture helps children with early brain injury learn linguistic constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Children with pre/perinatal unilateral brain lesions (PL) show remarkable plasticity for language development. Is this plasticity characterized by the same developmental trajectory that characterizes typically developing (TD) children, with gesture leading the way into speech? We explored this question, comparing 11 children with PL—matched to 30 TD children on expressive vocabulary—in the second year of life. Children with PL showed similarities to TD children for simple but not complex sent...

  2. Predictive patterns of sensory evoked potentials in comatose brain injured patients evolving to brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Maenia; Lanzo, Giovanni; Carrai, Riccardo; Lolli, Francesco; Migliaccio, Maria Luisa; Spalletti, Maddalena; Peris, Adriano; Amantini, Aldo; Grippo, Antonello

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs), recorded within 24h after ICU admission, are reliable predictors of brain death (BD) in comatose patients with acquired brain injury of various aetiologies. SEPs were classified as absent (A), pathological (P), and normal (N). Considering SEP recordings from both hemispheres, 6 patterns were identified: NN, NP, PP, NA, AP, and AA. The final endpoint was BD. Of the 203 patients included in the study, 70 (34%) evolved toward BD. The survival analysis indicated that the combination of SEP patterns in a two-graded scale (grade 1: NN-NP-PP-NA, and grade 2: AP-AA), allowed for prediction of BD with the best accuracy. This aggregation predicted BD with a sensitivity of 75.7% (CI: 64-84), a specificity of 76.6% (CI: 68-83), a positive predictive value of 64.2% (CI: 53-74) and a negative predictive value of 84.3% (CI: 77-90) in overall patients, and with a sensitivity of 75.0% (CI: 63-84), a specificity of 84.9% (CI: 75-90), a positive predictive value of 77.5% (CI: 63-88) and a negative predictive value of 84.3% (CI: 74-91) when excluding cardiac arrest. It is worth including SEPs, in association with other investigations and clinical signs, in prognostic scores of BD. The early identification of patients at high risk of evolving towards BD could help physicians to optimise management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus associated with decompressive cranial defect in severe brain-injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Song-sheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the occurrence of posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH in severe brain- injured patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC and to discuss the management. Methods: A total of 389 patients suffering from severe head trauma between January 2004 and May 2010 were enrolled in this study. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Of them, 149 patients who underwent DC were divided into two groups according to the presence of PTH: hydrocephalus group and nonhydrocephalus group. Clinical factors including preoperative Glasgow Coma Score (GCS, bilateral or unilateral decompression, and duraplasty in DC were assessed by single factor analysis to determine its relationship with the occurrence of PTH. Results: Of the 149 patients undergoing DC, 25 (16.8% developed PTH; while 23 developed PTH (9.6% among the rest 240 patients without DC. Preoperative GCS, bilateral or unilateral decompression, duraplasty in DC were significantly associated with the development of PTH. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed on 23 of 25 patients with PTH after DC. Frontal horn was preferred for the placement of the catheter. Sixteen of them were operated upon via frontal approach and 7 via occipital approach. After shunt surgery, both radiological and clinical improvements were confirmed in 19 patients. Radiological improvement was found in 2 patients. One patient died eventually of severe pneumonia. Shunt-related infection occurred in 1 patient, which led to the removal of the catheter. Conclusions: It is demonstrated that the occurrence of PTH is high in patients with large decompressive skull defect. Patients with low GCS and bilateral decompression tend to develop PTH after DC. Duraplasty in DC might facilitate reducing the occurrence of PTH. Patients with PTH concomitant skull defect should be managed deliberately to restore the anatomical and physiological integrity so as to facilitate the neurological resuscitation. Key

  4. Corticotherapy for traumatic brain-injured Patients - The Corti-TC trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehnoune Karim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a main cause of severe prolonged disability of young patients. Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP add to the morbidity and mortality of traumatic brain-injured patients. In one study, hydrocortisone for treatment of traumatic-induced corticosteroid insufficiency (CI in multiple injured patients has prevented HAP, particularly in the sub-group of patients with severe TBI. Fludrocortisone is recommended in severe brain-injured patients suffering from acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Whether an association of hydrocortisone with fludrocortisone protects from HAP and improves neurological recovery is uncertain. The aim of the current study is to compare corticotherapy to placebo for TBI patients with CI. Methods The CORTI-TC (Corticotherapy in traumatic brain-injured patients trial is a multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, two-arms study. Three hundred and seventy six patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit with a severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8 are randomized in the first 24 hours following trauma to hydrocortisone (200 mg.day-1 for 7 days, 100 mg on days 8-9 and 50 mg on day-10 with fludrocortisone (50 μg for 10 days or double placebo. The treatment is stopped if patients have an appropriate adrenal response. The primary endpoint is HAP on day-28. The endpoint of the ancillary study is the neurological status on 6 and 12 months. Discussion The CORTI-TC trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether hydrocortisone with fludrocortisone in TBI patients with CI prevent HAP and improve long term recovery. Trial registration NCT01093261

  5. Narratives of focal brain injured individuals: A macro-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Ayşenur; Göksun, Tilbe; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2017-05-01

    Focal brain injury can have detrimental effects on the pragmatics of communication. This study examined narrative production by unilateral brain damaged people (n=36) and healthy controls and focused on the complexity (content and coherence) and the evaluative aspect of their narratives to test the general hypothesis that the left hemisphere is biased to process microlinguistic information and the right hemisphere is biased to process macrolinguistic information. We found that people with left hemisphere damage's (LHD) narratives were less likely to maintain the overall theme of the story and produced fewer evaluative comments in their narratives. These deficits correlated with their performances on microlinguistic linguistic tasks. People with the right hemisphere damage (RHD) seemed to be preserved in expressing narrative complexity and evaluations as a group. Yet, single case analyses revealed that particular regions in the right hemisphere such as damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the anterior and superior temporal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus lead to problems in creating narratives. Our findings demonstrate that both hemispheres are necessary to produce competent narrative production. LHD people's poor production is related to their microlinguistic language problems whereas RHD people's impaired abilities can be associated with planning and working memory abilities required to relate events in a narrative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospective Study on Noninvasive Assessment of Intracranial Pressure in Traumatic Brain-Injured Patients: Comparison of Four Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Cardim, Danilo; Robba, Chiara; Donnelly, Joseph; Bohdanowicz, Michal; Schmidt, Bernhard; Damian, Maxwell; Varsos, Georgios V.; Liu, Xiuyun; Cabeleira, Manuel; Frigieri, Gustavo; Cabella, Brenno; Smielewski, Peter; Mascarenhas, Sergio; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) may occur in many diseases, and therefore the ability to measure it noninvasively would be useful. Flow velocity signals from transcranial Doppler (TCD) have been used to estimate ICP; however, the relative accuracy of these methods is unclear. This study aimed to compare four previously described TCD-based methods with directly measured ICP in a prospective cohort of traumatic brain-injured patients. Noninvasive ICP (nICP) was obtained using the follo...

  7. Synaptic inputs from stroke-injured brain to grafted human stem cell-derived neurons activated by sensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Daniel; Tsupykov, Oleg; Granmo, Marcus; Rodriguez, Cristina; Grønning-Hansen, Marita; Thelin, Jonas; Smozhanik, Ekaterina; Laterza, Cecilia; Wattananit, Somsak; Ge, Ruimin; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Grealish, Shane; Brüstle, Oliver; Skibo, Galina; Parmar, Malin; Schouenborg, Jens; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2017-03-01

    Transplanted neurons derived from stem cells have been proposed to improve function in animal models of human disease by various mechanisms such as neuronal replacement. However, whether the grafted neurons receive functional synaptic inputs from the recipient's brain and integrate into host neural circuitry is unknown. Here we studied the synaptic inputs from the host brain to grafted cortical neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells after transplantation into stroke-injured rat cerebral cortex. Using the rabies virus-based trans-synaptic tracing method and immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrate that the grafted neurons receive direct synaptic inputs from neurons in different host brain areas located in a pattern similar to that of neurons projecting to the corresponding endogenous cortical neurons in the intact brain. Electrophysiological in vivo recordings from the cortical implants show that physiological sensory stimuli, i.e. cutaneous stimulation of nose and paw, can activate or inhibit spontaneous activity in grafted neurons, indicating that at least some of the afferent inputs are functional. In agreement, we find using patch-clamp recordings that a portion of grafted neurons respond to photostimulation of virally transfected, channelrhodopsin-2-expressing thalamo-cortical axons in acute brain slices. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the host brain regulates the activity of grafted neurons, providing strong evidence that transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons can become incorporated into injured cortical circuitry. Our findings support the idea that these neurons could contribute to functional recovery in stroke and other conditions causing neuronal loss in cerebral cortex. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Right Brain/Left Brain President Barack Obama's Uncommon Leadership Ability and How We Can Each Develop It

    CERN Document Server

    Decosterd, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    Right Brain/Left Brain President: Barack Obama's Uncommon Leadership Ability and How We Can Each Develop It is an inspirational guide to leadership as it should be practiced, conveyed through an up-close look at the man who sets the new leadership bar. Author Mary Lou D'costerd uses her Right Brain/Left Brain Leadership Model to frame Barack Obama's leadership skill sets. Her book shows that Obama's unique brand of leadership is the result of his extraordinary ability to leverage full-brain potential in the ways he thinks, decides, and acts. ||Right Brain/Left Brain President examines Obama's

  9. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xue-man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-01-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery. PMID:27212930

  10. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-man Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  11. Amyloid-β Dynamics Correlate with Neurological Status in the Injured Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, David L.; Magnoni, Sandra; Schwetye, Kate E.; Spinner, Michael L.; Esparza, Thomas J.; Stocchetti, Nino; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Holtzman, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays a central pathophysiological role in Alzheimer’s disease, but little is known about the concentration and dynamics of this secreted peptide in the extracellular space of the human brain. We used intracerebral microdialysis to obtain serial brain interstitial fluid (ISF) samples in 18 patients who were undergoing invasive intracranial monitoring after acute brain injury. We found a strong positive correlation between changes in brain ISF Aβ concentrations and n...

  12. Searching for Factors Underlying Cerebral Plasticity in the Normal and Injured Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Muhammad, Arif; Gibb, Robbin

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity refers to the capacity of the nervous system to change its structure and ultimately its function over a lifetime. There have been major advances in our understanding of the principles of brain plasticity and behavior in laboratory animals and humans. Over the past decade there have been advances in the application of these…

  13. Postmortem magnetic resonance images of the injured brain: effective evidence in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L S

    1991-09-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the whole, formalin-fixed brain produce details of pathologic changes deep within brain substance not apparent on external examination. Photographs of these radiographic images present pathologic features in a black-and-white, 2-dimensional format which has proven particularly effective in court before judge and jury. This pathologist has noted acceptance of such photographs in explaining to jurors the details of his testimony in selected cases where brain trauma resulted in a wrongful death. Penetrating missile wounds and blunt impact injuries are particularly well documented by this method.

  14. Behavioral changes in brain-injured critical care adults with different levels of consciousness during nociceptive stimulation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Marie-José; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the frequency of behaviors observed during rest, a non-nociceptive procedure, and a nociceptive procedure in brain-injured intensive care unit (ICU) patients with different levels of consciousness (LOC). Second, it examined the inter-rater reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity of the behavioral checklist used. The non-nociceptive procedure involved calling the patient and shaking his/her shoulder. The nociceptive procedure involved turning the patient. The frequency of behaviors was recorded using a behavioral checklist. Patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped flexion or extension responses to a nociceptive stimulus displayed more behaviors during turning (median 5.5, range 0-14) than patients with localized responses (median 4, range 0-10) or able to self-report their pain (median 4, range 0-10). Face flushing, clenched teeth, clenched fist, and tremor were more frequent in patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped responses to a nociceptive stimulus. The reliability of the checklist was supported by a high intra-class correlation coefficient (0.77-0.92), and the internal consistency was acceptable in all three groups (KR 20, 0.71-0.85). Discriminant validity was supported as significantly more behaviors were observed during nociceptive stimulation than at rest. Concurrent validity was confirmed as checklist scores were correlated to the patients' self-reports of pain (r s = 0.53; 95 % CI 0.21-0.75). Brain-injured patients reacted significantly more during a nociceptive stimulus and the number of observed behaviors was higher in patients with a stereotyped response.

  15. Brain natriuretic peptide and left ventricular dysfunction in chagasic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Talvani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Global left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction is the strongest predictor of morbidity and mortality in Chagas disease. Echocardiography is considered the gold standard for the detection of LV dysfunction, but not always available in endemic areas where chagasic cardiomyopathy is most common. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP is a neurohormone that has been recently described as a simple and inexpensive diagnostic and prognostic marker for patients with congestive heart failure. Chagasic patients (n = 63 and non-infected healthy individuals (n = 18 were recruited prospectively and underwent complete clinical examination, echocardiography and 24-h Holter monitoring. BNP was measured from thawed plasma samples using the Triage BNP test. We observed high levels of BNP in association with depression of LV ejection fraction, with increase of LV end-diastolic diameter and with LV premature complexes. An elevated concentration of BNP, defined as a concentration of 60 pg/ml or more, had a sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 82.8%, positive predictive value of 52.4%, and negative predictive value of 98% for detecting LV dysfunction (LV ejection fraction < 40%.BNP measurement using a simple, relatively inexpensive and rapid test has a promising role in identifying LV dysfunction associated with chagasic cardiomyopathy. Equally important, patients with Trypanosoma cruzi infection who have low levels of BNP level in plasma have a very low likelihood of severe cardiac involvement, and echocardiography is probably not necessary.

  16. From the Left to the Right: How the Brain Compensates Progressive Loss of Language Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Alexander; Habedank, Birgit; Herholz, Karl; Kessler, Josef; Winhuisen, Lutz; Haupt, Walter F.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In normal right-handed subjects language production usually is a function of the left brain hemisphere. Patients with aphasia following brain damage to the left hemisphere have a considerable potential to compensate for the loss of this function. Sometimes, but not always, areas of the right hemisphere which are homologous to language areas of the…

  17. Game Utilization as a Media to Train the Balance of Left and Right Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Wijaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human have two brain hemispheres, left hemisphere and right hemisphere. Left hemisphere is used for processing language, words, numbers, equations, etc. Right hemisphere is used for processing creativity, imagination, music, color, etc. Every human should have balance between left and right hemisphere. One method that could be used for balancing brain hemispheres is to use left and right hands for using tools, writing, or typing. “Typing Rhythm” is a game for PC platform, the purpose of this game is for brain balancing exercise by typing lyric of a song while the song is played.

  18. Virtual navigation for memory rehabilitation in a traumatic brain injured patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglio, M; Latini-Corazzini, L; D'Agata, F; Cauda, F; Sacco, K; Monteverdi, S; Zettin, M; Duca, S; Geminiani, G

    2012-01-01

    The use of 3D video games in memory rehabilitation has been explored very little. A virtual navigation task allows participants to encode the spatial layout of the virtual environment and activate areas involved in memory processing. We describe the rehabilitation of a 24-year-old man with traumatic brain injury presenting memory deficits, and evaluate the efficacy of a navigational training program measuring neuropsychological changes and fMRI modification cerebral activations. Memory improvement appears to be present both after navigational training and in follow-up testing. Furthermore, fMRI data suggest that this training may increase activation of the hippocampal and parahippocampal brain regions. The results suggest that intensive training in virtual navigational tasks may result in an enhancement of memory function in brain-damaged adults.

  19. Detection of spreading depolarization with intraparenchymal electrodes in the injured human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffcote, Toby; Hinzman, Jason M; Jewell, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spreading depolarization events following ischemic and traumatic brain injury are associated with poor patient outcome. Currently, monitoring these events is limited to patients in whom subdural electrodes can be placed at open craniotomy. This study examined whether these events can...... be detected using intra-cortical electrodes, opening the way for electrode insertion via burr hole. METHODS: Animal work was carried out on adult Sprague-Dawley rats in a laboratory setting to investigate the feasibility of recording depolarization events. Subsequently, 8 human patients requiring craniotomy...... for craniotomy. The method provides a new investigative tool for the evaluation of the contribution of these events to secondary brain injury in human patients....

  20. The effect of gaze direction on sound localization in brain-injured and normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Eunhui; Branch Coslett, H

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of eye position on sound localization in normal and brain lesion subjects. On the assumption that cerebral lesions may disrupt the representation of or attention to auditory space in the contralesional hemispace, we predicted that subjects with brain lesions would be less accurate in localizing sounds in the contralesional hemispace. In Experiment 1 we showed that gazing to the midline subjects with brain lesions were indeed impaired in localizing sounds in the contralesional hemispace. On the assumption that spatial attention is deployed at the site to which gaze is directed, we predicted that sound localization would be better on the side to which subjects directed their gaze. In Experiment 2, brain lesion subjects performed significantly better in the contralesional hemispace when they directed gaze to that hemispace. This improvement was accompanied by deterioration of performance in the ipsilesional hemispace. When subjects directed gaze to the ipsilesional hemispace, performance in the contralesional hemispace was further impaired. The effect of gaze was also observed in normal subjects in Experiments 2 and 3, independently of response mode (verbal versus pointing responses). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sound location may be mapped in eye-centered coordinates and that directing gaze to one hemispace reduces attentional allocation to the other hemispace.

  1. Injured Brains and Adaptive Networks: The Benefits and Costs of Hyperconnectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary, Frank G; Grafman, Jordan H

    2017-05-01

    A common finding in human functional brain-imaging studies is that damage to neural systems paradoxically results in enhanced functional connectivity between network regions, a phenomenon commonly referred to as 'hyperconnectivity'. Here, we describe the various ways that hyperconnectivity operates to benefit a neural network following injury while simultaneously negotiating the trade-off between metabolic cost and communication efficiency. Hyperconnectivity may be optimally expressed by increasing connections through the most central and metabolically efficient regions (i.e., hubs). While adaptive in the short term, we propose that chronic hyperconnectivity may leave network hubs vulnerable to secondary pathological processes over the life span due to chronically elevated metabolic stress. We conclude by offering novel, testable hypotheses for advancing our understanding of the role of hyperconnectivity in systems-level brain plasticity in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bexarotene reduces blood-brain barrier permeability in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 over-expression disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB in the ischemic brain. The retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene suppresses MMP-9 expression in endothelial cells and displays neuroprotective effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that bexarotene may have a beneficial effect on I/R-induced BBB dysfunction.A total of 180 rats were randomized into three groups (n = 60 each: (i a sham-operation group, (ii a cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R group, and (iii an I/R+bexarotene group. Brain water content was measured by the dry wet weight method. BBB permeability was analyzed by Evans Blue staining and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Omniscan. MMP-9 mRNA expression, protein expression, and activity were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and gelatin zymography, respectively. Apolipoprotein E (apoE, claudin-5, and occludin expression were analyzed by Western blotting.After 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-I/R, several effects were observed with bexarotene administration: (i brain water content and BBB permeability were significantly reduced; (ii MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression as well as activity were significantly decreased; (iii claudin-5 and occludin expression were significantly increased; and (iv apoE expression was significantly increased.Bexarotene decreases BBB permeability in rats with cerebral I/R injury. This effect may be due in part to bexarotene's upregulation of apoE expression, which has been previously shown to reduce BBB permeability through suppressing MMP-9-mediated degradation of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin. This work offers insight to aid future development of therapeutic agents for cerebral I/R injury in human patients.

  3. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

  4. Purinergic receptor P2RY12-dependent microglial closure of the injured blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Nanhong; Takano, Takahiro; Pei, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are integral functional elements of the central nervous system, but the contribution of these cells to the structural integrity of the neurovascular unit has not hitherto been assessed. We show here that following blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G......-protein coupled, 12)-mediated chemotaxis of microglia processes is required for the rapid closure of the BBB. Mice treated with the P2RY12 inhibitor clopidogrel, as well as those in which P2RY12 was genetically ablated, exhibited significantly diminished movement of juxtavascular microglial processes and failed...

  5. Rebuilding the injured brain: use of MRS in clinical regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Alina; Weiss, Michael; Gader, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is the brain manifestation of systemic asphyxia that occurs in 20 out of 1000 births. HIE triggers an immediate neuronal and glial injury leading to necrosis secondary to cellular edema and lysis. Because of this destructive neuronal injury, up to 25% of neonates exhibit severe permanent neuropsychological handicaps in the form of cerebral palsy, with or without associated mental retardation, learning disabilities, or epilepsy. Due to the devastating consequences of HIE, much research has focused on interrupting the cascade of events triggered by HIE. To date, none of these therapies, with the exception of hypothermia, have been successful in the clinical environment. Even in the case of hypothermia, only neonates with mild to moderate HIE respond to therapy. Stem cell therapy offers an attractive potential treatment for HIE. The ability to replace necrotic cells with functional cells could limit the degree of long-term neurological deficits. The neonatal brain offers a unique milieu for stem cell therapy due to its overall plasticity and the continued division of cells in the sub-ventricular zones. New powerful imaging tools allow researchers to track stem cells in vivo post-transplant, as shown in Figure 1. However, neuroimaging still leaves numerous questions unresolved: How can we identify stem cells without using tracking agents, what cells types are destroyed in the brain post injury? What is the final phenotypic fate of transplanted cells? Are the transplanted cells still viable? Do the transplanted cells spare endogenous neuronal tissue? We hypothesize that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a broadly used clinical technique that can be performed at the time of a standard MRI scan, can provide answers to these questions when coupled with advanced computational approaches. MRS is widely available clinically, and is a relative measure of different metabolites within the sampled area. These measures are presented as a

  6. Investigating multi-player online video games for brain-injured people

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Jason Edward; Briggs, Jim; Turner, Louise; Good, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot investigation into the potential for multi-player online video games to be used as a form of therapy for people who have an acquired brain injury. The experimental design is a single-subject research design in “ABAB” form. Participants (n = 3) played a multi-player online video game and periodically took cognitive tests (reaction time, Stroop tests and trail-making tests). Results showed an improvement in reaction time but were inconclusive for the other measures....

  7. Resuscitation of Hypotensive Traumatic Brain Injured Animals With Spray-Dried Plasma Does Not Adversely Alter Physiology and Improves Blood-Brain Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Steven; Golla, Stephanie; Moore, Anthony N; DaCorta, Joe; Bode, Arthur; Pati, Shibani; Dash, Pramod K; Zhao, Jing

    2017-07-01

    . Cerebral perfusion was assessed using a scanning laser Doppler device. Twenty-four hours after the injury and resuscitation with either FFP or SDP, BBB integrity were monitored by measuring the amount of Evans Blue dye in the injured brain following its intravenous administration. As this dye is excluded from the uninjured brain, its presence in the injured brain is an indicator of BBB breakdown. In addition, von Willebrand Factor immunohistochemistry was used to examine endothelial cell loss, whereas claudin-5 immunohistochemistry was used to assess the loss of tight junctions, in FFP- and SDP-resuscitated TBI animals. Our results show that post-TBI resuscitation with FFP and SDP had similar influences on cardiovascular physiology and cerebral perfusion. Resuscitation with SDP after TBI was found to decrease BBB permeability as indicated by reduced Evans Blue dye extravasation, and increased levels of von Willebrand Factor and claudin-5, as compared to resuscitation with FFP. These preclinical results show that resuscitation with SDP may be superior to FFP, and support the further evaluation of this product as a resuscitation fluid for polytrauma patients with TBI. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Training and transfer effects of N-back training for brain-injured and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer; Dall, Jonas Olsen; Kristensen, Casper Daniel; Aagesen, Marie Holt; Olsen, Stine Almgren; Snuggerud, Therese Ruud; Sikorska, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Working memory impairments are prevalent among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Computerised training targeting working memory has been researched extensively using samples from healthy populations but this field remains isolated from similar research in ABI patients. We report the results of an actively controlled randomised controlled trial in which 17 patients and 18 healthy subjects completed training on an N-back task. The healthy group had superior improvements on both training tasks (SMD = 6.1 and 3.3) whereas the ABI group improved much less (SMD = 0.5 and 1.1). Neither group demonstrated transfer to untrained tasks. We conclude that computerised training facilitates improvement of specific skills rather than high-level cognition in healthy and ABI subjects alike. The acquisition of these specific skills seems to be impaired by brain injury. The most effective use of computer-based cognitive training may be to make the task resemble the targeted behaviour(s) closely in order to exploit the stimulus-specificity of learning.

  9. Who benefits? Outcome following a coping skills group intervention for traumatically brain injured individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Katie; Ponsford, Jennie

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the variables associated with positive psychological outcome following a group intervention for 33 individuals with traumatic brain injury. Evaluation study which used multiple regression analysis to examine the variables associated with change in psychological adjustment following a 10-session cognitive behaviour therapy-based group. The predictor variables were age at injury, time since injury, injury severity, self-awareness, pre-morbid intellectual function, memory function, executive function and level of depression and anxiety prior to intervention. The predictor variables contributed a significant proportion of the variance in percentage change in depression. The major finding was that better outcomes following intervention were associated with greater self-awareness of injury-related deficits. The present study identified a number of variables that were associated with improvement in depression following psychological intervention and may assist future treatment resources to be directed most effectively.

  10. Aging parents’ caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography. PMID:25763170

  11. Aging parents' caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography.

  12. How does dysautonomia influence the outcome of traumatic brain injured patients admitted in a neurorehabilitation unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxe, Sara; Terré, Rosa; León, Daniel; Bernabeu, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may suffer from symptoms presumed to be related to an excessive sympathetic production known as paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH). While this condition is more common in the acute phase, prognosis is less clear in rehabilitation settings. The goal of this study is to describe the functional status of patients with PSH admitted in a rehabilitation hospital and to determine its prognostic influence during rehabilitation. A cohort study was undertaken of all the patients admitted in a neurorehabilitation hospital suffering from PSH. Functional outcomes were reported according to the Glasgow outcome scale-extended (GOSE), the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Thirteen out of 39 patients suffered symptoms compatible with PSH. Neuroimaging of PSH patients showed more diffuse lesions. The FIM at admission was lower in the PSH group who was transferred for rehabilitation at an earlier stage. At discharge no differences were seen using the FIM, DRS and GOS-E. Functional status is similar and PSH does not appear to influence recovery during the rehabilitation, although PSH patients are more likely to undergo psychoactive medications and special care is needed to approach their caregivers that perceive PSH as a complication for rehabilitation.

  13. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. AIM: To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. METHODS: Right (RVEF), left......, which is a strong prognostic marker in heart failure, independently depends on both left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone....

  14. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puybasset Louis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  15. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-02-08

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  16. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

  17. A combined robotic and cognitive training for locomotor rehabilitation: Evidences of cerebral functional reorganization in two chronic traumatic brain injured patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, K.; Cauda, F.; D’Agata, F.; Duca, S.; Zettin, M.; Virgilio, R.; Nascimbeni, A.; Belforte, G.; Eula, G.; Gastaldi, L.; Appendino, S.; Geminiani, G.

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that automated locomotor training can improve walking capabilities in spinal cord-injured subjects but its effectiveness on brain damaged patients has not been well established. A possible explanation of the discordant results on the efficacy of robotic training in patients with cerebral lesions could be that these patients, besides stimulation of physiological motor patterns through passive leg movements, also need to train the cognitive aspects of motor control. Ind...

  18. On the Relationship between Right- brain and Left- brain Dominance and Reading Comprehension Test Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of works have been conducted by psycholinguistics to identify hemisphere processing during second/ foreign language learning, or in other words to investigate the role of the brain hemisphere dominance in language performance of learners. Most of these researches have focused on single words and word pairs (e.g., Anaki et al., 1998; Arzouan et. al., 2007; Faust & Mahal, 2007 or simple sentences (Rapp et al., 2007; Kacinik & Chiarello, 2007, and it has been discovered that there is an advantage of right hemisphere for metaphors and an
    advantage of left hemisphere for literal text. But the present research was designed to study Iranian EFL learners' performance in different reading tasks, so there could be differences between the consequences of the former research and the results of the present study due to the context. Here left-brain and right-brain dominance was investigated in 60 individuals (20 right-handed and 10 left-handed male, 20 right-handed and 10 left-handed female via the Edinburg Handedness Questionnaire (EHQ. The research results suggested that the right-handed learners who are supposed to be left-brain outperformed the left-handed ones; and regarding participant's gender, male learners outperformed female learners on reading comprehension test tasks.

  19. Functional characteristics of developmental dyslexia in left-hemispheric posterior brain regions predate reading onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Zuk, Jennifer; Gaab, Nadine

    2012-02-07

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) show a disruption in posterior left-hemispheric neural networks during phonological processing. Additionally, compensatory mechanisms in children and adults with DD have been located within frontal brain areas. However, it remains unclear when and how differences in posterior left-hemispheric networks manifest and whether compensatory mechanisms have already started to develop in the prereading brain. Here we investigate functional networks during phonological processing in 36 prereading children with a familial risk for DD (n = 18, average age = 66.50 mo) compared with age and IQ-matched controls (n = 18; average age = 65.61 mo). Functional neuroimaging results reveal reduced activation in prereading children with a family-history of DD (FHD(+)), compared with those without (FHD(-)), in bilateral occipitotemporal and left temporoparietal brain regions. This finding corresponds to previously identified hypoactivations in left hemispheric posterior brain regions for school-aged children and adults with a diagnosis of DD. Furthermore, left occipitotemporal and temporoparietal brain activity correlates positively with prereading skills in both groups. Our results suggest that differences in neural correlates of phonological processing in individuals with DD are not a result of reading failure, but are present before literacy acquisition starts. Additionally, no hyperactivation in frontal brain regions was observed, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms for reading failure are not yet present. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether the identified differences may serve as neural premarkers for the early identification of children at risk for DD.

  20. No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Daniel S.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience represents a concerted interdisciplinary effort to bring the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and education to bear on classroom practice. This article draws attention to the current and potential implications of importing biological ideas, language and imagery into education. By analysing examples of brain-based…

  1. Irradiation-injured brain tissues can self-renew in the absence of the pivotal tumor suppressor p53 in the medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takako; Nagata, Kento; Igarashi, Kento; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kimori, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein, p53, plays pivotal roles in regulating apoptosis and proliferation in the embryonic and adult central nervous system (CNS) following neuronal injuries such as those induced by ionizing radiation. There is increasing evidence that p53 negatively regulates the self-renewal of neural stem cells in the adult murine brain; however, it is still unknown whether p53 is essential for self-renewal in the injured developing CNS. Previously, we demonstrated that the numbers of apoptotic cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos decreased in the absence of p53 at 12-24 h after irradiation with 10-Gy gamma rays. Here, we used histology to examine the later morphological development of the irradiated medaka brain. In p53-deficient larvae, the embryonic brain possessed similar vacuoles in the brain and retina, although the vacuoles were much smaller and fewer than those found in wild-type embryos. At the time of hatching (6 days after irradiation), no brain abnormality was observed. In contrast, severe disorganized neuronal arrangements were still present in the brain of irradiated wild-type embryos. Our present results demonstrated that self-renewal of the brain tissue completed faster in the absence of p53 than wild type at the time of hatching because p53 reduces the acute severe neural apoptosis induced by irradiation, suggesting that p53 is not essential for tissue self-renewal in developing brain. (author)

  2. Prospective Study on Noninvasive Assessment of Intracranial Pressure in Traumatic Brain-Injured Patients: Comparison of Four Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Donnelly, Joseph; Bohdanowicz, Michal; Schmidt, Bernhard; Damian, Maxwell; Varsos, Georgios V.; Liu, Xiuyun; Cabeleira, Manuel; Frigieri, Gustavo; Cabella, Brenno; Smielewski, Peter; Mascarenhas, Sergio; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) may occur in many diseases, and therefore the ability to measure it noninvasively would be useful. Flow velocity signals from transcranial Doppler (TCD) have been used to estimate ICP; however, the relative accuracy of these methods is unclear. This study aimed to compare four previously described TCD-based methods with directly measured ICP in a prospective cohort of traumatic brain-injured patients. Noninvasive ICP (nICP) was obtained using the following methods: 1) a mathematical “black-box” model based on interaction between TCD and arterial blood pressure (nICP_BB); 2) based on diastolic flow velocity (nICP_FVd); 3) based on critical closing pressure (nICP_CrCP); and 4) based on TCD-derived pulsatility index (nICP_PI). In time domain, for recordings including spontaneous changes in ICP greater than 7 mm Hg, nICP_PI showed the best correlation with measured ICP (R = 0.61). Considering every TCD recording as an independent event, nICP_BB generally showed to be the best estimator of measured ICP (R = 0.39; p  0.05). nICP_PI was not related to measured ICP using any of the above statistical indicators. We also introduced a new estimator (nICP_Av) based on the average of three methods (nICP_BB, nICP_FVd, and nICP_CrCP), which overall presented improved statistical indicators (R = 0.47; p < 0.05; 95% CI = 9.17 mm Hg; AUC = 0.73; p < 0.05). nICP_PI appeared to reflect changes in ICP in time most accurately. nICP_BB was the best estimator for ICP “as a number.” nICP_Av demonstrated to improve the accuracy of measured ICP estimation. PMID:26414916

  3. Quality of life in patients with right- or left-sided brain tumours: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Lamanna, Francesca; Di Monte, Carmen; Calligaris, Sonia; Doretto, Mara; Criveller, Michela

    2008-06-01

    To determine if patients with left- or right-sided hemisphere neoplasm perceive their quality of life (QoL) differently. It is not clear whether patients with a lesion in the left hemisphere have a different QoL than those with a lesion in the right hemisphere. (1) In the pre-operative period, patients with a left-sided lesion may have different symptoms according to the position of the tumour. (2) Studies on patients with brain injury demonstrate an association between left frontal lesions and depression: depression can alter the patients' perception of QoL. (3) In the postoperative period, right-handed patients may be disadvantaged by surgical trauma to the motor cortex in the left hemisphere. (4) During the different phases of the disease, the various functions of the two hemispheres may influence the patient's capacity to control QoL; also, as suggested by authors, both the ego and the conscience are mostly located in the left hemisphere. This is the reason that patients with a left-sided lesion may perceive a worse QoL. A review of literature was carried out using the Medline database (1966-2007) and CINHAL (1982-2007), using the following Mesh Terms and key words: brain neoplasm, tumour or cancer, hemispheric dominance or laterality or right or left hemisphere, QoL. Seven studies emerged that documented non-homogeneous results and which included different populations. The association between QoL and the side of the lesion was evaluated. The lack of a substantial number of recent, robust follow-up studies investigating the QoL in patients at different stages of disease and treatment indicates that more research is needed. Relevance to clinical practice. Understanding the QoL in patients with brain neoplasm and the differences between right and left hemisphere sites of the neoplasm can help nurses develop different interventions and offer more guidance for effective clinical intervention.

  4. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Eldine Morton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called Hemisity, a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC as revealed by a 3 minute MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new.Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05 for 47 of the 107 either-or, forced choice type preference questionnaire items. Hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. They were in: a. logical orientation, b. type of consciousness, c. fear level and sensitivity, d. social-professional orientation, and e. pair bonding-spousal dominance style.Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed numerous significant differences in their either-or type of behavioral preferences.

  5. Intelligent Automatic Right-Left Sign Lamp Based on Brain Signal Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winda, A.; Sofyan; Sthevany; Vincent, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Comfort as a part of the human factor, plays important roles in nowadays advanced automotive technology. Many of the current technologies go in the direction of automotive driver assistance features. However, many of the driver assistance features still require physical movement by human to enable the features. In this work, the proposed method is used in order to make certain feature to be functioning without any physical movement, instead human just need to think about it in their mind. In this work, brain signal is recorded and processed in order to be used as input to the recognition system. Right-Left sign lamp based on the brain signal recognition system can potentially replace the button or switch of the specific device in order to make the lamp work. The system then will decide whether the signal is ‘Right’ or ‘Left’. The decision of the Right-Left side of brain signal recognition will be sent to a processing board in order to activate the automotive relay, which will be used to activate the sign lamp. Furthermore, the intelligent system approach is used to develop authorized model based on the brain signal. Particularly Support Vector Machines (SVMs)-based classification system is used in the proposed system to recognize the Left-Right of the brain signal. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent Automatic brain signal-based Right-Left sign lamp access control system. The signal is processed by Linear Prediction Coefficient (LPC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and the resulting experiment shows the training and testing accuracy of 100% and 80%, respectively.

