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Sample records for lefsky colorado state

  1. State summaries: Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J.; Carroll, C.; Widmann, B.

    2006-01-01

    According to the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS), Colorado's mining industry enjoyed a record-breaking year in 2005. For the whole year, the total value of nonfuel minerals, coal and uranium produced in the state in 2005 amounted to $2.4 billion. The production value of $1.52 billion in the nonfuel sector broke the previous record of $1.3 billion set in 1980, and is 60% higher than the revised 2004 CGS estimate of $950.5 million. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) ranked Colorado ninth among the states in nonfuel mineral value, up from 17th in 2004. About $1 billion of the nonfuel total is from metal mining. New record-high productions were achieved not only for molybdenum but also for coal and goal.

  2. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  3. New State Records of Mosquitoes for Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dominic A; Kondratieff, B C; Weissmann, M J

    2015-06-01

    The 1967 treatment of the Mosquitoes of Colorado by Harmston and Lawson and subsequent publications have recorded 46 culicid species from Colorado. As part of a study to create an updated synopsis of the mosquitoes of Colorado, adult trapping at numerous localities was conducted in Colorado during the summers of 2013 and 2014. This review also included an examination of mosquito specimens in various relevant museum collections. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) niphadopsis and Ae. (Och.) spencerii spencerii were collected during the 2013 and 2014 field seasons. Records for Ae. (Och.) canadensis canadensis, Ae. (Stegomyia) aegypti, and Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) anhydor syntheta were obtained from examination of museum specimens. These species constitute new state records for Colorado, with 51 species now known from the state.

  4. 2015 State Geodatabase for Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. Colorado economic impact study on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-12

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1993. To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are: Direct employment was estimated at 894 workers; An estimated 89 percent of all direct employment was local; Secondary employment resulting from remedial action at the active Colorado UMTRA Project sites and the Grand Junction vicinity property program is estimated at 546 workers. Total employment (direct and secondary) is estimated at 1440 workers for the period of study (July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993). An estimated $24.1 million was paid in wages to UMTRA workers in Colorado during FY1993; Direct and secondary wage earnings were estimated at $39.9 million; Income tax payments to the state of Colorado were estimated at $843,400 during FY1993; The gross economic impact of UMTRA Project activities in the state of Colorado is estimated at $70 million during the 1-year study period; and the net economic benefit to the state of Colorado was estimated at $57.5 million, or $5.90 per dollar of funding provided by Colorado. This figure includes both direct and secondary benefits but does not include the impact of alternative uses of the state funding.

  6. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  7. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  8. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  9. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Colorado. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  10. Colorado State University (CSU) accelerator and FEL facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milton, S.; Biedron, S.; Harris, J.; Martinez, J.; D'Audney, A.; Edelen, J.; Einstein, J.; Hall, C.; Horovitz, K.; Morin, A.; Sipahi, N.; Sipahi, T.; Williams, J.; Carrico, C.; Van Der Slot, P. J M

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include a 6-MeV L-Band (1.3 GHz) electron linear accelerator (linac) with a free-electron laser (FEL) system capable of producing Terahertz (THz) radiation, a laser laboratory, a microwave test laboratory, and a magnetic test laboratory.

  11. 78 FR 50103 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of Colorado....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Colorado State University has completed an inventory of human...

  12. 78 FR 59960 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of Colorado....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Colorado State University has completed an inventory of human...

  13. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information

  14. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  15. Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rodríguez Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad cuenta, entre sus principales mecanismos de intervención, con las áreas naturales protegidas. En el alto Golfo de California (AGC se ubica la Reser-va de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, en la que subsisten especies de alto valor económico, así como especies en peligro de extinción. Este último factor justificó el establecimiento de la reserva. El estudio analiza la efectividad de la Reserva del Alto Golfo como mecanismo de protección de los recursos naturales, en particular de las que están en riesgo de desaparecer, así como de comprobar si los pescadores han mejorado sus condiciones de vida tras la operación de esa área natural. La exploración se llevó a cabo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a los pescadores. Se sugiere que es indispensable un gran esfuerzo, de autoridades y grupos organizados, para encontrar soluciones al manejo de la Reserva, a fin fijar un programa que permita la recuperación de las especies en peligro de extinción, elevar la calidad de vida de los pescadores y con ello garantizar un equilibrio entre la conservación y la sustentabilidad de la pesca y de los pescadores en el Alto Golfo de California.

  16. Colorado State University: A Midscale Market Solar Customer Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Despite substantial increases in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment between 2005 and 2015, a large untapped market for solar PV deployment still exists in midscale market investments by universities. Recent estimates show that if all universities in the United States installed enough solar PV to meet 25% of their annual electricity consumption, this would cumulatively result in just over 16 gigawatts (GW) of additional installed PV capacity. Within this context, midscale market projects - loosely defined as solar PV installations ranging from 100 kilowatts (kW) to 2 megawatts (MW), but more broadly representing installations not captured in the residential or utility-scale sectors - could be an attractive option for universities. This case study focuses on one university solar customer, Colorado State University (CSU), to provide a detailed example of the challenges, solutions, and opportunities associated with university solar power procurement. Between 2009 and 2015, a combined 6,754 kW of both ground-mounted and rooftop solar PV was installed across multiple CSU campuses in Fort Collins, Colorado. This case study highlights CSU's decision-making process, campus engagement strategies, and relationships with state, local, and utility partners, which have culminated in significant on-campus PV deployment.

  17. 76 FR 21835 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...) held a public hearing in December 2009 for the Interstate Transport SIP revision: ``State of Colorado... evaluated in the Transport Rule Proposal may be evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach that takes... States Design Values Memo takes the same approach as the Transport Rule Proposal (5 year weighted average...

  18. 78 FR 67327 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for further background... consulted our document ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation Plans (SIPs...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Revised Transportation...

  19. 77 FR 76871 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... to a number of different fuels. The State determined that Units 4 and 5 are not capable of burning... average annual emission rates that Colorado used for cost calculations with 30- day rolling average... based on the primary type of coal burned there, which is sub-bituminous. EPA should establish the...

  20. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work

  1. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  2. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  3. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state's 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs

  4. Paper 5944 Changing Climates @ Colorado State: It's Everybody's Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Denning, S.; Betsill, M.; Klein, J. A.; Fiege, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the help of faculty from all eight colleges, twenty-seven departments, and numerous other entities on and off the Colorado State University campus, this education and outreach initiative is based on the premises that climate change is everybody's business and that everyone has something to offer in meeting its challenges. Beginning in 2007, CC@CSU has organized some 120 talks to audiences totaling some 6,000, helping inform the student body and community and catalyzing relationships among faculty and researchers across campus. It has offered communication coaching to scientists (and others) who want to translate their expertise for the public. And it has developed a multidisciplinary website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) with over 450 annotated entries, all college-level content, primer-level clarity, on topics that include climate science and ecology, economics and emotions, ethics and policy, communication and activism, paleoclimate and human history, and much more. This presentation will address the basic questions of why, who, how, what, for whom, and so what, concluding with some of the key lessons learned about communicating across disciplinary boundaries on this important subject.

  5. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  6. Report of the State Auditor. State Colleges in Colorado. Financial, State-Funded Student Financial Assistance Programs, and NCAA Audits. Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, J. David

    The results of a Colorado State audit of the consolidated financial statements are reported, along with the statements of appropriations, expenditures, transfers and reversions for state-funded Student Financial Assistance Programs for the four State Colleges in Colorado for the year ended June 30, 1995. Specific recommendations are given for each…

  7. Reducing Energy Burden with Solar: Colorado's Strategy and Roadmap for States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shah, Monisha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-03

    The Colorado Energy Office (CEO) recently implemented a multi-pronged strategy to reduce energy burden for low-income (LI) Colorado residents through the deployment of solar electricity generation. Due to these efforts, approximately 20 MW of photovoltaic (PV) solar may be deployed in Colorado by the end of 2019 specifically for low-income households. Relying on interviews with ten subject-matter experts and other research, this report outlines the details of the CEO strategy including why the agency pursued this strategy, how it was carried out, and lessons learned from implementation. Though CEO's strategy is unique and tailored to the needs of Colorado, it is possible that other states might learn from CEO's experiences when designing their own LI strategies. As a result, the report concludes by outlining six primary steps for designing a comprehensive low-income solar strategy.

  8. Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

    2011-12-01

    We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be

  9. Thomas Edison State College and Colorado State University: Using Cutting-Edge Technology to Enhance CE Unit Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Henry; Powell, Albert, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Edison State College (TESC) and Colorado State University (CSU) offer significant contrasts in institutional culture, student demographics, faculty and institutional priorities and approaches to distance education course development and delivery. This article offers case studies showing that widely disparate program design and delivery…

  10. 78 FR 72706 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... in this notice by January 2, 2014. ADDRESSES: Christopher Green, Colorado State University, B-218 Clark Building, c/o Christopher Green, 1787 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80525, telephone (970) 213... property on Lightening Hill (site 5LR284) in Larimer County, CO. The site was discovered and excavated by...

  11. Factors in a Productive Environment: Colorado State University, 1964-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Weston H.; Hurst, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on impact that emerged from combined resources of counseling center/psychology department/dean of students office at Colorado State University (CSU) during late 1960s and early 1970s when CSU was site of significant innovations in counseling field. Briefly chronicles history, identifies key participants, and highlights factors that…

  12. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2011-0659; FRL-9840-6] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...

  13. 75 FR 16032 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Colorado. Table of Contents I. General Information What Should I Consider as I Prepare My Comments for EPA... Workgroup: ``3.3 Climatology of Ozone Synoptic Scale Transport in the Eastern US,'' Figures 1(a) and 5(a..., Wyoming. \\14\\ See Table 4, pages 7 and 8, of the Colorado Interstate Transport SIP. The historical trend...

  14. Joint state of Colorado-US Department of Energy WIPP Shipment Exercise Program: TRANSAX '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In July 1990, the United States Secretary of Energy requested the DOE conduct a transportation emergency exercise before the end of CY 1990. The tasking was subsequently directed to the Director of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to plan and conduct an exercise, based on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipment scenario. The state of Colorado was asked to participate. Colorado, in turn, invited the DOE to integrate the exercise into its own series of WIPP-related tabletop and field exercises for which the state had already begun planning. The result was a joint USDOE/Colorado full-scale (orientation) exercise called Transportation Accident Exercise 1990 (TRANSAX '90). The state of Colorado's exercise program was a follow-on to previously conducted classroom training. The program would serve to identify and resolve outstanding issues concerning inspections of the WIPP shipment transporter as it entered and passed through the state on the designated Interstate 25 transportation corridor; criteria for movement under various adverse weather and road conditions; and emergency response to accidents occurring in an urban or rural environment. The USDOE designed its participation in the exercise program to test selected aspects of the DOE Emergency Management System relating to response to and management of DOE off-site transportation emergencies involving assistance to state and local emergency response personnel. While a number of issues remain under study for ultimate resolution, others have been resolved and will become the basis for emergency operations plans, SOPs, mutual aid agreements, and checklist upgrades. Concurrently, the concentrated efforts at local, state, and federal levels in dealing with WIPP- related activities during this exercise program development have given renewed impetus to all parties as the beginning of actual shipments draws nearer. Three tabletop scenarios are discussed in this report

  15. Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermeyer, Joseph; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Price, Rumi Kato; Balan, Sundari; Thurstone, Christian; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-11) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS). Using regression analyses, we further tested whether patterns seen in Colorado prior to (2006-8) and during (2009-11) marijuana commercialization differed from patterns in NMMS while controlling for demographics. Within Colorado those reporting "great-risk" to using marijuana 1-2 times/week dropped significantly in all age groups studied between 2007-8 and 2010-11 (e.g. from 45% to 31% among those 26 years and older; p=0.0006). By 2010-11 past-year marijuana abuse/dependence had become more prevalent in Colorado for 12-17 year olds (5% in Colorado, 3% in NMMS; p=0.03) and 18-25 year olds (9% vs. 5%; p=0.02). Regressions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived risk (12-17 year olds, p=0.005; those 26 years and older, p=0.01), and trend for difference in changes in availability among those 26 years and older and marijuana abuse/dependence among 12-17 year olds in Colorado compared to NMMS in more recent years (2009-11 vs. 2006-8). Our results show that commercialization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with lower risk perception. Evidence is suggestive for marijuana abuse/dependence. Analyses including subsequent years 2012+ once available, will help determine whether such changes represent momentary vs. sustained effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential for Photovoltaic Solar Installation in Non-Irrigated Corners of Center Pivot Irrigation Fields in the State of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B.

    2011-07-01

    The State of Colorado expressed an interest in assessing the potential for photovoltaic (PV) solar installations on non-irrigated corners of center-pivot irrigation (CPI) fields throughout the state. Using aerial imagery and irrigated land data available from the Colorado Water Conservation Board, an assessment of potentially suitable sites was produced. Productivity estimates were calculated from that assessment. The total area of non-irrigated corners of CPI fields in Colorado was estimated to be 314,674 acres, which could yield 223,418 acres of installed PV panels assuming 71% coverage in triangular plots. The total potential annual electricity production for the state was estimated to be 56,821 gigawatt hours (GWH), with an average of 1.3 GWH per available plot.

  17. 78 FR 17716 - Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of... State Office is providing an opportunity for parties to express an interest in proposing solar energy... two designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZs) serialized as COC-074761 (Los Mogotes East SEZ) and COC...

  18. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 78 FR 41342 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2010-0389; FRL-9831-9] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Ca[ntilde]on City AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  20. 78 FR 41307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2010-0389; FRL-9832-1] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Ca[ntilde]on City AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY...

  1. 78 FR 46861 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2011-0658; FRL-9840-8] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Greeley AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY...

  2. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2012-0475; FRL-9901-05-Region 8] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Aspen AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  3. 78 FR 71550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2011-0833; FRL-9903-25-Region-8] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Telluride AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY...

  4. 78 FR 56185 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2011-0708; FRL-9900-87-Region 8] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Fort Collins AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  5. 78 FR 78797 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R08-OAR-2011-0834; FRL-9904-90-Region 8] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Pagosa Springs AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...

  6. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of...) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on approximately 3,705 acres of public land in... designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes East SEZ and De Tilla Gulch SEZ. Applications for solar...

  7. [Reptiles from Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, O; Prieto, A; Comejo, P

    2000-01-01

    An inventory of the reptiles that inhabit in Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, was performed from March, 1994 to March, 1995. There were reported 8 species of snakes and 7 of lizards enclosed in 4 and 5 families repectively. Aspects observed were ecolology as habitat, activity, reproduction and relative abundance. The more abundant species of lizards were: Cnemidophorus femniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata, (Teiidae), Tropidurus hispidus (Tropiduridae), Gonatodes vittatus and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae) and the ophidians: Leptodeira annulata and Mastigodryas amarali (Colubridae). It is believed that the changes occurred in the zone influenced the increase of the relative abundance of the species Leptotyphlops goudotii (Leptotyphlopidae) arid Gymnophthalmus speciosus(Gymnophthalmidae) and perhaps in the disappearance of others that have been reported at the xerophitic or semixerophitic zones of the Sucre State of Venezuela.

  8. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Colorado. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  9. A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh

    2017-04-01

    Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential

  10. Muon data from a water Cherenkov detector prototype at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Megan; Mostafa, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a very high energy gamma-ray experiment currently under construction in Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico, at an altitude of 4,100 m a.s.l. The HAWC Observatory will consist of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each instrumented with three 8'' photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and one 10'' high efficiency (HE) PMT. The PMTs are upward facing, anchored to the bottom of a 5 m deep by 7.3 m diameter steel tank, containing a multilayer hermetic plastic bag holding 200,000 L of purified water. The only full size WCD prototype outside of the HAWC site is located at Colorado State University (CSU) in Fort Collins, CO at an altitude of 1,525 m a.s.l. This prototype is instrumented with six 8'' PMTs, one 10'' HE PMT, and the same laser calibration system, electronics, and data acquisition system as the WCDs at the HAWC site. The CSU prototype is additionally equipped with scintillator paddles both under and above the volume of water, temperature probes (in the water, outside, and in the DAQ room), and one covered PMT. Preliminary results for muon rates and their temperature dependance using data collected with the CSU prototype will be presented.

  11. The State of Mathematics Achievement in Colorado: The Trial State Assessment at Grade Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments (37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state…

  12. Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: Source water for the arid Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A.; Wilson, Doyle C.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

    2012-01-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography–electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-ITMS). Log DOW values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30 ng/L to 2800 ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10 ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

  13. NAEP 1992 Mathematics State Report for Colorado. The Trial State Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment which, for the first time in the NAEP's history, made voluntary state-by-state assessments. This 1992 mathematics report marks the first attempt of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to shift to standards-based reporting of National…

  14. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can “homogenize” soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  15. A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

  16. A new Masters program in Greenhouse Gas Management and Accounting at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, R. T.; Ogle, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Management guru Peter Drucker said that "what gets measured gets managed." But the unstated implication is that what doesn't get measured doesn't get managed. Accurate quantification of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts is central to the clean technology sector. Very soon professionals of all kinds (business people, accountants, lawyers) will need to understand carbon accounting and crediting. Over the next few decades food production is expected to double and energy production must triple in order to meet growing global demands; sustainable management of land use and agricultural systems will be critical. The food and energy supply challenges are inextricably linked to the challenge of limiting anthropogenic impacts on climate by reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. To avoid serious disruption of the climate system and stabilize GHG concentrations, society must move aggressively to avoid emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O and to actively draw down CO2 already in the atmosphere. A new cadre of technically adept professionals is needed to meet these challenges. We describe a new professional Masters degree in greenhouse gas management and accounting at Colorado State University. This effort leverages existing, internationally-recognized expertise from across campus and partners from agencies and industry, enabling students from diverse backgrounds to develop the skills needed to fill this emerging demand.

  17. Extensive wildfires, climate change, and an abrupt state change in subalpine ribbon forests, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, W John; Shuman, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems may shift abruptly when the effects of climate change and disturbance interact, and landscapes with regularly patterned vegetation may be especially vulnerable to abrupt shifts. Here we use a fossil pollen record from a regularly patterned ribbon forest (alternating bands of forests and meadows) in Colorado to examine whether past changes in wildfire and climate produced abrupt vegetation shifts. Comparing the percentages of conifer pollen with sedimentary δ 18 O data (interpreted as an indicator of temperature or snow accumulation) indicates a first-order linear relationship between vegetation composition and climate change with no detectable lags over the past 2,500 yr (r = 0.55, P wildfires, which were recognized in a previous study to have burned approximately 80% of the surrounding 1,000 km 2 landscape 1,000 yr ago when temperatures rose ~0.5°C. The vegetation change was larger than expected from the effects of climate change alone. Pollen assemblages changed from a composition associated with closed subalpine forests to one similar to modern ribbon forests. Fossil pollen assemblages then remained like those from modern ribbon forests for the following ~1,000 yr, providing a clear example of how extensive disturbances can trigger persistent new vegetation states and alter how vegetation responds to climate. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Adding a nitrogen footprint to Colorado State University’s sustainability plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiecik, Jacob; Baron, Jill S.; Weinmann, Timothy; Taylor, Emily

    2017-01-01

    As a large land grant university with more than 32,000 students, Colorado State University has both on-campus non-agricultural and agricultural sources of nitrogen (N) released to the environment. We used the Nitrogen Footprint Tool to estimate the amount of N released from different sectors of the university for the CSU 2014 academic year. The largest on campus sources were food production, utilities (heating, cooling, electricity), and research animals. The total on-campus N footprint in 2014 was 287 metric tons. This value was equivalent to the nitrogen footprint of agricultural experiment stations and other agricultural facilities, whose nitrogen footprint was 273 metric tons. CSU has opportunities to reduce its on-campus footprint through educational programs promoting low-meat diets and commuting by bicycle or bus. There is also an opportunity to advance ideas of agricultural best management practices, including precision farming and better livestock management. This article describes the planned and ongoing efforts to educate CSU about how societal activities release nitrogen to the environment, contributing to global change. It offers personal and institutional options for taking action, which would ultimately reduce CSU’s excess reactive nitrogen loss to the environment. The N-footprint for CSU, including scenarios of possible future nitrogen reductions, is also discussed.

  19. Annual report to the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer on the US Department of Energy's cultural resource activities at Colorado UMTRA Project sites, January--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report is a summary of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) cultural resource investigations for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in Colorado. This report is intended to fulfill the DOE's obligation for an annual report as stated in the Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement executed between the DOE, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer in December 1984. Summaries of the cultural resource surveys and identified resources are provided for the UMTRA Project sites in the vicinities of Durango, Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock. This report covers all UMTRA Project cultural resource activities in Colorado from January through December 1991

  20. 76 FR 4271 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Regulation Number 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... directions--The agency may ask you to respond to specific questions or organize comments by referencing a... provisions for which the State had adopted only clerical changes, such as grammar or style changes, that do...

  1. 77 FR 18051 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Area, Mesa Verde National Park, Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area, Rawah Wilderness Area, Rocky Mountain National Park, Weminuche Wilderness Area, and West Elk Wilderness Area. The State developed and submitted... 1.04 6.08 4.44 1.61 Rocky Mountain National Park RMHQ1 13.83 12.27 1.56 7.15 6.68 2.29 Weminuche...

  2. Colorado State Emissions Inventory Trends 2000-2011 and relevance to the FRAPPE/Discover-AQ Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, D.; Adelman, Z.; Moore, T.; Wells, D.; Briggs, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intermountain West Data Warehouse (IWDW) was created through joint efforts of Federal agencies (Land Managers and EPA), and State Air Quality Program Managers to address regional scale modeling analysis and planning needs. The IWDW contains monitoring, emissions, and air quality modeling data and analysis tools to support regulatory, research, and academic applications. As one of the participants, the State of Colorado uses the data from the IWDW for a variety of regulatory efforts including modeling efforts to support the development of State Implementation Plans and for air quality research efforts such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The emissions inventories developed for the IWDW are highly detailed and much more suitable to local modeling efforts than the EPA National Emission Inventory. Here we present an overview of the 2011 statewide IWDW emissions inventory for Colorado and examine historic trends in statewide inventories used for modeling, planning and analysis. The IWDW 2011 inventory should prove highly useful to modeling, regulatory, research and policy needs for participating agencies.

  3. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  4. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan, Spring 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; And Others

    Based on a need to assess current library strengths and weaknesses and to project potential library roles in supporting higher education, this master plan makes a series of recommendations to Colorado's academic libraries. It is noted that the plan was endorsed by both the Colorado Commission on Higher Education and the Colorado State Department…

  5. 2011 Kids Count in Colorado! The Impact of the Great Recession on Colorado's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as…

  6. Developing science policy capacity at the state government level: Planning a science and technology policy fellowship program for Colorado and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing recognition of the potential to advance science policy capacity within state legislatures, where there is most often a shortage of professional backgrounds in the natural sciences, technology, engineering, and medicine. Developing such capacity at the state level should be considered a vital component of any comprehensive national scale strategy to strengthen science informed governance. Toward this goal, the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the University of Colorado Boulder is leading a strategic planning process for a Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program within the Colorado state legislature and executive branch agencies. The intended program will place PhD-level scientists and engineers in one-year placements with decision-makers to provide an in-house resource for targeted policy-relevant research. Fellows will learn the intricacies of the state policymaking process, be exposed to opportunities for science to inform decisions, and develop a deeper understanding of key science and technology topics in Colorado, including water resources, wildfire management, and energy. The program's ultimate goals are to help foster a decision-making arena informed by evidence-based information, to develop new leaders adept at bridging science and policymaking realms, and to foster governance that champions the role of science in society. Parallel to efforts in Colorado, groups from nine other states are preparing similar plans, providing opportunities to share approaches across states and to set the stage for increased science and technology input to state legislative agendas nationwide. Importantly, highly successful and sustainable models exist; the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has implemented a federally based fellowship program for over 43 years and the California Council for Science and Technology (CCST) has directed a fellowship program for their state's legislature since 2009. AAAS and CCST

  7. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  8. 77 FR 69765 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... Agency (EPA) to authorize states to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the... the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization for changes to the state's...

  9. BLM Colorado Oil Shale Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ file Format –This data set contains the Oil Shale Leases for the State of Colorado, derived from Legal Land Descriptions (LLD) contained in the US Bureau of Land...

  10. The relationship between cannabis use and measures of anxiety and depression in a sample of college campus cannabis users and non-users post state legalization in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Troup, Lucy J.; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A.; Braunwalder, Jacob T.; Torrence, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program into the relationship between cannabis use and emotion processing, participants were assessed on their level of cannabis exposure using the Recreational Cannabis Use Examination, a measure developed specifically to assess cannabis use in Colorado post state legalization. Three groups were created based on self-reported use: a control group who have never used, a casual user group and a chronic user group. Each participant also completed two measures of m...

  11. The hydroclimate of the Upper Colorado River Basin and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Rebecca A.

    Understanding water budget variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) is critical, as changes can have major impacts on the region's vulnerable water resources. Using in situ, reanalysis, and satellite-derived datasets, surface and atmospheric water budgets of the UCRB are analyzed. All datasets capture the seasonal cycle for each water budget component. Most products capture the interannual variability, although there are some discrepancies with atmospheric divergence estimates. Variability and magnitude among storage volume change products also vary widely. With regards to the surface budget, the strongest connections exist between precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture, while snow water equivalent is best correlated with runoff. Using the most ideal datasets for each component, the atmospheric water budget balances with 73 mm leftover. Increasing the best estimate of ET by 5% leads to a better long-term balance between surface storage changes, runoff, and atmospheric convergence. It also brings long-term atmospheric storage changes to a better balance of 13 mm. A statistical analysis and case study are performed to better understand the variability and predictability of the UCRB's hydroclimate. Results show significant correlations (at the 90% confidence level) between UCRB temperature and precipitation, and El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) during the fall. However, correlations are typically not greater than 0.4. ENSO and PDO are associated with the second mode of variability in a Principal Component analysis, while the first mode of variability (57% of variance for precipitation and 74% of variance for temperature) displays a high year-to-year variability. A case study of a wet and a dry year (with similar ENSO/PDO conditions) shows that a few large accumulation events is what drives the seasonal variability. These large accumulation events are more dependent on a variety of more local

  12. The occurrence of Trichinella species in the cougar Puma concolor couguar from the state of Colorado and other regions of North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, M V; Logan, K; Criffield, M; Thomas, J E; Paritte, J M; Messerly, D M; Interisano, M; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2017-05-01

    Trichinella species are zoonotic nematodes that infect wild carnivores and omnivores throughout the world. We examined the prevalence and species of Trichinella infections in cougars (Puma concolor couguar) from Colorado, United States. Tongues from cougars were examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion to detect Trichinella spp. larvae. The species or genotype of individual worms was identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 17 of 39 cougars (43.6% (28.7-59.5%)). Five of the cougars (12.8%) were infected with T. murrelli, 3 (7.7%) were infected with T. pseudospiralis, and 1 (2.6%) had Trichinella genotype T6. Trichinella spp. larvae from eight cougars were not identified at the species level, due to degraded DNA. The high prevalence of Trichinella spp. in cougars from Colorado and reports of the parasite in other populations of Puma spp. suggest that this large predator is a key mammalian reservoir.

  13. 77 FR 69788 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The EPA proposes to grant final authorization to the hazardous waste program changes submitted by the...

  14. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A.; Neubaum, Daniel J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.

  15. Colorado Public Libraries, 1876-1976, Historical Sketches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, Terttu M.

    This history of public libraries, which updates a 1959 publication entitled "Colorado's Century of Public Libraries," was published for Colorado's State Centennial and the Nation's Bicentennial. Included are histories of 114 public libraries, the seven regional library systems, and the Colorado State Library. Statistical tables list the…

  16. Tools for Resilience Management: Multidisciplinary Development of State-and-Transition Models for Northwest Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Kachergis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Building models is an important way of integrating knowledge. Testing and updating models of social-ecological systems can inform management decisions and, ultimately, improve resilience. We report on the outcomes of a six-year, multidisciplinary model development process in the sagebrush steppe, USA. We focused on creating state-and-transition models (STMs, conceptual models of ecosystem change that represent nonlinear dynamics and are being adopted worldwide as tools for managing ecosystems. STM development occurred in four steps with four distinct sets of models: (1 local knowledge elicitation using semistructured interviews; (2 ecological data collection using an observational study; (3 model integration using participatory workshops; and (4 model simplification upon review of the literature by a multidisciplinary team. We found that different knowledge types are ultimately complementary. Many of the benefits of the STM-building process flowed from the knowledge integration steps, including improved communication, identification of uncertainties, and production of more broadly credible STMs that can be applied in diverse situations. The STM development process also generated hypotheses about sagebrush steppe dynamics that could be tested by future adaptive management and research. We conclude that multidisciplinary development of STMs has great potential for producing credible, useful tools for managing resilience of social-ecological systems. Based on this experience, we outline a streamlined, participatory STM development process that integrates multiple types of knowledge and incorporates adaptive management.

  17. 78 FR 57496 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Pollution Control Division. (iii) The initials AQCC mean or refer to the Colorado Air Quality Control..., 2015 and 2023. The Air Pollution Control Division (APCD) developed these emission inventories using EPA...): Expansion of the bus fleet by 14 buses, establishment of 400 Park 'n Ride lot spaces and a 250-space...

  18. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  19. A state-wide assessment of the association between epidural analgesia, maternal fever and neonatal antibiotics in Colorado, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alice; Olson, Daniel; Messacar, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    To determine if an association exists between epidural analgesia, maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic exposure in a state-wide birth cohort. We performed a retrospective cohort study of the population-based Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment birth certificate database. Data included all reported births in the state of Colorado between 2007 and 2012. Live, non-preterm, vaginal, singleton, in-hospital births were included in analysis. Maternal epidural analgesia and maternal fever. Neonatal antibiotic treatment for suspected sepsis. A stratified analysis was conducted to evaluate whether epidural use was an effect modifier of the association between maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic treatment. The final cohort included 261 457 births. 2.2% of women who received an epidural had a fever, as compared with 0.4% of women who did not receive an epidural (OR: 5.4; 95% CI 4.9 to 6.0), and neonates born to women who received an epidural had 1.26 times increased odds of antibiotic treatment (95% CI 1.1 to 1.4). Stratification by epidural use did not alter the association between maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic treatment. Colorado providers treat neonates born to mothers with maternal fever without respect to whether the mother had an epidural. Further research into improved criteria for neonatal sepsis evaluation that accounts for the contribution of maternal epidural fever should be developed to decrease unnecessary neonatal antibiotic exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Colorado amethyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Of the 20 or so amethyst localities reported in Colorado, four are described in some detail and comments are given on their geology. The Crystal Hill mine, near La Garita, Saguache County, contains rock crystal (long slender prisms with small rhombohedral terminations) and pale lavender amethyst (generally geode-like vugs. Amethyst also occurs in Unaweep Canyon south of Grand Junction in Mesa County. Pale to very dark amethyst occurs as crystals dominated by large rhombohedra and small prisms (approx 1 in. across). At Red Feather Lakes, Larimer County, amethyst crystals are medium to dark purple and have prism and rhombohedral faces nearly equally developed; some are doubly terminated. -R.S.M.

  1. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  2. The relationship between cannabis use and measures of anxiety and depression in a sample of college campus cannabis users and non-users post state legalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Lucy J; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A; Braunwalder, Jacob T; Torrence, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program into the relationship between cannabis use and emotion processing, participants were assessed on their level of cannabis exposure using the Recreational Cannabis Use Examination, a measure developed specifically to assess cannabis use in Colorado post state legalization. Three groups were created based on self-reported use: a control group who have never used, a casual user group and a chronic user group. Each participant also completed two measures of mood assessment, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Relationships between cannabis use groups and scores on these measures were then analyzed using both correlations and multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicate a relationship between casual cannabis use and scoring highly for depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There were no significant relationships between cannabis use and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

  3. The relationship between cannabis use and measures of anxiety and depression in a sample of college campus cannabis users and non-users post state legalization in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J. Troup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing research program into the relationship between cannabis use and emotion processing, participants were assessed on their level of cannabis exposure using the Recreational Cannabis Use Examination, a measure developed specifically to assess cannabis use in Colorado post state legalization. Three groups were created based on self-reported use: a control group who have never used, a casual user group and a chronic user group. Each participant also completed two measures of mood assessment, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Relationships between cannabis use groups and scores on these measures were then analyzed using both correlations and multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicate a relationship between casual cannabis use and scoring highly for depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There were no significant relationships between cannabis use and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

  4. Consumer use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use in the states of Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Giombi, Kristen C; Rains, Caroline B; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, the states of Colorado and Washington began allowing retail sales of marijuana for recreational use. The regulatory agencies in these states have implemented specific labelling requirements for edible marijuana products sold for recreational use to help address concerns such as delayed activation time, accidental ingestion, and proper dosing. We conducted 12 focus groups with 94 adult consumers and nonconsumers of edibles in Denver and Seattle to collect information on their use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use. Specifically, we asked participants about the usefulness, attractiveness, ease of comprehension, relevancy, and acceptability of the label information. Some focus group participants look for and read specific information, such as the potency profile and serving size statement, but do not read or were unfamiliar with other labelling features. The focus groups revealed that participants have some concerns about the current labelling of edibles. In particular, participants were concerned that there is too much information on the labels so consumers may not read the label, there is no obvious indication that the product contains marijuana (e.g., a Universal Symbol), and the information on consumption advice is not clear. Participants in both locations suggested that education in a variety of formats, such as web- and video-based education, would be useful in informing consumers about the possible risks of edibles. The focus group findings suggest that improvements are needed in the labelling of edibles to prevent unintentional ingestion among adult nonusers and help ensure proper dosing and safe consumption among adult users. These findings, along with lessons learned from Colorado and Washington, can help inform the labelling of edibles as additional states allow the sale of edibles for recreational use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating systems. Project status report for the months of December 1995 and January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory is currently testing several solar domestic hot water heating systems. The experimental systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. One of these systems is an unpressurized drainback system with a load-side heat exchanger. An analysis of the performance of this heat exchanger is the focus of this paper. Analytical calculations for the effectiveness and convective heat transfer coefficients from correlations are compared against the experimental data. Three models for the convective heat transfer coefficients are analyzed and yield results that underpredict the measured heat transfer from 23% to 72%. TRNSYS simulations were performed using the average effectiveness (the calculated effectiveness varies from 0.68 to 0.95); the results compare favorably with experimental results, indicating that a constant effectiveness is an adequate model for the system.