  6. Relative hypermetabolism of vermis cerebelli in traumatic brain injured patients studied with 18FDG PET: a descriptor of brain damage and a possible predictor of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Andrea; Bertagnoni, Giannettore; Borghero, Anna; Salgarello, Matteo; Zanco, Pierluigi

    2011-04-01

    The almost constant presence of apparent metabolic hypermetabolism of cerebellar vermis seen on 18FDG PET in a population of injured brains has been reported in a previous paper. Aim of this paper is to determine a) whether there is a correlation between the entity of this sign, semi quantitatively determined, and the severity of the trauma at its onset, and b) whether the entity of the relative enhancement correlates with the medium and long term clinical outcome. A group of 45 consecutive patients admitted to the Acquired Brain Injury Unit of our Hospital for recent, major head trauma, underwent a basal 18FDG PET/CT scan of the brain; the presence of relative hypermetabolism of the vermis cerebelli was visually assessed and semi quantitatively determined (vermis/cerebellum ratio: V/C); the median V/C value was used as a divide between low V/C ratios (group A) and high V/C ratios (group B). During one year after trauma, every patient from both groups received an extensive testing to evaluate cognitive and behavioral performances and evolution: Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and Levels of Cognitive Function (LCF) were administered monthly from month 1 to month 6, and at 12 months from the trauma; Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was administered at 3, 6 and 12 months from the head trauma. Numerical scores from each of these performance-testing protocols were cross-matched with values derived from the V/C 18FDG PET/CT determinations. A relative risk estimate via Chi-square testing was performed on the results of both groups for LCF and DRS scales at 1, 6 and 12 months from trauma. At one month after trauma, overall LCF (LCF1) values ranged from 2 to 8, avg. 3.77, SD ± 2.10; the average value in group A was 5.21, SD ± 2.09, in B group 2.47, SD ± 0.98 (F=17.5, P = 0). At this time, overall average DRS (DRS1) was 6.7, SD ± 2.05, ranging from 2 to 9; the average value was 5.52, SD ± 0.47 in group A, and 7.72, SD ± 0.30 in group B (F = 6.3, P = 0.01). Relative risk

  7. Redefining the role of metallothionein within the injured brain: extracellular metallothioneins play an important role in the astrocyte-neuron response to injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Roger S; Penkowa, Milena; Dittmann, Justin

    2008-01-01

    A number of intracellular proteins that are protective after brain injury are classically thought to exert their effect within the expressing cell. The astrocytic metallothioneins (MT) are one example and are thought to act via intracellular free radical scavenging and heavy metal regulation...... regeneration. First, we show that MT can be detected within the extracellular fluid of the injured brain, and that cultured astrocytes are capable of actively secreting MT in a regulatable manner. Second, we identify a receptor, megalin, that mediates MT transport into neurons. Third, we directly demonstrate...... severed mature optic nerve. Our work suggests that the protective functions of MT in the central nervous system should be widened from a purely astrocytic focus to include extracellular and intra-neuronal roles. This unsuspected action of MT represents a novel paradigm of astrocyte-neuronal interaction...

  8. Structural and metabolic changes in the traumatically injured rat brain. High-resolution in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Can; Rao, Jia-Sheng [Beihang University, Beijing Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Neural Regeneration, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beijing (China); Yang, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Zhao-Yang [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Zhan-Jing; Lei, Jian-Feng [Capital Medical University, Medical Experiment and Test Center, Beijing (China); Li, Xiao-Guang [Beihang University, Beijing Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Neural Regeneration, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    The understanding of microstructural and metabolic changes in the post-traumatic brain injury is the key to brain damage suppression and repair in clinics. Ten female Wistar rats were traumatically injured in the brain CA1 region and above the cortex. Next, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) were used to analyze the microstructural and metabolic changes in the brain within the following 2 weeks. Anisotropy fraction (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) of the corpus callosum (CC) began to decrease significantly at day 1, whereas radial diffusivity (RD) significantly increased immediately after injury, reflecting the loss of white matter integrity. Compared with day 3, RD decreased significantly at day 7, implicating the angioedema reduction. In the hippocampus, FA significantly increased at day 7; the choline-containing compounds (Cho) and myo-inositol (MI) remarkably increased at day 7 compared with those at day 3, indicating the proliferation of astrocytes and radial glial cells after day 7. No significant differences between DTI and {sup 1}H MRS parameters were observed between day 1 and day 3. Day 1-3 after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may serve as a relatively appropriate time window for treatment planning and the following nerve repair. (orig.)

  9. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Ilknur; Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported

  10. Irradiation-injured brain tissues can self-renew in the absence of the pivotal tumor suppressor p53 in the medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takako; Kimori, Yoshitaka; Nagata, Kento; Igarashi, Kento; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein, p53, plays pivotal roles in regulating apoptosis and proliferation in the embryonic and adult central nervous system (CNS) following neuronal injuries such as those induced by ionizing radiation. There is increasing evidence that p53 negatively regulates the self-renewal of neural stem cells in the adult murine brain; however, it is still unknown whether p53 is essential for self-renewal in the injured developing CNS. Previously, we demonstrated that the numbers of apoptotic cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos decreased in the absence of p53 at 12-24 h after irradiation with 10-Gy gamma rays. Here, we used histology to examine the later morphological development of the irradiated medaka brain. In p53-deficient larvae, the embryonic brain possessed similar vacuoles in the brain and retina, although the vacuoles were much smaller and fewer than those found in wild-type embryos. At the time of hatching (6 days after irradiation), no brain abnormality was observed. In contrast, severe disorganized neuronal arrangements were still present in the brain of irradiated wild-type embryos. Our present results demonstrated that self-renewal of the brain tissue completed faster in the absence of p53 than wild type at the time of hatching because p53 reduces the acute severe neural apoptosis induced by irradiation, suggesting that p53 is not essential for tissue self-renewal in developing brain. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. Right brain, left brain in depressive disorders: Clinical and theoretical implications of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J

    2017-07-01

    The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information. Dichotic listening and visual hemifield findings for non-verbal or emotional processing have revealed abnormal perceptual asymmetry in depressive disorders, and electrophysiological findings have shown reduced right-lateralized responsivity to emotional stimuli in occipitotemporal or parietotemporal cortex. We discuss models of neural networks underlying these alterations. Of clinical relevance, individual differences among depressed patients on measures of right-left brain function are related to diagnostic subtype of depression, comorbidity with anxiety disorders, and clinical response to antidepressants or cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Opposed Left and Right Brain Hemisphere Contributions to Sexual Drive: A Multiple Lesion Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain topographical studies of normal men have have shown that sexual excitation is asymmetric in the brain hemispheres. Group studies of patients with unilateral epileptic foci and other studies of patients with unilateral brain lesions have come to the same conclusion. The present study reviewed previously published single case reports of patients with frank hypo or hypersexuality subsequent to a unilateral brain lesion. Hyposexual patients tended to have left hemisphere lesions (primarily of the temporal lobe, and hypersexual patients tended to have right hemisphere lesions (primarily of the temporal lobe (p < 0.05. We interpret this double dissociation as part of a more general phenomenon of psychic tone similarly dissociated with regard to hemispheric control, including mood, psychomotor baseline, speech rate, and even immunity. The behavioral significance of this psychic tone is to modulate approach versus avoidance behavior.

  13. Moral judgement by the disconnected left and right cerebral hemispheres: a split-brain investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Conor M; Hamlin, J Kiley; Miller, Michael B; King, Danielle; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the hemispheric isolation resulting from a severed corpus callosum, research on split-brain patients can help elucidate the brain regions necessary and sufficient for moral judgement. Notably, typically developing adults heavily weight the intentions underlying others' moral actions, placing greater importance on valenced intentions versus outcomes when assigning praise and blame. Prioritization of intent in moral judgements may depend on neural activity in the right hemisphere's temporoparietal junction, an area implicated in reasoning about mental states. To date, split-brain research has found that the right hemisphere is necessary for intent-based moral judgement. When testing the left hemisphere using linguistically based moral vignettes, split-brain patients evaluate actions based on outcomes, not intentions. Because the right hemisphere has limited language ability relative to the left, and morality paradigms to date have involved significant linguistic demands, it is currently unknown whether the right hemisphere alone generates intent-based judgements. Here we use nonlinguistic morality plays with split-brain patient J.W. to examine the moral judgements of the disconnected right hemisphere, demonstrating a clear focus on intent. This finding indicates that the right hemisphere is not only necessary but also sufficient for intent-based moral judgement, advancing research into the neural systems supporting the moral sense.

  14. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to ...

  15. Line and word bisection in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Chiara V; Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S

    2014-01-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect typically set the mid-point of horizontal lines to the right of the objective center. By contrast, healthy participants exhibit a reversed bias (pseudoneglect). The same effect has been described also when bisecting orthographic strings. In particular, for this latter kind of stimulus, some recent studies have shown that visuo-perceptual characteristics, like stimulus length, may contribute to both the magnitude and the direction bias of the bisection performance (Arduino et al. in Neuropsychologia 48:2140-2146, 2010). Furthermore, word stress was shown to modulate reading performances in both healthy participants, and patients with left spatial neglect and neglect dyslexia (Cubelli and Beschin in Brain Lang 95:319-326, 2005; Rusconi et al. in Neuropsychology 18:135-140, 2004). In Experiment I, 22 right-brain-damaged patients (11 with left visuo-spatial neglect) and 11 matched neurologically unimpaired control participants were asked to set the subjective mid-point of word letter strings, and of lines of comparable length. Most patients exhibited an overall disproportionate rightward bias, sensitive to stimulus length, and similar for words and lines. Importantly, in individual patients, biases differed according to stimulus type (words vs. lines), indicating that at least partly different mechanisms may be involved. In Experiment II, the putative effects on the bisection bias of ortho-phonological information (i.e., word stress endings), arising from the non-neglected right hand side of the stimulus were investigated. The orthographic cue induced a rightward shift of the perceived mid-point in both patients and controls, with short words stressed on the antepenultimate final sequence inducing a smaller rightward deviation with respect to short words stressed on the penultimate final sequence. In conclusion, partly different mechanisms, including both visuo-spatial and lexical factors, may support

  16. Lesion characteristics driving right-hemispheric language reorganization in congenital left-hemispheric brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Seong Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2018-01-01

    We reported on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who showed recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory, which was demonstrated on follow-up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 55-year-old male patient suffered head trauma resulting from falling from approximately 2 m while working at a construction site. The patient showed mild memory impairment (especially short-term memory impairment) at 3 months after onset: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 95 (37%ile), short-term memory: 75 (5%ile), verbal memory: 80 (9%ile) and visual memory: 112 (79%ile)). By contrast, at 2 years after onset, his mild memory impairment had improved to a normal state: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 104 (61%ile), short-term memory: 95 (37%ile), verbal memory: 101 (53%ile) and visual memory: 106 (66%ile)). On 3-month DTT, discontinuation of the right anterior cingulum was observed over the genu of the corpus callosum, while on 2-year DTT, the discontinued right anterior cingulum was elongated to the right basal forebrain. In conclusion, recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory was demonstrated in a patient with mild TBI.

  18. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  19. Autoradiographic studies of cell kinetics after whole body x-ray irradiation. Part 1. Mode of death of lethally injured proliferating subependymal cells in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, N.D.

    1982-03-01

    Autoradiographic tests were performed on proliferating subependymal cells derived from the brain of Wistar rats treated with /sup 3/H-thymidine, 60 to 80 min prior to whole-body x-ray irradiation with 50, 150, or 300 R. Evaluation of the time-dependent increase in the fraction of radio-labeled cells and the two-fold lower concentration of the label in pycnotic nuclei indicated that the lethally-injured cells which were irradiated in the early G/sub 2/ and S phases were subjected to mitotic, rather than interphase, death in the first post-radiation cell cycle. Such cells underwent mitosis ca. 2 h after irradiation, showing a 1 h lag phase vis-a-vis control cells, irrespective of the radiation dose. 25 references, 5 figures.

  20. A combined robotic and cognitive training for locomotor rehabilitation: Evidences of cerebral functional reorganization in two chronic traumatic brain injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia eSacco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that automated locomotor training can improve walking capabilities in spinal cord-injured subjects but its effectiveness on brain damaged patients has not been well established. A possible explanation of the discordant results on the efficacy of robotic training in patients with cerebral lesions could be that these patients, besides stimulation of physiological motor patterns through passive leg movements, also need to train the cognitive aspects of motor control. Indeed, another way to stimulate cerebral motor areas in paretic patients is to use the cognitive function of motor imagery. A promising possibility is thus to combine sensorimotor training with the use of motor imagery. The aim of this paper is to assess changes in brain activations after a combined sensorimotor and cognitive training for gait rehabilitation. The protocol consisted of the integrated use of a robotic gait orthosis prototype with locomotor imagery tasks. Assessment was conducted on two patients with chronic traumatic brain injury and major gait impairments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Physiatric functional scales were used to assess clinical outcomes. Results showed greater activation post-training in the sensorimotor and supplementary motor cortices, as well as enhanced functional connectivity within the motor network. Improvements in balance and, to a lesser extent, in gait outcomes were also found.

  1. A combined robotic and cognitive training for locomotor rehabilitation: evidences of cerebral functional reorganization in two chronic traumatic brain injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Katiuscia; Cauda, Franco; D'Agata, Federico; Duca, Sergio; Zettin, Marina; Virgilio, Roberta; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Belforte, Guido; Eula, Gabriella; Gastaldi, Laura; Appendino, Silvia; Geminiani, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that automated locomotor training can improve walking capabilities in spinal cord-injured subjects but its effectiveness on brain damaged patients has not been well established. A possible explanation of the discordant results on the efficacy of robotic training in patients with cerebral lesions could be that these patients, besides stimulation of physiological motor patterns through passive leg movements, also need to train the cognitive aspects of motor control. Indeed, another way to stimulate cerebral motor areas in paretic patients is to use the cognitive function of motor imagery. A promising possibility is thus to combine sensorimotor training with the use of motor imagery. The aim of this paper is to assess changes in brain activations after a combined sensorimotor and cognitive training for gait rehabilitation. The protocol consisted of the integrated use of a robotic gait orthosis prototype with locomotor imagery tasks. Assessment was conducted on two patients with chronic traumatic brain injury and major gait impairments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Physiatric functional scales were used to assess clinical outcomes. Results showed greater activation post-training in the sensorimotor and supplementary motor cortices, as well as enhanced functional connectivity within the motor network. Improvements in balance and, to a lesser extent, in gait outcomes were also found.

  2. Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

  3. Simultaneous, quantitative measurement of local blood flow and glucose utilization in tissue samples in normal and injured feline brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, D S; Yuan, X Q; Becker, D P; Hayes, R L

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) were measured using radioactive microspheres and [14C]2-deoxyglucose, respectively, in 26 brain regions in control animals (n = 8) and in animals (n = 4) sustaining low-level experimental brain injury. Examination of the initial (resting) CBF measurement in the uninjured cats revealed two subgroups with significantly (p less than 0.01) different CBF levels. In uninjured cats with normal CBF levels (33.4 +/- 1.8 ml/100 g/min) there was a close linear relationship between CBF and LCGU (n = 0.71, p less than 0.01). In contrast, the remainder of the uninjured cats exhibited abnormally high levels of CBF (72.6 +/- 9.9 ml/100 g/min) and the absence of a close relationship between CBF and LCGU (r = 0.27). One hour following low-level (2.0 atm) fluid percussion brain injury, CBF was increased and LCGU was decreased, though not significantly. The relationship between CBF and LCGU remained intact (r = 0.66, p less than 0.01) in most brain regions. However, the relationship between CBF and LCGU in the hippocampus differed significantly from the relationship between the two parameters in the rest of the brain. Thus, the use of the radioactive microsphere method for CBF measurements allows multiple measurements of CBF and permits the assessment of the status of the cerebral vasculature prior to experimental manipulations such as traumatic brain injury. In view of our current findings of an abnormal relationship between CBF and LCGU in cats with high resting CBF levels, this is an important advantage. In addition, the combination of the microsphere and 2-DG techniques within the same tissue samples allows for the investigation of the effects of traumatic injury on the important relationship between CBF and LCGU.

  4. “Studying Injured Minds” – The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 Years of Brain Injury Research

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    Raymont, Vanessa; Salazar, Andres M.; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI) during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology, and neuroimaging.The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of e...

  5. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

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    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  6. “Studying Injured Minds” – The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 Years of Brain Injury Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymont, Vanessa; Salazar, Andres M.; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI) during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology, and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established. PMID:21625624

  7. ‘Studying Injured Minds’ - The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 years of brain injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eRaymont

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established.

  8. Transfer effects of errorless Goal Management Training on cognitive function and quality of life in brain-injured persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertens, Dirk; Kessels, Roy P C; Boelen, Danielle H E; Fasotti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings had shown that the addition of errorless learning to traditional Goal Management Training (GMT) resulted in superior results when training everyday tasks in persons with executive deficits after brain injury. To investigate the additional effects of an errorless GMT on cognitive function and quality of life after acquired brain injury. This is a supplementary analysis of findings from an RCT in which 67 patients with executive impairments after acquired brain injury were randomly allocated to an experimental errorless GMT (n = 33) or conventional GMT (n = 34) to train two individually chosen everyday tasks. Objective cognitive function using neuropsychological tests, subjective cognitive complaints and quality of life using questionnaires were assessed before and after training. No significant interaction effects between these three types of outcome measures and the two forms of GMT were found. Irrespective of treatment, performance on two executive tests (Modified Six Elements Test; p = 0.006, Zoo Map test; p = 0.001) improved and daily executive function problems as reported by the participants (EFI; p = 0.001) and proxies (DEX; p = 0.01) diminished. Besides the previously found superiority of errorless GMT when training everyday tasks, additional improvements in cognition and quality of life did not differ between the two treatments.

  9. [The psychopathology of the unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations in traumatic brain-injured patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim-Gluckman, H; Fayol, P; de Collasson, P; Dumond, J J; Azouvi, P

    2003-02-01

    To explore the unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations using a psychopathological approach. Fifteen patients with chronic severe TBI. Outpatient TBI rehabilitation programs in three different centers. Case reports. The data from semi-structured interviews with the patients and their families, at least six months after the accident, were compared with data supplied by the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) and the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised (NRS-R). Nine patients demonstrated unawareness of their limitations according to the PCRS (Group I), whereas six did not (Group II). Psychic phenomena specific to patients of group I were found. Some of these were specific to brain injury, such as the lack of representation of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations or the difficulty to integrate the brain-injury into one's psychic space. Others were not specific to brain injury such as mourning process difficulties, personality characteristics, defense mechanisms. Several psychic phenomena coexisted in the same patient. This study shows the complexity of unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations and makes future clinical and theoretical definition indispensable.

  10. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  11. Can impaired working memory functioning be improved by training? A meta-analysis with a special focus on brain injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weicker, Juliane; Villringer, Arno; Thöne-Otto, Angelika

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) are commonly observed after brain injuries and cause severe impairments in patients' everyday life. It is still under debate if training can enhance or rehabilitate WM in case of malfunction. The current meta-analysis investigates this issue from a clinical point of view. It addresses under which conditions and for which target group WM training may be justifiable. Relevant WM training studies were identified by searching electronic literature databases with a comprehensive search term. In total, 103 studies, which added up to 112 independent group comparisons (N = 6,113 participants), were included in the analysis. Overall, WM training caused a moderate and long-lasting improvement in untrained WM tasks. Moreover, improvement of WM functioning led to sustainable better evaluation of everyday life functioning, however, effect sizes were small. Concerning transfer effects on other cognitive domains, long-lasting improvements with small effect sizes were observed in cognitive control and reasoning/intelligence. In contrast, small immediate, but no long-term effects were found for attention and long-term memory. Studies with brain injured patients demonstrated long-lasting improvements in WM functions with moderate to large effect sizes. A main moderator variable of intervention efficacy is the number of training sessions applied. WM training produces long-lasting beneficial effects which are strongly pronounced in patients with acquired brain injuries. This finding supports the application of WM training in clinical settings. To determine optimal training conditions, future studies must systematically investigate the characteristics of interventions as they are at present inevitably confounded. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive brain stimulation for treatment of right- and left-handed poststroke aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Hartmann, Alexander; Rubi-Fessen, Ilona; Anglade, Carole; Kracht, Lutz; Kessler, Josef; Weiduschat, Nora; Rommel, Thomas; Thiel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from single case studies, small case series and randomized controlled trials seems to suggest that inhibitory noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) over the contralesional inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of right-handers in conjunction with speech and language therapy (SLT) improves recovery from poststroke aphasia. Application of inhibitory NIBS to improve recovery in left-handed patients has not yet been reported. A total of 29 right-handed subacute poststroke aphasics were randomized to receive either 10 sessions of SLT following 20 min of inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the contralesional IFG or 10 sessions of SLT following sham stimulation; 2 left-handers were treated according to the same protocol with real rTMS. Language activation patterns were assessed with positron emission tomography prior to and after the treatment; 95% confidence intervals for changes in language performance scores and the activated brain volumes in both hemispheres were derived from TMS- and sham-treated right-handed patients and compared to the same parameters in left-handers. Right-handed patients treated with rTMS showed better recovery of language function in global aphasia test scores (t test, p left-handed patients also improved, with 1 patient within the confidence limits of TMS-treated right-handers (23 points, 15.9-28.9) and the other patient within the limits of sham-treated subjects (8 points, 2.8-14.5). Both patients exhibited only a very small interhemispheric shift, much less than expected in TMS-treated right-handers, and more or less consolidated initially active networks in both hemispheres. Inhibitory rTMS over the nondominant IFG appears to be a safe and effective treatment for right-handed poststroke aphasics. In the 2 cases of left-handed aphasics no deterioration of language performance was observed with this protocol. However, therapeutic efficiency is less obvious and seems to be more related to the

  13. Teaching nutrition to the left and right brain: an overview of learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Julie A

    2008-01-01

    Functioning effectively as a veterinarian requires proficiency in multiple learning styles. Whether the goal is to design a nutrition course, plan a veterinary curriculum, or help students develop interpersonal, communication, and leadership skills, students benefit when content, design, and delivery are balanced to meet their learning-style preferences. An overview of four different learning style models is presented: the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Kolb's Learning Style Model, the Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model, and the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI). A whole-brain approach (HBDI) was used in the development and implementation of the small-animal clinical nutrition course at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. One educational objective of this course is to help students develop mental dexterity, increasing their proficiency in both their preferred and their less preferred modes of learning. The instructional goals are to deliver the content of the small-animal clinical nutrition course through exercises that meet the needs of learners in each thinking quadrant (left and right, cerebral and limbic) at least part of the time. Examples of exercises are presented to portray a balanced or whole-brain approach to teaching clinical nutrition.

  14. Training driving ability in a traumatic brain-injured individual using a driving simulator: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhoff S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Imhoff,1,2 Martin Lavallière,3,4 Mathieu Germain-Robitaille,5 Normand Teasdale,5–7 Philippe Fait,1,2,8 1Department of Human Kinetics, 2Research Group on Neuromusculoskeletal Dysfunctions (GRAN, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada; 3Massachusetts Institute of Technology AgeLab, Cambridge, MA, USA; 4Department of Health Sciences, Program of Kinesiology, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, 5Faculté de Médecine, Département de Kinésiologie, 6Groupe de recherche en analyse du mouvement et ergonomie, Université Laval, 7CHU de Québec – Université Laval, Centre d’excellence sur le vieillissement de Québec, 8Research Center in Neuropsychology and Cognition (CERNEC, Montréal, QC, Canada Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI causes functional deficits that may significantly interfere with numerous activities of daily living such as driving. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman having lost her driver’s license after sustaining a moderate TBI.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an in-simulator training program with automated feedback on driving performance in a TBI individual.Methods: The participant underwent an initial and a final in-simulator driving assessment and 11 in-simulator training sessions with driving-specific automated feedbacks. Driving performance (simulation duration, speed regulation and lateral positioning was measured in the driving simulator.Results: Speeding duration decreased during training sessions from 1.50 ± 0.80 min (4.16 ± 2.22% to 0.45 ± 0.15 min (0.44 ± 0.42% but returned to initial duration after removal of feedbacks for the final assessment. Proper lateral positioning improved with training and was maintained at the final assessment. Time spent in an incorrect lateral position decreased from 18.85 min (53.61% in the initial assessment to 1.51 min (4.64% on the final assessment.Conclusion: Driving simulators represent an

  15. Monitoring of Optimal Cerebral Perfusion Pressure in Traumatic Brain Injured Patients Using a Multi-Window Weighting Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuyun; Maurits, Natasha M; Aries, Marcel J H; Czosnyka, Marek; Ercole, Ari; Donnelly, Joseph; Cardim, Danilo; Kim, Dong-Joo; Dias, Celeste; Cabeleira, Manuel; Smielewski, Peter

    2017-11-15

    Methods to identify an autoregulation guided "optimal" cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) for traumatic brain injury patients (TBI) have been reported through several studies. An important drawback of existing methodology is that CPPopt can be calculated only in ∼50-60% of the monitoring time. In this study, we hypothesized that the CPPopt yield and the continuity can be improved significantly through application of a multi-window and weighting calculation algorithm, without adversely affecting preservation of its prognostic value. Data of 526 severe TBI patients admitted between 2003 and 2015 were studied. The multi-window CPPopt calculation was based on automated curve fitting in pressure reactivity index (PRx)-CPP plots using data from 36 increasing length time windows (2-8 h). The resulting matrix of CPPopts was then averaged in a weighted manner. The yield, continuity, and stability of CPPopt were studied. The difference between patients' actual CPP and CPPopt (ΔCPP) was calculated and the association with outcome was analyzed. Overall, the multi-window method demonstrated more continuous and stable presentation of CPPopt in this cohort. The new method resulted in a mean (±SE) CPPopt yield of 94% ± 2.1%, as opposed to the previous single-window-based CPPopt yield of 51% ± 0.94%. The stability of CPPopt across the whole monitoring period was significantly improved by using the new algorithm (p window algorithm and outcome was similar to that for CPPopt calculated on the basis of a single window. In conclusion, this study validates the use of a new multi-window and weighting algorithm for significant improvement of CPPopt yield in TBI patients. This methodological improvement is essential for its clinical application in future CPPopt trials.

  16. Auditory middle latency responses differ in right- and left-handed subjects: an evaluation through topographic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Mehrnaz; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Alborzi, Marzieh Sharifian; Najafi-Koopaie, Mojtaba; Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association of handedness with auditory middle latency responses (AMLRs) using topographic brain mapping by comparing amplitudes and latencies in frontocentral and hemispheric regions of interest (ROIs). The study included 44 healthy subjects with normal hearing (22 left handed and 22 right handed). AMLRs were recorded from 29 scalp electrodes in response to binaural 4-kHz tone bursts. Frontocentral ROI comparisons revealed that Pa and Pb amplitudes were significantly larger in the left-handed than the right-handed group. Topographic brain maps showed different distributions in AMLR components between the two groups. In hemispheric comparisons, Pa amplitude differed significantly across groups. A left-hemisphere emphasis of Pa was found in the right-handed group but not in the left-handed group. This study provides evidence that handedness is associated with AMLR components in frontocentral and hemispheric ROI. Handedness should be considered an essential factor in the clinical or experimental use of AMLRs.

  17. Repeat neuroimaging of mild traumatic brain-injured patients with acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage: clinical outcomes and radiographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Natalie; Lyons, Michael S; Hart, Kim; Lindsell, Cristopher J; Chung, Sora; Yick, Andrew; Bonomo, Jordan

    2014-10-01

    Emergency department (ED) management of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with any form of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is variable. Since 2000, our center's standard practice has been to obtain a repeat head computed tomography (CT) at least 6 hours after initial imaging. Patients are eligible for discharge if clinical and CT findings are stable. Whether this practice is safe is unknown. This study characterized clinical outcomes in mild TBI patients with acute traumatic ICH seen on initial ED neuroimaging. This retrospective cohort study included patients presenting to the ED with blunt mild TBI with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and stable vital signs, during the period from January 2001 to January 2010. Patients with any ICH on initial head CT and repeat head CT within 24 hours were eligible. Cases were excluded for initial GCS 24 hours old, pregnancy, concomitant nonminor injuries, and coagulopathy. A single investigator abstracted data from records using a standardized case report form and data dictionary. Primary endpoints included death, neurosurgical procedures, and for discharged patients, return to the ED within 7 days. Differences in proportions were computed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 1,011 patients who presented to the ED and had two head CTs within 24 hours, 323 (32%) met inclusion criteria. The median time between CT scans was 6 hours (interquartile range = 5 to 7 hours). A total of 153 (47%) patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 132 (41%) patients had subdural hemorrhage, 11 (3%) patients had epidural hemorrhage, 78 (24%) patients had cerebral contusions, and 59 (18%) patients had intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Four of 323 (1.2%, 95% CI = 0.3% to 3.2%) patients died within 2 weeks of injury. Three of the patients who died had been admitted from the ED on their initial visits, and one had been discharged home. There were 206 patients (64%) discharged from the ED, 28 (13.6%) of whom returned to the ED

  18. Severity and Co-occurrence of Oral and Verbal Apraxias in Left Brain Damaged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral and verbal apraxias represent motor programming deficits of nonverbal and verbal movements respectively. Studying their properties may shed light on speech motor control processes. This study was focused on identifying cases with oral or verbal apraxia, their co–occurrences and severities. Materials & Methods: In this non-experimental study, 55 left adult subjects with left brain lesion including 22 women and 33 men with age range of 23 to 84 years, were examined and videotaped using oral apraxia and verbal apraxia tasks. Three speech and language pathologists independently scored apraxia severities. Data were analyzed by independent t test, Pearson, Phi and Contingency coefficients using SPSS 12. Results: Mean score of oral and verbal apraxias in patients with and without oral and verbal apraxias were significantly different (P<0.001. Forty- two patients had simultaneous oral and verbal apraxias, with significant correlation between their oral and verbal apraxia scores (r=0.75, P<0.001. Six patients showed no oral or verbal apraxia and 7 had just one type of apraxia. Comparison of co-occurrence of two disorders (Phi=0.59 and different oral and verbal intensities (C=0.68 were relatively high (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present research revealed co-occurrence of oral and verbal apraxias to a great extent. It appears that speech motor control is influenced by a more general verbal and nonverbal motor control.

  19. The perception of peripersonal space in right and left brain damage hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eBartolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripersonal space, as opposed to extrapersonal space, is the space that contains reachable objects and in which multisensory and sensorimotor integration is enhanced. Thus, the perception of peripersonal space requires combining information on the spatial properties of the environment with information on the current capacity to act. In support of this, recent studies have provided converging evidences that perceiving objects in peripersonal space activates a neural network overlapping with that subtending voluntary motor action and motor imagery. Other studies have also underlined the dominant role of the right hemisphere in motor planning and of the left hemisphere in on-line motor guiding, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a right or left hemiplegia in the perception of peripersonal space. 16 hemiplegic patients with brain damage to the left (LH or right (RH hemisphere and 8 matched healthy controls (HC performed a colour discrimination, a motor imagery and a reachability judgment task. Analyses of response times and accuracy revealed no variation among the three groups in the colour discrimination task, suggesting the absence of any specific perceptual or decisional deficits in the patient groups. In contrast, the patient groups revealed longer response times in the motor imagery task when performed in reference to the hemiplegic arm (RH and LH or to the healthy arm (RH. Moreover, RH group showed longer response times in the reachability judgement task, but only for stimuli located at the boundary of peripersonal space, which was furthermore significantly reduced in size. Considered together, these results confirm the crucial role of the motor system in motor imagery task and the perception of peripersonal space. They also revealed that right hemisphere damage has a more detrimental effect on reachability estimates, suggesting that motor planning processes contribute specifically to the perception of

  20. Post-stroke acquired amusia: A comparison between right- and left-brain hemispheric damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra; Esmaili, Mahdiye; Delbari, Ahmad; Mehrpour, Masoud; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Although extensive research has been published about the emotional consequences of stroke, most studies have focused on emotional words, speech prosody, voices, or facial expressions. The emotional processing of musical excerpts following stroke has been relatively unexplored. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic stroke on the recognition of basic emotions in music. Seventy persons, including 25 normal controls (NC), 25 persons with right brain damage (RBD) from stroke, and 20 persons with left brain damage (LBD) from stroke between the ages of 31-71 years were studied. The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) test, which consists of a set of short musical pieces expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness, and fear) and neutrality, was used to test musical emotional perception. Both stroke groups were significantly poorer than normal controls for the MEB total score and its subtests (p amusia with greater severity in RBD than LBD. These results supported the "valence hypothesis" of right hemisphere dominance in processing negative emotions.

  1. Concomitant use of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and computer-assisted training for the rehabilitation of attention in traumatic brain injured patients: behavioral and neuroimaging results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia eSacco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Divided attention, the ability to distribute cognitive resources among two or more simultaneous tasks, may be severely compromised after traumatic brain injury (TBI, resulting in problems with numerous activities involved with daily living. So far, no research has investigated whether the use of non-invasive brain stimulation associated with neuropsychological rehabilitation might contribute to the recovery of such cognitive function. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 10 tDCS sessions combined with computer-assisted training; it also intended to explore the neural modifications induced by the treatment. Thirty-two patients with severe TBI participated in the study: sixteen were part of the experimental group, and sixteen part of the control group. The treatment included 20’ of tDCS, administered twice a day for 5 days. The electrodes were placed on the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. Their location varied across patients and it depended on each participant’s specific area of damage. The control group received sham tDCS. After each tDCS session, the patient received computer-assisted cognitive training on divided attention for 40’. The results showed that the experimental group significantly improved in divided attention performance between pre- and post-treatment, showing faster reaction times, and fewer omissions. No improvement was detected between the baseline assessment (i.e., one month before treatment and the pre-training assessment, or within the control group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data, obtained on the experimental group during a divided attention task, showed post-treatment lower cerebral activations in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 42, right and left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6, right postcentral gyrus (BA 3 and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9. We interpreted such neural changes as normalization of previously abnormal hyperactivations.

  2. Electroencephalographic (eeg coherence between visual and motor areas of the left and the right brain hemisphere while performing visuomotor task with the right and the left hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brežan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral limb movements are based on the activation of contralateral primary motor cortex and the bilateral activation of premotor cortices. Performance of a visuomotor task requires a visuomotor integration between motor and visual cortical areas. The functional integration (»binding« of different brain areas, is probably mediated by the synchronous neuronal oscillatory activity, which can be determined by electroencephalographic (EEG coherence analysis. We introduced a new method of coherence analysis and compared coherence and power spectra in the left and right hemisphere for the right vs. left hand visuomotor task, hypothesizing that the increase in coherence and decrease in power spectra while performing the task would be greater in the contralateral hemisphere.Methods: We analyzed 6 healthy subjects and recorded their electroencephalogram during visuomotor task with the right or the left hand. For data analysis, a special Matlab computer programme was designed. The results were statistically analysed by a two-way analysis of variance, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc t-tests with Bonferroni correction.Results: We demonstrated a significant increase in coherence (p < 0.05 for the visuomotor task compared to control tasks in alpha (8–13 Hz in beta 1 (13–20 Hz frequency bands between visual and motor electrodes. There were no significant differences in coherence nor power spectra depending on the hand used. The changes of coherence and power spectra between both hemispheres were symmetrical.Conclusions: In previous studies, a specific increase of coherence and decrease of power spectra for the visuomotor task was found, but we found no conclusive asymmetries when performing the task with right vs. left hand. This could be explained in a way that increases in coherence and decreases of power spectra reflect symmetrical activation and cooperation between more complex visual and motor brain areas.

  3. White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaki, Gabor; Horvath, Reka; Orsi, Gergely; Aradi, Mihaly; Auer, Tibor; Varga, Eszter; Kantor, Gyongyi; Altbäcker, Anna; John, Flora; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Importance of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with ischemic events of the heart or brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Aguilera-Saborido, A; Solanella-Soler, J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH) is a potentially modifiable vascular risk factor (VRF) often overlooked in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of H-LVH in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or ischemic stroke (IS). We retrospectively assessed all the echocardiography studies of patients admitted with the diagnosis CHD or IS over a 4-year period. We studied 533 patients, 330 with CHD and 203 with IS. Mean age was 69 (±11) years, 61.5% males. Hypertension was the most common RF: 362 patients (67.9%) (CHD vs. IS: 70 vs. 64.5%; P=NS). H-LVH was seen in 234 patients (43.9%) (CHD vs. IS: 44.8 vs. 42.3%; P=NS). Patients with H-LVH were older and received a greater number of antihypertensive drugs at discharge. Half of patients with hypertension presented H-LVH (184 patients; 50.8%), with similar frequency in both groups (CHD vs. IS: 50.6 vs. 51.1%; P=NS). Neither patients' characteristics nor VRF with the exception of hypertension (P=.0001) were associated with H-LVH. H-LVH is a major VRF in patients with ischemic events in the heart and brain. Nearly half the patients present H-LVH, with a similar frequency in both groups. It is important to identify H-LVH in these patients to optimize treatment and improve long-term prognosis. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silberstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion.

  6. Left ventricular mass-geometry and silent cerebrovascular disease: The Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koki; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Tugcu, Aylin; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2017-03-01

    Although abnormal left ventricular geometric patterns have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality, their possible association with silent cerebrovascular disease has not been extensively evaluated. We examined 665 participants in the CABL study who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were divided into 4 geometric patterns: normal geometry (n=397), concentric remodeling (n=89), eccentric hypertrophy (n=126), and concentric hypertrophy (n=53). Subclinical cerebrovascular disease was defined as silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV; expressed as log-transformed percentage of the total cranial volume). Silent brain infarcts were observed in 94 participants (14%). Mean log-WMHV was -0.97±0.93. Concentric hypertrophy carried the greatest risk for both SBI (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.39, Pdisease. In subgroup analyses, concentric and eccentric hypertrophies were significantly associated with SBI and WMHV in both genders and nonobese participants, but differed for SBI by age (all ages for eccentric hypertrophy, only patients ≥70years for concentric hypertrophy) and by race-ethnicity (Hispanics for eccentric hypertrophy, blacks for concentric hypertrophy; no association in whites). Left ventricular hypertrophy, with both eccentric and concentric patterns, was significantly associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a multiethnic stroke-free general population. Left ventricular geometric patterns may carry different risks for silent cerebrovascular disease in different sex, age, race-ethnic, and body size subgroups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Embedded Words in Visual Word Recognition: Does the Left Hemisphere See the Rain in Brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Samantha F.; Davis, Colin J.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in "gr*apple", "bull*et") or in the middle…

  8. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J. M.; Ramsey, N.; Rutten, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MM can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on

  9. Roots of brain specializations: preferential left-eye use during mirror-image inspection in six species of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvano, V A; Rainoldi, C; Bisazza, A; Vallortigara, G

    1999-12-01

    It has recently been reported that predator inspection is more likely to occur when a companion (i.e. the mirror image of the test animal) is visible on the left rather than on the right side of mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. This very unexpected outcome could be consistent with the hypothesis of a preferential use of the right eye during sustained fixation of a predator as well as of a preferential use of the left eye during fixation of conspecifics. We measured the time spent in monocular viewing during inspection of their own mirror images in females of six species of fish, belonging to different families-G. holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni, Phoxinus phoxinus, Pterophyllum scalare, Xenopoecilus sarasinorun, and Trichogaster trichopterus. Results revealed a consistent left-eye preference during sustained fixation in all of the five species. Males of G. holbrooki, which do not normally show any social behaviour, did not exhibit any eye preferences during mirror-image inspection. We found, however, that they could be induced to manifest a left-eye preference, likewise females, if tested soon after capture, when some affiliative tendencies can be observed. These findings add to current evidence in a variety of vertebrate species for preferential involvement of structures located in the right side of the brain in response to the viewing of conspecifics.

  10. [Total dream loss secondary to left temporo-occipital brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, J J; Martí Massó, J F

    2006-04-01

    Recently the case of a woman who reported cessation of dreaming after a bilateral PCA stroke but without REM sleep loss has been reported, suggesting that deep bilateral occipital lobe damage including the right inferior lingual gyrus may represent the "minimal lesion extension" necessary for dream loss. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who ceased dreaming after a unilateral left temporo- occipital hematoma. The polysomnographic characteristics in rapid eyes movements (REM) sleep were otherwise normal. Our patient demonstrates that a unilateral left temporo-occipital injury could be sufficient for losing dreams.

  11. Detection of left ventricular enlargement and impaired systolic function with plasma N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønning, Bjørn Aaris; Nilsson, Jens C.; Søndergaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain- and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been identified as promising markers for heart failure. However, previous studies have revealed that they may hold insufficient diagnostic power for implementation into clinical practice because of a significant...... overlap in the range of plasma levels between healthy subjects and subjects with heart failure. We hypothesized that imprecision of the reference method (ie, the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular [LV] function) may have affected results from those earlier studies. We therefore wanted...... to investigate the diagnostic potential of NT-proBNP with magnetic resonance imaging as the reference method for the cardiac measurements. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with stable symptomatic heart failure in New York Heart Association functional classifications II to IV were examined once with blood samples...

  12. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  13. Dimethyloxalylglycine treatment of brain-dead donor rats improves both donor and graft left ventricular function after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Péter; Li, Shiliang; Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Radovits, Tamás; Mayer, Tobias; Al Said, Samer; Brlecic, Paige; Karck, Matthias; Merkely, Béla; Szabó, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 pathway signalling has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) activates the HIF-1 pathway by stabilizing HIF-1α. In a rat model of brain death (BD)-associated donor heart dysfunction we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment of brain-dead donors with DMOG would result in a better graft heart condition. BD was induced in anesthetized Lewis rats by inflating a subdurally placed balloon catheter. Controls underwent sham operations. Then, rats were injected with an intravenous dose of DMOG (30 mg/kg) or an equal volume of physiologic saline. After 5 hours of BD or sham operation, hearts were perfused with a cold (4°C) preservation solution (Custodiol; Dr. Franz Köhler Chemie GmbH; Germany), explanted, stored at 4°C in Custodiol, and heterotopically transplanted. Graft function was evaluated 1.5 hours after transplantation. Compared with control, BD was associated with decreased left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. DMOG treatment after BD improved contractility (end-systolic pressure volume relationship E'max: 3.7 ± 0.6 vs 3.1 ± 0.5 mm Hg/µ1; p brain-dead group. After heart transplantation, DMOG treatment of brain-dead donors significantly improved the altered systolic function and decreased inflammatory infiltration, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and DNA strand breakage. In addition, compared with the brain-dead group, DMOG treatment moderated the pro-apoptotic changes in the gene and protein expression. In a rat model of potential brain-dead heart donors, pre-treatment with DMOG resulted in improved early recovery of graft function after transplantation. These results support the hypothesis that activation of the HIF-1 pathway has a protective role against BD-associated cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  15. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  16. False memories to emotional stimuli are not equally affected in right- and left-brain-damaged stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has attributed to the right hemisphere (RH) a key role in eliciting false memories to visual emotional stimuli. These results have been explained in terms of two right-hemisphere properties: (i) that emotional stimuli are preferentially processed in the RH and (ii) that visual stimuli are represented more coarsely in the RH. According to this account, false emotional memories are preferentially produced in the RH because emotional stimuli are both more strongly and more diffusely activated during encoding, leaving a memory trace that can be erroneously reactivated by similar but unstudied emotional items at test. If this right-hemisphere hypothesis is correct, then RH damage should result in a reduction in false memories to emotional stimuli relative to left-hemisphere lesions. To investigate this possibility, groups of right-brain-damaged (RBD, N=15), left-brain-damaged (LBD, N=15) and healthy (HC, N=30) participants took part in a recognition memory experiment with emotional (negative and positive) and non-emotional pictures. False memories were operationalized as incorrect responses to unstudied pictures that were similar to studied ones. Both RBD and LBD participants showed similar reductions in false memories for negative pictures relative to controls. For positive pictures, however, false memories were reduced only in RBD patients. The results provide only partial support for the right-hemisphere hypothesis and suggest that inter-hemispheric cooperation models may be necessary to fully account for false emotional memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Left, The Better: White-Matter Brain Integrity Predicts Foreign Language Imitation Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2017-08-01

    Speech imitation is crucial for language acquisition and second-language learning. Interestingly, large individual differences regarding the ability in imitating foreign-language sounds have been observed. The origin of this interindividual diversity remains unknown, although it might be partially explained by structural predispositions. Here we correlated white-matter structural properties of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) with the performance of 52 German-speakers in a Hindi sentence- and word-imitation task. First, a manual reconstruction was performed, permitting us to extract the mean values along the three branches of the AF. We found that a larger lateralization of the AF volume toward the left hemisphere predicted the performance of our participants in the imitation task. Second, an automatic reconstruction was carried out, allowing us to localize the specific region within the AF that exhibited the largest correlation with foreign language imitation. Results of this reconstruction also showed a left lateralization trend: greater fractional anisotropy values in the anterior half of the left AF correlated with the performance in the Hindi-imitation task. From the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that foreign language imitation aptitude is tested using a more ecological imitation task and correlated with DTI tractography, using both a manual and an automatic method. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Anomalous Brain Dominance and the Immune System: Do Left-Handers Have Specific Immunological Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengen, Charis; Regard, Marianne; Joller, Helen; Landis, Theodor; Lalive, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Geschwind and Behan (1982) and Geschwind and Galaburda (1985a, 1985b, 1985c) suggested a correlation between brain laterality and immune disorders. To test whether this hypothesis holds true not only for the frequency of immune diseases and circulating autoantibodies, but extends also to cellular immunity, we examined the association between…

  19. From Dental to Mental Institutions: Did Hypoxic Anesthetics by "Dental Associations" Add More Brain-Injured Patients to America's Insane Asylums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew L; Bause, George S

    2017-10-01

    Though most patients survived the hypoxic challenge, some patients likely suffered asphyxial brain damage from GQ Colton's nitrous-oxide techniques and were admitted to insane or lunatic asylums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations Between Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Brain Structure and Function: Findings From the SABRE (Southall and Brent Revisited) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chloe M; Williams, Emily D; Chaturvedi, Nish; Tillin, Therese; Stewart, Robert J; Richards, Marcus; Shibata, Dean; Mayet, Jamil; Hughes, Alun D

    2017-04-18

    Subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has been inconsistently associated with early cognitive impairment, and mechanistic pathways have been poorly considered. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between LV dysfunction and structural/functional measures of the brain and explored the role of potential mechanisms. A total of 1338 individuals (69±6 years) from the Southall and Brent Revisited study underwent echocardiography for systolic (tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic wave) and diastolic (left atrial diameter) assessment. Cognitive function was assessed and total and hippocampal brain volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Global LV function was assessed by circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. The role of potential mechanistic pathways of arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis, microvascular disease, and inflammation were explored. After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, lower systolic function was associated with lower total brain (beta±standard error, 14.9±3.2 cm 3 ; P function was associated with poorer working memory (-0.21±0.07, P =0.004) and fluency scores (-0.18±0.08, P =0.02). Reduced global LV function was associated with smaller hippocampal volume (-0.10±0.03 cm 3 , P =0.004) and adverse visual memory (-0.076±0.03, P =0.02) and processing speed (0.063±0.02, P =0.006) scores. Separate adjustment for concomitant cardiovascular risk factors attenuated associations with hippocampal volume and fluency only. Further adjustment for the alternative pathways of microvascular disease or arterial stiffness attenuated the relationship between global LV function and visual memory. In a community-based sample of older people, measures of LV function were associated with structural/functional measures of the brain. These associations were not wholly explained by concomitant risk factors or potential mechanistic pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc

  1. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo eUrgesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding.

  2. Neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the brain stem is altered with left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Edmund; Wang, Xin; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Sun, Ke; Garrott, Kara; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Kay, Matthew W; Mendelowitz, David

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF) are widespread and debilitating cardiovascular diseases that affect nearly 23 million people worldwide. A distinctive hallmark of these cardiovascular diseases is autonomic imbalance, with increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic vagal tone. Recent device-based approaches, such as implantable vagal stimulators that stimulate a multitude of visceral sensory and motor fibers in the vagus nerve, are being evaluated as new therapeutic approaches for these and other diseases. However, little is known about how parasympathetic activity to the heart is altered with these diseases, and this lack of knowledge is an obstacle in the goal of devising selective interventions that can target and selectively restore parasympathetic activity to the heart. To identify the changes that occur within the brain stem to diminish the parasympathetic cardiac activity, left ventricular hypertrophy was elicited in rats by aortic pressure overload using a transaortic constriction approach. Cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brain stem that generate parasympathetic activity to the heart were identified with a retrograde tracer and studied using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in vitro. Animals with left cardiac hypertrophy had diminished excitation of CVNs, which was mediated both by an augmented frequency of spontaneous inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission (with no alteration of inhibitory glycinergic activity) as well as a diminished amplitude and frequency of excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs. Opportunities to alter these network pathways and neurotransmitter receptors provide future targets of intervention in the goal to restore parasympathetic activity and autonomic balance to the heart in cardiac hypertrophy and other cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Do old errors always lead to new truths? A randomized controlled trial of errorless goal management training in brain-injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertens, D.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Fiorenzato, E.; Boelen, D.H.E.; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    Both errorless learning (EL) and Goal Management Training (GMT) have been shown effective cognitive rehabilitation methods aimed at optimizing the performance on everyday skills after brain injury. We examine whether a combination of EL and GMT is superior to traditional GMT for training complex

  4. Relationships of Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythm and Brain Natriuretic Peptide with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in the Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hui-Juan; Wang, Xin; Gao, Deng-Feng; Dong, Xin; Wei, Jin; Ma, Rui

    2016-10-10

    Objective To investigate the relationships of blood pressure circadian rhythm and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with primary hypertension. Methods Totally 349 patients (74 with LVH and 275 without LVH) with primary hypertension were enrolled in this study.Echocardiography was performed to determine left ventricular mass index (LVMI) using the Devereux formula. The nocturnal blood pressure decline rate,24-hour blood pressure (24 h PP; especially 24 h mean systolic blood pressure,24 h SBP) and blood pressure index (PPI) were determined by 24 h-ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. These 349 hypertensive patients were divided into four groups including supper-dipper group (defined as≥;20%, n=7),dipper group (defined as 10%- 20%, n=77),non-dipper group (defined as 0- 10%, n=173),and anti-dipper group (defined ashypertension (85.1% vs. 46.9%;χ 2 =34.428,Pblood pressure decline rate [(1.30±8.02)% vs. (5.68±7.25)%; t=-4.510,Phypertensive group had significantly higher BNP level (87.8 pg/ml vs. 28.8 pg/ml; t=2.170,P=0.034) and LVMI (135.1 g/m 2 vs. 88.7 g/m 2 ; t=15.285,Phypertension. Conclusion With the increasing of plasma BNP level,the left ventricular hypertrophy is closely related to abnormal blood pressure circadian rhythm and the grade of hypertension in primary hypertensive patients.

  5. Neuroproteomic study of nitrated proteins in moderate traumatic brain injured rats treated with gamma glutamyl cysteine ethyl ester administration post injury: Insight into the role of glutathione elevation in nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Moses; Rice, Brittany; Sebastian, Andrea; Sullivan, Patrick G; King, Christina; Robinson, Renã A S; Reed, Tanea T

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study are to establish a time point to determine the most beneficial time to administer GCEE post incident to reduce oxidative damage and second, by using redox proteomics, to determine if GCEE can readily suppress 3-NT modification in TBI animals. By using a moderate traumatic brain injury model with Wistar rats, it is hypothesized that the role of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation as an intermediate will predict the involvement of protein nitration/nitrosation and oxidative damage in the brain. In this experiment, the levels of protein carbonyls, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 3-nitrotyrosine were significantly elevated in TBI injured, saline treated rats compared with those who sustained an injury and were treated with 150 mg/kg of the glutathione mimetic, GCEE. Determining the existence of elevated 3-NT levels provides insight into the relationship between the protein nitration/nitrosation and the oxidative damage, which can determine the pathogenesis and progression of specific neurological diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Lateralization in the invertebrate brain: left-right asymmetry of olfaction in bumble bee, Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Anfora

    Full Text Available Brain and behavioural lateralization at the population level has been recently hypothesized to have evolved under social selective pressures as a strategy to optimize coordination among asymmetrical individuals. Evidence for this hypothesis have been collected in Hymenoptera: eusocial honey bees showed olfactory lateralization at the population level, whereas solitary mason bees only showed individual-level olfactory lateralization. Here we investigated lateralization of odour detection and learning in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris L., an annual eusocial species of Hymenoptera. By training bumble bees on the proboscis extension reflex paradigm with only one antenna in use, we provided the very first evidence of asymmetrical performance favouring the right antenna in responding to learned odours in this species. Electroantennographic responses did not reveal significant antennal asymmetries in odour detection, whereas morphological counting of olfactory sensilla showed a predominance in the number of olfactory sensilla trichodea type A in the right antenna. The occurrence of a population level asymmetry in olfactory learning of bumble bee provides new information on the relationship between social behaviour and the evolution of population-level asymmetries in animals.

  7. Evolution of changes in the computed tomography scans of the brain of a patient with left middle cerebral artery infarction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kurien; Singhal, Parag; Cook, Chris

    2008-05-08

    Stroke is a common and important condition in medicine. Effective early management of acute stroke can reduce morbidity and mortality. A 63-year-old man presented to the Accident and Emergency department with a history of collapse and progressive right-sided weakness. Clinically this was a cerebrovascular accident affecting the left hemisphere of the brain causing right hemiplegia. Computed tomography scans, performed 3 days apart, showed the evolution of infarction in the brain caused by the thrombus in the left middle cerebral artery. This is one of the early signs for stroke seen on computed tomography imaging and it is called the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign. Patients admitted with a stroke, undergo CT brain within 24 hours. The scan usually takes place at admission into the hospital and is done to rule out a bleed or a space occupying lesion within the brain. A normal CT brain does not confirm a stroke has not taken place. When scanned early, the changes seen on the CT due to an infarction from a thrombus may not have taken place yet. This paper highlights the early changes that can be seen on the CT brain following a stroke caused by infarction due to a thrombus in the middle cerebral artery.

  8. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  9. Relationship between the severity of mitral regurgitation, left ventricular dysfunction and plasma brain natriuretic peptide level: An observational strain imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Elbey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the this study was to investigatethe relationship between the degree of mitral regurgitation(MR, left ventricular (LV dysfunction determined bystrain (S/strain rate (SR imaging and plasma brain natriureticpeptide (BNP levels.Materials and methods: This is an observational crosssectionalstudy which included 31 consecutive patients(15[48.4%] male who had applied to our outpatient clinicsand diagnosed as mitral regurgitation and 25 (12[48.0%] male healthy persons as control subjects. Themitral regurgitation patients were divided into two groups:those with moderate MR (n=14[45.2%] and those withsevere MR (n=17[54.8%], and maximum strain / strainrate measurements of left ventricular wall segments andplasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were determined inthese two groups and controls.Results: S/SR values of all wall segments of left ventriclewere found to be decreased in patient with severe MRwhen compared with the control subjects and patientswith moderate MR (p<0.001.Conclusions: Although left ventricle functions with conventionalechocardiography in patients with mitral valveregurgitation were normal, subclinic deteriorations ofleft ventricle were detected in patients with severe mitralvalve regurgitation. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (4: 451-456Key words: strain/strain rate, echocardiography, mitralregurgitation, left ventricular functions

  10. Selected Gray Matter Volumes and Gender but Not Basal Ganglia nor Cerebellum Gyri Discriminate Left Versus Right Cerebral Hemispheres: Multivariate Analyses in human Brains at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Suarez-May, Marcela A; Favila, Rafael; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Rios, Camilo

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the lateralization of the human brain is evident through a multidisciplinary number of scientific studies. Understanding volumetric brain asymmetries allows the distinction between normal development stages and behavior, as well as brain diseases. We aimed to evaluate volumetric asymmetries in order to select the best gyri able to classify right- versus left cerebral hemispheres. A cross-sectional study performed in 47 right-handed young-adults healthy volunteers. SPM-based software performed brain segmentation, automatic labeling and volumetric analyses for 54 regions involving the cerebral lobes, basal ganglia and cerebellum from each cerebral hemisphere. Multivariate discriminant analysis (DA) allowed the assembling of a predictive model. DA revealed one discriminant function that significantly differentiated left vs. right cerebral hemispheres: Wilks' λ = 0.008, χ(2) (9) = 238.837, P vision and language; our findings favored the concept that lateralization has been evolutionary favored by mental processes increasing cognitive efficiency and brain capacity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Language development at 2 years is correlated to brain microstructure in the left superior temporal gyrus at term equivalent age: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Alec; De Tiège, Xavier; Creuzil, Marylise; David, Philippe; Balériaux, Danielle; Van Overmeire, Bart; Metens, Thierry; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abilities at age 2 years are related with local brain microstructure of preterm infants at term equivalent age. Forty-one preterm infants underwent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging sequences to measure mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), longitudinal and transverse diffusivity (λ// and λ[perpendicular]) at term equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years corrected age using the Bayley III scale. A voxel-based analysis approach, statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), was used to correlate changes of the Bayley III scores with the regional distribution of MD, FA, λ// and λ[perpendicular]. We found that language abilities are negatively correlated to MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] in the left superior temporal gyrus in preterm infants. These findings suggest that higher MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] values at term-equivalent age in the left superior temporal gyrus are associated with poorer language scores in later childhood. Consequently, it highlights the key role of the left superior temporal gyrus for the development of language abilities in children. Further studies are needed to assess on an individual basis and on the long term the prognostic value of brain DTI at term equivalent age for the development of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lesion Size Is Exacerbated in Hypoxic Rats Whereas Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Increase in Injured Normoxic Rats: A Prospective Cohort Study of Secondary Hypoxia in Focal Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Eric Peter; Frostell, Arvid; Mulder, Jan; Mitsios, Nicholas; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Risling, Mårten; Svensson, Mikael; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe insult shown to exacerbate the pathophysiology, resulting in worse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a hypoxic insult in a focal TBI model by monitoring brain edema, lesion volume, serum biomarker levels, immune cell infiltration, as well as the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 73, including sham and naive) were used. The rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated. A controlled cortical impact device created a 3-mm deep lesion in the right parietal hemisphere. Post-injury, rats inhaled either normoxic (22% O2) or hypoxic (11% O2) mixtures for 30 min. The rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-injury. Serum was collected for S100B measurements using ELISA. Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine lesion size and edema volume. Immunofluorescence was employed to analyze neuronal death, changes in cerebral macrophage- and neutrophil infiltration, microglia proliferation, apoptosis, complement activation (C5b9), IgG extravasation, HIF-1α, and VEGF. The hypoxic group had significantly increased blood levels of lactate and decreased pO2 (p hypoxic animals (p hypoxic group at 1 day after trauma (p = 0.0868). No differences were observed between the groups in cytotoxic and vascular edema, IgG extravasation, neutrophils and macrophage aggregation, microglia proliferation, or C5b-9 expression. Hypoxia following focal TBI exacerbated the lesion size and neuronal loss. Moreover, there was a tendency to higher levels of S100B in the hypoxic group early after injury, indicating a potential validity as a biomarker of injury severity. In the normoxic group, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was found elevated, possibly indicative of neuro-protective responses occurring in this less severely injured group. Further studies are

  13. Lesion size is exacerbated in hypoxic rats whereas hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor increase in injured normoxic rats: a prospective cohort study of secondary hypoxia in focal traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Peter Thelin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a severe insult shown to exacerbate the pathophysiology, resulting in worse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a hypoxic insult in a focal TBI model by monitoring brain edema, lesion volume, serum biomarker levels, immune cell infiltration, as well as the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF.Material and methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=73, including sham and naïve were used. The rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated. A controlled cortical impact device created a 3 millimeter deep lesion in the right parietal hemisphere. Post injury, rats inhaled either normoxic (22% O2 or hypoxic (11% O2 mixtures for 30 minutes. The rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-injury. Serum was collected for S100B measurements using ELISA. Ex-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed to determine lesion size and edema volume. Immunofluorescence was employed to analyze neuronal death, changes in cerebral macrophage- and neutrophil infiltration, microglia proliferation, apoptosis, complement activation (C5b9, IgG extravasation, HIF-1α and VEGF.Results: The hypoxic group had significantly increased blood levels of lactate and decreased pO2 (p<0.0001, respectively. On MRI post-traumatic hypoxia resulted in larger lesion areas (p=0.0173 and NeuN staining revealed greater neuronal loss (p=0.0253. HIF-1α and VEGF expression was significantly increased in normoxic but not in hypoxic animals (p<0.05, respectively. A trend was seen for serum levels of S100B to be higher in the hypoxic group at 1 day after trauma (p=0.0868. No differences were observed between the groups in cytotoxic and vascular edema, IgG extravasation, neutrophils and macrophage aggregation, microglia proliferation or C5b9 expression.Conclusion: Hypoxia following focal TBI exacerbated the lesion size and neuronal

  14. Increased Low-Frequency Resting-State Brain Activity by High-Frequency Repetitive TMS on the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shao-Wei; Guo, Yonghu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Zang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Ze

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) have been consistently shown for treating various neuropsychiatrical or neuropsychological disorders, but relatively little is known about its neural mechanisms. Here we conducted a randomized, double-blind, SHAM-controlled study to assess the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS on resting-state activity. Thirty-eight young healthy subjects received two sessions of either real rTMS ( N = 18, 90% motor-threshold; left DLPFC at 20 Hz) or SHAM TMS ( N = 20) and functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during rest in 2 days separated by 48 h. Resting-state bran activity was measured with the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and functional connectivity (FC). Increased fALFF was found in rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) after 20 Hz rTMS, while no changes were observed after SHAM stimulation. Using the suprathreshold rACC cluster as the seed, increased FC was found in left temporal cortex (stimulation vs. group interaction). These data suggest that high-frequency rTMS on left DLPFC enhances low-frequency resting-state brain activity in the target site and remote sites as reflected by fALFF and FC.

  15. Injured coliforms in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    McFeters, G A; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M W

    1986-01-01

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

  16. Cognitive Rehabilitation and the Head-Injured Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses development of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (which attempts to address intervention needs of traumatically brain-injured child), particular concerns at various stages of patients' recovery, some fundamental principles of treatment, and framework for viewing cognition functionally. Considers questions clinicians ask and strategies for…

  17. Heritability of brain structure and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate and left thalamus assessed with MR: A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Legind, Christian Stefan; Mandl, Rene C W

    the SIENAX tool provided with FSL. MRS data from the left thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (bilaterally) were processed using LCModel. Metabolite concentrations (Cramer-Rao Lower bound ... correlations (positive) were found in monozygotic twin pairs in both the ACC (n = 56, r = 0.484, p = 0.009)) and the left thalamus (n = 56, r = 0.444, p = 0.018), but not in dizygotic twin pairs (ACC: n = 40, r = -0.123, p = 0.606; left thalamus: n = 40, r = 0.030, p = 0.902). No significant differences were...

  18. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  19. Regeneration of injured renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Honma, Shigeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), clinically defined by high serum creatinine and low urine flow, has many complicated pathophysiological features including tubular and glomerular injury. Although renal tubules are thought to be constituted by highly differentiated epithelial cells, it is possible to repair injured nephrons by the healing process. Several studies have revealed that AKI, especially AKI caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury or nephrotoxic medication, depends on a number of factors, including activation of transcriptional factors, endothelial injury of peritubular small vessels, immune responses, and inflammatory processes associated with necrosis and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelium. For regeneration of injured tubules, partly dedifferentiated progenitor-like cells fill the injured site and constitute the tubular structure and function, although the source of these cells is still under debate. It is essential to understand the molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms of AKI and tubular regeneration for the development of therapies to prevent and treat kidney injury.

  20. Relationship between tissue Doppler measurements of left ventricular diastolic function and silent brain infarction in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Sera; Sugioka, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Fujita, Suwako; Ito, Asahiro; Norioka, Naoki; Iwata, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Masashi; Takagi, Masahiko; Miki, Yukio; Ueda, Makiko; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is reported to be associated with left atrial (LA) blood stasis in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of diastolic TDI parameters with silent brain infarction (SBI) on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in turn the risks of subsequent stroke or dementia, in non-valvular AF patients. The study population consisted of 171 neurologically asymptomatic patients with non-valvular AF who underwent transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) (128 men; mean age, 63 ± 11 years). We measured diastolic TDI parameters by transthoracic echocardiography, and also screened for SBI employing brain MRI. Early transmitral flow velocity (E) and mitral annular velocity by TDI (e') were measured, and E/e' ratios were calculated. An increased tertile of the E/e' ratio was significantly related to high prevalences of LA abnormalities detected by TOE (32% vs. 12% vs. 9%; P =0.002) and SBI on brain MRI (46% vs. 23% vs. 14%; P chronic kidney disease, and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, the E/e' ratio ≥12.4 was found to be an independent predictor of the presence of SBI (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.74-9.07; P = 0.001). Impaired LV diastolic function evaluated by increased E/e' ratio was closely associated with the presence of SBI independent of CHA2DS2-VASc score. TDI measurements are non-invasive and useful for risk stratification of the early stage of cerebral damages in patients with non-valvular AF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Automatic segmentation of short association bundles using a new multi-subject atlas of the left hemisphere fronto-parietal brain connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M; Seguel, D; Roman, C; Duclap, D; Lebois, A; Le Bihan; Mangin, J-F; Poupon, C; Guevara, P

    2015-08-01

    Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In particular the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is an unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of the pathogenesis associated to it. In this work we developed a method for the automatic creation of a SWM bundle multi-subject atlas. The atlas generation method is based on a cortical parcellation for the extraction of fibers connecting two different gyri. Then, an intra-subject fiber clustering is applied, in order to divide each bundle into sub-bundles with similar shape. After that, a two-step inter-subject fiber clustering is used in order to find the correspondence between the sub-bundles across the subjects, fuse similar clusters and discard the outliers. The method was applied to 40 subjects of a high quality HARDI database, focused on the left hemisphere fronto-parietal and insula brain regions. We obtained an atlas composed of 44 bundles connecting 22 pair of ROIs. Then the atlas was used to automatically segment 39 new subjects from the database.

  2. Low-frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette Mary; Kirkovski, Melissa; Bailey, Neil Wayne; Thomson, Richard Hilton; Eisenberger, Naomi; Enticott, Peter Gregory; Fitzgerald, Paul Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to play a key role in the cognitive control of emotion and has therefore, unsurprisingly, been implicated in the regulation of physical pain perception. This brain region may also influence the experience of social pain, which has been shown to activate similar neural networks as seen in response to physical pain. Here, we applied sham or active low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC, previously shown to exert bilateral effects in pain perception, in healthy participants. Following stimulation, participants played the "Cyberball Task"; an online ball-tossing game in which the subject participant is included or excluded. Compared to sham, rTMS did not modulate behavioural response to social exclusion. However, within the active rTMS group only, greater trait personal distress was related to enhanced negative outcomes to social exclusion. These results add further support to the notion that the effect of brain stimulation is not homogenous across individuals, and indicates the need to consider baseline individual differences when assessing response to brain stimulation. This seems particularly relevant in social neuroscience investigations, where trait factors may have a meaningful effect.

  3. N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide in arterial hypertension--a marker for left ventricular dimensions and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Boesen, Mikael; Olsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In arterial hypertension risk factor evaluation, including LV mass measurements, and risk stratification using risk charts or programs, is generally recommended. In heart failure NT-proBNP has been shown to be a marker of LV dimensions and of prognosis. If the same diagnostic and prognostic value...... is present in arterial hypertension, risk factor evaluation would be easier. In 36 patients with arterial hypertension, electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy and preserved left ventricular function, NT-proBNP was eight-fold higher than in healthy subjects. The log NT-proBNP correlated with LV mass index (R=0...

  4. HYSTOMORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN INJURED MENISCI IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Bogatov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was studying histological changes in the injured menisci in children. The histological evaluation of injured menisci received during arthroscopy was performed. The prescription of injury varied from several days till 3 years. It was shown that injured fragment of the meniscus is viable up to 3 months since trauma. It was also obvious that active migration of the meniscus cells occur in the injured fragment and microvessels are seen in 50% of the meniscus tissues.

  5. N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide in arterial hypertension--a marker for left ventricular dimensions and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Boesen, Mikael; Olsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    and preserved LV function demonstrated that NT-proBNP was a very strong prognostic marker, especially combined with a history of cardiovascular disease. Patients with high NT-proBNP and known cardiovascular disease had a seven-fold increase in CV events compared to patients with low NT-proBNP and no CV disease......In arterial hypertension risk factor evaluation, including LV mass measurements, and risk stratification using risk charts or programs, is generally recommended. In heart failure NT-proBNP has been shown to be a marker of LV dimensions and of prognosis. If the same diagnostic and prognostic value.......47, P=0.0002) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. In other subjects with arterial hypertension a significant but weak correlation to diastolic properties has been demonstrated. As for prognosis, a recent study in patients with hypertension, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy...

  6. Augmenting Melodic Intonation Therapy with non-invasive brain stimulation to treat impaired left-hemisphere function: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahd eAl-Janabi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the right hemisphere can be engaged using Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to improve language function in people with aphasia. The two participants in this study (GOE and AMC have chronic non-fluent aphasia. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI task was used to localize the right Broca’s homologue area in the inferior frontal gyrus for rTMS coil placement. The treatment protocol included an rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used an excitatory stimulation method known as intermittent theta burst stimulation, and a sham-rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used a sham coil. Each treatment session was followed by 40 minutes of MIT. A linguistic battery was administered after each session. Our findings show that one participant, GOE, improved in verbal fluency and the repetition of phrases treated with MIT in combination with TMS. However, AMC showed no evidence of behavioural benefit from this brief treatment trial. Post-treatment neural activity changes were observed for both participants in the left Broca’s area and right Broca’s homologue. These case studies indicate that a combination of rTMS applied to the right Broca’s homologue and MIT has the potential to improve speech and language outcomes for at least some people with post-stroke aphasia.

  7. Augmenting melodic intonation therapy with non-invasive brain stimulation to treat impaired left-hemisphere function: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Shahd; Nickels, Lyndsey A; Sowman, Paul F; Burianová, Hana; Merrett, Dawn L; Thompson, William F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the right hemisphere can be engaged using Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve language function in people with aphasia. The two participants in this study (GOE and AMC) have chronic non-fluent aphasia. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was used to localize the right Broca's homolog area in the inferior frontal gyrus for rTMS coil placement. The treatment protocol included an rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used an excitatory stimulation method known as intermittent theta burst stimulation, and a sham-rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used a sham coil. Each treatment session was followed by 40 min of MIT. A linguistic battery was administered after each session. Our findings show that one participant, GOE, improved in verbal fluency and the repetition of phrases when treated with MIT in combination with TMS. However, AMC showed no evidence of behavioral benefit from this brief treatment trial. Post-treatment neural activity changes were observed for both participants in the left Broca's area and right Broca's homolog. These case studies indicate that a combination of MIT and rTMS applied to the right Broca's homolog has the potential to improve speech and language outcomes for at least some people with post-stroke aphasia.

  8. The relationship between right-to-left shunt and brain white matter lesions in Japanese patients with migraine: a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Akio; Suzuki, Keisuke; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Takashima, Ryotaro; Suzuki, Ayano; Suzuki, Shiho; Hirata, Koichi

    2017-12-01

    There may be a link between right-to-left shunt (RLs) and brain white matter lesions (WMLs) in patients with migraine. In this study, we assessed the relationship between WMLs and RLs in Japanese migraine patients. A total of 107 consecutive patients with migraine with (MA) and without aura (MWOA) were included in this study. Contrast transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to detect RLs. WMLs were graded using brain magnetic resonance imaging based on well-established criteria. The prevalence of RLs was significantly increased in the WMLs positive group (n = 24) compared with the WMLs negative group (n = 83) (75.0% vs. 47.0%, p = 0.015). In prevalence of WMLs between MA and MWOA patients, there were no statistical differences (p = 0.410). Logistic regression analysis adjusted by age and disease duration of migraine identified an RLs-positive status as the sole determinant for the presence of WMLs (OR = 6.15; 95% CI 1.82-20.8; p = 0.003) CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a possible link between RLs and WMLs in Japanese patients with migraine.

  9. Recovery of an injured fornix in a stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge about recovery of an injured fornix following brain injury is limited. We describe here a patient who showed recovery of an injured fornix following stroke. A 57-year-old female patient underwent coiling for a ruptured anterior communicating cerebral artery aneurysm, and conservative management for subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage. The patient showed severe cognitive impairment 6 weeks after onset. However, her cognition showed continuous improvement with time; based on the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Memory Assessment Scale, her cognition was within the normal range 7 months after onset. Findings from diffusion tensor tractography at 6 weeks and 7 months showed discontinuations in both columns of the fornix. The proximal portion of both crus also showed discontinuation on diffusion tensor tractography at 6 weeks and 7 months; however, on 7-month diffusion tensor tractography, the end of the fornical body was shown to be connected to the splenium of the corpus callosum and then branched to the right medial temporal lobe and right thalamus. The unusual neural connection between the injured fornix and the thalamus appears to be a recovery phenomenon, which allows the injured fornix and the medial temporal lobe to obtain cholinergic innervation from cholinergic nuclei in the brainstem rather than from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain.