  6. Studies on stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Colorado with eastern faunal affinities, including a new state record of the midwestern salmonfly, Pteronarcys pictetii hagen (Plecoptera: Pteronarcyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Hood, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pteronarcys pictetii Hagen nymphs were collected and reared from the South Platte River at Julesburg in eastern Colorado. Including P. pictetii, eight species are now known from Colorado that exhibit eastern North American affinities, Paracapnia angulata Hanson, Taeniopteryx burksi Ricker and Ross, Taeniopteryx parvula Banks, Acroneuria abnormis (Newman), Perlesta decipiens (Walsh), Isoperla bilineata (Say), and Isoperla marlynia (Needham and Claassen). A brief discussion of the dispersal of these species into Colorado is presented.

  7. Hydrogeologic Data of the Denver Basin, Colorado. Colorado Water Conservation Board Basic Data Report Number 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    r- > r• i HYDROGEOLOGIC DATA OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO S! State of Colorado John A. Love A Governor Division of Natural Resources, Governor’s...16 1.255 ligtht -oxive-gray . . 9 746 Sandstone. silty, Shale and siltatone, Shale, carbonace/us, very fine-grained 1andht-oJlloi-qray igqht

  8. Geomorphic change in the Limitrophe reach of the Colorado River in response to the 2014 delta pulse flow, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Schmidt, John C.; Topping, David; Grams, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    A pulse of water was released from Morelos Dam into the dry streambed of the Colorado River in its former delta on March 23, 2014. Although small in relation to delta floods of a century ago, this was the first flow to reach the sea in nearly two decades. The pulse flow was significant in that it resulted from an international agreement, Minute 319, which allowed Colorado River water to be used for environmental restoration. Here we present a historical perspective of channel change and the results of geomorphic and sediment transport monitoring during the pulse flow between Yuma, Arizona and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora. This reach is known as the Limitrophe, because the river channel is the legal border between the United States and Mexico. Peak discharge of the pulse flow was 120 m3/s at Morelos Dam, but decreased to 71 m3/s at the southern border because of infiltration losses to the dry streambed. In contrast, flood flows in the 1980s and 1990s peaked above 600 m3/s at the southern border, and high flows above 200 m3/s were common. The sustained high flows in the 1980s caused widening and reworking of the river channel downstream through the delta. In the Limitrophe, flooding in 1993 from the Gila River basin dissected the 1980s flood surfaces, and smaller floods in the late 1990s incised the modern “active” channel within these higher surfaces. Field observations show that most geomorphic change during the pulse flow was confined to this pre-pulse, active channel. Relatively little bank erosion was evident, particularly in upstream reaches where vegetation is most dense, but new sandbars formed in areas of flow expansion. Farther downstream, localized bed scour and deposition ranged from 10s of centimeters to more than a meter, and fluvial dunes aggraded the bed in several locations. Measurable suspended-sediment transport occurred throughout the Limitrophe. Sediment concentrations peaked during the rising limb, and suspended sand concentrations suggest

  9. COMPARISON OF NATURAL BACKGROUND DOSE RATES FOR RESIDENTS OF THE AMARGOSA VALLEY, NV, TO THOSE IN LEADVILLE, CO, AND THE STATES OF COLORADO AND NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Moeller and L. C. Sun

    2006-01-01

    In the latter half of 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published a Proposed Rule (40 CFR Part 197) for establishing a dose rate standard for limiting radionuclide releases from the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository during the time period from 10 4 to 10 6 years after closure. The proposed standard was based on the difference in the estimated total dose rate from natural background in the Amargosa Valley and the ''average annual background radiation'' for the State of Colorado. As defined by the USEPA, ''natural background radiation consists of external exposures from cosmic and terrestrial sources, and internal exposures from indoor exposures to naturally-occurring radon''. On the basis of its assessments, the USEPA estimated that the difference in the dose rate in the two identified areas was 3.5 mSv y -1 . The purpose of this review was to provide an independent evaluation and review of this estimate. One of the first observations was that, because site-specific dose rate measurements for the Amargosa Valley ''were not available'', the dose rates for various sources of natural background in that area, used by the USEPA in its assessment, were based on modifications of the average values for the State of Nevada. A second observation was that the conversion factor applied in estimating the dose rates due to exposures to indoor radon and its decay products was a factor of 2 higher than the currently accepted value. Further review revealed that site-specific data for many natural background sources in the Amargosa Valley were available. One particularly important observation was that about 91% of the residents of that area live in mobile homes which, due to their construction and design, have indoor radon concentrations comparable to, or less than, those outdoors. For that reason, alone, the USEPA estimate of the average dose rate for residents of the Amargosa Valley, due to indoor radon, was not valid. For purposes

  10. A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

  11. 78 FR 73886 - Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., 2013, applicable to workers of Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Department's notice..., Colorado Springs, Colorado were engaged in activities related to production of semiconductor wafers and...

  12. Smoke from Colorado Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Hayman fire, situated about 65 kilometers southwest of Denver, Colorado, is the largest fire ever recorded in that state. The amount and distribution of smoke from the Hayman fire and from the Ponil Complex fires south of the New Mexico-Colorado border are portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were captured on June 9, 2002, on the second day of the Hayman fire, when only about 13 percent of the total 137,000 acres eventually consumed had been scorched.The image at top-left was acquired by MISR's most oblique (70-degree) forward-viewing camera, and the view at bottom-left was captured by MISR's 26-degree forward-viewing camera. Both left-hand panels are 'false color' views, utilizing near-infrared, red, and blue spectral bands displayed as red, green and blue respectively. With this spectral combination, highly vegetated areas appear red. At top right is a map of aerosol optical depth. This map utilizes the capability of the oblique view angles to measure the abundance of particles in the atmosphere. Haze distributed across the eastern part of the state is indicated by a large number of green pixels, and areas where no retrieval occurred are shown in dark grey. The more oblique perspective utilized within the top panels enhances the appearance of smoke and reveals the haze. In the lower left-hand panel the view is closer to nadir (downward-looking). Here the smoke plumes appear more compact and the haze across eastern Colorado is not detected. The lower right-hand panel is a stereoscopically derived height field that echoes the compact shape of the smoke plumes in the near-nadir image. Results indicate that the smoke plumes reached altitudes of a few kilometers above the surface terrain, or about the same height as the small clouds that appear orange along the bottom edge to the left of center.Data used in these visualizations were generated as part of operational processing at the Atmospheric Sciences Data

  13. 78 FR 13373 - Notice of Availability of the Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... states. The Colorado Plateau REA includes parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. It has an area... its associated data, are available through the BLM Web site at: http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/prog/more...

  14. Detection of an apple-infesting popoulation of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of apples (Malus domesica Borkh.) (Rosaceae) throughout much of the United States. The fly is endemic to the eastern U.S., where its primary host plants are several species of native hawthorns (C...

  15. Finding of No Significant Impact: Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Solar Array United States Air Force Academy, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    8 feet wide by 1 0 feet long by 8 feet high would be on-site to store communications equipment. Switchgear , used in association with the electric...United States Air Force Academy Brian Bush , Judge Advocate Environmental Attorney Jennifer McCorkle, Environmental Planner Russell Hume

  16. Region 8: Colorado Springs Adequate Letter (8/17/2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This March 3, 2011 letter from EPA to Chistopher E. Urbina M.D., MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment states that EPA has found that the Colorado Springs, CO second 10 year Limited Maintenance Plan (LMP) adequate for transportation

  17. Geothermal energy development in Colorado. Appendix 7 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, Richard A.; Coe, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    The term ''geothermal energy'' is a term that means different things to different people. To an increasing number, it means a practical, environmentally compatible energy resource that can, right now, help to relieve an overdependency upon fossil fuels. The potential for use of geothermal energy in Colorado seems to be substantial. As described by Barrett and Pearl (1978), at least 56 separate areas have surface manifestations of hydrothermal (hot water) resources. These areas are estimated to contain 5.914 quads (5.914 x 10{sup 15} Btu) of energy, with extractable energy of 1.48 quads. Geothermal resources already contribute to Colorado's energy supply. In fact, since the early 1900's, practical uses of geothermal resources have been common in Pagosa Springs, in Southwest Colorado. Residents there have used hot-water wells to heat numerous buildings, including the County Court House, schools, churches, the newspaper office, a liquor store, 2 hotels, 2 service stations, a drugstore, and a bank, as well as for the swimming pool and spa. Where resources are in use in other parts of the State, most are used for swimming pools or baths. A few wells or springs serve other purposes, among them space heating and agriculture, including greenhouses, a fish farm and algae-growing. Seemingly, interest in and awareness of the resources is growing. If leases and permits are made available, along with some economic incentives, some or all of the three potential power-generation sites may be developed by private industry. Perhaps with the assistance of federal programs, initially, lower temperature resources, too, will be developed by private industry. While government can provide opportunities, the outcome depends upon the decisions of numerous individuals throughout the system. Colorado does have geothermal resources that can contribute to the energy supply. It remains to be seen whether these resources will fulfill their promise.

  18. 2014 Kids Count in Colorado! The Big Picture: Taking the Whole Child Approach to Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as…

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program primarily for the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, and the State of Alaska. Semiannual progress report, October 1978-March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.; Bunker, M.E.; Waterbury, G.R.; Waller, R.A.

    1979-07-01

    During this six-month period, Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance samples were collected by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) from 623 locations in Colorado for a special study. Additional special studies are planned for nine other areas in the Rocky Mountain states in fiscal year 1979, plus some cleanup reconnaissance sampling in parts of four quadrangles that overlap state borders. Preparations for reconnaissance sampling of the entire North Slope region of Alaska have been made but sampling is contingent upon receiving supplemental funds. Water samples from 6725 locations were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting (DNC). Water samples from 9390 locations were analyzed by emission spectroscopy for 12 other elements. Sediment samples from 14,414 locations were analyzed for uranium and 31 other elements by combined DNC and neutron activation analysis. Sediment samples from 9876 locations were analyzed for two additional elements by x-ray fluorescence. Nine LASL reconnaissance reports, one pilot study data release, one supplemental multielement data release, a multielement data release for three areas in western Alaska, and one quarterly report were open filed by the Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office during the six-month period. Numerous other reports are in various stages of completion and several will be open filed in the near future

  20. Preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and to obtain a broad overview of the physical and economic factors which would have an effect on the suitability of the oil shale formations for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. These physical and economic factors are discussed in sections on magnitude of the oil shales, waste disposal relations with oil mining, cavities requirements, hydrological aspects, and study requirements

  1. Colorado's clean energy choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  2. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  3. Hydrochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, primarily for the Rocky Mountain States of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and the State of Alaska. Semiannual progress report, April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.A.; Bunker, M.E.; Waterbury, G.R.; Waller, R.A.

    1979-10-01

    Reconnaissance sampling was done in five partially completed quadrangles, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Panhandle of Alaska. Detailed geochemical survey sampling was done in nine follow-up study areas. About 23,000 waters and 25,000 sediments were collected, bringing the LASL totals to 165,000 waters and 185,000 sediments from 220,000 locations. Almost all of the Rocky Mountain region and 85% of Alaska have been sampled. About 9000 water and 22,000 sediment samples were analyzed for the standard LASL multielement suite (uranium plus 43 additional elements). Work continued on improving and automating all analytical techniques and building a state-of-the-art emission spectrograph for waters and sediments. The second neutron activation line became operational in July, bringing the sediment throughout to the designed 400 samples per day. Seven multielement reconnaissance reports, one detailed geochemical survey report, one semiannual progress report, and one topical report were open filed at the US DOE Grand Junction Office, Colorado

  4. Geophysical data collected during the 2014 minute 319 pulse flow on the Colorado River below Morelos Dam, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Callegary, James B.; Macy, Jamie P.; Reyes-Lopez, Jaime; Pérez-Flores, Marco

    2017-05-09

    Geophysical methods were used to monitor infiltration during a water release, referred to as a “pulse flow,” in the Colorado River delta in March and April 2014. The pulse flow was enabled by Minute 319 of the 1944 United States–Mexico Treaty concerning water of the Colorado River. Fieldwork was carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada as part of a binational effort to monitor the hydrologic effects of the pulse flow along the limitrophe (border) reach of the Colorado River and into Mexico. Repeat microgravity measurements were made at 25 locations in the southern limitrophe reach to quantify aquifer storage change during the pulse flow. Observed increases in storage along the river were greater with distance to the south, and the amount of storage change decreased away from the river channel. Gravity data at four monitoring well sites indicate specific yield equal to 0.32±0.05. Electromagnetic induction methods were used at 12 transects in the limitrophe reach of the river along the United States– Mexico border, and farther south into Mexico. These data, which are sensitive to variation in soil texture and water content, suggest relatively homogeneous conditions. Repeat direct-current resistivity measurements were collected at two locations to monitor groundwater elevation. Results indicate rapid groundwater-level rise during the pulse flow in the limitrophe reach and smaller variation at a more southern transect. Together, these data are useful for hydrogeologic characterization and hydrologic model development. Electronic data files are provided in the accompanying data release (Kennedy and others, 2016a).

  5. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  6. CSU-FDA (Colorado State Univ.-Food and Drug Administration) Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory. Annual report - 1982: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. The study is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages at irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the development period. This annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of January 1 through December 31, 1982

  7. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  8. Understanding uncertainties in future Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie A. Vano,; Bradley Udall,; Cayan, Daniel; Jonathan T Overpeck,; Brekke, Levi D.; Das, Tapash; Hartmann, Holly C.; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hoerling, Martin P; McCabe, Gregory J.; Morino, Kiyomi; Webb, Robert S.; Werner, Kevin; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is the primary water source for more than 30 million people in the United States and Mexico. Recent studies that project streamf low changes in the Colorado River all project annual declines, but the magnitude of the projected decreases range from less than 10% to 45% by the mid-twenty-first century. To understand these differences, we address the questions the management community has raised: Why is there such a wide range of projections of impacts of future climate change on Colorado River streamflow, and how should this uncertainty be interpreted? We identify four major sources of disparities among studies that arise from both methodological and model differences. In order of importance, these are differences in 1) the global climate models (GCMs) and emission scenarios used; 2) the ability of land surface and atmospheric models to simulate properly the high-elevation runoff source areas; 3) the sensitivities of land surface hydrology models to precipitation and temperature changes; and 4) the methods used to statistically downscale GCM scenarios. In accounting for these differences, there is substantial evidence across studies that future Colorado River streamflow will be reduced under the current trajectories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions because of a combination of strong temperature-induced runoff curtailment and reduced annual precipitation. Reconstructions of preinstrumental streamflows provide additional insights; the greatest risk to Colorado River streamf lows is a multidecadal drought, like that observed in paleoreconstructions, exacerbated by a steady reduction in flows due to climate change. This could result in decades of sustained streamflows much lower than have been observed in the ~100 years of instrumental record.

  9. Proceedings of a workshop on the development and evaluation of habitat suitability criteria: A compilation of papers and discussions presented at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, December 8-12, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Ken; Zuboy, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The development of reliable habitat suitability criteria is critical to the successful implementation of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM), or any other habitat based evaluation technology. It is also a fascinating topic of research, for several reasons. First, the “science” of habitat quantification is relatively young. Descriptions of habitat use and partitioning can be traced back to Darwin, if not further. Attempts to actually quantify habitat use can be found predominantly during the last two decades, with most of the activity occurring in about the last five years. Second, this work is challenging because we are usually working with fish or some other organism that lives out of sight in an environment that is foreign to humans. Most of the data collection techniques that have been developed for standard fisheries work are unsuited, without modification, for criteria development. These factors make anyone involved in this type of research a pioneer, of sorts. Pioneers often make new and wonderful discoveries, but they also sometimes get lost. In our opinion, however, there is an even more rewarding aspect to criteria development research. It seems that the field of biology has tended to become increasingly clinical over the years. Criteria development demands the unobtrusive observation of organisms in their natural environment, a fact that allows the biological to be a naturalist and still get paid for it. The relative youth and importance of habitat quantification have resulted in rapid advancements in the state of the art. The expansion of methods is vividly demonstrated simply by comparing the two Instream Flow Information Papers written on the subject in 1978 and in 1986. One of the missions of the Aquatic Systems Branch (formerly the Instream Flow Group) is to serve as a clearinghouse for new techniques and methods. In keeping with this role, a workshop was conducted during December 1986 to discuss current and newly evolving methods

  10. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-03-20

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colorado Health Foundation commissioned the RAND Corporation to conduct a study to better understand why these individuals are not enrolled in health insurance coverage and to develop recommendations for how Colorado can strengthen its outreach and enrollment efforts during the next open enrollment period, which starts in November 2014. RAND conducted focus groups with uninsured and newly insured individuals across the state and interviews with local stakeholders responsible for enrollment efforts in their regions. The authors identified 11 commonly cited barriers, as well as several that were specific to certain regions or populations (such as young adults and seasonal workers). Collectively, these barriers point to a set of four priority recommendations that stakeholders in Colorado may wish to consider: (1) Support and expand localized outreach and tailored messaging; (2) Strengthen marketing and messaging to be clear, focused on health benefits of insurance (rather than politics and mandates), and actionable; (3) Improve the clarity and transparency of insurance and health care costs and enrollment procedures; and (4) Revisit the two-stage enrollment process and improve Connect for Health Colorado website navigation and technical support.

  11. Literacy in a Bag: Colorado School for the Deaf Sends Reading Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    To assist parents with deaf or hard of hearing children who may need help supporting their child's learning, the Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind developed Family Literacy Packs. These literacy packs, available to families within the state of Colorado, provide fun, interactive activities that help parents support their children's…

  12. Colorado family physicians' attitudes toward medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrad, Elin; Reid, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of medical marijuana has expanded dramatically; it is now permitted in 16 states and the District of Columbia. Our study of family physicians in Colorado is the first to gather information about physician attitudes toward this evolving practice. We distributed an anonymous web-based electronic survey to the 1727 members of the Colorado Academy of Family Physicians' listserv. Items included individual and practice characteristics as well as experience with and attitudes toward medical marijuana. Five hundred twenty family physicians responded (30% response rate). Of these, 46% did not support physicians recommending medical marijuana; only 19% thought that physicians should recommend it. A minority thought that marijuana conferred significant benefits to physical (27%) and mental (15%) health. Most agreed that marijuana poses serious mental (64%) and physical (61%) health risks. Eighty-one percent agreed that physicians should have formal training before recommending medical marijuana, and 92% agreed that continuing medical education about medical marijuana should be available to family physicians. Despite a high prevalence of use in Colorado, most family physicians are not convinced of marijuana's health benefits and believe its use carries risks. Nearly all agreed on the need for further medical education about medical marijuana.

  13. BLM Colorado Federal Mineral Estate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This Federal Mineral Estate (Subsurface) dataset is a result of combining data sets that were collected at each BLM Colorado Field Office and using...

  14. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  15. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  16. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  17. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE's deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program

  18. Colorado Rules and Regulations Governing Operation of School Transportation Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Office of Field Services.

    This document contains the text of the rules and regulations, adopted in 1972 and later amended, governing the operation of student transportation vehicles in the state of Colorado. They define the kinds of vehicles that qualify as school transportation vehicles, outline the requirements for vehicle operator's examination, describe the types of…

  19. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  20. 78 FR 53783 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ....R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY..., Chief of Staff, President's Office, Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903... Springs, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice...

  1. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... funerary objects under the control of The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO. The human remains and...

  2. 78 FR 19304 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...-PPWOCRADN0] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY..., Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone (719) 389-6201... Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the Denver Museum of Nature & Science...

  3. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  4. Colorado River and its utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rue, Eugene Clyde; Grover, Nathan C.

    1916-01-01

    The region traversed by the Colorado and its tributaries is for many reasons of intense interest to the people of the United States. Here was the home of that forgotten people of which there is almost no record except the hieroglyphics on the rocks, the ruins of their irrigation systems, and the cliff dwellings by which they are most widely known; here were Spanish missions whose history extends back nearly to the days of Balboa and Cortez; here is the Grand Canyon, whose sublimity was first fully disclosed by Maj. Powell and his associates, who navigated it from end to end in 1869 and 1872; here are the greatest known natural bridges, so remote and inaccessible that they have only recently been discovered; here is the mighty river and its tributaries, as yet largely undeveloped, affording possibilities of extensive use for water power in its many canyons and for irrigation in its desert valleys, which need only the life-giving water to make them productive and valuable. We are interested in its mysteries, its traditions, its history, and its possible future; in the fascination of its deserts, whose immensity awes us; in the grandeur of its mountains, from the highest peaks of the Rockies on the east to the beauties of the Uinta and Wasatch mountains on the west; in the wonders of its canyons, perhaps the most famous in the world; in the range of its climate, from its short and cold summer season in Wyoming, where frosts may occur in every month of the year, to the subtropical temperatures of the valleys of Arizona, where the growing season never ends.

  5. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  6. Point Sources of Emerging Contaminants Along the Colorado River Basin: Impact on Water Use and Reuse in the Arid Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf...

  7. Childhood Obesity in Colorado: A Growing Problem--The Impact of the Epidemic and Recommendations for Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tara

    2007-01-01

    Colorado traditionally has ranked as one of the healthiest states in the nation, a claim that reinforces a culture of activity, community and well-being. Though Colorado is ahead of the curve in this area, Coloradans aren't immune to the growing trends that threaten the health of people across the nation. One of the most concerning elements of…

  8. Guidebook of the Western United States: Part C - The Santa Fe Route, with a side trip to Grand Canyon of the Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Nelson Horatio; ,

    1916-01-01

    The United States of America comprise an area so vast in extent and so diverse in natural features as well as in characters due to human agency that the American citizen who knows thoroughly his own country must have traveled widely and observed wisely. To 'know America first' is a patriotic obligation, but to meet this obligation the railroad traveler needs to have his eyes directed toward the more important or essential things within his field of vision and then to have much that he sees explained by what is unseen in the swift passage of the train. Indeed, many things that attract his attention are inexplicable except as the story of the past is available to enable him to interpret the present. Herein lie the value and the charm of history, whether human or geologic. The present stimulus given to travel in the home country will encourage many thousands of Americans to study geography at first hand. To make this study most profitable the traveler needs a handbook that will answer the questions that come to his mind so readily along the way. Furthermore, the aim of such a guide should be to stimulate the eye in the selection of the essentials in the scene that so rapidly unfolds itself in the crossing of the continent. In recognition of the opportunity afforded in 1915 to render service of this kind to an unusually large number of American citizens, as well as to visitors from other countries, the United States Geological Survey has prepared a series of guidebooks covering four of the older railroad routes west of the Mississippi. These books are educational in purpose, but the method adopted is to entertain the traveler by making more interesting what he sees from the car window. The plan of the series is to present authoritative information that may enable the reader to realize adequately the scenic and material resources of the region he is traversing, to comprehend correctly the basis of its development, and above all to appreciate keenly the real value of the

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Colorado single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Living with wildfire in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Nicholas Flores; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe results of a survey to homeowners living in wildfire-prone areas of two counties along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The survey was designed to elicit information on homeowners' experience with wildfire, perceptions of wildfire risk on their property and neighboring properties, mitigation efforts undertaken...

  11. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  12. Radioactive mineral occurences of Colorado and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson-Moore, J.L.; Collins, D.B.; Hornbaker, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    This two-part report provides an essentially complete listing of radioactive occurrences in Colorado, with a comprehensive bibliography and bibliographic cross-indexes. Part 1 lists approximately 3000 known radioactive occurrences with their locations and brief accounts of the geology, mineralogy, radioactivity, host rock, production data, and source of data for each. The occurrences are classified by host rock and plotted on U.S. Geological Survey 1 0 x 2 0 topographic quadrangle maps with a special 1 : 100,000-scale base map for the Uravan mineral belt. Part 2 contains the bibliography of approximately 2500 citations on radioactive mineral occurrences in the state, with cross-indexes by county, host rock, and the special categories of ''Front Range,'' ''Colorado Plateau,'' and ''thorium.'' The term ''occurrence'' as used in this report is defined as any site where the concentration of uranium or thorium is at least 0.01% or where the range of radioactivity is greater than twice the background radioactivity. All citations and occurrence data are stored on computer diskettes for easy retrieval, correction, and updating

  13. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  14. Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-29

    This report presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries-$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeo wners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions-primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders-if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  15. A Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-13

    This is the Executive Summary of a report that presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries--$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeowners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions--primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders--if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  16. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo County, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Denver, CO. Rippeteau, Bruce. 1977. 5LA1115: Hackberry Springs, a Colorado Millenial Source. Office of the State Archaeologist Publication Series No 9...AD-Ai59 239 AN ARCHEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE 1/2 PUEBLO DEPOT ACTIVI.(U) WOODWARD-CLYDE CONSULTANTS WALNUT CREEK CR R KNUDSON 81...7 --- Final /Report No. 19 October 1, 1984 CJ 0 An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo County, Colorado

  17. 1992 Colorado Economic Impact Study for the US Department of Energy and Colorado Department of Health Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The findings of the 1992 Colorado Economic Impact Study (CEIS) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project are outlined below. All dollar amounts used in the study are in year-of-expenditure dollars. The total funding requirement for the State of Colorado for the UMTRA Project is estimated to be $66.8 million, or 10 percent of the remedial action costs for the UMTRA Project in Colorado. The UMTRA Project will generate $487.5 million in gross labor income in Colorado between 1983 and 1996. This includes $54.4 million in state and local tax revenues and $41.2 million in federal individual income tax revenues. The net economic benefit of the UMTRA Project to Colorado is $355.1 million. For every dollar the State of Colorado invests in the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.32 in gross labor income. The employment impact to the Western Slope region is significant. The UMTRA Project will create a total employment impact of 13,749 fulltime equivalents (FTES) spread over. a period of 13 years in seven site areas. Nearly 100 percent of the labor will be drawn from the local communities. The State of Colorado's Western Slope is anticipated to be minimally impacted by the phaseout of the UMTRA Project. Unlike industries that shut down operations without warning, the UMTRA Project workers, local government, and businesses know the schedule for completion and can consider and prepare for the impact of UMTRA Project conclusion. Further, because the majority of the work force is local, there has not been a significant investment in each community's infrastructure. Any small increases in the infrastructure will not be abandoned at the end of the UMTRA Project due to a marked increase in migration out of the local community

  18. Gunnison, Colorado, subpile study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    To protect human health and the environment, the UMTRA project will remediate the uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. There are explicit requirements (i.e., 40 Part CFR Part 192) for the surface remediation of radiologically contaminated soils on UMTRA sites. The removal of subpile sediment to the depth required by 40 CFR Part 192 will leave in place deeper foundation sediment that is contaminated with hazardous constituents other than radium-226 and thorium-230. The Department of Energy and the Colorado Department of Health have questioned whether this contaminated soil could potentially act as a continuing source of ground water contamination even after surface remediation based on 40 CFR Part 192 is complete. To evaluate the subpile sediments as a potential source of ground water contamination, the Gunnison subpile study was initiated. This report summarizes the results and findings of this study

  19. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de

  20. SOMA TÉRMICA PARA O SUBPERÍODO SEMEADURA-MATURAÇÃO DE FEIJÃO CV. CARIOCA EM COLORADO DO OESTE, RONDÔNIA ACCUMULATED HEAT UNIT FOR THE BEAN CV. ‘CARIOCA’ SOWING-MATURATION SUB-PERIOD IN COLORADO DO OESTE, RONDÔNIA STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Notti Miranda

    2010-05-01

    -style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; feijoeiro comum; graus-dia; temperatura-base; condições físico-químicas.

     

     

    Heat unit (degrees-day was determined for the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. ‘Carioca’ sowing-maturation sub-period. Tests were based on phenological data from field experiments carried out during break crop period with irrigation, in 2006, and regular harvest period with and without irrigation, in 2007. Experiments were conducted at the Instituto Federal de Rondônia (IFRO, in Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. The degrees-day sum (DD was determined by using two methods. The first method consisted of three different lower base-temperatures (Bt, 10°C, 12°C, and 15°C, and

  1. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan M.; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J.; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F.; Booth, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. Methods This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, plegalization. PMID:26385161

  2. 78 FR 72700 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of History Colorado, Denver, CO. The human....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver... an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian...

  3. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  4. Carbon Sequestration in Colorado's Lands: A Spatial and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, N.; Brazeau, A.; Browning, K.; Meier, R.

    2017-12-01

    Managing landscapes to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration has significant potential to mitigate climate change. While a previous carbon baseline assessment in Colorado has been published (Conant et al, 2007), our study pulls from the existing literature to conduct an updated baseline assessment of carbon stocks and a unique review of carbon policies in Colorado. Through a multi-level spatial analysis based in GIS and informed by a literature review, we established a carbon stock baseline and ran four land use and carbon stock projection scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. We identified 11 key policy recommendations for improving Colorado's carbon stocks, and evaluated each using Bardach's policy matrix approach (Bardach, 2012). We utilized a series of case studies to support our policy recommendations. We found that Colorado's lands have a carbon stock of 3,334 MMT CO2eq, with Forests and Woodlands holding the largest stocks, at 1,490 and 774 MMT CO2eq respectively. Avoided conversion of all Grasslands, Forests, and Wetlands in Colorado projected over 40 years would increase carbon stocks by 32 MMT CO2eq, 1,053 MMT CO2eq, and 36 MMT CO2eq, respectively. Over the 40-year study period, Forests and Woodlands areas are projected to shrink while Shrublands and Developed areas are projected to grow. Those projections suggest sizable increases in area of future wildfires and development in Colorado. We found that numerous policy opportunities to sequester carbon exist at different jurisdictional levels and across land cover types. The largest opportunities were found in state-level policies and policies impacting Forests, Grasslands, and Wetlands. The passage of statewide emission reduction legislation has the highest potential to impact carbon sequestration, although political and administrative feasibility of this option are relatively low. This study contributes to the broader field of carbon sequestration literature by examining the nexus of carbon stocks

  5. Into the void: Regulating pesticide use in Colorado's commercial cannabis markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subritzky, Todd; Pettigrew, Simone; Lenton, Simon

    2017-04-01

    In 2014, Colorado implemented the world's first seed-to-sale recreational cannabis market under a commercial model. This paper aims to provide a thick descriptive account that gives insight into the issues and complexities of Colorado's pioneering and evolving attempt to regulate the use of pesticides on commercial cannabis plantations. The paper examines multiple data sets including: (i) Colorado State Government documents; (ii) recreational cannabis regulations; (iii) mass and niche media publications (n=175); (iv) face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders, including seniors, regulators and industry executives (n=8); and (v) field notes from relevant conferences and cultivation facility tours in Denver in October, 2016. Two key issues are identified. First, a public safety threat has arisen relating to application of pesticides on cannabis with intensified toxicity in concentrated products of particular concern. Second, as a pioneering jurisdiction, Colorado faces a considerable knowledge gap. To expand collective learning on this issue, for which no regulatory template and little research exists, state regulators tapped industry and other stakeholder expertise while attempting to ensure public safety goals were achieved and regulatory capture by industry was limited. Four years since the recreational cannabis market in Colorado was legalised, the State continues to grapple with the pesticide issue as testing regulations and cultivation standards are yet to be finalised. While more work is needed, Colorado has made significant progress in developing regulations relating to this complex matter. As governments of countries such as Canada and US states, including California, contemplate changes to recreational cannabis laws, Colorado's experience can assist regulators in other jurisdictions considering policy change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 81.406 - Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colorado. 81.406 Section 81.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.406 Colorado. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land...

  7. Arizona Migrant Child Education Teacher Exchange: Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, J. O., Jr.; Brink, Donald

    The Office of Migrant Child Education of the Arizona Department of Education participated in the annual Teacher Exchange Program by visiting Colorado, April 14-18, 1980. Sixteen teachers and/or program coordinators (selected by the project administrator) prepresented 13 Arizona Migrant Child Education Projects and traveled to Colorado under the…

  8. Colorado School Health Education Survey 1992. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of the 1992 Colorado School Health Education Survey, which targets public secondary schools with grades 7 through 12. Results provide a basic sketch of the extent of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) prevention and health education being implemented in Colorado's secondary schools. The survey,…

  9. Lessons learned after three years of legalized, recreational marijuana: The Colorado experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tista S; Vigil, Daniel I; Maffey, Ali; Tolliver, Rickey; Van Dyke, Mike; Kattari, Leonardo; Krug, Heather; Reed, Jack K; Wolk, Larry

    2017-11-01

    In November 2012 Colorado voters approved legalized recreational marijuana. On January 1, 2014 Colorado became the first state to allow legal sales of non-medical marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Since that time, the state has been monitoring potential impacts on population health. In this paper we present lessons learned in the first three years following legal sales of recreational marijuana. These lessons pertain to health behaviors and health outcomes, as well as to health policy issues. Our intent is to share these lessons with other states as they face the prospect of recreational marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Marijuana and acute health care contacts in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Hall, Katelyn; Vigil, Daniel; Banerji, Shireen; Monte, Andrew; VanDyke, Mike

    2017-11-01

    Over 22 million Americans are current users of marijuana; half of US states allow medical marijuana, and several allow recreational marijuana. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact marijuana has on hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and regional poison center (RPC) calls in Colorado, a medical and recreational marijuana state. This is a retrospective review using Colorado Hospital Association hospitalizations and ED visits with marijuana-related billing codes, and RPC marijuana exposure calls. Legalization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with an increase in hospitalizations, ED visits, and RPC calls linked with marijuana exposure. From 2000 to 2015, hospitalization rates with marijuana-related billing codes increased from 274 to 593 per 100,000 hospitalizations in 2015. Overall, the prevalence of mental illness among ED visits with marijuana-related codes was five-fold higher (5.07, 95% CI: 5.0, 5.1) than the prevalence of mental illness without marijuana-related codes. RPC calls remained constant from 2000 through 2009. However, in 2010, after local medical marijuana policy liberalization, the number of marijuana exposure calls significantly increased from 42 to 93; in 2014, after recreational legalization, calls significantly increased by 79.7%, from 123 to 221 (pmarijuana legalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unintentional Pediatric Exposures to Marijuana in Colorado, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Deakyne, Sara J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Bajaj, Lalit; Roosevelt, Genie

    2016-09-06

    As of 2015, almost half of US states allow medical marijuana, and 4 states allow recreational marijuana. To our knowledge, the effect of recreational marijuana on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the incidence of pediatric marijuana exposures evaluated at a children's hospital and regional poison center (RPC) in Colorado before and after recreational marijuana legalization and to compare population rate trends of RPC cases for marijuana exposures with the rest of the United States. Retrospective cohort study of hospital admissions and RPC cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, at Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, a tertiary care children's hospital. Participants included patients 0 to 9 years of age evaluated at the hospital's emergency department, urgent care centers, or inpatient unit and RPC cases from Colorado for single-substance marijuana exposures. Marijuana. Marijuana exposure visits and RPC cases, marijuana source and type, clinical effects, scenarios, disposition, and length of stay. Eighty-one patients were evaluated at the children's hospital, and Colorado's RPC received 163 marijuana exposure cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, for children younger than 10 years of age. The median age of children's hospital visits was 2.4 years (IQR, 1.4-3.4); 25 were girls (40%) . The median age of RPC marijuana exposures was 2 years (IQR, 1.3-4.0), and 85 patients were girls (52%). The mean rate of marijuana-related visits to the children's hospital increased from 1.2 per 100 000 population 2 years prior to legalization to 2.3 per 100,000 population 2 years after legalization (P = .02). Known marijuana products involved in the exposure included 30 infused edibles (48%). Median length of stay was 11 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 6-19) and 26 hours (IQR, 19-38) for admitted patients. Annual RPC pediatric marijuana cases increased more than 5-fold from 2009 (9) to 2015 (47). Colorado had an

  12. The Colorado Plateau III: integrating research and resources management for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.