  10. A combination of P wave electrocardiography and plasma brain natriuretic peptide level for predicting the progression to persistent atrial fibrillation: comparisons of sympathetic activity and left atrial size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Miyoshi, Fumito; Li, Hui-Ling; Watanabe, Norikazu; Asano, Taku; Tanno, Kaoru; Suyama, Jumpei; Namiki, Atsuo; Gokan, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2013-11-01

    Development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is complexly associated with electrical and structural remodeling and other factors every stage of AF development. We hypothesized that P wave electrocardiography with an elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level would be associated with the progression to persistence from paroxysmal AF. P wave electrocardiography such as a maximum P wave duration (MPWD) and dispersion by 12-leads ECG, heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio by delayed iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphic imaging, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left atrial dimension (LAD) by echocardiography, and plasma BNP level were measured to evaluate the electrical and structural properties and sympathetic activity in 71 patients (mean ± standard deviation, age: 67 ± 13 years, 63.4 % males) with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. Over a 12.9-year follow-up period, AF developed into persistent AF in 30 patients. A wider MPWD (>129 ms) (p = 0.001), wider P wave dispersion (>60 ms) (p = 0.001), LAD enlargement (>40 mm) (p = 0.001), higher BNP level (>72 pg/mL) (p = 0.002), lower H/M ratio (≤2.7) (p = 0.025), and lower LVEF (≤60 %) (p = 0.035) were associated with the progression to persistent AF, and the wide MPWD was an independently powerful predictor of the progression to persistent AF with a hazard ratio (HR) of 5.49 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.38-12.7, p < 0.0001] after adjusting for potential confounding variables, such as age and sex. The combination of wide MPWD and elevated BNP level was additive and incremental prognostic power with 13.3 [2.16-13, p < 0.0001]. The wide MPWD with elevated BNP level was associated with the progression to persistent AF.

  11. Early trends in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values after left ventricular assist device implantation for chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Tal; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Lesnick, Timothy G; Kremers, Walter; Boilson, Barry A; Schirger, John A; Clavell, Alfredo L; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Frantz, Robert P; Edwards, Brooks S; Pereira, Naveen L; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle; Daly, Richard; Park, Soon J; Jaffe, Allan S

    2014-10-15

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) acutely decrease left ventricular wall stress. Thus, early postoperative levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) should decrease. This study investigated postoperative changes in NT-proBNP levels, the parameters related to changes, and the possible association with complications by performing a retrospective analysis of changes in daily NT-proBNP (pg/ml) levels from admission to discharge both before and after LVAD implantation in a tertiary referral center. For 72 patients implanted with HeartMate II LVADs, baseline NT-proBNP levels were elevated at 3,943 ng/ml (interquartile range 1,956 to 12,964). Preoperative stabilization led to marked decreases in NT-proBNP. Levels peaked 3 days after surgery and subsequently decreased. Patients with complicated postoperative courses had higher early postoperative elevations. By discharge, NT-proBNP decreased markedly but was still 2.83 (1.60 to 5.76) times the age-based upper limit of normal. The 26% reduction in NT-proBNP between admission and discharge was due mostly to the preoperative reductions and not those induced by the LVAD itself. The decrease was not associated with decreases in LV volume. In conclusion, preoperative treatment reduces NT-proBNP values. The magnitude of early postoperative changes is related to the clinical course. Levels at discharge remain markedly elevated and similar to values after preoperative stabilization despite presumptive acute LV unloading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expert medical testimony for your injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gerald J

    2013-10-01

    Many injured patients sustain some type of loss. If someone else is responsible for the injury, the injured patient can pursue compensation for this loss. In the course of treating an injured patient, you may be asked to participate in the legal process to resolve such claims. The basic components of a personal injury claim are reviewed. An overview of the legal process will help clarify your role in the legal process. Enhanced understanding will allow you to provide important medical testimony for your injured patient.

  13. Mechanical knowledge does matter to tool use even when assessed with a non-production task: Evidence from left brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Mathieu; Budriesi, Carla; Osiurak, François; Nichelli, Paolo F; Bartolo, Angela

    2017-12-20

    In the literature on apraxia of tool use, it is now accepted that using familiar tools requires semantic and mechanical knowledge. However, mechanical knowledge is nearly always assessed with production tasks, so one may assume that mechanical knowledge and familiar tool use are associated only because of their common motor mechanisms. This notion may be challenged by demonstrating that familiar tool use depends on an alternative tool selection task assessing mechanical knowledge, where alternative uses of tools are assumed according to their physical properties but where actual use of tools is not needed. We tested 21 left brain-damaged patients and 21 matched controls with familiar tool use tasks (pantomime and single tool use), semantic tasks and an alternative tool selection task. The alternative tool selection task accounted for a large amount of variance in the single tool use task and was the best predictor among all the semantic tasks. Concerning the pantomime of tool use task, group and individual results suggested that the integrity of the semantic system and preserved mechanical knowledge are neither necessary nor sufficient to produce pantomimes. These results corroborate the idea that mechanical knowledge is essential when we use tools, even when tasks assessing mechanical knowledge do not require the production of any motor action. Our results also confirm the value of pantomime of tool use, which can be considered as a complex activity involving several cognitive abilities (e.g., communicative skills) rather than the activation of gesture engrams. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The Effects of Wenxin Keli on Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the treatment of heart failure (HF. Methods. Seven major electronic databases were searched to retrieve potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, for HF, with the LVEF or BNP after eight weeks of treatment as main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, Version 5.1.0, and analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results. Eleven RCTs of WXKL were included. The methodological quality of the trials was generally evaluated as low. The risk of bias was high. The results of the meta-analysis showed that WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, was more effective in LVEF and BNP, compared with no medicine or Western medicine alone, in patients with HF or HF complicated by other diseases. Five of the trials reported adverse events, while the others did not mention them, indicating that the safety of WXKL remains uncertain. Conclusions. WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, appears to be more effective in improving the LVEF and BNP in patients with HF and HF complications.

  15. Asymmetry and symmetry in brain waves from dolphin left and right hemispheres: some observations after anesthesia, during quiescent hanging behavior, and during visual obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S H

    2002-01-01

    Studies of sleep in cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), substantiated by electrophysiological data, are rare with the great majority of observations having been made by one group from Russia. This group employed hard-wired recording with low-noise cables for their EEG observations, whereas our report describes behavioral and EEG observations of dolphin sleep using telemetry. Marked asymmetry of the EEG was observed during behavioral sleep posture. At different times synchronized slow waves appeared in both left and right brain hemispheres concurrently with lower voltage, faster, desynchronized EEG activity in the opposite hemisphere. On the other hand, during one brief period of sleep behavior, sleep-like EEG activity appeared on leads from both hemispheres. When the animal was exposed to a loud sound, it woke with lower voltage, faster, relatively symmetrical, desynchronized EEG activity appearing from both hemispheres. Additionally, the EEG appeared relatively desynchronized and symmetrical between the two hemispheres when the animal was awake during recovery from pentothal-halothane anesthesia as well as during waking periods when one or both of the animal's eyes were covered by an opaque rubber suction cup. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Instrumentos para avaliação da linguagem pós-lesão cerebrovascular esquerda Instruments for language assessment following a left brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carlesso Pagliarin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste estudo é a avaliação padronizada da linguagem em pacientes com lesão cerebrovascular esquerda (LHE que pode ser muito útil no estabelecimento do diagnóstico, prognóstico e plano terapêutico, complementando observação, entrevistas e tarefas clínicas. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar quais instrumentos de investigação de linguagem têm sido utilizados para avaliação de quadros neurológicos súbitos envolvendo o hemisfério esquerdo (HE e analisar quais componentes linguísticos são os mais avaliados. Foi possível identificar nove instrumentos utilizados internacionalmente que avaliam diferentes componentes linguísticos em pacientes com LHE; no contexto nacional, porém, foram encontradas apenas duas baterias para avaliação dessa população, ficando evidente a necessidade da construção e/ou de adaptação de instrumentos para a população brasileira. Os componentes linguísticos mais investigados foram nomeação e compreensão oral, respectivamente. A avaliação da linguagem torna-se essencial nos quadros envolvendo o HE, pois déficits linguísticos podem acarretar prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais e familiares.The theme of this study is the language assessment in patients with left brain damage (LBD. It is necessary as it helps to establish the diagnosis, prognosis and rehabilitation planning, adding findings to clinical observation, interview and tasks. The purpose is to identify which language instruments have been used to assess non-progressive neurological disorders involving the left hemisphere (LH and to analyze which language components are the most assessed ones. It was possible to identify nine international instruments that assess different components of language in LBD patients. In the national context, however, only two batteries to assess this population were found, highlighting the need for construction and/or adaptation of language assessment tools for the Brazilian population

  17. Decreased mortality after prehospital interventions in severely injured trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Valle, Evan J; Allen, Casey J; Ray, Juliet J; Jouria, Jassin M; Teisch, Laura F; Shatz, David V; Namias, Nicholas; Schulman, Carl I; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2015-08-01

    We test the hypothesis that prehospital interventions (PHIs) performed by skilled emergency medical service providers during ground or air transport adversely affect outcome in severely injured trauma patients. Consecutive trauma activations (March 2012 to June 2013) transported from the scene by air or ground emergency medical service providers were reviewed. PHI was defined as intubation, needle decompression, tourniquet, cricothyroidotomy, or advanced cardiac life support. In 3,733 consecutive trauma activations (71% blunt, 25% penetrating, 4% burns), age was 39 years, 74% were male, Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 5, and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) was 15, with 32% traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 7% overall mortality. Those who received PHI (n = 130, 3.5% of the trauma activations) were more severely injured: ISS (26 vs. 5), GCS (3 vs. 15), TBI (57% vs. 31%), Revised Trauma Score (RTS, 5.45 vs. 7.84), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS, 1.32 vs. 4.89), and mortality (56% vs. 5%) were different (all p blunt injury, high ISS, and long prehospital times (all p blunt trauma, and air transport were similar, but mortality was significantly lower (43% vs. 23%, p= 0.021). In our urban trauma system, PHIs are associated with a lower incidence of mortality in severely injured trauma patients and do not delay transport to definitive care. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.

  18. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  19. Does brain injury impair speech and gesture differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilbe Göksun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often use spontaneous gestures when talking about space, such as when giving directions. In a recent study from our lab, we examined whether focal brain-injured individuals’ naming motion event components of manner and path (represented in English by verbs and prepositions, respectively are impaired selectively, and whether gestures compensate for impairment in speech. Left or right hemisphere damaged patients and elderly control participants were asked to describe motion events (e.g., walking around depicted in brief videos. Results suggest that producing verbs and prepositions can be separately impaired in the left hemisphere and gesture production compensates for naming impairments when damage involves specific areas in the left temporal cortex.

  20. Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tohuman umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) promotescrush-injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Wei-Hong; Almansoori, Akram A; Sung, Mi-Ae; Ju, Kyung-Won; Seo, Nari; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Bong-Ju; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; He, Hong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-03-16

    This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group. UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat) or BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat)were transplantedinto the rats at the crush site immediately after sciatic nerve injury. Cell tracking was done with PKH26-labeled UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat). The rats were monitored for 4 weeks post-surgery. Results showed that expression of BDNF at both the protein and mRNA levels was higher inthe BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group compared to theUCB-MSC group in vitro.Moreover, BDNF mRNA expression was higher in both UCB-MSC group and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSC group compared tothe control group, and BDNF mRNA expression in theBDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group was higher than inboth other groups 5days after surgeryin vivo. Labeled neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), axon counts, axon density, and sciatic function index were significantly increased in the UCB-MSC and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSCgroupscompared to the controlgroup four weeksaftercell transplantation. Importantly,the BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCgroup exhibited more peripheral nerve regeneration than the other two groups.Our results indicate thatboth UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCscan improve rat sciatic nerve regeneration, with BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCsshowing a greater effectthan UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  2. Investigating the Functional Utility of the Left Parietal ERP Old/New Effect: Brain Activity Predicts within But Not between Participant Variance in Episodic Recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. MacLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A success story within neuroimaging has been the discovery of distinct neural correlates of episodic retrieval, providing insight into the processes that support memory for past life events. Here we focus on one commonly reported neural correlate, the left parietal old/new effect, a positive going modulation seen in event-related potential (ERP data that is widely considered to index episodic recollection. Substantial evidence links changes in the size of the left parietal effect to changes in remembering, but the precise functional utility of the effect remains unclear. Here, using forced choice recognition of verbal stimuli, we present a novel population level test of the hypothesis that the magnitude of the left parietal effect correlates with memory performance. We recorded ERPs during old/new recognition, source accuracy and Remember/Know/Guess tasks in two large samples of healthy young adults, and successfully replicated existing within participant modulations of the magnitude of the left parietal effect with recollection. Critically, however, both datasets also show that across participants the magnitude of the left parietal effect does not correlate with behavioral measures of memory – including both subjective and objective estimates of recollection. We conclude that in these tasks, and across this healthy young adult population, the generators of the left parietal ERP effect do not index performance as expected. Taken together, these novel findings provide important constraints on the functional interpretation of the left parietal effect, suggesting that between group differences in the magnitude of old/new effects cannot always safely be used to infer differences in recollection.

  3. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Psychopathological responses of physically injured persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešić Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea to monitor and research psychopathological responses of physically injured persons in a more systematic manner has come from our observation of huge differences in patient behavior, whose psychological responses were noticeably changed and often inappropriate. The behavior aberrations were all the more striking because we treated wartime injuries in addition to peacetime ones. Our sample had 175 patient subjects, of both sexes different ages, marital status and professions. A group of 70 patients treated in the Institute for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology were divided into two subgroups. The first experimental subgroup (E1 consisted of 26 (37.1% patients physically injured in combat. The second subgroup (E2 had 44 (62.9% patients physically injured in peacetime circumstances (car accidents, work accidents, etc. The physical injuries encompassed injuries to spinal column and extremities. The control (K consisted of 105 subjects without physical injuries. The clinical picture and psychological reactions of the patients were examined by means of 4 instruments - PTSD-10 scale or posttraumatic symptoms scale [1 ], Family Homogeneity Index /FHI with 19 variables, applied to measure the relation between the family system homogeneity and accident effects [2], Short Eysenck's Personality Inventory applied to investigate neuroticism and extroversion and introversion traits [3], Late Effects of Accidental Injury Questionnaire [4]. Our observations of psychological responses of patients in our ward (insomnia, sedatives intake were mostly confirmed by tests conducted with the above instruments. In the group of the wartime injured (E1, as well as in the control (K, Eysenck's scale proved a significantly higher degree of neuroticism in comparison to the peacetime injured. Such results indicated that the wartime injured would most probably develop the picture of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Such a conclusion was related not only to the

  5. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, U

    1980-01-01

    Team work is required in the treatment of the thermally injured patient--nursing staff being part of the team. The nurses are with the patient for 24 hours a day and they have to understand the objectives of all other members of the team involved in the treatment as well as thoroughly mastering their own work. For the nursing staff the care of the thermally injured patient is a challenge. The work demands strong motivation and interest--it includes at times painful treatment, isolation and also constant alertness. It is important that the nursing staff is given continuous training so that they are able to give the required care efficiently and to keep up active interest. Practical work is the best way of getting aquainted with the complex forms of treatment of the thermally injured patient. It also lessens the fear of a badly burned patient. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient consists of good basic care, local attention and active observation. The basic care consists of basic hygiene, diet, observation of the patient's psychological condition, giving emotional support, encouraging initiative physiotherapy and postural treatment.

  6. Thromboembolic Complications in Thermally Injured Patients,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    utilisation systdmatique chez le brOld sauf chez les patients A bolism: A clinico -pathological study in injured and burned patients. thromoemblie.Br. J...fueron identificados como casos de tromboembolismo, complications in the surgical patient. Ann. Surg. 186:669, 1977 pulmonar significativo. En s6lo tres

  7. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide elevations in the course of septic and non-septic shock reflect systolic left ventricular dysfunction assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Johan Groeneveld

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: In septic and non-septic shock, NT-proBNP elevations reflect systolic left ventricular dysfunction and are associated with a poor outcome. They may help recognition of cardiac dysfunction in shock and its management when invasive hemodynamic monitoring is not yet instituted.

  8. Treatment and outcome of the severely head injured child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, J; Kaiser, G; Lütschg, J; Sutter, M

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four children (aged 3 months to 14 years) with severe head injuries were treated by means of invasive neurointensive care for normalizing intracranial pressure (ICP) involving hyperventilation, control of body temperature, dexamethasone, barbiturates and continuous intracranial and arterial pressure monitoring. The Glasgow Coma Scale before initiation of treatment was 3-4 in 8, 5-6 in 9 and 7 in 7 patients. Moderately to severely elevated ICP was observed in 20 patients. Seven developed acute and subacute space occupying intracranial hematomas. Nineteen children (79%) survived, most often with good recovery and 5 (21%) died. Severely elevated ICP, presence of severe consumption coagulopathy and loss of components in brain auditory evoked potentials were significantly more frequent in the fatal group. We conclude that the prognosis of the severely head injured child can be improved by prompt resuscitation and aggressive neurointensive care but probably not, however, to the extent postulated in recent literature.

  9. Mammillary bodies and fornix fibers are injured in heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary A.; Birrer, Bramley V.X.; Macey, Paul M.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Hamilton, Michele A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive abnormalities, including memory deficits, are common in heart failure (HF). Brain structures, including the hippocampus, fornix, and thalamus participate in memory processing, and most show structural injury and functional deficits in HF. The mammillary bodies and fornix play essential roles in spatial and working memory processing, interact with other structures, and may also be injured in HF. We assessed mammillary body volumes and cross-sectional fornix areas in 17 HF and 50 control subjects using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Mammillary body volumes and fornix cross-sectional areas were significantly reduced bilaterally in HF, and these differences remained after controlling age, gender, and intracranial volume. Mammillary body and fornix injury may contribute to the compromised spatial and working memory deficits in HF. Pathological processes eliciting the damage may include injury accompanying hypoxic/ischemic processes in pathologic HF perfusion and breathing, and thiamine deficiency accompanying diuretic use and nutritional malabsorption in the condition. PMID:19022386

  10. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  11. Specifying the role of the left prefrontal cortex in word selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, S. K; Karzmark, C. R.; Navarrete, E.; Knight, R. T.; Dronkers, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Word selection allows us to choose words during language production. This is often viewed as a competitive process wherein a lexical representation is retrieved among semantically-related alternatives. The left prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is thought to help overcome competition for word selection through top-down control. However, whether the LPFC is always necessary for word selection remains unclear. We tested 6 LPFC-injured patients and controls in two picture naming paradigms varying in terms of item repetition. Both paradigms elicited the expected semantic interference effects (SIE), reflecting interference caused by semantically-related representations in word selection. However, LPFC patients as a group showed a larger SIE than controls only in the paradigm involving item repetition. We argue that item repetition increases interference caused by semantically-related alternatives, resulting in increased LPFC-dependent cognitive control demands. The remaining network of brain regions associated with word selection appears to be sufficient when items are not repeated. PMID:26291289

  12. Left subclavian-carotid bypass in a 38-year old female with brain ischemic symptoms secondary to Takayasu's arteritis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Lizola, Rene; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Torres-Machorro, Adriana; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a rare form of vasculitis that affects the aorta, its branches and pulmonary arteries. TA is primarily treated by pharmacologic therapy; however revascularization procedures may be required to treat organ ischemia. Evidence-based consensus regarding the indications for surgical or endovascular therapy for patients with supra-aortic vessels lesions remains unclear. We herein present a female patient with known TA since 2000, who experienced progressive and frequent episodes of amaurosis fugax in the left eye for 4 months. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed focal stenotic segments in the right common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) and near occlusion of the proximal left CCA. We opted to treat the left side first with open revascularization, and a subclavian-carotid bypass was performed using a 6 millimeters (mm) externally supported ePTFE graft. Patient recovered well from the surgery, her neurological exam was normal and she was discharged home in stable condition in postoperative day three. At three months she remains symptoms-free and her bypass is patent. This case illustrates the clinical presentation of TA affecting both carotid arteries; open revascularization via carotid subclavian bypass grafting was successfully performed with minimal morbidity, complete resolution of symptoms and improvement of the patient's quality of life. Revascularization procedures when indicated should be performed while the disease is inactive and close surveillance is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Do general medical practitioners examine injured runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Solvej Videbæk; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate ...... response-proportion highlights the challenges recruiting GMPs willing to respond to questionnaires on running-related injuries. It is plausible to assume that the estimates reported in the present study are overestimated owing to selection bias. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3........43%]. Ten (37%) GMPs reported to refer between 0-24% of the injured runners to additional examination or treatment, whereas thirteen (48%) of GMPs referred between 25-49% and four (15%) referred 50-74% of injured runners. CONCLUSION: Although a very small part (

  14. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions.

  15. Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    the same or Conflicts of interest: The authors disclose no conflicts. a Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , Dental and Trauma Research...Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient Davin Mellus, DMDa,* Rodney K. Chan, MDb KEYWORDS • Microvascular free-tissue transfer...Pedicle flaps • Reconstructive Surgery • Thermal injury • Z-plasties • Skin grafting AN INCREASED NEED FOR RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Reconstruction is a

  16. A functional MRI study of the influence of sleep deprivation on digital memory in human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Shuang-yi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Working for long hours often leads to mental fatigue. There is evidence that mental fatigue is serious damage to cognitive function and behavior of the operator. Revealing the mechanism of continuous operation and sleep deprivation (SD on cognitive function, will help to combat the fatigue caused by continuous operation and to improve capacity of operators. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study focused on the influence of sleep deprivation on digital memory in human brain. Methods Totally 6 healthy subjects underwent a digital memory encoding, maintenance and retrieval session during fMRI scanning before and after 48 h sleep deprivation. Results The digital memory test had the same error rate before and after sleep deprivation (P > 0.05, for all, but the reponse time of seven-number memory was longer after sleep deprivation (P = 0.005. During encoding trials decreased fMRI regions of significant activation between sleep control and sleep deprivation were in left parahippocampal gyrus Brodmann 30, left superior temporal gyrus Brodmann 42, left insular lobe Brodmann 41 and left frontal lobe Brodmann 6. During maintenance trials decreased fMRI regions of significant activation were at left superior temporal gyrus Brodmann 38, left middle temporal gyrus Brodmann 21, left parahippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus Brodmann 30, left middle frontal gyrus Brodmann 47, left lenticular nucleus and thalamus, right lenticular nucleus, left retrosplenial granular cortex Brodmann 30, right retrosplenial granular cortex Brodmann 30, bilateral cingulate gyrus Brodmann 24 and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus Brodmann 6. During retrieval trials decreased fMRI regions of significantly positive activation were at bilateral hippocampus, right amygdaloid nucleus and inferior parietal lobule Brodmann 40, left precuneus Brodmann 19 and thalamus. Conclusion Different brain regions are activated at different stages of the

  17. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  18. Maladaptation of cerebral perfusion in the spinal cord injured individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho; Hayashida, Kohei [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tilt-induced alteration of cerebral perfusion of spinal cord injured individuals. Supine and upright sitting brain SPECT was performed using a 1-day protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) in 11 SCI individuals (mean age, 32.6 y), with lesions between C3 and T4, ad 5 AB individuals (mean age, 31.4 y). The patients rested on a wheelchair in the supine position. Then, they sat up and, at the same time 555MBq of ECD was injected. The upright SPECT was done. Finally, 740MBq of ECD was injected and supine SPECT was performed again. The SPECT data were acquired with dual head gamma camera (E-cam, Siemens). For semiquantitative analysis, 14 ROIs were drawn on the brain. In the SCI individuals, the radiotracer uptake in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas were significantly decreased in the upright SPECT. No postural changes was evident in the occipital lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus in the SCI individuals. In the AB individuals, there were no such changes on the upright SPECT. Postural cerebral hypoperfusion in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas in the SCI individuals might relate to maladaptation of the vascular response during the upright position.

  19. Day Center experience in rehabilitation of craniocerebral injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J M; Groswasser, Z; Alis, R; Geva, N; Hochberg, J; Stern, B; Yardeni, Y

    1985-01-01

    The Day Center for head-injured patients specialises in treating patients at later stages following brain trauma. The goal of therapy is social reintegration as measured by the quality of family and social life and by actual occupational status. At this later stage, a year or more since injury, the cognitive and behavioral aspects of brain damage determine the outcome of rehabilitation. The therapy aims at preserving as well as improving patients' overall performance including family life and therefore their families are treated as well. As the patients are not hospitalised at this stage, the asset of this model is that it constitutes an arresting factor in preventing regressive attitudes acquired during hospitalisation which is a sheltered framework. The Day Center System encourages the patients to cope "in vivo" with reality, while the therapy given strives at providing them with the instruments needed for coping in actual life situations. We present here our experience in 38 patients admitted consecutively during the course of a year. The results show that the therapeutic milieu was of great help in preserving as well as improvement patients' performance; furthermore, it is evident that some improvement was achieved even after several years post trauma.

  20. The application of SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) in the development of compensatory cognitive rehabilitation strategies for stroke patients with left and right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Baber, Chris; Bienkiewicz, Marta; Worthington, Andrew; Hazell, Alexa; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 33% of stroke patients have difficulty performing activities of daily living, often committing errors during the planning and execution of such activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the human error identification (HEI) technique SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) to predict errors during the performance of daily activities in stroke patients with left and right hemisphere lesions. Using SHERPA we successfully predicted 36 of the 38 observed errors, with analysis indicating that the proportion of predicted and observed errors was similar for all sub-tasks and severity levels. HEI results were used to develop compensatory cognitive strategies that clinicians could employ to reduce or prevent errors from occurring. This study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of SHERPA in the design of cognitive rehabilitation strategies in stroke populations.

  1. Methods of assessing the functional status of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in interventional studies: can brain natriuretic peptide measurement be used as surrogate for the traditional methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To review whether brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) can be used as a surrogate for the traditional methods of assessing functional status in interventional studies of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). METHODS AND RESULTS: The traditional methods for assessing...... a significant correlation, but a low R-value of -0.59. Studies using BNP levels for optimisation of heart failure therapy showed conflicting results concerning the correlation between the functional improvement and changes in BNP levels. Conflicting results were also found concerning the utility of BNP levels...... as a surrogate to predict efficacy of the various anti-congestive therapies on heart failure outcome. CONCLUSION: The results of the studies examining BNP measurement as a surrogate for functional status and drug efficacy in patients with LVSD are conflicting. Further studies are necessary to settle the place...

  2. Lateralization of brain activation to imagination and smell of odors using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): left hemispheric localization of pleasant and right hemispheric localization of unpleasant odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, R I; Levy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Our goal was to use functional MRI (fMRI) of brain to reveal activation in each cerebral hemisphere in response to imagination and smell of odors. FMRI brain scans were obtained in 24 normal subjects using multislice fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI in response to imagination of banana and peppermint odors and in response to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone, respectively, and of pyridine. Three coronal sections selected from anterior to posterior brain regions were used. Similar studies were obtained in two patients with hyposmia using FLASH MRI and in one patient with hyposmia using echo planar imaging (EPI) both before and after theophylline treatment that returned smell function to or toward normal in each patient and in two patients with birhinal phantosmia (persistent foul odor) and global phantogeusia (persistent foul taste) with FLASH and EPI fMRI before and after treatment with neuroleptic drugs that inhibited their phantosmia and phantogeusia. Activation images were derived using correlation analysis. Ratios of hemispheric areas of brain activation to total hemispheric brain areas were calculated for FLASH fMRI, and numerical counts of pixel clusters in each hemisphere were made for EPI studies. Total pixel cluster counts in localized regions of each hemispheric section were also obtained. In normal subjects, activation generally occurred in left (L) > right (R) brain hemisphere in response to banana and peppermint odor imagination and to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone. Whereas there were no overall hemispheric differences for pyridine odor, activation in men was R > L hemisphere. Although absolute activation in both L and R hemispheres in response to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was men > women, the ratio of L to R activation was women > men. In hyposmic patients studied by FLASH fMRI, activation to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was L > R hemisphere both before and after

  3. DO GENERAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS EXAMINE INJURED RUNNERS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Solvej; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study...

  4. A 58-Year-Old Woman with Left-Sided Weakness and a History of a Pediatric Brain Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaakir Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An uncommon but well-established complication of cranial irradiation is secondary neoplasm. This case presentation documents a radiation-induced malignant glioma 55 years after being diagnosed with “cerebral sarcoma,” now defined as atypical meningioma. This not only represents the longest reported latency period for a patient initially receiving over 30 Gy, but also provides a valuable historical perspective of neuro-oncology. Clinical Presentation: A 58-year-old female presenting with progressive left-sided upper and lower extremity weakness with a past medical history significant for “cerebral sarcoma” was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. This patient had previously been treated with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy via a 280-kVP orthovoltage machine and received 3,390 rad to the posterior three-quarters of the skull for “cerebral sarcoma.” Conclusion: A comprehensive investigation of the past medical history helped uncover a mysterious pediatric diagnosis, helped drive the management 5 decades later, and serves as a reminder that seemingly safe interventions may still cause harm.

  5. Tell it to a child! A brain stimulation study of the role of left inferior frontal gyrus in emotion regulation during storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Mattiassi, Alan D A; Buiatti, Tania; Marini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In everyday life we need to continuously regulate our emotional responses according to their social context. Strategies of emotion regulation allow individuals to control time, intensity, nature and expression of emotional responses to environmental stimuli. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is involved in the cognitive control of the selection of semantic content. We hypothesized that it might also be involved in the regulation of emotional feelings and expressions. We applied continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over LIFG or a control site before a newly-developed ecological regulation task that required participants to produce storytelling of pictures with negative or neutral valence to either a peer (unregulated condition) or a child (regulated condition). Linguistic, expressive, and physiological responses were analyzed in order to assess the effects of LIFG-cTBS on emotion regulation. Results showed that the emotion regulation context modulated the emotional content of narrative productions, but not the physiologic orienting response or the early expressive behavior to negative stimuli. Furthermore, LIFG-cTBS disrupted the text-level structuring of negative picture storytelling and the early cardiac and muscular response to negative pictures; however, it did not affect the contextual emotional regulation of storytelling. These results may suggest that LIFG is involved in the initial detection of the affective arousal of emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    brain edema quantified via the gold standard wet-dry weight method in sections through the injured hemisphere. This suggests that the benefit of GLI...edema was quantified using the established wet-dry weight technique which is the gold standard for brain edema. At 24 h after the insult, mice...the OBTT consortium—namely, nicotinamide, EPO, CsA, sim - vastatin, and levetiracetam. These five therapies represent agents that would be readily

  7. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol. Margaret M. Peden, John D. Knotlenbelt,. Johan van der Spuy, Ravi Oodit, Hendrik J. Scholtz,. J. Morris Stokol. Objective. To establish a profile of injured adult pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this regard. Design. Prospective survey of injured pedestrians who presented consecutively ...

  8. An injured man with acute altered mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hung-Yu; Kung, Lu-Chih; Huang, Ming-Yuan

    2018-03-01

    A 58-year-old man sustained injuries due to accidental fall from a height of 5 m onto a solid floor while operating a crane. He was fully conscious without external evidence of head injury when presented to the ED. The patient had multiple fractures involving the fourth, fifth and seventh of the left ribs, left iliac wing and superior ramus of the pelvis, comminuted fracture of the left femur shaft, and an open fracture of the mandible. Two hours after ED presentation, the patient developed acute confusion and lethargy, which rapidly progressed to coma and respiratory distress, and was subsequently intubated with mechanical ventilation support. Emergent CT scan of the head is shown (figure 1).emermed;35/3/148/F1F1F1Figure 1CT scan of the head without contrast. What is the most likely diagnosis?A. Cerebral haemorrhageB. Brain metastasisC. Cerebral fat embolismD. Diffuse axonal injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Acute, transient hemorrhagic hypotension does not aggravate structural damage or neurologic motor deficits but delays the long-term cognitive recovery following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Christian; Stover, John F.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Hoover, Rachel C.; Morales, Diego M.; Schouten, Joost W.; McMillan, Asenia; Soltesz, Kristie; Motta, Melissa; Spangler, Zachery; Neugebauer, Edmund; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Posttraumatic hypotension is believed to increase morbidity and mortality in traumatically brain-injured patients. Using a clinically relevant model of combined traumatic brain injury with superimposed hemorrhagic hypotension in rats, the present study evaluated whether a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure aggravates regional brain edema formation, regional cell death, and neurologic motor/cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury. Design Experimental prospective, randomized study in rodents. Setting Experimental laboratory at a university hospital. Subjects One hundred nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-385 g. Interventions Experimental traumatic brain injury of mild to moderate severity was induced using the lateral fluid percussion brain injury model in anesthetized rats (n = 89). Following traumatic brain injury, in surviving animals one group of animals was subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic hypotension, maintaining the mean arterial blood pressure at 50-60 mm Hg for 30 mins (n = 47). The animals were subsequently either resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution (three times shed blood volume, n = 18) or left uncompensated (n = 29). Other groups of animals included those with isolated traumatic brain injury (n = 34), those with isolated hemorrhagic hypotension (n = 8), and sham-injured control animals receiving anesthesia and surgery alone (n = 22). Measurements and Main Results The withdrawal of 6-7 mL of arterial blood significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 50% without decreasing arterial oxygen saturation or Pao2. Brain injury induced significant cerebral edema (p hypotension. Brain injury-induced neurologic deficits persisted up to 20 wks after injury and were also not aggravated by the hemorrhagic hypotension. Cognitive dysfunction persisted for up to 16 wks postinjury. The superimposition of hemorrhagic hypotension significantly delayed the time course of cognitive recovery

  10. [A clinical case of young, oral combined contraceptive using women, heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden) which revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S; Ramshev, K; Ramsheva, Z; Ivanov, A; Ganovska, A

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia is associated with increased risks of venous thrombosis in women taking oral contraceptive preparations. Universal thrombophilia screening in women prior to prescribing oral contraceptive preparations is not supported by current evidence. The case is presented of a 23 year-old women with a personal history of interruption and on the same day started with oral contraceptive (0.03 microg ethynil estradiol - 0.075 microg gestodene), which due on a 18 pill/day to acute headache, increasing vomiting and speaking defects. Physical/neurologic/gynecologic examinations observed a normal status. The MRI and CT revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke. The acute therapy of thrombotic findings was accompanied with many tests. The thrombophilia PCR-Real time - test finds heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden). This case shows the need of large prospective studies that should be undertaken to refine the risks and establish the associations of thrombophilias with venous thrombosis among contraceptive users. The key to a prompt diagnosis is to know the risk factors. The relative value of a thrombophilia screening programme before contraceptive using needs to be established.

  11. Isquemia cerebral como manifestación inicial de un mixoma atrial izquierdo: Reporte de un caso Brain ischemia as initial sign of a left atrial myxoma: Report of one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Osio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores primarios del corazón son raros; 75% de éstos son benignos y cerca de la mitad de los benignos son mixomas que, en la mayoría de los casos, se encuentran en las cavidades izquierdas. Las manifestaciones clínicas de los mixomas dependen del sitio de localización del tumor. Sin embargo, se afirma que la isquemia cerebral es la manifestación clínica inicial en un tercio de los mixomas atriales. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de género masculino, de 65 años de edad, en quien la primera manifestación clínica de mixoma atrial fue un evento cerebral vascular isquémico.Primary heart tumors are rare; 75% of them are benign and almost half of the benign ones are mixomas that in most cases are located in the left cavities. Clinical manifestations of myxomas depend on its localization site. Nevertheless, it is accepted that brain ischemia is the initial clinical manifestation in a third of atrial myxomas. The case of a 65 years old male patient in whom the first clinical manifestation of an atrial myxoma was an ischemic cerebrovascular event, is presented.

  12. Qigong in Injured Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Anne Marie; Saum, Nancy Seaby; Murphy, Deborah Ann; Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara Todd; Su, Xiaogang; Bormann, Jill Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Wounded, ill, and injured (WII) Military Service members experience significant stress and are at risk for developing chronic conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Qigong, a meditative movement practice, may positively affect their ability to engage in successful rehabilitation. We assessed the feasibility of Qigong practice in WII Service members returning from combat; effects on stress, sleep, and somatic symptoms; satisfaction; and participants' experience with the practice. Single-group, pre- and posttest, mixed methods approach. Twenty-six WII were enrolled. The program was designed to include 20 classes over 10 weeks. Participants completed self-report questionnaires, practice logs, and an exit interview. Average attendance was 8.14 classes ( SD = 4.9); mean engagement was 5.7 ( SD = 3.5) weeks. Participants endorsed a high level of satisfaction with the practice. Qualitative themes included coping with stress; feeling more resilient and empowered; improvement in symptoms including sleep and physical function; and factors affecting practice. Participant-reported facilitators included accessibility and portability of the practice; barriers included scheduling conflicts and personal challenges. Participants recommended offering shorter programs with flexible scheduling options, increasing program awareness, and including significant others in future classes. Qigong was safe, portable, and easily adapted for WII Service members.

  13. Bonobos apparently search for a lost member injured by a snare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Nahoko; Emikey, Besao; Bafike, Batuafe; Isolumbo, Batuafe; Iyokango, Bahanande; Mulavwa, Mbangi N; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2012-07-01

    This is the first report to demonstrate that a large mixed-sex party of bonobos travelled a long distance to return to the location of a snare apparently to search for a member that had been caught in it. An adult male was caught in a metallic snare in a swamp forest at Wamba, Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. After he escaped from the snare by breaking a sapling to which the snare was attached, other members of his party assisted him by unfastening the snare from lianas in which it was caught and licked his wound and tried to remove the snare from his fingers. In the late afternoon, they left him in the place where he was stuck in the liana and travelled to the dry forest where they usually spend the night. The next morning, they travelled back 1.8 km to revisit the location of the injured male. When they confirmed that he was no longer there, they returned to the dry forest to forage. This was unlike the usual ranging patterns of the party, suggesting that the bonobos travelled with the specific intention of searching for this injured individual who had been left behind. The incident described in this report likely occurred because bonobos usually range in a large mixed-sex party and try to maintain group cohesion as much as possible.

  14. Radiography of the acutely injured shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, M.J.; Aziz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine radiological examination of the acute shoulder has been unchanged in radiology departments for many years. At UCLH (University College London Hospitals, UK) this examination consists of two projections, an AP (antero-posterior) and an LS (lateral scapula). Following a review of the related literature and the possible advantages of an axial style projection, a study was performed to evaluate whether a new projection named modified trauma axial (MTA) shoulder projection could replace the existing LS projection in the routine examination of the acute shoulder. A retrospective analysis of 244 acute shoulder examinations over a 5-month period was performed. AP, LS and MTA projections were taken with paired AP and LS, and AP and MTA radiographs were reported separately. 97 traumatic abnormalities were reported using AP and MTA whilst only 64 abnormalities were reported using AP and LS views. The MTA projection demonstrated it was significant for evaluating articular surfaces of the humeral head and glenoid, defects in the humeral head, greater tuberosity fractures, glenoid fractures and fractures of the acromion. It was established that if the LS projection was replaced with the MTA view no traumatic pathologies would have been overlooked and in fact there was a 52% increase in traumatic abnormalities detected. Use of a chi-squared test demonstrated a highly significant difference in the number of traumatic abnormalities detected between the two pairs of projection combinations (p = 0.0004). Based on this study and the examined literature the routine examination of the acutely injured shoulder is recommended to include the AP and MTA projections only.

  15. The prevalence of drugs in injured drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H; Kourtis, Irene; Beyer, Jochen; Tayler, Penny; Boorman, Martin; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri

    2012-02-10

    In mid 2009 Victoria introduced compulsory drug testing of blood taken from all injured drivers taken to hospital. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), methylamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA) are prohibited and if drivers are positive to any amount an automatic penalty is enforced. Laboratory screens were conducted on preserved blood using ELISA testing for cannabis metabolite and methylamphetamines and a fully validated LC-MS/MS method for 105 drugs including THC, amphetamines, opioids, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics and a number of other psychoactive substances using a minimum of two transitions per drug. Conventional GC-testing for ethanol was used to screen and quantify the presence of alcohol. 1714 drivers were tested and showed alcohol in 29% (≥ 0.01 g/100mL) and drugs in 35%. The positive rate for the three drugs prohibited by legislation was 12.5%. The prevalence of THC, MA and MDMA was 9.8%, 3.1%, and 0.8%, respectively. The range of THC concentrations in blood was 2-42 ng/mL (median 7) of which 70% had a concentration of 10 ng/mL or higher. The range of concentrations for MA and MDMA was 0.02-0.4 and 0.03-0.3mg/L (median for both drugs was 0.05 mg/L). Drugs of any type were detected in 35% of cases. The other drugs were largely prescribed drugs such as the antidepressants (9.3%) and benzodiazepines (8.9%). Neither 6-acetylmorphine nor cocaine (or benzoylecgonine) was detected in these cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trauma in children injured by physical violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina S Solovyova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, legislation has changed to include the rights of children injured because of physical violence. Trauma departments of St. Petersburg outpatient clinics admit children with injuries of varying severity after physical violence. The actions of medical institutions are always aimed at protecting the child. Aims. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cases of children in connection with injuries sustained as a result of physical violence in 2014–2015, and to compare the results with those of previous studies (2007–2008. Material and methods. In 2014–2015, the trauma department of City Children's Outpatient clinic No 62 treated 268 children, who had suffered from physical violence at home, on the street, or in educational institutions, which accounted for 1.6 per 1000 children living in the district, and 1.2% of all children admitted during 2 years. Results. Compared to 2007–2008, the number of children who suffered from physical violence decreased by almost two times in 2014–2015; in addition, the severity of injuries slightly decreased but the frequency of hospital admission of victims remained high (38% in 2007–2008. With regard to the circumstances in which the injury occurred, violence from strangers was lower, but violence among peers was higher. Conclusions. Positive results have been achieved by a complex of measures, including the implementation of the Federal Law “On Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child” to improve the care and safety of children, and an investigation of each case of violence is conducted by local authorities for internal affairs.

  17. Cerebral microdialysis and PtiO2 to decide unilateral decompressive craniectomy after brain gunshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boret Henry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decompressive craniectomy (DC following brain injury can induce complications (hemorrhage, infection, and hygroma. It is then considered as a last-tier therapy, and can be deleteriously delayed. Focal neuromonitoring (microdialysis and PtiO2 can help clinicians to decide bedside to perform DC in case of intracranial pressure (ICP around 20 to 25 mmHg despite maximal medical treatment. This was the case of a hunter, brain injured by gunshot. DC was performed at day 6, because of unstable ICP, ischemic trend of PtiO2, and decreased cerebral glucose but normal lactate/pyruvate ratio. His evolution was good despite left hemiplegia due to initial injury.

  18. Nursing care of the brain injury patient on a locked neurobehavioral unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral problems after a brain injury can be extremely challenging for those working with brain injured people. Nursing staff must be familiar with commonly used post brain injury medications and their effects, behavioral management plans, appropriate use of restrictive devices, and verbal or physical crisis intervention techniques when necessary. Rehabilitation nurses caring for brain injured patients on a locked neurobehavioral unit must maintain continual training and specific competence in this environment to ensure patient and staff safety. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  19. Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    08-2-0066 TITLE: Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stephen Cozza...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-2-0066 Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured Dr. Stephen Cozza The Henry M...children under 18 years old and within 2 years of hospitalization or return from deployment), a training manual “Addressing the Needs of Children and

  20. Glucose metabolism in injured tissue: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, J.M.; Shearer, J.D.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Caldwell, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Injured tissue is characterized by increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production as compared to normal tissue. These metabolic changes have been attributed to the presence of inflammatory cells in injured tissues. To correlate these metabolic changes with changes in the inflammatory cell population at various times after injury, we studied the lambda-carrageenan hindlimb wound model in anesthetized rats. Perfusion studies demonstrated that at 3 and 5 days after injury glucose uptake was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. At 3, 5, and 10 days after injury, lactate production from glucose was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. These metabolic changes were not related to differences in body weight or food intake. There was no difference in glucose oxidation or in oxygen consumption in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. The increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production from glucose was coincident with the presence of inflammatory cells--predominantly macrophages--at the site of injury. It is suggested that the glucose metabolism in injured tissue reflects the metabolism of the inflammatory cells at the site of injury

  1. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  2. Spreading depolarisations and outcome after traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Bullock, M Ross; Okonkwo, David O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological waves of spreading mass neuronal depolarisation arise repeatedly in injured, but potentially salvageable, grey matter in 50-60% of patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to ascertain whether spreading depolarisations are independently associated with unfavourable...

  3. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    such as anti- excitotoxic, anti- apoptotic, antioxidant , and anti-inflammatory actions, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and...the literature suggests that EPO receptors are not required to mediate the benefit of exogenously administered EPO in preclinical models of TBI...Oztürk E, Demirbilek S, Köroğlu A, et al. Propofol and erythropoietin antioxidant properties in rat brain injured tissue. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol

  4. Single Visit Apexification Procedure of a Traumatically Injured Tooth with a Novel Bioinductive Material (Biodentine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingarwar, Mahesh Madhukar; Pathak, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of this article is to present a case wherein single visit apexification of a traumatically injured tooth was done with a bioactive material–Biodentine. An injury sustained between the ages of 6 and 14 can adversely affect pulpal health and interrupt root development. In these instances, apexification is generally the preferred treatment. A 10 years old male patient presented with coronal fracture of the left upper central incisor. Clinical and radiographic assessment showed negative pulpal sensibility and arrested apical root development. Artificial apical barrier induction with Biodentine followed by endodontic treatment and prosthetic rehabilitation was decided as the line of treatment. To conclude, this bioactive and biocompatible calcium-based cement can regenerate damaged dental tissues and represents a promising alternative to the conventional multivisit apexification technique. Clinical significance: Biodentine which is a biologically active cement can be an efficient alternative to the conventional apexification materials which were hitherto recommended. How to cite this article: Bajwa NK, Jingarwar MM, Pathak A. Single Visit Apexification Procedure of a Traumatically Injured Tooth with a Novel Bioinductive Material (Biodentine). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):58-61. PMID:26124583

  5. Ipsilesional deficit of selective attention in left homonymous hemianopia and left unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, Sylvie; Peyrin, Carole; Perez, Céline

    2018-03-15

    Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect. The study was also conducted in RBD patients with neither left hemianopia nor left neglect signs in order to test if a right hemisphere lesion per se could be responsible for subtle ipsilesional attentional deficit. To reach this aim, we tested selective attentional capacities in both visual fields of 10 right brain-damaged patients with left neglect (LN), 8 right brain-damaged patients with left homonymous hemianopia (LHH), 8 right brain-damaged patients with no signs of left neglect or left hemianopia (RBD controls), and 17 healthy age-matched participants (Normal controls). A lateralized letter-detection task was used to test if right-brain damaged patients with LN or LH may present a deficit of selective attention in their right, ipsilesional visual field, in comparison to Normal and RBD controls. Participants were asked to detect a target letter in either a single large stimulus (low attentional load) or a small stimulus surrounded by flankers (high attentional load). Stimuli were displayed either in the left or in the right visual field. Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Results on accuracy showed that both LN and LH patients exhibited lower correct responses than Normal controls in their ipsilesional right visual field, suggesting an attentional deficit in their ipsilesional, supposed healthy

  6. Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-04-15

    Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury.

  7. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  8. Morbidity of Early Spine Surgery in the Multiply Injured Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    chest trauma 9 30 % Exploratory laparotomy 8 27 % Lactate [ 2.5 mEq/L 6 20 % Platelet \\110,000/mm3 4 13 % 10 U PRBCs pre-spine surgery 4 13 % ISS...ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY Morbidity of early spine surgery in the multiply injured patient J. W. Galvin • B. A. Freedman • A. J. Schoenfeld • A. P. Cap • J... surgery for multiply injured patients with operative spinal injuries remains unknown. The purported benefits of early intervention must be weighed

  9. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  10. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving...... levels above the Danish legal limit were present more than 10 times as frequently as in injured drivers, whereas ethanol was present more than 30 times as frequently than in randomly selected drivers. The results indicate that there is an increased risk in traffic when driving under the influence...

  11. Ben's Plastic Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares a story of Ben who as a result of his premature birth, suffered a brain hemorrhage resulting in cerebral palsy, which affected his left side (left hemiparesis) and caused learning disabilities. Despite these challenges, he graduated from college and currently works doing information management for a local biotech start-up…

  12. Prehospital transport of spinal cord-injured patients in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that the means of transport are generally not optimal for those with spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was therefore to highlight the importance of prehospital transport of spinal cord-injured patients and the contribution of these injuries to mortality in Nigeria. Patients, materials and methods. The records of spinal ...

  13. Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this! Home » Health Tips » Child Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s ... a child — killed by a piece of a furniture, appliance or a television falling on them. “It ...

  14. Replantation and revascularization vs. amputation in injured digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, Marjolein A. M.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ring, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors associated with the decision to replant or revascularize rather than amputate an injured digit as well as factors associated with successful replantation or revascularization. We reviewed 315 complete and subtotal amputations at or proximal to the

  15. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and

  16. Effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in spinal Cord injured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in spinal Cord injured patients. ... Trauma was the etiology in 87.5% of the cases (44% were road accidents). 12/16 patients were paraplegics (10 above ... in SCI patients. This approach is compatible with the efforts to improve the quality of life and rehabilitation of these patients.

  17. Repair and Enumeration of Injured Coliforms by a Plating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, M. L.; Ray, B.; Read, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Surface plating of coliforms on Trypticase soy agar, followed by 1 to 2 h of incubation at 25 C and subsequent overlay with violet red bile agar, was found to be a useful method for the repair and enumeration of coliforms injured by freezing. PMID:1092266

  18. Clinical outcomes after multiligament injured knees: medial versus lateral reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, N; Boisrenoult, P; Teissier, P; Steltzlen, C; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical outcomes of multiligament injured knees with respect to the medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner (PMC) repair or reconstruction versus the posterolateral corner (PLC) reconstruction in patients operated according to a codified surgical protocol. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether PMC or PLC was injured. Cruciate ligaments as well as PMC or PLC were reconstructed/repaired in a one-stage procedure. At minimum of 1-year follow-up, objective and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) forms, Lysholm score and sports activity level were recorded. Thirty-nine patients with a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 12-129) were reviewed. No significant difference was found for functional scores between acute PMC and PLC subgroups. In Group PLC, subjective outcomes tend to be better in the acute than in chronic reconstruction subgroup. A one-stage protocol with early surgery rather than delayed reconstruction produced better clinical outcomes whatever the injured collateral ligament, medial or lateral. In the future, early and chronic reconstructions as well as each injury pattern should be considered as separate entities in studies on multiple ligament injured knees to reach a better level of evidence. IV.

  19. MANAGING THE INJURED CHILD: MORE THAN JUST TREATING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    There are issues of particular importance to injured children and situations where ... friendly language, and the caregiver should be allowed to stay with the child as long as possible. Equipment. Appropriately sized equipment similar to that needed for the management of ..... Child abuse and neglect occur in boys and girls of ...

  20. Midodrine improves ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J M; Previnaire, J G; Plante, P; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E

    2007-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist midodrine given orally for anejaculation in spinal cord injured men. A total of 185 spinal cord injured patients who reported absent ejaculation during sexual intercourse and who failed to respond to penile vibratory stimulation were treated with midodrine 30 to 120 minutes before a new stimulation. The procedure was repeated weekly, increasing doses by 7.5 mg to a maximum of 30 mg. Cardiovascular effects were monitored throughout the procedure. Antegrade or retrograde ejaculation was achieved in 102 spinal cord injured men (64.6%). A positive response was more frequent in patients with complete lesions (American Spinal Injury Association A) and upper motor neuron lesions above T10. Midodrine induced a significant but moderate increase (maximum 10 mm Hg) in mean arterial pressure in all patients. The highest systolic blood pressure (more than 200 mm Hg) was seen in patients with quadriplegia. No other significant side effect was recorded. The average dose of midodrine required for ejaculation was 18.7 mg. Midodrine is a safe and efficient adjunct to penile vibratory stimulation for anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients.

  1. Higher mortality risk among injured individuals in a population-based matched cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved understanding of long-term mortality attributable to injury is needed to accurately inform injury burden studies. This study aims to quantify and describe mortality attributable to injury 12 months after an injury-related hospitalisation in Australia. Method A population-based matched cohort study using linked hospital and mortality data from three Australian states during 2008–2010 was conducted. The injured cohort included individuals ≥18 years who had an injury-related hospital admission in 2009. A comparison cohort of non-injured people was obtain by randomly selecting from the electoral roll. This comparison group was matched 1:1 on age, gender and postcode of residence. Pre-index injury health service use and 12-month mortality were examined. Adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRR and attributable risk were calculated. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to examine the effect of risk factors on survival. Results Injured individuals were almost 3 times more likely to die within 12 months following an injury (MRR 2.90; 95% CI: 2.76–3.04. Individuals with a traumatic brain injury (MRR 7.58; 95% CI: 5.92–9.70 or injury to internal organs (MRR 7.38; 95% CI: 5.90–9.22 were 7 times more likely to die than the non-injured group. Injury was likely to be a contributory factor in 92% of mortality within 30 days and 66% of mortality at 12 months following the index injury hospital admission. Adjusted mortality rate ratios varied by type of cause-specific death, with MRR highest for injury-related deaths. Conclusions There are likely chronic consequences of sustaining a traumatic injury. Longer follow-up post-discharge is needed to consider deaths likely to be attributable to the injury. Better enumeration of long-term injury-related mortality will have the potential to improve estimates of injury burden.

  2. Psychotic Symptoms Associated with Left Caudate Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic symptoms following acquired brain lesion are relatively rare, and thus, the specific association linking such symptoms to the distinct brain structure remains unclear. The frontal–subcortical circuits are thought to modulate motor activity and human behavior, and have been reported to be associated with many neuropsychiatric symptoms. We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man without previous psychiatric disorder who developed a new onset of psychotic symptoms following left caudate infarction. The presented case supports the fact that psychosis might arise from alteration of the distinct brain structure. The functional impairment of the frontal–subcortical circuits may be a critical factor linking the pathogenesis of psychosis associated with acquired brain lesion.

  3. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  4. Commentary: Left Hand, Right Hand and on the Other Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    It was deeply ingrained in the author from his undergraduate studies of psychology and courses in learning theory that people have a rational left brain and a creative right brain. Learning theory suggested that activities needed to be tailored to develop both hemispheres. Handedness in relation to abilities has been commented on from the 1800s by…

  5. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  6. Sedation for critically ill or injured adults in the intensive care unit: a shifting paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Haroon, Babar; Hall, Richard I

    2012-10-01

    As most critically ill or injured patients will require some degree of sedation, the goal of this paper was to comprehensively review the literature associated with use of sedative agents in the intensive care unit (ICU). The first and selected latter portions of this article present a narrative overview of the shifting paradigm in ICU sedation practices, indications for uninterrupted or prolonged ICU sedation, and the pharmacology of sedative agents. In the second portion, we conducted a structured, although not entirely systematic, review of the available evidence associated with use of alternative sedative agents in critically ill or injured adults. Data sources for this review were derived by searching OVID MEDLINE and PubMed from their first available date until May 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses and economic evaluations. Advances in the technology of mechanical ventilation have permitted clinicians to limit the use of sedation among the critically ill through daily sedative interruptions or other means. These practices have been reported to result in improved mortality, a decreased length of ICU and hospital stay and a lower risk of drug-associated delirium. However, in some cases, prolonged or uninterrupted sedation may still be indicated, such as when patients develop intracranial hypertension following traumatic brain injury. The pharmacokinetics of sedative agents have clinical importance and may be altered by critical illness or injury, co-morbid conditions and/or drug-drug interactions. Although use of validated sedation scales to monitor depth of sedation is likely to reduce adverse events, they have no utility for patients receiving neuromuscular receptor blocking agents. Depth of sedation monitoring devices such as the Bispectral Index (BIS©) also have limitations. Among existing RCTs, no sedative agent has been reported to improve the risk of mortality among the critically ill or

  7. Characteristics of injured children attending the emergency department : patients potentially in need of rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, L.M.; van der Sluis, C.K.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.; Eisma, W.H.

    Objective: To provide an epidemiological overview of the characteristics of injured children and to compare hospitalized and nonhospitalized injured children to identify predictors of hospitalization and, with that, possible predictors of disablement. Design: Retrospective analysis of data obtained

  8. The acutely ACL injured knee assessed by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Roos, H P; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To map by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative MRI (qMRI) concomitant fractures and meniscal injuries, and location and volume of traumatic bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the acutely anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured knee. To relate BML location and volume to cortical...... depression fractures, meniscal injuries and patient characteristics. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one subjects (26% women, mean age 26 years) with an ACL rupture to a previously un-injured knee were studied using a 1.5T MR imager within 3 weeks from trauma. Meniscal injuries and fractures were classified......-compartmental meniscal tears were found in 44 (36%) subjects and bi-compartmental in 24 (20%). One hundred and nineteen (98%) knees had at least one BML, all but four (97%) located in the lateral compartment. Knees with a cortical depression fracture had larger BML volumes (P

  9. Caring for the injured child in settings of limited resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Characterization of high hydrostatic pressure-injured Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takashi; Kimura, Keitarou; Morimatsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects various cellular processes. Using a sporulation-deficient Bacillus subtilis strain, we characterized the properties of vegetative cells subjected to HHP. When stationary-phase cells were exposed to 250 MPa of HHP for 10 min at 25 °C, approximately 50% of cells were viable, although they exhibited a prolonged growth lag. The HHP-injured cells autolyzed in the presence of NaCl or KCl (at concentrations ≥100 mM). Superoxide dismutase slightly protected the viability of HHP-treated cells, whereas vegetative catalases had no effect. Thus, unlike HHP-injured Escherichia coli, oxidative stress only slightly affected vegetative B. subtilis subjected to HHP.

  11. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Employment Effects of educational measures for work-injured people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning Bjerregaard; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Høgelund, Jan

    employers a partial wage subsidy for disabled workers’ wages, by distinguishing between education effects of a return to wage-subsidized work versus a return to ordinary work. Unlike previous studies, we find a positive impact of educational measures on the probability of returning to work for the work...... injured and a stronger effect for a return to wage-subsidized employment compared to a return to ordinary employment....

  13. Alcohol consumption decreases lactate clearance in acutely injured patients☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezman, Zachary D.W.; Comer, Angela C.; Narayan, Mayur; Scalea, Thomas M.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Smith, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol, a common risk factor for injury, has direct toxic effects on the liver. The use of lactate clearance has been well described as an indicator of the adequacy of resuscitation in injured patients. We investigated whether acutely injured patients with positive blood alcohol content (+BAC) had less lactate clearance than sober patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of acutely injured patients treated at an urban Level 1 trauma centre between January 2010 and December 2012. Blood alcohol and venous lactate levels were measured on all patients at the time of arrival. Study subjects were patients transported directly from the scene of injury, who had an elevated lactate concentration on arrival (≥3.0 mmol/L) and at least one subsequent lactate measurement within 24 h after admission. Lactate clearance ([Lactate1 − Lactate2]/Lactate1) was calculated for all patients. Chi-squared tests were used to compare values from sober and intoxicated subjects. Lactate clearance was plotted against alcohol levels and stratified by age and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results Serial lactate concentration measurements were obtained in 3910 patients; 1674 of them had +BAC. Patients with +BAC were younger (mean age: 36.6 [SD 14.7] vs 41.0 [SD 19.9] years [p = 0.0001]), were more often male (83.4% vs 75.9% [p = 0.0001]), had more minor injuries (ISS 400 (23.5 [SD 6.5]). Lactate clearance decreased with increasing BAC irrespective of age and ISS. Conclusions In a large group of acutely injured patients, a dose-dependent decrease in lactate clearance was seen in those with elevated BAC. This relationship will cause a falsely elevated lactate reading or prolong lactate clearance and should be taken into account when evaluating patients with +BAC. PMID:27025567

  14. Alcohol consumption decreases lactate clearance in acutely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezman, Zachary D W; Comer, Angela C; Narayan, Mayur; Scalea, Thomas M; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Smith, Gordon S

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol, a common risk factor for injury, has direct toxic effects on the liver. The use of lactate clearance has been well described as an indicator of the adequacy of resuscitation in injured patients. We investigated whether acutely injured patients with positive blood alcohol content (+BAC) had less lactate clearance than sober patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of acutely injured patients treated at an urban Level 1 trauma centre between January 2010 and December 2012. Blood alcohol and venous lactate levels were measured on all patients at the time of arrival. Study subjects were patients transported directly from the scene of injury, who had an elevated lactate concentration on arrival (≥3.0mmol/L) and at least one subsequent lactate measurement within 24h after admission. Lactate clearance ([Lactate1-Lactate2]/Lactate1) was calculated for all patients. Chi-squared tests were used to compare values from sober and intoxicated subjects. Lactate clearance was plotted against alcohol levels and stratified by age and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Serial lactate concentration measurements were obtained in 3910 patients; 1674 of them had +BAC. Patients with +BAC were younger (mean age: 36.6 [SD 14.7] vs 41.0 [SD 19.9] years [p=0.0001]), were more often male (83.4% vs 75.9% [p=0.0001]), had more minor injuries (ISS400 (23.5 [SD 6.5]). Lactate clearance decreased with increasing BAC irrespective of age and ISS. In a large group of acutely injured patients, a dose-dependent decrease in lactate clearance was seen in those with elevated BAC. This relationship will cause a falsely elevated lactate reading or prolong lactate clearance and should be taken into account when evaluating patients with +BAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  16. Mitochondria Localize to Injured Axons to Support Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Min; Baig, Huma S; Hammarlund, Marc

    2016-12-21

    Axon regeneration is essential to restore the nervous system after axon injury. However, the neuronal cell biology that underlies axon regeneration is incompletely understood. Here we use in vivo, single-neuron analysis to investigate the relationship between nerve injury, mitochondrial localization, and axon regeneration. Mitochondria translocate into injured axons so that average mitochondria density increases after injury. Moreover, single-neuron analysis reveals that axons that fail to increase mitochondria have poor regeneration. Experimental alterations to axonal mitochondrial distribution or mitochondrial respiratory chain function result in corresponding changes to regeneration outcomes. Axonal mitochondria are specifically required for growth-cone migration, identifying a key energy challenge for injured neurons. Finally, mitochondrial localization to the axon after injury is regulated in part by dual-leucine zipper kinase 1 (DLK-1), a conserved regulator of axon regeneration. These data identify regulation of axonal mitochondria as a new cell-biological mechanism that helps determine the regenerative response of injured neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults from...... an uptake area of 2.4 million in Denmark were included at admission to a regional brain injury unit (BIU), on average 19 days after injury. Patients in the retrospective study used for comparison were randomly chosen from the national hospital register. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of 117 patients...... post-trauma was 0.29, and at 1 year 0.055 per 100,000 population. By comparison of 39 patients from the centralized unit injured in 2000-2003 with 21 patients injured in 1982, 1987 or 1992 and with similar PTA- and age distributions and male/female ratio, Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge...

  18. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  19. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  20. Environmental Enrichment, Performance, and Brain Injury in Male and Female Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Brenda M

    2004-01-01

    ...) and physical enrichment (PE) on the cognitive performance of neurologically intact and brain-injured rats and to determine if there are gender differences in these effects. Measures of basic (i.e...

  1. Metabolic crisis in severely head-injured patients: is ischemia just the tip of the iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Emilie; Ogier, Michael; Boret, Henry; Montcriol, Ambroise; Bourdon, Lionel; Jean-Jacques, Risso

    2013-10-11

    Ischemia and metabolic crisis are frequent post-traumatic secondary brain insults that negatively influence outcome. Clinicians commonly mix up these two types of insults, mainly because high lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) is the common marker for both ischemia and metabolic crisis. However, LPR elevations during ischemia and metabolic crisis reflect two different energetic imbalances: ischemia (Type 1 LPR elevations with low oxygenation) is characterized by a drastic deprivation of energetic substrates, whereas metabolic crisis (Type 2 LPR elevations with normal or high oxygenation) is associated with profound mitochondrial dysfunction but normal supply of energetic substrates. The discrimination between ischemia and metabolic crisis is crucial because conventional recommendations against ischemia may be detrimental for patients with metabolic crisis. Multimodal monitoring, including microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen monitoring, allows such discrimination, but these techniques are not easily accessible to all head-injured patients. Thus, a new "gold standard" and adapted medical education are required to optimize the management of patients with metabolic crisis.

  2. Metabolic crisis in severely head-injured patients: is ischemia just the tip of the iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eCarre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and metabolic crisis are frequent post-traumatic secondary brain insults that negatively influence outcome. Clinicians commonly mix up these two types of insults, mainly because high lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR is the common marker for both ischemia and metabolic crisis. However, LPR elevations during ischemia and metabolic crisis reflect two different energetic imbalances: ischemia (Type 1 LPR elevations with low oxygenation is characterized by a drastic deprivation of energetic substrates, whereas metabolic crisis (Type 2 LPR elevations with normal or high oxygenation is associated with profound mitochondrial dysfunction but normal supply of energetic substrates. The discrimination between ischemia and metabolic crisis is crucial because conventional recommendations against ischemia may be detrimental for patients with metabolic crisis. Multimodal monitoring, including microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen monitoring, allows such discrimination, but these techniques are not easily accessible to all head-injured patients. Thus, a new gold standard and adapted medical education are required to optimize the management of patients with metabolic crisis.

  3. Decompressive craniectomy following brain injury: factors important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... Background: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is often performed as an empirical lifesaving measure to protect the injured brain from the damaging effects of propagating oedema and intracranial hypertension. However, there are no clearly defined indications or specified guidelines for patient selection for ...

  4. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults fr...

  5. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  7. Muscle timing in injured and non-injured leg of athletes with chronic ankle instability in response to a visual stimulus during forward jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereydounnia, Sara; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Jalaie, Shohreh; Tahmasebi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate premotor time, motor time and reaction time of the injured and non-injured leg muscles of athletes with chronic ankle instability in response to a visual stimulus during forward jumping. Surface electromyography was performed on injured and non-injured leg of eight athletes with chronic ankle instability during forward jumping. Results showed that premotor time of the peroneus longus was significantly longer in non-injured leg compared with injured leg (489.37 ± 220.22 ms vs. 306.46 ± 142.92 ms, P = 0.031); on the contrary, motor time of the peroneus longus was significantly shorter in non-injured leg compared with injured leg (569.04 ± 318.62 ms vs. 715.12 ± 328.72 ms, P = 0.022). No significant difference was noted in the timing of other calf muscles (P > 0.05). According to the results of this study, rehabilitation protocols, regarding ankle instability, need to put greater emphasis on tasks that require proper timing of muscles and muscle re-education so that protocols could reduce residual symptoms after sprain and prevent recurrent sprains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of the standards clinico-neurology and beam diagnostics of an easy brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, I.P.; Semisalov, S.Ya.; Sajko, D.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    16825 cases of a brain injury (BI) at the persons are investigated is more senior than 14 years. Axial computer topography (ACT) at concussion of a head brain was made 1/3 injureds. The careful analysis clinico-neuralgic symptoms allows to optimize purpose the ACT at easy BI, that not only improves quality of diagnostics, but in the certain degree normalizes beam loading on the injureds

  9. Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    directly to the brain after craniotomy 154 or 240 kPa Unknown 2.8 or 20 kPa 40 kPa 1 or 10 MPa Redistribution of phosphorylated neurofilament H...m a: 1𔃻) .... !l ~ Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 767 colleagues55 compared neuropsychological test results in a group of primarily...patterns between blast and non-blast-injured subjects, thus providing no support at the neuropsychological level that blast is different. However

  10. In-hospital mortality pattern of severely injured children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Hien Quoc; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although trauma remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, less attention has been directed to this group of patients. Whilst there is considerable literature on trauma in adults, only few studies describe paediatric trauma. The aim of this study was to describe...... the mortality pattern of severely injured children admitted to a Danish level I trauma centre. METHODS: We included trauma patients aged 15 years or less, who subsequent a trauma team activation were admitted during the 9-year period 1999-2007. Data were collected prospectively for subjects who had a length...

  11. Neural reorganization following bilateral injury of the fornix crus in a patient with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-06-01

    We report on a patient who appeared to demonstrate neural reorganization after head trauma resulting in bilateral injury of the fornix crus. A 58-year-old male patient and 8 control subjects were recruited. The patient had undergone head trauma as the result of a car accident and had lost consciousness for 30 min. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, performed 3 years after the head trauma, showed no evidence of abnormality. Discontinuation of both crus in the proximal region was observed on diffusion tensor tractography of the fornix. In the right fornix, an abnormal neural tract originating from the right crus passed through the splenium of the corpus callosum to connect with the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. By contrast, in the left fornix, another abnormal neural tract originating from the left column passed through the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the splenium of the corpus callosum. None of these abnormal neural tracts was observed in normal subjects. We presume that the abnormal neural tracts of the fornix observed in this patient were the result of neural reorganization triggered by bilateral injury of the fornix crus. The results of this study suggest a mechanism for recovery of the injured fornix following head trauma.

  12. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  13. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-xu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca 2+ and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  14. ATP released by injured neurons activates Schwann cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele eNegro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Injured nerve terminals of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs can regenerate. This remarkable and complex response is governed by molecular signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of this synapse: motor axon nerve terminal (MAT, perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs, and muscle fibre. The nature of signals that govern MAT regeneration is ill-known. In the present study the spider toxin α-Latrotoxin has been used as tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuroregeneration. Indeed this neurotoxin induces an acute, specific, localized and fully reversible damage of the presynaptic nerve terminal, and its action mimics the cascade of events that leads to nerve terminal degeneration in injured patients and in many neurodegenerative conditions. Here we provide evidence of an early release by degenerating neurons of ATP as alarm messenger, that contributes to the activation of a series of intracellular pathways within SCs that are crucial for nerve regeneration: Ca2+, cAMP, ERK1/2, and CREB. These results contribute to define the cross-talk taking place among degenerating nerve terminals and PSCs, involved in the functional recovery of the NMJ.

  15. Injured Athletes' Attitudes and Judgments Toward Rehabilitation Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A. Craig; Hoisington, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    In a follow-up study to certified athletic trainers' (ATCs') attitudes and judgments toward injury rehabilitation adherence, previously injured and rehabilitated athletes (n=36) were administered the Athletic Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Questionnaire. The purpose of the study was to compare the results collected from athletes with those collected previously from ATCs. The questionnaire consisted of 60 statements, categorized into seven scales: athletic trainers' influence, environmental influences, athlete's personality, pain tolerance, self-motivation, goals and incentives, and significant others. Four additional open-ended questions dealing with successful and unsuccessful rehabilitation strategies also were completed. Athletes' responses were generally similar to those of ATCs. Factors deemed significant to rehabilitation adherence were: (a) good rapport and communication between athletic trainers and injured athletes, (b) support from athletic trainers and coaches, (c) self-motivation on the part of athletes, and (d) convenience, accessibility, and flexibility of the rehabilitation facility and staff. The greatest deviations between athletes' and ATCs' responses were in the areas of self-motivation, pain tolerance, education about injury and rehabilitation exercises, and degree of realistic feedback. Analyses of open-ended question responses reinforced the aforementioned results. The strongest findings derived from these questions were the importance of rapport, communication, and support to rehabilitation adherence. Also, athletes' distastes for threats and scare tactics were quite evident. ImagesINGING PMID:16558204

  16. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  18. [Carotid artery injury: value of Doppler screening in head injured patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terminassian, A; Bonnet, F; Guerrini, P; Ricolfi, F; Delaunay, F; Beydon, L; Catoire, P

    1992-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with a traumatic aneurysm of the intracranial part of the carotid artery occurring after a traffic accident. The patient was admitted in coma (Glasgow score 5), and presented with a depressed fracture of the frontal and parietal bones, a fracture of the left petrous pyramid and of the left anterior clinoid process, as well as of the right tympanic bone and temporomandibular joint. The borders of the left carotid canal seemed unaltered. Despite the lack of localised neurological signs, cervical and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was carried out. Intracranial carotid blood flow was found to be altered on both sides. Angiography showed a false carotid aneurysm on the left side (carotid siphon portion C3), and a moderate irregular stenosis of the C2 part on the right. There were no brain lesions on the CT scan. Prophylactic treatment with heparin was started. The patient recovered normal consciousness within a fortnight. The false aneurysm increased in volume and was treated by embolisation. Flow speeds in the carotid siphons also returned to normal. The usefulness of routine screening of patients with petrous bone fractures with Doppler ultrasound is discussed.

  19. Functional Enabling and Physiotherapeutic Treatment of Sportsmen after Injuring Collateral Ligaments of Knee Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosav Joksimović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ligamental compound of knee joint represents in mechanical terms, the most complex joint ligamental concatenation. According to seriousness and occurrence of damage, injuries of collateral ligaments can be divided into three degrees. Aim of paper was monitoring and evaluation of results of physiotherapeutic treatment in sportsmen with collateral ligaments injury (CLs of knee joint. The paper comprises 54 sportsmen over the period of four years aged from 16 to 32. Results of paper: 40% (74% injured collateral ligaments while playing game, during football game and 14 (26% while training, 43 (79,6% had collateral ligament injuries of right leg and 11 (20,4% of left leg. In 20( 37% it was a fi rst (1 st degree injury, in 26(48,1 % - second (2nd degree and in 8 (14% third (3rd degree injury. Treatment was conducted over three phases: fi rst - the phase of immobilization ( 2- 6 weeks with K.T.H. of free extremities. Second - the phase of removing immobilization, cryo T.h in combination with available electro- procedures. Third phase was enabling for high- risk physical activities. Results of paper have been classifi ed into four groups: excellent result was observed in 41 ( 76% sportsmen, good in 6 (11 % and satisfactory in 2( 3,8%. Conclusion: Illustrated results obtained on the basis of functional research and after completed rehabilitation allow us to recommend this rehabilitation program as on of the most effi cient ways in treatment of such serious injuries.