  13. The rural utility response to Colorado's electricity mandates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When Colorado voters passed Amendment 37 in 2004, it became the first state to pass a renewable portfolio standard at the ballet box, suggesting broad appeal to harness and pay for renewable energy. While large urban utilities are prepared to make this transition, smaller cities and rural areas, for various financial and scale issues are severely disadvantaged in trying to incorporate more renewable energy sources into their electricity mix. This was evident by the state's support for Amendment 37, which was passed due to strong support in the Denver metro area-representing nearly half of the state's population. Support for the bill was poor in the rest of the state. Nevertheless, in 2007, the state expanded up Amendment 37 by forcing the utilities in rural communities to diversify their electricity mix. This study surveyed the managers at the state's various rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in an effort to gage their attitudes concerning: carbon legislation, conservation and efficiency programs, and their plans for making the transition away from fossil fuel generation. - Highlights: → Communities served by rural utilities opposed Colorado's state-wide RPS, but were forced to adhere anyway. → Most rural utilities are very concerned about the economic impacts of trying to diversify their energy portfolios. → Many of these unregulated utilities were already pushing DSM programs to promote conservation and improve efficiency.

  14. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitchell, John M. [Program Administrator; Palmer, Adam L. [Program Manager

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  15. Mary Carroll Craig Bradford: Providing Opportunities to Colorado's Women and Children through Suffrage and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Heather Kleinpeter

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a historical biography on the life, suffrage and educational contributions of Mary Carroll Craig Bradford, a wife, mother, suffragist, teacher and educational administrator in the state of Colorado. The purpose of this dissertation was to find out exactly what Bradford's contributions were to her state. The initial observation…

  16. Summary of technical testimony in the Colorado Water Division 1 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy (Tech. Coord.) Gordon

    1995-01-01

    The Colorado Water Division 1 Water Rights Trial was one of the most significant federal reserved instream flow water rights cases to occur since the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of United States v. New Mexico in 1978. This document summarize the large amount of technical data and information pertaining to the disciplines of geomorphology,...

  17. Impact of energy development on water resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flug, M.; Walker, W.R.; Skogerboe, G.V.; Smith, S.W.

    1977-08-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin contains appreciable amounts of undeveloped coal, oil shale, and uranium resources, which are important in the national energy demand system. A mathematical model, which simulates the salt and water exchange phase of potential fuel conversions, has been developed, based on a subbasin analysis identifying available mineral and water resources. Potential energy developments are evaluated with respect to the resulting impacts upon both the quantity and salinity of the waters in the Colorado River. Model solutions are generated by use of a multilevel minimum cost linear programming algorithm, minimum cost referring to the cost of developing predetermined levels of energy output. Level one in the model analysis represents an aggregation of subbasins along state boundaries and thereby optimizes energy developments over the five states of the Upper Colorado River Basin. In each of the five second level problems, energy developments over a subbasin division within the respective states are optimized. Development policies which use high salinity waters of the Upper Colorado River enable a net salinity reduction to be realized in the Colorado River at Lee Ferry, Arizona

  18. Climate Projections and Drought: Verification for the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N. I.; Piechota, T. C.; Miller, W. P.; Ahmad, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin has experienced the driest 17 year period (2000-2016) in over 100 years of historical record keeping. While the Colorado River reservoir system began the current drought at near 100% capacity, reservoir storage has fallen to just above 50% during the drought. Even though federal and state water agencies have worked together to mitigate the impact of the drought and have collaboratively sponsored conservation programs and drought contingency plans, the 17-years of observed data beg the question as to whether the most recent climate projections would have been able to project the current drought's severity. The objective of this study is to analyze observations and ensemble projections (e.g. temperature, precipitation, streamflow) from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 archive in the Colorado River Basin and compare metrics related to skill scores, the Palmer Drought Severity Index, and water supply sustainability index. Furthermore, a sub-ensemble of CMIP3/CMIP5 projections, developed using a teleconnection replication verification technique developed by the author, will also be compared to the observed record to assist in further validating the technique as a usable process to increase skill in climatological projections. In the end, this study will assist to better inform water resource managers about the ability of climate ensembles to project hydroclimatic variability and the appearance of decadal drought periods.

  19. Crash Fatality Rates After Recreational Marijuana Legalization in Washington and Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelotte, Jayson D; Brown, Lawrence H; Luftman, Kevin M; Mardock, Alexandra L; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Coopwood, Ben; Brown, Carlos V R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics. Pre-recreational marijuana legalization annual changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were similar to those for the control states. Post-recreational marijuana legalization changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado also did not significantly differ from those for the control states (adjusted difference-in-differences coefficient = +0.2 fatalities/billion vehicle miles traveled; 95% confidence interval = -0.4, +0.9). Three years after recreational marijuana legalization, changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. Future studies over a longer time remain warranted.

  20. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Primarily for the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and the State of Alaska. Semiannual progress report, April--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.; Waterbury, G.R.; Bunker, M.E.; Waller, R.A.

    1979-06-01

    During this six-month period, Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) samples were collected from approximately 60,000 locations in the Rocky Mountain states and Alaska. To date, all of the LASL Rocky Mountain region has been sampled at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 , and 65% of Alaska has been sampled at nominal densities of either one location per 23 km 2 (flatlands) or one location per 11 km 2 (mountains). Also during the report period, water samples from 13,771 locations were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting (DNC). Water samples from 12,993 locations were analyzed for 12 other elements by emission spectroscopy. Sediment samples from 8820 locations were analyzed for uranium and 31 other elements by combined DNC and neutron activation analysis. Sediment samples from 22,696 locations were analyzed for two additional elements by x-ray fluorescence. No data are given. Fourteen LASL reconnaissance reports, one pilot study data release, one quarterly progress report, and a manual of LASL HSSR field procedures were open filed by the Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office

  1. FLUORINE IN COLORADO OIL SHALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyni, John R.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Oil shale from the lower part of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, averages 0. 13 weight percent fluorine, which is about twice that found in common shales, but is the same as the average amount found in some oil shales from other parts of the world. Some fluorine may reside in fluorapatite; however, limited data suggest that cryolite may be quantitatively more important. To gain a better understanding of the detailed distribution of fluorine in the deeper nahcolite-bearing oil shales, cores were selected for study from two exploratory holes drilled in the northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin where the oil shales reach their maximum thickness and grade.

  2. Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to Change: Climate, Ecosystems, and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Schwinning

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado Plateau is located in the interior, dry end of two moisture trajectories coming from opposite directions, which have made this region a target for unusual climate fluctuations. A multi-decadal drought event some 850 years ago may have eliminated maize cultivation by the first human settlers of the Colorado Plateau, the Fremont and Anasazi people, and contributed to the abandonment of their settlements. Even today, ranching and farming are vulnerable to drought and struggle to persist. The recent use of the Colorado Plateau primarily as rangeland has made this region less tolerant to drought due to unprecedented levels of surface disturbances that destroy biological crusts, reduce soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, and increase rates of soil erosion. The most recent drought of 2002 demonstrated the vulnerability of the Colorado Plateau in its currently depleted state and the associated costs to the local economies. New climate predictions for the southwestern United States include the possibility of a long-term shift to warmer, more arid conditions, punctuated by megadroughts not seen since medieval times. It remains to be seen whether the present-day extractive industries, aided by external subsidies, can persist in a climate regime that apparently exceeded the adaptive capacities of the Colorado Plateau's prehistoric agriculturalists.

  3. Evaluation of Biological Data, Guanella Pass Area, Clear Creek and Park Counties, Colorado, Water Years 1995-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Appreciation also is extended to those who processed and identified the biological samples: Boris Kondratieff , entomologist and professor at Colorado...samples were processed, identified, and counted by Boris Kondratieff (Colorado State University, written commun., 1997) in Fort Collins, Colo. Samples...mountain streams range between 3.0 and 4.0, and contaminated streams generally have values less than 1.0 (Ward and Kondratieff , 1992). The Shannon

  4. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Leases (Dissolved)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  5. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Units (Dissolve)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  6. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Leases (Dissolved)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  7. BLM Colorado Oil & Gas Geophysical Permits (Dissolved)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  8. BLM Colorado Oil & Gas Geophysical Permits (Dissolved)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  9. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Units (Dissolve)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  10. State DOT mission evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper highlights the challenges faced by six state departments of transportation (California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Missouri, Oregon) and the views of their respective chief executive officers within the context of national trends. E...

  11. Birth outcomes in Colorado's undocumented immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Catherine

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The birth outcomes of undocumented women have not been systematically studied on a large scale. The growing number of undocumented women giving birth in the United States has important implications for clinical care and public health policy. The objective of this study was to describe birth outcomes of undocumented immigrants in Colorado. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of singleton births to 5961 undocumented women using birth certificate data for 1998–1999. Results Undocumented mothers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be single. They had higher rates of anemia, were less likely to gain enough weight, and less likely to receive early prenatal care. They were much less likely to use alcohol or tobacco. Undocumented women had a lower rate of low birth weight (5.3% v 6.5%, P Conclusion Undocumented women have lower rates of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants, but higher rates of pregnancy related risk factors. Higher prevalence of some risk factors which are amenable to medical intervention reveals the need for improved prenatal care in this group.

  12. Colorado School Finance Partnership: Report and Recommendations. Financing Colorado's Future: Assessing Our School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, Colorado has emerged as a national leader in crafting innovative solutions for challenges facing its public school system. From implementing the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reforms to more recent legislation including standards and assessments for a preschool-through-college…

  13. Subsidence monitoring program at Cyprus Coal's Colorado operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.L.; Shoemaker, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Published subsidence data for the western United States is limited in comparison with data for the east. This paper summarizes the results of a subsidence monitoring program above two longwall panels at the Foidel Creek Mine located in northwest Colorado. The monitoring area is characterized by overburden ranging from 1000 ft to 1100 ft in thickness. the surface slope parallels the dip of the bedding at approximately 5 deg. Average mining height is 9 ft. Smax averaged 3.4 ft. Draw angles averaged 15 deg for up-dip ribsides and 19 deg for down-dip ribsides. A site-specific profile function is developed from the data

  14. The people vote on abortion funding: Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1985-01-01

    On Election Day 1984, Colorado voters narrowly approved an amendment to the state constitution cutting off all public funds for abortion. That same Election Day saw an effort to end abortion funding in the state of Washington fail decisively. In both states, the effort to terminate funding was led by antiabortion activists who sought to characterize the issue as an economic one. Failure of the Colorado Taxpayers for Choice to emphasize the economic impact of the amendment appears to have been a fatal mistake. The coalition, for example, never publicized the fact that the state pays US$400 for prenatal care and US$1,400 for normal delivery, compared with an average of US$269 for an abortion. It emphasized more than any other theme that the amendment would threaten the rights of all women in Colorado to obtain an abortion--claims that were perceived by the public to be exaggerated, even hysterical. The Washington Taxpayers for Choice, on the other hand, confronted the cost issue directly and provided convincing evidence that that the new law would ultimately cost taxpayers millions of dollars. In addition, some political experts believe that that a "grass roots" network of local political activists who go door-to-door canvassing, public speaking and telephoning is essential to prevailing in a referendum. This appears to have been the case in Washington, where abortion foes did not have nearly as extensive a grass roots organization as Washington Taxpayes for Choice. In Colorado, grass roots support for abortion rights has never been fully developed, largely because the governor has maintained a strong prochoice stand for the past 11 years. Groups in California, Oregon, Washington and Massachusetts have announced their intention to terminate public funding for abortions through voter initiatives in the 1986 elections. In any antifunding referendum, voters must be shown clearly that a cutoff of abortion funds could actually cost taxpayers millions of dollars for

  15. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994-2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994-June 2009 while July 2009-2011 represented the post-commercialization period. In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), pmarijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wood wastes and residues generated along the Colorado Front Range as a potential fuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie E. Ward; Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States there is interest in utilizing renewable fuel sources as an alternative to coal and nat-ural gas. This project was initiated to determine the availability of wood wastes and residues for use as fuel in ce-ment kilns and power plants located along the Colorado Front Range. Research was conducted through literature searches, phone surveys,...

  17. 77 FR 13629 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Mexico & Utah may proceed after that date if no additional claimants come forward. History Colorado is... the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward... Nation, New Mexico; Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico (formerly the Pueblo of San Juan); Paiute Indian Tribe of...

  18. Renewable Energy Deployment in Colorado and the West: A Modeling Sensitivity and GIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Resource Planning Model is a capacity expansion model designed for a regional power system, such as a utility service territory, state, or balancing authority. We apply a geospatial analysis to Resource Planning Model renewable energy capacity expansion results to understand the likelihood of renewable development on various lands within Colorado.

  19. The Impact of the Recession on Public Library Use in Colorado: A Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Hofschire, Linda; Daisey, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report shares the statistical trends for public library use in Colorado before and since the onset of the latest recession. It also includes the voices of librarians from around the state, offering their observations and stories of how public libraries are helping in these difficult times. To determine the impact of the Great Recession on use…

  20. Uranium Geologic Drilling Project, Sand Wash Basin, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This environmental assessment of drill holes in Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado considered the current environment; potential impacts from site preparation, drilling operations, and site restoration; coordination among local, state and federal plans; and consideration of alternative actions for this uranium drilling project

  1. Nutrition. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adequate consumption of nutritious, wholesome foods is essential to the healthy development of young children. Unfortunately, many households throughout the U.S. and Colorado struggle to put sufficient food on the table. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the percentage of American families who reported experiencing…

  2. Market perceptions and opportunities for native plant production on the southern Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Janet C. Lynn; Anne L. Mottek-Lucas; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2010-01-01

    Increases in revegetation activities have created a large demand for locally adapted native plant materials (NPM) in the southwestern United States. Currently, there is a minimal supply of local genotypes to meet this demand. We investigated the potential for the initiation of a native plant market in the southern Colorado Plateau. Through a literature search,...

  3. An on-line narrative of Colorado wilderness: Self-in-"cybernetic space"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph G. Champ; Daniel R. Williams; Catherine M. Lundy

    2013-01-01

    The authors consider a new frontier for the study of wilderness recreation experience, an increasingly common form of blog known as online trip reports. Analysis and discussion in this article is the result of collecting and reflecting upon more than 300 trip reports focused on wilderness areas in the state of Colorado. The authors present a case study of one trip...

  4. Colorado: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series, EC02-61A-CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. This document contains statistical census data from 2002 for the state of Colorado. Statistical information is presented in table form, on the…

  5. Renewable Energy Deployment in Colorado and the West: Extended Policy Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, Clayton P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-11

    The Resource Planning Model is a capacity expansion model designed for a regional power system, such as a utility service territory, state, or balancing authority. We apply a geospatial analysis to Resource Planning Model renewable energy capacity expansion results to understand the likelihood of renewable development on various lands within Colorado.

  6. Evaluation of Radon Outreach Programming in Chaffee and Park Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Colorado State University Extension in Chaffee and Park Counties conducted numerous outreach educational activities between 2007 and 2010. A follow-up evaluation was conducted to determine whether one outreach activity was more effective at encouraging individuals to test their homes for radon or to mitigate their homes. Participants in the…

  7. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  8. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan M; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F; Booth, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes in marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, pmarijuana (pmarijuana registrant applications. The abrupt nature of these changes suggests public health effects related to broad policy changes associated with marijuana. This report may be used to assist in policy decisions regarding the short-term public health effects of marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Colorado Medical Students' Attitudes and Beliefs About Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael H; Knoepke, Christopher E; Cole, Madeline L; McKinnon, James; Matlock, Daniel D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past two decades, state and local governments across the U.S. have been increasingly reforming marijuana laws. Despite growing support for marijuana as a medical treatment, little is known about medical students' perceptions of marijuana use. To assess Colorado medical students' personal and professional opinions on current and future marijuana use in a healthcare setting. A voluntary, anonymous, online cross-sectional survey. Medical students (n = 624) at the University of Colorado School of Medicine between January and February 2014 were invited to participate. Numerical responses were quantified using counts and percentages, and Likert scale responses were collapsed for bivariate analysis. Items were gathered thematically and additively scored for each subscale. Internal consistency reliability statistics were calculated for each subscale to ensure that items were assessing similar constructs. Unadjusted t tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to calculate mean differences in subscale scores between subgroups. We received 236 responses (37%). Students indicated support for marijuana legalization (64%), and few believed that physicians should be penalized for recommending marijuana to patients (6%). Nearly all (97%) believed that further marijuana research should be conducted, and believed marijuana could play a role in the treatment of various medical conditions. Seventy-seven percent reported that they believed marijuana use had the potential for psychological harm, and 68% indicated concern for potential physical harm. Only a minority of students would recommend marijuana to a patient under current law (29%), or if it were legally available (45%). Acceptability of marijuana for treatment of approved conditions was not correlated with age or gender, but was positively correlated with living in Colorado prior to medical school (p < 0.001) and with prior marijuana use (p < 0.001). Medical students support marijuana legal

  10. Hydrology of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, P.A.; Boettcher, A.J.; Snipes, R.J.; Mcintyre, H.J.

    1969-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Colorado part of the San Luis Valley was begun in 1966 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. (See index map, fig. 1). The purpose of the investigation is to provide information for planning and implementing improved water-development and management practices. The major water problems in the San Luis Valley include (1) waterlogging, (2) waste of water by nonbeneficial evapotranspiration, (3) deterioration of ground-water chemical quality, and (4) failure of Colorado to deliver water to New Mexico and Texas in accordance with the Rio Grande Compact. This report describes the hydrologic environment, extent of water-resource development, and some of the problems related to that development. Information presented is based on data collected from 1966 to 1968 and on previous studies. Subsequent reports are planned as the investigation progresses. The San Luis Valley extends about 100 miles from Poncha Pass near the northeast corner of Saguache County, Colo., to a point about 16 miles south of the Colorado-New Mexico State line. The total area is 3,125 square miles, of which about 3,000 are in Colorado. The valley is nearly flat except for the San Luis Hills and a few other small areas. The Colorado part of the San Luis Valley, which is described in this report, has an average altitude of about 7,700 feet. Bounding the valley on the west are the San Juan Mountains and on the east the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Most of the valley floor is bordered by alluvial fans deposited by streams originating in the mountains, the most extensive being the Rio Grande fan (see block diagram, fig. 2 in pocket). Most of the streamflow is derived from snowmelt from 4,700 square miles of watershed in the surrounding mountains. The northern half of the San Luis Valley is internally drained and is referred to as the closed basin. The lowest part of this area is known locally as the "sump." The

  11. Geologic map of the Frisco quadrangle, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Bartos, Paul J.; Williams, Cindy L.

    2002-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Frisco quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, K.S., 1999, Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift?partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts: Tectonophysics, v. 305, p. 141-152.), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts the northeastern corner of the quadrangle. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Tenmile Range and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, Ogden, 1987, Rock units of the Precambrian- basement in Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1321-A, 54 p.). The oldest sedimentary unit is the Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The sedimentary rocks are intruded by sills and dikes of dacite porphyry sills of Swan Mountain, dated at 44 Ma (Marvin, R.F., Mehnert, H.H., Naeser, C.W., and Zartman, R.E., 1989, U.S. Geological Survey radiometric ages, compilation ?C??Part five?Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming: Isochron/West, no. 53, p. 14-19. Simmons, E.C., and Hedge, C.E., 1978, Minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of Tertiary stocks, Colorado mineral belt

  12. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  13. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  14. GLM Validation Studies in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S. A.; Reimel, K.; Fuchs, B.; Xu, W.

    2017-12-01

    On 8 May 2017 the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) calibration/validation field campaign completed a mission over the domain of the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). This "gold mine day" produced a mixture of normal polarity and anomalous storms of varying intensity. A case study analysis has been completed for a portion of three individual storms from this day. By utilizing a cell tracking algorithm and lightning flash attribution program, individual lightning flashes detected by the GLM, LMA, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) are attributed to individual storm cells. The focus of this analysis is the detection efficiency of GLM. We will discuss how the GLM detection efficiency changes as a result of storm morphology and lightning flash characteristics. Lightning flash size, flash height, and the amount of ice present between the lightning flash altitude and the top of the cloud all appear to play a role in how well GLM detects lightning flashes. Since GLM shares the same concept as its predecessor TRMM LIS (optically-based lightning detection), the evaluation of TRMM LIS against LMA network-detected lightning provides insights into the GLM detection efficiency. We have collected observations by LIS and LMA coincident in time and space during 2008-2014. The sample includes 400 LIS overpasses with both LIS and LMA detecting flashes within 150 km radius of the center of the LMA array during the 120 second LIS observing time period (analysis presently confined to the Alabama LMA network). The overall LIS detection efficiency (DE, defined as the ratio of flash rates between LIS and LMA) is 0.45, with higher DE for lower flash rate cases. LIS showed a DE of nearly 100% for cases with flash rates storms (> 300 fl/min). We further separated the dataset into day and night, and found that the night-time DE (0.6) increased by 20% compared to day-time DE (0.5). LIS DE also increased as a function of

  15. Annual report on the U.S. Department of Energy's cultural resource activities at Colorado UMTRA Project sites for October 1995--September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of cultural resource activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in Colorado for the period of October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. The inactive uranium mill tailings sites in Colorado are at Durango, Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock. On December 6, 1984, the DOE, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) entered into a programmatic memorandum of understanding (PMOU). This PMOU requires the DOE to fulfillment of its obligations under various state and federal regulations for the protection and preservation of cultural resources. This report provides the state of Colorado with an annual report on the cultural resource activities performed for all UMTRA Project sites in Colorado. Due to the completion of surface activities at the UMTRA Project sites, this will be the last annual report to the state of Colorado. Cultural resources activities subsequent to this report will be reported to the state through site-specific correspondence

  16. Water quality and trend analysis of Colorado--Big Thompson system reservoirs and related conveyances, 1969 through 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    . This report summarizes and assesses: Water-quality and field-measurement profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and stored in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Time-series trends of chemical constituents and physical properties, Trends in oxygen deficits in the hypolimnion of the reservoirs in the late summer season by the seasonal Kendall trend test method, Nutrient limitation and trophic status indicators, and Water-quality data in terms of Colorado water-quality standards. Water quality was generally acceptable for primary uses throughout the Colorado?Big Thompson system over the site periods of record, which are all within the span of 1969 to 2000. Dissolved solids and nutrient concentrations were low and typical of a forested/mountainous/crystalline bedrock hydrologic setting. Most of the more toxic trace elements were rarely detected or were found in low concentrations, due at least in part to a relative lack of ore-mineral deposits within the drainage areas of the Colorado?Big Thompson Project. Constituent concentrations consistently met water-quality standard thresholds set by the State of Colorado. Trophic-State Index Values indicated mesotrophic conditions generally prevailed at reservoirs, based on available Secchi depth, total phosphorus concentrations, and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Based on plots of time-series values and concentrations and seasonal Kendall nonparametric trends testing, dissolved solids and most major ions are decreasing at most sites. Many of the nutrient data did not meet the minimum criteria for time-series testing; but for those that did, nutrient concentrations were generally stable (no statistical trend) or decreasing (ammonia plus organic nitrogen and total phosphorus). Iron and manganese concentrations were stable or decreasing at most sites that met testing criteria. Chlorophyll-a data were only collected for 11 years but generally indicated quasi-stable or d

  17. The 3Rs program: the Colorado experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Richert E; Eichler, Mary C

    2008-12-01

    COPIC Insurance Company is a Colorado-based medical liability carrier. From October of 2000 to the present, it has employed an early intervention program called the 3Rs program standing for recognize, respond, and resolve. The program emphasizes disclosure, transparency, apology, and patient benefits. The origins of the program, its operational aspects, and results of implementation are discussed.

  18. Libraries in Colorado: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lib Ft Collins UCHEALTH - NORTHERN COLORADO REGION MEDICAL LIBRARY SERVICE 3800 AUTOMATION WAY FT COLLINS, CO 80525 970-495-7770 http://www.pvhs.org Glenwood Springs VALLEY VIEW HOSPITAL Connie Delaney Medical Library 1906 Blake Avenue GLENWOOD SPRINGS, CO 81601 970- ...

  19. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  20. Besnoitiosis in rodents from Colorado. [Parasitic infestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R

    1976-01-01

    Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.

  1. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  2. Groundwater availability of the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The Denver Basin aquifer system is a critical water resource for growing municipal, industrial, and domestic uses along the semiarid Front Range urban corridor of Colorado. The confined bedrock aquifer system is located along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountain Front Range where the mountains meet the Great Plains physiographic province. Continued population growth and the resulting need for additional water supplies in the Denver Basin and throughout the western United States emphasize the need to continually monitor and reassess the availability of groundwater resources. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated large-scale regional studies to provide updated groundwater-availability assessments of important principal aquifers across the United States, including the Denver Basin. This study of the Denver Basin aquifer system evaluates the hydrologic effects of continued pumping and documents an updated groundwater flow model useful for appraisal of hydrologic conditions.

  3. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.

  4. Quantifying methane emissions and sources in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Townsend-Small, A.; Schroeder, J.; Blake, N. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is relatively constant throughout the atmosphere, at 1.8 ppmv. This value, however, is increasing primarily due to anthropogenic sources, including agriculture and natural gas extraction. Here we present atmospheric methane fluxes measured during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in July - August 2014 in the Colorado Front Range on the NCAR C-130. During this campaign 775 advanced whole air samples (AWAS) were collected onboard the aircraft and 248 samples were collected on the ground in order to quantify and evaluate air pollution sources. Methane concentrations were measured continuously aboard the aircraft using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Major sources of methane in this region are oil and natural gas extraction and distribution, landfills, and cattle feed lots. In order to assess the impact of methane emissions on this area, methane flux was evaluated by comparing upwind and downwind concentrations where significant enhancements were observed downwind. We also present information from other hydrocarbons measured in canisters to attribute methane emissions to urban, agricultural, and oil and gas sources. The state of Colorado recently enacted legislation to reduce emissions of hydrocarbons from oil and gas facilities and our measurements will provide a preliminary estimate of whether these regulations are effective.

  5. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  6. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period

  7. Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC section 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado

  8. Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section}7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  9. Biopsychosocial law, health care reform, and the control of medical inflation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Daniel; Mueller, Kathryn; Warren, Pamela A

    2012-05-01

    A noteworthy attempt at health care reform was the 1992 Colorado workers' compensation reform bill, which led to the creation of what has been called "biopsychosocial laws." These laws mandated the use of treatment guidelines for patients with injury or chronic pain, which advocated a biopsychosocial model of rehabilitation, and aspired to use a "best practice" approach to controlling costs. The purpose of this study was to examine the financial impact of this health care reform process, and to test the hypothesis that this approach can be an effective strategy to contain costs while providing good care. This study utilized a dataset collected prospectively from 1992 to 2007 in 45 U.S. states for regulatory purposes. These data summarized the medical treatment and disability costs of 520,314 injured workers in Colorado, and an estimated 28.6 million injured workers nationally. As no other state passed a comparable bill, the Colorado worker compensation reform bill created a natural experiment, where a treatment group was created by legally enforceable medical treatment guidelines. In the 15 years following the implementation of the reform, the inflation of medical costs in Colorado workers' compensation was only one third that of the national average, saving an estimated $859 million on patients injured in 2007 alone. Although there were confounding variables, and causality could not be determined, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that Colorado's 1992 legislative efforts to reform workers compensation law using the biopsychosocial model worked as intended to provide good care while controlling costs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Level III Ecoregions of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  11. Level IV Ecoregions of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  12. ANISOTROPY-BASED INCLINATION CORRECTION FOR THE MOENAVE FORMATION AND WINGATE SANDSTONE: IMPLICATIONS FOR COLORADO PLATEAU ROTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMcCall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ~ 201 Ma paleopole for North America at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is observed in two widely different locations; one paleopole is determined from the Mesozoic rift basins in eastern North America and the other from the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. A large discrepancy in paleopole positions from these two localities has been attributed to large amounts of clockwise vertical axis rotation of the Colorado Plateau (>10º combined with inclination shallowing of the paleomagnetism. The sedimentary inclinations of the eastern North American basins have been corrected for shallowing, but the Colorado Plateau inclinations have not. Simple vertical axis rotation of the Colorado Plateau is not enough to bring the two paleopoles into agreement. This study of the Moenave and Wingate Formations was conducted to correct Colorado Plateau inclinations using their high field isothermal remanent anisotropy. The Moenave Formation and laterally equivalent Wingate Sandstone, which span the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, were sampled in southern Utah and northern Arizona. Thermal demagnetization isolated a characteristic remanence carried by hematite from 20 sites. High field (5 T isothermal remanent anisotropy indicated shallowing of the characteristic remanence with an average flattening factor of f=0.69. An inclination-corrected paleopole for the Moenave and Wingate Formations is located at 62.5˚N 69.9˚E (α95=5.5˚ and is shifted northward by 2.9˚ with respect to the uncorrected paleopole. When the inclination corrected paleopole is rotated counterclockwise 9.7º about an Euler pole local to the Colorado Plateau, it is statistically indistinguishable from the inclination-corrected paleopole from the eastern North American rift basins. Rotation of the uncorrected paleopole does not bring it into statistical agreement with rift basin paleopole, therefore an inclination shallowing correction is necessary to support rotation of the

  13. Colorado Water Watch: real-time groundwater monitoring for possible contamination from oil and gas activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Hee; Hanif, Asma; Dhanasekar, Ashwin; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2018-02-13

    Currently, only a few states in the USA (e.g., Colorado and Ohio) require mandatory baseline groundwater sampling from nearby groundwater wells prior to drilling a new oil or gas well. Colorado is the first state to regulate groundwater testing before and after drilling, which requires one pre-drilling sample and two additional post-drilling samples within 6-12 months and 5-6 years of drilling. However, the monitoring method is limited to the state's regulatory agency and to ex situ sampling, which offers only a snapshot in time. To overcome the limitations and increase monitoring performance, a new groundwater monitoring system, Colorado Water Watch (CWW), was introduced as a decision-making tool to support the state's regulatory agency and also to provide real-time groundwater quality data to both the industry and the public. The CWW uses simple in situ water quality sensors based on the surrogate sensing technology that employs an event detection system to screen the incoming data in near real-time.

  14. 1996 monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites was near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Surface remediation was completed at the Gunnison site in December 1995. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres of wetlands and mitigation of this loss is through the enhancement of 17.8 acres of riparian plant communities in six spring-fed areas on US Bureau of Land Management mitigation sites. A five-year monitoring program was then implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This report provides the results of the third year of the monitoring program.

  15. Uranium concentrations in natural waters, South Park, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1976-08-01

    During the summer of 1975, 464 water samples from 149 locations in South Park, Colorado, were taken for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in order to test the field sampling and analytical methodologies proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in the Rocky Mountain states and Alaska. The study showed, in the South Park area, that the analytical results do not vary significantly between samples which were untreated, filtered and acidified, filtered only, or acidified only. Furthermore, the analytical methods of fluorometry and delayed-neutron counting, as developed at the LASL for the reconnaissance work, provide fast, adequately precise, and complementary procedures for analyzing a broad range of uranium in natural waters. The data generated using this methodology does appear to identify uraniferous areas, and when applied using sound geochemical, geological, and hydrological principles, should prove a valuable tool in reconnaissance surveying to delineate new districts or areas of interest for uranium exploration

  16. 1996 monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites was near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Surface remediation was completed at the Gunnison site in December 1995. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres of wetlands and mitigation of this loss is through the enhancement of 17.8 acres of riparian plant communities in six spring-fed areas on US Bureau of Land Management mitigation sites. A five-year monitoring program was then implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This report provides the results of the third year of the monitoring program

  17. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  18. Geology of uranium deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountain province of Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malan, R.C.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the geology of uranium deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, an area of about 20,000 square miles. In January 1966, combined ore reserves and ore production at 28 uranium deposits were about 685,000 tons of ore averaging 0.24 percent U 3 O 8 (3.32 million pounds U 3 O 8 ). About half of these deposits each contain <1,000 tons of ore. The two largest deposits, the Pitch in the Marshall Pass locality southwest of Salida and the T-1 in the Cochetopa locality southeast of Gunnison, account for about 90 percent of all production and available reserves. The probability in excellent for major expansion of reserves in Marshall Pass and is favorable at a few other vein localities. There are six types of uranium deposits, and there were at least four ages of emplacement of these deposits in the southern part of the Colorado Rockies. There are eight types of host rocks of eight different ages. Veins and stratiform deposits each account for about 40 percent of the total number of deposits, but the veins of early and middle Tertiary age account for nearly all of the total reserves plus production. The remaining 20 percent of the deposits include uraniferous pegmatites, irregular disseminations in porphyry, and other less important types. The wall rocks at the large Tertiary vein deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, whereas Precambrian metamorphic wall rocks predominate at the large veins in the Front Range of the northern Colorado Rockies. Metallogenetic considerations and tectonic influences affecting the distribution of uranium in Colorado and in adjacent portions of the western United States are analyzed

  19. Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning" explains how the City of Lafayette used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  20. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order from U.S. No. 1 to U.S. Commercial. This change... proceedings must be exhausted before parties may file suit in court. Under Sec. 608c(15)(A) of the Act, any... district court of the United States in any district in which the handler is an inhabitant, or has his or...