  20. Temporary balloon occlusion as therapy for uncontrollable arterial hemorrhage in multiply injured patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Rock, C.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Euler, E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Presentation of temporary balloon occlusion as an interventional radiological method for managing hemorrhage in multiply injured patients with uncontrollable loss of blood. Method: Temporary, non-selective arterial occlusion by introduction of a balloon catheter contralaterally to the source of bleeding has been performed since 1992 on 7 patients with multiple injuries, hemorrhagic shock requiring reanimation, and angiographic demonstration of an arterial hemorrhage in the supply region of the internal iliac artery with complex pelvic fracture. In each case a PTA balloon catheter was introduced transfemorally, non-selectively positioned proximal to the bleeding source, and left in place for 24-48 h under manometric control. Control angiographies were performed prior to catheter removal. Results: The bleeding was stopped immediately in all 7 patients. The hemodynamic stability made transport and thus further surgical management and/or a short-term treatment in the intensive-care station possible. Control angiographies confirmed that the bleeding had stopped in all patients. Conclusions: We recommend temporary balloon occlusion as a rapid and effective method for the management of bleeding in otherwise uncontrollable traumatic hemorrhages in the supply region of the internal iliac artery. (orig.) [de

  1. [Application of statistical models for prognostication of outcomes in injured persons with severe trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, V V; Zamiatin, P N; Dubrovina, N A; Zamiatin, D P

    2014-02-01

    Basing on data, concerning the injured persons state, the investigations results for elaboration and application of statistic models, prognosticating the trauma outcome, were analyzed. Selected information about 373 injured persons, who were treated in Traumatic Shock Department, is presented. There was established, that the statistical models elaborated is expedient to use together with other qualitative and quantitative methods of prognostic determination of outcome in severely injured persons.

  2. Is policy well-targeted to remedy financial strain among caregivers of severely injured U.S. service members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Friedemann-Sánchez, Greta; Clothier, Barbara; Levison, Deborah; Taylor, Brent C; Jensen, Agnes C; Phelan, Sean M; Griffin, Joan M

    U.S. military service members have sustained severe injuries since the start of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This paper aims to determine the factors associated with financial strain of their caregivers and establish whether recent federal legislation targets caregivers experiencing financial strain. In our national survey, 62.3% of caregivers depleted assets and/or accumulated debt, and 41% of working caregivers left the labor force. If a severely injured veteran needed intensive help, the primary caregiver faced odds 4.63 times higher of leaving the labor force, and used $27,576 more in assets and/or accumulated debt compared to caregivers of veterans needing little or no assistance.

  3. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  4. Can injured adult CNS axons regenerate by recapitulating development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Brett J; Bradke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons typically fail to regenerate their axons after injury. During development, by contrast, neurons extend axons effectively. A variety of intracellular mechanisms mediate this difference, including changes in gene expression, the ability to form a growth cone, differences in mitochondrial function/axonal transport and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In turn, these intracellular processes are linked to extracellular differences between the developing and adult CNS. During development, the extracellular environment directs axon growth and circuit formation. In adulthood, by contrast, extracellular factors, such as myelin and the extracellular matrix, restrict axon growth. Here, we discuss whether the reactivation of developmental processes can elicit axon regeneration in the injured CNS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Electrophysiological assessment of sexual dysfunction in spinal cord injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, I; Yagiz On, A; Altay, B; Ozdedeli, K

    2007-04-01

    Survey. To determine associations between sexual dysfunctions and electrophysiological examinations of the genital system in spinal cord injured patients. Ege University Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. In total, 25 patients (17 men, eight women) who were out of the spinal shock period were examined. Neurological levels were determined according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale. Data about erection, ejaculation and vaginal lubrication were obtained via inquiry forms. Bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR), pudendal somatosensorial evoked potentials (pSEP) and perineal sympathetic skin responses (pSSR) were recorded by an electromyographer unaware of the sexual state or neurological level of the patient. BCRs could be obtained from all patients with lesion levels above the sacral centre. A significant association was found between reflex erection and BCR positivity, while psychogenic erection was shown to have a significant association with the preservation of pSSR in men. Despite the lack of statistical significance due to the small sample size of the women examined, a similar association with lubrication was observed. Ejaculation and orgasm were not shown to be significantly associated with any electrophysiological examination. However, ejaculation was preserved in all men with a lesion level below T12 and with positive pSSR. There was no significant relationship between pSEP and sexual functions. The relationship between the existence of sacral sensation and pSEP positivity was statistically significant. This study has proved that BCR and pSSR have an important role in the estimation of the remaining sexual function in spinal cord injured patients. STATEMENT ON ETHICS: We certify that all applicable institutional and governmental regulations concerning the ethical use of human volunteers were followed during the course of this research.

  6. Evaluating Age in the Field Triage of Injured Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoko; Daya, Mohamud; Bulger, Eileen M.; Schreiber, Martin; Mackersie, Robert; Hsia, Renee Y.; Mann, N. Clay; Holmes, James F.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Sturges, Zachary; Liao, Michael; Haukoos, Jason; Kuppermann, Nathan; Barton, Erik D.; Newgard, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective In this study, we evaluated (1) trauma under-triage by age group; (2) the association between age and serious injury after accounting for other field triage criteria and confounders; and (3) the potential impact of a mandatory age triage criterion for field triage. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of injured children and adults transported by 48 EMS agencies to 105 hospitals in 6 regions of the Western U.S. from 2006 through 2008. We used probabilistic linkage to match EMS records to hospital records, including: trauma registries, state discharge databases and emergency department databases. The primary outcome measure was serious injury, as measured by an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16. We assessed under-triage (ISS ≥ 16 and triage-negative or transport to a non-trauma center) by age decile and used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the association (linear and non-linear) between age and ISS ≥ 16, adjusted for important confounders. We also evaluated the potential impact of age on triage efficiency and trauma center volume. Results 260,027 injured patients were evaluated and transported by EMS over the 3-year study period. Under-triage increased for patients over 60 years of age, reaching approximately 60% for those older than 90 years. There was a strong non-linear association between age and ISS ≥ 16. For patients not meeting other triage criteria, the probability of serious injury was most notable after 60 years. A mandatory age triage criterion would have decreased under-triage at the expense of over-triage, with one ISS ≥ 16 patient identified for every 60–65 additional patients transported to major trauma centers. Conclusion Trauma under-triage increases in patients older than 60 years. While the probability of serious injury increases among triage-negative patients with increasing age, the use of a mandatory age triage criterion appears inefficient for improving field triage. PMID:22633339

  7. Cervical spine injuries and collar complications in severely injured paediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M; Al-Buali, W; Charyk Stewart, T; Singh, R N; Kornecki, A; Seabrook, J A; Fraser, D D

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective registry review. To determine the incidence of cervical spine (CS) injuries and collar complications in severely injured paediatric trauma patients. Regional Trauma Centre, Children's Hospital. A retrospective review of 365 paediatric severe trauma patients (0-17 years), defined as an Injury Severity Score (ISS)≥12, admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Clinically significant CS injuries occurred in 5% (n=18/365) of trauma patients, in 9% (n=13/149) of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and in 11% (n=6/56) of in-hospital trauma deaths. CS injuries were suspected before imaging in 33% (n=6/18) of patients based on either motor/sensory impairment or shock. CS injuries were deemed unstable in 61% (n=11/18) of patients. Patients with CS injuries had higher ISS, and longer PICU and hospital stays (Pcollar complications occurred in 10% of patients, mainly identified by day 6 and consisting of either erythema or ulcers. Patients with CS collar complications were older and more likely to have TBI, lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, longer PICU and hospital stays, and increased days to CS clearance (Pcollar complications were associated with a lower GCS and longer CS clearance times. Attention to CS collar management protocols and earlier CS clearance with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in obtunded patients might reduce CS collar complications.

  8. Describing and comparing the characteristics of injured bicyclists and other injured road users: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish the frequency and characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic, pre-injury, and crash-related parameters of injured bicyclists and other injured road users. Methods 748 participants aged ≥17 years who had sustained a minor or non-catastrophic injury in a land-transport crash, were interviewed after presenting to a metro hospital emergency department in New South Wales, Australia. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre-injury health, and crash-related characteristics. These factors were then compared between injured bicyclists and other road users (car driver/passengers, motorcyclists/pillion and pedestrians/skateboarders. Cycling injury severity was characterized by three metrics (sustaining multiple injuries; hospital admission for ≥12 h; and sustaining a head/neck and/or facial injury. Results In this cohort of people with injuries, 238 (32 % were bicyclists. Frequency of cycling injuries were significantly different between age-groups among men (p = 0.0002, and were more common in men aged 45–59. Bicyclists were more likely to be aged 45–59, married, have university/tertiary qualifications and have a professional occupation compared to other road users (all p <0.0001. Bicyclists compared to participants involved in other types of land transport crashes were more likely to self-report excellent general health (p = 0.01, and were less likely to report a great/overwhelming perceived danger of death or 15.0 % versus 23–41 %; p <0.0001. Frequency of upper extremity and lower extremity injuries in bicyclists were 81.9 % and 60.5 %, respectively. Explanatory variables significantly associated with injury severity metrics were age, education level, paid work status and perceived danger of death/disability in the crash. Conclusions Minor cycling injuries were a relatively common cause of mild-moderate injury presentations to metro emergency

  9. Uncoupling of in vivo torque production from EMG in mouse muscles injured by eccentric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Gordon L; Ingalls, Christopher P; Shah, Shree J; Armstrong, R B

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury causes impaired plasmalemmal action potential conduction, which could explain the injury-induced excitation-contraction coupling failure. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes on the left common peroneal nerve and with electromyographic (EMG) electrodes on the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The left anterior crural muscles of anaesthetized mice were stimulated to perform 150 eccentric (ECC) (n = 12 mice) or 150 concentric (CON) (n = 11 mice) contractions. Isometric torque, EMG root mean square (RMS) and M-wave mean and median frequencies were measured before, immediately after, and at 1, 3, 5 and 14 days after the protocols. In parallel experiments, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) concentration was measured in TA muscles to determine whether the excitation failure elicited a denervation-like response.Immediately after the ECC protocol, torque was reduced by 47–89%, while RMS was reduced by 9–21%; the RMS decrement was not different from that observed for the CON protocol, which did not elicit large torque deficits. One day later, both ECC and CON RMS had returned to baseline values and did not change over the next 2 weeks. However, torque production by the ECC group showed a slow recovery over that time and was still depressed by 12–30% after 2 weeks. M-wave mean and median frequencies were not affected by performance of either protocol.AChR concentration was elevated by 79 and 368% at 3 and 5 days, respectively, after the ECC protocol; AChR concentration had returned to control levels 2 weeks after the protocol. At the time of peak AChR concentration in the ECC protocol muscles (i.e. 5 days), AChR concentration in CON protocol muscles was not different from the control level.In conclusion, these data demonstrate no major role for impaired plasmalemmal action potential conduction in the excitation-contraction coupling

  10. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  11. Differentiation of different mixed Listeria strains and also acid-injured, heat-injured, and repaired cells of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond; Donnelly, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to differentiate mixed strains of Listeria monocytogenes and mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied to investigate the hypothesis that heat-injured and acid-injured cells would return to their original physiological integrity following repair. Thin smears of cells on infrared slides were prepared from cultures for mixed strains of L. monocytogenes, mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and each individual strain. Heat-injured and acid-injured cells were prepared by exposing harvested cells of L. monocytogenes strain R2-764 to a temperature of 56 ± 0.2°C for 10 min or lactic acid at pH 3 for 60 min, respectively. Cellular repair involved incubating aliquots of acid-injured and heat-injured cells separately in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract for 22 to 24 h; bacterial thin smears on infrared slides were prepared for each treatment. Spectral collection was done using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Application of multivariate discriminant analysis to the wavelength region from 1,800 to 900 cm(-1) separated the individual L. monocytogenes strains. Mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes cocultured with L. innocua were successfully differentiated from the individual strains when the discriminant analysis was applied. Different mixed strains of L. monocytogenes were also successfully separated when the discriminant analysis was applied. A data set for injury and repair analysis resulted in the separation of acid-injured, heat-injured, and intact cells; repaired cells clustered closer to intact cells when the discriminant analysis (1,800 to 600 cm(-1)) was applied. FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid source tracking of L. monocytogenes strains because it can differentiate between different mixed strains and individual strains of the pathogen.

  12. Atypical white matter microstructure in left-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Nicole S; Iwabuchi, Sarina J; Häberling, Isabelle S; Corballis, Michael C; Kirk, Ian J

    2017-05-01

    Information regarding anatomical connectivity in the human brain can be gathered using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) is the most commonly derived value, and reflects how strongly directional are the underlying tracts. Differences in FA are thus associated with differences in the underlying microstructure of the brain. The relationships between these differences in microstructure and functional differences in corresponding regions have also been examined. Previous studies have found an effect of handedness on functional lateralization in the brain and corresponding microstructural differences. Here, using tract-based spatial statistics to analyse DTI-derived FA values, we further investigated the structural white matter architecture in the brains of right- and left-handed males. We found significantly higher FA values for left-handed, relatively to right-handed, individuals, in all major lobes, and in the corpus callosum. In support of previous suggestions, we find that there is a difference in the microstructure of white matter in left- and right-handed males that could underpin reduced lateralization of function in left-handed individuals.

  13. Right Hemisphere and Left Hemisphere: Pedagogical Implications for CSL Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stanley L.

    Students can be taught to read Chinese more efficiently and accurately by using the specific capabilities of the right and left hemispheres of the brain. The right hemisphere is the site of image and pattern recognition, and students can be taught to use those capacities to process individual characters efficiently by watching for the element of…

  14. Novel Genetic Models to Study the Role of Inflammation in Brain Injury-Induced Alzheimer’s Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    5 6 The Department of Neurosciences hosts a weekly Fellow’s Seminar series in which all graduate students and post -doctoral fellows present their...experimental design, data analysis and interpretation of results, as well as manuscript preparation. Name: Olga N. Kokiko-Cochran Project Role: Post - doc ... post -injury time points. By contrast, the acute macrophage response to TBI in hTau mice is enhanced compared to brain injured controls. Brain injured

  15. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  16. [Automobile driving after a brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosberg, A; Østen, P E; Schanke, A K

    2000-11-20

    Little is known about driving fitness after brain damage. The present study describes 62 brain injured patients, 36 with cerebral vascular accidents, 15 with traumatic brain injuries, and 11 with other neurological diseases, mean age 50 years, who after thorough assessment had been found fit enough for driving a car. 15 months later they were sent a questionnaire about their driving behaviour and skills. A higher number of traffic incidents were found after brain injury, but the difference was not significant. Patients with traumatic brain injury had a significantly higher number of traffic incidents post-injury than patients with stroke. A majority of those involved in incidents were young males with traumatic brain injury, who had deficits in cognitive executive functions. Patients with traumatic brain injuries seem to need special attention when assessed for driving. Time to follow-up is too short for the results to be conclusive for the whole material of brain-injured patients. Further studies should be conducted.

  17. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  1. A quantitative method for microstructural analysis of myelinated axons in the injured rodent brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, E; van Kammen, Caren M; de Theije, CGM; van Meer, Maurits P.A.; Dijkhuizen, RM; Nijboer, CHA

    2017-01-01

    MRI studies (e.g. using diffusion tensor imaging) revealed that injury to white matter tracts, as observed in for instance perinatal white matter injury and multiple sclerosis, leads to compromised microstructure of myelinated axonal tracts. Alterations in white matter microstructure are also

  2. A quantitative method for microstructural analysis of myelinated axons in the injured rodent brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tilborg, E. (Erik); Van Kammen, C.M. (Caren M.); De Theije, C.G.M. (Caroline G. M.); Van Meer, M.P.A. (Maurits P. A.); Dijkhuizen, R.M. (Rick M.); Nijboer, C.H. (Cora H.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMRI studies (e.g. using diffusion tensor imaging) revealed that injury to white matter tracts, as observed in for instance perinatal white matter injury and multiple sclerosis, leads to compromised microstructure of myelinated axonal tracts. Alterations in white matter microstructure are

  3. Significance of circadian rhythms in severely brain-injured patients: A clue to consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Christine; Lechinger, Julia; Santhi, Nayantara; del Giudice, Renata; Gnjezda, Maria-Teresa; Pichler, Gerald; Scarpatetti, Monika; Donis, Johann; Michitsch, Gabriele; Schabus, Manuel

    2017-05-16

    To investigate the relationship between the presence of a circadian body temperature rhythm and behaviorally assessed consciousness levels in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC; i.e., vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or minimally conscious state). In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the presence of circadian temperature rhythms across 6 to 7 days using external skin temperature sensors in 18 patients with DOC. Beyond this, we examined the relationship between behaviorally assessed consciousness levels and circadian rhythmicity. Analyses with Lomb-Scargle periodograms revealed significant circadian rhythmicity in all patients (range 23.5-26.3 hours). We found that especially scores on the arousal subscale of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised were closely linked to the integrity of circadian variations in body temperature. Finally, we piloted whether bright light stimulation could boost circadian rhythmicity and found positive evidence in 2 out of 8 patients. The study provides evidence for an association between circadian body temperature rhythms and arousal as a necessary precondition for consciousness. Our findings also make a case for circadian rhythms as a target for treatment as well as the application of diagnostic and therapeutic means at times when cognitive performance is expected to peak. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Improving working memory performance in brain-injured patients using hypnotic suggestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeløv, Jonas K.; Overgaard, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    be effectively restored by suggesting to hypnotized patients that they have regained their pre-injury level of working memory functioning. Following four 1-h sessions, 27 patients had a medium-sized improvement relative to 22 active controls (Bayes factors of 342 and 37.5 on the two aggregate outcome measures...

  5. Assessing and treating non-compliance in brain-injured clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencius, A H; Lane, I; Wesolowski, M D

    1991-01-01

    Assessment of non-compliance has been discussed. This included exploration of reinforcement contingencies, age appropriateness, cultural background and social background. Several perspectives on this have been addressed. Memory deficits are also critical when assessing non-compliance. Specifically, when the TBI person has severe memory deficits. Consequence management and antecedent control techniques have shown to be highly effective in promoting participation. Additionally, non-compliance should not necessarily be viewed as non-desirable, in fact, the client may be communicating preferred and non-preferred interests. It is important to recognize individual talents, interests and preferences. This is a significant point when you consider that TBI survivors had pre-injury lifestyles, i.e. full-time employment, a working social network, and preferred interests and activities.

  6. El Boxeo, es el deporte con mayor frecuencia de trauma ocular Is Boxing the sports of highest ocular injure frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Fernández Sánchez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El trauma ocular lo constituye cualquier lesión causada en el ojo por factores externos que no se relacionan con enfermedades del paciente. Las causas más frecuentes encontradas, son los accidentes domésticos, laborales y la práctica deportiva. En el caso específico del boxeo, existe una polémica en la que algunos afirman que con la medicina moderna, las nuevas reglas de arbitraje y las novedosas técnicas de entrenamiento, este deporte es casi inofensivo al que lo practique. Otros afirman que los traumatismos repetitivos provocan lesiones cerebrales responsables de la decadencia neuropsicológica de un gran número de pugilistas. Se revisaron 24 trabajos internacionales y un nacional (el único publicado hasta el momento. Se refieren estudios comparativos entre varios deportes 20 (80%, entre los cuales se observa que 17 (85% son deportes donde se refieren una gran cantidad de severos traumatismos oculares (football, hockey y squash; y se mantiene el boxeo en un lugar de baja incidencia con respecto a estos y a otros deportes. A partir de los resultados hasta ahora obtenidos, concluimos que el boxeo tiene una baja incidencia en la ocurrencia de traumatismos ocularesThe ocular injure is any eye lesion caused by external factors that are not related to the patient`s disease. The most common causes are domestic, work accidents and sports practicing. In the particular case of boxing, there is a controversy in which some state that the modern medicine, the new refereeing rules and the novel training techniques, this sports is almost harmless to the individuals practicing it. Other people say that repeated traumas bring about brain injures responsible for neuropsychological decline of a great number of boxers. Twenty four international and one national (the only one so far published papers were reviewed. Comparative studies among several sports 20 (80 % are mentioned; it was observed that 17 (85 % are sports where a great deal of severe ocular

  7. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  8. Differences in kinetic asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, S. W.; Buist, I.; Kluitenberg, B.

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to describe natural levels of asymmetry in running, compare levels of asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners and compare kinetic variables between the injured and noninjured lower limb within the novice runners with an injury.

  9. Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Digital kymography and vocal fold curve fitting are blended with detailed symmetry analysis of kymograms to provide a comprehensive characterization of the vibratory properties of injured vocal folds. Method: Vocal fold vibration of 12 excised canine larynges was recorded under uninjured, unilaterally injured, and bilaterally injured…

  10. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers : comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrand, S.-A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M. & Verstraete, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May

  11. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  12. The Brain Research Bandwagon: Proceed with Caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Elda; Franklin, A. David

    1978-01-01

    The authors review current brain hemisphere laterality research in relation to music education, concluding that evidence is still insufficient to determine the functions of the left brain and right brain in music perception. They also consider the effects of training on the cerebral processing of music stimuli. (SJL)

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ...

  14. Management of Sexual Disorders in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Vaccaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injured (SCI patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I such as Sildenafil (Viagra, intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM. Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy can be used to obtain sperm which can then be used for intra-uterine or in-vitro fertilization. Infertility treatment in male SCI patients involves a combination of the above treatments for erectile and anejaculatory dysfunctions. The basic approach to and management of sexual dysfunction in female SCI patients are similar as for men but do not require treatment for erectile or ejaculatory problems.

  15. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyungki (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Sun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Kyungki (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  16. Wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with emdogain gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Hikaru; Hamachi, Takafumi; Anan, Hisashi; Maeda, Katsumasa

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with Emdogain gel (EMD). Pulpotomy was performed for the first molars of the mandibles in rats. EMD or Vitapex (VIT)-containing calcium hydroxide was applied to the exposed pulp tissues. The treated teeth were extracted after 7, 14, and 28 days and prepared for histologic examination. In the VIT-treated group, the number of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-expressing macrophages initially increased, followed by that of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-expressing macrophages. The number of cells expressing bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) gradually increased with reparative dentin formation. Meanwhile, in the EMD-treated group, cells expressing IL-1 beta or TGF-beta1 were few. However, the number of BMP-expressing cells, partly macrophages, increased in the early phase, and large amounts of reparative dentin were observed. This study demonstrated that different healing processes existed for EMD and VIT. BMP-expressing macrophages might play important roles in reparative dentin formation.

  17. Corps de ballet: the case of the injured ballet dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S; Wainwright, Steven P

    2003-05-01

    This paper contributes to debate on social constructionism in the sociology of health and illness through a study of injury among ballet dancers. In this empirical study of classical ballet dancers, we outline a phenomenology of the injured and ageing body in terms of a critical commentary on constructionism. We explore dancers' experiences of embodiment to illustrate our critique of recent interpretations of dance as a textual practice. Those forms of social constructionism that define the body as a text provide a forceful attack on discourses of authority and legitimation, but we argue that they are problematic as epistemologies and ontologies of embodiment. Through a phenomenological understanding of the experiences of embodiment, we observe how injury and ageing disrupt the practical accomplishments that underpin the ballet habitus and the dancer's identity. Although ballet injuries can terminate a dancing career, they are accepted as an inevitable part of the vocation of ballet. Our aim is to understand the interaction between injuries, dancers' experiences of discomfort and the social support that emerges from the ballet dancers as a social group. We draw on the concepts of social solidarity and collective consciousness in Emile Durkheim to show that injury is mediated through the social bonding of dancers into a professional ballet company, where injury is accepted as a sign of vocational commitment, and suggest that this 'collective effervescence' gives a novel meaning to the idea of a corps de ballet.

  18. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  19. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in the injured war fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Joel; Zonies, David; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Raymond; Schreiber, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a recognized complication of traumatic injury. The correlation of an elevated creatine kinase (CK) level and the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) has been studied in the civilian population. We sought to review the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis in injured war fighters and determine if peak CK levels correlate with AKI. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted at a US military treatment facility from January to November 2010. Inclusion criteria were active duty patients transported after explosive, penetrating, or blunt injury. Patients with burns or non-trauma-related admissions were excluded. Rhabdomyolysis was defined as a CK level greater than 5,000 U/L. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes classification. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine the significance for continuous data. Correlations were determined using Spearman's ρ. Significance was set at p Rhabdomyolysis developed in 79 patients (24.8%). The median peak CK for all patients was 4,178 U/L and ranged from 208 U/L to 120,000 U/L. Stage 1, 2, and 3 AKI developed in 56 (17.6%), 3 (0.9%), and 7 (2.2%) patients, respectively. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between peak CK and AKI (r = 0.26, p rhabdomyolysis in combat casualties and would allow for standardized comparisons in future work. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  20. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Dongrim; Zhou, Cheng; Brouillette, Marc J; Song, Ino; Yu, Yin; Choe, Hyeong Hun; Lehman, Abigail D; Jang, Kee W; Fredericks, Douglas C; Laughlin, Barbara J; Martin, James A

    2017-09-01

    Serious meniscus injuries seldom heal and increase the risk for knee osteoarthritis; thus, there is a need to develop new reparative therapies. In that regard, stimulating tissue regeneration by autologous stem/progenitor cells has emerged as a promising new strategy. We showed previously that migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) were recruited to injured cartilage, where they showed a capability in situ tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the meniscus contains a similar population of regenerative cells. Explant studies revealed that migrating cells were mainly confined to the red zone in normal menisci: However, these cells were capable of repopulating defects made in the white zone. In vivo, migrating cell numbers increased dramatically in damaged meniscus. Relative to non-migrating meniscus cells, migrating cells were more clonogenic, overexpressed progenitor cell markers, and included a larger side population. Gene expression profiling showed that the migrating population was more similar to CPCs than other meniscus cells. Finally, migrating cells equaled CPCs in chondrogenic potential, indicating a capacity for repair of the cartilaginous white zone of the meniscus. These findings demonstrate that, much as in articular cartilage, injuries to the meniscus mobilize an intrinsic progenitor cell population with strong reparative potential. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1966-1972, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  2. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  3. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  4. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  5. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  6. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  7. Present status of severe head injured patients with an admission glasgow coma scale score of 3 based on the Japan neurotrauma data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzura, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Severe head injured patients presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 have been hesitated to treat aggressively. We analyzed present status of patients with GCS score of 3 from the Project 2004 in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. Among 1,101 cases registered, 805 cases with GCS score of 8 or less on admission. Of those, 215 cases with GCS score of 3 were classified the survival group (51 cases) and the dead group (164 cases) and compared each group. These results showed that the characteristics associated with favorable outcome including absence of cardiopulmonary arrest, no abnormality of pupil findings, stable condition of respiration and circulation, serum glucose level (less than 184 mg/dl), absence of initial CT findings including skull base fracture, pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage, no serious extracranial injures including Injury Severity Scale score of less than 25, critic al care including intracranial pressure monitoring and temperature management. We suggest that it is important to treat brain and systemic problems aggressively in severe head injured patients with GCS score of 3. (author)

  8. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  9. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  10. A Test of Some Models of Hemispheric Speech Organization in the Left- and Right-Handed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A new method generates specific predictions concerning the expected frequencies of aphasia after unilateral injury to the brain in the left- and right-handed. These predictions are then compared with the observed data for all known studies between 1935 and 1973 to derive the best-fitting model of hemispheric speech lateralization in the left- and…

  11. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  12. Healing or harming? Healthcare provider interactions with injured workers and insurers in workers' compensation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Elizabeth; Kosny, Agnieszka; McKenzie, Donna; Collie, Alex

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) are influential in the injured worker's recovery process and fulfil many roles in the delivery of health services. Interactions between HCPs and insurers can also affect injured workers' engagement in rehabilitation and subsequently their recovery and return to work. Consideration of the injured workers' perceptions and experiences as consumers of medical and compensation services can provide vital information about the quality, efficacy and impact of such systems. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize published qualitative research that focused on the interactions between injured workers, HCPs and insurers in workers' compensation systems in order to identify processes or interactions which impact injured worker recovery. A search of six electronic databases for literature published between 1985 and 2012 revealed 1,006 articles. Screening for relevance identified 27 studies which were assessed for quality against set criteria. A final 13 articles of medium and high quality were retained for data extraction. Findings were synthesized using a meta-ethnographic approach. Injured workers reported that HCPs could play both healing and harming roles in their recovery. Supportive patient-centred interaction with HCPs is important for injured workers. Difficult interactions between HCPs and insurers were highlighted in themes of adversarial relations and organisational pressures. Insurer and compensation system processes exerted an influence on the therapeutic relationship. Recommendations to improve relationships included streamlining administrative demands and increasing education and communication between the parties. Injured workers with long term complex injuries experience difficulties with healthcare in the workers' compensation context. Changes in insurer administrative demands and compensation processes could increase HCP participation and job satisfaction. This in turn may improve injured worker recovery

  13. Cobalt-55 positron emission tomography in traumatic brain injury : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, HML; vanderNaalt, J; vanZomeren, AH; Paans, AMJ; VeenmavanderDuin, L; Hew, JM; Pruim, J; Minderhoud, JM; Korf, J

    Traumatic brain injury is usually assessed with the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), CT, or MRI. After such injury, the injured brain tissue is characterised by calcium mediated neuronal damage and inflammation. Positron emission tomography with the isotope cobalt-55 (Go-PET) as a calcium tracer enables

  14. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  15. When and Why Did Brains Break Symmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of brain function is known to be widespread amongst vertebrates, and it seems to have appeared very early in their evolution. In fact, recent evidence of functional asymmetry in invertebrates suggests that even small brains benefit from the allocation of different functions to the left and right sides. This paper discusses the differing functions of the left and right sides of the brain, including the roles of the left and right antennae of bees (several species in both short- and long-term recall of olfactory memories and in social behaviour. It considers the likely advantages of functional asymmetry in small and large brains and whether functional asymmetry in vertebrates and invertebrates is analogous or homologous. Neural or cognitive capacity can be enhanced both by the evolution of a larger brain and by lateralization of brain function: a possible reason why both processes occur side-by-side is offered.

  16. Correlation of vocals and lyrics with left temporal musicogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-En J; Lim, Siew-Na; Chen, Lu-An; Jou, Shuo-Bin; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yao; Cheng, Mei-Yun; Chang, Chun-Wei; Li, Han-Tao; Chiang, Hsing-I; Wu, Tony

    2018-03-15

    Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song. Sentimental lyrics, high-pitched singing, specificity/familiarity, and singing in the native language were the most significant triggering factors. We found that recognition of the human voice and analysis of lyrics are important causal factors in left temporal ME and provide observational evidence that sounds with speech structure are predominantly processed in the left temporal lobe. A literature review indicated that language-associated stimuli triggered ME in the left temporal epileptogenic zone at a nearly twofold higher rate compared with the right temporal region. Further research on ME may enhance understanding of the cognitive neuroscience of music. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined. Objective. The aim of the study was: (a re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order, and (b examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods. Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth putative agents are examined. Results. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6 can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively. The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Conclusion. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  18. Brain Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Health Brain Health Home 10 Ways to Love Your Brain Stay Physically Active Adopt a Healthy Diet Stay ... risk factors slowed cognitive decline. 10 Ways to Love Your Brain > 10 tips to help reduce your risk of ...

  19. Can molecular motors drive distance measurements in injured neurons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naaman Kam

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury to nerve axons induces diverse responses in neuronal cell bodies, some of which are influenced by the distance from the site of injury. This suggests that neurons have the capacity to estimate the distance of the injury site from their cell body. Recent work has shown that the molecular motor dynein transports importin-mediated retrograde signaling complexes from axonal lesion sites to cell bodies, raising the question whether dynein-based mechanisms enable axonal distance estimations in injured neurons? We used computer simulations to examine mechanisms that may provide nerve cells with dynein-dependent distance assessment capabilities. A multiple-signals model was postulated based on the time delay between the arrival of two or more signals produced at the site of injury-a rapid signal carried by action potentials or similar mechanisms and slower signals carried by dynein. The time delay between the arrivals of these two types of signals should reflect the distance traversed, and simulations of this model show that it can indeed provide a basis for distance measurements in the context of nerve injuries. The analyses indicate that the suggested mechanism can allow nerve cells to discriminate between distances differing by 10% or more of their total axon length, and suggest that dynein-based retrograde signaling in neurons can be utilized for this purpose over different scales of nerves and organisms. Moreover, such a mechanism might also function in synapse to nucleus signaling in uninjured neurons. This could potentially allow a neuron to dynamically sense the relative lengths of its processes on an ongoing basis, enabling appropriate metabolic output from cell body to processes.

  20. Can molecular motors drive distance measurements in injured neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Naaman; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Fainzilber, Mike

    2009-08-01

    Injury to nerve axons induces diverse responses in neuronal cell bodies, some of which are influenced by the distance from the site of injury. This suggests that neurons have the capacity to estimate the distance of the injury site from their cell body. Recent work has shown that the molecular motor dynein transports importin-mediated retrograde signaling complexes from axonal lesion sites to cell bodies, raising the question whether dynein-based mechanisms enable axonal distance estimations in injured neurons? We used computer simulations to examine mechanisms that may provide nerve cells with dynein-dependent distance assessment capabilities. A multiple-signals model was postulated based on the time delay between the arrival of two or more signals produced at the site of injury-a rapid signal carried by action potentials or similar mechanisms and slower signals carried by dynein. The time delay between the arrivals of these two types of signals should reflect the distance traversed, and simulations of this model show that it can indeed provide a basis for distance measurements in the context of nerve injuries. The analyses indicate that the suggested mechanism can allow nerve cells to discriminate between distances differing by 10% or more of their total axon length, and suggest that dynein-based retrograde signaling in neurons can be utilized for this purpose over different scales of nerves and organisms. Moreover, such a mechanism might also function in synapse to nucleus signaling in uninjured neurons. This could potentially allow a neuron to dynamically sense the relative lengths of its processes on an ongoing basis, enabling appropriate metabolic output from cell body to processes.

  1. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The gap junction plays an important role in spreading of apoptotic and necrotic signals from injured and stressed cells to the neighboring viable cells. The present study was performed to investigate the important role of gap junction communication on rabbits' explosive brain injury. Methods: Explosion of paper ...

  2. Oxidative stress following traumatic brain injury: enhancement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Management of brain injury can pose enormous challenges to the health team. There are many studies aimed at discovering or developing pharmacotherapeutic agents targeted at improving outcome of head-injured patients. This paper reviews the role of oxidative stress in neuronal loss following traumatic ...

  3. Pattern of brain computed tomography findings of adult patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    two adult head injured patients referred to the Radiology department for brain CT over a 3-year period was done. The patients were scanned using Toshiba Aquilion 64 slice spiral CT scan machine, data was collected using a proforma and ...

  4. [Effect of Dry Needling Stimulation of Myofascial Trigger Point on Sample Entropy of Electromyography of Gastrocnemius Injured Site in Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chen-Li; Ma, Yan-Tao; Huang, Qiang-Min; Liu, Qing-Guang; Zhao, Jia-Min

    2018-02-25

    To attempt to establish an objective quantitative indicator to characterize the trigger point activity, so as to evaluate the effect of dry needling on myofascial trigger point activity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group, dry needling (needling) group, stretching exercise (stretching) group and needling plus stretching group ( n =6 per group). The chronic myofascial pain (trigger point) model was established by freedom vertical fall of a wooden striking device onto the mid-point of gastrocnemius belly of the left hind-limb to induce contusion, followed by forcing the rat to make a continuous downgrade running exercise at a speed of 16 m/min for 90 min on the next day which was conducted once a week for 8 weeks. Electromyography (EMG) of the regional myofascial injured point was monitored and recorded using an EMG recorder via electrodes. It was considered success of the model if spontaneous electrical activities appeared in the injured site. After a 4 weeks' recovery, rats of the needling group were treated by filiform needle stimulation (lifting-thrusting-rotating) of the central part of the injured gastrocnemius belly (about 10 mm deep) for 6 min, and those of the stretching group treated by holding the rat's limb to make the hip and knee joints to an angle of about 180°, and the ankle-joint about 90° for 1 min every time, 3 times altogether (with an interval of 1 min between every 2 times). The activity of the trigger point was estimated by the sample entropy of the EMG signal sequence in reference to Richman's and Moorman's methods to estimate the curative effect of both needling and exercise. After the modeling cycle, the mean sample entropies of EMG signals was significantly decreased in the model groups (needling group [0.034±0.010], stretching group [0.045±0.023], needling plus stretching group [0.047±0.034]) relevant to the blank control group (0.985±0.196, P 0.05), suggesting a better efficacy of

  5. MR diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of neural progenitor cells transplantation to acute injured canine spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoying; Tan Ke; Ni Shilei; Bao Shengde; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of transplantation of telomerase immortalized human neural progenitor cells to acute injured canine spinal cord by using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: Telomerase immortalized human neural progenitor cells with expression of green fluorescent protein were prepared for transplantation. Eight adult canines with left spinal cord hemisection at the level of T13 were examined by MR diffusion tensor imaging four times sequentially: prior to injury, one week after injury, one week after transplantation (two weeks after injury), and four weeks after transplantation. Results: The ADC values of the injured spinal cord were (1.00 ± 0.15) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.65 ± 0.45) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.44 ± 0.48) xl0 -3 mm 2 /s, and (1.43 ± 0.26) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F= 6.038, P=0.005). The FA values of the injured spinal cord were 0.59±0.11, 0.30±0.17, 0.36±0.25, and 0.34±0.11, respectively. There was also statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=5.221, P=0.009). The ADC values of the intact spinal cord were (1.01±0.17) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.32±0.06) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.10±0.24) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and (1.14±0.22) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=1.303, P=0.306). The FA values of the intact spinal cord were 0.60 ± 0.09, 0.38 ± 0.25, 0.46 ± 0.15, and 0.50 ± 0.21, respectively. There was also no statistically significant difference between the data obtained at different times (F=2.797, P=0.072). Conclusion: DTI can provide useful information for spinal cord injury and regeneration in experimental spinal cord injury. (authors)

  6. The left fusiform gyrus hosts trisensory representations of manipulable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2011-01-01

    During object manipulation the brain integrates the visual, auditory, and haptic experience of an object into a unified percept. Previous brain imaging studies have implicated for instance the dorsal part of the lateral occipital complex in visuo-tactile and the posterior superior temporal sulcus....... In the first experiment, we identified brain regions which were consistently activated by unimodal visual, auditory, and haptic processing of manipulable objects relative to non-object control stimuli presented in the same modality. In the second experiment, we assessed regional brain activations when...... participants had to match object-related information that was presented simultaneously in two or all three modalities. Only a well-defined region in left fusiform gyrus (FG) showed an object-specific activation during unisensory processing in the visual, auditory, and tactile modalities. The same region...

  7. Improving left spatial neglect through music scale playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Ronchi, Roberta; Maravita, Angelo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Zigiotto, Luca; Perucca, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed whether the auditory reference provided by a music scale could improve spatial exploration of a standard musical instrument keyboard in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. As performing music scales involves the production of predictable successive pitches, the expectation of the subsequent note may facilitate patients to explore a larger extension of space in the left affected side, during the production of music scales from right to left. Eleven right-brain-damaged stroke patients with left spatial neglect, 12 patients without neglect, and 12 age-matched healthy participants played descending scales on a music keyboard. In a counterbalanced design, the participants' exploratory performance was assessed while producing scales in three feedback conditions: With congruent sound, no-sound, or random sound feedback provided by the keyboard. The number of keys played and the timing of key press were recorded. Spatial exploration by patients with left neglect was superior with congruent sound feedback, compared to both Silence and Random sound conditions. Both the congruent and incongruent sound conditions were associated with a greater deceleration in all groups. The frame provided by the music scale improves exploration of the left side of space, contralateral to the right hemisphere, damaged in patients with left neglect. Performing a scale with congruent sounds may trigger at some extent preserved auditory and spatial multisensory representations of successive sounds, thus influencing the time course of space scanning, and ultimately resulting in a more extensive spatial exploration. These findings offer new perspectives also for the rehabilitation of the disorder. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  10. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  11. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  12. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  13. Evaluation of bronchiectasis in war chemically-injured patients via high resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jalli

    2017-12-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Findings of chest HRCT demonstrated tubular bronchiectasis was the most frequent type of this disease that involve the chemically injured patients and RLL had been the most frequently involved lobe of the lung with bronchiectasis.

  14. Discrimination of intact and injured Listeria monocytogenes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mengshi; Al-Holy, Murad; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Cavinato, Anna G; Huang, Yiqun; Rasco, Barbara A

    2004-09-22

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 4000-600 cm(-)(1)) was used to discriminate between intact and sonication-injured Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114 and to distinguish this strain from other selected Listeria strains (L. innocua ATCC 51742, L. innocua ATCC 33090, and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644). FT-IR vibrational overtone and combination bands from mid-IR active components of intact and injured bacterial cells produced distinctive "fingerprints" at wavenumbers between 1500 and 800 cm(-)(1). Spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis. Clear segregations of different intact and injured strains of Listeria were observed, suggesting that FT-IR can detect biochemical differences between intact and injured bacterial cells. This technique may provide a tool for the rapid assessment of cell viability and thereby the control of foodborne pathogens.

  15. Central sensitization in spinal cord injured humans assessed by reflex receptive fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biurrun Manresa, José Alberto; Finnerup, Nanna Susanne Brix; Johannesen, Inger Lauge

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of central sensitization, elicited by intramuscular injection of capsaicin, by comparing the reflex receptive fields (RRF) of spinally-intact volunteers and spinal cord injured volunteers that present presensitized spinal nociceptive mechanisms. METHODS: Fift...

  16. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  17. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MRI findings of brain damage due to neonatal hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Fan Guoguang; Ji Xu; Sun Baohai; Guo Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To report the MRI findings of brain damage observed in neonatal patients who suffered from isolated hypoglycemia and to explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) in early detection of neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury. Methods: Twelve neonates with isolated hypoglycemia (10 of the 12 were diagnosed to suffer from hypoglycemic encephalopathy) were enrolled in this study. They were first scanned at age from 3 days to 10 days with T 1 WI, T 2 WI and DWI(b is 0 s/mm 2 , 1000 s/mm 2 ), and 4 of them were then scanned from 7 days to 10 days following the initial scan. All acquired MR images were retrospectively analysed. Results: First series of DWI images showed distinct hyperintense signal in 11 cases in several areas including bilateral occipital cortex (2 cases), right occipital cortex (1 case), left occipital cortex and subcortical white matter(1 case), bilateral occipital cortex and subcortical white matter (2 cases), bilateral parieto-occipital cortex (2 cases), bilateral parieto-occipital cortex and subcortical white matter(2 cases), the splenium of corpus callosum (4 cases), bilateral corona radiata( 2 cases), left caudate nucleus and globus pallidus (1 case), bilateral thalamus (1 case), bilaterally posterior limb of internal capsule (1 case). In the initial T 1 WI and T 2 WI images, there were subtle hypointensity in the damaged cortical areas (3 cases), hyperintensity in the bilaterally affected occipital cortex( 1 case) on T 1 weighted images, and hyperintensity in the affected cortex and subcortical white matter with poor differentiation on T 2 weighted images. The followed-up MRI of 4 cases showed regional encephalomalacia in the affected occipital lobes(4 cases), slightly hyperintensity on T 2 weighted images in the damaged occipital cortex (2 cases), extensive demyelination (1 case), disappearance of hyperintensity of the splenium of corpus callosum (1 case), and persistent hyperintensity in the splenium of corpus callosum (1 case

  19. Sphincter (ring muscle) gymnastics for spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, S

    2000-07-01

    Sphincter gymnastics seem to be able to recruit central pattern generators--networks of neurons that generate motor patterns--through peripheral rhythmic stimuli and to activate them without supraspinal signals. This physical therapy method is thus suitable for treating spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients, for it can reach below the injured segment and feed signals into the central nervous system, thus activating vital organs. This article presents some observations and discusses a possible mechanism.

  20. Changing insurance company claims handling processes improves some outcomes for people injured in road traffic crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; De Wolf, Annelies; Kayaian, Areen; Cameron, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Regaining good health and returning to work are important for people injured in road traffic crashes and for society. The handling of claims by insurance companies may play an important role in the rate at which health recovers and return to work is actually attained. Methods A novel approach towards claims handling for people injured in road traffic accidents was compared to the standard approach. The setting was a large insurance company (NRMA Insurance) in the state of ...

  1. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok [Myongji St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood.

  2. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood

  3. Safety knowledge and risk behaviour of injured and uninjured young skiers and snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Cadman, R E; Greenlaw, J V

    1998-09-01

    Earlier studies of ski injury indicated that youths were at increased risk of injury, that males were most likely to injure the head or face, and that females were most likely to injure the knee. To obtain information about safety knowledge and risk behaviour that might contribute to injury among young skiers and snow-boarders. Survey of knowledge and behaviour in injured and noninjured cohorts. Blackcomb Mountain, Whistler, British Columbia. A total of 863 noninjured and 118 injured skiers and snowboarders aged five to 17 years using Blackcomb during 1993/94. Skier Knowledge Inventory Questionnaire. The injured cohort had less knowledge of the Skiers Responsibility Code. In both groups, almost half had had no lessons, 31% had had bindings adjusted by nonprofessionals and chair lift safety bars were used one ride in four by children age 13 to 17 years. The injuried cohort wore helmets slightly less often. Both groups regularly skied through the trees (60% to 70%), and one-thirds had skied on closed runs. Excessive speed was identified as the major cause of injury. Skiers did not recognize jumping as contributing to injury. Lack of knowledge of safety rules was more prevalent among the injured cohort. Skiing without due care - including skiing through tress, skiing on closed runs, skiing with excessive speed and jumping, particularly by snowboarders - were identified as potential causes of injury.

  4. Characteristics of electrically injured skin from human hand tissue samples using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Ying; Zou, Dong-Hua; Luo, Yi-Wen; Sun, Qi-Ran; Deng, Kai-Fei; Chen, Yi-Jiu; Huang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    This technical note describes a method for distinguishing normal skin tissue samples from those electrically injured by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR MSP). Furthermore, the infrared spectral features of electrically injured cells and tissues were evaluated to identify molecular changes in epidermal cells. In the present study, 20 human hand tissue samples were evaluated macroscopically and histopathologically. The electrically injured skin samples were subdivided into 2 regions [normal cell regions (NCRs) and polarized cell regions (PCRs)] and 14 major spectral absorption bands were selected. The spectral results showed that the band absorbance at 1080, 1126, 1172, 1242, 1307, 1403, 1456, 1541, 2852, 2925, 2957, 3075, and 3300cm(-1) increased significantly both in the stratum and non-stratum corneum of the PCRs in electrically injured skin tissues samples. No significant difference was found between normal skin and the NCR of the electrically injured skin samples. The band absorbance ratios of A1172/A1126, A1456/A1403, and A2925/A2957 were significantly increased, whereas the A1652/A1541 ratio was decreased in the PCR of the stratum corneum and non-stratum corneum. Baseline changes from 4000 to near 1737cm(-1) were observed in the spectra of the electrically injured skin samples, which were interpreted in terms of the pathological process involved in electrical injury. FTIR-MSP presents a useful method to provide objective spectral markers for the assisted diagnosis of electrical marks. © 2013.

  5. Left Hand Dominance Affects Supra-Second Time Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Bonní, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies exploring specific brain functions of left- and right-handed subjects have shown variances in spatial and motor abilities that might be explained according to consistent structural and functional differences. Given the role of both spatial and motor information in the processing of temporal intervals, we designed a study aimed at investigating timing abilities in left-handed subjects. To this purpose both left- and right-handed subjects were asked to perform a time reproduction of sub-second vs. supra-second time intervals with their left and right hand. Our results show that during processing of the supra-second intervals left-handed participants sub-estimated the duration of the intervals, independently of the hand used to perform the task, while no differences were reported for the sub-second intervals. These results are discussed on the basis of recent findings on supra-second motor timing, as well as emerging evidence that suggests a linear representation of time with a left-to-right displacement. PMID:22028685

  6. Brain Abscess from a Peritonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Louisiana State University, Shreveport, LA, report the case of a 9-year-old immunocompetent girl diagnosed with a left frontal brain abscess accompanied by fever, headache, and weight loss for a 3-month period.

  7. Delayed radiation necrosis of the brain simulating a brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroya; Kanai, Nobuhiro; Kamikawa, Kiyoo

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain are reported. Case 1 was a 50-year-old man who had right hemiparesis and disorientation 26 months after Linac irradiation (5,000 rad), preceded by an operation for right maxillar carcinoma. A left carotid angiogram demonstrated a left temporal mass lesion, extending to the frontal lobe. Case 2 was a 41-year-old man who had previously had an operation for right intraorbital plasmocytoma, followed by two Co irradiations (6,400 rad, and 5,000 rad). He had the signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension 36 months after his last irradiation. A left carotid angiogram demonstrated a left temporal mass lesion. Both cases were treated by administration of steroid hormone (which alleviated the signs and symptoms) and by temporal lobectomy. Microscopic examinations showed necrosis of the brain tissues associated with hyaline degeneration of blood vessel walls and perivascular cell infiltration. The signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension subsided postoperatively. Thirteen other cases the same as ours were collected from literature. They showed the signs and symptoms simulating a brain tumor (like a metastatic brain tumor) after irradiation to extracranial malignant tumors. Diagnosis of radiation necrosis was made by operation or autopsy. A follow-up for a long time is necessary, because the pathological changes in the brain may be progressive and extending in some cases, although decompressive operations for mass lesions give excellent results. (auth.)

  8. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  9. Delayed left traumatic diaphragmatic hernia repaired by laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakage, N

    2011-11-01

    A 77-year-old man injured himself when he fell heavily on the left side of his chest. He had massive subcutaneous emphysema, bleeding, and left hemopneumothorax. He also fractured his seventh through tenth ribs; a fragment of the ninth rib was displaced into the thoracic cavity. The severity of the damage and the patient's pain was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990 (1998 update) as level 3. He was treated with conservative therapy and discharged on the 16 days after the injury. However, the following day, he had acute upper abdominal pain, his blood pressure dropped to 40 s, and he was readmitted. A chest CT showed the transverse colon was prolapsed in the thoracic cavity. The patient was diagnosed as having a delayed traumatic diapharagmatic hernia. A laparoscopic repair was performed. The rupture was classified as a IIIb-type diaphragmatic injury according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma's classification system. It is believed that a fragment of a fractured rib that had been displaced in the thoracic cavity ruptured the diaphragm sharply. Since traumatic diapharagmatic hernia rarely occurs, it is relatively difficult to diagnose at the first examination. This condition has a high mortality rate because of the associated injuries. Surgery is the only treatment, but it should only be considered after a second examination. Herein, I report my experience with a case of delayed diaphragmatic hernia repaired by laparoscopic surgery. © 2011 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Othello syndrome in a patient with two left hemispheric tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kuan Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with Othello syndrome caused by two left hemispheric tumors. This 50-year-old female had experienced seizures for 10 years and developed manic-like symptoms, delusions of jealousy, persecution and being watched, auditory hallucinations, irritable mood, and violent and disorganized behavior for the past 3 years. Brain imaging studies revealed two left frontal tumors, the larger of which was causing a mass effect. The delusions of jealousy in Othello syndrome resolved after removing the larger tumor, and the other psychiatric symptoms improved after treatment with psychotropic medications. This report aims to raise awareness of Othello syndrome related to disruptions in cortico-subcortical connections in the left orbitofrontal region. Timely surgical treatment may prevent associated psychiatric comorbidities and increase the likelihood of a good outcome.

  11. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  12. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  13. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  14. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaRi Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 106 cells. DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon

  15. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, NaRi; Lee, Sung-Ho; Ju, Kyung Won; Woo, JaeMan; Kim, BongJu; Kim, SoungMin; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors) mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 10 6 cells). DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon density and

  16. Embolic brain infarction related to posttraumatic occlusion of vertebral artery resulting from cervical spine injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yaoki; Terai, Hiroshi

    2014-10-14

    The frequency of vertebrobasilar ischemia in patients with cervical spine trauma had been regarded as low in many published papers. However, some case reports have described cervical spine injury associated with blunt vertebral artery injury. Many aspects of the management of vertebral artery injuries still remain controversial, including the screening criteria, the diagnostic modality, and the optimal treatment for various lesions. The case of a patient who had a brain infarction due to recanalization of his occluded vertebral artery following open reduction of cervical spinal dislocation is presented here. A 41-year-old Asian man presented with C4 to C5 distractive flexion injury manifesting with quadriplegia and anesthesia below his C3 cord level (including phrenic nerve paralysis), and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography showed left extracranial vertebral artery occlusion and patent contralateral vertebral artery. He was observed without antiplatelet and/or anticoagulation therapy, and underwent surgery (open reduction and internal fusion of C4 to C5, and tracheostomy) 8 hours after the injury. After surgery, supraspinal symptoms such as left horizontal nystagmus and left homonymous hemianopsia led to cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which showed left-side cerebellar infarction in his posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory and right-side posterior cerebral artery infarction. Magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography demonstrated patent bilateral vertebral artery (but hypoplastic right vertebral artery) and occluded right posterior cerebral artery. His injured vertebral artery was treated conservatively, which did not cause any other ischemic complications. The management of asymptomatic vertebral artery injury is controversial with several treatment options available, including observation alone, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation therapy

  17. COMPARISON OF PROPRIOCEPTION IN INJURED AND UNINJURED KNEE JOINTS AMONG MALE PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M S Nagarajan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Football is the world's most popular sport. There are over 240 million registered players worldwide and many more recreational footballers. The knee is a complex joint with many components making it vulnerable to a variety of injuries. The study has investigated the effect of knee proprioception error on injured and uninjured male professional footballers. Methods: This was a cross sectional comparative study with hundred and six (106 male professional footballers were selected for the study as per the selection criteria. Hundred and eighteen injured and ninety four uninjured knee samples were analysed for this study. Photographic analysis method was used to evaluate proprioception error at inner, middle and outer range of knee joint. Proprioception error of knee joint was measured at inner range, middle range and outer range for injured and uninjured groups. Data analysis found that there is significant difference in proprioception error between the groups. Result: Comparative study was performed using independent t’ test for proprioception error between knee injured and uninjured groups. P<0.05 were considered as significant difference in effect for this study. The means of knee injured and uninjured groups were 6.08 and 5.55 respectively with t’ value 2.21 and degree of freedom 634. The study found that proprioception error has significant difference in effect on knee injury, with P< 0.03*. Conclusion: The study concluded that proprioception error was varied between knee injured and uninjured groups. Proprioception error of knee joint was more among injured male professional footballers compared to the uninjured footballers.

  18. Modulation of left primary motor cortex excitability after bimanual training and intermittent theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2014-03-15

    Bimanual visuomotor movement training (BMT) enhances the excitability of human preparatory premotor and primary motor (M1) cortices compared to unimanual movement. This occurs when BMT involves mirror symmetrical movements of both upper-limbs (in-phase) but not with non-symmetrical movements (anti-phase). The neural mechanisms mediating the effect of BMT is unclear, but may involve interhemispheric connections between homologous M1 representations as well as the dorsal premotor cortices (PMd). The purpose of this study is to assess how intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the left PMd affects left M1 excitability, and the possible combined effects of iTBS to left PMd applied before a single session of BMT. Left M1 excitability was quantified using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in terms of both the amplitudes and spatial extent of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) before and multiple time points following (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to left PMd or (3) iTBS to left PMd and BMT. Although there was not a greater increase in either specific measure of M1 excitability due to the combination of the interventions, iTBS applied before BMT showed that both the spatial extent and global MEP amplitude for the ECR became larger in parallel, whereas the spatial extent was enhanced with BMT alone and global MEP amplitude was enhanced with iTBS to left PMd alone. These results suggest that the modulation of rapid functional M1 excitability associated with BMT and iTBS of the left PMd could operate under related early markers of neuro-plastic mechanisms, which may be expressed in concurrent and distinct patterns of M1 excitability. Critically, this work may guide rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical excitability after brain injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading ... how the brain is wired and how the normal brain's structure develops and matures helps scientists understand ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  6. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict who ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  10. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  11. Differences in kinetic asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, S W; Buist, I; Kluitenberg, B

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to describe natural levels of asymmetry in running, compare levels of asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners and compare kinetic variables between the injured and noninjured lower limb within the novice runners with an injury. At baseline vertical ground reaction forces and symmetry angles (SA) were assessed with an instrumented treadmill equipped with three force measuring transducers. Female participants ran at 8 and 9 km h(-1) and male runners ran at 9 and 10 km h(-1). Participants were novice female and male recreational runners and were followed during a 9-week running program. Two hundred and ten novice runners enrolled this study, 133 (63.3%) female and 77 (36.7%) male runners. Thirty-four runners reported an RRI. At baseline SA values varied widely for all spatio-temporal and kinetic variables. The inter-individual differences in SA were also high. No significant differences in SA were found between female and male runners running at 9 km h(-1). In injured runners the SA of the impact peak was significantly lower compared to noninjured runners. Natural levels of asymmetry in running were high. The SA of impact peak in injured runners was lower compared to noninjured runners and no differences were seen between the injured and noninjured lower limbs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Microvesicles Protect Burn-Injured Mice from Pulmonary Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Teresa C; Pugh, Amanda M; Xia, Brent T; Seitz, Aaron P; Whitacre, Brynne E; Gulbins, Erich; Caldwell, Charles C

    2017-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among burn patients, despite antibiotic therapy. There is a need to identify innate immune defenses that prevent P aeruginosa infection in injured adults in an effort to find therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics. Here, we tested our hypothesis that microvesicles (MVs) in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid have a role in the immunity of the lung in response to pathogens. Microvesicles were isolated from murine BAL fluid, quantified using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and injected into burn-injured mice before P aeruginosa infection. Survival was assessed and BAL bacterial loads enumerated. Neutrophil number and interleukin 6 activity were determined. Lungs were harvested and sphingosine (SPH) content analyzed via immunohistochemistry. Antimicrobial effects of MVs and SPH-enriched MVs were assessed in an in vitro assay. Burn-injured mice have reduced BAL MV number and SPH content compared with sham. When BAL MVs from healthy mice are administered to injured mice, survival and bacterial clearance are improved robustly. We also observed that intranasal administration of MVs restores SPH levels after burn injury, MVs kill bacteria directly, and this bacterial killing is increased when the MVs are supplemented with SPH. Using a preclinical model, BAL MVs are reduced after scald injury and BAL MV restoration to injured mice improves survival and bacterial clearance. The antimicrobial mechanisms leading to improved survival include the quantity and SPH content of BAL MVs. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Specialist team retrieval of head injured patients: fact, fiction, or formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieppe, Clare; Lo, T Y Milly; McFadzean, Jillian; Rowney, David A

    2009-02-01

    This feasibility study aimed to determine the maximum theoretical distance the Edinburgh Paediatric Retrieval Team (EPRT) could travel to retrieve head injured children without additional delay in reaching definitive care. A prospective audit was conducted over 2 years to determine the current practice for paediatric head injury transfers (stabilisation, referral, and transfer time) undertaken by primary hospital staff, and the performance (mobilisation and travel time) of the EPRT. A novel formula was devised and used to determine the theoretical maximum radius within which the EPRT could reach a referring hospital during their stabilisation of head injured patients. During the study period, 27 head injured patients were transferred to our unit by road and the EPRT conducted 194 road retrievals. The median stabilisation time for the head injured patients was 3.6 h. Median time to refer these patients to neurosurgical services was 1 h after presenting to primary hospitals. Median mobilisation time for EPRT was 1 h. Using our novel formula, 67 miles was the theoretical maximum radius within which the EPRT could reach a referring hospital during their stabilisation of head injured patients. Specialist team retrieval of paediatric head injury is a possibility, but not without significant organisational changes such as availability of second teams, early referral of patients and utilisation of the mobilisation time as a cancellation window. Our novel formula offers other teams a starting point to assess their own performance and to develop services.

  14. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen

    Full Text Available Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners.Prospective cohort study on injured runners.This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered.A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87% recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days.Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  15. Lymphocytes Contribute to the Pathophysiology of Neonatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshed Nazmi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeriventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the most common form of preterm brain injury affecting the cerebral white matter. This type of injury involves a multiphase process and is induced by many factors, including hypoxia–ischemia (HI and infection. Previous studies have suggested that lymphocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of brain injury, and the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of lymphocyte subsets to preterm brain injury.MethodsImmunohistochemistry on brain sections from neonatal mice was performed to evaluate the extent of brain injury in wild-type and T cell and B cell-deficient neonatal mice (Rag1−/− mice using a mouse model of HI-induced preterm brain injury. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the presence of different types of immune cells in mouse brains following HI. In addition, immunostaining for CD3 T cells and CD20 B cells was performed on postmortem preterm human infant brains with PVL.ResultsMature lymphocyte-deficient Rag1−/− mice showed protection from white matter loss compared to wild type mice as indicated by myelin basic protein immunostaining of mouse brains. CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells were observed in the postmortem preterm infant brains with PVL. Flow cytometry analysis of mouse brains after HI-induced injury showed increased frequency of CD3+ T, αβT and B cells at 7 days after HI in the ipsilateral (injured hemisphere compared to the contralateral (control, uninjured hemisphere.ConclusionLymphocytes were found in the injured brain after injury in both mice and humans, and lack of mature lymphocytes protected neonatal mice from HI-induced brain white matter injury. This finding provides insight into the pathology of perinatal brain injury and suggests new avenues for the development of therapeutic strategies.

  16. Brain Gym: Let the User Beware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Kevin; Hyatt, Keith; Lambert, Chuck

    2015-01-01

    As part of the No Child Left behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, schools are called upon to provide students with academic instruction using scientific, research-based methods whenever possible. One of these supposed research-based methods is a program by the name of Brain Gym®. Brain Gym® is…

  17. The role of resilience in the recovery of the burn-injured patient: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornhaber R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available R Kornhaber,1 H Bridgman,2 L McLean,3–6 J Vandervord7 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 2Centre for Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 3Brain and Mind Centre, 4Westmead Psychotherapy Program, Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 5Sydney West and Greater Southern Psychiatry Training Network, Cumberland Hospital, Western Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW, 6Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, 7Severe Burns Injury Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, Australia Abstract: Severe burn injuries are catastrophic life events resulting in significant physical and psychological effects. With long periods of hospitalization and rehabilitation, burn survivors encounter many issues, including an altered body image and loss of function and independence that subsequently influence quality of life and the family unit. Consequently, resilience has been identified as a fundamental concept that facilitates the adaptability required to navigate the lengthy and complex recovery process. However, over time, the notion of resilience has shifted from a static, innate trait to a fluid and multidimensional concept. Here, we review the evidence surrounding the role of resilience in the recovery of burn injury. This integrative review was based on a systematic search of five electronic databases. Of the 89 articles identified, ten primary research papers met the inclusion criteria. Three key themes were identified encompassing relational strengths, positive coping, and the resistance to trauma symptoms that are fundamental constructs associated with developing and sustaining resilience that resonate with the broader literature on burn recovery. However, limited evidence is currently available within the burns context. While resilience appears to be a vital

  18. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing; Li Yongjie; Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng; Wang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  19. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  20. MRI findings in acute diffuse axonal injured patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hidetaka [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the acute stage was clinically evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is considered superior to computed tomography (CT) in detecting parenchymal brain lesions. MRI was disadvantageous, however, to patients suffering from acute severe head injury because of the long time required to construct imaging and unstable patient vital signs. We conducted MRI safely under a high magnetic field (1.5 tesla) in acute DAI by close observation and with nonmagnetic respirator and electrocardiographic monitoring. MRI was conducted in 95 patients diagnosed with DAI classified into mild (14), moderate (17) and severe (64) DAI by criteria established by Gennarelli (1986). In patients with mild or moderate DAI, CT revealed no lesion in the parenchymal area although MRI detected lesions in every case, mainly in cortical white matter or basal ganglia. In patients with severe DAI, CT revealed parenchymal lesions in 14 although MRI detected further lesions in cortical white matter, basal ganglia, corpus callosum and brainstem in every case. These results correspond well to the experimental model Gennarelli's. This study concluded that MRI was useful in assessing acute DAI patients. (author)

  1. Auditory Processing after Early Left Hemisphere Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the long-term outcomes of early brain injury, especially after hemorrhagic stroke. This is the first study to report a case of acquired auditory processing disorder in a 10-year-old child who had a severe left hemorrhagic cerebral infarction at 13 months of age, compromising nearly all of the left temporal lobe. This case, therefore, is an excellent and rare opportunity to investigate the presence of neural plasticity of central auditory system in a developing brain followed severe brain damage. After assuring normal functioning of the peripheral auditory system, a series of behavioral auditory processing tests was applied in dichotic and monaural listening conditions and with verbal and non-verbal stimuli. For all verbal dichotic tasks (dichotic digits, competing words, and sentences tests, good performance on the left ear, especially for Dichotic digits test (100%, and zero performance on the right ear were observed. For monaural low-redundancy tests, the patient also exhibited good performance for auditory figure-ground and time-compressed sentences tests in the left ear. In the right ear, a very poor performance was observed, but slightly better than the same in Dichotic tasks. Impaired performance was also observed in the LiSN test in terms of spatial advantage and, for the Pitch Pattern Sequence test, the only non-verbal test applied, the patient had performance within the normal range in both ears. These results are interpreted taking into consideration the anatomical location of stroke lesion and also the influence of hemispheric specialization for language on auditory processing performance.

  2. The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners' narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner's injury. The study revealed how the injury was experienced from...... the partners' perspective through the aftermath. In the acute phase after the injury, partners also felt harmed, and support was needed in relation to their own daily activities, eating, resting, and managing distress. During the institutionalized rehabilitation, partners felt torn between supporting...... the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday tasks. Some...

  3. Accumulating microglia phagocytose injured neurons in hippocampal slice cultures: involvement of p38 MAP kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Katayama

    Full Text Available In this study, microglial migration and phagocytosis were examined in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, which were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA to selectively injure neuronal cells. Microglial cells were visualized by the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. Daily observation revealed microglial accumulation in the pyramidal cell layer, which peaked 5 to 6 days after NMDA treatment. Time-lapse imaging showed that microglia migrated to the pyramidal cell layer from adjacent and/or remote areas. There was no difference in the number of proliferating microglia between control and NMDA-treated slices in both the pyramidal cell layer and stratum radiatum, suggesting that microglial accumulation in the injured areas is mainly due to microglial migration, not to proliferation. Time-lapse imaging also showed that the injured neurons, which were visualized by propidium iodide (PI, disappeared just after being surrounded by microglia. Daily observation revealed that the intensity of PI fluorescence gradually attenuated, and this attenuation was suppressed by pretreatment with clodronate, a microglia toxin. These findings suggest that accumulating microglia phagocytosed injured neurons, and that PI fluorescence could be a useful indicator for microglial phagocytosis. Using this advantage to examine microglial phagocytosis in living slice cultures, we investigated the involvements of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in microglial accumulation and phagocytosis. p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, but not MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, suppressed the attenuation of PI fluorescence. On the other hand, microglial accumulation in the injured areas was not inhibited by any of these inhibitors. These data suggest that p38 MAP kinase plays an important role in microglial phagocytosis of injured neurons.

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time in healthy people and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental ... the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...

  5. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  6. Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Convento, Silvia; Banco, Elisabetta; Mattioli, Flavia; Tesio, Luigi; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Limb apraxia, a deficit of planning voluntary gestures, is most frequently caused by damage to the left hemisphere, where, according to an influential neurofunctional model, gestures are planned, before being executed through the motor cortex of the hemisphere contralateral to the acting hand. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC), the right motor cortex (M1), and a sham stimulation condition, to modulate the ability of six left-brain-damaged patients with ideomotor apraxia, and six healthy control subjects, to imitate hand gestures, and to perform skilled hand movements using the left hand. Transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left PPC reduced the time required to perform skilled movements, and planning, but not execution, times in imitating gestures, in both patients and controls. In patients, the amount of decrease of planning times brought about by left PPC transcranial direct current stimulation was influenced by the size of the parietal lobe damage, with a larger parietal damage being associated with a smaller improvement. Of interest from a clinical perspective, left PPC stimulation also ameliorated accuracy in imitating hand gestures in patients. Instead, transcranial direct current stimulation to the right M1 diminished execution, but not planning, times in both patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, by using a transcranial stimulation approach, we temporarily improved ideomotor apraxia in the left hand of left-brain-damaged patients, showing a role of the left PPC in planning gestures. This evidence opens up novel perspectives for the use of transcranial direct current stimulation in the rehabilitation of limb apraxia. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The enhanced epithelialization potential of the aqueous extract of Prunella vulgaris in thermally injured rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Cheng-Cun; Meng Qing-Guo; Liang Xiu-Qin; Xiao Ji-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing efficiency of the Prunella vulgaris extract (PVE) on thermally injured rats. Sixty adult, female rats were divided into four groups, with group I serving as a sham control (without a burn injury). A burn was inflicted on the dorsum of all the rats in the second, third and fourth groups. Group II rats served as the burn-injury control group without any treatment. The burn-injured areas of the rats ...

  8. Artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured subjects: how to assess clinical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pithon, Karla Rocha; Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho de; Vasconcelos-Neto, Renata; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Cliquet-Jr, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adapt the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT) to artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients aided by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Method Nine male individuals with paraplegia (AIS A) participated in this study. Lesion levels varied between T4 and T12 and time post injured from 4 to 13 years. Patients performed 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2. They used neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and were aided by a walker. The differences between two 6MWT were assessed by using a...

  9. Surgical Management and Treatment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament/Medial Collateral Ligament Injured Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kevin M; Bailey, James R; Moorman, Claude T

    2017-01-01

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured ligament in conjunction with the MCL. Most MCL injuries can be treated nonoperatively, whereas the ACL often requires reconstruction. A good physical examination is essential for diagnosis, whereas radiographs and MRI of the knee confirm diagnosis and help guide treatment planning. Preoperative physical therapy should be completed before surgical management to allow for return of knee range of motion and an attempt at MCL healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...

  11. What Does the Brain Have to Do with Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Jennifer M.; Hinton, Christina; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2011-01-01

    There are several myths about neuroscientific findings that are widespread in education. Some of these myths are left brain/right brain, critical periods for learning, and gender differences in the brain. Belief in these "neuromyths" can negatively affect how we teach children. But ignoring important findings from neuroscience can be just as…

  12. On the other hand: including left-handers in cognitive neuroscience and neurogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Roel M; Van der Haegen, Lise; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2014-03-01

    Left-handers are often excluded from study cohorts in neuroscience and neurogenetics in order to reduce variance in the data. However, recent investigations have shown that the inclusion or targeted recruitment of left-handers can be informative in studies on a range of topics, such as cerebral lateralization and the genetic underpinning of asymmetrical brain development. Left-handed individuals represent a substantial portion of the human population and therefore left-handedness falls within the normal range of human diversity; thus, it is important to account for this variation in our understanding of brain functioning. We call for neuroscientists and neurogeneticists to recognize the potential of studying this often-discarded group of research subjects.

  13. Disruptions in the left frontoparietal network underlie resting state endophenotypic markers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, George; Richter, Anja; Wolter, Sarah; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Gruber, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Advances in functional brain imaging have improved the search for potential endophenotypic markers in schizophrenia. Here, we employed independent component analysis (ICA) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) in resting state fMRI on a sample of 35 schizophrenia patients, 20 first-degree relatives and 35 control subjects. Analysis on ICA-derived networks revealed increased functional connectivity between the left frontoparietal network (FPN) and left temporal and parietal regions in schizophrenia patients (P schizophrenia patients from all other nodes of the left FPN (P schizophrenia has been previously associated with a range of abnormalities, including formal thought disorder, working memory dysfunction and sensory hallucinations. Our analysis uncovered new potential endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia and shed light on the organization of the left FPN in patients and their first-degree relatives. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1741-1750, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Body-specific representations of action verbs: neural evidence from right- and left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Roel M; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    According to theories of embodied cognition, understanding a verb like throw involves unconsciously simulating the action of throwing, using areas of the brain that support motor planning. If understanding action words involves mentally simulating one's own actions, then the neurocognitive representation of word meanings should differ for people with different kinds of bodies, who perform actions in systematically different ways. In a test of the body-specificity hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare premotor activity correlated with action verb understanding in right- and left-handers. Right-handers preferentially activated the left premotor cortex during lexical decisions on manual-action verbs (compared with nonmanual-action verbs), whereas left-handers preferentially activated right premotor areas. This finding helps refine theories of embodied semantics, suggesting that implicit mental simulation during language processing is body specific: Right- and left-handers, who perform actions differently, use correspondingly different areas of the brain for representing action verb meanings.

  15. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  16. Changes in serum catecholamine levels in patients who are brain dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powner, D J; Hendrich, A; Nyhuis, A; Strate, R

    1992-01-01

    Prospective blood samplings from 15 patients admitted with a Glasgow Coma Score of less than 7 were obtained to observe and compare epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine serum levels in patients with brain injury before, after, and in the absence of brain death. Nine of the patients developed or were admitted after brain death. Wide variations in catecholamine blood levels over time were documented, and subgroup analysis precluded useful statistical comparison or inference of the data. The data are presented therefore as descriptive observations only. No apparent differences were noted between similarly injured patients in whom brain death did not develop and patients before brain death or between patients with penetrating versus nonpenetrating brain injury. Brain death was preceded by hypertension and corresponding elevations in serum catecholamine levels in one patient with complete data. Catecholamine levels appeared to fall after brain death in most patients. Only minimal changes in myocardial histology were present in three donor hearts, and the two transplanted hearts functioned satisfactorily. Serum catecholamine measurement or monitoring does not provide a precise method of determining potential injury to the donor heart before or after brain death. Other experimental data and clinical observation indicate that some hearts may be injured in the donor during the evolution of brain death. Pharmacologic intervention may prevent such injury in experimental animals but must be used before brain death is induced. Such interventions should be studied in selected human donors before brain death to determine whether cardiac function is improved in the donor or recipient.