  1. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  2. Algal Data from Selected Sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, Water Years 1996-97

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mize, Scott V; Deacon, Jeffrey R

    2001-01-01

    .... Sites sampled were located in two physiographic provinces, the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateaus, and represented agricultural, mining, urban, and mixed land uses and background conditions...

  3. Application of sediment characteristics and transport conditions to resource management in selected main-stem reaches of the Upper Colorado River, Colorado and Utah, 1965-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.; Elliott, John G.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin provides habitat for 14 native fish, including 4 endangered species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973. These endangered fish species once thrived in the Colorado River system, but water-resource development, including the building of numerous diversion dams and several large reservoirs, and the introduction of non-native fish, resulted in large reductions in the numbers and range of the four species through loss of habitat and stream function. Understanding how stream conditions and habitat change in response to alterations in streamflow is important for water administrators and wildlife managers and can be determined from an understanding of sediment transport. Characterization of the processes that are controlling sediment transport is an important first step in identifying flow regimes needed for restored channel morphology and the sustained recovery of endangered fishes within these river systems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Argonne National Laboratory, Western Area Power Administration, and Wyoming State Engineer’s Office, began a study in 2004 to characterize sediment transport at selected locations on the Colorado, Gunnison, and Green Rivers to begin addressing gaps in existing datasets and conceptual models of the river systems. This report identifies and characterizes the relation between streamflow (magnitude and timing) and sediment transport and presents the findings through discussions of (1) suspended-sediment transport, (2) incipient motion of streambed material, and (3) a case study of sediment-transport conditions for a reach of the Green River identified as a razorback sucker spawning habitat (See report for full abstract).

  4. Colorado quartz: occurrence and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, D.E.; Modreski, P.J.; Kile, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The many varieties and associations of quartz found throughout the state rank it as one of the premier worldwide localities for that species. This paper briefly outlines the historical importance of the mineral, the mining history and the geological setting before discussing the varieties of quartz present, its crystallography and the geological enviroments in which it is found. The latter include volcanic rocks and near surface igneous rocks; pegmatites; metamorphic and plutonic rocks; hydrothermal veins; skarns and sedimentary deposits. Details of the localities and mode of occurrence of smoky quartz, amethyst, milky quartz, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, agate and jasper are then given. -S.J.Stone

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Evening primrose Oenothera caespitosa Grass Types 3 1. Sedges, dry Carex spp. 2. Tufted Hairgrass Deschampsia caesritosa I 3. Blue grama Boutelous... rosea 4. Pussytoes Antennaria parulfolia 35. Bluebells Mertensia lanceolata 6. Stonecrop Sedum spp. 37. Wild onion Allium geyerl U8. Fleabane

  6. Annual report on the U.S. Department of Energy's Cultural Resource Activities at Colorado UMTRA Project Sites for October 1993 through September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of cultural resource activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in Colorado for the period of October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994. The UMTRA Project is a cooperative (state and federal) program mandated by the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, Public Law 95-604 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.). This law requires the timely cleanup of 24 inactive uranium mill tailings sites throughout the United States. Nine of these inactive uranium mill tailings sites are in Colorado at Durango, Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock. On December 6, 1984, the DOE, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) entered into a programmatic memorandum of agreement (PMOA) (DOE, 1984). This PMOA specifies requirements for the DOE's fulfillment of its obligations under various state and federal regulations for the protection and preservation of cultural resources. This report fulfills the requirement for the DOE to provide the state of Colorado with an annual report on the cultural resource activities performed for all of the UMTRA Project sites in Colorado. This report is organized by UMTRA Project site. For each site, the general remedial action activities and cultural resource activities performed during the period of record are summarized. When known, the DOE's plans for future cultural resource activities at the site are summarized

  7. Predicting regime shifts in flow of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of continued global warming on water resources are a concern for water managers and stake holders. In the western United States, where the combined climatic demand and consumptive use of water is equal to or greater than the natural supply of water for some locations, there is growing concern regarding the sustainability of future water supplies. In addition to the adverse effects of warming on water supply, another issue for water managers is accounting for, and managing, the effects of natural climatic variability, particularly persistently dry and wet periods. Analyses of paleo-reconstructions of Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) flow demonstrate that severe sustained droughts, and persistent pluvial periods, are a recurring characteristic of hydroclimate in the Colorado River basin. Shifts between persistently dry and wet regimes (e.g., decadal to multi-decadal variability (D2M)) have important implications for water supply and water management. In this study paleo-reconstructions of UCRB flow are used to compute the risks of shifts between persistently wet and dry regimes given the length of time in a specific regime. Results indicate that low frequency variability of hydro-climatic conditions and the statistics that describe this low frequency variability can be useful to water managers by providing information about the risk of shifting from one hydrologic regime to another. To manage water resources in the future water managers will have to understand the joint hydrologic effects of natural climate variability and global warming. These joint effects may produce future hydrologic conditions that are unprecedented in both the instrumental and paleoclimatic records.

  8. Colorado Fathers' Resource Guide = Guia de Recursos para los Padres en Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver.

    Developed through the Colorado Fatherhood Connection, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions and resources for fathers as well as tips on discipline, communication, and activities fathers can do with their children. Topics addressed in the guide include characteristics of responsible fatherhood, characteristics…

  9. Climate Change in Colorado: Developing a Synthesis of the Science to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Averyt, K. B.; Deheza, V.; Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007 Colorado's Governor Ritter issued a Colorado Climate Action Plan, in response to the risks associated with climate change and sets a goal to adapt to those climate changes "that cannot be avoided." The Western Water Assessment, a NOAA funded RISA program, was commissioned to do a synthesis of the science on climate change aimed at planners, decisionmakers, and policymakers in water in Colorado. Changes in Colorado's climate and implications for water resources are occurring in a global context. The objective of the report is to communicate the state of the science regarding the physical aspects of climate change that are important for evaluating impacts on Colorado's water resources, and to support state efforts to develop a water adaptation plan. However, the identification of specific climate change impacts on water resources is beyond the scope of this report. Water managers have a long history of adapting to changing circumstances, including changes in economies and land use, environmental concerns, and population growth. Climate change will further affect the decisions made about use of water. However, current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with this climate change. This presentation reports on the process of developing the report and challenges we faced. We developed the report based on ongoing interactions with the water management community and discussions with them about their decision processes and needs. A second presentation (see Barsugli et al) presents the synthesis findings from the report. We followed the IPCC WG1 model of observations, attribution, and projections. However, many published studies and datasets include information about Colorado, there are few climate studies that focus only on the state. Consequently, many important scientific analyses for Colorado have not been done, and Colorado- specific information is often imbedded in or averaged with studies of the larger Western U.S. We used findings from

  10. 77 FR 15093 - Public Service Company of Colorado;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Application Tendered for....: 2351-017. c. Date Filed: February 27, 2012. d. Applicant: Excel Energy Services, Inc. on behalf of Public Service Company of Colorado. e. Name of Project: Cabin Creek Pumped Storage Project. f. Location...

  11. Birds and mammals of Manitou Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith J. Morris; Vincent H. Reld; Richard E. Pillmore; Mary C. Hammer

    1977-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence, relative abundance, and habitat preference are listed for 90 bird and 41 mammal species that can be found at Manitou Experimental Forest. An annotated list is given also for an additional 70 casual or accidental bird species. Manitou Experimental Forest is located near Colorado Springs in the montane zone of the Colorado Front Range.

  12. An introduction to the Colorado Plateau Native Plant Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Padgett; Peggy Olwell; Scott Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau Ecoregion is occupied by a variety of ecosystems requiring restoration activities following natural and human-caused disturbances. The Colorado Plateau Native Plant Initiative, included in the BLM Native Plant Materials Development Program, was established as a part of the Seeds of Success program. This program is a partnership between USDI Bureau...

  13. Fluorine, fluorite, and fluorspar in central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorine (F) is a widespread element that was deposited in a variety of rocks, minerals, and geologic environments in central Colorado. It occurs as a trace element, as a major component of the mineral fluorite (CaFs), and as a major economic source of fluorine in fluorspar deposits, which are massive concentrations of fluorite. This study has compiled available geochemical analyses of rocks, both unmineralized and mineralized, to determine the distribution of fluorine in specific age-lithologic categories, ranging from 1.8-giga-annum (Ga) metamorphic rocks to modern soils, throughout central Colorado. It also draws upon field studies of fluorine-rich mineral deposits, including fluorspar deposits, to decipher the nearly two-billion-year-long geologic history of fluorine in the study area, with implications for mineral-resource evaluations and exploration. The resulting compilation provides an important inventory of the naturally occurring levels and sources of fluorine that ultimately weather, erode, and become part of surface waters that are used for domestic water supplies in densely populated areas along the Colorado Front Range. Most commonly, fluorine is a trace element in virtually all rocks in the region. In the 3,798 unmineralized rocks that were analyzed for fluorine in the study area, the average fluorine content was 1,550 parts per million (ppm). The median was 640 ppm, nearly identical to the average crustal abundance of 650 ppm, and some high-fluorine rocks in the Pikes Peak area skewed the average to a value much greater than the median. Most unmineralized age-lithologic rock suites, including Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, 1.7- and 1.4-Ga granitic batholiths, Cambrian igneous rocks, Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, and Laramide and Tertiary igneous rocks, had median fluorine values of 400 to 740 ppm fluorine. In all suites, however, a small number of analyzed samples contained more than 1 percent (10,000 ppm) fluorine. The 1.1-Ga plutonic rocks

  14. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... account for a substantial portion of the mainstream theatre screens and ticket sales in three areas of the.... AMC and Kerasotes account for a substantial portion of the mainstream theatre screens and ticket sales.... AMC and Kerasotes account for a substantial portion of the first-run movie screens and ticket sales in...

  15. Transport of pollutants from cow feedlots in eastern Colorado into Rocky Mountain alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A.; Denning, S.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), also called factory farms, are known for raising tens of millions head of livestock including cows (beef and dairy), swine, and poultry. With as many as 250 head of cattle per acre, a United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) report showed beef cattle from CAFOs in the United States produce as much as 24.1 million tons of manure annually. Gases released from cow manure include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and ammonia (NH3). During boreal summers Colorado experiences fewer synoptic weather systems, allowing the diurnal cycle to exert greater control of meteorological events along the mountain-plains interface. Anabatic, or upslope winds induced by the diurnal cycle, contribute largely to the transport of gases and particulates from feedlots in eastern Colorado into the Rocky Mountains, presenting a potential harm to natural alpine ecosystems. This study focuses on locating the source of transport of gases from feedlots along the eastern Front Range of Colorado into alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains. Source regions are approximated using backward time simulation of a Lagrangian Transport model.

  16. The Three Colorado Rivers: Comparing the Physical, Legal, and Economic Allocation of a Shared River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    : For many rivers, the legal allocation of surface water was settled decades ago. The process of apportioning surface water between multiple stakeholders is an arduous process with opposing interests competing for scarce resources. The political capital spent initially allocating a river often cannot be regained, stymieing future attempts for re-allocation. The Colorado River Compact (Compact), signed in 1922, has been "the law of the river" for over 90 years. Since its signing, the Colorado River Basin (CRB) population has increased tenfold, while average river flows have decreased due to threats unforeseeable to Compact signers, such as global climate change. Water sharing agreements, like the Compact, legally re-allocate physical river flows; however, water is increasingly shared through trade rather than aqueducts. Virtual water, or the water embodied by a good or service, is a trade adaption to resource scarcity, namely water and land. This study presents findings of a virtual water complement to the Compact. The goal of this study is to determine how the legal allocation of physical water resources are re-allocated as virtual water via economic trade in a shared river basin. Results are presented by at the sub-basin, state, and county-level, showing the geographic origin and destination of virtual water from CRB states and the Upper and Lower basins. A water stress index is calculated to show the indirect water stress of Colorado River water resources and network statistics are employed to rank the importance of virtual water sources in the CRB.

  17. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  18. Optimization of Water Resources and Agricultural Activities for Economic Benefit in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, J.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The limited water resources available for irrigation are a key constraint for the important agricultural sector of Colorado's economy. As climate change and groundwater depletion reshape these resources, it is essential to understand the economic potential of water resources under different agricultural production practices. This study uses a linear programming optimization at the county spatial scale and annual temporal scales to study the optimal allocation of water withdrawal and crop choices. The model, AWASH, reflects streamflow constraints between different extraction points, six field crops, and a distinct irrigation decision for maize and wheat. The optimized decision variables, under different environmental, social, economic, and physical constraints, provide long-term solutions for ground and surface water distribution and for land use decisions so that the state can generate the maximum net revenue. Colorado, one of the largest agricultural producers, is tested as a case study and the sensitivity on water price and on climate variability is explored.

  19. Pigs on the plains: Institutional analysis of a Colorado water quality initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D.; Burkardt, N.; Lee, Lamb B.

    2006-01-01

    We used the Legal-Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) and Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to analyze the campaign over passage of the Colorado Hogs Rule, an initiative passed by the voters in 1998 to require regulation of swine production facilities in Colorado. Used in tandem, LIAM and ACF provided an opportunity to develop a robust understanding of the obstacles and opportunities that face water quality managers in a state-centered multi-organizational decision process. We found that combining the LIAM with the ACF enhanced the understanding that could be achieved by using either model in isolation. The predictive capacity of the LIAM would have been reduced without information from the ACF, and the ACF by itself would have missed the importance of a single-case study.

  20. Hydrologic studies of the U.S. Geological Survey related to coal development on Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes the hydrologic studies related to coal development being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the State of Colorado. The objective of the hydrologic data-acquisition program is to collect surface-water quality and quantity data and ground-water level records. These data are needed to define predevelopment conditions and to monitor the effects of construction and operation of coal mines and waste-disposal areas. Data-acquisition activities related to coal development in Colorado have concentrated on the Yampa River basin. A description of the hydrologic data-acquisition activities, including parameters collected and frequency of collection, precedes the summaries of the three interpretive studies currently in progress. Each study summary consists of the project title, definition of the problem being studied, objective of the study, approach of the study, and when known, the schedule for completion of the study and proposed report products resulting from the study. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  2. Proceedings of the Colorado River Basin Science and Resource Management Symposium, November 18-20, 2008, Scottsdale, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Hamill, John F.; Bennett, Glenn E.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Grams, Paul E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Kubly, Dennis M.; Ralston, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, four major science and restoration programs have been developed for the Colorado River Basin to address primarily the conservation of native fish and other wildlife pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA): (1) Recovery Implementation Program for Endangered Fish Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin (commonly called the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program) (1988); (2) San Juan River Basin Recovery Implementation Program (1992); (3) Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (1997); and (4) Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program (2005). Today, these four programs, the efforts of which span the length of the Colorado River, have an increasingly important influence on water management and resource conservation in the basin. The four efforts involve scores of State, Federal, and local agencies; Native American Tribes; and diverse stakeholder representatives. The programs have many commonalities, including similar and overlapping goals and objectives; comparable resources and threats to those resources; and common monitoring, research, and restoration strategies. In spite of their commonalities, until recently there had been no formal opportunity for information exchange among the programs. To address this situation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in coordination with the four programs and numerous Federal and State agencies to organize the first Colorado River Basin Science and Resource Management Symposium, which took place in Scottsdale, AZ, in November 2008. The symposium's primary purpose was to promote an exchange of information on research and management activities related to the restoration and conservation of the Colorado River and its major tributaries. A total of 283 managers, scientists, and stakeholders attended the 3-day symposium, which included 87 presentations and 27 posters. The symposium featured plenary talks by experts on a variety of topics, including overviews of the four

  3. Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

  4. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...-1191; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANM-21] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  5. 75 FR 59707 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Rate Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Rate Election September 21, 2010. Take notice that on September 17, 2010, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) filed a Rate... intrastate service on file with the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (Colorado PUC). Any person desiring...

  6. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Colorado River Dam Fund. 431.7 Section 431.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project and the administration of the Colorado River Dam Fund and the Lower Colorado River Basin Development Fund...

  7. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (prevalence and B. acheilognathi prevalence were higher in LCR fish than in Colorado River fish for all years. Mean K and AFI were 0.622 and 0.48, respectively, in the LCR and 0.735 and 2.02, respectively, in the Colorado River, indicating that fish in the Colorado River were more robust. Mean prevalence of L. cyprinacea was 23.9% and mean intensity was 1.73 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 3.2% and intensity was 1.0 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the Colorado River. Mean prevalence of B. acheilognathi was 51.0% and mean intensity was 25.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 15.8% and intensity was 12.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the Colorado River. Increased parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

  8. National uranium resource evaluation, Montrose Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Ludlam, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    The Montrose Quadrangle in west-central Colorado was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits according to National Uranium Resource Evaluation program criteria. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were conducted in all geologic environments in the quadrangle. Preliminary data from aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance were analyzed and brief followup studies were performed. Twelve favorable areas were delineated in the quadrangle. Five favorable areas contain environments for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits along fault zones in the Colorado mineral belt. Five areas in parts of the Harding and Entrada Sandstones and Wasatch and Ohio Creek Formations are favorable environments for sandstone-type uranium deposits. The area of late-stage rhyolite bodies related to the Lake City caldera is a favorable environment for hydroauthigenic uranium deposits. One small area is favorable for uranium deposits of uncertain genesis. All near-surface Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except parts of four formations. All near-surface plutonic igneous rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except five areas of vein-type deposits along Tertiary fault zones. All near-surface volcanic rocks, except one area of rhyolite bodies and several unevaluated areas, are unfavorable for uranium. All near-surface Precambrian metamorphic rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits. Parts of two wilderness areas, two primitive areas, and most of the subsurface environment are unevaluated

  9. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado

  10. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Distributed Wind in Colorado, Minnesota, and New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    This work seeks to identify current and future spatial distributions of economic potential for behind-the-meter distributed wind, serving primarily rural or suburban homes, farms, and manufacturing facilities in Colorado, Minnesota, and New York. These states were identified by technical experts based on their current favorability for distributed wind deployment. We use NREL's Distributed Wind Market Demand Model (dWind) (Lantz et al. 2017; Sigrin et al. 2016) to identify and rank counties in each of the states by their overall and per capita potential. From this baseline assessment, we also explore how and where improvements in cost, performance, and other market sensitivities affect distributed wind potential.

  11. Marijuana use and associated motives in Colorado university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Phillips, Michael M; Schneider, Maryia M

    2017-12-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students, with heavy use leading to negative outcomes. Use of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes in select U.S. states has been controversial, with concerns surrounding increased prevalence rates and harm. The current exploratory study aimed to assess marijuana use in college students in Colorado, demographic differences in frequency of use, and motives for using. College students (N = 300; 61% female) were recruited through introductory psychology courses and completed a series of questionnaires and a marijuana urine screen. Almost three-fourths of the sample reported lifetime use of marijuana. Sixty-five percent used marijuana within the last year and 29% tested positive on the urine screen. Hurdle Poisson regression models with a subset of participants (n = 117) showed non-Greek and freshman status were associated with increased number of days participants used marijuana in the last month. Problem marijuana use was positively associated with a range of motives-of note-motives focused on coping, boredom, alcohol, and food. Prevalence rates of marijuana use were high in this sample of college students in a state with legal recreational marijuana use. Particular students (eg, students who use marijuana to cope) may be at higher risk for problem marijuana use. Developing effective, tailored interventions for university students is warranted. (Am J Addict 2017;26:830-837). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Effects of climate change and land use on water resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The health of the Colorado River watershed is critical to the socioeconomic and ecosystem well-being of the Southwestern United States. Water in springs, streams, and rivers supports a range of aquatic and riparian ecosystems that contain many endangered species. Terrestrial habitats support a wide array of plants and wildlife. In addition, this region is enjoyed by millions of people annually for its recreational and esthetic opportunities. The Colorado River provides water for about 25 million people and is used to irrigate 2.5 million acres of farmland. However, competition for this water is expected to increase as human populations dependent on this water are projected to increase to 38 million by 2020. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate water issues in this region. Drought in the Southwest during 2000-04, caused by both reduced precipitation and a series of the hottest years on record, resulted in streamflows lower than during the 1930s Dust Bowl or the 1950s. Increased temperatures alone are a major factor in reducing surface-water flows in this region. For instance, precipitation received during the winter of 2005 was at the 100-year average. However, low soil moisture and high January-July temperatures resulted in flows that were only 75 percent of average. Climate models predict future warmer temperatures and reduced precipitation in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), which would reduce water available to humans and ecosystems.

  13. Electric Vehicles in Colorado: Anticipating Consumer Demand for Direct Current Fast Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-01

    To support the State of Colorado in planning for growth in direct current fast charging (DCFC) for electric vehicles, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has partnered with the Regional Air Quality Council (RAQC) and the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) to analyze a number of DCFC investment scenarios. NREL analyzed existing electric vehicle registration data from IHS Markit (IHS) to highlight early trends in the electric vehicle market, which were compared with sales forecasts predicting large growth in the Colorado electric vehicle market. Electric vehicle forecasts were then used to develop future DCFC scenarios to be evaluated in a simulation environment to estimate consumer benefits of the hypothetical DCFC networks in terms of increased driving range and electric vehicle miles traveled (eVMT). Simulated utilization of the hypothetical DCFC networks was analyzed for geographic trends, particularly for correlations with vehicle electric range. Finally, a subset of simulations is presented for consumers with potentially inconsistent access to charging at their home location and presumably greater reliance on public DCFC infrastructure.

  14. The Colorado Plateau V: research, environmental planning, and management for collaborative conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Carena J.; Johnson, Matthew J.; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This volume, the fifth from the University of Arizona Press and the tenth overall, focuses on adaptation of resource management and conservation to climate change and water scarcity, protecting biodiversity through restructured energy policies, ensuring wildlife habitat connectivity across barriers, building effective conservation networks, and exploring new opportunities for education and leadership in conservation science. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  15. Sustainable water deliveries from the Colorado River in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tim P; Pierce, David W

    2009-05-05

    The Colorado River supplies water to 27 million users in 7 states and 2 countries and irrigates over 3 million acres of farmland. Global climate models almost unanimously project that human-induced climate change will reduce runoff in this region by 10-30%. This work explores whether currently scheduled future water deliveries from the Colorado River system are sustainable under different climate-change scenarios. If climate change reduces runoff by 10%, scheduled deliveries will be missed approximately 58% of the time by 2050. If runoff reduces 20%, they will be missed approximately 88% of the time. The mean shortfall when full deliveries cannot be met increases from approximately 0.5-0.7 billion cubic meters per year (bcm/yr) in 2025 to approximately 1.2-1.9 bcm/yr by 2050 out of a request of approximately 17.3 bcm/yr. Such values are small enough to be manageable. The chance of a year with deliveries climate-change or long-term mean flows, currently scheduled future water deliveries from the Colorado River are not sustainable. However, the ability of the system to mitigate droughts can be maintained if the various users of the river find a way to reduce average deliveries.

  16. What Do Colorado Adults Know About Legal Use of Recreational Marijuana After a Media Campaign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Levinson, Arnold; Li, Yaqiang; Roppolo, Rebecca Hebner; Bull, Sheana

    2017-03-01

    Colorado is among the first states to legalize the recreational sale of marijuana and therefore among the first to develop regulations outlining the purchase, possession, consumption, and enforcement, and penalties. Colorado legislators set aside funds for a statewide informational media campaign to educate Colorado residents on legal use of marijuana. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the mass media campaign to increase awareness of the law through a prospective cohort surveyed before and 6 months after the launch of the campaign ( n = 798). A total of 28.0% reported recall of the Good to Know campaign. There was a significant positive change in accurate knowledge of marijuana laws from baseline to follow-up for each of the four primary indicators of knowledge of the marijuana laws. Among those who had inaccurate knowledge of the laws at baseline, those who reported seeing the campaign at least once or more were 2.53 (95% confidence interval = 1.29-4.95) times as likely to report accurate knowledge of the laws at follow-up compared with those who did not recall seeing the campaign, particularly among marijuana users. Those individuals who reported recall of the campaign were more likely to increase their accurate knowledge of marijuana laws.

  17. Climate Change, the Energy-water-food Nexus, and the "New" Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, R. S.; Bennett, K. E.; Solander, K.; Hopkins, E.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change, extremes, and climate-driven disturbances are anticipated to have substantial impacts on regional water resources, particularly in the western and southwestern United States. These unprecedented conditions—a no-analog future—will result in challenges to adaptation, mitigation, and resilience planning for the energy-water-food nexus. We have analyzed the impact of climate change on Colorado River flows for multiple climate and disturbance scenarios: 12 global climate models and two CO2 emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Coupled Model Intercomparison Study, version 5, and multiple climate-driven forest disturbance scenarios including temperature-drought vegetation mortality and insect infestations. Results indicate a wide range of potential streamflow projections and the potential emergence of a "new" Colorado River basin. Overall, annual streamflow tends to increase under the majority of modeled scenarios due to projected increases in precipitation across the basin, though a significant number of scenarios indicate moderate and potentially substantial reductions in water availability. However, all scenarios indicate severe changes in seasonality of flows and strong variability across headwater systems. This leads to increased fall and winter streamflow, strong reductions in spring and summer flows, and a shift towards earlier snowmelt timing. These impacts are further exacerbated in headwater systems, which are key to driving Colorado River streamflow and hence water supply for both internal and external basin needs. These results shed a new and important slant on the Colorado River basin, where an emergent streamflow pattern may result in difficulties to adjust to these new regimes, resulting in increased stress to the energy-water-food nexus.

  18. Using Multi-Objective Optimization to Explore Robust Policies in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, E.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.; Prairie, J. R.; Jerla, C.; Butler, A.

    2017-12-01

    The long term reliability of water deliveries in the Colorado River Basin has degraded due to the imbalance of growing demand and dwindling supply. The Colorado River meanders 1,450 miles across a watershed that covers seven US states and Mexico and is an important cultural, economic, and natural resource for nearly 40 million people. Its complex operating policy is based on the "Law of the River," which has evolved since the Colorado River Compact in 1922. Recent (2007) refinements to address shortage reductions and coordinated operations of Lakes Powell and Mead were negotiated with stakeholders in which thousands of scenarios were explored to identify operating guidelines that could ultimately be agreed on. This study explores a different approach to searching for robust operating policies to inform the policy making process. The Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS), a long-term water management simulation model implemented in RiverWare, is combined with the Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) to solve an eight objective problem formulation. Basin-wide performance metrics are closely tied to system health through incorporating critical reservoir pool elevations, duration, frequency and quantity of shortage reductions in the objective set. For example, an objective to minimize the frequency that Lake Powell falls below the minimum power pool elevation of 3,490 feet for Glen Canyon Dam protects a vital economic and renewable energy source for the southwestern US. The decision variables correspond to operating tiers in Lakes Powell and Mead that drive the implementation of various shortage and release policies, thus affecting system performance. The result will be a set of non-dominated solutions that can be compared with respect to their trade-offs based on the various objectives. These could inform policy making processes by eliminating dominated solutions and revealing robust solutions that could remain hidden under conventional analysis.

  19. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC section 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado

  20. Engineering Decision Support and Expert Systems - Colorado State University

    OpenAIRE

    Labadie, John

    2015-01-01

    The student is introduced to development of decision support systems (DSS) for application to complex engineering management and design problems under conflicting objectives and uncertainty. A number of techniques are introduced for aiding in the analysis of a wide range of complex multiobjective engineering problems. Several stochastic optimization methods are presented for including risk and reliability in engineering design. Basic concepts of expert systems (ES) are discussed to show an es...

  1. Capillary discharge extreme ultraviolet lasers. [Colorado State Univ. , Ft. Collins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The project objective is to explore the generation of soft X-ray laser radiation in a plasma column created by a fast capillary discharge. The proposed capillary lasing scheme offers the potential for compact, simple and efficient soft X-ray laser sources. For this purpose a compact, fast pulse generator which produces 100 kA current pulses with a risetime of 11 ns was constructed. Initial experiments were conducted in evacuated capillaries, in which the plasma is produced by ablation of the capillary walls. The soft X-ray emission from discharges in polyethylene capillary channels was studied to investigate the possibility of amplification in the 3-2 transition of C VI, at {lambda} = 18.2 nm. Time-resolved spectra in which this transition appears anomalously intense with respect to the 4--2 transition of the same ion were obtained. To date, however, this phenomenoa could not be confirmed as gain, as the intensity of the 18.2 nm line has not been observed to increase exponentially as a function of the capillary length. Encouraging results were obtained by fast pulse discharge excitation of capillaries filled with preionized gas. High temperature (Te > 150 eV), small diameter ({approximately}200 {mu}m) plasma columns were efficiently generated. Fast current pulse excitation of a selected low mass density of uniformly preionized material Mag the capillary was observed to detach rapidly the plasma from the capillary walls, and form a plasma channel of a diameter much smaller and significantly hotter than those produced by a similar current pulse in evacuated capillaries of the same size. Discharges in argon-filled capillaries at currents between 20 and 60 kA produced plasmas with ArX-Ar{sub XIV} line emission, and with spectra that are similar to those of plasmas generated by > I MA current implosions in large pulsed power machines. The characteristic of these plasmas approach those necessary for soft X-ray amplification in low Z elements.

  2. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Uranium indicator plants of the Colorado plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massingill, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods of botanical prospecting for uranium deposits have been applied on the Colorado Plateau. The first, based on a chemical analysis of deep-rooted plants that absorb uranium from ore bodies, detects small but measurable amounts of the element in plants rooted in ore. A second method involves mapping the distribution of indicator plants because these plants are dependent--either directly or indirectly--upon the presence of abnormally high levels of elements in the parent soil or rock. Botanical prospecting studies made in ten districts have been productive. In the Thompson district, Grand County, Utah, five ore bodies were found solely on the basis of indicator plant data. 15 refs

  4. Colorado Peak named for Challenger crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the summits of Kit Carson Mountain in the Sangre de Cristo range in south-central Colorado will be named “Challenger Point” in memory of the seven astronauts who died in the U.S. space shuttle disaster in January 1986. Challenger Point is a well-defined summit that appears to be piggybacked onto Kit Carson Mountain, just as the space shuttle Challenger was to its main booster rocket.The newly named summit is about 6 km northeast of Cottonwood, Colo., and 8 km east of Crestone, Colo. The 4292-m-high point is located at 37°59‧N, 105°36‧W.

  5. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  6. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  7. Current Marijuana Use by Industry and Occupation - Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roberta; Hall, Katelyn E; Etkind, Paul; Van Dyke, Mike

    2018-04-13

    The effects of marijuana use on workplace safety are of concern for public health and workplace safety professionals. Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have enacted laws legalizing marijuana at the state level for recreational and/or medical purposes. Employers and safety professionals in states where marijuana use is legal have expressed concerns about potential increases in occupational injuries, such as on-the-job motor vehicle crashes, related to employee impairment. Data published in 2017 by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) showed that more than one in eight adult state residents aged ≥18 years currently used marijuana in 2014 (13.6%) and 2015 (13.4%) (1). To examine current marijuana use by working adults and the industries and occupations in which they are employed, CDPHE analyzed data from the state's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) regarding current marijuana use (at least 1 day during the preceding 30 days) among 10,169 persons who responded to the current marijuana use question. During 2014 and 2015, 14.6% of these 10,169 Colorado workers reported current marijuana use, with the highest reported prevalence among workers in the Accommodation and Food Services industry (30.1%) and Food Preparation and Serving (32.2%) occupations. Understanding the industries and occupations of adults with reported marijuana use can help direct and maximize impact of public health messaging and potential safety interventions for adults.

  8. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  9. The Permian–Triassic transition in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagadorn, James S.; Whitely, Karen R.; Lahey, Bonita L.; Henderson, Charles M.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    The Lykins Formation and its equivalents in Colorado are a stratigraphically poorly constrained suite of redbeds and intercalated stromatolitic carbonates, which is hypothesized to span the Permian-Triassic boundary. Herein we present a preliminary detrital zircon geochronology, new fossil occurrences, and δ13C chemostratigraphy for exposures along the Front Range and in southeastern Colorado, to refine understanding of the unit's age and depositional history.Detrital zircons from the uppermost Lykins Formation and an overlying eolianite consist of a complex and highly diverse primary and multi-cycle grain population transported from Laurentian and Gondwanan terranes, potentially both by wind and water. Youngest concordant zircons do not rule out deposition of the uppermost Lykins Formation during a portion of Early Triassic time. Conodonts from the lower Lykins Formation require Middle Permian (Guadalupian) deposition. Conodont alteration indices of 1 indicate the unit has a shallow burial history and is amenable to paleomagnetic inquiry. Conodonts, together with other vertebrate, invertebrate, microfossil, and trace fossils, suggest a very shallow to emergent marine origin for the unit's most substantial carbonates, and hint at a marine origin for the unit's intercalated gypsum-anhydrite members. Chemostratigraphy corroborates field evidence of emergence and karst development capping certain units, like the Forelle Limestone Member of the Lykins Formation, where potential sequence boundaries appear to be punctuated by a short-lived meteoric signature.Results presented here are a progress report of ongoing work in these successions. This field trip consists of a brief tour through exposures of the Lykins Formation, in which we will examine well-known localities as well as view new ones for which we seek insights.

  10. Evaluation of guardrail embedded lighting system in Trinidad, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report provides information on the design considerations of the embedded highway lighting : design on Interstate-25 in Trinidad, Colorado, in terms of visibility. The information is based on : visibility characterizations of small targets using ...

  11. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  12. RadNet Air Data From Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Colorado Springs, CO from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  14. University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. Report NPL-845. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report summarizes work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1978 to October 31, 1979, under contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A003 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. Experimental studies of light ion-induced reactions were performed with the AVF cyclotron, which continues each year to produce beams of yet higher quality. Charged-particle studies continued to emphasize use of the high-resolution spectrometer system, but some return to broad-range spectroscopic studies using solid state detectors also occurred. Neutron time-of-flight experiments used 9-meter and 30-meter flight paths. Neutron-gamma ray coincidence studies developed into a new and promising field. The new PDP 11/34 data acquisition system was of great value in allowing such multiparameter experiments. Smaller programs in nuclear astrophysics, plasma diagnostic development, and medical physics were also undertaken. Research activities based at other accelerators grew. Studies of future directions for light-ion accelerators, including work on intense pulsed ion sources, orbit dynamics, and storage rings, were greatly enlarged. 19 of the articles in this report were abstracted and indexed individually. Lists of publications and personnel conclude this report. (RWR)

  15. Colorado Homeowner Preferences on Energy and Environmental Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Coburn, T. C.

    1999-06-23

    This survey inquiring into Colorado homeowners' preferences on energy and environmental policy shows that more-affluent, married Colorado single-family homeowners are somewhat favorable to utility restructuring; want to see green power developed; prefer to share the costs broadly by various means; are willing to pay slightly higher electricity rates to develop renewable sources of electricity; and believe that utility customers don't have enough choice in their electric service today.

  16. Conservation planning for the Colorado River in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Rasmussen,; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning is increasingly recognized as necessary for providing the greatest possible conservation benefits for restoration efforts. Rigorous, science-based resource assessment, combined with acknowledgement of broader basin trends, provides a solid foundation for determining effective projects. It is equally important that methods used to prioritize conservation investments are simple and practical enough that they can be implemented in a timely manner and by a variety of resource managers. With the help of local and regional natural resource professionals, we have developed a broad-scale, spatially-explicit assessment of 146 miles (~20,000 acres) of the Colorado River mainstem in Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah that will function as the basis for a systematic, practical approach to conservation planning and riparian restoration prioritization. For the assessment we have: 1) acquired, modified or created spatial datasets of Colorado River bottomland conditions; 2) synthesized those datasets into habitat suitability models and estimates of natural recovery potential, fire risk and relative cost; 3) investigated and described dominant ecosystem trends and human uses, and; 4) suggested site selection and prioritization approaches. Partner organizations (The Nature Conservancy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management and Utah Forestry Fire and State Lands) are using the assessment and datasets to identify and prioritize a suite of restoration actions to increase ecosystem resilience and improve habitat for bottomland species. Primary datasets include maps of bottomland cover types, bottomland extent, maps of areas inundated during high and low flow events, as well as locations of campgrounds, roads, fires, invasive vegetation treatment areas and other features. Assessment of conditions and trends in the project area entailed: 1) assemblage of existing data on geology, changes in stream flow, and predictions of future conditions; 2) identification

  17. A Dreissena Risk Assessment for the Colorado River Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Nonnative zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, respectively; see photo above) were accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes in the 1980s and subsequently spread to watersheds of the Eastern United States (Strayer and others, 1999). The introduction of Dreissena mussels has been economically costly and has had large and far-reaching ecological impacts on these systems. Quagga mussels were found in Lakes Mead and Havasu in January 2007. Given the likelihood that quagga mussels and, eventually, zebra mussels will be introduced to Lake Powell and the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, it is important to assess the risks that introduction of Dreissena mussels pose to the Colorado River ecosystem (here defined as the segment of river from just below Glen Canyon Dam to Diamond Creek; hereafter CRE). In this report, I assess three different types of risks associated with Dreissena and the CRE: (1) the risk that Dreissena will establish at high densities in the CRE, (2) the risk of ecological impacts should Dreissena establish at high densities in the CRE or in Lake Powell, and (3) the risk that Dreissena will be introduced to tributaries of the CRE. The risk of Dreissena establishing within the CRE is low, except for the Lees Ferry tailwater reach where the risk appears high. Dreissena are unlikely to establish at high densities within the CRE or its tributaries because of high suspended sediment, high ratios of suspended inorganic:organic material, and high water velocities, all of which interfere with the ability of Dreissena to effectively filter feed. The rapids of Grand Canyon may represent a large source of mortality to larval Dreissena, which would limit their ability to disperse and colonize downstream reaches of the CRE. In contrast, conditions within the Lees Ferry tailwater generally appear suitable for Dreissena establishment, with the exception of high average water velocity. If Dreissena establish within the

  18. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures

  19. An ecosystem approach to combat desertification on the Colorado Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Amanda

    2004-12-01

    Desertification of shrub and grassland into pinyon-juniper woodland is occurring over much of the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. As trees invade, they out-compete shrubs and grasses, increasing erosion rates and reducing infiltration of moisture into the soil. This has caused habitat problems for wildlife, and reduced forage for livestock. These impacts also affect the human communities that rely on ranching and tourism related to hunting. Past land use and management practices including heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression and introduction of exotic annual plants are believed to have led to current conditions. The Montrose office of the Bureau of Land Management has implemented an ecosystem-based program to reverse the desertification process on public land. The program is centered on detailed landscape objectives describing the desired vegetation mosaic on 360,000 ha of public land. The objectives outline proportions of plant seral stages and arrays of patch sizes for each planning unit. These objectives are based on priority management issues and the need to replicate a natural vegetation mosaic. Where the existing mosaic does not meet objectives, mechanical vegetation treatments and prescribed fire are used to create early and mid-seral patches on the ground. This restored vegetation pattern and type should be sustained over time through a natural fire regime and improved livestock management. Because many uncertainties exist, an adaptive management process is being used that allows mosaic objectives to be changed or processes modified where monitoring or scientific research indicate a need.

  20. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon Burn Area near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and potential volume of debris flows along the drainage network of the burned area and to estimate the same for 22 selected drainage basins along U.S. Highway 24 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (29 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (42 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (48 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 54 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from less than 1 to 74 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from less than 1 to 82 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the southern and southeastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Nine of the 22 drainage basins of interest have greater than a 40-percent probability of producing a debris flow in response to the 10-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 1,500 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce

  1. Generalizing ecological site concepts of the Colorado Plateau for landscape-level applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Nauman, Travis; Johanson, Jamin K.; Green, Shane; Miller, Mark E.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous ecological site descriptions in the southern Utah portion of the Colorado Plateau can be difficult to navigate, so we held a workshop aimed at adding value and functionality to the current ecological site system.We created new groups of ecological sites and drafted state-and-transition models for these new groups.We were able to distill the current large number of ecological sites in the study area (ca. 150) into eight ecological site groups that capture important variability in ecosystem dynamics.Several inventory and monitoring programs and landscape scale planning actions will likely benefit from more generalized ecological site group concepts.

  2. The Colorado mathematical olympiad the third decade and further explorations : from the mountains of Colorado to the peaks of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Soifer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Now in its third decade, the Colorado Mathematical Olympiad (CMO), founded by the author, has become an annual state-wide competition, hosting many hundreds of middle and high school contestants each year. This book presents a year-by-year history of the CMO from 2004–2013 with all the problems from the competitions and their solutions. Additionally, the book includes 10 further explorations, bridges from solved Olympiad problems to ‘real’ mathematics, bringing young readers to the forefront of various fields of mathematics. This book contains more than just problems, solutions, and event statistics — it tells a compelling story involving the lives of those who have been part of the Olympiad, their reminiscences of the past and successes of the present. I am almost speechless facing the ingenuity and inventiveness demonstrated in the problems proposed in the third decade of these Olympics. However, equally impressive is the drive and persistence of the originator and living soul of them. It is hard fo...

  3. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  4. Colorado Better Buildings Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strife, Susie [Boulder County, Boulder, CO (United States); Yancey, Lea [Boulder County, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-12-30

    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  5. The Colorado river delta (Mexico: ecological importance and management = O delta do rio Colorado (Mexico: importância ecológica e gerenciamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fermán Almada

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado river delta is a unique coastal system in the world, as it combines two important systems: the Colorado river and the Gulf of California. Consequently, the delta is dominated by bilateral interests, and influenced by administrative, political and natural processes, which involve the countries of the United States and Mexico. Located in the northern part of the Gulf of California, under a condition of natural isolation, a series of environmental attributeshave been developed (biotic and abiotic that are only observed in is region. In this work, the development of the bilateral political relations and the most important ecological characteristicsare presented, as well as the management instruments that have been developed for over 80 years. From these issues, the possible scenario for the region is defined, and the development of methodologies for monitoring the effects of these possible tendencies on the natural components of the delta is proposed.O delta do rio Colorado é uma zona costeira única em todo o mundo, porassociar dois importantes sistemas: o próprio rio Colorado e o Golfo da Califórnia. Conseqüentemente, o delta é dominado por interesses bi-nacionais e influenciado por processos administrativos, políticos e naturais, envolvendo os Estados Unidos e o México. Localizado no norte do Golfo da Califórnia, sob uma condição de isolamento natural,desenvolveu-se uma série de atributos ambientais (bióticos e abióticos que só podem ser vistos nessa região. Neste trabalho, são apresentados o desenvolvimento das relações políticas bilaterais e as características ecológicas mais importantes, bem como osmecanismos de gerenciamento que vêm sido desenvolvidos por mais de 80 anos. A partir dessas questões, é definido um cenário tendencial possível para a região, e o desenvolvimento de metodologias para o acompanhamento dos efeitos dessas possíveis tendências sobre os componentes naturais do delta é proposto.

  6. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  7. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulka, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  8. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-03-03

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  9. Quality of life on the Colorado Plateau: A report to camera-survey collaborators in southeast Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Reis-Ruehrwein, Jessica B.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Blahna, Dale J.

    1999-01-01

    What constitutes quality of life among community residents in southeastern and central Utah? What critical areas, elements, and special outdoor places are essential to quality of life in those areas? Answering these questions was the goal of this "quality-of-life" research collaboration in the Colorado Plateau region. Collaborators include the Utah Travel Council (UTC), Canyon Country Partnership, Utah State University, and the county governments of Carbon, Emery, Grand, San Juan, and Wayne counties.

  10. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. ...

  11. Annual report on the US Department of Energy's cultural resource activities at Colorado UMTRA Project sites for October 1991--September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) cultural resource studies that were undertaken in support of the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in the state of Colorado for the period of October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. This report fulfills the DOE's obligation to provide an annual report to the state of Colorado on the status and results of cultural resource studies conducted during the above period of record. This requirement is stated in a programmatic memorandum of agreement executed between the DOE, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer in December 1984. Previous reports were based on a calendar year reporting period. However, in order to be more consistent with the programmatic memorandum of agreement, the period of record for this and subsequent annual reports has been changed to the Federal fiscal year. The current status and summaries of 1992 cultural resource surveys are provided for all UMTRA Project sites in Colorado. The sites are Durango, Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock

  12. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. L...

  13. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  14. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Durango Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.; Madson, M.E.; Rosenlund, G.C.; Reinhart, W.R.; Gardner, H.A.

    1981-06-01

    The Durango Quadrangle (2 0 ), Colorado, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to determine environments favorable for uranium deposits. General reconnaissance, geologic and radiometric investigations, was augmented by detailed surface examination and radiometric and geochemical studies in selected areas. Eight areas favorable for uranium deposits were delineated. Favorable geologic environments include roscoelite-type vanadium-uranium deposits in the Placerville and Barlow Creek-Hermosa Creek districts, sandstone uranium deposits along Hermosa Creek, and vein uranium deposits in the Precambrian rocks of the Needle Mountains area and in the Paleozoic rocks of the Tuckerville and Piedra River Canyon areas. The major portions of the San Juan volcanic field, the San Juan Basin, and the San Luis Basin within the quadrangle were judged unfavorable. Due to lack of information, the roscoelite belt below 1000 ft (300 m), the Eolus Granite below 0.5 mi (0.8 km), and the Lake City caldera are unevaluated. The Precambrian Y melasyenite of Ute Creek and the Animas Formation within the Southern Ute Indian Reservation are unevaluated due to lack of access

  15. Sedimentology of Great Sand Dunes, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah

    1981-01-01

    Eolian and adjacent deposits of Great Sand Dunes Colorado form a small but sedimentologically complex deposit Eolian sediments can be subdivided into three provinces trending downwind northeast I low as much as 10 m high alkali cemented dunes forming discontinuous rings around broad flat bottomed ephemeral lakes II undulating vegetated dunes as high as 10 m of barchan parabolic shrub coppice and transverse type with varying interdune types III high as much as 200 m transverse dunes with little or no vegetation and no true interdune deposits Eolian deposits are in contact with or intercalated with fluvial lacustrine and alluvial fan deposits and lap onto crystalline basement rocks of the Sangre de Cristo Range. Analysis of a 40 year-span of aerial photographs and field observation of sand transport and cross bedding dip directions indicate that the main dune mass province III is accreting vertically and that dune types are growing in complexity in particular the star dunes This change from lateral migration to vertical growth most probably reflects Holocene changes in wind regime. The Great Sand Dunes are an example of a localized cool climate intermontane eolian deposit characterized by extensive fluvial reworking With its rapid variation in thicknesses sedimentary structures and associated sedimentary deposits such a deposit would be difficult to interpret accurately in the ancient rock record However such a deposit could be of economic importance in petroleum and uranium exploration and in aquifer evaluation

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  17. 78 FR 62012 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Availability of Environmental... 380 ), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Public Service Company of Colorado's application for... Service. Staff prepared an environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes the potential environmental...

  18. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  19. 77 FR 235 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules; Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... of Colorado's procedural rules as adopted by the Air Quality Control Commission (Commission) on... of This Action EPA is proposing to fully approve Section 1.11 of Colorado's procedural rules, adopted...

  20. 77 FR 35617 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... recently attempted to modify the Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport (COS), CO... effort, it was determined the COS ARP geographic position information contained in the Colorado Springs... previously and required updating. This amendment action ensures the COS ARP described in the Colorado Springs...

  1. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...-1191; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANM-21] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has made this...

  2. 77 FR 32393 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANM-21] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... date for the amendment of Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO, until September 20, 2012. The FAA is taking this action to allow additional time for...

  3. 78 FR 19477 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Settlement Agreement and....: P-2351-017. c. Date filed: March 22, 2013. d. Applicant: Public Service Company of Colorado. e. Name... Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) filed the Settlement Agreement on behalf of itself and the U.S...

  4. 75 FR 43967 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing July 19, 2010. Take notice that on June 18, 2010, in Docket No. ER10-192-004, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) filed... PSCo and Black Hills/Colorado Electric Utility Company regarding the PSCo Rate Application. On July 14...

  5. 75 FR 5109 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... transferred by the Denver Office of the Medical Examiner to the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic...) were transferred to the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP, part of the... remains (OAHP Case Number 112) were transferred to the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic...

  6. Land resource information needs of county government : a case study in Larimer County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1983-01-01

    My two colleagues on the study team, Rex Burns of the Larimer County Planning Department, and Glenn McCarty of the Fort Collins office of the Soil Conservation Service, contributed substantially to this report; many of their written words have found their way directly into the text. Jill O'Gara later replaced Rex Burns as the Larimer County coordinator in the study's final stages. John Rold, Colorado State Geologist, assisted in coordinating our efforts at the beginning of this study. Lou Campbell, State Cartographer, gave valuable advice and assistance throughout the effort. Wallace Hansen and James Blakey of the USGS Geologic and Water Resources Divisions, respectively, read the final manuscript and helped in many other ways. Joanna Trolinger served as research assistant and manuscript typist. Many others in the USGS, SCS, and other organizations helped in supplying information and advice. Tom Bates, then Chairman of the USGS Central Region Earth Science Applications Task Force, was the originator of the study, leader of the USGS participation effort, and guiding inspiration throughout. The study was carried out in association with the Program on Environment and Behavior, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder.

  7. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Latysh, Natalie; Matherne, Ann Marie; Linard, Joshua I.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of nonrenewable and renewable energy resources. Resource managers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecological resources and ecosystem services. To facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas (Energy Atlas) for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy Atlas is designed to meet the needs of varied users who seek information about energy in the western United States. The Energy Atlas has two primary capabilities: a geographic information system (GIS) data viewer and an interactive map gallery. The GIS data viewer allows users to preview and download GIS data related to energy potential and development in Colorado and New Mexico. The interactive map gallery contains a collection of maps that compile and summarize thematically related data layers in a user-friendly format. The maps are dynamic, allowing users to explore data at different resolutions and obtain information about the features being displayed. The Energy Atlas also includes an interactive decision-support tool, which allows users to explore the potential consequences of energy development for species that vary in their sensitivity to disturbance.

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado: Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Title 1 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the inactive Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. Title 2 of the UMTRCA authorized the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement state to regulate the operation and eventual reclamation of active uranium processing sites. The uranium mill tailings at the site were removed and reprocessed from 1977 to 1979. The contaminated areas include the former tailings area, the mill yard, the former ore storage area, and adjacent areas that were contaminated by uranium processing activities and wind and water erosion. The Naturita remedial action would result in the loss of 133 acres (ac) of contaminated soils at the processing site. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and the state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac of steeply sloped contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. Cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers

  9. Current and Future Impacts of Wildfires on PM2.5 and Public Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Strickland, M.; Fu, J. S.; Geng, G.; Chang, H. H.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, the Western United States has seen heightened wildfire activity, characterized by a higher frequency of large wildfires a longer fire season, larger fire size, and a greater total area burned. With projected temperature increases, soil moisture reduction, and more frequent air stagnation, the burden of wildfires on air quality and public health will likely increase. With state-of-the-art climate and air quality models; ground and satellite measurements; and detailed health information, we will investigate the impacts of historical and future wildfires on air quality and public health in Colorado under various climate change scenarios and population growth patterns. As the first step of this project, we developed a Bayesian fusion model with satellite aerosol, cloud and fire data as well as CMAQ simulation results to estimate PM2.5 and ozone concentrations during the fire season of 2011 - 2014 at 1 km spatial resolution. These exposure estimates will be used together with emergency department (ED) visits and acute hospitalizations data in Colorado to develop region-specific concentration-response (C-R) functions. These C-R functions in combination with projected future PM2.5 and O3 will be used in the EPA BenMAP framework to estimate the impacts of future wildfires on public health. This research addresses an important link between climate and aerosol research and could significantly increase our understanding of the implications of climate change for PM and public health in the Rocky Mountains Region.

  10. Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceived Ease of Access Before and After Recreational Marijuana Implementation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, Scott B; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ma, Ming; James, Katherine A; Levinson, Arnold H

    2018-02-23

    As of January 1, 2017, eight states have approved laws for recreational marijuana use. While the social impacts of these changes remain under debate, the influence on adolescent marijuana use is a key policy and health issue across the U.S. To examine changes in adolescent marijuana-use behaviors in the first year after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, and to analyze the effect of retail marijuana store proximity on youth use and perceptions. Secondary analysis of Healthy Kids Colorado Survey data from 40 schools surveyed before and after recreational marijuana sales were implemented (2013 student n = 12,240; 2014 student n = 11,931). Self-reported marijuana use, ease of access, and perceived harms were compared between years and by proximity of recreational marijuana stores to surveyed schools. Adolescent marijuana use behaviors, wrongness of use, and perceptions of risk of harm were unchanged from baseline to one-year follow-up. Perceived ease of access to marijuana increased (from 46% to 52%). Proximity of recreational marijuana stores was not significantly associated with perceived ease of access to marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: In the first study of adolescent marijuana use and perceptions after state retail implementation of recreational marijuana, there was little change in adolescent marijuana use but a significant change in perception of ease of access. Public health workers and policymakers should continue to monitor these changes as essential for evaluating the impact of liberalization of marijuana policies.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado: Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Title 1 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the inactive Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. Title 2 of the UMTRCA authorized the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement state to regulate the operation and eventual reclamation of active uranium processing sites. The uranium mill tailings at the site were removed and reprocessed from 1977 to 1979. The contaminated areas include the former tailings area, the mill yard, the former ore storage area, and adjacent areas that were contaminated by uranium processing activities and wind and water erosion. The Naturita remedial action would result in the loss of 133 acres (ac) of contaminated soils at the processing site. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and the state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac of steeply sloped contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. Cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers.

  12. Intracaldera volcanism and sedimentation - Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Krier, D.; Snow, M.G. [and others

    1997-06-01

    Within the Creede caldera, Colorado, many of the answers to its postcaldera volcanic and sedimentary history lie within the sequence of tuffaceous elastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs known as the Creede Formation. The Creede Formation and its interbedded ash deposits were sampled by research coreholes Creede 1 and 2, drilled during the fall of 1991. In an earlier study of the Creede Formation, based on surface outcrops and shallow mining company coreholes, Heiken and Krier concluded that the process of caldera structural resurgence was rapid and that a caldera lake had developed in an annulus ({open_quotes}moat{close_quotes}) located between the resurgent dome and caldera wall. So far we have a picture of intracaldera activity consisting of intermittent hydrovolcanic eruptions within a caldera lake for the lower third of the Creede Formation, and both magmatic and hydrovolcanic ash eruptions throughout the top two-thirds. Most of the ash deposits interbedded with the moat sedimentary rocks are extremely fine-grained. Ash fallout into the moat lake and unconsolidated ash eroded from caldera walls and the slopes of the resurgent dome were deposited over stream delta distributaries within relatively shallow water in the northwestern moat, and in deeper waters of the northern moat, where the caldera was intersected by a graben. Interbedded with ash beds and tuffaceous siltstones are coarse-grained turbidites from adjacent steep slopes and travertine from fissure ridges adjacent to the moat. Sedimentation rates and provenance for elastic sediments are linked to the frequent volcanic activity in and near the caldera; nearly all of the Creede Formation sedimentary rocks are tuffaceous.

  13. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... The revisions were adopted by the Colorado Air Quality Control Commission on March 16, 2000, State... Governor's May 7, 2001, submittal were submitted by the Colorado Attorney General's office on May 30, 2001...

  14. Subsurface stratigraphy and uranium--vanadium favorability of the Morrison Formation, Sage Plain Area, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdley, W.A.; Flook, J.E.; Harris, R.E.

    1975-08-01

    The four members of the Morrison Formation that are recognizable in the area studied are, in ascending order, the Salt Wash, Recapture, Westwater Canyon, and Brushy Basin. The Salt Wash member has the highest uranium favorability of all the Morrison strata in the area studied. An especially favorable area, in which the Salt Wash interval is thick and contains several thick sandstones, is situated on either side of the Utah-Colorado state line between Monticello, Utah, and Dove Creek, Colorado. The upper Morrison strata (Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin members) have low uranium favorability. The Westwater Canyon member contains adequate sandstones but lacks known uranium deposits in the project area. The Brushy Basin member, although rated as having low potential, nevertheless does possess some attributes that make it worthy of further attention. The Recapture member does not contain sufficient well-developed sandstones or uranium deposits to merit its being classed as favorable for potential uranium-vanadium resources. (LK)

  15. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

  16. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ''select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards'' prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil

  17. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd 3 ) (2.1 million cubic meters [m 3 ]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m 3 ) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd 3 (420,000 m 3 ). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd 3 (2.58 million m 3 )

  18. Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Victor M; Chen, Yolanda H; Schoville, Sean D; Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David J

    2018-04-02

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]) is a pest of potato throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known about the beetle's origins as a pest. We sampled the beetle from uncultivated Solanum host plants in Mexico, and from pest and non-pest populations in the United States and used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear loci to examine three hypotheses on the origin of the pest lineages: 1) the pest beetles originated from Mexican populations, 2) they descended from hybridization between previously divergent populations, or 3) they descended from populations that are native to the Plains states in the United States. Mitochondrial haplotypes of non-pest populations from Mexico and Arizona differed substantially from beetles collected from the southern plains and potato fields in the United States, indicating that beetles from Mexico and Arizona did not contribute to founding the pest lineages. Similar results were observed for AFLP and microsatellite data . In contrast, non-pest populations from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas were genetically similar to U.S. pest populations, indicating that they contributed to the founding of the pest lineages. Most of the pest populations do not show a significant reduction in genetic diversity compared to the plains populations in the United States. We conclude that genetically heterogeneous beetle populations expanded onto potato from native Solanum hosts. This mode of host range expansion may have contributed to the abundant genetic diversity of contemporary populations, perhaps contributing to the rapid evolution of climate tolerance, host range, and insecticide resistance.

  19. Influence of Forest Disturbance on Hydrologic Extremes in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Middleton, R. S.; McDowell, N. G.; Xu, C.; Wilson, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important freshwater rivers in the United States: it provides water supply to more than 30 million people, irrigation to 5.7 million acres of cropland, and produces over 8 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power each year. Our study focuses on changes to hydrological extremes and threshold responses across the Colorado River basin due to forest fires, infestations, and stress-induced tree mortality using a scenario-based approach to estimate forest cover disturbance. Scenarios include static vegetation reductions and dynamic reductions in forest compositions based on three CMIP5 global climate models and one emission scenario (1950-2099). For headwater systems, large intra-year variability exists, indicating the influence of climate on these snowmelt driven basins. Strong seasonality in flow responses are also noted; in the Piedra River higher runoff occurs during freshet under a no-forest condition, with the greatest changes observed for maximum streamflow. Conversely, during the recessional period, flows are lower in scenarios with reduced forest compositions. Low-flows appear to be affected in some basins but not others; for example small headwater systems demonstrate higher low-flows with increased disturbance. Global Climate Model scenarios indicate a range of responses in these basins, characterized by lower peak streamflow but with higher winter flows. This response is influenced by shifts in water, and energy balances associated with a combined response of changing climate and forest cover compositions. Results also clearly show how changes in extreme events are forced by shifts in major water balance parameters (runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent, and soil moisture) from headwater basins spanning a range of hydrological regimes and ecological environments across the Colorado.

  20. From Waste to Wealth: Using Produced Water for Agriculture in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, F.; Hogue, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    According to estimates from the Colorado Water Plan, the state's population may double by 2050. Due to increasing demand, as much as 0.8 million irrigated acres may dry up statewide from agricultural to municipal and industrial transfers. To help mitigate this loss, new sources of water are being explored in Colorado. One such source may be produced water. Oil and gas production in 2016 alone produced over 300 million barrels of produced water. Currently, the most common method of disposal of produced water is deep well injection, which is costly and has been shown to cause induced seismicity. Treating this water to agricultural standards eliminates the need to dispose of this water and provides a new source of water. This research explores which counties in Colorado may be best suited to reusing produced water for agriculture based on a combined index of need, quality of produced water, and quantity of produced water. The volumetric impact of using produced water for agricultural needs is determined for the top six counties. Irrigation demand is obtained using evapotranspiration estimates from a range of methods, including remote sensing products and ground-based observations. The economic feasibility of treating produced water to irrigation standards is also determined using treatment costs found in the literature and disposal costs in each county. Finally, data from the IHS database is used to obtain the ratio between hydraulic fracturing fluid volumes and produced water volumes in each county. The results of this research will aid in the transition between viewing produced water as a waste product and using it as a tool to help secure water for the arid West.

  1. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  2. MODIS imagery improves pest risk assessment: A case study of wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestina, Jordan; Cook, Maxwell; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Ode, Paul J.; Peirs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado. We identified environmental variables that influence the current distribution of wheat stem sawfly in the state and evaluated whether remotely sensed variables improved model performance. We used presence localities of C. cinctus and climatic, topographic, soils, and normalized difference vegetation index and enhanced vegetation index data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery as environmental variables. All models had high performance in that they were successful in predicting suitable habitat for C. cinctus in its current distribution in eastern Colorado. The enhanced vegetation index for the month of April improved model performance and was identified as a top contributor to MaxEnt model. Soil clay percent at 0–5 cm, temperature seasonality, and precipitation seasonality were also associated with C. cinctus distribution in Colorado. The improved model performance resulting from integrating vegetation indices in our study demonstrates the ability of remote sensing technologies to enhance species distribution modeling. These risk maps generated can assist managers in planning control measures for current infestations and assess the future risk of C. cinctus establishment in currently uninfested regions.

  3. Smart grid: Carbon and economic implications for Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca M.

    Smart grid, a mechanism to provide bidirectional communication and control between electricity providers and consumers, is the subject of great public interest as a means to enable a more efficient and renewably powered electricity grid infrastructure. Considerable public and private investment in smart grid is driven, in part, by the belief that it will provide significant environmental benefits, including CO2 emissions reductions. Previous studies of the environmental benefits of smart grid have focused on hypothesized changes in CO2 at the national level and have not addressed economic considerations. Because there are regional differences in electricity system characteristics and because significant electricity regulatory decisions are made by the states, there is a need to understand the CO2 and economic implications of smart grid at the state level. This dissertation developed a methodology by which to evaluate the interrelationships between the CO2 and economic implications of smart grid at the state level. The foundation of the methodology is a static, mixed integer linear program which estimates the direction and magnitude of potential changes in CO2 and economics due to coupling of smart gird with demand response, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The research hypotheses of this dissertation are: (1) smart grid CO 2 reductions and economic benefits are not aligned given current electricity regulatory policies, and (2) given insufficient CO2 incentives or the wrong set of economic incentives, smart grid could fail to achieve attainable CO2 reductions. The methodology was applied to a case study of Colorado which suggests that in 2006 smart grid could have contributed to incremental reductions in electricity sector CO2 emissions of up to 23% or incremental reductions in cost of up to 8%, but not via the same smart grid deployment strategy. As such, the research confirmed the hypothesis that CO2 reductions and

  4. Geochemical, biogeochemical, and sedimentological studies of the Green River Formation. Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The report contains the following sections: Introduction; Sulfur geochemistry and isotopy of the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; A preliminary study of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic biogeochemistry of lacustrine sedimentary rocks from the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; Trace elements in pyrites of the Green River Formation oil shales, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; An experimental study of goethite sulfidization--Relationships to the diagenesis of iron and sulfur; Effects of source, depositional environment, and diagenesis on characteristics of organic matter in oil shale from the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; Petrography of iron sulfide minerals in the Green River Formation of Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.

  5. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, Geology report: Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  7. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Remedial action selection report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that have been conducted by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium mill processing site near Durango, Colorado. Secondly, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado

  8. Global Forest Canopy Height Maps Validation and Calibration for The Potential of Forest Biomass Estimation in The Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, N. W.; Popescu, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past few years, three global forest canopy height maps have been released. Lefsky (2010) first utilized the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate a global forest canopy height map in 2010. Simard et al. (2011) integrated GLAS data and other ancillary variables, such as MODIS, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (STRM), and climatic data, to generate another global forest canopy height map in 2011. Los et al. (2012) also used GLAS data to create a vegetation height map in 2012.Several studies attempted to compare these global height maps to other sources of data., Bolton et al. (2013) concluded that Simard's forest canopy height map has strong agreement with airborne lidar derived heights. Los map is a coarse spatial resolution vegetation height map with a 0.5 decimal degrees horizontal resolution, around 50 km in the US, which is not feasible for the purpose of our research. Thus, Simard's global forest canopy height map is the primary map for this research study. The main objectives of this research were to validate and calibrate Simard's map with airborne lidar data and other ancillary variables in the southern United States. The airborne lidar data was collected between 2010 and 2012 from: (1) NASA LiDAR, Hyperspectral & Thermal Image (G-LiHT) program; (2) National Ecological Observatory Network's (NEON) prototype data sharing program; (3) NSF Open Topography Facility; and (4) the Department of Ecosystem Science and Management at Texas A&M University. The airborne lidar study areas also cover a wide variety of vegetation types across the southern US. The airborne lidar data is post-processed to generate lidar-derived metrics and assigned to four different classes of point cloud data. The four classes of point cloud data are the data with ground points, above 1 m, above 3 m, and above 5 m. The root mean square error (RMSE) and

  9. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  10. Colorado Child Identification Process. Birth - Five Years Effectiveness Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro-Jackson, Pat; And Others

    This set of effectiveness indicators is intended to assist Colorado communities and agencies to evaluate themselves regarding processes for the identification of young children (birth to age 5) with disabilities. First, a statement of values stresses proactivity, family empowerment, and outcome orientation. Specific effectiveness indicators are…

  11. Mesoscale variability of the Upper Colorado River snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C.-H.; Josberger, E.G.; Thorndike, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    In the mountainous regions of the Upper Colorado River Basin, snow course observations give local measurements of snow water equivalent, which can be used to estimate regional averages of snow conditions. We develop a statistical technique to estimate the mesoscale average snow accumulation, using 8 years of snow course observations. For each of three major snow accumulation regions in the Upper Colorado River Basin - the Colorado Rocky Mountains, Colorado, the Uinta Mountains, Utah, and the Wind River Range, Wyoming - the snow course observations yield a correlation length scale of 38 km, 46 km, and 116 km respectively. This is the scale for which the snow course data at different sites are correlated with 70 per cent correlation. This correlation of snow accumulation over large distances allows for the estimation of the snow water equivalent on a mesoscale basis. With the snow course data binned into 1/4?? latitude by 1/4?? longitude pixels, an error analysis shows the following: for no snow course data in a given pixel, the uncertainty in the water equivalent estimate reaches 50 cm; that is, the climatological variability. However, as the number of snow courses in a pixel increases the uncertainty decreases, and approaches 5-10 cm when there are five snow courses in a pixel.

  12. Awareness: Journal of the Colorado Counseling Association, Fall 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varhely, Susan, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This annual publication represents the first edition of the Colorado Counseling Association journal following its reorganization and rebirth. The articles include: (1) "Sexual Harassment on Campus: Does Having a Policy Help?" (Sue Spooner); (2) "It's a Dog's Life: A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of the Human-Animal Bond on a…

  13. Construction of calibration pads facility, Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.L.

    1978-08-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer facility was completed at Walker Field Airport, Grand Junction, Colorado, in November 1976. This report describes spectrometers and their calibration, the construction of the spectrometer facility, the radioelement concentrations, procedures for using the facilites, and environmental considerations

  14. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  15. Principal Leadership and the Colorado Innovation Schools Act of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of principals whose schools were granted innovation status in accordance with the "Colorado Innovation Schools Act of 2008" (CISA). The CISA created a statewide system that allowed individual schools and entire districts to increase autonomy and…

  16. Living with wildfire in Log Hill Mesa, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia Colter Falk; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Travis Warziniack; Patricia. Champ

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Colorado has experienced an increase in the number and size of wildfires on its public and private lands. Nationwide, expenditures on wildfire suppression have increased for decades and now are measured in the billions of tax dollars. Current trends in climate changes, fuel accumulation from past wildfire suppression, and expansion of the...

  17. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type

  18. Examining the Spatial Distribution of Marijuana Establishments in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerski, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In this 22-question activity, high school students investigate the spatial distribution of marijuana stores in Colorado using an interactive web map containing stores, centers, highways, population, and other data at several scales. After completing this lesson, students will know and be able to: (1) Use interactive maps, layers, and tools in…

  19. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  20. Aspects of host-plant relationship of the Colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.

    1970-01-01

    Host plant choice, suitability of and conditioning to the host in Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY were studied under controlled conditions.

    The literature on historical and geographical distribution of the Colorado beetle has been reviewed and an extensive survey is given of the

  1. Agricultural water conservation programs in the lower Colorado River Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, J.

    1993-01-01

    Rice irrigation is the largest user of water within the area served by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), accounting for approximately 75 percent of total annual surface and ground water demands. In an average year, about 30 percent of surface water supplied to rice irrigation is satisfied with water released from the storage in the Highland Lakes located at the upstream reaches of the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. During a severe drought, the demand for stored water could be as much as 70 percent of annual rice irrigation demand. LCRA owns and operates two irrigation canal systems which together supply water to irrigate 60,000 acres of rice each year. These irrigation systems are the Lakeside and Gulf Coast Irrigation Divisions. The Lakeside system is located in Colorado and Wharton Counties and the Gulf Coast system is located in Wharton and Matagorda Counties. In the 1987 and 1989, the Lower Colorado River Authority Board of Directors authorized implementation and funding for Canal Rehabilitation Project and Irrigation Water Measurement Project respectively. These two projects are key initiatives to agricultural water conservation goals established in the LCRA Water Management Plan and Water Conservation Policy. In addition LCRA participated actively in agricultural water conservation research projects and technology transfer activities

  2. Building Blocks to Colorado's Content Standards: Mathematics, Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Young, Darcy; Amundson, Jane L.; Bowers, Lori Goodwin; Koehn, Jo; Triolo-Moloney, Sharon; Vendegna, Nan; Peterson, Sandra

    The Building Blocks to Colorado's Content Standards were developed to connect early childhood education to the K-12 content standards, to advocate for appropriate teaching strategies for preschool children, and to support awareness and understanding of early childhood foundational skills among parents and teachers. Five sets of building blocks are…

  3. The Role and Function of School Psychologists in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Office of Instructional Services.

    This publication describes the direct service activities of the school psychologist in Colorado. The role of the psychologist is an evaluatory one. He evaluates all aspects of a child's experiences and behaviors pertinent to an understanding of the child's school difficulties. He also serves as a consultant to other school personnel concerning…

  4. Landslides in the northern Colorado Front Range caused by rainfall, September 11-13, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Jones, Eric S.; Harp, Edwin L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-01-01

    During the second week of September 2013, nearly continuous rainfall caused widespread landslides and flooding in the northern Colorado Front Range. The combination of landslides and flooding was responsible for eight fatalities and caused extensive damage to buildings, highways, and infrastructure. Three fatalities were attributed to a fast moving type of landslide called debris flow. One fatality occurred in Jamestown, and two occurred in the community of Pinebrook Hills immediately west of the City of Boulder. All major canyon roads in the northern Front Range were periodically closed between September 11 and 13, 2013. Some canyon closures were caused by undercutting of roads by landslides and flooding, and some were caused by debris flows and rock slides that deposited material on road surfaces. Most of the canyon roads, with the exceptions of U.S. Highway 6 (Clear Creek Canyon), State Highway 46/Jefferson Co. Rd. 70 (Golden Gate Canyon), and Sunshine Canyon in Boulder County, remained closed at the end of September 2013. A review of historical records in Colorado indicates that this type of event, with widespread landslides and flooding occurring over a very large region, in such a short period of time, is rare.

  5. Property description and fact-finding report for NOSR 1&3, Garfield County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-30

    The US Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale No. 1 and No. 3 (NOSR 1 and 3) in Garfield County, Colorado. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America claims ownership of 100 percent of the minerals and 100 percent of the surface rights in 36,406-acre NOSR-1 and 20,171-acre at NOSR-3. Production has been established on NOSR-3 and currently the DOE owns interests in 53 gas wells that produce on or immediately adjacent to the acreage. NOSR-3 also contains undrilled locations that are classified as proved undeveloped or probable reserves. Recently, the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission (COGCC) approved an increased 40 acre drilling density for the Mesaverde formation that includes portions of NOSR-3.

  6. Meteorological data for selected sites along the Colorado River Corridor, Arizona, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Joshua J.; Dealy, Timothy P.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents data from 14 automated weather stations collected as part of an ongoing monitoring program within the Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon Recreation Area along the Colorado River Corridor in Arizona. Weather data presented in this document include precipitation, wind speed, maximum wind gusts, wind direction, barometric pressure, relative humidity, and air temperature collected by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center at 4-minute intervals between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, using automated weather stations consisting of a data logger and a weather transmitter equipped with a piezoelectric sensor, ultrasonic transducers, and capacitive thermal and pressure sensors. Data collection was discontinuous because of station additions, station removals, changes in permits, and equipment failure. A large volume of data was collected for each station. These data are part of a larger research effort focused on physical processes affecting landscapes and archaeological-site stability in the Colorado River Corridor—both natural processes (including meteorological events) and those related to the Glen Canyon Dam operations. Meteorological conditions during the study interval were warmer and drier than is typical, due to ongoing drought conditions during the time period studied. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation was primarily in a neutral state during the reporting period.

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Naturita site, Naturita, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Naturita, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings, the performance of radiometric measurements to determine the extent of radium contamination, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 704,000 tons of tailings at the Naturita site constitutes the most significant environmental impact although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. Ranchers Exploration and Development Company has been licensed by the State of Colorado to reprocess the tailings at a location 3 mi from the present site where they will be stabilized for long-term storage. The remedial action options include remedial action for structures in Naturita and Nucla (Option I) at an estimated cost of $270,000 and remedial action for structures and open land adjacent to the tailings site (Option II) at an estimated cost of $950,000

  9. Star crossings and stone monuments-Field astronomy by the Wheeler Survey in 1870s Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The decade of the 1870s was a time of extensive exploration and surveying in the American West. The nation needed knowledge of the cultural features, topography, natural resources, and geology of this land to promote and aid the 'rapid development of an empire.' The need was particularly acute in the region that still was known in the early 1870s as Colorado Territory. There, cities and towns were springing up along the base of the Front Range, railroads were expanding, and in the mountains prospectors and miners were exploring the countryside seeking and extracting the region's abundant mineral resources. Also, recurring conflicts between the newcomers and Native Americans made it desirable to have accurate maps for military purposes. Four major government-sponsored scientific surveys formed the principal organized effort to provide critical knowledge of the land. Civilian scientists led three of these: John Wesley Powell ('Geographical and Topographical Survey of the Colorado River of the West'); Ferdinand V. Hayden ('Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories'); and Clarence King ('Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'). Lt. George Montague Wheeler, a young graduate of West Point (Class of 1866) and a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, led the fourth and most ambitious project ('United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian').

  10. Radioactive mineral occurences of Colorado and bibliography. [2500 citations in bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Moore, J.L.; Collins, D.B.; Hornbaker, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    This two-part report provides an essentially complete listing of radioactive occurrences in Colorado, with a comprehensive bibliography and bibliographic cross-indexes. Part 1 lists approximately 3000 known radioactive occurrences with their locations and brief accounts of the geology, mineralogy, radioactivity, host rock, production data, and source of data for each. The occurrences are classified by host rock and plotted on U.S. Geological Survey 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ topographic quadrangle maps with a special 1 : 100,000-scale base map for the Uravan mineral belt. Part 2 contains the bibliography of approximately 2500 citations on radioactive mineral occurrences in the state, with cross-indexes by county, host rock, and the special categories of ''Front Range,'' ''Colorado Plateau,'' and ''thorium.'' The term ''occurrence'' as used in this report is defined as any site where the concentration of uranium or thorium is at least 0.01% or where the range of radioactivity is greater than twice the background radioactivity. All citations and occurrence data are stored on computer diskettes for easy retrieval, correction, and updating.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  12. Impact of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado on Adolescent Emergency and Urgent Care Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Davies, Sara Deakyne; Halmo, Laurie Seidel; Sass, Amy; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2018-03-30

    Approximately 6%-8% of U.S. adolescents are daily/past-month users of marijuana. However, survey data may not reliably reflect the impact of legalization on adolescents. The objective was to evaluate the impact of marijuana legalization on adolescent emergency department and urgent cares visits to a children's hospital in Colorado, a state that has allowed both medical and recreational marijuana. Retrospective review of marijuana-related visits by International Classification of Diseases codes and urine drug screens, from 2005 through 2015, for patients ≥ 13 and marijuana-related visits were identified. Behavioral health evaluation was obtained for 2,813 (67%); a psychiatric diagnosis was made for the majority (71%) of these visits. Coingestants were common; the most common was ethanol (12%). Marijuana-related visits increased from 1.8 per 1,000 visits in 2009 to 4.9 in 2015. (p = marijuana use, our data demonstrate a significant increase in adolescent marijuana-associated emergency department and urgent cares visits in Colorado. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers and the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, N.B.; Babel, N.; Diffendorfer, J.; Ignizio, D.; Hawkins, S.; Latysh, N.; Leib, K.; Linard, J.; Matherne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of oil, gas (including shale gas and coal-bed methane), and uranium, as well as renewable energy resources such as geothermal, solar, and wind. Much of the development in the West is occurring on public lands, including those under Federal and State jurisdictions. In Colorado and New Mexico, these public lands make up about 40 percent of the land area. Both states benefit from the revenue generated by energy production, but resource managers and other decisionmakers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecosystems, recreation, and other resources. Although a substantial amount of geospatial data on existing energy development and energy potential is available, much of this information is not readily accessible to natural resource decisionmakers, policymakers, or the public. Furthermore, the data often exist in varied formats, requiring considerable processing before these datasets can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among resources, compare development alternatives, or quantify cumulative impacts. To allow for a comprehensive evaluation among different energy types, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA) interdisciplinary team includes investigators from several USGS science centers1. The purpose of the EERMA Interactive Energy Atlas is to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The Atlas is designed to meet the needs of various users, including GIS analysts, resource managers, policymakers, and the public, who seek information about energy in the western United States. Currently, the Atlas has two primary capabilities, a GIS data viewer and an

  14. Formic and Acetic Acid Observations over Colorado by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Organic Acids' Role in Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Heikes, B.; Silwal, I.; McNeill, A.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc) have both natural and anthropogenic sources and a role in the atmospheric processing of carbon. These organic acids also have an increasing importance in setting the acidity of rain and snow as precipitation nitrate and sulfate concentrations have decreased. Primary emissions for both organic acids include biomass burning, agriculture, and motor vehicle emissions. Secondary production is also a substantial source for both acids especially from biogenic precursors, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), and photochemical production from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Chemical transport models underestimate organic acid concentrations and recent research has sought to develop additional production mechanisms. Here we report HFo and HAc measurements during two campaigns over Colorado using the peroxide chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PCIMS). Iodide clusters of both HFo and HAc were recorded at mass-to-charge ratios of 173 and 187, respectively. The PCIMS was flown aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V platform during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and aboard the NCAR C-130 during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The DC3 observations were made in May and June 2012 extending from the surface to 13 km over the central and eastern United States. FRAPPE observations were made in July and August 2014 from the surface to 7 km over Colorado. DC3 measurements reported here are focused over the Colorado Front Range and complement the FRAPPE observations. DC3 HFo altitude profiles are characterized by a decrease up to 6 km followed by an increase either back to boundary layer mixing ratio values or higher (a "C" shape). Organic acid measurements from both campaigns are interpreted with an emphasis on emission sources (both natural and anthropogenic) over Colorado and in situ photochemical production especially ozone precursors.

  15. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago

  16. Streamflow characteristics of the Colorado River Basin in Utah through September 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R.C.; Johnson, E.B.; Plantz, G.G.

    1987-01-01

     This report summarizes discharge data and other streamflow characteristics developed from gag ing-station records collected through September 1981 at 337 stations in the Colorado River Basin in Utah. Data also are included for 14 stations in adjacent areas of the bordering states of Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming (fig. 1). The study leading to this report was done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, which needs the streamflow data in order to evaluate impacts of mining on the hydrologic system. The report also will be beneficial to other Federal, State, and county agencies and to individuals concerned with water supply and water problems in the Colorado River Basin.The streamflow characteristics in the report could be useful in many water-related studies that involve the following:Definition of baseline-hydrologic conditions; studies of the effects of man's activities on streamflow; frequency analyses of low and high flows; regional analyses of streamflow characteristics; design of water-supply systems; water-power studies; forecasting of stream discharge; time-series analyses of streamflow; design of flood-control structures; stream-pollution studies; and water-chemistry transport studies.The basic data used to develop the summaries in this report are records of daily and peak discharge collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies. Much of the work of the Geological Survey was done in cooperation with Federal, State, and county agencies. Discharge recordsincluded in the report generally were for stations with at least 1 complete water year of record and nearby stations that were on the same stream and had different streamflow characteristics. A water year is a 12-month period ending September 30, and it is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. For streams that have had significant changes in regulation by reservoirs or diversions, the records before and after those changes were used separately to provide

  17. Issues in the implementation and evolution of the commercial recreational cannabis market in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subritzky, Todd; Pettigrew, Simone; Lenton, Simon

    2015-12-15

    For almost a century, the cultivation, sale and use of recreational cannabis has been prohibited by law in most countries. Recently, however, under ballot initiatives four states in the US have legalised commercial, non-medical (recreational) cannabis markets. Several other states will initiate similar ballot measures attached to the 2016 election that will also appoint a new President. As the first state to implement the legislation in 2014, Colorado is an important example to begin investigating early consequences of specific policy choices while other jurisdictions consider their own legislation although the empirical evidence base is only beginning to accrue. This paper brings together material sourced from peer reviewed academic papers, grey literature publications, reports in mass media and niche media outlets, and government publications to outline the regulatory model and process in Colorado and to describe some of the issues that have emerged in the first 20 months of its operation. These issues include tension between public health and profit, industry and investment, new methods of consumption, the black market and product testing. The paper concludes that, while it is too early to determine the impact of the scheme, and noting that it includes some features designed to mitigate adverse impacts, it faces major challenges. Not least of these are the lack of an effective overarching federal regulatory structure, as a consequence of the federal prohibition on cannabis, combined with a rapidly growing cannabis industry which, like other industries, will seek to exploit loopholes to maximise profit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of geothermal energy development in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Forman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The regulatory system is presented in a format to help guide geothermal energy development. State, local, and federal agencies, legislation, and regulations are presented. Information sources are listed. (MHR)

  19. Population dynamics of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-05-01

    Throughout the Southwestern United States, riparian systems contain narrow belts of vegetation along streams and rivers. Although only a small percentage of the total land cover, this ecosystem is important for maintaining high species diversity and population densities of birds. Anthropogenic changes to Western riverine systems have enhanced their susceptibility to invasion by introduced plant species, in particular, ornamental plants from the genus Tamarix (or saltcedar), which can establish itself in dry, salty conditions and spread rapidly. Recently, the central Asian saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) was released as a biocontrol for tamarisk. Since its release on the Colorado Plateau, tamarisk beetle populations in Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming have widely expanded, leading to widespread tamarisk defoliation, and concerns from land managers regarding the consequences of the environmental impact. Defoliation can also negatively impact avian communities in the short term by decreasing insect abundance and nesting success, owing to increased solar radiation or loss of camouflage. This report details two studies that examine the spread of the introduced tamarisk beetle over parts of the Southwestern United States. The first chapter documents plant phenology and beetle abundance and movement along the Dolores and San Juan Rivers, two major tributaries of the Colorado River. This study demonstrates that D. carinulata population-movement patterns can be highly influenced by the availability of beetle food resources and that local beetle “boom and bust” events are common. The second study demonstrates that the extent and timing of tamarisk defoliation are predictable on the basis of (1) abiotic cues for D. carinulata activity, (2) spatial distributions and abundances of D. carinulata across a site, and (3) movement of D. carinulata as a result of available tamarisk foliage. A significant positive correlation exists between the

  20. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable

  1. Resistance to permethrin in Culex tarsalis in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Adam C; Kondratieff, Boris C; Doyle, Michael S; Black, William C

    2008-06-01

    Resistance to permethrin and the activity of metabolic enzymes were monitored in field-collected Culex tarsalis from northeastern Colorado during 2005 and 2006 and compared with a lab strain from Bakersfield, CA. Collections were made from 13 different sites within and outside of the mosquito abatement area. Resistance levels by year and early vs. late season were examined and median lethal time values and 95% confidence intervals were compared with the lab strain. Mosquitoes collected in 2005 were more resistant to permethrin than either the lab strain or mosquitoes collected in 2006. Glutathione S-transferase levels recorded in 2005 were 9-12x higher than either the lab strain or 2006 mosquitoes; activity of mixed-function oxidases was also greater. Both mechanisms may play a role in permethrin resistance or reflect nontarget exposure to other pesticides in Cx. tarsalis in northeastern Colorado.

  2. Montroseite, a new vanadium oxide from the Colorado plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alice D.; Cisney, Evelyn A.; Sherwood, Alexander M.

    1953-01-01

    Montroseite, a new vanadium mineral named from Montrose County, Colorado, has been found in four mines in western Colorado and in two mines in eastern Utah. It is black, opaque, submetallic, and occurs in microscopic bladed crystals of the orthorhombic dipyramidal class. The axial ratio is a:b:c = 0.509:1:0.310, the common forms are b {010}, m {110}, p {121}, and a large vicinal form is approximately {0, 10, 1}. The observed specific gravity is 4.0 and the calculated specific gravity is 4.15. The composition is essentially VO(OH), with some iron commonly substituted for vanadium. Partial oxidation to VO2 has taken place. Chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction data are given. Single crystal study indicated that the space group symmetry is Pbnm(D2h16).

  3. Groundwater depletion during drought threatens future water security of the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Brian F.; Reager, John T.; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-08-01

    Streamflow of the Colorado River Basin is the most overallocated in the world. Recent assessment indicates that demand for this renewable resource will soon outstrip supply, suggesting that limited groundwater reserves will play an increasingly important role in meeting future water needs. Here we analyze 9 years (December 2004 to November 2013) of observations from the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission and find that during this period of sustained drought, groundwater accounted for 50.1 km3 of the total 64.8 km3 of freshwater loss. The rapid rate of depletion of groundwater storage (-5.6 ± 0.4 km3 yr-1) far exceeded the rate of depletion of Lake Powell and Lake Mead. Results indicate that groundwater may comprise a far greater fraction of Basin water use than previously recognized, in particular during drought, and that its disappearance may threaten the long-term ability to meet future allocations to the seven Basin states.

  4. Legalizing a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Colorado, Washington state and Uruguay are currently designing legal non-medical markets for cannabis. These clearly contravene the 1961 and 1988 drug conventions; options for what may happen next are discussed. The current provisions in the three regulatory schemes are summarized. From a public health perspective, the emphasis should be on holding down consumption with regulatory measures, but the public health agenda does not seem to be a strong consideration in the implementation of the US schemes, and they are paying little attention to what can be learned from the history of alcohol and tobacco regulation. While alternative paths to a cannabis market under the conventions are noted, the legalization initiatives underline the need to revise the drug conventions, making prohibition of domestic markets an optional matter. Such changes would also ease the path for including alcohol under the conventions, which would be an important step forward in global health. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys in southern Colorado, United States. These airborne geophysical surveys provide high-resolution and spatially comprehensive datasets characterizing the resistivity structure of the shallow subsurface of each survey region, accompanied by magnetic-field information over matching areas. These data were collected to provide insight into the distribution of groundwater brine in the Paradox Valley, the extent of clay aquitards in the San Luis Valley, and to improve our understanding of the geologic framework for both regions. This report describes these contracted surveys and releases digital data supplied under contract to the USGS.

  6. Uranium concentrations in natural waters, South Park, Colorado. [Part of National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1976-08-01

    During the summer of 1975, 464 water samples from 149 locations in South Park, Colorado, were taken for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in order to test the field sampling and analytical methodologies proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in the Rocky Mountain states and Alaska. The study showed, in the South Park area, that the analytical results do not vary significantly between samples which were untreated, filtered and acidified, filtered only, or acidified only. Furthermore, the analytical methods of fluorometry and delayed-neutron counting, as developed at the LASL for the reconnaissance work, provide fast, adequately precise, and complementary procedures for analyzing a broad range of uranium in natural waters. The data generated using this methodology does appear to identify uraniferous areas, and when applied using sound geochemical, geological, and hydrological principles, should prove a valuable tool in reconnaissance surveying to delineate new districts or areas of interest for uranium exploration.

  7. Groundwater Depletion During Drought Threatens Future Water Security of the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Brian F.; Reager, John T.; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow of the Colorado River Basin is the most overallocated in the world. Recent assessment indicates that demand for this renewable resource will soon outstrip supply, suggesting that limited groundwater reserves will play an increasingly important role in meeting future water needs. Here we analyze 9 years (December 2004 to November 2013) of observations from the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission and find that during this period of sustained drought, groundwater accounted for 50.1 cu km of the total 64.8 cu km of freshwater loss. The rapid rate of depletion of groundwater storage (5.6 +/- 0.4 cu km/yr) far exceeded the rate of depletion of Lake Powell and Lake Mead. Results indicate that groundwater may comprise a far greater fraction of Basin water use than previously recognized, in particular during drought, and that its disappearance may threaten the long-term ability to meet future allocations to the seven Basin states.

  8. Quantification of Linkages between Large-Scale Climate Patterns and Annual Precipitation for the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2010-12-01

    Precipitation is regarded as one of the key variables driving various hydrologic processes and the future precipitation information can be useful to better understand the long-term climate dynamics. In this paper, a simple, robust, and parsimonious precipitation forecast model, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed which uses large-scale climate information and predict annual precipitation 1-year in advance. SVM’s are a novel class of neural networks (NNs) which are based on the statistical learning theory. The SVM’s has three main advantages over the traditional NNs: 1) better generalization ability, 2) the architecture and weights of SVM’s are guaranteed to be unique and globally optimum, and 3) SVM’s are trained more rapidly than the corresponding NN. With these advantages, an application of SVM incorporating large-scale climate information is developed and applied to seventeen climate divisions encompassing the Colorado River Basin in the western United States. Annual oceanic-atmospheric indices, comprising of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) for a period of 1900-2007 are used to generate annual precipitation estimates with 1-year lead time. The results from the present study indicate that long-term precipitation predictions for the Upper Colorado River Basin can be successfully obtained using a combination of NAO and ENSO indices whereas coupling PDO and AMO results in improved precipitation predictions for the Lower Colorado River Basin. Precipitation predictions from the SVM model are found to be better when compared with the predictions obtained from feed-forward back propagation Artificial Neural Network and Multivariate Linear Regression models. The overall results of this study revealed that the annual precipitation of the Colorado River Basin was significantly influenced by oceanic-atmospheric oscillations and the proposed SVM

  9. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  10. Shifts in historical streamflow extremes in the Colorado River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt C. Solander; Katrina E. Bennett; Richard S. Middleton

    2017-01-01

    The global phenomenon of climate change-induced shifts in precipitation leading to “wet regions getting wetter” and “dry regions getting drier” has been widely studied. However, the propagation of these changes in atmospheric moisture within stream channels is not a direct relationship due to differences in the timing of how changing precipitation patterns interact with various land surfaces. Streamflow is of particular interest in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) due to the region’s rapidly gr...

  11. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  12. New Mexico structural zone - An analogue of the Colorado mineral belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Stein, H.J.; Finn, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Updated aeromagnetic maps of New Mexico together with current knowledge of the basement geology in the northern part of the state (Sangre de Cristo and Sandia-Manzano Mountains)-where basement rocks were exposed in Precambrian-cored uplifts-indicate that the northeast-trending Proterozoic shear zones that controlled localization of ore deposits in the Colorado mineral belt extend laterally into New Mexico. The shear zones in New Mexico coincide spatially with known epigenetic precious- and base-metal ore deposits; thus, the mineralized belts in the two states share a common inherited basement tectonic setting. Reactivation of the basement structures in Late Cretaceous-Eocene and Mid-Tertiary times provided zones of weakness for emplacement of magmas and conduits for ore-forming solutions. Ore deposits in the Colorado mineral belt are of both Late Cretaceous-Eocene and Mid-Tertiary age; those in New Mexico are predominantly Mid-Tertiary in age, but include Late Cretaceous porphyry-copper deposits in southwestern New Mexico. The mineralized belt in New Mexico, named the New Mexico structural zone, is 250-km wide. The northwest boundary is the Jemez subzone (or the approximately equivalent Globe belt), and the southeastern boundary was approximately marked by the Santa Rita belt. Three groups (subzones) of mineral deposits characterize the structural zone: (1) Mid-Tertiary porphyry molybdenite and alkaline-precious-metal deposits, in the northeast segment of the Jemez zone; (2) Mid-Tertiary epithermal precious-metal deposits in the Tijeras (intermediate) zone; and (3) Late Cretaceous porphyry-copper deposits in the Santa Rita zone. The structural zone was inferred to extend from New Mexico into adjacent Arizona. The structural zone provides favorable sites for exploration, particularly those parts of the Jemez subzone covered by Neogene volcanic and sedimentary rocks. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Changes in Projected Spatial and Seasonal Groundwater Recharge in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2017-07-01

    The Colorado River is an important source of water in the western United States, supplying the needs of more than 38 million people in the United States and Mexico. Groundwater discharge to streams has been shown to be a critical component of streamflow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), particularly during low-flow periods. Understanding impacts on groundwater in the basin from projected climate change will assist water managers in the region in planning for potential changes in the river and groundwater system. A previous study on changes in basin-wide groundwater recharge in the UCRB under projected climate change found substantial increases in temperature, moderate increases in precipitation, and mostly periods of stable or slight increases in simulated groundwater recharge through 2099. This study quantifies projected spatial and seasonal changes in groundwater recharge within the UCRB from recent historical (1950 to 2015) through future (2016 to 2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections. Simulation results indicate that projected increases in basin-wide recharge of up to 15% are not distributed uniformly within the basin or throughout the year. Northernmost subregions within the UCRB are projected an increase in groundwater recharge, while recharge in other mainly southern subregions will decline. Seasonal changes in recharge also are projected within the UCRB, with decreases of 50% or more in summer months and increases of 50% or more in winter months for all subregions, and increases of 10% or more in spring months for many subregions. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  15. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  16. 78 FR 66379 - Notice of Public Meeting, Northwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... management, wilderness, wild horse herd management, land exchange proposals, cultural resource management and... for individual oral comments may be limited. Dated: October 22, 2013. John Mehlhoff, BLM Colorado...

  17. The Search for Braddock's Caldera-Guidebook for Colorado Scientific Society Fall 2008 Field Trip, Never Summer Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Larson, Ed; Farmer, Lang; Kellogg, Karl S.

    2008-01-01

    The report contains the illustrated guidebook that was used for the fall field trip of the Colorado Scientific Society on September 6-7, 2008. It summarizes new information about the Tertiary geologic history of the northern Front Range and the Never Summer Mountains, particularly the late Oligocene volcanic and intrusive rocks designated the Braddock Peak complex. Minor modifications were made in response to technical reviews by D.J. Lidke and C.A. Ruleman (U.S. Geological Survey) regarding clarity and consistency, and text editing by M.A. Kidd. However, the text remains essentially similar to the guidebook that was circulated to the participants on the Colorado Scientific Society 2008 field trip. Several notes were added following the trip (as indicated) to address developments since the guidebook was written.

  18. Knowledge, Norms and Preferences for Tamarisk Management in the Green and Colorado River Corridors of the Colorado Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, E. Clay

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research exists regarding invasive alien plant species including impacts to native ecosystems and efficacy of control methods on public lands and river corridors. Many studies have identified the need for more research regarding the social implications of invasive alien species management. More specifically, additional research is needed regarding the impacts of invasive alien plant management on the Colorado Plateau to river-based recreation experiences. It is important for public ...

  19. Subtype Analysis of Cryptosporidium Specimens from Sporadic Cases in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, and Iowa in 2007: Widespread Occurrence of One Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype and Case History of an Infection with the Cryptosporidium Horse Genotype▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lihua; Hlavsa, Michele C.; Yoder, Jonathan; Ewers, Christina; Dearen, Theresa; Yang, Wenli; Nett, Randall; Harris, Stephanie; Brend, Sarah M.; Harris, Meghan; Onischuk, Lisa; Valderrama, Amy L.; Cosgrove, Shaun; Xavier, Karen; Hall, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Subtyping was conducted in late 2007 on 57 Cryptosporidium specimens from sporadic cases in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, and Iowa. One previously rare Cryptosporidium hominis subtype was indentified in 40 cases (70%) from all four states, and the Cryptosporidium horse genotype was identified in a pet shop employee with severe clinical symptoms.

  20. Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium specimens from sporadic cases in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, and Iowa in 2007: widespread occurrence of one Cryptosporidium hominis subtype and case history of an infection with the Cryptosporidium horse genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lihua; Hlavsa, Michele C; Yoder, Jonathan; Ewers, Christina; Dearen, Theresa; Yang, Wenli; Nett, Randall; Harris, Stephanie; Brend, Sarah M; Harris, Meghan; Onischuk, Lisa; Valderrama, Amy L; Cosgrove, Shaun; Xavier, Karen; Hall, Nancy; Romero, Sylvia; Young, Stephen; Johnston, Stephanie P; Arrowood, Michael; Roy, Sharon; Beach, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Subtyping was conducted in late 2007 on 57 Cryptosporidium specimens from sporadic cases in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, and Iowa. One previously rare Cryptosporidium hominis subtype was identified in 40 cases (70%) from all four states, and the Cryptosporidium horse genotype was identified in a pet shop employee with severe clinical symptoms.

  1. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Zebra and quagga mussels are fresh water invaders that have the potential to cause severe ecological and economic damage. It is estimated that mussels cause $1 billion dollars per year in damages to water infrastructure and industries in the United States (Pimentel et al., 2004). Following their introduction to the Great Lakes in the late 1980s, mussels spread rapidly throughout the Mississippi River Basin and the Eastern U.S. The mussel invasion in the West is young. Mussels were first identified in Nevada in 2007, and have since been identified in California, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. Western water systems are very different from those found in the East. The rapid spread of mussels through the eastern system was facilitated by connected and navigable waterways. Western water systems are less connected and are characterized by man-made reservoirs and canals. The main vector of spread for mussels in the West is overland on recreational boats (Bossenbroek et al., 2001). In response to the invasion, many western water managers have implemented preventative management programs to slow the overland spread of mussels on recreational boats. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Wildlife (CDOW) has implemented a mandatory boat inspection program that requires all trailered boats to be inspected before launching in any Colorado water body. The objective of this study is to analyze the costs and benefits of the CDOW boat inspection program in Colorado, and to identify variables that affect the net benefits of preventative management. Predicting the potential economic benefits of slowing the spread of mussels requires integrating information about mussel dispersal potential with estimates of control costs (Keller et al., 2009). Uncertainty surrounding the probabilities of establishment, the timing of invasions, and the damage costs associated with an invasion make a simulation model an excellent tool for addressing "what if" scenarios and shedding light on the

  2. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This silent film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of...

  3. 76 FR 61054 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Regulation Number 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ....1.ggg; II.D.1.lll; II.D.1.nnn. through II.D.1.rrr; II.D.1.vvv; II.D.1.www; II.D.1.yyy through II.D.1....1.bb; II.D.1.kk; II.D.1.nn; II.D.1.oo; II.D.1.aaa; II.D.1.bbb; II.D.1.ccc; II.D.1.fff; II.D.1.ggg...

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2010, 2010 state, Colorado, 2010 Census Block State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  5. 76 FR 8326 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-R08- OAR-2007-1036, by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations... nitrate extinction was 6.9% and 5.1%, respectively. Total nitrates from all source regions are projected to comprise 9.5% of the extinction in Canyonlands and 6.6% of the extinction in Bandelier. Thus...

  6. 76 FR 47443 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Attainment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ...) requires owners and operators of sources in ozone nonattainment areas to implement RACT requirements for...) for submission of a SIP for the 2008 standard. WEG cites no legal or policy support for this theory...

  7. 75 FR 31306 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... predicted for the year 2018, as reflected in a slide from a July 30, 2008 presentation before the Western... Ozone Planning''). The commenter asserted that: ``Slide 28 of this presentation displays projected 4th... of the Clean Air Act. DATES: Effective Date: This final rule is effective July 6, 2010. ADDRESSES...

  8. 77 FR 1027 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... unit. )(iv). time. (part of Major See footnote 1. Modification definition). N/A D-II.A.23.d(viii...)(C)(8 on this section at this (part of Major ). time. Modification definition). See footnote 1. N/A D...)(D).. on this section at this (part of Major time. Modification definition). Note that the reference...

  9. Ground based mobile isotopic methane measurements in the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, B. H.; Rella, C.; Petron, G.; Sherwood, O.; Mielke-Maday, I.; Schwietzke, S.

    2014-12-01

    Increased development of unconventional oil and gas resources in North America has given rise to attempts to monitor and quantify fugitive emissions of methane from the industry. Emission estimates of methane from oil and gas basins can vary significantly from one study to another as well as from EPA or State estimates. New efforts are aimed at reconciling bottom-up, or inventory-based, emission estimates of methane with top-down estimates based on atmospheric measurements from aircraft, towers, mobile ground-based vehicles, and atmospheric models. Attributing airborne measurements of regional methane fluxes to specific sources is informed by ground-based measurements of methane. Stable isotopic measurements (δ13C) of methane help distinguish between emissions from the O&G industry, Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFO), and landfills, but analytical challenges typically limit meaningful isotopic measurements to individual point sampling. We are developing a toolbox to use δ13CH4 measurements to assess the partitioning of methane emissions for regions with multiple methane sources. The method was applied to the Denver-Julesberg Basin. Here we present data from continuous isotopic measurements obtained over a wide geographic area by using MegaCore, a 1500 ft. tube that is constantly filled with sample air while driving, then subsequently analyzed at slower rates using cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS). Pressure, flow and calibration are tightly controlled allowing precise attribution of methane enhancements to their point of collection. Comparisons with point measurements are needed to confirm regional values and further constrain flux estimates and models. This effort was made in conjunction with several major field campaigns in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2014, including FRAPPÉ (Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment), DISCOVER-AQ, and the Air Water Gas NSF Sustainability Research Network at the University of Colorado.

  10. Hibernacula selection by Townsend's big-eared bat in Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.; Schorr, Robert A.; Navo, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In western United States, both mine reclamations and renewed mining at previously abandoned mines have increased substantially in the last decade. This increased activity may adversely impact bats that use these mines for roosting. Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) is a species of conservation concern that may be impacted by ongoing mine reclamation and renewed mineral extraction. To help inform wildlife management decisions related to bat use of abandoned mine sites, we used logistic regression, Akaike's information criterion, and multi-model inference to investigate hibernacula use by Townsend's big-eared bats using 9 years of data from surveys inside abandoned mines in southwestern Colorado. Townsend's big-eared bats were found in 38 of 133 mines surveyed (29%), and occupied mines averaged 2.6 individuals per mine. The model explaining the most variability in our data included number of openings and portal temperature at abandoned mines. In southwestern Colorado, we found that abandoned mine sites with more than one opening and portal temperatures near 0°C were more likely to contain hibernating Townsend's big-eared bats. However, mines with only one opening and portal temperatures of ≥10°C were occasionally occupied by Townsend's big-eared bat. Understanding mine use by Townsend's big-eared bat can help guide decisions regarding allocation of resources and placement of bat-compatible closures at mine sites scheduled for reclamation. When feasible we believe that surveys should be conducted inside all abandoned mines in a reclamation project at least once during winter prior to making closure and reclamation recommendations.

  11. Rapid response, monitoring, and mitigation of induced seismicity near Greeley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeck, William; Sheehan, A.F; Benz, Harley M.; Weingarten, Matthew; Nakai, J

    2016-01-01

    On 1 June 2014 (03:35 UTC), an Mw 3.2 earthquake occurred in Weld County, Colorado, a historically aseismic area of the Denver–Julesburg basin. Weld County is a prominent area of oil and gas development, including many high‐rate class II wastewater injection wells. In the days following the earthquake, the University of Colorado, with support from the U.S. Geological Survey and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology–Portable Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere, rapidly deployed six seismic stations to characterize the seismicity associated with the 1 June earthquake (the Greeley sequence) and to investigate its possible connection to wastewater disposal. The spatial and temporal proximity of earthquakes to a high‐rate wastewater disposal well strongly suggests these earthquakes were induced. Scientific communication between the university, state agencies, and the energy industry led to rapid mitigation strategies to reduce the occurrence of further earthquakes. Mitigation efforts included implementing a temporary moratorium on injection at the well, cementing the bottom portion of the disposal well to minimize hydrologic connectivity between the disposal formation and the underlying crystalline basement, and subsequently allowing injection to resume at lower rates. Following the resumption of wastewater disposal, microseismicity was closely monitored for both increases in earthquake rate and magnitude. Following mitigation efforts, between 13 August 2014 and 29 December 2015, no earthquakes larger than M 1.5 occurred near the Greeley sequence. This study demonstrates that a detailed and rapid characterization of a seismic sequence in space and time relative to disposal, combined with collaboration and communication between scientists, regulators, and industry, can lead to objective and actionable mitigation efforts that potentially reduced the rate of earthquakes and the possible generation of larger earthquakes.

  12. Rabies in Two Bison from Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C. Rhyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two adult female bison, housed in an outdoor research facility and observed daily, died suddenly three days apart. Minimal coordination and behavioral changes were observed in one animal the evening before being found in a moribund state. Malignant catarrhal fever was suspected in both bison due to a recent confirmed MCF case with similar course. The cause of death was not apparent from necropsy, but brains of both animals were strongly positive for rabies virus antigen by fluorescent antibody and/or immunohistochemical tests. Minimal to mild encephalitis with Negri bodies was observed on histopathology. The bison were located in an area that had not been endemic for skunk rabies; however, a case of rabies in a skunk had been discovered 1.6 km north of the bison paddock two months prior to the bison cases.

  13. Community-based restoration of desert wetlands: the case of the Colorado River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta; Mark Briggs; Yamilett Carrillo-Guerroro; Edward P. Glenn; Miriam Lara-Flores; Martha Roman-Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Wetland areas have been drastically reduced through the Pacific Flyway and the Sonoran Desert, with severe consequences for avian populations. In the Colorado River delta, wetlands have been reduced by 80 percent due to water management practices in the Colorado River basin. However, excess flows and agricultural drainage water has restored some areas, providing...

  14. Colorado Multicultural Resources for Arts Education: Dance, Music, Theatre, and Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassio, Charles J., Ed.

    This Colorado resource guide is based on the premise that the arts (dance, music, theatre, and visual art) provide a natural arena for teaching multiculturalism to students of all ages. The guide provides information to Colorado schools about printed, disc, video, and audio tape visual prints, as well as about individuals and organizations that…

  15. 76 FR 74074 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Windy Gap Firming Project, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... deliver Windy Gap water to Colorado's Front Range community participants in all years. The purpose of the... to 2005, Windy Gap diverted an average annual 11,080 AF of water per year. However, demands among the... Windy Gap Firming Project, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  16. 78 FR 56692 - Colorado River Storage Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Ancillary Services Rates. SUMMARY: This action is to extend the existing Salt Lake City Area Integrated... for Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Firm Power Rates and Colorado River Storage Project... EXTENSION OF THE SALT LAKE CITY AREA INTEGRATED PROJECTS FIRM POWER RATE AND THE COLORADO RIVER STORAGE...

  17. 75 FR 142 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments and Reply Comments... No.: P-400-051. c. Date Filed: December 23, 2009. d. Applicant: Public Service Company of Colorado... Power Act 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Randy Rhodes, Public Service Company of...

  18. 75 FR 37790 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing June 23, 2010. Take notice that on June 10, 2010, Public Service Company of Colorado submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA...

  19. 75 FR 857 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing December 29, 2009. Take notice that on November 23, 2009, Public Service Company of Colorado filed its response to the Federal... ] 61,055 (2009) (October 22 Order), to consider the justness and reasonableness of Public Service...

  20. 76 FR 55379 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Rate Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Rate Election Take notice that on August 29, 2011, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) filed a Rate Election pursuant to... those contained in PSCo's transportation rate schedules for comparable intrastate service on file with...

  1. 78 FR 16496 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice Revising Precedural Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice Revising Precedural Schedule On... the Public Service Company of Colorado's Cabin Creek Pumped Storage Project No. 2351, located on the... currently licensed, is located on 267 acres of U.S. Forest Service lands within the Arapahoe National Forest...

  2. 76 FR 24472 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 21, 2011, Public Service Company of Colorado, (PSCo) filed pursuant to section 11 of its... interruptible gas transportation services 1.71 percent to 1.23 percent, effective January 1, 2011, as more fully...

  3. 76 FR 38382 - Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Service Company of Colorado; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 6, 2011, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) submitted a filing seeking approval of proposed... in Account 101, Electric Plant in Service. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing...

  4. A Collaborative Approach to Diabetes Management: The Choice Made for Colorado Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…

  5. 78 FR 5140 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source Review Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Colorado air quality permits; the revisions also implement other minor administrative changes and...

  6. 77 FR 40315 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source Review Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Regulation No. 3 (Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollutant Emission Notice Requirements.) Colorado...

  7. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  8. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Draft... Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management.../or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse...

  9. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  10. Geologic map of the Horse Mountain Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W.J.; Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.; Maldonado, Florian

    2003-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Horse Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, summarizes available geologic information for the quadrangle. It provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Paleocene and early Eocene Wasatch Formation down through Ordovician and Cambrian units into Precambrian hornblende tonalite. The Wasatch Formation includes the Shire, Molina and Atwell Gulch Members which are mapped separately. The underlying Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group is subdivided into the Willams Fork and Iles Formations. The Cameo-Fairfield clinker zone within the Williams Fork Formation is mapped separately. The Iles Formation includes the Rollins Sandstone Member at the top, mapped separately, and the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale consists of four members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, the Juana Lopez Member, and a lower member, undivided. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and Jurassic Entrada Sandstone are mapped separately. The Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is mapped with the Entrada in the Horse Mountain Quadrangle. The upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Permian and Triassic(?) State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is undivided. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Evaporite are diapiric, intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group consists of the Dyer Dolomite and the underlying Parting Quartzite, undivided. Locally, the Lower Ordovician

  11. University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. Report NPL-845

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1978 to October 31, 1979, under contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A003 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. Experimental studies of light ion-induced reactions were performed with the AVF cyclotron, which continues each year to produce beams of yet higher quality. Charged-particle studies continued to emphasize use of the high-resolution spectrometer system, but some return to broad-range spectroscopic studies using solid state detectors also occurred. Neutron time-of-flight experiments used 9-meter and 30-meter flight paths. Neutron-gamma ray coincidence studies developed into a new and promising field. The new PDP 11/34 data acquisition system was of great value in allowing such multiparameter experiments. Smaller programs in nuclear astrophysics, plasma diagnostic development, and medical physics were also undertaken. Research activities based at other accelerators grew. Studies of future directions for light-ion accelerators, including work on intense pulsed ion sources, orbit dynamics, and storage rings, were greatly enlarged. 19 of the articles in this report were abstracted and indexed individually. Lists of publications and personnel conclude this report

  12. Response of lake chemistry to changes in atmospheric deposition and climate in three high-elevation wilderness areas of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in precipitation chemistry and hydrologic and climatic data were examined as drivers of long-term changes in the chemical composition of high-elevation lakes in three wilderness areas in Colorado during 1985-2008. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation decreased at a rate of -0.15 to -0.55 μeq/l/year at 10 high-elevation National Atmospheric Deposition Program stations in the state during 1987-2008 reflecting regional reductions in SO2 emissions. In lakes where sulfate is primarily derived from atmospheric inputs, sulfate concentrations also decreased although the rates generally were less, ranging from -0.12 to -0.27 μeq/l/year. The similarity in timing and sulfur isotopic data support the hypothesis that decreases in atmospheric deposition are driving the response of high-elevation lakes in some areas of the state. By contrast, in lakes where sulfate is derived primarily from watershed weathering sources, sulfate concentrations showed sharp increases during 1985-2008. Analysis of long-term climate records indicates that annual air temperatures have increased between 0.45 and 0.93°C per decade throughout most mountainous areas of Colorado, suggesting climate as a factor. Isotopic data reveal that sulfate in these lakes is largely derived from pyrite, which may indicate climate warming is preferentially affecting the rate of pyrite weathering.

  13. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  14. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  15. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass. Quarterly coordination meeting, December 11-12, 1978, Denver, Colorado. Second Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D L; Ashare, E; Wentworth, R L

    1979-01-05

    The tenth quarterly coordination meeting of the methane production group of the Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch, US Department of Energy was held at Denver, Colorado, December 11-12, 1978. Progress reports were presented by the contractors and a site visit was made to the Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado. A meeting agenda, a list of attendees, and progress are presented. Report titles are: pipeline fuel gas from an environmental feedlot; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester at the Monroe State Dairy Farm near Monroe, Washington; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues - potential for improvement and implementation; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; and biological conversion of biomass to methane. (DC)

  16. Diversity and distribution of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming, 1873-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Heinold, Brian D.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ruiter, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado), compiled collection record data to document the historical and present-day occurrence of mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly species in the South Platte River Basin. Data were compiled from records collected between 1873 and 2010 to identify where regional knowledge about species occurrence in the basin is lacking and to encourage future researchers to locate additional populations of these poorly understood but very important organisms. This report provides a description of how data were compiled, a map of approximate collection locations, a listing of the most recent collection records from unique locations, general remarks for each species, a species list with selected summary information, and distribution maps of species collection records.

  17. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Grand Junction, Colorado. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results should be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media, such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a sampling of waters in two seasons and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples were water extracted to remove easily soluble salts and acid extracted to remove carbonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were analyzed for the major and trace elements. A limited number of samples were analyzed for radiological components. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Four major conclusions are: (1) trace element concentrations in shallow subsurface waters adjacent to the tailings temporally vary up to an order of magnitude; (2) the riverbank soils and borehole waters are contaminated with uranium, radium, and trace elements from discharge of tailings solids and solutions during the active time of the mill; however, the movement of contaminants toward the Colorado River does not appear to be significant; (3) the Colorado River adjacent to the tailings is not contaminated; and (4) trace metals have accumulated at both the tailings/cover and tailings/soil interface because of precipitation reactions caused by chemical differences between the two materials

  18. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell's construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site

  19. Floodplain lakes and alluviation cycles of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, D.; Felger, T. J.; Howard, K. A.

    2007-05-01

    The broad valleys along the lower Colorado River contain numerous bodies of still water that provide critical habitat for bird, fish, and other species. This chain of floodplain lakes is an important part of the Pacific Flyway - the major north-south route of travel for migratory birds in the western Hemisphere - and is also used by many resident bird species. In addition, isolated floodplain lakes may provide the only viable habitat for endangered native fish such as the razorback sucker, vulnerable to predation by introduced species in the main stem of the Colorado River. Floodplain lakes typically occupy former channel courses of the river and formed as a result of river meandering or avulsion. Persistent fluvial sediment deposition (aggradation) creates conditions that favor rapid formation and destruction of floodplain lakes, while long term river downcutting (degradation) inhibits their formation and evolution. New radiocarbon dates from wood recovered from drill cores near Topock, AZ indicate that the river aggraded an average of 3 mm/yr in the middle and late Holocene. Aggradational conditions before Hoover Dam was built were associated with rapid channel shifting and frequent lake formation. Lakes had short life spans due to rapid infilling with fine-grained sediment during turbid floods on the unregulated Colorado River. The building of dams and of armored banks had a major impact on floodplain lakes, not only by drowning large portions of the valley beneath reservoirs, but by preventing new lake formation in some areas and accelerating it in others. GIS analyses of three sets of historical maps show that both the number and total area of isolated (i.e., not linked to the main channel by a surface water connection) lakes in the lower Colorado River valley increased between 1902 and the 1950s, and then decreased though the 1970s. River bed degradation below dams inhibits channel shifting and floodplain lake formation, and the capture of fines behind the

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of vanadium in the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, A.D.

    1961-01-01

    The chief domestic source of vanadium is uraniferous sandstone in the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium is 3-, 4-, or 5-valent in nature and, as oxides or combined with other elements, it forms more than 40 minerals in the Plateau ores. These ores have been studied with regard to the relative amounts of vanadium silicates and oxide-vanadates, uranium-vanadium ratios, the progressive oxidation of black low-valent ores to high-valent carnotite-type ores, and theories of origin. ?? 1961.

  1. Origin of the late Quaternary dune fields of northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Cowherd, Scott D.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Kihl, Rolf; Maat, Paula B.; Bush, Charles A.; Nehring, Jennifer

    1996-09-01

    Stabilized eolian deposits, mostly parabolic dunes and sand sheets, cover much of the landscape of northeastern Colorado and adjacent parts of southwestern Nebraska in four geographically distinct dune fields. Stratigraphic and soil-geomorphic relations and accelerator radiocarbon dating indicate that at least three episodes of eolian sand movement occurred between 27 ka and 11 ka, possibly between 11 ka and 4 ka, and within the past 1.5 ka. Thus, eolian sand deposition took place under both glacial and interglacial climatic conditions. In the youngest episodes of eolian sand movement, Holocene parabolic dunes partially buried Pleistocene sand sheet deposits. Late Holocene sands in the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, to the south of the South Platte River, have trace element ratios that are indistinguishable from modern South Platte River sands, but different from Ogallala Formation bedrock, which has previously been cited as the main source of dune sand on the Great Plains. Sands in the Greeley dune field, to the north of the South Platte River, have trace element concentrations that indicate a probable Laramie Formation source. Measurements of parabolic dunes indicate paleowinds from the northwest in all dune fields, in good agreement with resultant drift directions calculated for nearby weather stations. Thus, paleowinds were probably not significantly different from present-day winds, and are consistent with a South Platte River source for the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, and a Laramie Formation source for the Greeley dune field. Sand accumulated downwind of the South Platte River to form the Fort Morgan duen field. In addition, sand was also transported farther downwind over the upland formed by the calcrete caprock of the Ogallala Formation, and deposited in the lee of the upland on the southeast side. Because of high wind energy, the upland itself served as a zone of sand transport, but little or no sand accumulation took place on this surface. These

  2. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  3. Origin of the late quaternary dune fields of northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, T.W.; Cowherd, S.D.; Mahan, S.A.; Kihl, R.; Maat, P.B.; Bush, C.A.; Nehring, J.

    1996-01-01

    Stabilized eolian deposits, mostly parabolic dunes and sand sheets, cover much of the landscape of northeastern Colorado and adjacent parts of southwestern Nebraska in four geographically distinct dune fields. Stratigraphic and soil-geomorphic relations and accelerator radiocarbon dating indicate that at least three episodes of eolian sand movement occurred between 27 ka and 11 ka, possibly between 11 ka and 4 ka, and within the past 1.5 ka. Thus, eolian sand deposition took place under both glacial and interglacial climatic conditions. In the youngest episodes of eolian sand movement, Holocene parabolic dunes partially buried Pleistocene sand sheet deposits. Late Holocene sands in the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, to the south of the South Platte River, have trace element ratios that are indistinguishable from modern South Platte River sands, but different from Ogallala Formation bedrock, which has previously been cited as the main source of dune sand on the Great Plains. Sands in the Greeley dune field, to the north of the South Platte River, have trace element concentrations that indicate a probable Laramie Formation source. Measurements of parabolic dunes indicate paleowinds from the northwest in all dune fields, in good agreement with resultant drift directions calculated for nearby weather stations. Thus, paleowinds were probably not significantly different from present-day winds, and are consistent with a South Platte River source for the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, and a Laramie Formation source for the Greeley dune field. Sand accumulated downwind of the South Platte River to form the Fort Morgan dune field. In addition, sand was also transported farther downwind over the upland formed by the calcrete caprock of the Ogallala Formation, and deposited in die lee of the upland on the southeast side. Because of high wind energy, the upland itself served as a zone of sand transport, but little or no sand accumulation took place on this surface. These

  4. A Regional Approach to Wildlife Monitoring Related to Energy Exploration and Development in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Ouren, Douglas S.; Farmer, Adrian H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is currently developing a National Monitoring Strategy that will guide efforts to create an efficient and effective process for monitoring land health by BLM. To inform the ongoing development of the national strategy, BLM selected two States (Colorado, Alaska) to serve as focal areas on which to base a flexible framework for developing monitoring programs that evaluate wildlife responses to energy development. We developed a three-phase monitoring plan to serve as a template and applied it to the design of a monitoring program for the Colorado focal area (White River and Glenwood Springs Field Offices of the BLM). Phase I is a synthesis and assessment of current conditions that capitalizes on existing but under used data sources. A key component is the use of existing habitat and landscape models to evaluate the cumulative effects of surface disturbance. Phase II is the data collection process that uses information provided in Phase I to refine management objectives and provide a linkage to management decisions. The linkage is established through targeted monitoring, adaptive management, and research. Phase III establishes priorities and strategies for regional and national monitoring, and facilitates coordination among other land management agencies and organizations. The three phases are designed to be flexible and complementary. The monitoring plan guides an iterative process that is performed incrementally, beginning with the highest-priority species and management issues, while building on lessons learned and coordination among administrative levels. The activities associated with each phase can be repeated or updated as new information, data, or tools become available. This allows the development of a monitoring program that expands gradually and allows for rapid implementation. A demonstration application of the three-phase monitoring plan was conducted for a study area encompassing five BLM field offices in Colorado

  5. Back-trajectory-based source apportionment of airborne sulfur and nitrogen concentrations at Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Kristi A.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Malm, William C.; Barna, Michael G.; Rodriguez, Marco A.; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Study (RoMANS), conducted during the spring and summer of 2006, was designed to assess the sources of nitrogen and sulfur species that contribute to wet and dry deposition and visibility impairment at Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado. Several source apportionment methods were utilized for RoMANS, including the Trajectory Mass Balance (TrMB) Model, a receptor-based method in which the hourly measured concentrations are the dependent variables and the residence times of back trajectories in several source regions are the independent variables. The regression coefficients are estimates of the mean emissions, dispersion, chemical transformation, and deposition between the source areas and the receptors. For RoMANS, a new ensemble technique was employed in which input parameters were varied to explore the range, variability, and model sensitivity of source attribution results and statistical measures of model fit over thousands of trials for each set of concentration measurements. Results showed that carefully chosen source regions dramatically improved the ability of TrMB to reproduce temporal patterns in the measured concentrations, and source attribution results were also very sensitive to source region choices. Conversely, attributions were relatively insensitive to trajectory start height, trajectory length, minimum endpoints per source area, and maximum endpoint height, as long as the trajectories were long enough to reach contributing source areas and were not overly restricted in height or horizontal location. Source attribution results estimated that more than half the ammonia and 30-45% of sulfur dioxide and other nitrogen-containing species at the RoMANS core site were from sources within the state of Colorado. Approximately a quarter to a third of the sulfate was from within Colorado.

  6. Colorado Late Cenozoic Fault and Fold Database and Internet Map Server: User-friendly technology for complex information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K.S.; Pattyn, G.J.; Morgan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Internet mapping applications for geologic data allow simultaneous data delivery and collection, enabling quick data modification while efficiently supplying the end user with information. Utilizing Web-based technologies, the Colorado Geological Survey's Colorado Late Cenozoic Fault and Fold Database was transformed from a monothematic, nonspatial Microsoft Access database into a complex information set incorporating multiple data sources. The resulting user-friendly format supports easy analysis and browsing. The core of the application is the Microsoft Access database, which contains information compiled from available literature about faults and folds that are known or suspected to have moved during the late Cenozoic. The database contains nonspatial fields such as structure type, age, and rate of movement. Geographic locations of the fault and fold traces were compiled from previous studies at 1:250,000 scale to form a spatial database containing information such as length and strike. Integration of the two databases allowed both spatial and nonspatial information to be presented on the Internet as a single dataset (http://geosurvey.state.co.us/pubs/ceno/). The user-friendly interface enables users to view and query the data in an integrated manner, thus providing multiple ways to locate desired information. Retaining the digital data format also allows continuous data updating and quick delivery of newly acquired information. This dataset is a valuable resource to anyone interested in earthquake hazards and the activity of faults and folds in Colorado. Additional geologic hazard layers and imagery may aid in decision support and hazard evaluation. The up-to-date and customizable maps are invaluable tools for researchers or the public.

  7. Dating of Pliocene Colorado River sediments: implications for cosmogenic burial dating and the evolution of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, Ari; Stock, Greg M.; Granger, Darryl E.; Howard, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    We applied cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating to sedimentary deposits of the ancestral Colorado River. We compared cosmogenic burial ages of sediments to the age of an independently well-dated overlying basalt flow at one site, and also applied cosmogenic burial dating to sediments with less precise independent age constraints. All dated gravels yielded old ages that suggest several episodes of sediment burial over the past ∼5.3 m.y. Comparison of burial ages to the overlying 4.4 Ma basalt yielded good agreement and suggests that under the most favorable conditions, cosmogenic burial dating can extend back 4–5 m.y. In contrast, results from other sites with more broadly independent age constraints highlight the complexities inherent in burial dating; these complexities arise from unknown and complicated burial histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26Al/10Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional history of sediment along the lower ancestral Colorado River. These samples suggest possible sediment deposition and burial at ca. 5.3, 4.7, and 3.6 Ma. Our calculated basinwide erosion rate for sediment transported by the modern Colorado River (∼187 mm k.y.−1) is higher than the modern erosion rates inferred from the historic sediment load (80–100 mm k.y.−1). In contrast, basinwide paleo-erosion rates calculated from Pliocene sediments are all under 40 mm k.y.−1 The comparatively lower denudation rates calculated for the Pliocene sediment samples are surprising given that the sampled time intervals include significant Pliocene aggradation and may include much incision of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries. This conflict may arise from extensive storage of sediment along the route of the Colorado River, slower paleobedrock erosion, or the inclusion

  8. Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

  9. Cardiac health and fitness of Colorado male/female firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K; Lipsey, T; Leach, H J; Nelson, T L

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is documented as the leading cause of mortality in on-duty firefighters. To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components, cardiorespiratory fitness levels and the association between them in firefighters in Colorado, USA. This study included male and female Colorado firefighters. MetS was identified where three or more metabolic abnormalities were present, using Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Cardiorespiratory fitness (indicated by VO2 max) was evaluated with the Bruce protocol. Poisson regression was conducted to examine the association between MetS components and VO2 max. Among the 947 male and 76 female study subjects, MetS was present in 9% of all firefighters, in 5% of females and 10% of males. The mean age was 37 ± 10 years. MetS prevalence increased with age (from 3% at age fitness. Comprehensive CVD risk management and cardiorespiratory fitness improvement are essential for firefighter health and safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Wildfire risk transmission in the Colorado Front Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica R; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires are a global phenomenon that in some circumstances can result in human casualties, economic loss, and ecosystem service degradation. In this article we spatially identify wildfire risk transmission pathways and locate the areas of highest exposure of human populations to wildland fires under severe, but not uncommon, weather events. We quantify varying levels of exposure in terms of population potentially affected and tie the exposure back to the spatial source of the risk for the Front Range of Colorado, USA. We use probabilistic fire simulation modeling to address where fire ignitions are most likely to cause the highest impact to human communities, and to explore the role that various landowners play in that transmission of risk. Our results indicated that, given an ignition and the right fire weather conditions, large areas along the Front Range in Colorado could be exposed to wildfires with high potential to impact human populations, and that overall private ignitions have the potential to impact more people than federal ignitions. These results can be used to identify high-priority areas for wildfire risk mitigation using various mitigation tools. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis Published 2014. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain for the USA.

  11. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  12. Geology and fluorspar deposits, Northgate district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1960-01-01

    The fluorspar deposits in the Northgate district, Jackson County, Colo., are among the largest in Western United States. The mines were operated intermittently during the 1920's and again during World War II, but production during these early periods of operation was not large. Mining was begun on a larger scale in 1951, and the district has assumed a prominent position among the fluorspar producers in the United States. Within the Northgate district, Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks crop out largely in the Medicine Bow Mountains, and later sedimentary rocks underlie North Park and fill old stream valleys in the mountains. The metamorphic rocks constitute a gneiss complex that formed under progressively changing conditions of regional metamorphism. They consist principally of hornblende-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende gneiss), quartz monzonite gneiss, pegmatite, biotite-garnet-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (biotite-garnet gneiss), hornblende-biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende-biotite gneiss) and mylonite gneiss. The igneous rocks comprise some local fine-grained dacite porphyry dikes near the west margin of the district, and a quartz monzonitic stock and associated dikes in the central and eastern parts of the district. The sedimentary rocks in the district range in age from Permian to Recent. Folded Permian and Mesozoic rocks underlie the basin of North Park, and consist in sequence from oldest to youngest, of Satanka(?) shale (0-50 feet of brick-red shale) and Forelle(?) limestone (8-15 feet of pink to light-gray laminated limestone) of Permian age, Chugwater formation of Permian and Triassic age (690 feet of red silty shale and sandstone), Sundance formation of Late Jurassic age (145 feet of sandstone containing some shale and limestone), Morrison formation of Late Jurassic age (445 feet of variegated shale and minor sandstone and limestone), Dakota group as used by Lee (1927), now considered to be of Early Cretaceous age in this area (200

  13. Teacher Evaluation in the Arts Disciplines: Three State Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Karol; Hansen, Deb; Tuttle, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide insight into how state departments are implementing legislative requirements for educator evaluation, particularly the specific circumstances states encounter around arts education. Spotlights on Delaware, a first-round recipient of Race to the Top funding, and Colorado and Arizona, third-round recipients,…

  14. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain States. Semi-annual progress report, January-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, J.; Coe, B.A.; Gertsch, W.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: a summary of the state projects, a summary of findings, public outreach, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations. The commercialization activities carried out by the state teams are described for Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Naturita site, Naturita, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Naturita, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings, the performance of radiometric measurements to determine the extent of radium contamination, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 704,000 tons of tailings at the Naturita site constitutes the most significant environmental impact although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. Ranchers Exploration and Development Company has been licensed by the State of Colorado to reprocess the tailings at a location 3 mi from the present site where they will be stabilized for long-term storage. The remedial action options include remedial action for structures in Naturita and Nucla (Option I) at an estimated cost of $270,000 and remedial action for structures and open land adjacent to the tailings site (Option II) at an estimated cost of $950,000

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. A century of vegetation instability and resilience on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. E.; Duniway, M.; Miller, M. E.; Webb, R. H.; Belnap, J.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation amount and timing. Globally, forecasted increases in climate aridity and variability in these regions are likely to alter vegetation dramatically. The Colorado Plateau (CP) is an important dryland ecoregion in the southwest United States for which drier and more variable conditions are forecast. The CP is characterized by moderate to high elevations, cold winters, and shallow soils. Vegetation across much of the CP has already undergone significant changes during the past century, that have been largely attributed to grazing intensity and multidecadal shifts in precipitation regime. Long-lived native tree and shrub species (Populus fremontii and Salix exigua) as well as non-natives (Tamarix chinensis and Eleaegnus angustifolia) have filled previously barren streambeds, shifted plant functional type dominance, and remote areas have been colonized by invasive annual plant species. These large shifts in plant functional type have changed leaf area, phenology, and net primary productivity in many habitats, consequently altering the magnitude and timing of evapotranspiration and soil drying. We combine 100 years of historic repeat photography with remote sensing and field observations from across southeastern Utah, USA, to build a model of local water balance with respect to state changes in vegetation, climate, and land use. This model will aid in understanding how vegetation changes influence water cycling, and how climatic and edaphic factors limit the scope of vegetation change.

  18. Summary of the geology and resources of uranium in the San Juan Basin and adjacent region, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Jennie L.; Green, M.W.; Pierson, C.T.; Finch, W.I.; Lupe, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The San Juan Basin and adjacent region lie predominantly in the southeastern part of the uranium-rich Colorado Plateau of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado. Underlying the province are rocks of the Precambrian basement complex composed mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks; a thickness of about 3,600 meters of generally horizontal Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks; and a variety of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic igneous rocks. Sedimentary rocks of the sequence are commonly eroded and well exposed near the present basin margins where Tertiary tectonic activity has uplifted, folded, and faulted the sequence into its present geologic configuration of basins, platforms, monoclines, and other related structural features. Sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age in the southern part of the San Juan Basin contain the largest uranium deposits in the United States, and offer the promise of additional uranium deposits. Elsewhere in the basin and the adjacent Colorado Plateau, reserves and resources of uranium are known primarily in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous strata. Only scattered occurrences of uranium are known in Paleozoic

  19. Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Skiles, S. Mckenzie; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Bryant, Ann C.; Landry, Christopher C.

    2012-07-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of snow albedo and its further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grains. Since the westward expansion of the United States that began in the mid-19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading, largely from the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin. Radiative forcing of snowmelt by dust is not captured by conventional micrometeorological measurements, and must be monitored by a more comprehensive suite of radiation instruments. Here we present a 6 year record of energy balance and detailed radiation measurements in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Data include broadband irradiance, filtered irradiance, broadband reflected flux, filtered reflected flux, broadband and visible albedo, longwave irradiance, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperatures. The gradient of the snow surface is monitored weekly and used to correct albedo measurements for geometric effects. The snow is sampled weekly for dust concentrations in plots immediately adjacent to each tower over the melt season. Broadband albedo in the last weeks of snow cover ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 across the 6 years and two sites. Total end of year dust concentration in the top 3 cm of the snow column ranged from 0.23 mg g-1 to 4.16 mg g-1. These measurements enable monitoring and modeling of dust and climate-driven snowmelt forcings in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  20. Remote sensing of tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) impacts along 412 km of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Ashton; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Sankey, Joel B.; Durning, Laura E.C.; Ralston, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) is an invasive plant species that is rapidly expanding along arid and semi-arid rivers in the western United States. A biocontrol agent, tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), was released in 2001 in California, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. In 2009, the tamarisk beetle was found further south than anticipated in the Colorado River ecosystem within the Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Our objectives were to classify tamarisk stands along 412 km of the Colorado River from the Glen Canyon Dam through the Grand Canyon National Park using 2009 aerial, high spatial resolution multispectral imagery, and then quantify tamarisk beetle impacts by comparing the pre-beetle images from 2009 with 2013 post-beetle images. We classified tamarisk presence in 2009 using the Mahalanobis Distance method with a total of 2500 training samples, and assessed the classification accuracy with an independent set of 7858 samples across 49 image quads. A total of 214 ha of tamarisk were detected in 2009 along the Colorado River, where each image quad, on average, included an 8.4 km segment of the river. Tamarisk detection accuracies varied across the 49 image quads, but the combined overall accuracy across the entire study region was 74%. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 2009 and 2013 with a region-specific ratio of >1.5 decline between the two image dates (2009NDVI/2013NDVI), we detected tamarisk defoliation due to beetle herbivory. The total beetle-impacted tamarisk area was 32 ha across the study region, where tamarisk defoliation ranged 1–86% at the local levels. Our tamarisk classification can aid long-term efforts to monitor the spread and impact of the beetle along the river and the eventual mortality of tamarisk due to beetle impacts. Identifying areas of tamarisk defoliation is a useful ecological indicator for managers to plan restoration and tamarisk removal efforts.

  1. Evaluation of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations for Colorado, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Bock, Andrew R.; Char, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, evaluated the predictive uncertainty of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations representative of natural streamflow conditions in Colorado. This study evaluates the predictive uncertainty of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations developed in a 2009 U.S. Geological Survey study using streamflow data collected over the entire period of record at each streamgage through calendar year 2013. The study area for this report is limited to the Mountain, Northwest, Rio Grande, and Southwest hydrologic regions of Colorado.

  2. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  3. How well do CMIP5 Climate Models Reproduce the Hydrologic Cycle of the Colorado River Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, J.; Mascaro, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Colorado River, which is the primary source of water for nearly 40 million people in the arid Southwestern states of the United States, has been experiencing an extended drought since 2000, which has led to a significant reduction in water supply. As the water demands increase, one of the major challenges for water management in the region has been the quantification of uncertainties associated with streamflow predictions in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) under potential changes of future climate. Hence, testing the reliability of model predictions in the CRB is critical in addressing this challenge. In this study, we evaluated the performances of 17 General Circulation Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five (CMIP5) and 4 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in reproducing the statistical properties of the hydrologic cycle in the CRB. We evaluated the water balance components at four nested sub-basins along with the inter-annual and intra-annual changes of precipitation (P), evaporation (E), runoff (R) and temperature (T) from 1979 to 2005. Most of the models captured the net water balance fairly well in the most-upstream basin but simulated a weak hydrological cycle in the evaporation channel at the downstream locations. The simulated monthly variability of P had different patterns, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.6 to 0.8 depending on the sub-basin and the models from same parent institution clustering together. Apart from the most-upstream sub-basin where the models were mainly characterized by a negative seasonal bias in SON (of up to -50%), most of them had a positive bias in all seasons (of up to +260%) in the other three sub-basins. The models, however, captured the monthly variability of T well at all sites with small inter-model variabilities and a relatively similar range of bias (-7 °C to +5 °C) across all seasons. Mann-Kendall test was applied to the annual P and T time-series where majority of the models

  4. Using snow data assimilation to improve ensemble streamflow forecasting for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletty, P. D.; Perrot, D.; Day, G. N.; Lhotak, J.; Quebbeman, J.; Park, G. H.; Carney, S.

    2017-12-01

    Water supply forecasting in the western United States is inextricably linked to snowmelt processes, as approximately 70-85% of total annual runoff comes from water stored in seasonal mountain snowpacks. Snowmelt-generated streamflow is vital to a variety of downstream uses; the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) alone provides water supply for 25 million people, irrigation water for 3.5 million acres, and drives hydropower generation at Lake Powell. April-July water supply forecasts produced by the National Weather Service (NWS) Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) are critical to basin water management. The primary objective of this project as part of the NASA Water Resources Applied Science Program, is to improve water supply forecasting for the UCRB by assimilating satellite and ground snowpack observations into a distributed hydrologic model at various times during the snow accumulation and melt seasons. To do this, we have built a framework that uses an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to update modeled snow water equivalent (SWE) states in the Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) with spatially interpolated SNOTEL snow water equivalent (SWE) observations and products from the MODIS Snow Covered-Area and Grain size retrieval algorithm (when available). We have generated April-July water supply reforecasts for a 20-year period (1991-2010) for several headwater catchments in the UCRB using HL-RDHM and snow data assimilation in the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) framework. The existing CBRFC ESP reforecasts will provide a baseline for comparison to determine whether the data assimilation process adds skill to the water supply forecasts. Preliminary results from one headwater basin show improved skill in water supply forecasting when HL-RDHM is run with the data assimilation step compared to HL-RDHM run without the data assimilation step, particularly in years when MODSCAG data were available (2000-2010). The final

  5. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  6. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional requestors come forward. DATES... Creek Reservation, South Dakota; Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico; Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma; Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico; Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern...

  7. The Colorado river delta (Mexico: ecological importance and management - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5867 The Colorado river delta (Mexico: ecological importance and management - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    luis Galindo Bect

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado river delta is a unique coastal system in the world, as it combines two important systems: the Colorado river and the Gulf of California. Consequently, the delta is dominated by bilateral interests, and influenced by administrative, political and natural processes, which involve the countries of the United States and Mexico. Located in the northern part of the Gulf of California, under a condition of natural isolation, a series of environmental attributes have been developed (biotic and abiotic that are only observed in is region. In this work, the development of the bilateral political relations and the most important ecological characteristics are presented, as well as the management instruments that have been developed for over 80 years. From these issues, the possible scenario for the region is defined, and the development of methodologies for monitoring the effects of these possible tendencies on the natural components of the delta is proposed.The Colorado river delta is a unique coastal system in the world, as it combines two important systems: the Colorado river and the Gulf of California. Consequently, the delta is dominated by bilateral interests, and influenced by administrative, political and natural processes, which involve the countries of the United States and Mexico. Located in the northern part of the Gulf of California, under a condition of natural isolation, a series of environmental attributes have been developed (biotic and abiotic that are only observed in is region. In this work, the development of the bilateral political relations and the most important ecological characteristics are presented, as well as the management instruments that have been developed for over 80 years. From these issues, the possible scenario for the region is defined, and the development of methodologies for monitoring the effects of these possible tendencies on the natural components of the delta is proposed.

  8. Operating experience with a flexible cogeneration plant in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadman, B.

    1997-01-01

    Much has been written about the interesting gas turbine cogeneration Project in Fort Lupton, Colorado, U.S.A., as created and developed by the Thermo Cogeneration Partnership under the leadership of Paul Steinway, project general manager. The plant is based on five 40 MW-class gas turbine generator modules supplied by Stewart & Stevenson, who is also responsible for operation and maintenance of the plant through its operating arm, Stewart & Stevenson Operations, Inc. The plant, first placed into service in mid-1994 after only 18 months of construction, is of particular interest because it has to function with a wide degree of flexibility in load management, and it also uses one of the latest-design aeroderivative gas turbines, namely the GE LM6000. This article describes the plant design, equipment and operating experience thus far. 6 figs.

  9. Passive treatment technology cleans up colorado mining waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, S.; Olsen, R. (Camp Dresser and McKee Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Wildeman, T. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    This article describes the performance of a module designed to treat acid mine drainage from an mining tunnel. The site is one of the many abandoned mineral mines in Colorado. At optimum conditions passive treatment removed up to 98% of the zinc, 99% of the copper, 94% of the lead, and 86% of the iron in the mine drainage. It also increased pH from 3.0 to a value greater than 6.5. This treatment meets the need for a low cost operating and maintenance system. Because of the success of the pilot plant, the project team has obtained a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program grant from the EPA to continue operating the pilot plant for two additional years and to prepare the first design manual on passive treatment technology.

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lamar quadrangle, Colorado and Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, A.M.; Johnson, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium resources of the Lamar Quadrangle, Colorado and Kansas, were evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. The environment favorable for uranium is the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the area east of John Martin Reservoir for south Texas roll-type sandstone deposits. Carbonaceous trash and sulfides are abundant in the Dakota Sandstone. The unit underlies a thick Upper Cretaceous section that contains bentonitic beds and uraniferous marine black shale. Water samples from the Dakota Sandstone aquifer contain as much as 122 ppB U 3 O 8 . Geologic units considered unfavorable include most of the Paleozoic rocks, except in the Brandon Fault area; the Upper Cretaceous rocks; and the Ogallala Formation. The Dockum Group, Morrison Formation, and Lytle Member of the Purgatoire Formation are unevaluated because of lack of data

  11. Risk factors for asthma among cosmetology professionals in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Kathleen; Esfahani, Reza S; Antao, Vinicius C S; Odencrantz, John; Lezotte, Dennis C; Hoffman, Richard E

    2006-10-01

    After receiving several reports of occupational asthma among cosmetology professionals, we studied the prevalence, work-attributable risk, and tasks associated with asthma in this industry. We selected a stratified random sample of cosmeticians, manicurists, barbers, and cosmetologists holding licenses in Colorado for a mail survey instrument. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among the 1883 respondents (68% response rate) was 9.3%; of these, 67 (38%) developed asthma after entering the cosmetology profession. Multivariate analyses showed that hairstyling, application of artificial nails, and shaving and honing were significantly associated with asthma arising in the course of employment (P < 0.005) with relative risks of 2.6-2.9. The increased risk of asthma with onset during employment among cosmetologists is probably attributable to their exposure to sensitizers and irritants in tasks demonstrated to be associated with asthma.

  12. Controls on streamflow intermittence in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, S. K.; Puntenney, K.; Martin, C.; Weber, R.; Gerlich, J.; Hammond, J. C.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent streams comprise more than 60% of the channel length in semiarid northern Colorado, yet little is known about their flow magnitude and timing. We used field surveys, stream sensors, and remote sensing to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of streamflow intermittence in the Cache la Poudre basin in 2016-2017. To evaluate potential controls on streamflow intermittence, we delineated the drainage area to each monitored point and quantified the catchment's mean precipitation, temperature, snow persistence, slope, aspect, vegetation type, soil type, and bedrock geology. During the period of study, most streams below 2500 m elevation and 1 km2 had perennial flow, whereas nearly all streams with drainage areas GIS data products. Initial analyses have identified no clearly quantifiable controls on flow duration of high elevation streams, but field observations indicate subsurface flow paths are important contributors to surface streams.

  13. Earthquakes in the oil field at Rangely, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Healy, John H.; Raleigh, C. Barry; Coakley, John M.

    1972-01-01

    Seven years of seismic data recorded at the Uinta Basin Observatory were searched for earthquakes originating near an oil field at Rangely, Colorado, located 65 km ESE of the observatory. Changes in the number of earthquakes recorded per year appear to correlate with changes in the quantity of fluid injected per year. Between November 1962 and January 1970, 976 earthquakes were detected near the oil field by the UBO station; 320 earthquakes were larger than magnitude 1. Richter magnitudes are estimated from both S-wave and P-wave measurements and a method based on the duration of the seismic signal is used to estimate the magnitude of the larger shocks. The two largest shocks had magnitudes of 3.4 and 3.3. The total seismic energy released was l0l7 ergs. During this same period the energy used for water injection, measured at the wellhead, was 1021 ergs.

  14. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  15. Geothermal resource assessment of Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 10 springs whose waters are used for recreation, steam baths and laundry purposes are located at Hot Sulphur Springs. Estimated heat-flow at Hot Sulphur Springs is approximately 100 mW/m2, which is about normal for western Colorado. Recent work tends to show that surface and reduced heat flow in the mountains of northern Colorado could be high. The thermal waters have an estimated discharge of 50 gpm, a temperature that ranges from 104/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) to a high of 111/sup 0/F (44/sup 0/C), and a total dissolved solid content of 1200 mg/l. The waters are a sodium bicarbonate type with a large concentration of sulphate. It is estimated that the most likely reservoir temperature of this system ranges from 167/sup 0/F (75/sup 0/F) to 302/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/C) and that the areal extent of the system could encompass 1.35 sq mi (3.50 sq km) and could contain 0.698 Q's (1015 B.T.U.'s) of heat energy. Soil mercury and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted. The geophysical survey delineated several areas of low resistivity associated with the north trending fault that passes just to the west of the spring area. It appears that this fault is saturated with thermal waters and may be the conduit along which the thermal waters are moving up from depth. The appendices to this report include tables showing water temperatures required for various industrial processes, as well as dissolved minerals, trace elements and radioactivity levels found in the thermal waters. Also presented are a complete description of the factors affecting the electrical resistivity measurements, a description of the electrical resistivity equipment used, and the resistivity field procedures. Electrical resistivity calculations are also included in the appendices.

  16. Water resources of Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    Dinosaur National Monument, partly in the Rocky Mountain System and partly in the Colorado Plateaus physiographic province, covers an area of 322 square miles (834 square kilometres) in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. The climate is generally cool and pleasant in May, early June, September, and October; winters are cold. Normal annual precipitation ranges from less than 8 to more than 16 inches (203 to 406 millimetres).Geologic formations in the monument range in age from upper Precambrian to Holocene, but not all ages are represented. The monument is on the south limb of the east-trending regional fold representing the Uinta Mountains. Faults and subsidary folds on the south slope of the Uinta Mountains complicate the geology and hydrology of the area.None of the surface streams in the monument are diverted for public supply, but the Green and Yampa Rivers are a recreational resource for boaters. The flow of the Green River is regulated by Flaming Gorge Reservoir; however, flood potentials are estimated for the Yampa River and three smaller streams. Facilities in the monument are not endangered by probable mean annual floods, but may sustain some damage to facilities by the 25- or 50-year floods.Major aquifers in the monument are sandstone and limestone formations, but these formations are drained in the higher areas. Alluvium along the major stream channels yields small amounts of water to wells, but some of the water is not of suitable chemical quality for public supply. All public water supplies in 1971 were obtained from wells, and the use of water during 1970 was estimated to be 15 million gallons (46 acre-feet or 0.057 cubic hectometres). Most of the ground water obtained from sandstone and limestone is of suitable chemical quality for public supply.

  17. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  18. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument, designated by Presidential Proclamation on... Action The Presidential Proclamation establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires...

  19. Colorado geothermal commercialization planning. Semi-annual progress report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for developing the geothermal resources of Colorado is detailed. Constraints that are limiting geothermal energy development are described. Area development plans, an institutional analysis, and the outreach program are presented. (MHR)

  20. INVESTIGATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF TYPICAL CURVED AND SKEWED BRIDGES IN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-15

    This report summarizes the analytical studies on the seismic performance of typical Colorado concrete bridges, particularly those with curved and skewed configurations. A set of bridge models with different geometric configurations derived from a pro...

  1. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide

  2. Evaluation of Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in Colorado and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Colorado and Nevada initiated multiwave Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in October 2007. Four : waves of paid media and law enforcement activity were conducted over the next year. Three of these waves : were conducted independently of statewide...

  3. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jones, A. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-26

    This report explores the correlation between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders by examining a data set of builders and homes in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, market between 2006 and 2014. During this time, the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009 occurred, and new-home sales plummeted both nationally and in Colorado Springs. What is evident from an analysis of builders and homes in Colorado Springs is that builders who had Home Energy Rating System (HERS) ratings performed on some or all of their homes during the Recession remained in business during this challenging economic period. Many builders who did not have HERS ratings performed on their homes at that time went out of business or left the area. From the analysis presented in this report, it is evident that a correlation exists between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders, although the reasons for this correlation remain largely anecdotal and not yet clearly understood.

  4. Region 8: Colorado Denver 2008 8-hour ozone Adequate Letter (4/2/2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Metro-Denver/North Front Range ozone attainment plan and 2017 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity and will be announced in Federal Register.

  5. Lower Colorado River Geographic Response Plan Web Mapping Service, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service is comprised of data related to Geographic Response Plans (GRPs) for the Lower Colorado River. Data layers were obtained from nationwide GIS...

  6. Master's Level Graduate Training in Medical Physics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the master's degree program in medical physics developed at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Required courses for the program, and requirements for admission are included in the appendices. (HM)

  7. NPDES Permit for Arboles Sand & Stone's Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0048194, Arboles Sand & Stone, LLC is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility at the Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Archuleta County, Colorado, to the Piedra River.

  8. NPP Tropical Forest: Barro Colorado, Panama, 1969-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). One file provides net primary productivity (NPP) data for the moist lowland tropical forest on Barro Colorado...

  9. A collaborative approach to diabetes management: the choice made for Colorado schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school nursing leadership partnered with the National Association of School Nurses to adapt components of the Managing and Preventing Diabetes and Weight Gain Program (MAP), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Healthy Learner Model for Chronic Condition Management, integral to MAP, provided guidance for the Colorado Collaborative to design the Diabetes Resource Nurse Program. The program supports the practicing school nurse, and facilitates collaboration between the family, school, and health care provider. This article describes how stakeholders in Colorado chose to collaborate when faced with rising tensions over how to best manage students with diabetes.

  10. 76 FR 27164 - Extension of Accreditation Agreement With Colorado Department of Human Services Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Colorado's fault or negligence in connection with performing duties under this Agreement. Any negligence or alleged negligence by the Department or persons acting on its behalf shall not preclude a claim for...

  11. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  12. Optimization Review: French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site Water Treatment Plant, Breckenridge, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site is located near the town of Breckenridge in Summit County, Colorado. Environmental contamination of surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment at the site resulted from mining activities dating to the 1880s.

  13. How four U.S. states are regulating recreational marijuana edibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, Camille; Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine; Wiley, Jenny; Cates, Sheryl

    2017-05-01

    Sales of edible marijuana products have been strong in Colorado and Washington State since the legalization of recreational marijuana. Initially, these states did not have comprehensive labelling or packaging requirements in place. In response to increases in marijuana-related emergency room visits and poison control centre calls, additional regulations were implemented. Currently, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington each have passed into law various labelling and packaging requirements for edibles. This article presents the primary legal research findings of relevant statutes and regulations for edibles in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. These laws were identified by using Boolean terms and connectors searches in these states' legal databases in LexisNexis. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington vary greatly in how they regulate labelling and packaging. Colorado, Oregon and Washington require a Universal Symbol to be affixed to edibles, but only Oregon and Washington require that the use of pesticides be disclosed on the label. Only Colorado and Oregon require that the packaging for edibles bear a Nutrition Facts Panel on the label. Δ 9 -Tetrahydracannabinol (THC) in a single serving or single edible product as Alaska and Oregon. All four states prohibit the manufacture or packaging of edibles that appeal to youth. State laws governing recreational marijuana edibles have evolved since the first recreational edible products were available for sale. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington now require edible product labels to disclose a variety of product information, including risk factors associated with consumption. However, there still remain concerns about the regulatory gaps that exist in each of these states, inherent difficulties in enforcing laws around the labelling, packaging, and manufacturing of edibles, and the outstanding question of whether these edible laws are actually informing consumers and keeping the public safe. Copyright

  14. Geology and coal resources of the Stonewall-Tercio area, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gordon H.; Johnson, R.B.; Eargle, D.H.; Duffner, R.T.; Major, Harold

    1951-01-01

    The Stonewall-Tercio area lies along the western edge of the Trinidad coal field, Colorado, a part of the large Raton Mesa region of Colorado and New Mexico. Coal of Upper Cretaceous and early Tertiary age in that region has been utilized extensively for coking and for domestic heating. Present mining operations are limited, but mining is possible throughout much of the field.

  15. Availability of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Stores and Neighborhood Characteristics in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Yuyan Shi; Kristin Meseck; Marta M. Jankowska

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of s...

  16. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  17. Dairy cow handling facilities and the perception of Beef Quality Assurance on Colorado dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A E; Olea-Popelka, F J; Grandin, T; Woerner, D R; Roman-Muniz, I N

    2014-02-01

    A survey was conducted on Colorado dairies to assess attitudes and practices regarding Dairy Beef Quality Assurance (DBQA). The objectives were to (1) assess the need for a new handling facility that would allow all injections to be administered via DBQA standards; (2) establish if Colorado dairy producers are concerned with DBQA; and (3) assess differences in responses between dairy owners and herdsmen. Of the 95 dairies contacted, 20 (21%) agreed to participate, with a median herd size of 1,178. When asked to rank the following 7 traits--efficiency, animal safety, human safety, ease of animal handling, ease of operation, inject per Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) procedures, and cost--in order of priority when designing a new handling facility, human and animal safety were ranked highest in priority (first or second) by the majority of participants, with ease of animal handling and efficiency ranked next. Interestingly, the administration of injections per BQA standards was ranked sixth or seventh by most participants. Respondents estimated the average annual income from the sale of cull cows to be 4.6% of all dairy income, with 50% receiving at least one carcass discount or condemnation in the past 12 mo. Although almost all of the participating dairy farmers stated that the preferred injection site for medications was the neck region, a significant number admitted to using alternate injection sites. In contrast, no difference was found between responses regarding the preferred and actual location for intravenous injections. Although most participating producers are aware of BQA injection guidelines, they perceive efficiency as more important, which could result in injections being administered in locations not promoted by BQA. Dairy owners and herdsmen disagreed in whether or not workers had been injured in the animal handling area in the last 12 mo. Handling facilities that allow for an efficient and safe way to administer drugs according to BQA guidelines and

  18. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  19. Testing the apparent resistance of three dominant plants to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, David L.; Duniway, Michael C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Many drylands, including the south-western United States, are projected to become more water-limited as these regions become warmer and drier with climate change. Such chronic drought may push individual species or plant functional types beyond key thresholds leading to reduced growth or even mortality. Indeed, recent observational and experimental evidence from the Colorado Plateau suggests that C3 grasses are the most vulnerable to chronic drought, while C4 grasses and C3 shrubs appear to have greater resistance.The effects of chronic, or press-drought are predicted to begin at the physiological level and translate up to higher hierarchical levels. To date, the drought resistance of C4grasses and C3 shrubs in this region has been only evaluated at the community level and thus we lack information on whether there are sensitivities to drought at lower hierarchical levels. In this study, we tested the apparent drought resistance of three dominant species (Pleuraphis jamesii, a C4 rhizomatous grass; Coleogyne ramosissima, a C3 drought-deciduous shrub; and Ephedra viridis, a C3 evergreen shrub) to an ongoing experimental press-drought (-35% precipitation) by comparing individual-level responses (ecophysiology and growth dynamics) to community-level responses (plant cover).For all three species, we observed consistent responses across all hierarchical levels:P. jamesii was sensitive to drought across all measured variables, while the shrubsC. ramosissima and E. viridis had little to no responses to the experimental press-drought at any given level.Synthesis. Our findings suggest that the apparent drought resistance at higher hierarchical levels, such as cover, may serve as good proxies for lower-level responses. Furthermore, it appears the shrubs are avoiding drought, possibly by utilizing moisture at deeper soil layers, while the grasses are limited to shallower layers and must endure the drought conditions. Give this differential sensitivity to drought, a future

  20. Stable Isotope Systematics in Grasshopper Assemblages Along an Elevation Gradient, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Evans, S.; Dean, J.; Nufio, C.

    2012-12-01

    Insects comprise over three quarters of all animal species, yet studies of body water isotopic composition are limited to only the cockroach, the hoverfly, and chironomid flies. These studies suggest that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in body water are primarily controlled by dietary water sources, with modification from respiratory and metabolic processes. In particular, outward diffusion of isotopically depleted water vapor through insect spiracles at low humidity enriches residual body water in 18O and 2H (D). Stable isotope compositions (δ18O and δD) also respond to gradients in elevation and humidity, but these influences remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured grasshopper body water and local vegetation isotopic compositions along an elevation gradient in Colorado to evaluate three hypotheses: 1) Insect body water isotopic composition is directly related to food source water composition 2) Water vapor transport alters body water isotopic compositions relative to original diet sources, and 3) Elevation gradients influence isotopic compositions in insect body water. Thirty-five species of grasshopper were collected from 14 locations in Colorado grasslands, ranging in elevation from 450 to 800 meters (n=131). Body water was distilled from previously frozen grasshopper specimens using a vacuum extraction line, furnaces (90 °C), and liquid nitrogen traps. Water samples were then analyzed for δ18O and δD on an LGR Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer, housed in the Department of Geosciences, Boise State University. Grasshopper body water isotopic compositions show wide variation, with values ranging between -76.64‰ to +42.82‰ in δD and -3.06‰ to +26.78‰ in δ18O. Precipitation δ18O values over the entire Earth excluding the poles vary by approximately 30‰, comparable to the total range measured in our single study area. Most grasshopper values deviate from the global meteoric water line relating δ18O and δD in precipitation

  1. Locations and attributes of utility-scale solar power facilities in Colorado and New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignizio, Drew A.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2012-01-01

    The data series consists of polygonal boundaries for utility-scale solar power facilities (both photovoltaic and concentrating solar power) located within Colorado and New Mexico as of December 2011. Attributes captured for each facility include the following: facility name, size/production capacity (in MW), type of solar technology employed, location, state, operational status, year the facility came online, and source identification information. Facility locations and perimeters were derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs (2011) produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters (accessed from the NAIP GIS service: http://gis.apfo.usda.gov/arcgis/services). Solar facility perimeters represent the full extent of each solar facility site, unless otherwise noted. When visible, linear features such as fences or road lines were used to delineate the full extent of the solar facility. All related equipment including buildings, power substations, and other associated infrastructure were included within the solar facility. If solar infrastructure was indistinguishable from adjacent infrastructure, or if solar panels were installed on existing building tops, only the solar collecting equipment was digitized. The "Polygon" field indicates whether the "equipment footprint" or the full "site outline" was digitized. The spatial accuracy of features that represent site perimeters or an equipment footprint is estimated at +/- 10 meters. Facilities under construction or not fully visible in the NAIP imagery at the time of digitization (December 2011) are represented by an approximate site outline based on the best available information and documenting materials. The spatial accuracy of these facilities cannot be estimated without more up-to-date imagery – users are advised to consult more recent imagery as it becomes available. The "Status" field provides information about the operational

  2. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-01-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  3. Colorado river floods, droughts, and shrimp fishing in the upper gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    All, John D

    2006-01-01

    Accurate procedures that measure hydrologic variability would have great value for evaluating ecosystem impacts of upstream water use in the Colorado River Basin. Many local extractive income-based stakeholders rely directly or indirectly on ecosystem health and are adversely affected when the river does not flow. This study focuses on the impact of little or no Colorado River flow on the Mexican shrimp industry. Although there have been complaints that U.S. diversions of Colorado River flow have greatly impaired the shrimp fishery, this research demonstrates that freshwater rarely reaches the Gulf even during times of flooding, and that other factors such as overfishing may influence the instability of shrimp populations. Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery was used to assess water volumes diverted away from the channel of the Colorado River and ultimately the Gulf of California during flooding periods. Analysis of data demonstrated that little freshwater actually reaches the Gulf even during floods because of its diversion into a large dry lake bed basin known as Laguna Salada. Fuller use of the Colorado River throughout its entire course to the sea is possible and could benefit a large cohort of users without catastrophic habitat destruction in delta ecosystems. Reconstruction of a natural earthen berm, as proposed by Ducks Unlimited, would maximize the use of floodwaters for ecosystem benefits. These findings have profound implications for local economic activities dependent on hydrologic resources in the Colorado River Delta and Upper Gulf.

  4. The Colorado River and its deposits downstream from Grand Canyon in Arizona, California, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Block, Debra L.; Felger, Tracey J.; House, P. Kyle; Pearthree, Philip A.; Gootee, Brian F.; Youberg, Ann M.; Howard, Keith A.; Beard, L. Sue

    2018-02-05

    Understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system has direct implications for (1) the processes and timing of continental-scale river system integration, (2) the formation of iconic landscapes like those in and around Grand Canyon, and (3) the availability of groundwater resources. Spatial patterns in the position and type of Colorado River deposits, only discernible through geologic mapping, can be used to test models related to Colorado River evolution. This is particularly true downstream from Grand Canyon where ancestral Colorado River deposits are well-exposed. We are principally interested in (1) regional patterns in the minimum and maximum elevation of each depositional unit, which are affected by depositional mechanism and postdepositional deformation; and (2) the volume of each unit, which reflects regional changes in erosion, transport efficiency, and accommodation space. The volume of Colorado River deposits below Grand Canyon has implications for groundwater resources, as the primary regional aquifer there is composed of those deposits. To this end, we are presently mapping Colorado River deposits and compiling and updating older mapping. This preliminary data release shows the current status of our mapping and compilation efforts. We plan to update it at regular intervals in conjunction with ongoing mapping.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  7. What predicts the mobility of elementary schoolleaders? An analysis of longitudinal data in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Akiba

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have reported the predictors of teacher attrition, we know little about what predicts the attrition of school leaders. Using the Colorado state data on elementary school principals’ and assistant principals’ career paths from 1999 to 2001 and school achievement-level data, we addressed two research questions: 1 How do the age-specific attrition rates differ by gender and race? and 2 What other conditional factors are associated with the attrition of school leaders? We found that female and minority groups generally had higher attrition rates at age 40 or younger and at age 56 or older than male and non-minority groups. Our data also indicated that school size and salary increase were associated with the attrition of both male and female leaders. Large schools were more likely to have higher rates of school leader attrition, and the leaders who expected relatively higher salary increases by transferring were more likely to leave their schools. Lower school achievement predicted higher attrition of female leaders only. These findings have important implications for policy-makers when they plan and implement strategies for preventing high attrition rates of school leaders.

  8. Factors Associated With Marijuana use and Problems Among College Students in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristina T; Phillips, Michael M; Duck, Kerry D

    2018-02-23

    Past studies have shown that heavy marijuana use can impact student outcomes. Frequent use and misuse of marijuana have been associated with a range of psychological and personality factors in young adults, but there has been limited research focused on the college environment in states where marijuana has been legalized for recreational purposes. We examined whether marijuana use and problems were associated with a range of demographic, personality, and psychological variables among college students at a midsized Colorado university. This cross-sectional study included 300 university students who submitted a urine screen and completed measures on marijuana use, problem marijuana use, anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and openness to experience. Last year and recent marijuana use were high (65%, 29%; respectively), as assessed through self-report and a urine screen. Using logistic regression, male sex and greater openness to experience were associated with greater marijuana use when assessed with a urine screen, while greater openness to experience and impulsivity were associated with greater self-reported marijuana use within the last year. In the final step of a hierarchical linear regression model, male sex and greater impulsivity and depression-but not openness to experience, general anxiety or social anxiety-were associated with greater problem marijuana use. This study extends the literature on psychological and personality correlates of marijuana use among college students. It may be useful to assess these correlates to identify students who are at risk of developing problems and in intervening with students with problem use.

  9. Responses of wind erosion to climate-induced vegetation changes on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Belnap, Jayne; Okin, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Projected increases in aridity throughout the southwestern United States due to anthropogenic climate change will likely cause reductions in perennial vegetation cover, which leaves soil surfaces exposed to erosion. Accelerated rates of dust emission from wind erosion have large implications for ecosystems and human well-being, yet there is poor understanding of the sources and magnitude of dust emission in a hotter and drier climate. Here we use a two-stage approach to compare the susceptibility of grasslands and three different shrublands to wind erosion on the Colorado Plateau and demonstrate how climate can indirectly moderate the magnitude of aeolian sediment flux through different responses of dominant plants in these communities. First, using results from 20 y of vegetation monitoring, we found perennial grass cover in grasslands declined with increasing mean annual temperature in the previous year, whereas shrub cover in shrublands either showed no change or declined as temperature increased, depending on the species. Second, we used these vegetation monitoring results and measurements of soil stability as inputs into a field-validated wind erosion model and found that declines in perennial vegetation cover coupled with disturbance to biological soil crust resulted in an exponential increase in modeled aeolian sediment flux. Thus the effects of increased temperature on perennial plant cover and the correlation of declining plant cover with increased aeolian flux strongly suggest that sustained drought conditions across the southwest will accelerate the likelihood of dust production in the future on disturbed soil surfaces.

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use

  12. Microsatellite primers in Agave utahensis (Asparagaceae), a keystone species in the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Charlee; Maughan, Peter J; Clouse, Jared; Stewart, J Ryan

    2014-09-01

    Utah agave (Agave utahensis) and its putative subspecies, A. utahensis subsp. kaibabensis and A. utahensis subsp. utahensis, are keystone species of the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. Here we developed microsatellite markers to study population structure and genetic diversity of the two subspecies of A. utahensis. • We analyzed 22,386 454-pyrosequencing large contigs (>400 bp), derived from a genome reduction experiment consisting of A. utahensis accessions, for putative microsatellites. The use of unique multiplex barcodes for each of the Agave accessions allowed for the identification of putatively polymorphic microsatellites based solely on sequence alignment analysis. We report the characteristics of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci based on a panel of 104 individuals from the two subspecies. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to eight, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.038 to 0.777 and 0.038 to 0.707, respectively. • The microsatellites identified here will be invaluable for future studies of population structure, polyploidy, and genetic diversity across the species.

  13. Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jacob; Smith, Alexis; Yale, Alexander; Chow, Christopher; Alaswad, Elsa; Cushing, Tracy; Monte, Andrew A

    2017-11-17

    Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users. This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals.

  14. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Colorado: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Colorado as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the Mining Claim Recordation System (MCRS) database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  15. Mitigation and monitoring plan for impacted wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The UMTRA Project is the result of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act(UMTRA) which was passed in response to the public's concern over the potential public health hazards related to uranium mill tailings and associated contaminated material at abandoned or otherwise uncontrolled inactive processing sites throughout the United States. The Gunnison, Colorado abandoned uranium mill site is one of the sites slated for cleanup by the DOE under authority of UMTRA. The contaminated material at this site will be transported to a disposal site on US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land east of Gunnison. Remedial action activities will temporarily disturb 0.8 acre and permanently eliminate 5.1 acres of wetlands. This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for the 5.9 acres of impacted wetlands. In conjunction with the mitigation of the permanently impacted wetlands through the enhancement of wetland and adjacent riparian areas, impacts to wildlife as a result of this project will also be mitigated. However, wildlife mitigation is not the focus of this document and is covered in relevant BLM permits for this project. This plan proposes the enhancement of a 3:1 ratio of impacted wetlands in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, plus the enhancement of riparian areas for wildlife mitigation. Included in this mitigation plan is a monitoring plan to ensure that the proposed measures are working and being maintained

  16. Regional modeling of large wildfires under current and potential future climates in Colorado and Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda; Kumar, Sunil; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Regional analysis of large wildfire potential given climate change scenarios is crucial to understanding areas most at risk in the future, yet wildfire models are not often developed and tested at this spatial scale. We fit three historical climate suitability models for large wildfires (i.e. ≥ 400 ha) in Colorado andWyoming using topography and decadal climate averages corresponding to wildfire occurrence at the same temporal scale. The historical models classified points of known large wildfire occurrence with high accuracies. Using a novel approach in wildfire modeling, we applied the historical models to independent climate and wildfire datasets, and the resulting sensitivities were 0.75, 0.81, and 0.83 for Maxent, Generalized Linear, and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, respectively. We projected the historic models into future climate space using data from 15 global circulation models and two representative concentration pathway scenarios. Maps from these geospatial analyses can be used to evaluate the changing spatial distribution of climate suitability of large wildfires in these states. April relative humidity was the most important covariate in all models, providing insight to the climate space of large wildfires in this region. These methods incorporate monthly and seasonal climate averages at a spatial resolution relevant to land management (i.e. 1 km2) and provide a tool that can be modified for other regions of North America, or adapted for other parts of the world.

  17. Public Health Economic Burden Associated with Two Single Measles Case Investigations - Colorado, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Grace E; Chase, Jennifer; Jasperse, Joseph; Stinson, Kaylan; McDonald, Carol E; Runfola, Janine K; Jaskunas, Jillian; Hite, Donna; Barnes, Meghan; Askenazi, Michele; Albanese, Bernadette

    2017-11-24

    During July 2016-January 2017, two unrelated measles cases were identified in the Denver, Colorado area after patients traveled to countries with endemic measles transmission. Each case resulted in multiple exposures at health care facilities and public venues, and activated an immediate and complex response by local and state public health agencies, with activities led by the Tri-County Health Department (TCHD), which serves Adams, Arapahoe, and Douglas counties. To track the economic burden associated with investigating and responding to single measles cases, personnel hours and supply costs incurred during each investigation were tracked prospectively. No secondary cases of measles were identified in either investigation. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was administered to 31 contacts involving the first case; no contacts of the second case were eligible for PEP because of a delay in diagnosing measles disease. Public health costs of disease investigation in the first and second case were estimated at $49,769 and $18,423, respectively. Single measles cases prompted coordinated public health action and were costly and resource-intensive for local public health agencies.

  18. Avian community responses to juniper woodland structure and thinning treatments on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Claire; van Riper, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Federal land managers are increasingly implementing fuels-reduction treatments throughout the western United States with objectives of ecological restoration and fire hazard reduction in pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.) woodlands. The pinyon-juniper woodland ecosystem complex is highly variable across the western landscape, as is bird community composition. We investigated relations between breeding birds and vegetation characteristics in modified pinyon-juniper woodlands at three sites (BLM, USFS, NPS) on the Colorado Plateau. During the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006, we surveyed birds and measured vegetation in 74 study plots. These plots were each 3.1 hectares (ha; 7.6 acres), located across the range of natural variation, with 41 control sites and 33 plots in areas previously thinned by hand-cutting or chaining. We found that relations of avian pinyon-juniper specialists and priority species to vegetation characteristics were generally in agreement with the findings of previous studies and known nesting and feeding habits of those birds. Relatively high density of pinyon pines was important to species richness and abundance in 6 of 14 species. Abundance of all species was related to treatment method, and we found no difference in bird communities at chaining and hand-cut sites.

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.