  17. Molecular dialogues between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: Dualistic roles in injury and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A.; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialogue between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. PMID:24374228

  18. Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume Abnormalities and Thought Disorder in Left-Handed Schizophrenic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinger, Dorothy P.; Shenton, Martha E.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Donnino, Robert; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Studies of schizophrenia have not clearly defined handedness as a differentiating variable. Moreover, the relationship between thought disorder and anatomical anomalies has not been studied extensively in left-handed schizophrenic men. The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe (left and right hemispheres) in left-handed schizophrenic men and left-handed comparison men, in order to determine whether thought disorder in the left-handed schizophrenic men correlated with tissue volume abnormalities. Method Left-handed male patients (N=8) with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia were compared with left-handed comparison men (N=10) matched for age, socioeconomic status, and IQ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 1.5-T magnet was used to obtain scans, which consisted of contiguous 1.5-mm slices of the whole brain. MRI analyses (as previously defined by the authors) included the anterior, posterior, and total superior temporal gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres. Results There were three significant findings regarding the left-handed schizophrenic men: 1) bilaterally smaller gray matter volumes in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (16% smaller on the right, 15% smaller on the left); 2) a smaller volume on the right side of the total superior temporal gyrus; and 3) a positive correlation between thought disorder and tissue volume in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions These results suggest that expression of brain pathology differs between left-handed and right-handed schizophrenic men and that the pathology is related to cognitive disturbance. PMID:10553736

  19. Arts, Brain and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Bedeković, Marina Roje; Puretić, Marijana Bosnar; Pašić, Marija Bošnjak

    2016-12-01

    Art is a product of human creativity; it is a superior skill that can be learned by study, practice and observation. Modern neuroscience and neuroimaging enable study of the processes during artistic performance. Creative people have less marked hemispheric dominance. It was found that the right hemisphere is specialized for metaphoric thinking, playfulness, solution finding and synthesizing, it is the center of visualization, imagination and conceptualization, but the left hemisphere is still needed for artistic work to achieve balance. A specific functional organization of brain areas was found during visual art activities. Marked hemispheric dominance and area specialization is also very prominent for music perception. Brain is capable of making new connections, activating new pathways and unmasking secondary roads, it is "plastic". Music is a strong stimulus for neuroplasticity. fMRI studies have shown reorganization of motor and auditory cortex in professional musicians. Other studies showed the changes in neurotransmitter and hormone serum levels in correlation to music. The most prominent connection between music and enhancement of performance or changing of neuropsychological activity was shown by studies involving Mozart's music from which the theory of "The Mozart Effect" was derived. Results of numerous studies showed that listening to music can improve cognition, motor skills and recovery after brain injury. In the field of visual art, brain lesion can lead to the visuospatial neglect, loss of details and significant impairment of artistic work while the lesions affecting the left hemisphere reveal new artistic dimensions, disinhibit the right hemisphere, work is more spontaneous and emotional with the gain of artistic quality. All kinds of arts (music, painting, dancing...) stimulate the brain. They should be part of treatment processes. Work of many artists is an excellent example for the interweaving the neurology and arts.

  20. A cross-sectional study of psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C. C. H. M.; van Bergen, J. J. M.; van de Sande, P.; Verhofstad, M. H. J.; de Vries, J.; de Jongh, M. A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of psychological complaints and the relationship of these complaints with the quality of life (QOL) and accident- and patient-related factors among severely injured patients after the rehabilitation phase. Methods Patients of 18 years or

  1. [Modern methods of the treatment of injured persons with combined vertebrospinal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiatin, P N

    2005-01-01

    The issues of rehabilitational treatment of injured persons after polytrauma occurrence with compressive fracture of spine using electrostimulation were considered. The application of such an approach have had promoted the essential lowering of traumaticity and the treatment duration as well, the prognosis improvement, the length of temporary disability period reduction.

  2. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Gamble, Paul; Stephen, Manu; Ray, Wilson Z

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue has been shown to accelerate axonal regeneration. Yet existing methods of applying electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerves have presented significant barriers to clinical translation. In this study, the authors examined the use of a novel implantable wireless nerve stimulator capable of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent a novel means of facilitating therapeutic electrical stimulation in both intraoperative and postoperative settings.

  3. Missed posterior dislocation of the hip in a head-injured patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injury increases the risk of missed diagnosis by making patient-derived history impossible. The risk of missing a posterior dislocation of the hip in a head-injured patient is aggravated when an ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture co-exists. Adequate radiological evaluation of bone and joints is therefore of ...

  4. Effectiveness of a web-based intervention for injured claimants: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, N.A.; Akkermans, A.J.; Cuijpers, P.; Bruinvels, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence showing that injured people who are involved in a compensation process show poorer physical and mental recovery than those with similar injuries who are not involved in a compensation process. One explanation for this reduced recovery is that the legal

  5. Fire-injured ponderosa pine provide a pulsed resource for bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan S. Davis; Sharon Hood; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles can cause substantial mortality of trees that would otherwise survive fire injuries. Resin response of fire-injured northern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) and specific injuries that contribute to increased bark beetle attack susceptibility and brood production are unknown. We monitored ponderosa pine...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G.; Rivera, F.; Babinski, E.; Berlanga, E.; Madrazo, M.; Franco-Bourland, R.; Grijalva, I.; Gonzalez, J.; Contreras, B.; Madrazo, I.

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  8. Slow elimination of injured liver DNA bases of γ-irradiated old mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaziev, A.I.; Malakhov, L.V.; Fomenko, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the elimination of injured bases from the liver DNA of old and young mice after their exposure to γ rays. The presented data show that if DNA from the liver of irradiated mice is treated with incision enzymes, its priming activity is increased. In the case of enzymatic treatment of DNA isolated 5 h after irradiation we find a great difference between the priming activity of the liver DNA of old and young mice. The reason for this difference is that the liver DNA of 20-month old mice 5 h after irradiation still has many unrepaired injured bases. These data indicated that the rate of incision of γ-injured DNA bases in the liver of old mice is lower than in the liver of young mice. In the liver of mice of different age the rate of restitution of DNA, single-strand breaks induced by γ rays in doses up to 100 Gy is the same. At the same time, the level of induced reparative synthesis of DNA in cells of an old organism is lower than in cells of a young organism. The obtained data suggest that reduction of the rate of elimination of modified bases from the cell DNA of 20-month old mice is due to reduction of the activity of the DNA repair enzymes or to restrictions in the chromatin in the access of these enzymes to the injured regions of DNA in the cells of old animals

  9. Rehabilitation Counselor Competencies When Working With Hispanic/Latino Immigrant Injured Workers: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Román, Leslie M.; Estrada-Hernández, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore and identify attitudes, knowledge, and skills rehabilitation practitioners in the private sector need when working with Hispanic/Latino immigrant injured workers. Methods: This study employed a 3-round Delphi study to obtain a consensus of 8 rehabilitation practitioners who had experience and expertise working with…

  10. [What kind of health information search the spinal cord injured patients from Spain on the internet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea-Muñoz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, María; Flórez-García, Mariano

    2015-04-16

    Internet is an alternative for health education to the population. Spinal cord injured individuals usually consult the Internet about their health problems. To identify the health information sources, the more consulted items and the confidence in Internet information of a group of spinal cord injured individuals from Spain. A survey to spinal cord injured individuals from Spain was conducted, with a questionnaire in Google Drive. It was accessible with a link in ASPAYM-Asturias web page. The questionnaire included epidemiological data and information about Internet use and confidence in its contents. 121 individuals answered the survey, 64% male, with an average age of 45 years. The predominant aetiology was traumatic (70%) and 72% were paraplegics. 83% prefer to consult health care providers directly. More of 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. The preferred item was 'orthopaedic materials and wheelchairs'. 27% of the sample trusts in the Internet information and 32% don't. This research provides information about Internet use of spinal cord injured individuals in Spain. Although we have to admit some bias in the study, more than 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. About one in four individuals trust in information from Internet and most of the sample prefers recommendations directly from healthcare professionals.

  11. Perspective of young drivers towards the care of the road traffic injured

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... some form of training in first aid care of the injured. Only 0.5% (2) of the total respondents knew the universal telephone number of 112 or 911 to call in the event of road traffic crash. Young drivers are well motivated and are more likely to confront emergency situations in road traffic crashes. Training them to.

  12. What Is the Relationship of Fear Avoidance to Physical Function and Pain Intensity in Injured Athletes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischerauer, Stefan F.; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Bexkens, Rens; Ring, David C.; Oh, Luke S.; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Fear avoidance can play a prominent role in maladaptive responses to an injury. In injured athletes, such pain-related fear or fear avoidance behavior may have a substantial influence on the recovery process. Specifically, it may explain why some are able to reach their preinjury abilities, whereas

  13. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured and killed drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der; Legrand, Sara-Ann

    2011-01-01

    regarding the prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers who have been injured/killed in traffic accidents. Part 1 of this report presents the general results of the hospital & killed driver studies. After a short introduction, the representativeness of the populations in the EU...

  14. Preserved alpha-adrenergic tone in the leg vascular bed of spinal cord-injured individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, H.M.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Smits, P.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supraspinal sympathetic control of leg vascular tone is lost in spinal cord-injured individuals, but this does not result in a reduced leg vascular tone: Leg vascular resistance is even increased. The aim of this study was to assess the alpha-adrenergic contribution to the increased

  15. Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport in macrophage-injured neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, D L; Lehninger, A L

    1982-11-01

    Previous work has shown that injury of neoplastic cells by cytotoxic macrophages (CM) in cell culture is accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We have investigated the nature of this inhibition by studying mitochondrial respiration in CM-injured leukemia L1210 cells permeabilized with digitonin. CM-induced injury affects the mitochondrial respiratory chain proper. Complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) and complex II (succinate-coenzyme Q reductase) are markedly inhibited. In addition a minor inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was found. Electron transport from alpha-glycerophosphate through the respiratory chain to oxygen is unaffected and permeabilized CM-injured L1210 cells oxidizing this substrate exhibit acceptor control. However, glycerophosphate shuttle activity was found not to occur within CM-injured or uninjured L1210 cells in culture hence, alpha-glycerophosphate is apparently unavailable for mitochondrial oxidation in the intact cell. It is concluded that the failure of respiration of intact neoplastic cells injured by CM is caused by the nearly complete inhibition of complexes I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The time courses of CM-induced electron transport inhibition and arrest of L1210 cell division are examined and the possible relationship between these phenomena is discussed.

  16. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  17. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors' Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    To determine the association between supervisors' leadership style and autonomy and supervisors' likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS). We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β = .012; 95% CI .009-.016) and autonomy (β = .066; 95% CI .025-.11) were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI -.0026 to .0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability.

  18. Imaging corticospinal tract connectivity in injured rat spinal cord using manganese-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgen, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEI) offers a novel neuroimaging modality to trace corticospinal tract (CST) in live animals. This paper expands this capability further and tests the utility of MEI to image axonal fiber connectivity in CST of injured spinal cord (SC). A rat was injured at the thoracic T4 level of the SC. The CST was labeled with manganese (Mn) injected intracortically at two weeks post injury. Next day, the injured SC was imaged using MEI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) modalities. In vivo MEI data obtained from cervical SC confirmed that CST was successfully labeled with Mn. Ex vivo MEI data obtained from excised SC depicted Mn labeling of the CST in SC sections caudal to the lesion, which meant that Mn was transported through the injury, possibly mediated by viable CST fibers present at the injury site. Examining the ex vivo data from the injury epicenter closely revealed a thin strip of signal enhancement located ventrally between the dorsal horns. This enhancement was presumably associated with the Mn accumulation in these intact fibers projecting caudally as part of the CST. Additional measurements with DTI supported this view. Combining these preliminary results collectively demonstrated the feasibility of imaging fiber connectivity in experimentally injured SC using MEI. This approach may play important role in future investigations aimed at understanding the neuroplasticity in experimental SCI research

  19. Psychometric properties of the Dutch Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.H.M. van Delft-Schreurs (C. C H M); M.A.C. van Son; M.A.C. de Jongh (Mariska); T. Gosens; M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); J. de Vries (Jolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this cross-sectional study the psychometric properties are examined of the adapted Dutch translation of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients (ISS. >. 15). Patients and methods: Patients (N = 173) completed the SMFA, the World

  20. Psychometric properties of the Dutch Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C. C. H. M.; van Son, M.A.C.; de Jongh, M.A.C.; Gosens, T.; Verhofstad, M. H. J.; de Vries, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study the psychometric properties are examined of the adapted Dutch translation of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire in severely injured patients (ISS > 15). Patients and methods Patients (N = 173) completed the SMFA, the World Health

  1. Return to work and quality of life in severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R. B.; Van der Sluis, C. K.; Ten Duis, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the long-term consequences of severe injuries in terms of return to productivity and quality of life. Methods. In this study we focused on the return to work status and quality of life in 53 severely injured patients (AIS/ISS >= 16, mean ISS 24, range 16 - 54), mean

  2. Work safety climate, musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured, and depression among migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; O'Hara, Heather; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Isom, Scott; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A

    2012-05-01

    This analysis described Latino migrant farmworkers' work safety climate and its association with musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured or ill, and depressive symptoms. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of 300 farmworkers conducted in North Carolina in 2009. Generalized estimating equations models were used to investigate the association of work safety climate with health and safety outcomes. Farmworkers perceived their work safety climate to be poor. About 40% had elevated musculoskeletal discomfort, 5.0% had worked at least 1 day while injured or ill, and 27.9% had elevated depressive symptoms. The odds of elevated musculoskeletal discomfort were 12% lower and the odds of working while injured or ill were 15% lower with each 1-unit increase in the work safety climate. Work safety climate was not associated with depressive symptoms. Work safety climate was important for agricultural workers. Poor work safety climate was associated with health outcomes (musculoskeletal discomfort) and safety (working while injured or ill). Interventions to improve work safety climate in agriculture are needed, with these interventions being directed to employers and workers.

  3. Pattern of Pressure Sores in Spinal Injured Patients with in the First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Before 2006, all our spinal injured patients were nursed on conventional form mattress without pressure redistributing support surface. Pressure sore was a common complication and was a major contributing factor to prolonged hospitalization. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of pressure ...

  4. Sexuality and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ramazan Yavuz; Coşkun Çelik, Evrim; Karataş, Metin

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of sexual function and dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men based on self-reports of patients. Forty-seven spinal cord-injured men who completed the spinal shock and rehabilitation period were included. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire developed to assess social status, sexual activities, abilities, and sexuality education after injury. Neurologic levels of patients were classified according to American Spinal Cord Injury Association protocol. Erectile function was evaluated by International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Patients were aged between 20 and 62 years (mean: 35.2). Twenty-eight patients had T10 and above, 15 between T11 and L2, and 4 cauda conus injury. While 61.7% of the patients declared sexual activity, 93.6% declared some degree of erection. Mean IIEF-5 score was 5.3 and 87.3% of the patients had moderate to severe erectile dysfunction. Continuation of sexual activity after injury is very important and has a great impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships for spinal cord-injured men. More attention must be given to sexuality after spinal cord injury. A very high rate of sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured patients was found and the importance of sexual education was emphasized in this study.

  5. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings demonstrated that the trained ETG improved in their total Berg Balance Test (BBT) scores indicated that the training program successfully improved postural sway control for non-injured elderly females. Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, visual input; vestibular input ...

  6. The impact of exercise training on oxidative stress in spinal cord injured individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnhoven, N. T L; Hesse, E. O.; Janssen, T. W J; Knippenberg, M.; Scheffer, P.; Hopman, M. T E

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals have a high risk for cardiovascular diseases. An imbalance in (anti)oxidative status would be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To compare baseline levels of oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity in SCI individuals and

  7. Key Considerations for Using No-Harm Contracts with Clients Who Self-Injure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldahl, Rebecca S.; Richardson, Brent

    2011-01-01

    One of the more controversial issues in working with people who self-injure is whether counselors should use no-harm contracts. Important therapeutic considerations include the efficacy of such contracts or agreements in preventing self-injury, the emotional and behavioral responses of clients, and the perceived protection these contracts or…

  8. Do workers' compensation laws protect industrial hygienists from lawsuits by injured workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, N C

    1993-11-01

    Workers' compensation laws provide injured employees with a swifter, more certain, and less litigious system of compensation than existed under the common law. Although workers' compensation is almost always an injured employee's exclusive remedy against the employer, the employee may bring a common-law tort action against a "third party" who may be liable in whole or in part for the employee's injury. This article investigates whether industrial hygienists are "third parties" and therefore subject to suit by injured employees who claim that industrial hygienists negligently caused their injuries. The author concludes that in most states, where the industrial hygienist and the injured worker are fellow employees, the industrial hygienist shares the employer's immunity from suit. As to the consultant who performs industrial hygiene services as an independent contractor, the author concludes that the employer's nondelegable duty to provide a safe workplace offers industrial hygiene consultants an argument that they share the employer's immunity from suit. Countervailing arguments, however, leave the industrial hygiene consultant vulnerable to negligence claims in many jurisdictions. There is a trend among the states to extend the employer's immunity to those who provide safety and health services to the employer.

  9. Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA into injured spinal cords in rats by photomechanical waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Toyooka, Terushige; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2011-03-01

    In the central nervous system, lack of axonal regeneration leads to permanent functional disabilities. In spinal cord injury (SCI), the over-expressions of intermediate filament (IF) proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, are mainly involved in glial scar formation; these proteins work as both physical and biochemical barriers to axonal regeneration. Thus, silencing of these IF proteins would be an attractive strategy to treat SCI. In this study, we first attempted to deliver fluorescent probe-labeled siRNAs into injured spinal cords in rats by applying photomechanical waves (PMWs) to examine the capability of PMWs as a tool for siRNA delivery. Intense fluorescence from siRNAs was observed in much broader regions in the spinal cords with PMW application when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. Based on this result, we delivered siRNAs for GFAP and vimentin into injured spinal tissues in rats by applying PMWs. The treatment resulted in efficient silencing of the proteins at five days after SCI and a decrease of the cavity area in the injured tissue at three weeks after SCI when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. These results demonstrate the capability of PMWs for efficient delivery of siRNAs into injured spinal cords and treatment of SCIs.

  10. Use of healthcare services by injured people in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tayeb, Sally; Abdalla, Safa; Van den Bergh, Graziella; Heuch, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma care is an important factor in preventing death and reducing disability. Injured persons in low- and middle-income countries are expected to use the formal healthcare system in increasing numbers. The objective of this paper is to examine use of healthcare services after injury in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods A community-based survey using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique in Khartoum State was performed. Information on healthcare utilisation was taken from injured people. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors affecting the probability of using formal healthcare services. Results During the 12 months preceding the survey a total of 441 cases of non-fatal injuries occurred, with 260 patients accessing formal healthcare. About a quarter of the injured persons were admitted to hospital. Injured people with primary education were less likely to use formal healthcare compared to those with no education. Formal health services were most used by males and in cases of road traffic injuries. The lowest socio-economic strata were least likely to use formal healthcare. Conclusions Public health measures and social security should be strengthened by identifying other real barriers that prevent low socio-economic groups from making use of formal healthcare facilities. Integration and collaboration with traditional orthopaedic practitioners are important aspects that need further attention. PMID:25205849

  11. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  12. Effect of the administration time of HS6101 on hematopoietic recovery in ICR mice injured by cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang XING

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of the administration time of HS6101 on hematopoietic recovery in ICR mice injured by cyclophosphamide (CTX. Methods One hundred and three male ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: CTX control, HS6101 prevention, HS6101 treatment, and HS6101 prevention+treatment groups. CTX was intraperitoneally injected into the ICR mice at a dose of 100mg/(kg.d for three consecutive days to establish a chemotherapeutics-injured model. HS6101 at a dose of 27μg/mouse in 0.2ml was subcutaneously injected into the mice 1h before the first administration of CTX in HS6101-prevention group, 1h after the last administration of CTX in HS6101 treatment group, and both at 1h before the first administration and 1h after the last administration of CTX in HS6101 prevention + treatment group. Physiological saline was subcutaneously injected into the mice in CTX control group (0.2ml/mouse. 10μl peripheral blood was collected from the caudal vein for WBC, neutrophil lymphocyte, RBC and platelet counts on day -1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 with the MEK-7222K cell analyzer, and the cell count was compared between HS6101 treatment mice and CTX control mice. Another 30 male ICR mice were used for bone marrow colony forming unit (CFU assay and bone marrow histopathological examination, and they were assigned into normal control, CTX control, HS6101 prevention, HS6101treatment and HS6101 prevention + treatment groups (each n=6. On the day 4 and day 9 after CTX injection, mice were sacrificed and bone marrow cells were collected from the left femur for mononuclear cell (MNC isolation. 1×104 MNCs were planted in 1.0ml mouse CFU culture medium M3434 and cultured in incubator with the temperature of 37℃, and 5% CO2 for 7 days. After that, granulocyte macrophage-colony-forming unit (GM-CFU, megakaryocyte colony forming unit (MK-CFU, mixture-colony-forming unit (Mix-CFU, burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU

  13. Simvastatin mobilizes bone marrow stromal cells migrating to injured areas and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoguang; Yang, Ning; Cui, Yueyi; Xu, Yingsheng; Dang, Gengting; Song, Chunli

    2012-07-19

    This study investigated the therapeutic effects of simvastatin administered by subarachnoid injection after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats; explored the underlying mechanism from the perspective of mobilization, migration and homing of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to the injured area induced by simvastatin. Green fluorescence protein labeled-bone marrow stromal cells (GFP-BMSCs) were transplanted into rats through the tail vein for stem cell tracing. Twenty-four hours after transplantation, spinal cord injury (SCI) was produced using weight-drop method (10g 4cm) at the T10 level. Simvastatin (5mg/kg) or vehicle was administered by subarachnoid injection at lumbar level 4 after SCI. Locomotor functional recovery was assessed in the 4 weeks following surgery using the open-field test and inclined-plane test. At the end of the study, MRI was used to evaluate the reparation of the injured spinal cord. Animals were then euthanized, histological evaluation was used to measure lesion cavity volumes. Immunofluorescence for GFP and cell lineage markers (NeuN and GFAP) was used to evaluate simvastatin-mediated mobilization and differentiation of transplanted BMSCs. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Simvastatin-treated animals showed significantly better locomotor recovery, less signal abnormality in MRI and a smaller cavity volume compared to the control group. Immunofluorescence revealed that simvastatin increased the number of GFP-positive cells in the injured spinal cord, and the number of cells double positive for GFP/NeuN or GFP/GFAP was larger in the simvastatin treated group than the control group. Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed higher expression of BDNF and VEGF in the simvastatin treated group than the control group. In conclusion, simvastatin can help to repair spinal cord injury in rat, where the underlying

  14. 20 CFR 10.730 - What are the conditions of coverage for Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? 10.730 Section... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? (a) Any injury sustained by a volunteer or volunteer leader while he or she is located abroad shall be presumed to have...

  15. The effect of computerized tailored brief advice on at-risk drinking in subcritically injured trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Neuner, Bruno; Weiss-Gerlach, Edith

    2006-01-01

    One-third of injured patients treated in the emergency department (ED) have an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Few are screened and receive counseling because ED staff have little time for additional tasks. We hypothesized that computer technology can screen and provide an intervention that reduces a......-risk drinking (British Medical Association criteria) in injured ED patients....

  16. Size matters to function: Brain volume correlates with intrinsic brain activity across healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhao; Gong, Gaolang

    2016-10-01

    A fundamental issue in neuroscience is to understand the structural substrates of neural activities. Intrinsic brain activity has been increasingly recognized as an important functional activity mode and is tightly linked with various cognitive functions. Structurally, cognitive functions have also shown a relation with brain volume/size. Therefore, an association between intrinsic brain activities and brain volume/size can be hypothesized, and brain volume/size may impact intrinsic brain activity in human brains. The present study aimed to explicitly investigate this brain structure-function relationship using two large independent cohorts of 176 and 236 young adults. Structural-MRI was performed to estimate the brain volume, and resting-state functional-MRI was applied to extract the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), an imaging measure of intrinsic brain activity. Intriguingly, our results revealed a robust linear correlation between whole-brain size and ALFF. Moreover, specific brain lobes/regions, including the frontal lobe, the left middle frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, Rolandic operculum, and insula, also showed a reliable, positive volume-ALFF correlation in the two cohorts. These findings offer direct, empirical evidence of a strong association between brain size/volume and intrinsic brain activity, as well as provide novel insight into the structural substrates of the intrinsic brain activity of the human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apraxia and spatial inattention dissociate in left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-10-01

    Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enumeration and Identification of Coliform Bacteria Injured by Chlorine or Fungicide Mixed with Agricultural Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Nakata, Yuji; Inoue, Ayano

    2016-10-01

    Chemical sanitizers may induce no injury (bacteria survive), sublethal injury (bacteria are injured), or lethal injury (bacteria die). The proportion of coliform bacteria that were injured sublethally by chlorine and fungicide mixed with agricultural water (pond water), which was used to dilute the pesticide solution, was evaluated using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. In pure cultures of Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , and E. coli O157:H7 (representing a human pathogen), the percentage of chlorine-injured cells was 69 to 77% for dilute electrolyzed water containing an available chlorine level of 2 ppm. When agricultural water was mixed with electrolyzed water, the percentage of injured coliforms in agricultural water was 75%. The isolation and identification of bacteria on TAL and selective media suggested that the chlorine stress caused injury to Enterobacter kobei . Of the four fungicide products tested, diluted to their recommended concentrations, Topsin-M, Sumilex, and Oxirane caused injury to coliform bacteria in pure cultures and in agricultural water following their mixture with each pesticide, whereas Streptomycin did not induce any injury to the bacteria. The percentage of injury was 45 to 97% for Topsin-M, 80 to 87% for Sumilex, and 50 to 97% for Oxirane. A comparison of the coliforms isolated from the pesticide solutions and then grown on either TAL or selective media indicated the possibility of fungicide-injured Rahnella aquatilis , Yersinia mollaretii , and E. coli . These results suggest the importance of selecting a suitable sanitizer and the necessity of adjusting the sanitizer concentration to a level that will kill the coliforms rather than cause sanitizer-induced cell injury that can result in the recovery of the coliforms.

  19. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Sheng; Feng, Ya-Ping; Xie, Jia-Xin; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Shen, Cai-Hong; Niu, Fang; Zou, Jian; Tang, Shao-Feng; Hao, Jiang; Xu, Jia-Xiang; Xiao, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its intrinsic advantages in

  20. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Sheng Liu

    Full Text Available Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its

  1. Optimizing detection of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, A Y; Ziegler, G R; Knabel, S J

    2001-07-01

    Optimal conditions for the detection of heat-injured cells of Listeria monocytogenes in modified Pennsylvania State University (mPSU) broth were determined using a response surface design generated by a computer program, EChip. Different combinations of incubation temperatures and lithium, magnesium, and D-serine concentrations were evaluated to determine the optimum conditions for the detection of heat-injured L. monocytogenes in filter-sterilized whole milk inoculated with selected problematic background microflora. A concentration of 212 mM lithium chloride completely inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecium while permitting recovery and detection of L. monocytogenes. A concentration of 15.8 mM MgSO4 was found to be optimum for the recovery and detection of L. monocytogenes. A concentration of 140.2 mM D-serine was found to completely inhibit the germination of Bacillus subtilis var. globii spores but not recovery and detection of L. monocytogenes. Under optimum concentrations of LiCl, MgSO4, and D-serine and in the absence of background microflora, the effect of incubation temperature on percentage detection was described by a second-order polynomial model, and 28 degrees C was determined to be optimal. In the presence of background microflora, the effect of incubation temperature on percentage detection of heat-injured cells was described by a third-order polynomial model, and 30 degrees C was found to be optimal. Optimizing the levels of highly specific and selective agents, nutrients, and incubation temperature in one recovery enrichment system dramatically increased the Listeria/background microflora ratio. This resulting medium, optimized PSU (oPSU) broth, greatly improved the detection of heat-injured and nonheat-injured L. monocytogenes by both conventional and molecular methods (Oxoid's Listeria Rapid Test, Gen-Probe's Accuprobe Listeria monocytogenes Culture Identification Test, and Qualicon's BAX for screening Listeria monocytogenes).

  2. Contemporary Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M; Claggett, Brian; Kitzman, Dalane

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although age-associated changes in left ventricular diastolic function are well recognized, limited data exist characterizing measures of diastolic function in older adults, including both reference ranges reflecting the older adult population and prognostically relevant values...... for incident heart failure (HF), as well as their associations with circulating biomarkers of HF risk. METHODS: Among 5801 elderly participants in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; age range, 67-90 years; mean age, 76±5 years; 42% male; 21% black), we determined the continuous association...... of diastolic measures (tissue Doppler imaging [TDI] e', E/e', and left atrial size) with concomitant N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and subsequent HF hospitalization or death. We also determined sex-specific 10th and 90th percentile limits for these measures using quantile regression in 401...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the brain is wired and ... for mental disorders. This could greatly help in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in ... obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form a ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... front of the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate with each other. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mdash; ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in mental illnesses. Scientists have already begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy ... Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict who ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... people and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  13. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thin tissues covering the brain. This type of hemorrhagic stroke is called a subarachnoid hemorrhage. A ruptured aneurysm quickly becomes life-threatening and requires prompt medical treatment. Most brain aneurysms, however, don't rupture, create ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... their final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's ... resonance imaging (MRI) mdash;An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's ...

  17. Brain Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. Some people who develop a mental illness may recover completely; ... how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Evidence shows that they can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the ... brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain can lead to mental disorders, ...

  1. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... Barnett J, Mohanty A, Desai SK, Patterson JT. Neurosurgery. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  5. Brain Diseases

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    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain ... the normal brain's structure develops and matures helps scientists understand what goes wrong in mental illnesses. Scientists ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... doctor that she had experienced long periods of deep sadness throughout her teenage years, but had never ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  15. Brain abscess mimicking brain metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khullar, P.; Datta, N.R.; Wahi, I.K.; Kataria, S.

    2016-01-01

    61 year old female presented with chief complaints of headache for 30 days, fever for 10 days, altered behavior for 10 days and convulsion for 2 days. She was diagnosed and treated as a case of carcinoma of left breast 5 years ago. MRI brain showed a lobulated lesion in the left frontal lobe. She came to our hospital for whole brain radiation as a diagnosed case of carcinoma of breast with brain metastasis. Review of MRI brain scan, revealed metastasis or query infective pathology. MR spectroscopy of the lesion revealed choline: creatinine and choline: NAA (N-Acety- laspartate) ratios of 1.6 and 1.5 respectively with the presence of lactate within the lesion suggestive of infective pathology. She underwent left fronto temporal craniotomy and evacuation of abscess and subdural empyema. Gram stain showed gram positive cocci. After 1 month of evacuation and treatment she was fine. This case suggested a note of caution in every case of a rapidly evolving space-occupying lesion independent of the patient’s previous history

  16. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  17. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to ... Scientists have already begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare that with ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  1. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Through research, we know that mental disorders are brain disorders. Evidence shows that they can be related to ... work with each other How changes in the brain can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the ...

  3. Testing the language of German cerebral palsy patients with right hemispheric language organization after early left hemispheric damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right hemispheric reorganized language (RL) is not associated with obvious language deficits. In this pilot study we compared a group of German-speaking patients with left hemispheric brain damage and RL with a group of matched healthy controls. The novel combination of reliable language lateralization as assessed by neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and specific linguistic tasks revealed significant differences between patients with RL and healthy controls in both language comprehension and production. Our results provide evidence for the hypothesis that RL is significantly different from normal left hemispheric language. This knowledge can be used to improve counselling of parents and to develop specific therapeutic approaches.

  4. Psychosocial Adjustment and Life Satisfaction until 5 Years after Severe Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbo, Ann K.; Blomqvist, Maritha; Emanuelsson, Ingrid M.; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe psychosocial adjustment and outcome over time for severely brain-injured patients and to find suitable outcome measures for clinical practice during the rehabilitation process and for individual rehabilitation planning after discharge from hospital. The methods include a descriptive, prospective,…

  5. Interpersonal Relatedness and Psychological Functioning Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Marital and Family Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Esther H.; Blow, Adrian J.; Yan, Xie

    2012-01-01

    Recovery from a mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a challenging process for injured persons and their families. Guided by attachment theory, we investigated whether relationship conflict, social support, or sense of belonging were associated with psychological functioning. Community-dwelling persons with TBI (N = 75) and their…

  6. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  7. Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p social support in relation to injury stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received

  8. Enhancing motor network activity using real-time functional MRI neurofeedback of left premotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Ferreira Marins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is a technique of potential therapeutic relevance that allows individuals to be aware of their own neurophysiological responses and to voluntarily modulate the activity of specific brain regions, such as the premotor cortex (PMC, important for motor recovery after brain injury. We investigated (i whether healthy human volunteers are able to up-regulate the activity of the left PMC during a right hand finger tapping motor imagery (MI task while receiving continuous fMRI-neurofeedback, and (ii whether successful modulation of brain activity influenced non-targeted motor control regions. During the MI task, participants of the neurofeedback group (NFB received ongoing visual feedback representing the level of fMRI responses within their left PMC. Control (CTL group participants were shown similar visual stimuli, but these were non-contingent on brain activity. Both groups showed equivalent levels of behavioral ratings on arousal and motor imagery, before and during the fMRI protocol. In the NFB, but not in CLT group, brain activation during the last run compared to the first run revealed increased activation in the left PMC. In addition, the NFB group showed increased activation in motor control regions extending beyond the left PMC target area, including the supplementary motor area, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Moreover, in the last run, the NFB group showed stronger activation in the left PMC/inferior frontal gyrus when compared to the CTL group. Our results indicate that modulation of PMC and associated motor control areas can be achieved during a single neurofeedback-fMRI session. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of MI-based neurofeedback training, with direct implications for rehabilitation strategies in severe brain disorders, such as stroke.

  9. The Brains Behind the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, Marcia

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student interest,…

  10. 2007 International Brain Mapping and Intraoperative Surgical Planning Society’s (IBMISPS) Annual World Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    impact, disruptive technologies for image-guided interventions Richard Robb, Mayo Clinic Potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias can be...impulses that cause arrhythmias . Electrical flow information is then used to guided treatment (RF ablation) of the abnormal tissue. N a t i o n a l I n...Imaging The Newborn (and Acutely Injured) Brain • A significant number of newborns suffer brain damage around the time of birth • The consequences of

  11. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  12. The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Symptoms after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Hy- perbaric Oxygenation for Cerebral Palsy and the Brain-Injured Child. J.T. Joiner (ed). Best...Krages, K.P., and Helfand, M. (2003). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for brain injury, cerebral palsy , and stroke: summary, in: AHRQ Evidence Report...PCL, PCL-M, Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing, ImPACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  13. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  14. Role of Damage Control Orthopedics and Early Total Care in the Multiple Injured Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The care of multiply injured patients with orthopedic injuries has evolved from prolonged periods in traction to early total care (ETC. ETC is advantageous in ease of nursing care and aiding patient recovery. However, concerns have been raised that this ‘second hit’ of surgery places these severely injured patients at risk of excessive inflammatory responses that can lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. Damage control was initially used in abdominal trauma but has been adapted for use in orthopedics. The mainstay of treatment involves external fixation of long bone and pelvic fractures which acts to defer definitive fixation until physiologic stability is restored. The indications for implementing each approach are not clear and this article provides a narrative review of the topic.

  15. Effect of salt concentration in the recovery medium on heat-injured Streptococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Lechowich, R V

    1968-05-01

    Properties relating to the recovery of three heat-injured strains of Streptococcus faecalis were studied. All strains were cultured in all purpose plus Tween broth (APT) at 30 C for 24 hr before being subjected to heat in fresh APT broth. APT recovery medium containing various added amounts of NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), or KCl and MgCl(2) was used to assess the effect of salts on the recovery of thermally injured S. faecalis. It was evident that, upon exposure to heat, S. faecalis cells became sensitive to increased salt concentrations. Analyses to determine the ribonucleic acid (RNA) content of heated cells showed a reduction of cellular RNA, but the per cent reduction was not directly proportional to the per cent reduction of the viable cells.

  16. [Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luana Cássia Miranda; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva E; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Melo, Dulcelene Sousa; Peixoto, Myrian Karla Ayres Veronez; Munari, Denize Bouttelet

    2014-06-01

    To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  17. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  18. Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cássia Miranda Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Method: Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. Results: From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. Conclusion: The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  19. Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cássia Miranda Ribeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Method: Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. Results: From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. Conclusion: The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  20. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks, the transpl......Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks......, the transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma...