Sample records for lefkada island greece

  1. Static stress changes and fault interactions in Lefkada Island, Western Greece (United States)

    Mitsakaki, C.; Rondoyanni, Th.; Anastasiou, D.; Papazissi, K.; Marinou, A.; Sakellariou, M.


    The complicated tectonics of the Mediterranean region, dominated by the subduction of the African plate under Eurasia, affects the whole of Greece. A significant extension rate across the Aegean sea is estimated from satellite geodetic observations, while intense seismicity is observed in parts of the Hellenic arc, manifested by strong earthquakes (Ms > 6) of intermediate depth that take place along it. In Western Greece, the Ionian Islands are situated in a transitional zone (from the Hellenic subduction to the Adriatic collision), characterised by a high crustal deformation rate as revealed by the high seismicity of this zone, the highest in Greece, and the GPS velocity field estimated for the region. In this part of the Aegean plate, transcurrent fault systems dominate, one of which is the Kephalonia Transform Fault (KTF), located offshore the Kephalonia and Lefkada Islands, with a right-lateral slip of the order of 3 cm/year. In the present work an attempt is made to assess the Coulomb stress change associated with well documented earthquake activity, from 1973 to 2003, in the Ionian Island of Lefkada. The results of this study suggest that the early 1973 event did not influence any subsequent moderate earthquakes in the area. On the other hand, the 1994 earthquake may have triggered the north segment of the 2003 event, while the 2003 earthquake ruptured two segments with the north one initiating rupture on the south segment.

  2. The Cephalonia Transform Fault and its extension to western Lefkada Island (Greece) (United States)

    Louvari, E.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Papazachos, B. C.


    The central area of the Ionian Islands is dominated by the existence of a major tectonic structure called the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF). Its main part (Cephalonia segment) has been identified by previous work based on the spatial distribution of earthquake foci, fault plane solutions of strong earthquakes, active tectonics, structural studies and geodetic measurements. This part (Cephalonia segment) which exhibits strike-slip motion with a thrust component, strikes in a northeast direction, dips to the southeast and has a length of ˜90 km. In the present paper information concerning new fault plane solutions, orientation of isoseismals, sea bottom topography and recent GPS results are used to further check the properties of this southern part of the CTF and to explore its northeastward prolongation to Lefkada Island. It is shown that the CTF is extended to the western coast of Lefkada. This northern branch (Lefkada segment) of the CTF which is also characterized by strike-slip motion with a thrust component, strikes in a north-northeast direction, dips to the east-southeast and has a length of ˜40 km. These two segments of the CTF form a major kinematic boundary where the slip rate is 2-3 cm/yr.

  3. Application of array-based waveform cross-correlation techniques to aftershock sequences: the 2003 Lefkada Island, Greece, case (United States)

    Pirli, Myrto; Gibbons, Steven J.; Schweitzer, Johannes


    Cross-correlation analysis was applied to events in the 2003 Lefkada Island, Greece, sequence in order to identify clusters of seismicity within the extensive aftershock sequence along a fault zone of approximately 100 km length. Data from the small-aperture TRISAR array, covering the first 2 days of aftershock activity, were used. Array-based waveform correlation has a great advantage over single channel correlation analysis in that the validity of waveform matches with relatively low correlation coefficients can be examined by checking the alignment of correlation traces on the different channels. The length of the fault zone leads inevitably to a great diversity in the waveforms, although a small number of clusters of very similar events emerge from the TRISAR data. Events which the correlation analysis had placed within the same cluster were listed in the ISC Bulletin with separations of up to tens of kilometres. This made it necessary to check the validity of the TRISAR clusters by applying the same procedure independently to the three-component stations of the National Seismographic Network of the National Observatory of Athens, located at local to regional distances from the aftershock area. Results suggest that array-based waveform correlation provides a robust tool both for identifying event clusters within large aftershock areas and for identifying situations in which bulletin event location estimates need re-evaluation.

  4. Non extensive statistical physics properties of the 2003 (Mw6.2), Lefkada, Ionian island Greece, aftershock sequence (United States)

    Vallianatos, F.; Karakostas, V.; Papadimitriou, E.


    On 14 August 2003, Lefkada Island (Central Ionian) was affected by an Mw=6.2 earthquake. Due to a dense temporary seismic network that operating immediately after the main shock occurrence, hundreds of aftershocks were recorded and located with high precision whereas relocation of the main shock and early strong aftershocks became also feasible. Thus, the spatio-temporal distribution of aftershocks onto the main and the neighboring fault segments was investigated in detail enabling the recognition of four distinctive seismicity clusters separated by less active patches. The aftershock spatiotemporal properties studied here using the concept of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP). The cumulative distribution functions of the inter-event times and the inter-event distances are estimated for the data set in each seismicity cluster and the analysis results to a value of the statistical thermodynamic qT and qD parameters for each cluster, where qT varies from 1.15 to 1.47 and qD from 0.5 to 0.77 for the interevent times and distances distributions respectively. These values confirm the complexity and non-additivity of the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating such phenomena. The temporal structure is also discussed using the complementary to NESP approach of superstatistics, which is based on a superposition of ordinary local equilibrium statistical mechanics. The result indicates that the temporal evolution of the Lefkada aftershock sequence in clusters A, B and C governed by very low number of degrees of freedom while D is less organized seismicity structure with a much higher number of degrees of freedom. Acknowledgments. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive

  5. The 14 August 2003 Lefkada Island (Greece) earthquake: Focal mechanisms of the mainshock and of the aftershock sequence (United States)

    Benetatos, C.; Kiratzi, A.; Roumelioti, Z.; Stavrakakis, G.; Drakatos, G.; Latoussakis, I.

    The central area of the Ionian Sea is dominated by the Cephalonia Transform Fault Zone (CTFZ) with a pronounced dextral strike-slip component of motion. The CTFZ has two main segments: the Lefkada Segment (LS) in the north and the Cephalonia Segment (CS) in the south. On 14 August 2003 an Mw 6.2 earthquake ruptured the Lefkada Segment and produced extensive damage, especially to the western coast of the island. Teleseismic waveform modelling revealed the multiple source character of the mainshock, which occurred as three sub-events along a ˜N12°E line. The first sub-event occurred at a depth of about 15 km, followed 2.5 s later by the second and largest sub-event at a depth of 11 km and the third sub-event 14 s after the second at a depth of 15 km. The total moment from the body waves of this sequence is about 22.3×1017 Nt m (Mw 6.2) with a source duration of ˜15 s. The rupture started at the northern part of the Lefkada fault Segment and propagated southwards. The second and third sub-events are located at 7 and 40 km to the south-east in respect to the first sub-event. The focal mechanisms of the two strongest sources indicate strike-slip faulting along the NE-SW trending Lefkada segment (sub-event 2: Strike = 12°, Dip = 81°, Rake = 174°; sub-event 3: Strike = 20°, Dip = 63°, Rake = -179°). Moment tensor inversion applied to regional broad band waveforms obtained from the Greek National Seismographic Network provided focal mechanisms for 23 aftershocks with magnitudes ranging from Mw 3.6 to 5.4. The aftershock sequence presented spatial and temporal variation. The aftershocks were concentrated in two clusters one at the northern part of the activated area and another at the southern part. Most of them were of strike-slip character, following the major tectonic lines of the area, although low-angle thrust and reverse faulting mechanisms were also observed. Thrust and reverse type mechanisms are mainly concentrated in the northern and mainland part of the

  6. Coseismic deformation, field observations and seismic fault of the 17 November 2015 M = 6.5, Lefkada Island, Greece earthquake (United States)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Elias, Panagiotis; Bozionelos, George; Papathanassiou, George; Avallone, Antonio; Papastergios, Asterios; Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Parcharidis, Issaak; Briole, Pierre


    On November 17, 2015 07:10:07 UTC a strong, shallow Mw6.5 earthquake, occurred on the island of Lefkada along a strike-slip fault with right-lateral sense of slip. The event triggered widespread environmental effects at the south and western part of the island while, the intensity and severity of these earthquake-induced deformations is substantially decreased towards the eastern part of the island. Relocation of seismicity and inversion of geophysical (GPS, InSAR) data indicate that the seismic fault runs parallel to the west coast of Lefkada, along the Aegean - Apulia plate boundary. The fault plane strikes N20 ± 5°E and dips to east with an angle of about 70 ± 5°. Coseismic deformation was measured in the order of tens of centimeters of horizontal motion by continuous GPS stations of NOANET (the NOA GPS network) and by InSAR (Sentinel 1 A image pairs). A coseismic uniform-slip model was produced from inversion of InSAR data and permanent GPS stations. The earthquake measured Mw = 6.5 using both the geodetic moment produced by the slip model, as well as the PGD relation of Melgar et al. (2015, GRL). In the field we observed no significant vertical motion of the shoreline or surface expression of faulting, this is consistent with the predictions of the model. The interferograms show a large decorrelation area that extends almost along all the western coast of Lefkada. This area correlates well with the mapped landslides. The 2003-2015 pattern of seismicity in the Ionian Sea region indicates the existence of a 15-km seismic gap offshore NW Cephalonia.

  7. UAV-based mapping, back analysis and trajectory modeling of a coseismic rockfall in Lefkada island, Greece


    Saroglou, Charalampos; Asteriou, Pavlos; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Tsiambaos, George; Clark, Marin; Manousakis, John


    We present field evidence and a kinematic study of a rock block mobilized in the Ponti area by a Mw  =  6.5 earthquake near the island of Lefkada on 17 November 2015. A detailed survey was conducted using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with an ultrahigh definition (UHD) camera, which produced a high-resolution orthophoto and a digital terrain model (DTM). The sequence of impact marks from the rock trajectory on the ground surface was identified from the orthophoto and field verified. ...

  8. Coseismic deformation and slip model of the 17 November 2015 M=6.5 earthquake, Lefkada Island, Greece (United States)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Melgar, Diego; Briole, Pierre; Geng, Jianghui; Papathanassiou, George; Bozionelos, George; Avallone, Antonio; Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Argyrakis, Panagiotis; Moshou, Alexandra; Elias, Panagiotis


    On November 17, 2015 a strong, shallow earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred on the island of Lefkada along a strike-slip fault with right-lateral sense of slip. The event triggered widespread environmental effects that were mainly reported at the south and western part of the island while moving towards the eastern part, the intensity and severity of these earthquake-induced deformations were decreased. Coseismic deformation was measured in the order of tens of centimeters of horizontal motion by continuous GPS stations of NOANET (the NOA GPS network) and by InSAR (Sentinel 1A image pairs). Released interferograms from various groups show a large decorrelation area that extends almost along all the western coast of Lefkada, observation which provides strong support of landsliding. We also found extensive landslides during field work and no surface ruptures. A coseismic slip model was produced from the ascending InSAR, which it's cleaner than the GPS only and both data sets have ~90% variance reduction. The fault dips to the east-southeast at an angle of 65-70 degrees.

  9. Fault plane modelling of the 2003 August 14 Lefkada Island (Greece) earthquake based on the analysis of ENVISAT SAR interferograms (United States)

    Ilieva, M.; Briole, P.; Ganas, A.; Dimitrov, D.; Elias, P.; Mouratidis, A.; Charara, R.


    On 2003 August 14, a Mw = 6.2 earthquake occurred offshore the Lefkada Island in the eastern Ionian Sea, one of the most seismically active areas in Europe. The earthquake caused extended damages in the island, and a number of ground failures, especially along the north-western coast. Seven ascending ENVISAT/ASAR images are used to process six co-seismic interferograms. The ROI-PAC package is used for interferogram generation with the SRTM DEM applied in a two-pass method. The formation of the co-seismic pairs is limited due to the existence of one pre-seismic image only. Dense vegetation is covering the island, which is an obstacle in getting good coherence, since C-band images are used. Nevertheless, ground deformation, of > 56 mm (two fringes) in the line of sight of the satellite, is detected in all six co-seismic interferograms. By inversion of the data from the observed fringes, a best fitting model of the activated fault is calculated assuming a dislocation in an elastic half space. The inferred fault is a pure dextral strike-slip fault, dipping 59 ± 5° eastward, 16 ± 2 km long and 10 ± 2 km wide. It is located north of the fault of the Mw = 6.5 2015 November 17 earthquake, and a 10-15 km gap remains between the two faults. The 2003 fault does not reach the surface and its upper edge is at a depth of 3.5 ± 1 km. No evidence is found of slip south of the Lefkada Island as suggested by some seismological studies.

  10. UAV-based mapping, back analysis and trajectory modeling of a coseismic rockfall in Lefkada island, Greece (United States)

    Saroglou, Charalampos; Asteriou, Pavlos; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Tsiambaos, George; Clark, Marin; Manousakis, John


    We present field evidence and a kinematic study of a rock block mobilized in the Ponti area by a Mw = 6.5 earthquake near the island of Lefkada on 17 November 2015. A detailed survey was conducted using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with an ultrahigh definition (UHD) camera, which produced a high-resolution orthophoto and a digital terrain model (DTM). The sequence of impact marks from the rock trajectory on the ground surface was identified from the orthophoto and field verified. Earthquake characteristics were used to estimate the acceleration of the rock slope and the initial condition of the detached block. Using the impact points from the measured rockfall trajectory, an analytical reconstruction of the trajectory was undertaken, which led to insights on the coefficients of restitution (CORs). The measured trajectory was compared with modeled rockfall trajectories using recommended parameters. However, the actual trajectory could not be accurately predicted, revealing limitations of existing rockfall analysis software used in engineering practice.

  11. UAV-based mapping, back analysis and trajectory modeling of a coseismic rockfall in Lefkada island, Greece

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    C. Saroglou


    Full Text Available We present field evidence and a kinematic study of a rock block mobilized in the Ponti area by a Mw  =  6.5 earthquake near the island of Lefkada on 17 November 2015. A detailed survey was conducted using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with an ultrahigh definition (UHD camera, which produced a high-resolution orthophoto and a digital terrain model (DTM. The sequence of impact marks from the rock trajectory on the ground surface was identified from the orthophoto and field verified. Earthquake characteristics were used to estimate the acceleration of the rock slope and the initial condition of the detached block. Using the impact points from the measured rockfall trajectory, an analytical reconstruction of the trajectory was undertaken, which led to insights on the coefficients of restitution (CORs. The measured trajectory was compared with modeled rockfall trajectories using recommended parameters. However, the actual trajectory could not be accurately predicted, revealing limitations of existing rockfall analysis software used in engineering practice.

  12. The Mw6.5 earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Island and the seismotectonics in the Cephalonia Transform Fault (Ionian Sea, Greece) (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Agalos, Apostolos; Bocchini, Gian Maria; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Vassilis; Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Kontoes, Charis; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Svigkas, Nikos; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Zygouri, Vasiliki; Tselentis, Akis


    On 17 November 2015 a Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two victims, damage and ground failures particularly in the SW part of the island, which is consistent with the ground deformation pattern shown by InSAR analysis. Fault plane solutions released by CMT, NOA and other institutes are consistent indicating strike-slip right-lateral faulting, which is typical for the area, e.g. 2003 earthquake in the same fault zone. The analysis of 30-s daily observations of the permanent GPS stations operated by NOA showed displacement vectors with a motion pattern which is in agreement with the right-lateral kinematics of the rupture. The seismic plane was striking/dipping about N24E/W75.The seismic sequence for the period from 17 Nov. to 8 Dec. 2015 was relocated, with and without the use of time residuals, applying the NNLoc algorithm on a slightly modified 9-layer seismic velocity model (Haslinger et al., 1999) and by using only phases at stations closer than 120 km from the mainshock in order to avoid the use of Pn phases. The relocation procedure obtained without the use of residuals was repeated with the HypoDD algorithm. All relocations showed that the aftershock cloud follows the fault plane strike and consists of one north and one south clusters distributed in the seismogenic layer of 4-12 km. The south cluster started to develop a few hours after the mainshock, while it presents different statistical properties as compared to the north one. These results indicate that the south cluster was likely the result of triggering effect. Digital broadband P-wave teleseismic records, selected from GDSN stations to achieve the best possible azimuthal coverage, were used to invert for the mainshock rupture history. The teleseismic waveforms were corrected for instrument response, integrated to displacement, band-pass filtered from 0.01 to 1 Hz using a Butterworth filter and finally re-sampled to 0.2 samples/s. The finite fault

  13. InSAR application for geodynamic study of the 14 August 2003 Lefkada, Greece earthquake (United States)

    Ilieva, M.; Elias, P.; Briole, P.; Dimitrov, D.


    The area of the Central Ionian Islands, one of which is the Lefkada Island, is the transition zone between the West Hellenic arc and the Apulian plate and it is recognized as Kephalonia Fault Zone (KFZ) with strike-slip faulting. This zone is characterized by high seismicity and natural hazard potential. One of the most significant recent events (Mw = 6.3) occurred on August 14, 2003 northwest of the Lefkada island. The maximum intensity has been evaluated as Io = VII+ to VIII in the town of Lefkada. Using 20 available SAR images acquired by the ESA ENVISAT satellite, we produced 191 interferograms that we used to examine the co- and post-seismic crustal deformations caused by this earthquake. On the base of quality of the backscattered signal the results are divided in groups and from each group a map of coherence is produced. As a result an analysis of the coherent quality of the terrain and a choice of the most proper group for crustal deformation detecting is made. Whereupon seven ascending and nine descending ENVISAT images are used for generating of 21 best ascending and 36 best descending interferograms, respectively. From them, 6 ascending and 8 descending are co-seismic interferograms, sufficiently coherent to show a deformation of the Earth's surface of 5.6 cm in the western part of the Lefkada Island. These results are compared with the GPS measurements available on the island, and show adequate agreement. A dislocation model using the Okada formalism is proposed. References: Hollenstein Ch., M.D. Müller, A.Geiger, H.-G. Kahle (2008). GPS-Derived Coseismic Displacements Associated with the 2001 Skyros and 2003 Lefkada Earthquakes in Greece. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 149-161.

  14. Asperity break after 12 years: The Mw6.4 2015 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake (United States)

    Sokos, E.; Zahradník, J.; Gallovič, F.; Serpetsidaki, A.; Plicka, V.; Kiratzi, A.


    The Mw6.4 earthquake sequence of 2015 in western Greece is analyzed using seismic data. Multiple point source modeling, nonlinear slip patch, and linear slip inversions reveal a coherent rupture image with directivity toward the southwest and several moment release episodes, reflected in the complex aftershock distribution. The key feature is that the 2015 earthquake ruptured a strong asperity, which was left unbroken in between two large subevents of the Mw6.2 Lefkada doublet in 2003. This finding and the well-analyzed Cephalonia earthquake sequence of 2014 provide strong evidence of segmentation of the major dextral Cephalonia-Lefkada Transform Fault (CTF), being related to extensional duplex transform zones. We propose that the duplexes extend farther to the north and that the CTF runs parallel to the western coast of Lefkada and Cephalonia Islands, considerably closer to the inhabited islands than previously thought. Generally, this study demonstrates faulting complexity across short time scales (earthquake doublets) and long time scales (seismic gaps).

  15. A Non-Extensive Statistical Physics View in the Spatiotemporal Properties of the 2003 (Mw6.2) Lefkada, Ionian Island Greece, Aftershock Sequence (United States)

    Vallianatos, F.; Karakostas, V.; Papadimitriou, E.


    Investigation of the spatiotemporal properties of the 2003 Lefkada seismic sequence is performed through non-extensive statistical physics. Information on highly accurate aftershock source parameters became feasible from the recordings of a portable digital seismological network that was installed and operated in the study area, during the evolution of the seismic sequence. Thus, the spatiotemporal distribution of aftershocks onto the main and neighboring fault segments was investigated in detail, enabling the recognition of four distinctive seismicity clusters separated by less active patches. The aftershock spatiotemporal properties are studied here, using the ideas of non-extensive statistical physics (NESP). The cumulative distribution functions of the inter-event times and the inter-event distances are presented using the data set in each seismicity cluster, and the analysis results in values for the statistical thermodynamic q T and q D parameters for each cluster, where q T varies from 1.16 to 1.47 and q D from 0.42 to 0.77 for the inter-event times and distances distributions, respectively. These values confirm the complexity and non-additivity of the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity, and the applicability of the NESP approach in investigating aftershocks sequence. The temporal pattern is discussed using the closely connected to NESP approach of superstatistics, which is based on a superposition of ordinary local equilibrium statistical mechanics. The result indicates that the temporal evolution of the Lefkada aftershock sequence in clusters A, B and C is governed by very low number of degrees of freedom, while D is a less organized seismicity structure with a much higher number of degrees of freedom.

  16. The MW = 6.3 2003 Lefkada earthquake (Greece) and induced stress transfer changes (United States)

    Papadimitriou, P.; Kaviris, G.; Makropoulos, K.


    A large earthquake of magnitude MW = 6.3 occurred on 14 August 2003 NW of the Lefkada Island, which is situated at the Ionian Sea (western Greece). The source parameters of this event are determined using body-wave modeling. The focal depth was found equal to 9 km, the constrained focal mechanism revealed dextral strike-slip motion ( φ = 15°, Δ = 80° and λ = 170°), the duration of the source time function was 8 s and the seismic moment 2.9 × 10 25 dyn cm. The earthquake occurred close to the northern end of the Kefallinia transform fault, where the 1994 moderate event and its aftershock sequence were also located. The epicentral distribution of the 2003 aftershock sequence revealed the existence of two clusters. The first one is located close to the epicentral area of the mainshock, while the second southern, close to the northwestern coast of the Kefallinia Island. A gap of seismicity is observed between the two clusters. The length of the activated zone is approximately 60 km. The analysis of data revealed that the northern cluster is directly related to the mainshock, while the southern one was triggered by stress transfer caused by the main event.

  17. The Mw6.5 17 November 2015 Lefkada (Greece) Earthquake: Structural Interpretation by Means of the Aftershock Analysis (United States)

    Papadimitriou, E.; Karakostas, V.; Mesimeri, M.; Chouliaras, G.; Kourouklas, Ch.


    The 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada main shock occurred at the south western part of Lefkada Island (Greece), less than 2 years after the occurrence of a doublet along the western part of the nearby Kefalonia Island, Paliki peninsula (on 25/01/2014, with Mw6.1 and 03/02/2014 with Mw6.0) and 12 years after the 2003 Mw6.2 main shock that struck the northwestern part of Lefkada Island. The four failed dextral strike slip fault segments belong to the Kefalonia transform fault zone (KTFZ), the major active boundary that bounds from the west the area of central Ionian Islands, namely Lefkada and Kefalonia. It is associated with several known historical earthquakes and is considered the most hazardous area in the Greek territory. The KTFZ fault segments are characterized by high slip rates (of the order of tens of millimeters per year), with maximum earthquake magnitudes up to 6.7 for Lefkada and 7.2 for Kefalonia fault zone, respectively. The double difference location technique was employed for relocating the aftershocks revealing a seismogenic layer extending from 3 to 16 km depth and multiple activation on well-defined fault planes, with strikes that differ than the main rupture and dips either to east or to west. This implies that strain energy was not solely released on a main fault only, but on secondary and adjacent fault segments as well. The reliable definition of their geometry forms the basis for the structural interpretation of the local fault network. The aftershock spatial distribution indicates three main clusters of the seismic activity, along with activation of smaller faults to an extent of more than 50 km. A northeasterly striking cluster is observed to the north of the main shock epicenter, with a remarkable aftershock density. The central cluster is less dense than the previous one with an epicentral alignment in full accordance with the strike provided by the main shock centroid moment tensor solution, and is considered as the main rupture with a length of 17 km

  18. Fault complexity associated with the 14 August 2003 Mw6.2 Lefkada, Greece, aftershock sequence (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria


    The M w6.2 Lefkada earthquake occurred on 14 August 2003 beneath the western coastline of Lefkada Island. The main shock was followed by an intense aftershock activity, which formed a narrow band extending over the western coast of the Island and the submarine area between Lefkada and Kefalonia Islands, whereas additional off fault aftershocks formed spatial clusters on the central and northwestern part of the Island. The aftershock spatial distribution revealed the activation of along-strike adjacent fault segment as well as of secondary faults close to the main rupture. The properties of the activated segments were illuminated by the precisely located aftershocks, fault plane solutions determination and the cross sections performed parallel and normal to their strike. The aftershock focal mechanisms exhibited mainly strike slip faulting throughout the activated area, although deviation of the dominant stress pattern is also observed. The results help to emphasize the importance of the identification of activated nearby fault segments possibly triggered by the main rupture. Because such segments are capable to produce moderate events causing appreciable damage, they should be viewed with caution in seismic hazard assessment in addition to the major regional faults.

  19. Traces of Holocene tsunamis across the Sound of Lefkada, NW Greece (United States)

    Vött, A.; Brückner, H.; Brockmüller, S.; Handl, M.; May, S. M.; Gaki-Papanastassiou, K.; Herd, R.; Lang, F.; Maroukian, H.; Nelle, O.; Papanastassiou, D.


    This paper gives evidence of multiple tsunami inundation of the Sound of Lefkada (NW Greece) since the mid-Holocene based on the analysis of sediment cores by means of geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical, micromorphological and micropalaeontological methods. Layers of sand, gravel and shell debris, mostly unsorted, were found intersecting autochthonous lagoonal muds of the sheltered and quiescent inner-sound environment. They are further characterized by erosional unconformities at their base, rip-up clasts from the underlying sediments, fining upward sequences and an upward increase in sorting. The coarse grained high energy deposits include macro- and microfaunal remains typical of open-marine, partly even deep-water conditions which underlines their allochthonous character. Several distinct event layers indicate multiple tsunami passage across the sound. Earth resistivity measurements and vibracore transects revealed that the entire sound has been affected by catastrophic wave events. Thin sections of tsunami-influenced sediments found in lateral parts of the sound show a mixture of marine, lagoonal and terrigenous material. The inner Sound of Lefkada, well protected against storms, thus represents an excellent trap for tsunamigenic deposits. A preliminary local tsunami geochronology is based on 9 radiocarbon dates and diagnostic ceramic fragments. Several early tsunami impacts hit the sound between the 6th and 3rd millennium BC. Younger events seem to be consistent with tsunami landfalls that hit adjacent areas around 1000 cal BC, 395-247 cal BC as well as in Roman and medieval times. Vibracore data document an isthmus-like shallow-water environment which existed in the central sound and which was repeatedly inundated by tsunami wave action. Multiple tsunami passage eroded a natural channel which, we suggest, is the precursor of the famous waterway excavated by the Corinthians in the 7th century BC. Based on historical data, it is concluded that the

  20. The Lefkada, Ionian Sea (Greece), shock (Mw 6.2) of 14 August 2003: Evidence for the characteristic earthquake from seismicity and ground failures (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Karastathis, V. K.; Ganas, A.; Pavlides, S.; Fokaefs, A.; Orfanogiannaki, K.


    The earthquake (Mw 6.2, Ms 6.4) of 14 August 2003 which occurred in the Lefkada segment of the Cephalonia Transform Fault, Ionian Sea (Greece), was associated with dextral strike-slip faulting striking NNE-SSW. Reevaluation of instrumental and documentary sources show that the 1914, 1948 and 2003 earthquakes ruptured the same fault segment and that all had similar size, which implies that this segment produces characteristic earthquakes. This is verified by the magnitude-frequency diagram which for the instrumental period of 1911-2003 exhibits a relatively narrow range of magnitudes near the maximum (~Ms 6.4), deviation from the log linear relationship and a gap in the moderate-magnitude range. Field observations indicate that the 2003 earthquake and past strong shocks caused on Lefkada island impressively similar ground failures at exactly the same sites: extensive landslides and soil liquefaction, which signifies comparable strong motion features as an additional evidence of the characteristic earthquake. However, while the maximum seismic intensity for the 1914 and 1948 strong shocks is estimated as Imax = IX - X (MM scale), the impact of the 2003 shock was less severe (Imax = VIII) possibly due to building strengthening after 1948.

  1. Source characteristics of the 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada, Greece, strike-slip earthquake (United States)

    Melgar, Diego; Ganas, Athanassios; Geng, Jianghui; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric J.; Kassaras, Ioannis


    We present a kinematic slip model from the inversion of 1 Hz GPS, strong motion, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada, Greece, earthquake. We will show that most of the slip during this event is updip of the hypocenter (10.7 km depth) with substantial slip (>0.5 m) between 5 km depth and the surface. The peak slip is 1.6 m, and the inverted rake angles show predominantly strike-slip motion. Slip concentrates mostly to the south of the hypocenter, and the source time function indicates a total duration of 17 s with peak moment rate at 6 s. We will show that a 65° dipping geometry is the most plausible due to a lack of polarity reversals in the InSAR data and good agreement with Coulomb stress modeling, aftershock locations, and regional moment tensors. We also note that there was an 20 cm peak-to-peak tsunami observed at one tide gauge station 300 km away from the earthquake. We will discuss tsunami modeling results and study the possible source of the amplitude discrepancy between the modeled and the observed data at far-field tide gauges.

  2. Slip distribution of the 2015 Lefkada earthquake and its implications for fault segmentation (United States)

    Bie, Lidong; González, Pablo J.; Rietbrock, Andreas


    It is widely accepted that fault segmentation limits earthquake rupture propagations and therefore earthquake size. While along-strike segmentation of continental strike-slip faults is well observed, direct evidence for segmentation of off-shore strike-slip faults is rare. A comparison of rupture behaviours in multiple earthquakes might help reveal the characteristics of fault segmentation. In this work, we study the 2015 Lefkada earthquake, which ruptured a major active strike slip fault offshore Lefkada Island, Greece. We report ground deformation mainly on the Lefkada Island measured by interferometric synthetic radar (InSAR), and infer a coseismic distributed slip model. To investigate how the fault location affects the inferred displacement based on our InSAR observations, we conduct a suite of inversions by taking various fault location from different studies as a prior. The result of these test inversions suggests that the Lefkada fault trace is located just offshore Lefkada Island. Our preferred model shows that the 2015 earthquake main slip patches are confined to shallow depth (Lefkada fault, we suggest that the 2015 earthquake closed the seismic gap, at least partially, left by the 2003 earthquake by rupturing the shallow part of the Lefkada fault. The spatial variation in slip distributions for the two earthquakes reveals segmentation along strike, and possibly downdip of the Lefkada fault. A comparison of aftershock locations and coseismic slip distribution shows that most aftershocks appear near the edge of main coseismic slip patches.

  3. Variation of some Planetary seismic hazard indices on the occasion of Lefkada, Greece, earthquake of 17 November, 2015. (United States)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Demetrios N.; Vergos, George; Spatala, Spyrous; Skeberis, Christos; Xenos, Tomas D.


    By the term "Planetary seismic hazard indices" we mean parameters or observables which indicate the degree of the mutual interactions of tectonic active areas on the earth surface with some parts or phenomena of the Geosphere and the near Earth space. In this paper we investigate the variation of the tidal triggering effect efficiency, by means of the tidal seismicity compliance parameter p, (Arabelos et al. 2016, Contadakis et al. 2009, Contadakis et al. 2012, Vergos et al. 2015), as well as the lower Ionosphere variations, by means of the variation of the High-Frequency limit, fo, of the ionospheric turbulence content (Contadakis et al. 2009, Contadakis et al. 2012, Contadakis et al. 2015) with the time and space proximity to the site of the earthquake occurrence. The results of our investigation are: (1) The mapping of the tidal seismicity compliance parameter p, over the Greece indicate an increasing tectonic stress criticality for the year 2015 of the area of Ionian islands in relation to other areas in Greece, pointing to the area of a possible strong earthquake. (2) The High- Frequency limit fo, of the ionospheric turbulence content, measured analyzing TEC variations, increases as the site and the moment of the earthquake occurrence is approaching, pointing to the earthquake locus. (3) Finally, The analyzed data from the receiver of INFREP network in Thessaloniki (Skeberis et al. 2015), Greece (40.59N, 22,78E), which monitor VLF transmitters based in Tavolara , Niscemi, Italy, Keflavik, Iceland, and Anthorn, UKthe show that the signals from the two VLF European transmitters, transmitted over Lefkada, indicate enhanced high frequency variations, in accordance to the result of the TEC analysis, the last ten days before the moment of the earthquake occurrence. References Arabelos, D.N., Contadakis, E.M.,Vergos, G.,Spatalas, S.D., 2016, Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter during the recent seismic activity in Fthiotida, central Greece

  4. The Lefkada barrier and beachrock system (NW Greece) — Controls on coastal evolution and the significance of extreme wave events (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Vött, Andreas; Brückner, Helmut; Grapmayer, Ralf; Handl, Mathias; Wennrich, Volker


    The Lefkada-Preveza coastal zone, NW Greece, is characterised by an active barrier system and related extensive beachrock sequences. Besides the gradual coastal processes of longshore drift and spit evolution, the presence of active tectonics and the occurrence of tsunamis have been documented in previous studies and are part of the coastal geomorphological system. In this paper, we present the results of detailed multi-proxy sedimentological and geomorphological investigations carried out along the northern part of the barrier system and in back-beach positions. Our findings suggest that extreme wave events contributed to coastal and environmental changes and involved temporary breakdown of the barrier system. Sedimentary findings suggest that one generation of event deposits may be related to the 365 AD Crete earthquake and associated tsunami. According to our results, the Lefkada coastal system formed by the interaction of both long-term, gradual and sudden, impulsive littoral geomorphodynamics. Extreme wave events are assumed to have played a significant role in the evolution of the present coastline, acting as recurrent impulsive disturbances of the coastal system. Subsequently, the onset of long-term gradual coastal processes, such as longshore drift, re-established a state of natural coastal balance by re-arranging the coastal sediments.

  5. The Impact of an Extreme Storm Event on the Barrier Beach of the Lefkada Lagoon, NE Ionian Sea (Greece)




    The present investigation examines the characteristics of a high energy storm event, that took place on November 9-11, 2007 in the NE Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean), and its impact upon the barrier beach that separates the Lefkada lagoon from the open Ionian Sea. The storm event was caused by NW winds with speeds exceeding 20 m/s (40 knots), which have an annual frequency of occurrence less than 0.015%. This high energy event produced waves with >5 m significant offshore height and 9.5 s ...

  6. The strain field in northwestern Greece and the Ionian Islands: results inferred from GPS measurements (United States)

    Kahle, Hans-Gert; Müller, Max V.; Geiger, Alain; Danuser, Gaudenz; Mueller, Stephan; Veis, George; Billiris, Harris; Paradissis, Demitris


    Recent crustal movements detected by the analysis of repeated satellite geodetic measurements reflect the ongoing geodynamic processes in the Alpine-Mediterranean area. Superimposed on the large-scale counterclockwise rotation of the African plate, complex dynamic processes are affecting the lithospheric fragments between the African and Eurasian plates. Key features to better understand the driving forces and associated seismic activity in the Africa/Eurasia collision zone are the Calabrian and Hellenic arcs. In this paper geodynamic investigations along the West Hellenic arc are discussed. They are based on two epochs (1989 and 1993) of satellite geodetic measurements carried out using the US Global Positioning System (GPS). The results are presented in terms of relative displacements and strain rates. Within the time span of 4 years southwestern Greece has moved to the southwest relative to southeastern Italy by an average of 120 mm, increasing from 80 mm at Lefkada, in the center of the Ionian Islands, to 160 mm at the Peloponnesus. The maximum strain rate is 0.18 μstrain/a located in the vicinity of Lefkada, where anomalously high earthquake activity is observed. The data provide strong evidence for dextral strike-slip motion on the order of 25 mm/a along the Kephalonia Fault Zone (KFZ). The deformation field of the KFZ is interpreted as a transition zone between the kinematics of the Apulian platform and the West Hellenic fold and thrust belts.

  7. Seismic hazard assessment in central Ionian Islands area (Greece) based on stress release models (United States)

    Votsi, Irene; Tsaklidis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria


    The long-term probabilistic seismic hazard of central Ionian Islands (Greece) is studied through the application of stress release models. In order to identify statistically distinct regions, the study area is divided into two subareas, namely Kefalonia and Lefkada, on the basis of seismotectonic properties. Previous results evidenced the existence of stress transfer and interaction between the Kefalonia and Lefkada fault segments. For the consideration of stress transfer and interaction, the linked stress release model is applied. A new model is proposed, where the hazard rate function in terms of X(t) has the form of the Weibull distribution. The fitted models are evaluated through residual analysis and the best of them is selected through the Akaike information criterion. Based on AIC, the results demonstrate that the simple stress release model fits the Ionian data better than the non-homogeneous Poisson and the Weibull models. Finally, the thinning simulation method is applied in order to produce simulated data and proceed to forecasting.

  8. The Impact of an Extreme Storm Event on the Barrier Beach of the Lefkada Lagoon, NE Ionian Sea (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present investigation examines the characteristics of a high energy storm event, that took place on November 9-11, 2007 in the NE Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean, and its impact upon the barrier beach that separates the Lefkada lagoon from the open Ionian Sea. The storm event was caused by NW winds with speeds exceeding 20 m/s (40 knots, which have an annual frequency of occurrence less than 0.015%. This high energy event produced waves with >5 m significant offshore height and 9.5 s period; these waves developed on 10th November during the rapid rise of barometric pressure (~1.4 hPa/hr, which followed the barometric pressure drop from 1020.5 hPa at 06:00 (UTC of 9th November to 1001.7 hPa at 06:00 h (UTC of 10th November. Secondary breaking at the shoreline produced wave heights >1.5 m, associated with a surge of >0.4 m and a run-up capability of >2.4 m. The waves managed to overtop the barrier beach (elevations ~2.5 m, lowering the seaward side of the barrier beach by 10-30 cm and causing a coastline retreat of 0.9 to 2.2 m; these morphological changes correspond volumetrically to a sediment loss of approximately 8 m3/m of coastline length from the sub-aerial part of the beach. During the last three decades a significant change in the frequency of occurrence and direction (from S-SW-W to N-NW-NE of severe storms with wind speeds exceeding 40 knots has been recorded, affecting the sediment transport pattern and contributing to the erosion of the north beaches of Lefkada.

  9. Near-source high-rate GPS, strong motion and InSAR observations to image the 2015 Lefkada (Greece) Earthquake rupture history. (United States)

    Avallone, Antonio; Cirella, Antonella; Cheloni, Daniele; Tolomei, Cristiano; Theodoulidis, Nikos; Piatanesi, Alessio; Briole, Pierre; Ganas, Athanassios


    The 2015/11/17 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake ruptured a segment of the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF) where probably the penultimate major event was in 1948. Using near-source strong motion and high sampling rate GPS data and Sentinel-1A SAR images on two tracks, we performed the inversion for the geometry, slip distribution and rupture history of the causative fault with a three-step self-consistent procedure, in which every step provided input parameters for the next one. Our preferred model results in a ~70° ESE-dipping and ~13° N-striking fault plane, with a strike-slip mechanism (rake ~169°) in agreement with the CTF tectonic regime. This model shows a bilateral propagation spanning ~9 s with the activation of three main slip patches, characterized by rise time and peak slip velocity in the ranges 2.5-3.5 s and 1.4-2.4 m/s, respectively, corresponding to 1.2-1.8 m of slip which is mainly concentrated in the shallower ( 6) earthquakes to the northern and to the southern boundaries of the 2015 causative fault cannot be excluded.

  10. Sedimentological, geomorphological and geochronological studies on Holocene tsunamis in the Lefkada / Preveza area (NW Greece) and their implications for coastal evolution


    May, Simon Matthias


    Research on palaeo-tsunami and palaeo-extreme wave events aims to provide new data about former events and is of remarkable importance in the eastern Mediterranean. In general, coastal geomorphology and fine-grained near-coast geological archives store information about coastal changes over medium to long timescales, as well as short, episodic processes such as palaeo-tsunami events. In the eastern Mediterranean and particularly for the Ionian Sea and the Lefkada / Preveza coastal zone (NW Gr...

  11. The tsunami-like sea level disturbance in Crotone harbor, Italy, after the Mw6.5 strike-slip earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Isl., Ionian Sea, Greece (United States)

    Novikova, Tatyana; Annunziato, Alessandro; Charalampakis, Marinos; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Tonini, Roberto; Gerardinger, Andrea; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.


    On 17 November 2015 an Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two human victims, minor damage and several ground failures including coastal landslides. Fault plane solutions released by CMT/Harvard, NOA and other institutes have indicated that the faulting style was strike-slip right-lateral, which is quite typical for the area, as for example, the Mw6.3 event that occurred on August 14, 2003, in exactly the same fault zone. In spite of the very low tsunami potential commonly associated to this faulting mechanism, a tsunami-like sea level change was recorded after the earthquake by one tide-gauge in the Crotone harbor, Italy. Preliminary tsunami numerical simulations were performed to reproduce the observed signal. The spectral analysis of the synthetic mareograms close to the entrance of the harbor shows the presence of some peaks that could justify the relation between the natural port resonance and the observed wave amplification. Of particular interest is the coupling between the tsunami energy and the natural modes of basin oscillation enhancing tsunami wave amplitude in harbors through resonance, as shown in some historical events in the Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  12. GPS-derived estimates of crustal deformation in the central and north Ionian Sea, Greece: 3-yr results from NOANET continuous network data (United States)

    Ganas, A.; Marinou, A.; Anastasiou, D.; Paradissis, D.; Papazissi, K.; Tzavaras, P.; Drakatos, G.


    Ionian Sea (western Greece) is a plate-boundary region of high seismicity and complex tectonics, dominated by frequent earthquake activity along the right-lateral Cephalonia transform fault. We present an analysis of 30-s GPS data from five (5) continuous stations of NOANET (NOA permanent GPS network) spanning the period 2007-2010. Our results show N-S crustal shortening onshore Lefkada island of the order of 2-3 mm/yr which is probably related to increased locking on the offshore Lefkada fault. We also calculated a large difference (1:3) in the principal strain rate amplitude between extension and shortening for the central Ionian Sea.

  13. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 1. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece), after the 1613 BC volcanic eruption: A GIS-based quantitative methodology. Dimitrios Oikonomidis Konstantinos Albanakis Spyridon Pavlides Michael Fytikas. Volume 125 Issue 1 ...

  14. Static stress transfer within the Cephalonia Transfer Fault Zone (CTFZ) during the 2014 seismic sequence in Cephalonia and the 2015 earthquake in Lefkada (United States)

    Sboras, Sotiris; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Pavlides, Spyros; Karastathis, Vassilis; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos


    The 2014 seismic sequence in Cephalonia and the following 2015 earthquake in Lefkada Islands, Greece, showed that the Cephalonia Transfer Fault Zone (CTFZ), which runs along the western coasts of both islands, comprises a wide fault zone of parallel to sub-parallel fault segments. The January-February 2014 sequence of Cephalonia consisted of three moderate to strong events. According to published focal mechanisms, the first strongest shock (January 26, Mw 6.1) was produced by a W-dipping, oblique (right-lateral reverse) fault, the second (January 26, Mw 5.3) by a ENE-dipping, pure reverse fault and the third by a ESE-dipping, almost pure right-lateral strike slip fault. The November 17 2015 (Mw 6.4) Lefkada earthquake was produced by a WNW-dipping, roughly vertical, almost pure right-lateral strike-slip fault. None of the shocks above produced any direct coseismic ground rupture, while published relocated hypocentral locations for the Cephalonia sequence revealed various depths indicating a complex fault pattern. Based on published seismological, geological and satellite data (i.e. InSAR), the respective seismic sources were modelled in order to calculate the static stress changes i) during the Cephalonia and Lefkada sequences, and ii) after the sequences for the surrounding faults from the Greek Database of Seismogenic Sources (GreDaSS). Results showed that the February 3 2014 Cephalonia fault was variously affected by the rupture of the two January 26 faults. Stress change distribution on the fault plane showed that both stress drop and rise occurred. The November 17 2015 Lefkada fault was slightly loaded after the rupture of the whole Cephalonia fault system due to the great distance. The post-sequence stress changes variously affect the surrounding faults: the southern segment of the CTFZ is relieved from stresses, while the central ones show a mixed situation. The large northern segment, offshore from Lefkada Island, is mainly under stress drop. Stress drop is

  15. Surface deformation due to the M6.5 Lefkada earthquake (17 November 2015) exploiting SENTINEL-1 and GNSS observations. Implications for seismic hazard. (United States)

    Elias, Panagiotis; Ganas, Athanassios; Briole, Pierre; Parcharidis, Isaak; Avallone, Antonio; Roukounakis, Nikos; Argyrakis, Panagiotis; Roger, Marine; Cheloni, Daniele; Tolomei, Cristiano; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Moraitini, Evelyn; Papanikolaou, Marios; Papastergios, Asterios


    The 17 November 2015 M=6.5 Lefkada earthquake in the Ionian sea, Greece, produced tens of centimetres of co-seismic motion in both Lefkada and Cephalonia islands. We present the full picture of the co-seismic displacements as mapped by space geodetic techniques, Sentinel 1A INSAR and permanent GNSS stations. We use this data together with the constraints from seismology to invert for fault localisation , size and slip distribution. We observed post-seismic displacements throughout most of southern Lefkada and northern Cephalonia islands recorded at the two NOA GNSS stations of PONT and SPAN and four additional permanent and six campaign GNSS stations established after the earthquake. Those displacements range from a few centimetres near the epicentre to a few millimetres far from the fault. We model the post-seismic displacements as due to uniform slip on the same fault plane that ruptured during the main event. The model shows a right-lateral afterslip along the fault but with slightly larger extension in comparison to the co-seismic slip, less shallow and deeper. This transient strain followed the main event during a short period of 80 days as modelled with an exponential law. Currently, the post-seismic deformation is being investigated by exploiting multi-temporal Sentinel 1A/B InSAR processed among others with ESA's Geohazards Exploitation Platform and SNAP software. The first challenging issue is the coherence which is not high in the area due to the vegetation cover. The second one is the correction of the tropospheric component. We estimate it using the tropospheric delay at the permanent GNSS stations and by using an meteorological model based on the WRF refined at the spatial resolution of 1 km. The earthquakes occurred in the Central Ionian area since 1983, studied both by seismology and space geodesy imply a seismic gap offshore NW Cephalonia that needs to be monitored.

  16. Greece. (United States)


    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  17. Using a UAV for collecting information about a deep-seated landslide in the island of Lefkada following the 17 November 2015 strike-slip earthquake (M=6.5) (United States)

    Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Ganas, Athanassios; Papathanassiou, George


    Documentation of landslides is a very critical issue because effective protection and mitigation measures can be designed only if they are based on the accuracy of the provided information. Such a documentation aims at a detailed description of the basic geomorphological features e.g. edge, traces, scarp etc. while variables such as the landslide area and the volume of the area (that moved) are also measured. However, it is well known that the mapping of these features is not always feasible due to several adverse factors e.g. vertical slopes, high risk. In order to overcome this issue, remote sensing techniques were applied during the last decades. In particular, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and photogrammetric surveys are used for geomorphic mapping in order to quantify landslide processes. The latter one, photogrammetric survey, is frequently conducted by use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), such as multicopters that are flexible in operating conditions and can be equipped with webcams, digital cameras and other sensors. In addition, UAV is considered as a low-cost imaging technique that offers a very high spatial-temporal resolution and flexibility in data acquisition programming. The goal of this study is to provide quantitative data regarding a deep-seated landslide triggered by the 17 November 2015, Greece earthquake (M=6.5; Ganas et al., 2016) in a coastal area of Lefkada, that was not accessible by foot and accordingly, a UAV was used in order to collect the essential information. Ganas, A., et al., Tectonophysics,

  18. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece (United States)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.


    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  19. The November 17, 2015 Lefkada offshore (non-?)tsunamigenic earthquake: preliminary considerations and implications for tsunami hazard and warning in the Ionian Sea (United States)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Zaniboni, Filippo


    A Mw = 6.5 earthquake occurred on November 17, 2015 just offshore the western coast of the Ionian island of Lefkada (western Greece). The earthquake caused two fatalities and severe damage, especially in the island of Lefkada. Several landslides were set in motion by the earthquake, some of which occurred along the coastal cliffs. The earthquake was clearly felt also along the eastern coasts of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily (Italy). The computed focal mechanisms indicate that the rupture occurred along a dextral strike-slip, sub-vertical fault, compatible with the well-known transcurrent tectonics of the Lefkada-Cephalonia area. At the time of the drafting of this abstract no heterogeneous slip distribution has been proposed. No clear evidence of tsunami effects is available, with the only exception of the signal recorded by the tide gauge in Crotone (eastern Calabria, Italy), where a clear disturbance (still to be fully characterised and explained) emerges from the background at approximately 1 hour after the earthquake origin time. From the tsunami research point of view, the November 17 Lefkada earthquake poses at least two problems, which we try to address in this paper. The first consists in studying the tsunami generation based on the available seismic information and on the tectonic setting of the area. We present results of numerical simulations of the tsunami generation and propagation aimed at casting light on the reasons why the generated tsunami was so weak (or even absent). Starting from the official fault parameters provided by the seismic agencies, we vary a number of them, there including the length and width calculated on the basis of different regression formulas, and the depth. For each configuration we perform tsunami simulations by means of the in-house finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD. In parallel, we analyse the Crotone tide-gauge record in order to understand whether the observed "anomalous" signal can be attributed to a tsunami or not. In the

  20. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Geology, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece. ∗Corresponding author. e-mail: A catastrophic volcanic explosion took ... (Kirk 1977; Hequette and Barnes 1990; Jibson et al. 1994; Amin and Davidson-Arnott 1997; Sallenger et al. 2002; Gulyaev and Buckeridge ...

  1. Isolation of Mycobacterium malmoense in the island of Crete, Greece. (United States)

    Kourbeti, I S; Neonakis, I K; Gitti, Z; Spandidos, D A


    Mycobacterium malmoense was isolated from a broncho-alveolar lavage sample of a 73-year-old cancer (small cell lung carcinoma) patient in Crete, representing the first reported case of this pathogen in Greece. The isolate was considered to be a colonizer and the patient did not receive any antimycobacterial treatment while he received chemotherapy to which he responded favourably. No signs of pulmonary infection were noted during the course of his disease. This case provides evidence of the ubiquitous nature of this mycobacterial species, believed until recently to favour cooler climates. We, therefore, propose that the index of suspicion for this pathogen should be raised particularly in patients with underlying immunodeficiency, cancer and chronic lung disease, irrespective of the geographic location.

  2. Isolation of Mycobacterium malmoense in the island of Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourbeti I


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was isolated from a broncho-alveolar lavage sample of a 73-year-old cancer (small cell lung carcinoma patient in Crete, representing the first reported case of this pathogen in Greece. The isolate was considered to be a colonizer and the patient did not receive any antimycobacterial treatment while he received chemotherapy to which he responded favourably. No signs of pulmonary infection were noted during the course of his disease. This case provides evidence of the ubiquitous nature of this mycobacterial species, believed until recently to favour cooler climates. We, therefore, propose that the index of suspicion for this pathogen should be raised particularly in patients with underlying immunodeficiency, cancer and chronic lung disease, irrespective of the geographic location.

  3. Geology and geothermics of the Island of Milos (Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fytikas, M.; Marinelli, G.


    Geothermal research which has been conducted on the island of Milos is reviewed and the island's geology is discussed in terms of the geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean. The rock formations which outcrop at Milos are described in detail, including the crystalline basement, Neogene transgressive conglomerates and limestones, and the Quaternary volcanics and volcano-sedimentary series. The recent disjunctive tectonics and volcano-tectonics affecting Milos and the neighboring islands are reviewed. Thermal manifestations and their attendant mineralizations and hydrothermal alterations are described. The geophysical methods utilized in exploration and for the siting of production wells are described. Exploration work involved the drilling of 55 wells for thermometric determinations and a full scale electrical survey. Preliminary data from two production wells with bottom-hole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C are reported. Fifty-four references are provided.

  4. UAV-enabled reconnaissance and trajectory modeling of a co-seismic rockfall in Lefkada


    Saroglou, Charalampos; Asteriou, Pavlos; Zekkos, Dimitris; Tsiambaos, George; Clark, Marin; Manousakis, John


    The paper presents the field evidence and the kinematical study of the motion of a rock block mobilised by an earthquake-induced rockfall in Ponti area in the island of Lefkada during a Mw 6.5 earthquake on 17th November 2015. A detailed field survey was deployed using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with an ultra-high definition (UHD) camera, which produced a high-resolution orthophoto and a Digital Surface Model (DSM) of the terrain. The sequence of impact marks from the rock trajectory on...

  5. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in two Ionian Islands and northern Greece. (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Anagnostou, Vassiliki; Ivovic, Vladimir; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Rogozi, Elton; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Papa, Anna


    A field study on the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out during summer months of 2009 and 2010 in eight sites in two Ionian islands and in northern Greece. A total of 490 sandflies (74.5% females) were collected. Six species of the Phlebotomus genus and two of the Sergentomyia genus were identified. The species with the widest distribution in the islands were Phlebotomus neglectus (32.8%), Phlebotomus similis (30.3%), Phlebotomus tobbi (16.7%), and P. perfiliewi (15.9%), whereas P. simici (50%), P. neglectus (24.5%), and P. tobbi (9.6%) predominated in the mainland. As most of these species are proven or suspected vectors of human and animal pathogens, prevention measures have to be taken in these areas during the summer months when sandflies are active.

  6. Tamarix minoa (Tamaricaceae), a new species from the island of Crete (Greece) based on morphological and plastid molecular sequence data (United States)

    Tamarix minoa is described from material collected on the S Aegean island of Crete (Kriti), Greece. A morphological comparison with the species considered to be closest, T. africana and T. hampeana, is provided. An original illustration showing the main morphological characters of the new species is...

  7. PROFILE: Tourism Contribution to Agro-Ecosystems Conservation: The Case of Lesbos Island, Greece. (United States)

    Loumou; Giourga; Dimitrakopoulos; Koukoulas


    / The modernization of agriculture and the development of other economic sectors have prompted the abandonment of cultivated areas, which are marginally productive. Specifically, olive groves in Greece are transformed into pastures due to their location in inaccessible mountainous regions where breeding and raising of sheep and goats are the main economic activities. Overgrazing degrades the environment, exhausts natural resources, and prevents natural regeneration. The Greek islands have limited possibilities of development, except for their coastal areas where the growth of tourism is possible.The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of tourism activities on olive tree cultivation and the human population of the island of Lesbos. The presence or absence of tourism is related with the maintenance or abandonment of olive tree cultivation and population changes for each community. A spatial segregation of the island is evident, related to tourist development, olive tree cultivation, and population change. The results of the study demonstrate that in communities where tourism plays an important role olive tree cultivation is preserved and the population is stable. The preservation of the agro-ecosystem is assured while the olive groves remain productive. Simultaneously, the landscape, which provides specific attractions for tourism, is not altered.

  8. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia. (United States)

    Zografidis, Aris


    Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this study is a new variety of subsp. delphicum from Mt Ochi of southern Evvia.

  9. Daytime urban heat islands from Landsat ETM+ and Corine land cover data: An application to major cities in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathopoulou, Marina; Cartalis, Constantinos [Remote Sensing and Image Processing Laboratory, Division of Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Building PHYS-5, University Campus, 157 84 Athens (Greece)


    Satellite images in the thermal infrared can be used for assessing the thermal urban environment as well as for defining heat islands in urban areas. In this study, the thermal environment of major cities in Greece (Athens, Thessaloniki, Patra, Volos and Heraklion) is examined using satellite images provided by the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor on board Landsat 7 satellite corresponding to the daytime and warm period when the surface urban heat island (SUHI) phenomenon is best observed. The spatial structure of the thermal urban environment is analyzed in each case study and the ''hottest'' surfaces within the urban settings are identified and related to the urban surface characteristics and land use. For the needs of the study, the Corine land cover (CLC) database for Greece is also used, in an effort to define more effectively the link between surface emissivities, land surface temperatures and urban surface characteristics. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A new genus of Foraminifera (Miliolata, Cornuspiroidea, Neodiscidae is erected from the late Guadalupian (Capitanian = Midian to Lopingian sedimentary succession of the island of Hydra (Greece. It represents an important phylogenetic form, probably at the origin of several genera (or subfamilies of the authors that became relatively widespread during the Lopingian (Late Permian. Glomomidiella n. gen. is characterized by an entirely glomospiral coiling and rudimentary pseudoseptation. 

  11. Application of a linked stress release model in Corinth Gulf and Central Ionian Islands (Greece) (United States)

    Mangira, Ourania; Vasiliadis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria


    Spatio-temporal stress changes and interactions between adjacent fault segments consist of the most important component in seismic hazard assessment, as they can alter the occurrence probability of strong earthquake onto these segments. The investigation of the interactions between adjacent areas by means of the linked stress release model is attempted for moderate earthquakes ( M ≥ 5.2) in the Corinth Gulf and the Central Ionian Islands (Greece). The study areas were divided in two subareas, based on seismotectonic criteria. The seismicity of each subarea is investigated by means of a stochastic point process and its behavior is determined by the conditional intensity function, which usually gets an exponential form. A conditional intensity function of Weibull form is used for identifying the most appropriate among the models (simple, independent and linked stress release model) for the interpretation of the earthquake generation process. The appropriateness of the models was decided after evaluation via the Akaike information criterion. Despite the fact that the curves of the conditional intensity functions exhibit similar behavior, the use of the exponential-type conditional intensity function seems to fit better the data.

  12. Bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece. (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Yanni, Amalia E; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Aloupi, Maria


    Crude composition, fatty acids, sterols, total phenolic content (TPC), individual polyphenols and terpenic acids were determined in five wild edible mushrooms species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Russula delica, Suillus bellinii) from Lesvos Island, Greece. In addition, the DPPH scavenging capacity, the ferric ion reducing power (FRAP) and the ferrous ion chelating activity of mushroom methanolic extracts were assessed. Among sterols, ergosterol predominated at concentrations 9.2-18.0mg/100g fw. Total phenolic content of mushroom extracts ranged from 6.0 to 20.8mg GAE/100g fw. Up to 19 simple polyphenols were determined in mushrooms extracts, the more abundant being p-OH-benzoic acid, p-OH-phenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chrysin. In addition, the triterpenic acids oleanolic and ursolic were detected for the first time in mushrooms. All species exerted antioxidant activity and ferrous ion chelating capacity. Principal component analysis revealed good correlations between TPC, DPPH and FRAP but not with metal chelating activity. It seems that mushrooms polyphenols exert antiradical and reducing activities, but they are not strong metal chelators, the observed chelating ability being probably due to other classes of compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant activity of wild Greek edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paleoenvironmental and sclerochronological reconstruction of Crassostrea gryphoides Miocene biostromes from Crete island (Greece) (United States)

    Koskeridou, E.; Agiadi, K.


    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) is a keystone species mainly along the African Atlantic coasts. It forms biostromes on muddy coasts and typically associated with river mouths in the intertidal zone in depths of 0.60 up to 1 m1. Similarly, many biostrome structures of the fossilized Crassostrea gryphoides are found within Cenozoic deposits of Greece2. Since Crassostrea gasar is the phyllogenetically corresponding species of Crassostrea gryphoides, it is investigated whether the fossil biostromes formed under environmental conditions similar to those favored by modern Crassostrea gasar and if growth rate and longevity are comparable. A biostrome from the Tortonian of Heraklion district, Crete island (southern Greece) was studied to investigate the paleoenvironmental conditions and the life history of these oysters. The shells are big, ranging up to 40 cm in length, thick and positioned mainly horizontally. The biostrome is approximately 2 m in thickness and a few meters in length. Individual oysters, associated fauna and lithologic samples were collected. Paleoenvironmental interpretation was based on the analysis of the oyster taphonomy, the associated fauna and the sclerochronology/stable isotopic geochemistry of the oyster shells. The biostrome is observed in sandy marl which laterally contains Veneridae, Melongena, Terebralia bidentata and oligospecific microfossils, mainly Ammonia beccarii and Miliolids. Borings by many ichnotaxa occur on the external and internal surface of the oyster shells during the pre and /or post-mortem. Using a micromill, successive samples were taken along the hinge/ligament region of an oyster for isotopic analyses. The δ18O values ranged from -2.9 to 0.1. The wide range of values supports the interpretation of changing environmental conditions. The δ13C values ranged from -2.6 to -0.1. A correlation between δ18O and δ13C was observed. The profiles exhibit cyclicity with respect to isotopic and Sr/Ca ratios

  14. Present and future responses of growing degree days for Crete Island in Greece (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas


    Climate affects practically all the physiological processes that determine plant life (IPCC, 2014). A major challenge and objective of the agricultural science is to predict the occurrences of specific physical or biological events. For this reason, flower phenology has been widely used to study the flowering in plant species of economic interest, and in this concept, temperature and heat units have been widely accepted as the most important factors affecting processes leading to flowering. The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). Determination of GDD is useful for achieving a better understanding of the flowering season development in several plant species, and for forecasting when flowering will occur (Paparrizos and Matzarakis, 2017). Temperature and GDD represent two important spatially-dynamic climatic variables, as they both play vital roles in influencing forest development by directly affecting plant functions such as evapotranspiration, photosynthesis and plant transpiration. Understanding the spatial distribution of GDD is crucial to the practice of sustainable agricultural and forest management, as GDD relates to the integration of growth and provides precise point estimates (Hasan et al., 2007; Matzarakis et al., 2007). The aim of the current study was to estimate and map through downscaling spatial interpolation and multi-linear regression techniques, the future variation of GDD for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, under the A1B and B1 IPCC emission scenarios in relation with the reference periods for Crete Island in Greece. Future temperature data were obtained, validated and analysed from the ENSEMBLES European project. A combination of dynamical and statistical approach was conducted in order to downscale and perform the spatial interpolation of GDD through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that in the future, GDD will be increased and the existing

  15. Postfire, natural regeneration of Pinus brutia forests in Thasos island, Greece (United States)

    Spanos, Ioannis A.; Daskalakou, Evangelia N.; Thanos, Costas A.


    The natural, postfire regeneration of Pinus brutia forests has been studied in two 40-60-year-old forests of Thasos island, North Aegean sea, Greece, burned in the summers of 1985 and 1989. Within the latter burned area (5 700 ha), forty experimental sites of various aspects and site index values were established and successively monitored for 5 years, at 6-month intervals. Pine seedling emergence took place late in spring (due to a long drought in that particular year) but exclusively during the first postfire year. By the end of the recruitment period (May 1990), mean pine seedling density was considerably high (2-6 seedlings.m -2) while a significant drop in the first summer was observed. Thereafter, a relatively smooth decline was obtained and the density was almost stabilized to about 0.6-2 seedlings.m -2 after 5 years: the kinetics of survival was found to follow a rectangular hyperbola. Significant differences in seedling density values were detected among site groups of varying aspect or site index: north-facing and index I sites showed the highest density values while south-facing and index V ones the lowest. Similarly, height kinetics showed a significant divergence among site groups; again, the north-facing and the index I sites were the fastest growing. Annual height growth showed a linear regression kinetics throughout the 5- (and conceivably 9-) year-long postfire period of study, with a yearly increment of 17 cm. Starting at an age of 4-6 years, an increasing fraction of the sapling population became reproductive so that after 9 years a considerable portion (5-15 %) had already produced cones with fully germinable seeds.

  16. The seismic sequence of January-February 2014 at Cephalonia Island (Greece): constraints from SAR interferometry and GPS (United States)

    Briole, P.; Elias, P.; Parcharidis, I.; Bignami, C.; Benekos, G.; Samsonov, S.; Kyriakopoulos, C.; Stramondo, S.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Drakatou, M. L.; Drakatos, G.


    We analysed the ground deformation produced by the Mw = 6.1 2014 January 26 and Mw = 6.0 2014 February 3 Cephalonia earthquakes, western Greece. Campaign GPS measurements and RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry provide constraints on the overall deformation produced by the sequence. TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed SAR interferometry provide constraints on the second earthquake separately. Two permanent GPS stations captured the two coseismic offsets and show no pre- or post-seismic transients. Most of the deformation is concentrated in the Paliki peninsula which is consistent with the location of the seismicity and the damages. Both GPS and SAR interferometry indicate areas with large deformation gradients probably due to shallow effects. Given the limitations on the data and on the knowledge of the structure and rheology of the crust, we used a simple elastic model to fit the ground displacements. Although such model cannot fit all the detail of the deformation, it is expected to provide a robust estimate of the overall geometry and slip of the fault. The good data coverage in azimuth and distance contributes to the robustness of the model. The entire sequence is modelled with a strike slip fault dipping 70° east and cutting most of the brittle crust beneath Paliki, with an upper edge located at 2.5 km depth and a deeper edge at 8.5 km. This fault is oriented N14° which corresponds to the azimuth of the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF). The fit to the data is significantly improved by adding a secondary shallow strike-slip fault with low dip angle (30°) with a component of reverse faulting on that shallow fault. The modelling of the February 3 event indicates that the faulting is shallow in the north of Paliki, with a centroid depth of ˜3.2 km. The fit is improved when a single planar fault is replaced by a bent fault dipping ˜30° in the uppermost 2 km and ˜70° below. The fault of the January 26 earthquake, inferred from the difference

  17. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos T Tsaousis


    Conclusions: The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.

  18. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n. from the island of Rhodes (Greece, revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Davolos


    Full Text Available A new Cryptorchestia species, Cryptorchestia ruffoi Latella & Vonk, sp. n. from the island of Rhodes in south-eastern Greece, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes indicated that this species is related to C. cavimana (Cyprus and C. garbinii (Mediterranean regions, with a recent northward expansion. Results supported a genetic separation between the Cryptorchestia species of the east Mediterranean regions and those of the northeast Atlantic volcanic islands examined in this study (C. canariensis, C. gomeri, C. guancha, and C. stocki from the Canary islands, C. monticola from Madeira, and C. chevreuxi from the Azores. The Mediterranean and Atlantic Cryptorchestia species appear to be also morphologically distinct. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n., C. cavimana, C. garbinii, and C. kosswigi (Turkish coast clearly have a small lobe on the male gnathopod 1 merus. This character was the main diagnostic difference between Cryptorchestia (sensu Lowry, 2013 and Orchestia. However, among the six northeast Atlantic island Cryptorchestia species only C. stocki has a small lobe on the merus of gnathopod 1. Reduction or loss of the lobe in the Atlantic Island species cannot be ruled out; however, molecular phylogenetic analysis leads us to presume that this lobe independently evolved between the east Mediterranean Cryptorchestia species and C. stocki from Gran Canaria.

  19. Chemolithoautotrophy in a shallow-sea hydrothermal system, Milos Island, Greece (United States)

    Lu, G. S.; LaRowe, D.; Gilhooly, W., III; Druschel, G. K.; Fike, D. A.; Amend, J.


    In recent decades, numerous (hyper)thermophilic microorganisms have been isolated from hydrothermal venting systems. Although they have been shown to have the capabilities to catalyze a wide variety of reactions to gain energy, few pure cultures have been isolated from these environments. In order to more fully understand the catabolic potential of organisms living in and near hydrothermal vents, we have calculated the Gibbs energies (ΔGr) of 730 redox reactions that could be supplying energy to organisms in the shallow-sea hydrothermal sediments of Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece. This analysis required in-depth geochemical data on the pore fluids and minerals in these sediments near the vent site at several depths. The geochemical profiles of Saganaki vent show steep gradients in temperature, pH, and redox-sensitive compounds resulting from the mixing of hot ( 75oC), acidic ( pH 4), chemically reduced venting fluid with colder, slightly basic and oxidized seawater. We determined values of ΔGr for 47 sediment porewater samples along a 20cm x 2m transect for metabolic reactions involving 23 inorganic H-, O-, C-, N-, S-, Fe-, Mn-, and As- bearing compounds. 379 of the reactions considered were exergonic at one or more sampling locations. The most exergonic reactions were anaerobic CO oxidation with NO2- (136 - 162 kJ/mol e-), followed by the O2/CO, NO3-/CO, and NO2-/ H2S redox pairs. ΔGr values exhibit significant variation among sites as temperature, pH and chemical concentration vary, especially concentrations of Fe2+, Mn2+, and H2S. A great diversity of energy sources are available for microbial populations to exploit: in hotter sediments, sulfide oxidation coupled to nitrite reduction yields large amounts of energy per kg of sediment, whereas aerobic S0 oxidation is more energy-yielding in cooler areas. Our results show that at Saganaki there is a substantial amount of energy available from to microorganisms from sulfur-redox reactions. 16S rRNA pyrotag

  20. Kinematics of low angle normal fault on Mykonos island (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Lecomte, E.; Jolivet, L.; Lacombe, O.; Denele, Y.; Labrousse, L.; Le Pourhiet, L.


    The Cyclades (Greece) have recorded an Oligo-Miocene post-orogenic stage of extension that resulted in the formation of several metamorphic core complexes and associate detachments. Among them, the eastern part of Mykonos island shows a low-angle normal fault dipping 12° NE which juxtaposes a Miocene sedimentary unit in the hanging-wall over Alpine greenschist-facies metabasites (Cycladic Upper Unit) and a 10-12 Ma granite. New field observations allow a better understanding of the structural evolution of these units related to detachment kinematics. In the footwall of the detachment, the granite intrudes the metabasic Cycladic Upper Unit which is locally preserved. The contact between these units is a ductile shear band dipping 15° NE. NE-trending stretching lineations are widespread in the granite, carried by a shallow-dipping mylonitic foliation. A shearing gradient toward the detachment is deduced from the increase of the density of mylonitic and ultramylonitic shear bands. Top-to-the-NE kinematic indicators are systematically observed and the sheared contact is folded by asymmetric folds consistent with NE-ward displacement of the hanging-wall. The lower part of the Cycladic Upper Unit contains granitic sills and is cut by steep and shallow-dipping normal faults, soling into the contact between granite and metabasites. Below the detachment, both the upper parts of the Cycladic Upper Unit and the granite display a cataclastic deformation and a densification of veins near the detachment. Metabasites are overlain by a 50-centimeters thick orange-coloured gouge, containing the detachment itself (plane of maximal shearing) and a foliated wine gouge. When the detachment plane crops out, it shows a 10-meters scale corrugation parallel to the slip direction. The hanging-wall unit consists of shallow-dipping or horizontal sandstones and conglomerates evolving into a 10-meter thick breccia close to the detachment. These formations are cut by regularly-spaced NE

  1. New constraints on the rapid crustal motion of the Aegean region: recent results inferred from GPS measurements (1993-1998) across the West Hellenic Arc, Greece (United States)

    Cocard, M.; Kahle, H.-G.; Peter, Y.; Geiger, A.; Veis, G.; Felekis, S.; Paradissis, D.; Billiris, H.


    In this paper we present the most recent observations of crustal motion across the entire West Hellenic Arc (WHA). These are based on repeated GPS measurements carried out in the period from 1993 to 1998. The results are presented in terms of trajectories and rates, relative to Eurasia. Within these five years southwestern Greece has moved to the southwest by an average rate of 30 mm/a, increasing from 10 mm/a at the island of Lefkada, in the center of the Ionian islands, to nearly 40 mm/a along the southwest part of the Peloponnesus and to 35 mm/a on the islands of Crete and Gavdhos. The data provide strong evidence that distributed shear strain starts at the Kephalonia Fault Zone (KFZ), were an anomalously high earthquake activity is also observed. A striking interruption of the motion is seen at the island of Strofades, at the southwest leading edge of the WHA, where a south-oriented displacement of 12 cm was detected, coincident with the M = 6.4 Strofades earthquake of Nov. 18, 1997.

  2. Mode of Strong Earthquake Recurrence In Central Ionian Islands (greece). Possible Triggering Due To Coulomb Stress Changes Generated By The Occurrence of Previous Strong Shocks (United States)

    Papadimitriou, E.

    The spatial-temporal distribution of shallow strong (M>6.3) earthquakes occurring in the area of central Ionian Islands is analyzed. These shocks generated on two adja- cent fault segments with different strike, but both associated with strike-slip faulting, constituting the boundary between continental collision to the north and oceanic sub- duction to the south. Seismic activity is confined in short time intervals alternating by much longer relatively quiescent periods. Each active period consists of a relatively large event or series (two to four) of events occurring closely both in space and time. This alteration was observed to happen four times since 1867, from when complete data exist for the study area. Since the phenomenon is not strictly periodic and during each active period multiple events occurred, it is attempted to interpret the seismic behavior on the basis of possible triggering. It is then investigated how changes in Coulomb Failure Function (DCFF) associated with one or more earthquakes may trig- ger subsequent events. Both the coseismic slip due to the generation of the strong earthquakes and stress build up associated with the two major fault segments were taken into account for the DCFF calculation. Earthquakes can be modeled as static dislocations in elastic half-space, and the stress pattern has been inverted according to the geometry and slip of each of the faults that ruptured in the chain of events. These calculations show that 13 out of 14 earthquakes with M>6.3 were preceded by a static stress change that encouraged failure. The magnitude of the stress increases transferred from one earthquake to another ranged from 0.01 MPa (0.1 bar) to over 0.1 MPa (1 bar). Maps of current DCFF provide additional information to long-term earthquake prediction. Areas of positive DCFF have been identified at two sites in Ke- falonia and Lefkada faults, respectively, where the next strong events are expected to occur.

  3. Sedimentation and paleoecology of Pliocene lagoonal-shallow marine deposits on the island of Rhodes (Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, J.A.


    A detailed analysis of the depositional and paleontological characteristics of a section of the Pliocene Kritika Formation on the island of Rhodos is presented. The environmental significance of sedimentary structures, the paleoecology of benthonic Foraminifera, and the sequentional

  4. Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of Iraklia island, Cyclades, Greece: An annotated and illustrated catalogue


    Alexiou, Sotiris; Gavalas, Giannis; Papapavlou, Kelly


    A checklist of the Orthoptera of Iraklia Island is presented, with 20 species belonging in 19 genera and seven families collected during 2008–2016. The majority of the records are new to Iraklia. One species, Arachnocephalus vestitus Costa, 1855, is a new record for the Cyclades. The existence of Mogoplistes brunneus Serville, 1839 is confirmed in the Aegean archipelago. The range of the endemic Poecilimon paros Heller & Reinhold, 1992 is extended and now includes four islands in the Aegean S...

  5. Isotopic age relations within the polymetamorphic complex of the island of Naxos (Cyclades, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriessen, P.A.M.


    A general introduction outlining the goelogical setting, previous work, experimental procedures, analytical errors and constants is given. The results of K-Ar and Rb-Sr isotope dating experiments on the minerals and rocks of different areas are presented. Four phases of metamorphism can be recognised on the island. (C.F.)

  6. Exergy analysis for a proposed binary geothermal power plant in Nisyros Island, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, Christopher; Polyzakis, A.; Xydis, George


    and a measure of the quality of the different forms of energy in relation to given environmental conditions. In this paper, data from an experimental geothermal drill in the Greek Island of Nisyros, located in the south of the Aegean Sea, have been used in order to estimate the maximum available work...... resulted supporting technical feasibility of the proposed geothermal plant....

  7. Seasonal and spatial variation of arsenic in groundwater in a rhyolithic volcanic area of Lesvos Island, Greece. (United States)

    Zkeri, Eirini; Aloupi, Maria; Gaganis, Petros


    A survey conducted in water wells located in the rhyolithic volcanic area of Mandamados, Lesvos Island, Greece, indicated that significant seasonal variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater exists mainly in wells near the coastal zone. However, there were differences among those coastal wells with regard to the processes and factors responsible for the observed seasonal variability of the element, although they are all located in a small homogeneous area. These processes and factors include (a) a higher rate of silicate weathering and ion exchange during the dry period followed by the dilution by the recharge water during the wet period, (b) enhanced desorption promoted by higher pH in summer and subsequent dilution of As by rainwater infiltration during the wet period, and (c) reductive dissolution of Mn during the wet period and by desorption under high pH values during the dry period. On the other hand, in wells located in higher-relief regions, the concentration of As in groundwater followed a fairly constant pattern throughout the year, which is probably related to the faster flow of groundwater in this part of the area due to a higher hydraulic gradient. In general, seasonal variation of As in groundwater in the study area was found to be related to geology, recharge rate, topography-distance from coast, and well depth.

  8. Tourism development and impacts: lessons from the Island of Rhodes, Greece


    Pappas, Nikolaos; Tsartas, Paris


    During the post Second World War period, the island of Rhodes experienced significant changes at several levels of its economy, society, and environment, associated directly or indirectly with rapid tourism development. The tourism impacts are profound on both locals and visitors. The purpose of this paper is to examine the key informants’ perceptions in Rhodes toward tourism impacts. Moreover it correlates the respondents’ perceptions with the previous studies’ outcomes in the region. Finall...

  9. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of the Mediterranean Basin: A Case Study of the Abandonment of Cultivation Terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece (United States)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos


    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island’s unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  10. Unravelling the Formation and Exhumation of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and Basement in the Southern Aegean, Sikinos Island, Greece (United States)

    Poulaki, E. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Flansburg, M. E.; Soukis, K. I.


    The Cycladic Islands of Greece expose an assemblage of HP/LT metamorphic rocks that record both processes related to subduction and backarc metamorphic core complex formation in the wake of the Hellenic subduction zone retreat. Sikinos Island is located in the southern Cyclades and exposes both the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) - greenschist-facies marbles and schists with preserved blueschist-facies - and the tectonically underlying Cycladic Basement(CB) - felsic plutonic rocks and metasedimentary country rocks known as the Carapace. Both units experienced Eocene subduction under eclogite/blueschist facies conditions and Miocene large-magnitude back-arc extension under greenschist facies conditions. The contact between the two units has been described as an extensional shear zone or a subduction-related thrust that was reactivated as an extensional top-to-the-N detachment. This study presents new (1) zircon U-Pb data to determine detrital provenance and maximum depositional ages (MDAs) of the CBU intervals on Sikinos, constrain protolith ages for the CB and Carapace, and quantify the timing of HP-LT metamorphism, (2) zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages to elucidate the cooling and exhumation history of the CBU and CB in Sikinos and the nature of the contact between the two units. Results from zircon U-Pb analysis from the CBU show a spread of detrital zircon U-Pb ages dominated by Triassic, Permian Variscan, Pan-African and Proterozoic modes and MDAs from Early Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. This is in contrast to ubiquitous Triassic CBU on other Cycladic islands. LA-SS-ICP depth-profile analysis allows for simultaneous trace element analysis and for the identification of metamorphic zircon rims with ages of 26, 50 and 70 Ma. Notably, metamorphic rims of 26 Ma have not been reported in the CBU of the southern Cyclades prior to this study. These rims appear to be restricted a zone along the CBU-Basement contact, suggesting fluid flow as a possible explanation

  11. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece (United States)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.


    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  12. On strontium and barium anomalies in the sediments of Charkadio Cave (Tilos Island, Dodekanese, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J.H.; Bichler, M.; Hujer, W.; Seemann, R.; Symeonidis, N.


    The sediments of Charkadio Cave (Island of Tilos) have been object of chemical and mineralogical investigation. Sampling the speleothems of Charkadio Cave, it is possible to look back into the island's younger geological history. Tilos is of non-volcanic origin but neighbored to several volcanoes of the Aegean (Kos, Nisyros, and Giali). We observed a certain coincidence of increased Ba and Sr values in such samples and volcanic activity. Some of the layers of these fine-grained sediments contain volcanic particles (ash grains and lapilli). Interestingly, these strata have the highest content of Ba and Sr, as determined by neutron activation analysis. Additionally to this discovery, Sr-rich barite crystals were found in some of these layers. Thus, Ba and Sr must either exist on the surface of tephra particles in volatile and water-soluble compounds and/or were released by weathering from Ba and Sr containing feldspars (originating from pumice) in the cave sediment environment. Since other cave sediments from Tilos, which were not exposed to volcanic products, contain very much lesser quantities of Ba and Sr, we conclude that mobile Ba and Sr compounds are contributed to the sediment by volcanic fallout. (author)

  13. Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, P.; Voudouris, K.


    Zakynthos, an island of 408 km2 in the Ionian Sea, is completely dependent on its groundwater resources for fulfilling the demands of the water supplies. The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive during the last decades because of the intense urbanization, the tourist development and the irrigated land expansion that took place. The main aquifers are developed in limestones (karstic), sandstones of neogene deposits (confined) and alluvial deposits (phreatic). This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydrogeological characteristics and the groundwater quality. For this investigation, groundwater level measurements, drilling data, pumping tests and chemical analyses of groundwater samples were used. The average annual consumption that is abstracted from the aquifer systems, is 4.9 × 106 m3 year-1. The exploitable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 3.3 × 106 m3 year-1. In the last decades, the total abstractions exceed the natural recharge, due to the tourist development; therefore the aquifer systems are not used safely. The results of chemical analyses showed a deterioration of the groundwater quality. According to the analyses the shallow alluvial aquifer and the confined aquifer are polluted by nitrates at concentrations in excess of 25 mg L-1. High sulphate concentrations might be related to the dissolution of gypsum. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal parts of aquifer systems. The increased Cl- concentrations in karstic aquifer indicate signs of overexploitation. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was applied in order to evaluate the SWOT of the groundwater resources. Moreover, some recommendations are made to assist the rational management that aim at improving the sustainability of the groundwater resources of Zakynthos Island.

  14. The Gyra washover fan in the Lefkada Lagoon, NW Greece—possible evidence of the 365 AD Crete earthquake and tsunami (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Vött, Andreas; Brückner, Helmut; Smedile, Alessandra


    Coastal geomorphological and geological archives store valuable information about the geodynamic evolution of coastal areas and the contributing geomorphodynamic processes. The coastal geomorphology of the Lefkada- Preveza coastal zone, NW Greece, holds evidence for the influence of both gradual, low-energy and episodic, high-energy coastal processes. Situated close to the Hellenic Arc and the Cefalonia transform fault, the area belongs to one of the seismically most active regions in the Mediterranean. Thus, tsunami events are assumed to have contributed to the coastal evolution in the study area according to tsunami catalogues and field evidence from previous investigations. The northern part of the Lefkada Lagoon, separated from the Ionian Sea by an extensive barrier beach system, is characterized by a number of fan-like washover structures, formed by different washover generations. In this paper, we present detailed geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical and foraminiferal investigations on the most prominent fan structure, the Gyra fan, based on terrestrial and lagoonal sediment cores. The Gyra fan consists of a coarse-grained sequence of fully marine origin on top of lagoonal mud and a palaeosol, respectively. The sequence shows numerous characteristics of extreme wave deposits. Due to the dimension and morphology of the fan, the existence of up to four consistent and correlative stratigraphic subunits, their landward thinning and their comparable sedimentary characteristics, we argue that a tsunami event induced the formation of the Gyra fan, comprising at least four major inundation impulses. According to radiocarbon dates, this geomorphological structure was most likely formed by teletsunami effects triggered by the 365 AD earthquake off western Crete.

  15. Cave-inhabiting pseudoscorpion species of the genus Roncus (Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae from western Greece, including the Ionian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnert, Volker


    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 are described and figured: Roncus gasparoi n.sp. from Corfu (Spilaio Anthropograva, Roncus pieperi n.sp. from Kefalonia (caves Fitidi and Drogarati and Roncus giachinoi n.sp. from continental Greece, Arkanania (Megalo Spilio.

  16. DNA barcoding in native plants of the Labiatae (Lamiaceae) family from Chios Island (Greece) and the adjacent Çeşme-Karaburun Peninsula (Turkey). (United States)

    Theodoridis, Spyros; Stefanaki, Anastasia; Tezcan, Meltem; Aki, Cuneyt; Kokkini, Stella; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E


    The plant family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) is known for its fine medicinal and aromatic herbs like lavender, mint, oregano, sage and thyme and is a rich source of essential oils for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Besides its great economic importance, the Labiatae family contributes significantly to the endemic flora of Greece and Turkey. Owing to its economic and biological significance and to the difficult identification based on morphological characters of several of its taxa, the Labiatae family is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of DNA barcoding on a local scale in discriminating Labiatae species in Chios Island (Greece) and the adjacent Çeşme-Karaburun Peninsula (Turkey). We chose three cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA) that were proposed by previous studies and tested them either as single region or as multiregion barcodes based on the criteria determined by Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL). Our results show that matK and trnH-psbA taken as useful in discriminating species of the Labiatae, for the species we examined, as any multiregion combination. matK and trnH-psbA could serve as single-region barcodes for Labiatae species contributing to the conservation and the trade control of valuable plant resources. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fish otoliths are herein used to estimate the depositional depth of the Early - Middle Pleistocene deposits at SE Zakynthos and SW Kephallonia Islands (Ionian Sea, Western Greece, through comparison with the modern bathymetric distributions of the identified fish taxa. These estimates provide a more detailed picture of the depth variations for the Gelasian - Ionian stage interval in the study areas. The Lower Pleistocene marine deposits of the Gerakas Formation (SE Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea were deposited at average depths of 400-450 meters, with eustacy playing an important role in the depth variability, between 1.95-1.73 Ma. An uplifting episode, followed by subsidence takes place between 1.73-1.66 Ma, taking the area to 200-300 meters of depth, and then back to 400-500 meters. However, the area seems uplifted again to 200-400 meters later on in the Calabrian stage (1.25-0.97 Ma. Sedimentation of the Akrotiri deposits (NW Kephallonia Island, Ionian Sea, during the same chronostratigraphic interval, took place in a similar setting. At the Early Pleistocene (1.95-1.73 Ma this basin reached depths of 400-450 meters, with uplift and following subsidence taking place between 1.73-1.66 Ma. Overall, the application of fish otolith paleobathymetry in the study areas provide a detailed picture of the depth variations for the Early Quaternary interval and refine the currently hypothesized pattern of tectonic movements. 

  18. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece (United States)

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen


    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site. PMID:28927018

  19. The 2014 Kefalonia Doublet ( M W6.1 and M W6.0), Central Ionian Islands, Greece: Seismotectonic Implications along the Kefalonia Transform Fault Zone (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Mesimeri, Maria; Gkarlaouni, Charikleia; Paradisopoulou, Parthena


    The 2014 Kefalonia earthquake sequence started on 26 January with the first main shock ( M W6.1) and aftershock activity extending over 35 km, much longer than expected from the causative fault segment. The second main shock ( M W6.0) occurred on 3 February on an adjacent fault segment, where the aftershock distribution was remarkably sparse, evidently encouraged by stress transfer of the first main shock. The aftershocks from the regional catalog were relocated using a 7-layer velocity model and station residuals, and their distribution evidenced two adjacent fault segments striking almost N-S and dipping to the east, in full agreement with the centroid moment tensor solutions, constituting segments of the Kefalonia Transform Fault (KTF). The KTF is bounded to the north by oblique parallel smaller fault segments, linking KTF with its northward continuation, the Lefkada Fault.

  20. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece (United States)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas


    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  1. A Techno-economic and Spatial Analysis for the Optimal Planning of Wind Energy in Kythira Island, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George


    Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and especially wind energy are seen as an essential part of the future clean energy system. In the present paper, the wind potential of Kythira Island was studied and a techno-economic analysis was done aiming at identifying the optimum solution for the proposed Wind...

  2. Analysis of post-Byzantine icons from the Church of the Assumption in Cephalonia, Ionian Islands, Greece: a multi-method approach. (United States)

    Kouloumpi, Eleni; Vandenabeele, Peter; Lawson, Graham; Pavlidis, Vassilios; Moens, Luc


    A multi-method approach has been developed for the characterisation of the proteinaceous binding media, drying oils and pigments present in samples from the panel paintings of the Church of the Assumption in Cephalonia (Ionian Islands, Greece). The analytical protocol involved the use of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The identification of the pigments was achieved by SEM/EDX and Raman spectroscopy. The latter technique was also used for the detection of the binding media, while their characterisation was achieved by gas chromatographic analysis of ethyl chloroformate derivatives. The aim of this multi-method protocol was to obtain as much information as possible from the panel paintings of the Church of the Assumption, through non-destructive methods, before proceeding to gas chromatography. Little scientific information is available for the understanding of the construction technique and the materials used by the post-Byzantine artists and whatever is available comes mainly from artists' manuals. One of the aims of this paper is to provide a scientific background to the technology of the Ionian post-Byzantine icons.

  3. A comprehensive approach for the simulation of the Urban Heat Island effect with the WRF/SLUCM modeling system: The case of Athens (Greece) (United States)

    Giannaros, Christos; Nenes, Athanasios; Giannaros, Theodore M.; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Melas, Dimitrios


    This study presents a comprehensive modeling approach for simulating the spatiotemporal distribution of urban air temperatures with a modeling system that includes the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) with a modified treatment of the impervious surface temperature. The model was applied to simulate a 3-day summer heat wave event over the city of Athens, Greece. The simulation, using default SLUCM parameters, is capable of capturing the observed diurnal variation of urban temperatures and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in the greater Athens Area (GAA), albeit with systematic biases that are prominent during nighttime hours. These biases are particularly evident over low-intensity residential areas, and they are associated with the surface and urban canopy properties representing the urban environment. A series of sensitivity simulations unravels the importance of the sub-grid urban fraction parameter, surface albedo, and street canyon geometry in the overall causation and development of the UHI effect. The sensitivities are then used to determine optimal values of the street canyon geometry, which reproduces the observed temperatures throughout the simulation domain. The optimal parameters, apart from considerably improving model performance (reductions in mean temperature bias from 0.30 °C to 1.58 °C), are also consistent with actual city building characteristics - which gives confidence that the model set-up is robust, and can be used to study the UHI in the GAA in the anticipated warmer conditions in the future.

  4. Prevalence of Dementia, Depression, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in a Rural Area of the Island of Crete, Greece. (United States)

    Tsolaki, Magda; Gkioka, Mara; Verykouki, Eleni; Galoutzi, Niki; Kavalou, Eirini; Pattakou-Parasyri, Vassiliki


    The studies on the prevalence of dementia, depression, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Greece are sparse and show major variations of prevalence depending on geographical areas, nutritional habits, and the way of living. The aim of this door-to-door study was to find the prevalence of dementia, depression, and MCI in a rural Greek population. Four hundred and forty-three individuals older than 61years following the application of specific criteria were diagnosed with: normal cognition, depression, MCI with and without depression, and dementia with and without depression. Four diagnostic methods were used, 2 of which included Mungas correction for age and education. After Mungas adjustment, the results were as follows-depression: 33.9%; MCI: 15.3%; MCI with depression: 8.6%; dementia: 2.0%; and dementia with depression: 7.2%. Dementia is less prevalent compared to global data and other Greek areas. Mild cognitive impairment is more prevalent than dementia. High percentages of depression may be related to low education.

  5. Slip model of the 17 November 2015 Mw = 6.5 Lefkada earthquake from the joint inversion of geodetic and seismic data (United States)

    Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Konca, A. Ozgun; Tselentis, G.-Akis; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Gianniou, Michail


    We inferred the rupture process of the 2015 Lefkada earthquake by combining teleseismic and near-field strong motion data, together with static and dynamic GPS displacements. The joint inversion of all data sets revealed a relatively complex slip pattern with a heterogeneous distribution. Slip is confined in the upper 10 km. Two principal asperities with peak slip amplitude of 2.35 m, which released 65% of the total seismic moment, were recovered southwest of the epicenter. Remarkably, the 2015 earthquake ruptured the part of the Cephalonia Transform Fault Zone that remained unbroken during the 2003 event, revealing a pattern of rupture segmentation along the fault zone. In this context the Lefkada segment can be divided into a northern and southern part. Preseismic deformation onshore southern Lefkada revealed that since the 2003 rupture, the northern part of the Lefkada segment continuously loaded the southern part, which eventually broke during the 2015 event.

  6. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece. (United States)

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga


    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  7. Microstructural Control on Perlite Expansibility and Geochemical Balance with a Novel Application of Isocon Analysis: An Example from Milos Island Perlite (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilios Tsikouras


    Full Text Available Representative perlite bulk rock samples from two areas of Milos Island, Greece were collected and the expansion properties of their industrial product were investigated. Coarse crude perlite from Tsigrado exhibits better expansibility, which is assigned to the presence of coarser crystallites in its bulk parent rock. During thermal treatment, the finer crystallites of the coarse crude perlite from Trachilas are entrapped in the groundmass and lead to overheating, which inhibits expansion and eventually results in shrinkage. Geochemical modification of the expanded perlites relative to their crude precursors were investigated, using the isocon method. Volatilisation of crystalline water is the main factor controlling mass reduction of the expanded perlites. Other elements, during the adequate expansion of the Tsigrado perlite, can be classified into three categories. The elements that participate preferentially in crystals decrease in the expanded material at amounts higher than the total mass loss of the rock, due to their escape controlled mainly by the removal of the crystalline phases. The elements equally participating in crystals and the groundmass show losses equivalent to the total mass loss of the rocks, as they escaped in the crystalline phases and airborne particles from the groundmass during thermal treatment. Decrease of highly incompatible elements, which mostly participate in the groundmass, in the expanded products is less than the total mass loss, as they escaped mainly in the airborne particles. The inadequate expansion and burst of the Trachilas perlite did not allow for a similar categorisation, due to random and unpredictable escape of the elements. We propose the application of this method to an artificial system to predict unexpandable mineral phases in bulk perlite, as well as elements that are most likely to participate in the amorphous perlite phase, which cannot be determined from a regular industrial production line

  8. Cinnabar, arsenian pyrite and thallium-enrichment in active shallow submarine hydrothermal vents at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece (United States)

    Kati, Marianna; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Magganas, Andreas; Baltatzis, Emmanouil; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos


    We herein report the discovery of active cinnabar-depositing hydrothermal vents in a submarine setting at Paleochori Bay, within the offshore southeastern extension of the Milos Island Geothermal Field, South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc. Active, low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting through volcaniclastic material has led to a varied assemblage of sulfide and alteration mineral phases in an area of approximately 1 km2. Our samples recovered from Paleochori Bay are hydrothermal edifices composed of volcaniclastic detrital material cemented by pyrite, or pure sulfide (mainly massive pyrite) mounts. Besides pyrite and minor marcasite, the hydrothermal minerals include cinnabar, amorphous silica, hydrous ferric oxides, carbonates (aragonite and calcite), alunite-jarosite solid solution and Sr-rich barite. Among others, growth textures, sieve-textured pyrite associated with barite, alunite-jarosite solid solution and hydrous ferric oxides rims colloform-banded pyrite layers. Overgrowths of arsenian pyrite layers (up to 3.2 wt. % As and/or up to 1.1 wt. % Mn) onto As-free pyrite indicate fluctuation in As content of the hydrothermal fluid. Mercury, in the form of cinnabar, occurs in up to 5 μm grains within arsenian pyrite layers, usually forming distinct cinnabar-enriched micro-layers. Hydrothermal Sr-rich barite (barite-celestine solid solution), pseudocubic alunite-jarosite solid solution and Mn- and Sr-enriched carbonates occur in various amounts and closely associated with pyrite and/or hydrous ferric oxides. Thallium-bearing sulfides and/or sulfosalts were not detected during our study; however, hydrous ferric oxides show thallium content of up to 0.5 wt. % Tl. The following scenarios may have played a role in pyrite precipitation at Paleochori: (a) H2S originally dissolved in the deep fluid but separated upon boiling could have reacted with oxygenated seawater under production of sulphuric acid, thus causing leaching and dissolution of primary iron

  9. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge


    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species.

  10. Trace metal contents in wild edible mushrooms growing on serpentine and volcanic soils on the island of Lesvos, Greece. (United States)

    Aloupi, M; Koutrotsios, G; Koulousaris, M; Kalogeropoulos, N


    The objectives of this survey were (1) to assess for the first time the Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in wild edible mushrooms (Russula delica, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus bellinii) from the island of Lesvos, (2) to investigate the metals' variability among the species, as well as in relation to the chemical composition of the underlying soil, comparing mushrooms collected from volcanic and serpentine substrates and (3) to estimate metal intake by the consumption of the mushrooms under consideration. The trace metals in 139 samples were determined by flame or flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median metal concentrations were as follows: Cd: 0.14; Cr: 0.10; Cu: 8.51; Fe: 30.3; Mn: 5.26; Ni: 0.34; Pb: 0.093 and Zn: 64.50, all in mgkg(-1) dry weight. The observed concentrations are among the lowest reported for mushrooms from Europe or Turkey, while Pb and Cd values did not exceed the limits set by the European Union. Significant species- and substrate-related differences in the metal contents were found, but the variability did not follow a uniform pattern for all the metals in all mushroom species. As a general trend, the mushrooms growing in serpentine sites contained higher Cd, Cr and Ni than those from volcanic sites. The calculated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) showed that none of the mushrooms can be regarded as a metal bioaccumulator, although BCF values slightly above unity were found for Zn in the three Lactarius species, and for Cu in R. delica. The studied mushrooms could supply considerable amounts of essential metals such as Zn and Cr. On the other hand, the consumption of R. delica collected from volcanic soils could provide 12% of the Cd daily tolerable intake and as high as 53% when collected from serpentine soils. Nonetheless, our results indicate that the regular consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Lesvos is quite safe for human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  11. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.


    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  12. Mediterranean fruit fly female attractant studies in support of the sterile insect technique: trapping experiments conducted on the island of Chios, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyannos, B.I.; Papadopoulos, N.T.; Kouloussis, N.A.


    This paper contains information on a four-year research programme co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The main objective of the programme was to develop a trapping system for females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), for practical use in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and to design and evaluate a trap to obtain eggs from wild female medflies in order to estimate sterility induction in the field population. The experiments were conducted from July to September 1994-1997 on the island of Chios, Greece, in citrus orchards with low to medium medfly populations. Different trap types and several trap treatments consisting of sex and food based attractants were tested, following a standard coordinated experimental protocol. The most extensively tested were three food based 'female' attractants (FA-3), namely ammonium acetate (AA), 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) and trimethylamine, all formulated in dispensers lasting one month. These attractants were evaluated in combinations of two (AA + putrescine, termed FA-2) or three (FA-3) dispensers in various traps, including dry (provided with DDVP) or wet (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant) plastic International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT). Among the various traps and treatments tested, the most effective for medfly capture was the wet IPMT, baited with FA-3 attractants. This treatment captured predominantly females and was relatively selective for medflies. In dry IPMT traps, the FA-3 were as effective as the standard 300 ml aqueous solution of 9% of the protein NuLure and 3% borax, but much more medfly selective. Dry IPMT traps were also more selective than wet ones. FA-3 baited wet Tephri traps (a Spanish modification of the McPhail trap), performed somewhat poorer than IPMT traps. Other dry trap types tested were not effective. Additional experiments showed that certain insecticide formulations used in dry traps may have a repellent



    Sboras, S.; Chatzipetros, A.; Pavlides, S.; Karastathis, V.; Papadopoulos, G.


    Στην εργασία αυτή μοντελοποιήθηκε το τοπικό πολύπλοκο σύστημα ρηγμάτων που συνδέεται με του τρεις ισχυρούς σεισμούς (Mw6.1, Mw5.3 και Mw6.0) της σεισμικής ακολουθίας του Ιανουαρίου-Φεβρουαρίου, 2014, στη Κεφαλονιά και του κύριου σεισμού (Mw6.4) της 17ης Νοεμβρίου 2015 στη Λευκάδα ώστε να διερευνηθούν α) η αλληλεπίδραση των ρηγμάτων κατά την ακολουθία της Κεφαλονιάς το 2014, β) η επίδραση των τριών ισχυρότερων σεισμών της Κεφαλονιάς (2014) στο ρήγμα που προκάλεσε τον σεισμό του 2015 στη Λευκάδ...

  14. Metamorphism of bauxites on Naxos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, A.


    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-mineralogical and geochemical study of the metamorphosed karstbauxites on the island of Naxos, Greece. The bauxites have been subject to an Eocene highpressure metamorphism (M1), followed by a Late Oligocene-Miocene medium-pressure metamorphism

  15. A simulation-optimisation programme for designing hybrid energy systems for supplying electricity and fresh water through desalination to remote areas. Case study: the Merssini village, Donoussa island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolakos, D.; Papadakis, G.; Kyritsis, S. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Athens (Greece); Papantonis, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Zografos (Greece)


    The aim of the present paper is to develop and apply a software tool for designing hybrid renewable energy systems. The hybrid system consists of a wind generator and photovoltaic modules which are the renewable technologies for energy production. The programme has been applied for simulating a hybrid system with the above mentioned technologies in order to cover the electricity and water needs of the Merssini village on Donoussa island in the Aegean Sea of Greece. The Merssini village is occupied by 20 year-round residents while the population is doubled during the summer period. The village is non-electrified and faces a problematic scarcity of fresh water. In the analysis that follows, the considered technical data as well as the results of programme runs for winter and summer seasons are presented. The electricity consumption consists of both the household and desalination plant consumption. The system is supplemented with batteries and a micro hydraulic plant for energy storage. The simulation programme was used to optimise the design of the system as well as to manage the energy supply and energy storage. The results prove that this simulation programme constitutes a valuable tool for the determination not only of the optimum combination of technologies, but also the optimum energy management of complex hybrid systems. (Author)

  16. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece. (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas


    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Late Holocene shorelines deduced from tidal notches on both sides of the Ionian Thrust (Greece): Fiscardo peninsula (Cephalonia) and Ithaca island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelpidou, N.; Karkani, A.; Kazmer, M.; Pirazzoli, P.


    Fossil shorelines produced by recent co-seismic movements were identified through a submarine survey along the coasts of Ithaca and Fiscardo (Greece). In both areas a tidal notch-slightly submerged below present Mean Sea Level (MSL) was observed at various sites. This “modern” notch is known to have been submerged by the global sea-level rise during the 19th and 20th centuries. The depth after tide and air-pressure correction of the vertex of the “modern” notch (that owes its submergence to the current rapid sea level rise) was measured between -20 and -30±5cm at Fiscardo and between -36 and -45±6cm at Ithaca. This “modern” notch at the same depth on east and west sides of the Ionian Thrust suggests that both areas were not affected by the co-seismic vertical movements that occurred in 1953 (in the wider area). On the other hand, a greater depth in Ithaca could be an effect of co-seismic subsidence. Over the long term, the tectonic behavior of Ithaca differs from Fiscardo. At Ithaca no evidence of emergence was found and Holocene vertical movements have been only of subsidence: submerged fossil tidal notches were distinguished below MSL at about -40 (modern), -60, -75, -95, -106, -126, -150 and -220±6cm. On the East coast of Fiscardo peninsula impacts of ancient earthquakes have left some marks of emergence at about +18 and +44±5cm, and of submergence at about -25 (modern), -45, -60, -75, -82, -100 and -230cm, with even some evidence of past uplift and subsidence at the same sites. (Author)

  18. The anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece): implications for exhumation model of high-pressure rocks (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Scaillet, Stéphane


    Key words.- Aegean sea, Cyclades, Sifnos, high pressure and low temperature metamorphism, syn-orogenic exhumation, post-orogenic extension, strain localization. Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing backarc extension. The main structures and associated kinematic are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, has been so far poorly studied. Hence, syn-orogenic deformation and exhumation mechanisms of the Cycladic Blueschists Unit remain disputed in part because the structure and kinematic history of High Pressure and Low Temperature (HP-LT) rocks are interpreted differently in the literature. In order to understand and constrain the exhumation history of HP-LT rocks, Sifnos Island is particularly relevant because HP-LT parageneses are exceptionally well preserved and different degree of retrogression are observed in two main units. The aims of this work attempts at firstly solving uncertainties on the position and geometry of major contacts between units and, secondly, to provide new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators and their relation to metamorphism, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts (i.e., syn-orogenic). Structures and kinematics, associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile shearing deformation. A continuum of deformation can be observed from the Eocene syn-orogenic blueschist-facies to the Oligocene-Miocene post-orogenic greenschist-facies with the same top-to-the-NE sense of shear showing that the same shear zones, formed during syn

  19. Combined Use of Remote Sensing Data, Mineralogical Analyses, Microstructure Studies and Geographic Information System for Geological Mapping of Antiparos Island (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Nikolakopoulos


    Full Text Available This study presents the combined use of field mapping, remote sensing data analysis, mineralogy, spectroscopy and GIS techniques for the geological mapping of Antiparos Island. Antiparos is part of the Cyclades Blueschist Belt located in central Aegean, where gneisses, schists and Pliocene volcanic rocks occurred. During the extended field work, a number of volcanic rock samples were collected from the southern part of Antiparos. The sampling strategy was to collect samples from the primary as well as the altered rocks in specific areas in which they were previously located from the remote sensing data processing. In this study, high resolution satellite images have been carried out in order to detect, allocate and separate the different geological formations. Furthermore, the existing geological map was georeferenced and all the tectonic lines and boundaries were digitized. All these features were implemented in a Mobile Mapper CE GPS using Arcpad GIS and checked in situ. The collected samples were analyzed in the laboratory using various techniques including XRD, Petrographic Microscopy and SEM. The qualitative mineralogical analyses were conducted by using XRD. The study was supplemented by the petrographic observations providing a detailed characterization of rock textures. In addition, SEM study and SEM-EDS analyses of the samples were emphasized on the genetic relations of the minerals. The laboratory results revealed that specific corrections should be made in the previous geological map of Antiparos concerning the volcanic rocks, especially at the southern part of the island. A significant conclusion is that the rock described as volcanic in the previous map proved to be a fossiliferous limestone which includes micritic matrix of calcite with an insignificant amount of fossils. All the analogical and digital data and the results of the petrographic analysis were imported in a geodatabase specially designed for geological data. After the

  20. High-resolution Earth observation data and spatial analysis for burn severity evaluation and post-fire effects assessment in the Island of Chios, Greece (United States)

    Athanasakis, George; Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Chatziantoniou, Andromachi


    Forest fires are regarded as one of the most threatening sources of disturbance for the property, infrastructure as well as ecosystems. The present study aimed at analyzing spectral information products derived from the Landsat-8 OLI sensor together with spectral indices to evaluate their ability to map burn scars and burn severity. In particular the study objectives were: (1) to identify the capability of OLI to burnt area mapping and burn severity, (2) to evaluate the contribution of several spectral indices to the overall accuracy (3) to assess post-fire effects such as flood risk and, (4) to investigate the vegetation re-growth in relation to the burn severity. As a case study, Chios Island was selected due to the recent fire event in the south-western part of the island (25/07/2016). Three multispectral Landsat-8 OLI images, acquired on 13/07/2016 (pre-fire), 15/09/2016 (post-fire) and 27/03/2017 (six months after the fire), were utilized. Several spectral indices were implemented to detect the burnt areas and assess the burn severity (Burn Area Index - BAI, Normalized Burn Ratio - NBR, Normalized Burn Ration + Thermal - NBRT), as well as to evaluate the vegetation conditions and re-growth six months after the fire event (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI and the Normalized Difference Water Index - NDWI). Additionally, NBR index of pre- and post-fire images was calculated in a difference change detection procedure which estimates the Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio dNBR. Overall, a total burned area of 45,9 km2 was delineated, and both burned severity map and vegetation recovery map were created and evaluated.

  1. Sahana4Greece (brochure A5)


    Harris V Georgiou (MSc,PhD)


    Sahana platform is an internationally recognized and award-winning free software (FOSS) for logistical support of volunteering/rescue teams, relief organizations and NGOs in emergency response situations and disaster relief missions. The operational deployment of Sahana in Greece provides a substantial boost to the logistics of teams, organizations and even individual volunteers that engage actively in the islands of eastern Aegean sea, as well as improved collaboration and coordination with ...

  2. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece (United States)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos


    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  3. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece) (United States)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal


    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  4. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data (United States)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros


    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  5. Pathology in Greece. (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E


    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  6. Intensive Survey Data from Antikythera, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bevan


    Full Text Available The Antikythera Survey Project was an interdisciplinary programme of fieldwork, artefact study and laboratory analysis that considered the long-term history and human ecology of the small Greek island of Antikythera. It was co-directed by Andrew Bevan (UCL and James Conolly (Trent, in collaboration with Aris Tsaravopoulos (Greek Archaeological Service, and under the aegis of the Canadian Institute in Greece and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Its various primary datasets are unusual, both in the Mediterranean and beyond, for providing intensive survey coverage of an entire island’s surface archaeology.

  7. A Late Pleistocene clockwise rotation phase of Zakynthos (Greece) and implications for the evolution of the western Aegean arc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duermeijer, C.E.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C.G.; Meulenkamp, J.E.; Triantaphyllou, M.V.; Zachariasse, W.J.


    Palaeomagnetic measurements have been carried out on Eocene to Pleistocene sediments on the Ionian island of Zakynthos, NW Greece. Magnetostratigraphic constraints, biostratigraphic analyses of planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils provide a reliable time frame for these deposits.

  8. CMS Virtual Tour Greece

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    More than 500 high-school students from 7 locations in Greece visit virtually the CMS experiment. Read more about this record-breaking event here:

  9. School Psychology in Greece. (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Allina


    Reviews the present educational system in Greece at all levels and describes special education services. Describes the place of school psychology in Greek educational and professional structures and the major problems that the field is currently facing. Delineates emerging trends and presents recommendations for the alleviation of problems.…

  10. Greece. [CME Country Reports]. (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  11. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas


    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  12. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.


    A total of 35 measurements in Greece and 15 in Cyprus were performed. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Greece were from (1.1±0.5) to (410±50) Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in underground potable waters in Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) Bq/L and (15±4) Bq/L. High concentrations, viz. (120±20), (320±40) and (410±50) Bq/L, were observed in three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidekis in northern Greece. One water sample from Lesvos Island (north-eastern part of Greece) exhibited a radon concentration of (140±20) Bq/L. Six samples of hot spring water from the city of Loutraki (Attica prefecture), characterized as 'medicinal drinking water', contained concentrations of radon between (220±10) and (340±20) Bq/L. Radon concentrations in potable and non-potable underground water in Greece and Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) and (15±4) Bq/L, whereas in surface water the range was from (2.7±0.8) to (24±6) Bq/L. (P.A.)

  13. Spatial analysis of the electrical energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.


    The Electrical Energy Demand (EED) of the agricultural, commercial and industrial sector in Greece, as well as its use for domestic activities, public and municipal authorities and street lighting are analysed spatially using Geographical Information System and spatial statistical methods. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level 3. The aim is to identify spatial patterns of the EED and its transformations such as the ratios of the EED to socioeconomic variables, i.e. the population, the total area, the population density and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Based on the analysis, Greece is divided in five regions, each one with a different development model, i.e. Attica and Thessaloniki which are two heavily populated major poles, Thessaly and Central Greece which form a connected geographical region with important agricultural and industrial sector, the islands and some coastal areas which are characterized by an important commercial sector and the rest Greek areas. The spatial patterns can provide additional information for policy decision about the electrical energy management and better representation of the regional socioeconomic conditions. - Highlights: • We visualize spatially the Electrical Energy Demand (EED) in Greece. • We apply spatial analysis methods to the EED data. • Spatial patterns of the EED are identified. • Greece is classified in five distinct groups, based on the analysis. • The results can be used for optimal planning of the electric system.

  14. Greece at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva


    Greece, one of CERN*'s founding Member States, inaugurated its first Industrial Exhibition at the Meyrin site on Tuesday, 14 October. After a meeting with CERN's Director General, Professor Christopher Llewellyn Smith, Professor Emmanuel Frangoulis, the General Secretary of the Greek Ministry of Industry, accompanied by Prof Emmanuel Floratos, Greek delegate to CERN council visited the DELPHI experiment on the LEP collider, guided by Andromachi Tsirou, a Greek physicist.

  15. Access to health for refugees in Greece: lessons in inequalities. (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P


    Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access.

  16. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.


    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  17. Pauesia silana Tremblay, 1969 a parasitoid of Cinara-aphids on Conifers in Malta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)


    Mifsud, David; Stary, Petr


    Pauesia silana is recorded for the first time from Malta and the Lefkada and Meganissi islands in Greece. From Malta, the species was reared from Cinara palaestinensis on Pinus halepensis from material collected from Buskett. From the Greek islands, the species was collected on Cinara sp. on the same mentioned hostplant. The new record contributes to the information on its distribution, hosts and plant associations in the Mediterranean area.

  18. Educational Psychology Research in Greece. (United States)

    Sakka-Paraskeva, Sophia


    Research on testing, use of intelligence scales, and use of personality scales is a major part of educational psychological research in Greece. A great deal of research has also been done in Greece on the problem of evaluating current educational practice. (BW)

  19. Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58 (United States)


    This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

  20. Wastewater Recycling in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ilias


    Full Text Available In Greece, and particularly in many southeastern and island areas, there is severe pressure on water resources, further exacerbated by the high demand of water for tourism and irrigation in summertime. The integration of treated wastewater into water resources management is of paramount importance to meet future demands. Despite this need, only a few projects of effluent reuse have been implemented, most of them being pilot projects of crop or landscape irrigation. The most important projects which are currently in practice are those of Thessaloniki, Chalkida, Malia, Livadia, Amfisa, Kalikratia, and Chersonissos. In Thessaloniki, at the most important wastewater reuse site, the secondary effluent of the city’s Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP (165,000 m3/day is used for agricultural irrigation after mixing with freshwater at a 1:5 ratio. The main crops irrigated are rice, corn, alfalfa and cotton. A few other projects are under planning, such as that at Iraklion, Agios Nikolaos and several island regions. Finally, it should be mentioned that there are several cases of indirect reuse, especially in central Greece. However, the reuse potential in Greece is limited, since effluent from Athens’s WWTP, serving approximately half of the country’s population, is not economically feasible due to the location of the plant.

  1. The incidence of cutaneous melanoma on Crete, Greece. (United States)

    Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Krüger-Krasagakis, Sabine; Manousaki, Aglaia; Ioannidou, Despina; Panagiotides, Ioannis; Tosca, Androniki


    For Greece, no data regarding the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) have been reported. In this report, we present epidemiologic data for CM on Crete, an island in southern Greece, during the years 1999-2002. We attempt a comparison with corresponding data reported for the Italian population. One hundred and two CM patients of Cretan origin with primary CM first diagnosed between the years 1999-2002 were interviewed and underwent complete skin examination by the same two experienced dermatologists. Crude and/or age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for Crete as a whole, as well as for each one of the four prefectures of the island. The age-standardized incidence rate according to the Greek population was 4.6 per 100,000 person-years for men and 4.7 per 100,000 person-years for women. The crude incidence rates did not differ significantly between the four prefectures. Significant differences between Cretan and Italian CM patients were found in terms of gender, age at diagnosis, anatomic site and histogenetic type of CM, hair color, skin reaction to sun exposure, history of sunburn before the age of 15 years, presence of solar lentigines, and total common nevus count. The incidence of CM on Crete is higher than that estimated for the whole of Greece and comparable with the incidence reported for other southern European countries.

  2. The Kefalonia Transform Zone (offshore Western Greece) with special emphasis to its prolongation towards the Ionian Abyssal Plain (United States)

    Kokinou, E.; Papadimitriou, E.; Karakostas, V.; Kamberis, E.; Vallianatos, F.


    Information concerning two seismic lines, the first located northwest of the Lefkada Island and the second from the deep Ionian basin to the gulf of Patras, is used to trace the Kefalonia Transform Zone (KTZ) and to explore its relation with the sedimentary sequences and the deeper geologic structures in the study area. In addition, sea bottom topography and fault plane solutions are combined in order to explore the prolongation of the KTZ into the Ionian Abyssal Plain (IoAP) and to describe its properties. The boundary between the subduction of the eastern Mediterranean oceanic crust under the overriding continental crust and the KTZ is well constrained by the seismic data in association with seismicity and regional stress field. The southern prolongation of the KTZ is located in the IoAP towards the direction between Kefalonia and Zakynthos Islands at depth greater than 15 km. The southern part of the KTZ exhibits a strike slip motion with a thrust component according to fault plane solutions of moderate and strong earthquakes. The seismic section mostly confirms the existence of the thrust component and gives information about the tectonic status east and west of the KTZ.

  3. Greece Experience of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan V. Labzhaniya


    Full Text Available Tourism offers a real opportunity to invite investments, decline unemployment and increase production, which will help to overcome crisis and come to sustainable development, badly needed for Greece now.

  4. Application of data mining techniques and data analysis methods to measure cancer morbidity and mortality data in a regional cancer registry: The case of the island of Crete, Greece. (United States)

    Varlamis, Iraklis; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Lionis, Christos


    Micro or macro-level mapping of cancer statistics is a challenging task that requires long-term planning, prospective studies and continuous monitoring of all cancer cases. The objective of the current study is to present how cancer registry data could be processed using data mining techniques in order to improve the statistical analysis outcomes. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Crete in Greece (counties of Rethymno and Lasithi) for the period 1998-2004. Data collection was performed on paper forms and manually transcribed to a single data file, thus introducing errors and noise (e.g. missing and erroneous values, duplicate entries etc.). Data were pre-processed and prepared for analysis using data mining tools and algorithms. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the contribution of each collected feature in predicting patients' survival. Several classifiers were trained and evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Finally, statistical analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality rates in the two regions was performed in order to validate the initial findings. Several critical points in the process of data collection, preprocessing and analysis of cancer data were derived from the results, while a road-map for future population data studies was developed. In addition, increased morbidity rates were observed in the counties of Crete (Age Standardized Morbidity/Incidence Rates ASIR= 396.45 ± 2.89 and 274.77 ±2.48 for men and women, respectively) compared to European and world averages (ASIR= 281.6 and 207.3 for men and women in Europe and 203.8 and 165.1 in world level). Significant variation in cancer types between sexes and age groups (the ratio between deaths and reported cases for young patients, less than 34 years old, is at 0.055 when the respective ratio for patients over 75 years old is 0.366) was also observed. This study introduced a methodology for preprocessing and analyzing cancer data, using a

  5. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.


    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  6. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  7. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.


    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  8. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  9. Corruption in Greece or Corruption of Greece? The "Modern" Triumphalism


    Lambropoulou, Effi; Iosifidis, Theodoros; Papapamanolis, Nikos; Bakali, Eleftheria; Ageli, Stella; Bakirli, Erifyli; Massouri, Garyfalia


    Crime as a Cultural Problem. The Relevance of Perceptions of Corruption to Crime Prevention. A Comparative Cultural Study in the EU-Accession States Bulgaria and Romania, the EU-Candidate States Turkey and Croatia and the EU-States Germany, Greece and United Kingdom

  10. The Presence of Ancient Greece in Modern Greece (United States)

    Anton, John P.


    The author relates the ways in which a present day visitor to Greece will be reminded of ancient Greek history. The legendary hospitality, Greek statues, the landscape, Greek dances, gestures, and customs are some of the topics discussed. (Author/RM)

  11. Spatial variability and trends of the rain intensity over Greece (United States)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Larissi, I. K.; Nastos, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.


    In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the mean annual rain intensity in Greece are examined during a 41-year period (1962-2002). The meteorological datasets concern monthly rain amounts (mm) and the respective monthly durations (h) recorded at thirty two meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed on Greek territory, in order to calculate the mean monthly rain intensity. All the rain time series used in the analysis were tested by the application of the short-cut Bartlett test of homogeneity. The spatial distribution of the mean annual rain intensity is studied using the Kriging interpolation method, while the temporal variability, concerning the mean annual rain intensity trends along with their significance (Mann-Kendall test), is analysed. The findings of the analysis show that statistically significant negative trends (95% confidence level) appear mainly in the west sub-regions of Greece, while statistically significant positive trends (95% confidence level) appear in the wider area of Athens and the complex of Cyclades Islands. Further analysis concerning the seasonal rain intensity is needed, because there are different seasonal patterns, taking into account that, convective rain in Greece occurs mainly within the summer season.

  12. Corinth Canal, Greece (United States)


    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  13. Energy consumption and temperature correlations for 4 Greek Ionian Sea islands (United States)

    Psiloglou, B.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Dagoumas, A.; Skourtis, K.


    Energy consumption, especially for space heating and cooling, is linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. This study investigates the relationship between residential energy consumption load demand and daily mean air temperature for 4 Greek islands in the Ionian Sea for the period 2005-2011.These islands are Zante, Cephallonia, Corfu and Lefkada and were selected due to their data availability as they are interconnected to the mainland power distribution system. We present the time series of diurnal, daily, monthly and yearly variations of energy consumption for each of the selected sites and subsequently identify correlations with mean daily air temperature. Several effects such as weekly and holiday effects, unrelated to weather conditions, can be detected. Daily and monthly seasonal effects have been studied separately to isolate the weather influence on energy consumption. The most important finding, however, is the outstanding increase in consumption during the tourism season. Depending on the island, increased levels of consumption are present for 4,5 or more months per year, related to tourists arrivals on the island. This effect combined with energy consumption peaks on the hot days of the year should be taken into account during energy conservation planning.

  14. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.


    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  15. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltezos, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Aravantinos, A.


    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the national organization responsible for the environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece. In order to monitor the radioactivity, 12 stations were placed all over Greece. Each station is equipped with NaI detector, measuring daily the total gamma dose rates. After the Chernobyl experience many countries have installed dense automatic networks, for measuring environmental radioactivity and serving as an early warning systems. In Greece a small telemetric network of two stations was installed in Athens area as a pilot project. Each station consists of two GM detectors (for low and high dose rate respectively). Data are collected for every ten minutes sampling time. Regration time of one hour is obtained. In case of level one and level two alarm states, the sampling time intervals are ten and one minutes respectively. The measurements are obtained by the above stations using the lines of the telephone network, and stored in the central station. Financial support to upgrade the existing telemetric system was assured by the addition of 25 new telemetric stations which will cover madly the northern part bordering to other states with nuclear power plants.In order to complete the network, we plan to add more stations to measure the gamma dose rates spread all over Greece, and also monitor river water. (authors)

  16. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.


    The radon content of drinking water samples was determined with Alpha Guard Pro equipped with an appropriate unit (Aqua Kit). The samples were collected from water taps in dwellings located at various cities in Greece and Cyprus. In addition, surface water samples from rivers, lakes and seas as well as potable underground and hot spring water samples from Greece and Cyprus were also collected. For a precise determination of radon concentration in water samples, special procedures were followed both for sampling and transportation, as well as for measurement. Intercomparison experiments were designed and implemented before and during the study. Radon concentrations in drinking water samples in Greece ranged between 1.1 ± 0.5 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in Cyprus ranged between 1.3 ± 0.8 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L. Three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidikis (Northern Greece) exhibited high concentrations of 120±20 Bq/L, 320±40 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. This city is identified as a high radon potential area. One water sample located in Lesvos Island (North-East part of Greece) exhibited radon concentration 140±20 Bq/L. Additional six samples displayed high concentrations in potable hot spring water samples. These samples which were collected from the city of Loutraki (Peloponnesus) ranged between 220-230 Bq/L. In addition, two samples characterized as 'medicinal drinking water' gave concentrations between 320 Bq/L and 340 Bq/L. For underground water samples the radon concentrations ranged between 1.2±0.7 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L, while for surface water samples the range was 2.7±0.8 Bq/L to 24±6 Bq/L. The observed concentrations of radon gas in potable water samples in Greece were found to be largely low. In Cyprus, they were all well below 15 Bq/L

  17. Status on high enthalpy geothermal resources in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutinas, G.A.


    Greece is privileged to have many high and medium enthalpy geothermal resources. Related activities during the last 5 years were conducted mainly on the previously discovered geothermal fields of Milos, Nisyros and Lesvos islands, without any deep geothermal drilling. Most efforts were focused on the demonstration of a high enthalpy geothermal reservoir on Milos, by generating electricity from high salinity fluid, with a 2 MW pilot plant. Significant experience has been gained there, by solving technical problems, but still site specific constraints have to be overcome in order to arrive at a comprehensive feasibility study, leading to the development phase. A pre-feasibility study has been carried out in the Nisyros geothermal field. Moreover, a detailed geoscientific exploration program has been completed on Lesvos island, where very promising geothermal areas have been identified. In this paper, reference is made to the most important data concerning high enthalpy geothermal resources by emphasizing the Milos geothermal field

  18. [Monastery asylum. A contribution to the ethno-psychiatry of Greece]. (United States)

    Ruisinger, Marion Maria


    The history of the mentally ill in Greece, at least from the foundation of the Kingdom of Greece in 1832 until the incorporation of the Ionian Islands in 1864, is without either lunatic asylums or specialised psychiatrists. Instead, it is a history of the intermingling of two psychiatric concepts. On the one hand, the imported "professional psychiatry" supported by government and Western education physicians and, on the other hand, the indigenous (autochthon) "folk psychiatry" supported by the majority of the people and by the Orthodox church. The interaction of both systems resulted in the phenomenon of the Greek "monastery asylum". This paper, based on rich archival material, presents this little-known chapter of Greece psychiatry from the view-point of social history.

  19. Check list and zoogeographic analysis of the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) of Greece. (United States)

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Chadzidimitriou, Evangelia; Milonas, Panagiotis; Stathas, George J; Kozár, Ferenc


    This paper presents an updated checklist of the Greek scale insect fauna and the results of the first zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insect fauna. According to the latest data, the scale insect fauna of the whole Greek territory includes 207 species; of which 187 species are recorded from mainland Greece and the minor islands, whereas only 87 species are known from Crete. The most rich families are the Diaspididae (with 86 species), followed by Coccidae (with 35 species) and Pseudococcidae (with 34 species). In this study the results of a zoogeographic analysis of scale insect fauna from mainland Greece and Crete are also presented. Five species, four from mainland Greece and one from Crete are considered to be endemic. Comparison with the scale insect fauna of other countries is provided.

  20. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  1. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece. (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O


    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  2. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012) (United States)

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012


    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  3. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School


    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  4. History of leucotomies in Greece. (United States)

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E


    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos


    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  6. Health economic evaluation in Greece. (United States)

    Rovithis, Dimitrios


    There is a growing volume of literature on health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the decision-making level worldwide. The purpose of this study was to review the current state of health economic evaluation in Greece, with a view to uncovering reasons why its use in this country is limited. A search of the NHS Economic Evaluation Database was undertaken. The search included cost, cost-of-illness, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-consequences, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses and was narrowed only to Greek authors undertaking solo or joint health economic evaluation in Greece. The search revealed that, in Greece, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest is that the current chaotic healthcare system structure and financing does not provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate a powerful interest in this type of research. This condition is a result of the lack of a long-term national health policy and the hesitation of the present and past Greek governments to date to proceed to large-scale reforms because of political considerations. The Greek governments have also been content with the good health indicators being achieved. Even if it is accepted that good health prevails in Greece, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population, and the continuous immigration will place increasing pressure on healthcare resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Health economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, therefore, has an important role to play.

  7. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.


    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  8. The effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables in Greece


    Founda, D.; Melas, D.; Lykoudis, S.; Lisaridis, I.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kouvarakis, G.; Petrakis, M.; Zerefos, C.


    International audience; This paper examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables across Greece. Integrated micrometeorological measurements were conducted at Kastelorizo, a small island within the path of totality, and other sites within the Greek domain, with various degrees of solar obscuration. The observations showed a dramatic reduction in the incoming global radiation and subsequent, pronounced changes in surface air temperature with the low...

  9. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017


    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  10. Indoor radon measurements in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proukakis, C.; Molfetas, M.; Ntalles, K.; Georgiou, E.; Serefoglou, A.


    A pilot study was carried out in order to measure air concentrations of radon 222 and 220 isotopes in Athenian houses, as a first step of a national survey in Greece. In this paper the authors deal with radon concentration in air and water and will rely on measurements conducted in Greece. (author)

  11. The History of Adult Education in Greece. (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  12. The Cephalonia, Ionian Sea (Greece, sequence of strong earthquakes of January-February 2014: a first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos


    Full Text Available On 26.1.2014 and 3.2.2014 two strong earthquakes of Mw6.0 and Mw5.9 ruptured the western Cephalonia Isl., Ionian Sea (Greece, at the SSW-wards continuation of the Lefkada segment of the Cephalonia Transform Fault Zone (CTFZ, causing considerable damage and a variety of ground failures. High-precision relocation of the aftershocks implies that the seismogenic layer was of 35 km in length (L striking NNE-SSW, of 10 km maximum in width and 15 km in thickness. Two aftershock spatial clusters were revealed at north (L1~10 km and at south (L2~25 km. However, no time correlation was found between the two clusters and the two strong earthquakes. Fitting the temporal evolution of aftershocks to the Omori-law showed slow aftershock decay. Fault plane solutions produced by moment tensor inversions indicated that the strong earthquakes as well as a plenty of aftershocks (Mw≥4.0 were associated with dextral strikeslip faulting with some thrust component and preferred fault planes striking about NNE-SSW. Average fault plane parameters obtained for the three largest events are: strike 21(±20, dip 65.5(±30, slip 173(±30. Broadband P-wave teleseismic records were inverted for understanding the rupture histories. It was found that the earthquake of 26.1.2014 had a complex source time function with c. 62 cm maximum slip, source duration of ~12 s and downwards rupture. Most of the slip was concentrated on a 13x9 km fault rupture. The earthquake of 3.2.2014 had a relatively simple source time function related with one big patch of slip with maximum slip c. 45 cm, with 10 s source duration. The rupture was directed upwards which along with the shallow focus (~5 km and the simple source time function may explain the significantly larger (0.77 g PGA recorded with the second earthquake with respect to the one recorded (0.56 g with the first earthquake. Most of the slip was concentrated on a 12x6 km fault rupture. Maximum seismic intensity (Im of level VII and VIII

  13. Immaterial landscapes: Homeric geography and the Ionian Islands in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, G.J.


    To understand the human perception of landscapes in the past, archaeologists would require knowledge of the immaterial landscape elements: the stories that are connected to physical landscape features. One way of acquiring access to such stories is through written literature (poetry, prose), which

  14. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The case of cliff erosion and retreat of Santorini cliffy coastlines, due to wave action, has been underestimated in bibliography. Accord- ing to Davidson-Arnott (2010), unlike sandy coasts where erosion may be reversed by deposition and. Keywords. Thera/Santorini; GIS; wave erosion; coastline. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 125, No.

  15. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit


    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  16. Investigation of orography impact on extreme dry spells over Greece (United States)

    Oikonomou, C.; Flocas, H.; Manola, I.; Hatzaki, M.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.


    Precipitation regime over Greece is controlled by the atmospheric circulation, orography sea surface temperature distribution and land/sea interaction. Previous studies have shown that the precipitation amounts are increased in Western Greece, which is located in the upstream side of the largest mountain range of the central mainland. Furthermore, the longest dry spells were identified in south eastern part of Greece during summer and in northern Greek area during winter. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of topography on prolonged dry periods over Greece, using the third generation hydrostatic Regional Climate Model RegCM3, which shows a noticeable improvement in the representation of the surface hydrological cycle in mountainous regions. More specifically, an attempt is made to study the distribution of prolonged dry spells during two seasons, summer of 1993 and winter of 1989, over the Greek area, under two different simulation scenarios: the first employs the real orography of the Greek area while in the second one the orography is eliminated, by transforming the models terrain code. Both simulation experiments were conducted with the high spatial resolution of 10 Km, while the MIT-Emanuel Convective Precipitation Scheme was selected for the computation of convective precipitation, as it offers more physical representation of convection compared to the other oldest schemes of RegCM. The model was firstly validated through comparisons of the model outputs with observed precipitation amount data, employing 20 stations over Greece for the two selected seasons. The validation demonstrated that the model can simulate precipitation amount quite well over the Greek area, except for the south Dodecanese Islands, where precipitation is underestimated, and the eastern continental Greece, where the daily precipitation is overestimated. For the identification of the extreme dry spells, the climatic index CDD (Maximum number of consecutive dry days

  17. Geology and radiometry of West Macedonia (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatidis, Demetrios G.


    Car borne scintillometry survey in W. Macedonia (Greece) showed that the granitic rocks of the area, the zone centered on the Tertiary volcanic rocks of Almopia zone and a large part of adjacent sediments constitute the most promising geological formations for further uranium exploration. Some Tertiary volcanic rocks in the general area centered on the Aegean plate are associated with uranium mineralization and high radioactivity. An attempt has been made to evaluate young Alpine volcanic rocks from uranium exploration point of view on a regional scale by using arithmetic mean radioactivity data from the car borne survey coverage of W. Macedonia, as well as other geological and geochemical data from numerous similar volcanic rocks of the area and other neighbouring areas. In connection with this further exploration of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of W. Macedonia is expected to reveal new uranium deposits in the area. Horizontal or gently dipping sedimentary rocks adjacent to the above mentioned volcanics have a statistical radioactivity higher than that in normal sediments, a fact that may give evidence of the existence or uranium mineralization in deeper horizons in these sediments. To make a comparison with this the existence of 134 ppm of leachable U in sediments of W. Crete Island, 20 to 30 meters below the surface, is reported where the overlying sediments exhibit also a radioactivity higher than in normal sediments. Some structural contacts, in particular the contact between the granite of Florina and the limestones of Krystallopigi (west of Florina), have locally a very high radioactivity. Also an open fault in the Achlada-Papadia area (Florina) exhibits locally a high radioactivity and a high U content. All the above mentioned geological formations are, therefore, proposed for further U exploration. (author)

  18. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece (United States)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella


    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (Entrepreneurship" co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the Ministry of Education and Relegious Affairs.

  19. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar


    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  20. Health technology assessment in Greece. (United States)

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D


    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  1. A telehealth integrated asthma-COPD service for primary care: a proposal for a pilot feasibility study in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanakis Nikolaos E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma are considered underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed chronic diseases. In The Netherlands, a COPD-asthma telemedicine service has been developed to increase GPs' ability to diagnose and manage COPD and asthma. A telemedicine COPD-asthma service may benefit Greece as it is a country, partly due to its geography, that does not have easy access to pulmonologists. Findings Therefore, a pilot feasibility study has been designed in Greece in order to establish this telemedicine service. Ten rural practices, in the island of Crete, with an average population of 2000 patients per practice will pilot the project supported by three pulmonologists. This paper presents the translated interfaces, the flowcharts and the steps that are considered as necessary for this feasibility study in Crete, Greece.

  2. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats in Greece. (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Barros, Luciano A; Morelli, Simone; Halos, Lenaig; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato


    Despite the evidence that Mediterranean Europe offers suitable conditions for the biology of felid respiratory metastrongyloids, no updated data on the presence of felid lungworms are available for Greece. Although the cat lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is considered as enzootic in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in some areas of continental Greece, conversely, Troglostrongylus brevior, has only been reported in the island of Crete. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats from four different Greek locations including islands where European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), believed to be the natural reservoir of T. brevior, are considered absent. Faeces were collected from 125 stray cats in the city of Athens, and in Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos Islands, and examined by copromicroscopic techniques for the presence of lungworm larvae. When present, larvae were morphologically and molecularly identified. The occurrence of A. abstrusus and T. brevior was confirmed in 10 (8 %) and 7 (5.6 %) of the samples, respectively. In particular, T. brevior was detected in domestic cats in the city of Athens, and in Mykonos and Skopelos Islands, where wildcats are not present. This information illustrates that T. brevior may infect domestic cats regardless of the presence of the natural host. Considering the relevant clinical impact of this nematode especially in young animals, it is advisable to include troglostrongylosis in the differential diagnosis of cat respiratory diseases also where this parasite is unexpected.

  3. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini


    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  4. First palaeoseismological results from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pavlides


    Full Text Available This is a brief account of our approach to trends in palaeoseismological research that are currently emerging in Greece, with the application of modern investigative methods practised world-wide in active tectonic zones. These techniques include fault stratigraphy in trenches, and dating recent fault reactivations in order to understand and distinguish palaeoseismic events along specific segments of active faults, named Gerakarou (Mygdonia Basin, Thessaloniki area, Palaeochori Fault (Kozani-Grevena, Western Macedonia, Souli (Petousi, Epirus, and Volos-Larissa (Thessaly plain. Four palaeoearthquakes were investigated on the Gerakarou fault segment, with a uniform slip rate and return period around 7000 years. In Western Macedonia "aseismic areas" the Servia-Palaeochori recently activated fault shows a -3500 year quiescence. Three coseismic events on the Souli Fault pre- and post-date to 26000 year deposits.

  5. Augustan Greece in Strabo’s Geography: A Short Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šašel Kos


    Full Text Available Strabo dedicated books 8 and 9 of his Geography to Greece, which he describes in great detail. While the greater part of his narrative reads like the description of an earlier Greece, he does include some interesting notes on his own period. His descriptions largely refer to passages in Homer, whom he considers the ultimate authority, since the Iliad and Odyssey formed an important part of the then school curriculum. A recurring observation is that a number of Greek settlements, once densely populated, were in his day deserted. There is no doubt that much of Greece was left waste in the Hellenistic period, especially in the period from Polybius (2nd century B.C. to Strabo (the beginning of the Christian era. While the information from Strabo’s own time represents a very small portion of the two books, it is often of great historical interest. He mentions, for example, the rule of Gaius Iulius Eurycles in Sparta; Eurycles came into conflict with Rome because he allegedly abused his friendship with Augustus, appropriating the island of Cythera and tyrannically extending his power through Laconia. Certainly one of the most influential personages in the Greece of his day, he had inscriptions set up in his honour throughout Laconia and elsewhere in the Peloponnese.  Somewhat more attention is devoted by Strabo to Corinth, which he visited personally. According to him, the city’s affluence was due to trade: lying on the Isthmus, it controlled two ports, Cenchreae, from which ships sailed for Asia, and Lechaeum, which was its link to Greece. Strabo describes the dramatic fall of Corinth: in 146 B.C. it was burnt down by the Roman consul, Lucius Mummius, and robbed of practically all its art works, which were then used to adorn the temples in Rome, in other Italian towns and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, since many were sold as war booty. Strabo mentions that Polybius, who was in Corinth at the time, was particularly saddened by the Roman

  6. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brianas, Jason


    .... For the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States and subsequent 11 March 2004 Madrid bombings in Spain complicated an already robust Greek security plan...

  7. The Shadow Economy and Corruption in Greece


    Stavros Katsios


    The paper highlights the interaction between the underground economy and corruption, focussing on the regional dimensions of the problem in south-eastern Europe. It discusses the theoretical approach to underground economic activities and focuses on the determinants of the Greek economy, the tax and national insurance burdens and the intensity of the relevant regulations in Greece, concluding that Greece shows profound signs of a transition country in terms of the high level of regulation lea...

  8. Macroculture, Athletics and Democracy in ancient Greece


    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas


    In the present essay we examine whether and how sports affected the emergence of democracy as a political phenomenon in Classical Greece. To achieve this we introduce in a model the concept of macroculture as a complex of mutually supporting values, norms and beliefs in various areas of human activity, like athletics, war, politics, etc. Then, we proceed through a historical review on the history of sports in Ancient Greece and we investigate various aspects of how and under which terms athle...

  9. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich


    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  10. Greece is the future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douzinas, Costas; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund


    Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas.......Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas....

  11. Microbiological risk assessment of Agios Georgios source supplies in Northwestern Greece based on faecal coliforms determination and sanitary inspection survey. (United States)

    Giannoulis, N; Maipa, V; Konstantinou, I; Albanis, T; Dimoliatis, I


    The assessment of potential risks from microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies is of greatest concern to human health. The study involves the examination of water samples from Agios Georgios source that supplies the capitals, the major towns and several villages of Arta, Preveza and Lefkada prefectures, in Northwestern Greece. The study includes the sanitary inspection survey of the source and the microbiological examination of water samples on a monthly basis during the period February 1996-June 1999 except of Augusts (n=38). The microbiological risk assessment (MRA) approach of World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was applied to enhance the source protection. The faecal contamination of the source water was quantified using faecal coliforms (FC) as indicator bacteria. Microbiological analyses indicate that of the 38 samples analyzed the FC failure rate (positive samples) was 63.2% according to the limit set by the 98/83 directive of the European Union. The 36.8% of the source water samples was found in conformity with WHO guidelines, 42.1% of low risk, 21.1% of intermediate risk while there was not found samples of high or very high risk. Failure rates displayed a seasonal trend being greater during the winter, decreased during spring and autumn and lower during summer. This observation was explained partially by a significant positive relationship with the rainfall amount (r(Spearmann)=0.890, P=0.001). The sanitary inspection score was found 5/10 during the whole survey period that corresponds to an intermediate risk of source contamination. The color-code classification for FC contamination was found 36.8% A (blue, no risk), 42.1% B (green, low risk) and 21.1% C (yellow, intermediate risk). The previous risks were combined for the assessment of waterborne risk, which was determined as intermediate to high; therefore there is a need for high action priority. The potential remedial actions were also suggested in order to improve the source

  12. Galapagos Islands (United States)


    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Social attitude towards wind energy applications in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.


    During the last 3 yr (1999-2002) a significant increase in the utilization of the existing wind power has taken place in Greece, after a long period (1993-1998) of inactivity. Unfortunately, the largest part of new scheduled installations is concentrated in a few geographical regions, in an attempt to take advantage of the existing electrical network capabilities and the acceptable infrastructure situation. This significant concentration of very large size wind turbines, rapidly installed in a few geographical areas, led to serious reactions from the local population, which in some cases even led to the complete cancellation of the wind power projects. In this context, an extensive study is conducted, concerning the public attitude towards wind energy applications, in several island and mainland Greek territories possessing high wind potential and investment interest. The results obtained significantly reveal acceptance of the existing wind parks, being, however, rather against new installations. More specifically, in the Greek islands the public attitude is clearly supportive, while in the Greek mainland the public attitude is either divided or definitely against wind power applications. The most troublesome outcome of this survey is the existence of a specific minority that is strongly against wind energy applications, disregarding any financial benefits. Among the primary conclusions drawn, one may underline the necessity of additional public information regarding the wind energy sector

  14. Italian musicians in Greece during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Ekaterini


    Full Text Available In Greece, the monophonic chant of the Orthodox church and its neumatic notation have been transmitted as a popular tradition up to the first decades of the 20th century. The transformation of Greek musical tradition to a Western type of urban culture and the introduction of harmony, staff notation and western instruments and performance practices in the country began in the 19th century. Italian musicians played a central role in that process. A large number of them lived and worked on the Ionian Islands. Those Italian musicians have left a considerable number of transcriptions and original compositions. Quite a different cultural background existed in Athens. Education was in most cases connected to the church - the institution that during the four centuries of Turkish occupation kept Greeks united and nationally conscious. The neumatic notation was used for all music sung by the people, music of both western and eastern origin. The assimilation of staff notation and harmony was accelerated in the last quarter of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century in Athens a violent cultural clash was provoked by the reformers of music education all of them belonging to German culture. The clash ended with the displacement of the Italian and Greek musicians from the Ionian Islands working at the time in Athens, and the defamation of their fundamental work in music education.

  15. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece


    Laspidou, Chrysi; Hadjibiros, Kimon; Gialis, Stylianos


    The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for suppl...



    PApathanasiou, Valantis


    The purpose of the educational project was the development of historical thinking and historical consciousness among primary school students through exhibitions which involved their participation in relevant art creation and play. An experiential learning approach, museum educational techniques and methods of teaching through art, play and material culture were used. Three children’s museums were organized during 2010-2013 at three different primary schools in Evia Island, Greece. During the ...

  17. Preliminary lightning observations over Greece (United States)

    Chronis, Themis G.


    The first Precision Lightning Network, monitoring the Cloud-to-Ground (CG) lightning stroke activity over Greece and surrounding waters is operated and maintained by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. This paper studies the regional (land/water interface), seasonal and diurnal variability of the CG strokes as a function of density, polarity and peak current. Additional investigation uniquely links the CG stroke current to sea surface salinity and cloud electrical capacitance. In brief, this study's major findings area as follows: (1) The seasonal maps of thunder days agree well with the regional climatic convective characteristics of the study area, (2) the CG diurnal variability is consistent with the global lightning activity observations over land and ocean, (3) the maxima of monthly averaged CG counts are located over land and water during typical summer and fall months respectively for both polarities, (4) CG peak currents show a distinct seasonality with larger currents during relatively colder months and smaller currents during summer months, and (5) strong linear trends between -CGs and sea surface salinity; (6) this trend is absent for +CGs data analysis of the employed database relate to the thunderstorm's RC constant and agrees with previous numerical modeling studies.

  18. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece. (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P


    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  19. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has

  20. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.


    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  1. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiec Lech


    Full Text Available This paper relates to material obtained during two field trips to the Peloponnese in 2013 and 2016. With the inclusion of some hitherto unpublished ant material, it gives new records from a total of 92 sampling localities. 129 species (including morphospecies not attributed to any known taxon of ants have been recorded from the Peloponnese (southern Greece, 27 of which have been recorded from this region for the first time. Lasius reginae and 5 other morphospecies attributed only to species complexes are new to Greece.

  2. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj


    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Greece. The introduction is followed by four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about the country, 2. the historical development of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the authorís goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Greeceís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Greek approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Greek reality The National Actuary.

  3. Recent records of hypogeous fungi in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Diamandis


    Full Text Available Uncertainty among Greek farmers who are in search of new and profitable crops has increased interest in truffle cultivation. Recent research has come up with 23 taxa of hypogeous fungi new for Greece including gastronomically valuable species. Natural ecosystems of Quercus pubescens, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex and Q. coccifera seem to be rich in hypogeous species. Ecosystems with Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Mediterranean pines and even poplar plantations were found to also host hypogeous fungi. These records, supported by historical information about the existence of truffles in Greece, seem to be encouraging hints for systematic truffle cultivation.

  4. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece (United States)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  5. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada (United States)

    Miliotis, Helen


    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  6. Vegetation ecology of Kalodiki Fen (NW Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimopoulos, P.; Sykora, K.V.; Gilissen, C.; Wiecherink, D.; Georgiadis, T.


    Freshwater wetlands around the Mediterranean Sea have decreased considerably in number and quality. Greece has lost two thirds of its wetlands during the last seventy-five years; however, many wetlands with considerable conservation value remain. Kalodiki Fen is an inland, freshwater wetland

  7. Intrafamily Acculturation of Values in Greece. (United States)

    Georgas, James


    Responses to a family-values questionnaire administered to 678 members of 226 3-person families (2 parents and 1 child) from rural and urban Greece indicate that acculturation of traditional family values differs for urban and rural environment, gender, and generation. Analysis suggests a trend toward individual not traditional collectivist…

  8. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece (United States)

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini


    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  9. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal. (United States)

    Squeri, Lawrence


    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  10. Additional records of Actiniaria (Anthozoa) from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Hartog, den J.C.


    A small collection of four species of Actiniaria, partly representing new records for Greece and the eastern Mediterranean, is described and discussed. These four species are: Bunodeopsis strumosa Andres, 1881, Edwardsia claparedii (Panceri, 1869), Actinia cari delle Chiaje, 1825, and Phymanthus

  11. Tsunamis Observed on the Coasts of Greece from Antiquity to Present Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In comparison with the great number of disastrous earthquakes
    which have occurred from antiquity to the present time in Greece, large
    tsunamis are very rare on the coasts of Greece. A really great tsunami
    may have started in the Aegean Sea after the tremendous explosion of
    Santorin volcano, which occurred 3370 ± 100 years ago (13. After the
    deposit of a layer of pumice 20-30 m thick and the emptying of the
    volcanic focus, the roof of the cavern thus formed collapsed. The
    centrai part, consisting of an area of 83 sq km, of the former island
    Stronghyb tlius became a gigantic caldera 300-400 m deep.
    Tliere is no evidence indicating whether the cobapse took place
    graduaby or ab at once. In the second case a huge tsunami should have
    started greater by far than that generated by the explosion of Krakatoa,
    on August 27, 1883. At that time depths of 200-300 m were formed by
    the sinking (24 of 2/3 of the former island of an area of 33 1/2 sq km.
    Thus the cavity formed by the explosion of Santorin is about 4 times
    greater than that of the Krakatoa.

  12. The self-potential method in the geothermal exploration of Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolopoulos, G. [Ministry of Development, Athens (Greece). General Secretariat for Research and Technology; Louis, I.; Lagios, E. [Univ. of Athens (Greece)


    Self-potential (SP) anomalies are generated by flows of fluid, heat, and ions in the earth. SP investigations have been used to locate and delineate sources associated with such flows in three areas of geothermal interest in Greece -- Lesvos Island, Loutra Hypatis (central Greece), and Nisyros Island. A combination of geophysical methods, with SP being the primary method, has been applied in these areas. The SP method is adversely influenced by various sources of noise. Field procedures have been suggested to minimize their effects by monitoring electrode polarization and telluric activity. The interpretation of SP contour maps is preferred to using profile data. A procedure was adopted for SP interpretation, and the results were satisfactory. However, this model is based on thermoelectric sources only and is not related directly to hot fluid movement. In all three survey areas, the geothermal zones delimited by the SP interpretation in combination with data acquired by other geophysical methods result in an integrated interpretation of the geothermal system. Since SP and very-low-frequency (VLF) anomalies can be generated by the same geological source (i.e., geothermal, highly conductive zone), the corresponding results are compared to provide a strong indication of the presence of geothermal zones. The activity of geothermal zones affects the conductivity of the surrounding medium, which also can be detected by dc resistivity and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) methods. In addition, geothermal zones can be related to various interfaces or tectonic features that can be detected by gravity or seismic methods.

  13. Mediodactylus kotschyi in the Peloponnese peninsula, Greece: distribution and habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Schwarz


    Full Text Available The gecko Mediodactylus kotschyi is considered rare in mainland Greece, yet it is very abundant on the Aegean islands. It has been thought to be saxicolous throughout much of its range. In a recent survey on the Peloponnese peninsula, however, we encountered it mainly on trees, and with higher frequency than previously reported. We combined our observations of localities in which we detected this gecko, and places where we failed to detect it, with data about its occurrence from the literature and museum collections. We posited two hypotheses as possible causes for the apparent relative scarcity of M. kotschyi in the Peloponnese: that it is associated with low precipitation and that it has an aversion to limestone rock. We predicted that M. kotschyi would be more likely to be found in arid places and where limestone is not the dominant type of rock, since it has been reported that this substrate is less suitable for this species. Moreover, we predicted that geckos occurring in limestone regions would be found on trees rather than under rocks. Geckos were indeed found mainly in the more arid parts of the Peloponnese, but not exclusively so. We found no evidence of limestone avoidance. We suggest that, because M. kotschyi is better known as being mostly saxicolous over most of its range, and exclusively so on the Greek islands, in the Peloponnese the search for this species has been restricted to a single habitat type, i.e. under rocks and not on trees. It may thus inhabit more localities in the Peloponnese and be more abundant there than has previously been thought.

  14. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group. (United States)

    Georgalis, Georgios L; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo


    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.

  15. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Greece collected by M. Skytte Christiansen, Svend Rungby and other Danish botanists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen


    Seventy six taxa are reported from 20 localities in Greece. Six taxa are new to Atika (Caloplaca herbidella, Cladonia foliacea, C. subrangiformis, Fulgensia bracteata, Pertusaria amara and Ramalina fastigiata), one is new to the Saronikos Kolpos island Aigina (Cladonia foliacea), one is new...... to the NE Aegean island Lesvos (Umbilicaria spodochroa) and three and 21 taxa are new to the Dodekanisos islands of Kos and Rodos, respectively (Kos: Arthonia cf. punctiformis, Arthopyrenia punctiformis and Collema crispum var. metzleri; Rodos: Arthonia meridionalis, Aspicilia calcarea var. reagens, Bacidia...... incompta, B. laurocerasi, B. punica, Caloplaca aurantia, C. pyracea, Catillaria nigroclavata, Collema cristatum var. marginale, C. subnigrescens, Dirina massiliensis, Gyalecta truncigena, Lecanora horiza, Leptogium massiliense, Milospium graphideorum, Opegrapha celtidicola, Physcia adscendens, Rinodina...

  16. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos


    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  17. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  18. Country policy profile - Greece. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff, subsidies a tax exemption and a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a tax exemption and a subsidy scheme. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014). The Greek progress report was released by the EC in March 2014

  19. Youth unemployment in Greece: Measuring the challenge


    Bell, David N. F.; Blanchflower, David G.


    A historically high level of youth unemployment presents Greece with a huge social and economic challenge. This paper analyses various dimensions of this challenge. We argue that though the conventional definition of "youth" is the 16-24 age group, there is a strong case for considering 25 to 29-year-olds as sharing common problems with conventionally defined youth. There are also grounds for examining why females seem to fare worse than males in the Greek labour market. The negative effects ...

  20. Assessing the PV business opportunities in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Skylogiannis, Georgios K.; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios


    Highlights: • An approach of qualitative judgments for the PV opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. • It can be supplied in other countries by applying different weights to the criteria. • It can be used by everyone in order to find a suitable PV investment without the need of experts in the field. - Abstract: Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with “20–20–20” goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that – except the financial crisis – many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment)

  1. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris


    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  2. The precursory earthquake swarm in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades


    Full Text Available The Hellenic subduction region displays the same precursory swarm phenomenon as has been found in comparable regions of New Zealand and Japan. In the earthquake catalogue of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 10 past sequences of precursory swarms and related major mainshock events have been identified. These correlate, in respect of location, magnitude and time, with the 9 sequences previously identified in New Zealand, and 9 in Japan, bringing the total of sequences to 28, and the totals of related events (allowing for clustering to 56 precursory swarms and 42 mainshock events. The results add strength to the hypothesis that swarms are long-range predictors of mainshock events. A close similarity between the swarm and aftershock magnitudes in a given sequence is also confirmed in Greece, supporting the proposal that swarms are an integral part of the seismogenic process in subduction regions. Further, the modelling of swarms as part of an overall increase in seismicity, the onset of which marks the onset of seismogenesis, is well illustrated from past sequences in Greece. Formal tests are being carried out in Greece, in parallel with New Zealand and Japan, to ascertain the performance of the hypothesis as a basis for long-range synoptic forecasting.

  3. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece. (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N


    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  4. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos


    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  5. On the market of wind with hydro-pumped storage systems in autonomous Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In autonomous islands, the wind penetration is restricted due to technical reasons related with the safe operation of the electrical systems. The combined use of wind energy with pumped storage (WPS) is considered as a mean to exploit the abundant wind potential, increase the wind installed capacity and substitute conventional peak supply. In this paper, the experience gained from the analysis of WPS in three specific islands is used towards the estimation of the WPS market in autonomous Greek islands. Parameterized diagrams and a methodology towards the pre-dimensioning and initial design of the WPS are proposed and used towards the estimation of the market in autonomous Greek islands. The objective is to make an initial general prefeasibility study of WPS prospects in the autonomous Greek islands. Results show that there is a significant market for WPS in Greece and the development cost of WPS is competitive to the fuel cost of local power stations in autonomous islands. (author)

  6. Chernobyl radioactivity in grain produced in Greece in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.; Panetsos, F.


    The Chernobyl radioactive cloud reached Greece in the first days of May 1986. During this period, the gain was in maximum growth; therefore, in absorbing the radionuclides it has become an excellent indicator of the deposited radioactivity. Measurements carried out in grain samples which were obtained from Greece are reported and some conclusions regarding population doses are presented

  7. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece (United States)

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda


    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  8. The 2015, Mw 6.5, Leucas (Ionian Sea, Greece) earthquake: Seismological and Geodetic Modelling (United States)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Taymaz, Tuncay; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Eken, Tuna; Moschas, Fanis; Stiros, Stathis


    A cluster of earthquakes (6Lefkada) earthquake. The modelling of these earthquakes, some of which are double events (2003 Leucas; 2014 Cephalonia) is a challenge for two main reasons. First, the geography of the area limits the distribution of the available seismological and GNSS stations and the correlations of INSAR data. Second, the structural pattern of the area indicates distributed thrusting but recent earthquakes are confined to the west margin of the Aegean Arc, usually assigned to the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF), and are dominated by strike slip faulting. In order to contribute to the understanding active tectonics along this critical region, our study was based on the independent analysis of the seismological and geodetic signature of the 2015 earthquake and the on the joint evaluation of the inferred models on the basis of the fault pattern of the area and of previous earthquakes. First, based on teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms a point-source solution at the SW part of Leucas yielded dominantly right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms (strike: 23o, dip: 68o, rake: -170o) with a shallow focal depth (h: 9 km) and with seismic moment of Mo: 10.4x1018 Nm. Furthermore, the rupture history of the earthquake was obtained by applying a new back-projection method that uses teleseismic P-waveforms to integrate the direct P-phase with reflected phases from structural discontinuities near the source. In the slip inversion the faulting occurs on a single fault plane (strike and dip are obtained from the best fitting point-source solution) and slip (rake) angle varied during the whole rupture process. Second, co-seismic displacements were derived from eight permanent and one campaign GPS stations spread in the near and far field of the meizoseismal area. Significant horizontal slip was recognized, with a maximum dislocation of 36 cm in the SW part of Leucas island. Inversion of GPS-derived displacements using the new TOPological

  9. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece. (United States)

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D


    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  11. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity? (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K


    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  12. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece (United States)


    the name "Meligalas" translates to the serenely beautiful meaning: "the village of milk and honey." 27. McNeill, 170. 28. Averoff-Tossizza, 118. 29...only encourage the rebels, and undermine the morale of the Greek army. To this charge MacVeagh replied to the State Department, " childish and the communist belligerents in the Civil War, and thus loss of Greece would symbolize a loss for the United States in the Cold War contest

  13. Life cycle analysis of pistachio production in Greece. (United States)

    Bartzas, Georgios; Komnitsas, Kostas


    In the present paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study regarding pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivation in Aegina island, Greece, was performed to evaluate the energy use footprint and the associated environmental impacts. In this context, a detailed life cycle inventory was created based on site-survey data and used for a holistic cradle-to-farm gate LCA analysis using the GaBi 6.5 software. The main impact categories assessed were acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) and cumulative energy demand (CED). In order to reveal the main environmental concerns pertinent to pistachio production and in turn propose measures for the reduction of environmental and energetic impacts, three scenarios were compared, namely the Baseline scenario (BS) that involves current cultivation practices, the Green Energy (GE) scenario that involves the use of biological fertilizers i.e. compost, and the Waste Utilization (WU) scenario that involves the production of biochar from pistachio and other agricultural wastes and its subsequent soil application to promote carbon sequestration and improve soil quality. Based on the results of this study, the use of compost for fertilization (GE scenario), which results in approximately 9% savings in terms of energy consumption and the five environmental impact categories studied compared to BS scenario, is considered a promising alternative cultivation strategy. Slightly higher savings (10% on average) in terms of the five calculated environmental impact categories, compared to the BS scenario, were indicated when the WU scenario was considered. Regarding energy consumption, the WU scenario results in minor increase, 3%, compared to the BS scenario. Results of uncertainty analysis performed using the Monte Carlo technique and contribution analysis showed that GE and WU scenarios offer reliable and significant

  14. 14C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.M.; Gauss, W.; Forstenpointner, G.; Lindblom, M.; Smetana, R.; Steier, P.; Thanheiser, U.; Weninger, F.


    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been 14 C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the 14 C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna 14 C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  15. Forty years increase of the air ambient temperature in Greece: The impact on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapsomenakis, J.; Kolokotsa, D.; Nikolaou, T.; Santamouris, M.; Zerefos, S.C.


    Highlights: • Forty years hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece are analysed. • The air temperature increase influences the buildings’ energy demand. • A typical office building’s energy demand is examined. • The heating load is decreased by about 1 kWh/m 2 per decade. • The cooling load is increased by about 5 kWh/m 2 per decade. - Abstract: Air temperatures in urban areas continue to increase because of the heat island phenomenon (UHI) and the undeniable warming of the lower atmosphere during the past few decades. The observed high ambient air temperatures intensify the energy demand in cities, deteriorate urban comfort conditions, endanger the vulnerable population and amplify pollution problems especially in regions with hot climatic conditions. The present paper analyses 40 years of hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece in order to understand the impact of air temperature and relative humidity trends on the energy consumption of buildings. Using a typical office building, the analysis showed that for the period in question the heating load in the Greek building sector has decreased by about 1 kWh/m 2 per decade, while the cooling load increased by about 5 kWh/m 2 per decade. This phenomenon has major environmental, economic and social consequences, which will be amplified in the upcoming decades in view of the expected man-made climatic changes in this geographic area

  16. Evaluation of atmospheric instability indices in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinaki


    Full Text Available The potential of instability indices in assessing atmospheric instability is examined for the areas of Attica, Thessaly and Central Aegean and Crete, Greece. Generally, many indices have been developed to estimate the troposphere's stability for forecasting purposes. At this study several instability indices, commonly used in Meteorology, are computed based on radiosonde data. Firstly, the indices are computed for several months based on the 00:00 and 12:00 UTC radiosonde data during the period 1981–2003. Statistical methods were used to compare and test the effectiveness of these indices in the described area using meteorological data from seventeen meteorological stations of Greece. Thus, the potential of monitoring the atmospheric instability conditions is examined. The next stage of this study is an effort to test the thresholds of the existing indices in order to improve the results of these indices. It seems that this effort can make a good simulation to the assessment of instability, contributing to local level weather forecasting.

  17. Microphysical Characterization of Aerosol Signatures over Greece

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    Akshath Sharma


    Full Text Available A detailed microphysical characterization is presented for aerosol spectra over three major areas over Greece, namely- the Area West of Crete (AWC, the Greater Thessaloniki area (GTA and the Greater Athens Area (GAA based on measurements made by Varotsos (2005. Aerosol size distributions along with cloud droplet concentrations were gathered from data collected from the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-300 and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X flown on a Falcon aircraft over Greece (Varotsos, 2005. However, the microphysical and dynamical characterisation of the observations were left largely unexplored (for this later paper, particularly with regard to their growth and activation into cloud condensation nuclei. A suite of models involving Large Eddy Simulations and an Adiabatic Parcel Model were used to achieve this. The UK Met Office large eddy model (LEM reveals that mild to moderate updraughts in the range of 0.5 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 were present over Athens during June 1997, over the regions containing the aerosol bands. The sophisticated parcel model was then been applied to this data to study the growth of aerosol in the updraughts present and further, to explore the possibility of rainfall. It is found that the grown droplets have radii spanning a range of 6 μm to 100 μm indicating a hundredfold increase over initial size and the region spanning height from 2700 to 3000 meters contains precipitable water.

  18. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece.

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    Paolo Cherubini

    Full Text Available Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ.

  19. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece). (United States)

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha


    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ.

  20. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece

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    Gabriella Papastefanou


    Full Text Available Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity.

  1. The genus Eustigmaeus Berlese (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Greece. (United States)

    Stathakis, Theodoros I; Kapaxidi, Eleftheria V; Papadoulis, Georgios Th


    The present study summarizes the previous limited knowledge on the genus Eustigmaeus from Greece. Based on material collected from many localities, nine species are recorded from Greece for the first time and four species, Eustigmaeus irregularis sp. nov., E. fantinoui sp. nov., E. microvacuolatus sp. nov., and E. capitatus sp. nov. are described as new to science. Additionally, males of five known species of Eustigmaeus are described for the first time. A list of the world species of the genus Eustigmaeus and a key to species of this genus recorded in Greece are provided.

  2. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece. (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda


    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PGreece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis


    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  4. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis. (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne


    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  5. European Patient Summary Guideline: Focus on Greece. (United States)

    Berler, Alexander; Tagaris, Anastassios; Chronaki, Catherine


    The European Patient Summary (PS) guideline specifies a minimal dataset of essential and important information for unplanned or emergency care initially defined in the epSOS project with aim to improve patients' safety and quality of Care. The eHealth Network of European Union (EU) Member State (MS) representatives established under Article 14 of the EU directive 2011/24 on patient rights to cross-border healthcare adopted PS guideline in November 2013 and since then the guideline has been part of MS strategic eHealth implementation plans, standardization efforts, and concrete regional, national, European and international projects. This paper reviews implementation efforts for the implementation of an operational patient summary service in Greece drawing on challenges and lessons learned for sustainable standards-based large scale eHealth deployment in Europe and abroad, as well as the reuse of best practices from international standards and integration profiles.

  6. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life. (United States)

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna


    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  7. Country policy profile - Greece. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff, subsidies a tax exemption and a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a tax exemption and a subsidy scheme. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014). The Greek progress report was released by the EC in March 2014. This EurObserv'ER report reports on a new Greek law: 'Measures for the support and development of Greek economy within the scope of application of Law 4046/2012 and other provisions', published in the Government Gazette on 7 April 2014, introducing various new elements in the Greek RES policy

  8. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece. (United States)

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M


    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  9. First confirmed record of Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulis Georgios


    Full Text Available The paper confirms the presence of Elodea canadensis Michx. in Greece and outlines the history of contradictory relevant reports. This is also the first report of the species′ presence in the transboundary lake Great Prespa.

  10. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece


    Athanasios Ragkos; Anna Siasiou; Vasiliki Lagka; Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Zaphiris Abas


    Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the tra...

  11. Islands in the Midst of the World (United States)


    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the

  12. The efficient enhancement of solar energy utilization in Lasithi prefecture, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, G.; Moustakas, K.; Koroneos, C.; Loizidou, M.; Tzempelikos, A.


    This paper presented a study on maximizing the use of solar energy in the Prefecture of Lasithi on the island of Crete in southern Greece, followed by an investigation of the possible replacement of diesel and heavy fuel oil. While renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal energy are abundant on the Greek Islands, their use is limited. This presentation emphasized that solar energy could play a key role in meeting Greece's objective of satisfying 8.6 per cent of its electricity needs using renewable sources by 2010. An optimization methodology was applied to the prefecture in order to exploit the island's solar energy and to satisfy part of its energy needs. In 2001, the population of Lasithi was 76,318. From 1997 to 2002, the total energy consumption in Lasithi increased by an average of 6.4 per cent. The technologies that were considered for the exploitation of solar energy were thermal solar systems (solar radiation into water heating); photovoltaics solar systems (solar radiation into electricity); and, inverted absorber solar stills (solar radiation into drinkable water). A mathematical model was developed to optimize each energy scenario. The basis for analysis was the total amount of diesel, heavy fuel oil and electricity consumed in Lasithi from 1997 to 2002 in correlation with the solar exploitation potential in the prefecture. This paper also presented a review of photovoltaic systems (PV modules, batteries, power conditioning, generators, and pumps), solar air heating systems on buildings and solar water heating systems. It was noted that the extent to which the energy demands will be satisfied by the use of these systems will depend on both financial and environmental criteria. It was determined that for heating and domestic use, the energy from solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar stills and concentrators could meet 97.3 per cent of the energy needs for the prefecture. The remaining energy could be supplied by liquid fuels and the

  13. Polychaetes of Greece: an updated and annotated checklist (United States)

    Simboura, Nomiki; Katsiaras, Nikolaos; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Arvanitidis, Christos


    Abstract Background The last annotated checklist of marine polychaetes in Greece was published in 2001. Since then, global taxonomic progress, combined with many new species records for Greece, required a thorough review of the taxonomic, nomenclatural and biogeographic status of the national species list. This checklist revises the status of all extant polychaete species reported from the Greek Exclusive Economic Zone since 1832. The work was undertaken as part of the efforts on compiling a national species inventory (Greek Taxon Information System initiative) in the framework of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure. New information This checklist comprises an updated and annotated inventory of polychaete species in Greek waters, compiled from literature reports, online databases, museum collections and unpublished datasets. The list provides information on 836 species-level taxa from Greece, of which 142 are considered questionable. An additional 84 species reported in the past are currently considered absent from Greece; reasons for the exclusion of each species are given. Fourteen species are reported here for the first time from Greek waters. At least 52 species in the present list constitute in fact a complex of cryptic or pseudo-cryptic species. Forty-seven species are considered non-native to the area. In addition to the species-level taxa reported in this checklist, eleven genera have been recorded from Greece with no representatives identified to species level. One replacement name is introduced. For each species, a comprehensive bibliographic list of occurrence records in Greece and the synonyms used in these publications are provided as supplementary material. Where necessary, the taxonomic, nomenclatural or biogeographic status is discussed. Finally, the findings are discussed in the wider context of Mediterranean polychaete biogeography, taxonomic practice and worldwide research progress. PMID:29362552

  14. Moldovan Perception of Greece as a Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Cazacu


    Full Text Available Purpose: This research study analyzes Moldovans' intentions to visit Greece, and their perceptions of Greece's image as a tourism destination, according to the following dimensions: (1 environmental beauty and convenience, (2 country's citizens, (3 place and architectural structure, (4 shopping and tourist accommodation and (5 similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. The goal is split into four objectives. Design/methodology/approach: For attaining the goal, a self-administered questionnaire was delivered. The empirical study was conducted in the capital of Moldova. The findings are based upon a sample of 139 respondents. Findings: The findings reveal that, overall, Greece's image as a tourist destination among Moldovan consumers is partially positive. The perceptions of the tourism dimensions were evaluated in the descending order as follows: place and architectural structure, shopping and tourist accommodation, environmental beauty and convenience, country's citizens and similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. Research limitations/implications: As it was undertaken only in the capital of Republic of Moldova and because most respondents are young people and females, the findings of this investigation do not absolutely reflect the perceptions of all Moldovans. Also, because the number of respondents is small, it is not representative of the whole Moldovan population. Hence, the results might not be very realistic and accurate. Originality/value: This study provides insightful theoretical implications and practical recommendations in creating marketing strategies that would help in managing and improving Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan tourists. Also, no study, at least to the researcher's knowledge, has evaluated Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan consumers. Finally, due to the increasing number of Moldovan tourists in Greece, it is important that Greece grasps this

  15. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Trikala municipality, central Greece. (United States)

    Skordas, Konstantinos; Papastergios, Georgios; Tziantziou, Lamprini; Neofitou, Nikolaos; Neofitou, Christos


    Sixty-four samples from the groundwater resources of Trikala municipality, central Greece, were collected during two periods (2006 and 2007) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, specific electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids), major ions (Ca(2+), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)), and several potentially toxic elements (Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn). European Council directives and USEPA guidelines were used to assess the water quality. The results indicate that all samples are fresh water, suitable for human consumption. All basic ions and physico-chemical parameters have average concentrations below their recommended optimum limits with the exception of electrical conductivity, for January 2007, and nitrate for October 2006 and January 2007 sampling periods. This exceedance is the result of dissolution of minerals such as calcite and dolomite that are present in the surrounding rocks and the application of fertilizers, respectively. Lead is the only element with an average value that exceeds the recommended EC guideline, while special attention should be paid to one borehole (T9) which has elevated NO(3)(-) values which may pose a risk to human health.

  16. Abortion policy and practice in Greece. (United States)

    Georges, E


    Despite its illegality until recently, abortion is estimated to have been responsible for almost half of the sharp postwar decline in the Greek birth rate. This article examines abortion as a part of a Greek contraceptive culture which has taken shape during the postwar period both in response, and in resistance to, a variety of macro- and micropolitical institutions and forces. During much of this period, pronatalist policies and discourses of both state and church combined to foreclose most medical contraceptive alternatives. In contrast, illegal abortion was a relatively safe, medicalized procedure widely practiced by doctors. Even after being legalized in 1980, female medical contraceptive methods continue to be rejected by the great majority of Greek women, and abortion and male methods of birth control remain the principal means of controlling fertility. The article focuses on the specific abortion practices and meanings of three generations of married women living in the city of Rhodes, capital of the Dodecanese Province of Greece's Eastern Aegean, and explores the ways in which they have been shaped by, and reflect, local cultural understandings of the body, health, sexuality, morality, motherhood and childhood, as well as micropolitical relations within the family.

  17. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece (United States)


    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  18. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.


    The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos...... in Greece. An optimisation methodology was applied to the energy system of the island, where various Renewable Energy Sources are abundant and could be exploited to satisfy part of the island's energy needs. An optimization model has been developed having as an objective the satisfaction of Lemnos Island...... energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility...

  19. The electricity consumption and economic growth nexus: Evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polemis, Michael L.; Dagoumas, Athanasios S.


    This paper attempts to cast light into the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Greece in a multivariate framework. For this purpose we used cointegration techniques and the vector error correction model in order to capture short-run and long-run dynamics over the sample period 1970–2011. The empirical results reveal that in the long-run electricity demand appears to be price inelastic and income elastic, while in the short-run the relevant elasticities are below unity. We also argue that the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Greece is bi-directional. Our results strengthen the notion that Greece is an energy dependent country and well directed energy conservation policies could even boost economic growth. Furthermore, the implementation of renewable energy sources should provide significant benefits ensuring sufficient security of supply in the Greek energy system. This evidence can provide a new basis for discussion on the appropriate design and implementation of environmental and energy policies for Greece and other medium sized economies with similar characteristics. -- Highlights: •We examine the causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. •We used cointegration techniques to capture short-run and long-run dynamics. •The relationship between electricity consumption and GDP is bi-directional. •Residential energy switching in Greece is still limited. •The implementation of renewable energy sources should ensure security of supply


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korol


    Full Text Available The purpose. The impact of foreign debt growth on the social and economic performance of Greece was shown. The parameters of GDP, consumption, interest rates, unemployment and government spendings were analyzed. Methodology. Data obtained for 2001-2014 was used for regression analysis, vector autoregression and as well as Kalman filter. Results. A multi-faced analysis of the debt for EU-member states and Greece in particular was performed. The events and decisions of Greek authorities leading to the crisis were summarized in structural and logical scheme. The recommendations for the economic policy of Greece, based on the performed analysis were suggested. The practical applications. Establishment of all weaknesses and empirical testing of the necessary indicators in this study was the basis for the justification of measures to stabilize the economic situation in Ukraine and Greece. Value/originality. The Mandel-Fleming model and the model of balance of savings-investments was used for the first time for the theoretical interpretation of the nature of the debt crisis in Greece, that under the influence of capital inflows caused by the deterioration of the current account balance and interest rate cuts. The increase in foreign borrowings has led to an increase in the budget deficit and reduction in savings. Also for the first time performed regression-correlation analysis, in particular the Kalman filter is used to study the effect of debt on macroeconomic performance of the Greek economy.

  1. [Emigration and immigration in Greece: recent trends and political questions]. (United States)

    Pteroudis, E


    "In order to give an account of the migrations related to Greece, the Greek territory can be characterized by several attributes that account for the way in which a certain form of migration has been understood in relation to this country. Therefore, Greece can be spoken of, not only as a space of work, circulation, settlement, especially for the citizens of the EEC and for clandestine immigrants, but also as a space of retirement, retreat and transit, whether for refugees or for people belonging to a Greek minority.... We will attempt a statistical approach of the migratory phenomenon as well as a presentation of the figures for each country of origin, and a global appreciation of the economic and social importance of these migratory movements for Greece." The implications for migration policy are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA) excerpt

  2. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece. (United States)

    Petsimeris, P


    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  3. Characteristics of low-enthalpy geothermal applications in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andritsos, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34 Volos (Greece); Dalabakis, P. [Land Reclamation Institute, NAGREF, 574 00 Sindos, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karydakis, G. [IGME, Geothermal Energy Section, Sp. Loui 1, 136 77 Acharnes (Greece); Kolios, N. [IGME, Branch of Central Macedonia, Frangon 1, 546 26 Thessaloniki (Greece); Fytikas, M. [Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 540 06 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The paper offers a brief overview of the current direct geothermal uses in Greece and discusses their characteristics, with emphasis to the economical and technical problems encountered. Greece holds a prominent place in Europe regarding the existence of promising geothermal resources (both high and low-enthalpy), which can be economically exploited. Currently, no geothermal electricity is produced in Greece. The installed capacity of direct uses at the end of 2009 is estimated at about 155 MW{sub t}, exhibiting an increase of more than 100% compared to the figures reported at the World Geothermal Congress 2005. The main uses, in decreasing share, are geothermal heat pumps, swimming and balneology, greenhouse heating and soil warming. Earth-coupled and groundwater (or seawater) heat pumps have shown a drastic expansion during the past 2-3 years, mainly due to high oil prices two years ago and easing of the license requirements for drilling shallow wells. (author)

  4. Geranium kikianum sp nov (Geraniaceae) from the southern Peloponnese, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Vold, G.


    Geranium kikianum Kit Tan & G. Vold sp. nov. (Geraniaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to Greece. It occurs beside streams and other wet places in open Pinus nigra forest at the foothills of Mt Taigetos in the southern Peloponnese. It is closely related to G. macrorrhizum....... macrorrhizum are presented here for the first time. The nuclear DNA content (2C values) of 2.84 pg for G. kikianum and 2.83 and 2.87 pg for two G. macrorrhizum populations from Greece probably corresponds to a 2n=92 cytotype while the smaller genome size of 1.45 pg in a population of G. macrorrhizum from Mt...... Smolikas, Greece may correspond to a 2n=46 cytotype...

  5. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili). (United States)

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba


    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  6. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands. (United States)

    Mayr, E


    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  7. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight (United States)


    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.


    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece. (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G


    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  10. Malaria in Greece, 1975 to 2010. (United States)

    Vakali, A; Patsoula, E; Spanakos, G; Danis, K; Vassalou, E; Tegos, N; Economopoulou, A; Baka, A; Pavli, A; Koutis, C; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Kremastinou, T


    Malaria, which was endemic in Greece in the past, was officially eliminated in 1974. Since that time and up to 2010, a number of imported cases (ranging from 19 to 76) have been annually reported. The total number of reported laboratory-confirmed cases between 1975 and 2010 was 1,419. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 628 (44%) of these cases, while P. vivax was found in 524 (37%). Of the total cases, 1,123 (79%) were male (ratio males vs. females: 3.78). Age was only available for 490 cases, of which 352 (72%) belonged to the 18-40 year-age group. Of the 382 malaria cases reported from 1999 to 2010 for which the region/country of acquisition was known, 210 (55%) were from Africa and 142 (37%) from Asia. The massive introduction of economic migrants, in the period from 1990 to 1991 and from 2006 onwards, mainly from countries where malaria is endemic, resulted in the appearance of introduced sporadic cases. In Peloponnese, Central and East Macedonia, Thrace and East Attica, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (e.g. Anopheles sacharovi, A. superpictus and A. maculipenis) that can act as plasmodia vectors are abundant and during the summer of 2011, 27 P. vivax cases were reported in Greek citizens residing in the agricultural area of Evrotas in Lakonia and without travel history. As further P. vivax malaria cases occurred in the Lakonia and East Attica areas in 2012, it is becoming urgent to strengthen surveillance and perform integrated mosquito control that will help eliminate the potential risk of malaria reintroduction and reestablishment.

  11. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece. (United States)

    Mylona, Dimitra


    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  12. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece]. (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A


    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health.

  13. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.


    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  14. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia


    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  15. The structure of residential energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.


    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of residential energy demand in Greece, and to compare it with some other OECD countries. From the estimates of the short-run and long-run elasticities of energy demand for the period 1965-1999, we find that residential energy demand appears to be price inelastic. Also, we do not find evidence of a structural change probably because of the low efficiency of the energy sector. We find, however, that the magnitude of the income elasticity varies substantially between Greece and other OECD countries

  16. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece. (United States)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L; Patsoula, Eleni; Tegos, Nicholas; Hansson, Helle H; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Vakalis, Nicholas C; Tseroni, Maria; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos


    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However, in 2009 and 2010 six and one autochthonous cases were reported culminating with a total of 40 autochthonous cases reported in 2011, of which 34 originated from a single region: Laconia of Southern Peloponnese. In this study the genotypic complexity of the P. vivax infections from the outbreak in Greece during 2011 is described, to elucidate the possible origin and spread of the disease. Three polymorphic markers of P. vivax were used; Pvmsp-3α and the microsatellites m1501 and m3502 on P. vivax isolates sampled from individuals diagnosed in Greece. Thirty-nine isolates were available for this study (20 autochthonous and 19 imported), mostly from Evrotas municipality in Laconia region, in southern Greece, (n = 29), with the remaining representing sporadic cases originating from other areas of Greece. Genotyping the Evrotas samples revealed seven different haplotypes where the majority of the P. vivax infections expressed two particular Pvmsp-3α-m1501-m3502 haplotypes, A10-128-151 (n = 14) and A10-121-142 (n = 7). These haplotypes appeared throughout the period in autochthonous and imported cases, indicating continuous transmission. In contrast, the P. vivax autochthonous cases from other parts of Greece were largely comprised of unique haplotypes, indicating limited transmission in these other areas. The results indicate that several P. vivax strains were imported into various areas of Greece in 2011, thereby increasing the risk of re-introduction of malaria. In the region of Evrotas ongoing transmission occurred exemplifying that further control measures are urgently needed in this region of southern Europe. In circumstances where medical or travel history

  17. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0840] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION... Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH. (a) Location. The...

  18. {sup 14}C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, E.M., E-mail: [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Gauss, W. [Austrian Archaeological Institute at Athens, Leof. Alexandras 26, Gr10683 Athens (Greece); Forstenpointner, G. [University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Dept. of Pathobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Unit on Archaeozoology and Comparative Morphology, Veterinaerplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna (Austria); Lindblom, M. [Dept. of Archaeology and Ancient History Uppsala, University Box 626, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Smetana, R. [Altertumswissenschaften, University of Salzburg, Residenzplatz 1/I, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Steier, P. [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Thanheiser, U. [Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science (VIAS), Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Weninger, F. [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)


    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been {sup 14}C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the {sup 14}C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna {sup 14}C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  19. Regional seismic hazard for Revithoussa, Greece: an earthquake early warning Shield and selection of alert signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu


    Full Text Available The feasibility of an earthquake early warning Shield in Greece is being explored as a European demonstration project. This will be the first early warning system in Europe. The island of Revithoussa is a liquid natural gas storage facility near Athens from which a pipeline runs to a gas distribution centre in Athens. The Shield is being centred on these facilities. The purpose here is to analyze seismicity and seismic hazard in relation to the Shield centre and the remote sensor sites in the Shield network, eventually to help characterize the hazard levels, seismic signals and ground vibration levels that might be observed or create an alert situation at a station. Thus this paper mainly gives estimation of local seismic hazard in the regional working area of Revithoussa by studying extreme peak ground acceleration (PGA and magnitudes. Within the Shield region, the most important zone to be detected is WNW from the Shield centre and is at a relatively short distance (50 km or less, the Gulf of Corinth (active normal faults region. This is the critical zone for early warning of strong ground shaking. A second key region of seismicity is at an intermediate distance (100 km or more from the centre, the Hellenic seismic zone south or southeast from Peloponnisos. A third region to be detected would be the northeastern region from the centre and is at a relatively long distance (about 150 km, Lemnos Island and neighboring region. Several parameters are estimated to characterize the seismicity and hazard. These include: the 50-year PGA with 90% probability of not being exceeded (pnbe using Theodulidis & Papazachos strong motion attenuation for Greece, PGANTP; the 50-year magnitude and also at the 90% pnbe, M50 and MP50, respectively. There are also estimates of the earthquake that is most likely to be felt at a damaging intensity level, these are the most perceptible earthquakes at intensities VI, VII and VIII with magnitudes MVI, MVII and MVIII

  20. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece. (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos


    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  1. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece. (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H


    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Observations of the atmospheric surface layer parameters during the total solar eclipse of March 29th, in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Founda, Dimitra; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil E.; Petrakis, Michael; Zerefos, Christos [Inst. for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens (Greece)


    This study examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of March 29{sup th} 2006, on some parameters of the atmospheric surface layer. The eclipse effects on the mean, but also turbulent parameters of the wind were studied at Kastelorizo, a small island of southeastern Greece situated within the totality path of the eclipse. Although the eclipse effect on the mean flow was partly masked by the synoptic situation, the analysis of the intensive (high frequency) wind measurements showed a decrease of the turbulent processes with reduced values of the turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress for a short period around the maximum phase of the eclipse. The buoyancy flux decreased by one order of magnitude during the phenomenon. The power spectra of the three wind components were found to be lower by almost one order of magnitude near the total phase when compared to spectra after the end of the eclipse. (orig.)

  3. Normalization to lithium for the assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediment cores from the Aegean Sea, Greece. (United States)

    Aloupi, M; Angelidis, M O


    Sediment cores from the harbour and the coastal zone of Mytilene, island of Lesvos, Greece, were used to study the metal contamination caused by the discharge of untreated urban effluents into the sea. In the harbour. the upper layers were highly enriched in Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, while no metal enrichment was recorded in the cores from the wider coastal zone. The metal data were normalized to Li (conservative element) to compensate for the natural textural and mineralogical variability. It was found that only the upper 18 cm of the core collected from the harbour of Mytilene could be reported as metal contaminated. Also, through the normalization procedure, it was found that the surface layers of coastal sediments assumed 'clean' were enriched in Pb, probably as a result of atmospheric transportation of the metal from the nearby town.

  4. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers


    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  5. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis


    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  6. Public investment and regional growth and convergence : Evidence from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Psycharis, Yannis; Tselios, Vassilis

    This paper estimates the impact of public investment on regional economic growth and convergence at the NUTS 3 level in Greece. Using a new database of public expenditure per region for the period 19782007, it proposes a model which captures not just the impact of public investment in Greek

  7. Inmates' Adult Education in Greece--A Case Study (United States)

    Papaioannou, Vasiliki; Anagnou, Evaggelos; Vergidis, Dimitris


    Correctional education in Greece has been implemented since 1980's. Second Chance Schools (SCS) in prisons were established in 2004, aiming at combating social exclusion. This study's aim is to look into the reasons of school dropout and to interpret why inmates take part in the educational program provided by SCS, registering the motives,…

  8. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece (United States)

    Karavas, Evdokia


    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  9. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece. (United States)

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  11. Bullying among Primary School Children in Athens, Greece. (United States)

    Pateraki, Lena; Houndoumadi, Anastasia


    Investigates bullying behavior in 8-12 year old children in Athens (Greece), using a self-report bullying inventory. Reports that 14.7 percent of children reported being victims of bullying, 6.25 percent stated that they were bullies, while 4.8 percent saw themselves as both. States that boys were usually in the latter categories. (CMK)

  12. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece (United States)

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina


    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  13. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years. (United States)

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D


    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010 (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis


    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  15. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece (United States)

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin


    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  16. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand


    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  17. School Psychology in Greece: A System of Change. (United States)

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Dioguardi, Richard J.


    Discusses origin of school psychology in Greece which emerged with services for mentally disabled in 1937. Explains how laws were instituted with the growing demand for educational services for students with social and emotional needs. Includes discussions on diverse roles of school psychologists, present status of special education, and influence…

  18. The first description of snow algae on Mount Olympus (Greece).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepák, Vladislav; Kvíderová, Jana; Lukavský, Jaromír


    Roč. 103, 3-4 (2016), s. 457-473 ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cryoseston * Olymp Mt. * Greece Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2016

  19. Gender Equality in Employment Utilizing Female Social Entrepreneurship in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.; Charitakis, Stelios


    Greek women are severely affected by the on-going financial crisis. They deal with the effects of unemployment and they experience a marginalised position in the Greek labour market due to deep-rooted stereotypes which result in inequality of employment opportunities. Greece has ratified the CEDAW

  20. Scanning the Business External Environment for Information: Evidence from Greece (United States)

    Kourteli, Liana


    Introduction: This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment,…

  1. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece. (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  2. Secondary Education in Greece. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe. (United States)

    Kallen, Denis

    Cultural and national history have profoundly modeled Greek society and continue to play a vital role in Greek policy and in cultural and social life. This handbook provides a brief overview of secondary education in Greece. The first part describes the country's societal, historical, and political background; educational history and current…

  3. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Greece. (United States)

    Soumelis, Constantin

    The report examines trends and issues concerned with the financing of higher education in Greece from 1974 to 1988. Greek higher education, which is almost all public, has expanded at an average annual rate of 3% during the period with the non-university technical component growing at an annual rate of 17.8%. Though the expansion was facilitated…

  4. Government-opposition dynamics during the economic crisis in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemenis, Konstantinos; Nezi, Roula


    The paper examines the turbulent period of 2010-2012 when Greece became the first EU member-state to accept the IMF/EU bailout package. Unarguably, accepting the bailout package did not have only economic but also electoral consequences as the established party system has been steadily

  5. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.


    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  6. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos


    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  7. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece. (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos


    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  8. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Valiakos

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS. Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density. Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386. Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189 and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  9. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos


    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  10. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  11. Time Series Analysis of TIR Emissions over Nisyros Volcano, SE Greece (United States)

    Pavlidou, E.


    Nisyros island is the easternmost volcano of the Aegean arc (SE Greece). The island has an average diameter of 8km; five large lava domes are spread in the 4km wide caldera, located at its summit [Nomikou et al., 2013]. The volcano is characterized as a low enthalpy field but is geodynamically active, overlaying a dynamic hydrothermal system with surface expressions, thermal waters, fumaroles, and diffuse soil degassing[Lagios et al., 2007, Ganas et al., 2010]. Kinvig et al[2010] classify the volcano in the Very High Threat category, and Nomikou and Papanikolaou[2011] describe that increased hazard may be related to the fault zones and underwater magma chamber of the area. Hybridization of satellite Thermal infrared (TIR) data has been successfully applied in the past to study precursory volcanic activity (see, for example, Reath et al. [2016], Murphy et al. [2013] and others). The work presented here explores the combination of TIR input of moderate spatial/temporal resolution (from MODIS) and high spatial/low temporal resolution (from Sentinel and ASTER) to study thermal emissions over Nisyros. Comparisons are carried out with published radiative heat flux estimations, land surface temperature retrievals and ground-based TIR observations [Lagios et al., 2007, Ganas et al., 2010]. Long time series (2000-present) is constructed for the first time and time series analysis is used to identify oscillations in thermal activity. Two hypothetical scenarios of detecting activity are examined, one for a hydrothermal explosion and one for an effusive flow. The final aim is to establish a baseline for hazard monitoring and explore the utility of different data combinations to study TIR volcanic dynamics in the area.

  12. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system. (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  13. The effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Founda


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables across Greece. Integrated micrometeorological measurements were conducted at Kastelorizo, a small island within the path of totality, and other sites within the Greek domain, with various degrees of solar obscuration. The observations showed a dramatic reduction in the incoming global radiation and subsequent, pronounced changes in surface air temperature with the lowest temperature values occurring about 15 min after the full phase. The amplitude of the air temperature drop was not analogous to the obscuration percentage but was principally determined by the surrounding environment (mainly the sea influence, the background meteorological conditions and local cloudiness. Surface wind-speed decreased in most sites as a result of the cooling and stabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer. This perturbation provided a unique opportunity to apply a sensitivity analysis on the effect of the eclipse to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF numerical mesoscale meteorological model. Strong anomalies, not associated with a dynamic response, were simulated over land especially in surface air temperature. The simulated temperature drop pattern was consistent with the observations.

  14. The effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables in Greece (United States)

    Founda, D.; Melas, D.; Lykoudis, S.; Lisaridis, I.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kouvarakis, G.; Petrakis, M.; Zerefos, C.


    This paper examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables across Greece. Integrated micrometeorological measurements were conducted at Kastelorizo, a small island within the path of totality, and other sites within the Greek domain, with various degrees of solar obscuration. The observations showed a dramatic reduction in the incoming global radiation and subsequent, pronounced changes in surface air temperature with the lowest temperature values occurring about 15 min after the full phase. The amplitude of the air temperature drop was not analogous to the obscuration percentage but was principally determined by the surrounding environment (mainly the sea influence), the background meteorological conditions and local cloudiness. Surface wind-speed decreased in most sites as a result of the cooling and stabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer. This perturbation provided a unique opportunity to apply a sensitivity analysis on the effect of the eclipse to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) numerical mesoscale meteorological model. Strong anomalies, not associated with a dynamic response, were simulated over land especially in surface air temperature. The simulated temperature drop pattern was consistent with the observations.

  15. Trace elements mobility in soils from the hydrothermal area of Nisyros (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Daskalopoulou


    Full Text Available Nisyros Island, Greece, is a stratovolcano known for its intense hydrothermal activity. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field campaign, soil samples were collected in the caldera area to determinate the main mineralogical assemblages and to investigate the distribution of trace element concentrations and the possible relationship to the contribution of fluids of deep origin. Soil samples were analysed with XRD and for the chemical composition of their leachable (deionized water and pseudo total (microwave digestion fraction both for major and trace elements. The results allow to divide the samples in 2 groups: Lakki Plain and Stefanos Crater. The latter, where a fumarolic area is located, shows a mineralogical assemblage dominated by phases typical of hydrothermal alteration. Their very low pH values (1.9 – 3.4 show the strong impact of fumarolic gases which are probably also the cause of strong enrichments in these soils of highly volatile elements like S, As, Se, Bi, Sb, Tl and Te. 

  16. Educational and training activities in personal dosimetry in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An individual monitoring programme is one of the main components of any radiation protection programme since it constitutes the mean for assessing and thus optimising the doses of occupationally exposed workers. The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the competent authority for radiation protection and nuclear safety in Greece. GAEC's educational and training activities in the field of occupational radiation protection at the national and regional (Eastern Europe) level are presented, along with the relevant activities of the Univ. of Ioannina in the region of North-West Greece, as an example of a local education and training programme. The curricula of two postgraduate courses addressed to qualified experts and medical physics experts and mainly the modules dedicated to individual monitoring are discussed as well. (authors)

  17. Developments in the utilisation of wind energy in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Glinou, G.L.; Papachristos, D.


    The utilisation of renewable energy sources, and wind energy in particular, can be described in Greece as a story of high expectations, intense initial entrepreneurial interest, delays in the start-up phase of projects and, some times, disappointments during the implementation procedure. Still, the current situation gives reasons for some optimism. This paper provides a review of the present technological background in wind generators, as found in the Greek market, as well as a detailed analysis of the legislative framework. Moreover, it aims to analyse the development of the process of granting investment and production permissions and their implementation since 1999. Thus, it is possible to identify the main reasons for the problems that occurred since the liberalisation of the electricity market and to account for the interest in wind energy. Finally, comments and proposals are formulated concerning the hidden barriers, the pertinent problems and the promising perspectives of the use of wind energy in Greece. (author)

  18. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinagi, C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Trivellas, P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Reklitis, Panagiotis, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, Department of Logistics Management, 1st km of Old National Roal Thiva-Elefsis-32200, Thiva (Greece); Skourlas, C., E-mail: [Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Informatics, Ag. Spyridonos, Aigaleo-12210, Athens (Greece)


    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  19. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinagi, C.; Trivellas, P.; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, C.


    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support

  20. The medical social centres in support of Roma in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Kotrotsou, Christina; Tsakatara, Vanta


    Roma people form the largest ethnic-minority group in Europe. They account for around 10 to 12 million people, and they face racism, discrimination and social exclusion in most countries. The Roma population of Greece currently numbers around 250 000 individuals. They have Greek nationality...... and enjoy the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as any other Greek citizens. Nevertheless, Roma in Greece face multiple inequalities and social exclusion in terms of housing, employment, education, and health and social services. In this report we present the outcome of a bestpractice initiative....... Medical social centres operate in 33 Roma settlements all over the country. These centres provide vaccination, health promotion, disease prevention and health education services, as well as support in issuing documents and making appointments with health and social services. We recommend that the National...

  1. From Asia Minor to Greece: History, Memory and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yeşim Bedlek


    Full Text Available History and memory studies are among the most controversial topics of our era. While the official history is made up of state discourse, personal history reaches the reader through the memories of the individuals. The events that leave traces in memory are passed on to future generations by oral history studies. The pasts of individuals whose individual experiences are unpacked by the oral historians give us more detailed information about the traumas individuals. Yiannis Karatzoglou also documents his past in order to pass the traumas of migration due to the Lausanne Convention signed in 1923 between Greece and Turkey. This study examines the impact of the social, cultural and political decisions of Turkey and Greece on individuals through the life story of Yiannis in the light of history and memory.

  2. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  3. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece (United States)

    Marinagi, C.; Trivellas, P.; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, C.


    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  4. Susceptibility of malaria vectors to DDT in Greece; laboratory findings. (United States)



    The authors describe an investigation, started in Greece in the autumn of 1953 and continued during the 1954 malaria-transmission season, to determine the variations in the susceptibility to DDT of the anophelines in different localities, with a view to establishing a point of departure which would make it possible to follow any future changes in susceptibility to this insecticide.The degree of susceptibility of the mosquitos to DDT was assessed numerically by both the technique of topical application of microdoses of the insecticide and the technique devised by Busvine & Nash. The villages of Elos and Asterion (Skála area), the Agoulinitsa area, and the Georgioupolis (Crete) area were chosen for the investigation.The findings disclosed considerable differences in the susceptibility to DDT in the above areas, but showed that, on the whole, the tendency for anophelines to acquire resistance to DDT seemed to be continuing in Greece.

  5. Susceptibility of malaria vectors to DDT in Greece (United States)

    Livadas, Gregory A.; Thymakis, Kyriacos


    The authors describe an investigation, started in Greece in the autumn of 1953 and continued during the 1954 malaria-transmission season, to determine the variations in the susceptibility to DDT of the anophelines in different localities, with a view to establishing a point of departure which would make it possible to follow any future changes in susceptibility to this insecticide. The degree of susceptibility of the mosquitos to DDT was assessed numerically by both the technique of topical application of microdoses of the insecticide and the technique devised by Busvine & Nash. The villages of Elos and Asterion (Skála area), the Agoulinitsa area, and the Georgioupolis (Crete) area were chosen for the investigation. The findings disclosed considerable differences in the susceptibility to DDT in the above areas, but showed that, on the whole, the tendency for anophelines to acquire resistance to DDT seemed to be continuing in Greece. PMID:13404428

  6. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspiris Angelos


    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  7. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos


    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  8. Implementation of the e-Bug Project in Greece. (United States)

    Gennimata, Dimitra; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Barbouni, Anastasia; Kremastinou, Jenny


    The e-Bug pack and web site educational material has been translated and adapted to the Greek language and educational background, and implemented throughout Greece as a supplementary educational resource in elementary and junior high schools. Elementary and junior high school teachers in Greece have actively participated in the development of the e-Bug educational resource and supported the implementation of all e-Bug activities. Dissemination to all key national stakeholders has been undertaken, and endorsement has been obtained from educational and medical associations, societies and institutions. Independent evaluation has been carried out, as part of dissertation thesis projects, for postgraduate studies. The e-Bug educational resource provides all the essentials for the dissemination of good health behaviours in hygiene, monitoring the spread of infection and the prudent use of antibiotics, to the youth of this country. Its contribution is expected to be evident in the next adult generation.

  9. Assessment of Parkinson’s disease risk loci in Greece (United States)

    Kara, Eleanna; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Spanaki, Cleanthe; Bozi, Maria; Koutsis, Georgios; Panas, Marios; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Ralli, Styliani; Bras, Jose; Letson, Christopher; Edsall, Connor; Pliner, Hannah; Arepali, Sampath; Kalinderi, Kallirhoe; Fidani, Liana; Bostanjopoulou, Sevasti; Keller, Margaux F; Wood, Nicholas W; Hardy, John; Houlden, Henry; Stefanis, Leonidas; Plaitakis, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Nalls, Mike A; Singleton, Andrew B


    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been shown to be a powerful approach to identify risk loci for neurodegenerative diseases. Recent GWAS in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been successful in identifying numerous risk variants pointing to novel pathways potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Contributing to these GWAS efforts, we performed genotyping of previously identified risk alleles in PD patients and controls from Greece. We showed that previously published risk profiles for Northern European and American populations are also applicable to the Greek population. In addition, while we were largely underpowered to detect individual associations we replicated 5 of 32 previously published risk variants with nominal p-values Greek PD patients. Collectively, these results indicate that there is likely a substantial genetic component to PD in Greece similarly to other worldwide populations that remains to be discovered. PMID:24080174

  10. Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Aspospirgos Area, Athens - Greece (United States)

    Voulgaris, N.; Drakatos, G.; Lekkas, E.; Karastathis, V.; Valadaki, A.; Plessas, S.


    The extensive damages and human life loss related to the September 7, 1999 earthquake in the Athens area (Greece) initiated an effort to re-evaluate seismic hazard in various regions around the capital. One of the target areas selected within the framework of the specially designed research project ESTIA was the industrial area of Aspropirgos, where the epicenter of the main shock was located. The multidisciplinary approach towards seismic hazard assessment included a microseismicity survey and detailed geological and tectonic studies in the area in order to delineate and define the recently activated seismic sources in the area. Initially a portable network, consisting of seventeen (17) digital seismographs was installed and operated for 2 months during the autumn of 2004. A total of five hundred forty five (545) earthquakes (Mrisk calculations. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the General Secretariat for Research and Technology of Greece for the partial support of this research, in the framework of ESTIA project.

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.


    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  12. Supporting sustainable electricity technologies in Greece using MCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doukas, H.; Patlitzianas, K.D.; Psarras, J. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    The penetration of sustainable technologies in electricity generation is low until now in Greece. However, the recent adoption of legislative rules towards the effective operation of liberalized markets, as well as the increased impact of climate change on the electricity sector towards the period 2008-2012, bring out these technologies as key means for establishing conditions of security, stability and environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to put on the map the sustainable technologies for electricity generation in Greece through the formulation of a collective interactive supportive framework, using an existing multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method to elaborate more realistic and transparent outcomes. The approach was implemented under the umbrella of the national Foresight Programme, to assist policy making for sustainable electricity generation technologies. [Author].

  13. Involvement and Loyalty in Recreation Swimming in Greece: Investigating Relationships


    Evangelia Kontogianni; Charilaos Kouthouris; Achilleas Barlas; Vasileiοs Voutselas


    Present study tested the validity of involvement scale (Kyle et al., 2004), examined differences according demographic characteristics and investigated possible relationships between involvement and attitudinal loyalty in context of recreational swimming. Three hundred and forty nine participants (61.9% females) from a major swimming sport center in northern Greece, completed the three dimensional involvement model of Kyle’s et al (2004), and Armitage & Conner’s (1999) attitudinal loyalty’s i...

  14. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece. (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich


    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Latex producing plants in Greece. [Euphorbiaceae acanthothamnos, E. dendroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.


    The occurrence of energy rich plants, due to their content of stored hydrocarbons, provides the possibility of their exploitation as alternative and renewable energy sources. The contribution of a great number of latex producing plants in the native Greek flora favours experimental work in this direction. Data on the occurence of Euphorbiaceae in Greece and special growth characteristics of two species, namely E. acanthothamnos and E. dendroides, are provided. 13 references.

  16. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece


    Romanu Keti


    This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis an...

  17. Recent analyses of the excavated textile find from Grave 35 HTR73, Kerameikos cemetery, Athens, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Orphanou, Vassiliki


    The following study presents the results of instrumental analyses performed on the excavated textile find HTR73 from the Kerameikos cemetery in Athens. In Greece, preservation of excavated textiles is rare, mainly due to the unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing. The Kerameikos textile...... find is from the 5th century BC, and has been preserved in association with copper, which is the most common type of preservation in Greece. Past analyses had indicated the presence of silk fibres, of the Bombyx mori silkworm, the use of which was not common in Classical Greece. In the present study...... of cotton is an equally rare phenomenon for the Classical period in Greece....

  18. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou


    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.


    Kani, Chara; Kourafalos, Vasilios; Litsa, Panagiota


    The aim of this study was to describe the current regulatory environment in Greece to evaluate the potential introduction of health technology assessment (HTA) for medicinal products for human use. Data sources consist of national legislation on pricing and reimbursement of health technologies to identify the potential need of establishing HTA and its relevant structure. The pricing procedure regarding medicinal products for human use is based on an external reference pricing mechanism which considers the average of the three lowest Euorpean Union prices. Currently, a formal HTA procedure has not been applied in Greece, and the only prerequisite used for the reimbursement of medicinal products for human use is their inclusion in the Positive Reimbursement List. To restrict pharmaceutical expenditure, a variety of measures-such as clawback mechanisms, rebates, monthly budget caps per physician, generics penetration targeting-have been imposed, aiming mainly to regulate the price level rather than control the introduction of medicinal products for human use in the Greek pharmaceutical market. Greece has the opportunity to rapidly build capacity, implement, and take advantage of the application of HTA mechanisms by clearly defining the goals, scope, systems, context, stakeholders, and methods that will be involved in the local HTA processes, taking into account the country's established e-prescription system and the recently adapted legislative framework.

  20. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Canikalp


    Full Text Available A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise cash benefits, direct in-kind provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes.The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between political structure, i.e. government fragmentation, ideological composition, elections and so on, and the social expenditures in Greece. Employing data from the Comparative Political Dataset (CPDS and the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX, a time series analysis was conducted for Greece for the 1980-2014 period. The findings of the study indicate that voter turnout, spending on the elderly population and the number of government changes have positive and statistically significant effects on social expenditures in Greece while debt stock and cabinet composition have negative effects.

  1. Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Karavitis


    Full Text Available The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture.

  2. Attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatziarsenis Marios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation, and the low rate of registration as donors requires explanation. This study reports the findings of a survey of knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece. Methods Two rural primary care settings in the island of Crete, Anogia Health Centre and Vrachasi Practice, were involved in a questionnaire survey. This was conducted among primary care patients (aged 18 years and over with routine appointments, to assess their knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation. General practitioners (GPs recruited patients and questionnaires were completed following the patients' medical consultation. Pearson's chi square tests were used and crude odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated in order to investigate into the possible associations between the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and specific concerns in relation to their socio-demographic features. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences by geographical location. Results The 224 (92.5% of the 242 primary care attenders who were approached agreed to participate. Only 2.2% (5/224 of the respondents carried a donor card. Most participants (84.4%, 189/224 did not feel well informed about registering as a kidney donor. More than half of the respondents (54.3%, 121/223 were unwilling to register as a kidney donor and donate kidneys for transplant after death. Over a third of respondents (35.4%, 79/223 were not confident that medical teams would try as hard as possible to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. People with a higher level of education were more likely to be willing to register as kidney donors [(OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.8–6.0, p Conclusion Lack of knowledge and information regarding organ donation and negative attitudes related to registration as donors were the main findings of this study

  3. His Excellency Mr Alexandros Alexandris Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland and Officials from the East Macedonia and Thrace Region Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Gadmer


    His Excellency Mr Alexandros Alexandris Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland and Officials from the East Macedonia and Thrace Region Greece

  4. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece. (United States)

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D


    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  5. A hybrid spectral and finite element method for coseismic and postseismic deformation (United States)

    Pergler, Tomáš; Matyska, Ctirad


    We investigate the elastic and viscoelastic responses of the Earth to a sudden slip along a fault. Firstly, equations describing the Earth's infinitesimal deformations for elastic and viscoelastic rheological models are introduced within the weak formulation and the theorems of existence and uniqueness of solutions are demonstrated. Three-dimensional numerical method, which combines the 2D finite element method in a plane perpendicular to the fault with application of the Fourier transform in the direction along the fault, is described. We then discuss several numerical benchmarks. At the end, the coseismic deformation and the Coulomb stress for the August 14, 2003 earthquake on the Lefkada island in Greece are computed incorporating also the influence of topography. We demonstrate that the results are sensitive to both source interpretations and the epicenter area topography.

  6. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.


    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  7. Heat Island Compendium (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  8. Macroscopic coherent magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcelli, F.; Airoldi, A.; Angioni, C.


    We present experimental and theoretical investigations on the dynamics of coherent magnetic islands in high temperature, magnetically confined plasmas of thermonuclear interest, and of their effects on plasma transport. (author)

  9. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.


    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  10. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece. (United States)

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T


    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  11. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period (United States)

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis


    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  12. Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece. (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Papadopoulos, Elias; Petrić, Dušan; Ćupina, Aleksandra Ignjatović; Bain, Odile


    During a hot Mediterranean summer, an expedition brought parasitologists from Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, and Serbia to a wooded area near Xanthi, Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi. The scientific purposes of the expedition blended then with stories of humans, animals, and parasites in this rural area.

  13. Engineering Education and Industry in Greece: Towards a Long Overdue Convergence. (United States)

    Polydorides, Nicos D.


    Discusses (1) the development of engineering education in Greece; (2) industrial development in Greece; (3) relations between engineering education and industry (indicating that they are best characterized by mutual suspicion); and (4) recent developments and future trends in these relationships. (JN)

  14. Manpower Policy and Problems in Greece. Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies No. 3. (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    A full solution of the employment problems of countries in the stage of development now existing in Greece, to a great extent depends upon the possibilities of achieving the accumulation of capital necessary for the establishment of new industries and other investment. It is important for Greece to promote economic progress in the different…

  15. Mental Health Services and the Emerging Role of Psychology in Greece. (United States)

    Bouhoutsos, Jacqueline C.; Roe, Kiki Vlachouli


    Mental health services in Greece are few and are centralized in large cities. Few psychologists are involved. However, psychology is emerging rapidly as a science and profession in Greece, and increasing demand for services may result in the need for training programs. (GC)

  16. A Marvelous Journey: Calling from Greece to a U.S. Classroom (United States)

    Holman, Lana; Sucich, John


    A unit of study on Ancient Greece is a part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum at Belmont Day School. The students spend 10 weeks exploring Greek history and mythology. This article discusses a new project that the authors conducted, wherein one of them was going to Greece on a study tour, while the other one stays in Belmont Day…

  17. The outstanding synergy between drought, heatwaves and fuel on the 2007 Southern Greece exceptional fire season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Bistinas, Ioannis; Liberato, Margarida L.R.; Bastos, Ana; Koutsias, Nikos; Trigo, Ricardo


    The fire season of 2007 was particularly devastating for Greece, achieving the new all-time record of estimated burnt area (225,734. ha) since 1980. The season was remarkably severe in Peloponnese Peninsula, in southern continental Greece, being considered the most extreme natural disaster in the

  18. The Last-glacial/Interglacial Transition in northern Greece: consequences on physical environments and implications for human populations. (United States)

    Chabrol, Antoine


    Across the Mediterranean Basin, the glacial-interglacial transition (15000-6000 BP) is the transition from hunter-gatherer societies of the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Final companies to Neolithic farmers. In Epirus (northwestern Greece), the lack of archaeological sites is obvious for this period: only two cave sites have yielded Upper Paleolithic occupations and one open air site was dated to the Mesolithic. At the scale of the Tardiglacial and the Holocene, climate fluctuations have been multiple and caused palaeogeographic changes that we do not yet fully measure the amplitudes and limitations: significant change in the coastline and coastal paleogeography and modification of river systems. The prehistoric remains in a continental environment can not be easily found: they were either destroyed by marine erosion during the post-glacial rebound, or they were buried by sediment. The study we are conducting as part of a PhD in geoarchaeology tries to better understand the response of the physical backgrounds in northwestern Greece. Our study focuses on two specific areas: the delta formed by the river Thyamis (or Kalamas) and the inlet between the island of Corfu and the mainland. The first has never been paleoenvironmentaly studied. Likewise, archaeological researches in the watershed are almost nonexistent. The second study area is of paramount importance to understand the likely impact of the post-glacial rebound on the prehistoric and archaeological maps: initial investigations indicate that this space was occupied by a lake that has ceased to function around 10 000 BP. The paper will present preliminary results on the paleogeographic evolution of the delta Thyamis. In June 2009, combined measures of electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and GPR profiles have established the thickness of the Holocene sedimentation: nearly 15 meters at the upstream of the delta. To better understand the prehistoric and historical evolution of this space, a first serie

  19. Estimating a corporate governance index for companies in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu


    Full Text Available European countries have gone through serious efforts to overcome the financial crisis and special measures had to be taken in order to limit the negative impact on businesses and stabilize a healthy economic environment for the single market. The specific governmental policies aimed to keep under control the effects of the crisis and relaunch the economic growth, but they were unpopular among a part of the European citizens. The economic situation forced most managers of private companies to rethink the business strategy and restructure the activity. Lately, Greece has been going through a difficult period, as the crisis worsened the economic situation of the country. The population did not welcome the drastic economic measures which were proposed by IMF and institutional creditors and this conflict almost lead to national insolvency. The problems of Greece are deeply rooted in the business models and economic philosophy. This paper has the purpose of analyzing the corporate governance regulation and practices in Greece and to determine whether it is possible to enhance business profitability and stability by enforcing a better legal framework in the area of corporate governance. The research focuses on the calculation of a corporate governance index for a selection of Greek companies form different sectors of activity (oil &gas, telecommunications, beverages and the analysis of the results may lead to the identification of weaknesses in this domain. Improvements in the corporate governance practices are considered to lead to enhancing business stability and sustainability. The methodology for calculating the corporate governance index is adapted for Greek companies and is in accordance with the provisions of the Hellenic Corporate Governance Code.

  20. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarson Thomas R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs. Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes.

  1. Landscape and Early Farming Settlement Dynamics in Central Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi; Bintliff, John; Farinetti, Emeri


    also small, short-lived farms; both were associated withwetland hand cultivation. In later Neolithic and Early Bronze Age times, these locationsremained, but vestigial traces discovered by hyperintensive survey methods have identified anexplosion of small, short-lived, and horizontally migrating farms......Current hyperintensive surface survey in the Tanagra district of Boeotia, central Greece (J. L.Bintliff et al., 2002), together with a recent reanalysis of survey results from the Thespiae dis-trict (J. L. Bintliff et al., 1999), have led to a radical rethinking of how and where early farm...

  2. Greece and the refugee crisis: mental health context. (United States)

    Christodoulou, George N; Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T


    The recent influx of refugees and immigrants to Greece has coincided with the ongoing and deteriorating financial crisis. This situation does not allow the Greek authorities to provide help to the desired extent. Yet, the church, local communities, medical societies and non-governmental organisations are offering good psychosocial support. In parallel with support for refugees it is important to provide support for the citizens of the host country. The rich countries of northern Europe should help the poorer countries of southern Europe cope with the refugees. A number of important declarations on refugee mental health and related issues have been produced recently, including the Anti-war Declaration of Athens.

  3. Poetic mobility in Ancient Greece. Readings of Simonides’ work


    Ferreira, Luísa de Nazaré


    The study Poetic mobility in Ancient Greece. Readings of Simonides’ work fixes the analysis of Simonides’ corpus in a broader investigation on lyric poets’ mobility. At the end of Archaic Age, Simonides of Ceos (c. 556-468 B.C.) already represents the terminus of a long tradition of poetic mobility from which appear certain echoes in the Homeric Poems and in Hesiod’s Works and Days. In the “Introduction”, we discuss these and also other testimonies of the existence, in ancient times, of wa...

  4. The disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourlaba G


    Full Text Available Georgia Kourlaba,1 Georgios Hillas,2 Theodoros Vassilakopoulos,2 Nikos Maniadakis3 1Evroston LP, 2Department of Critical Care of Evangelismos Hospital, Medical School of National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, 3Department of Health Services Organization and Management, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece Background: The objective of the study was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Greece and to quantify its burden on patients’ daily activities, productivity, and psychological status. Methods: A population-based, random digit-dialed telephone nationwide survey was conducted between July 10, 2015 and July 31, 2015 in order to recruit patients with COPD in Greece. Among the 11,471 persons contacted, 3,414 met the inclusion criterion of age ≥40 years and completed the screening questions regarding COPD. Of the 362 subjects who reported that they had been diagnosed with COPD, 351 completed the survey. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidities, disease history, perceived disease severity, breathlessness severity, symptoms severity, limitations in daily activities, psychological distress, and productivity were collected. All data were collected through the telephone interview method using a structured questionnaire. Results: The overall self-reported COPD prevalence was 10.6%. Among 351 participants, only 9% reported that they suffered from severe breathlessness. The mean COPD assessment test score was 19.0, with 84% of participants having a COPD assessment test score ≥10. As for the perceived severity of COPD, the majority of subjects considered that their respiratory condition was of moderate (34.2% or mild severity (33.9%. Overall, the participants reported a significant impact of COPD on their daily life. For instance, 61.5% of them reported that their respiratory condition has affected their sports activities. Moreover, 73% of subjects

  5. General siting regulation and population distribution criteria for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.


    A new national regulation for nuclear power plant siting is described. The main body of the regulation is similar in contents to the IAEA Code of Practice in siting, but exceeds its scope in certain areas and covers all aspects of the impact of the plant on the population and the environment of the region, including non-radiological effects. The regulation is accompanied by appendices which refer to site suitability criteria with respect to the radiological consequences from the operational states of the plant and with respect to accidents, including core-melt accidents; these reflect the particular geographic and demographic situation of Greece

  6. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Keti


    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  7. Predictors of health-related quality of life in type II diabetic patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydas Aristidis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting millions of people worldwide, while placing a noteworthy strain on public health funding. The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL of Greek Type II DM patients and to identify significant predictors of the disease in this patient population. Methods The sample (N = 229, 52.8% female, 70.0 years mean age lived in a rural community of Lesvos, an island in the northeast of the Aegean Archipelagos. The generic SF-36 instrument, administered by trainee physicians, was used to measure HRQOL. Scale scores were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of sociodemographic and diabetes-related variables on HRQOL. Results The most important predictors of impaired HRQOL were female gender, diabetic complications, non-diabetic comorbidity and years with diabetes. Older age, lower education, being unmarried, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were also associated with impaired HRQOL in at least one SF-36 subscale. Multivariate regression analyses produced models explaining significant portions of the variance in SF-36 subscales, especially physical functioning (R2 = 42%, and also showed that diabetes-related indicators were more important disease predictors, compared to sociodemographic variables. Conclusion The findings could have implications for health promotion in rural medical practice in Greece. In order to preserve a good HRQOL, it is obviously important to prevent diabetes complications and properly manage concomitant chronic diseases. Furthermore, the gender difference is interesting and requires further elucidation. Modifying screening methods and medical interventions or formulating educational programs for the local population appear to be steps in the correct direction.

  8. Reporting new cases of anaemia in primary care settings in Crete, Greece: a rural practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of anaemia represents an important task within primary care settings. This study reports on the frequency of new cases of anaemia among patients attending rural primary care settings in Crete (Greece and to offer an estimate of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA frequency in this study group. Methods All patients attending the rural primary health care units of twelve general practitioners (GPs on the island of Crete for ten consecutive working days were eligible to participate in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb levels were measured by portable analyzers. Laboratory tests to confirm new cases of anaemia were performed at the University General Hospital of Heraklion. Results One hundred and thirteen out of 541 recruited patients had a low value of Hb according to the initial measurement obtained by the use of the portable analyzer. Forty five (45.5% of the 99 subjects who underwent laboratory testing had confirmed anaemia. The mean value of the Hb levels in the group with confirmed anaemia, as detected by the portable analyzer was 11.1 g/dl (95% Confidence Interval (CI from 10.9 to 11.4 and the respective mean value of the Hb levels obtained from the full blood count was 11.4 g/dl (95% CI from 11.2 to 11.7 (P = 0.01. Sixteen out of those 45 patients with anaemia (35.6% had IDA, with ferritin levels lower than 30 ng/ml. Conclusion Keeping in mind that this paper does not deal with specificity or sensitivity figures, it is suggested that in rural and remote settings anaemia is still invisible and point of care testing may have a place to identify it.

  9. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efpraxia Maria [Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Theocharis Tsoutsos [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece)


    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts. (author)

  10. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, Efpraxia; Tsoutsos, Theocharis E-mail:


    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts.

  11. Geothermal energy sources for water production--socio-economic effects and people's wishes on Milos island: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manologlou, E.; Tsartas, P.; Markou, A.


    The scope of the article is to examine the local residents' views and opinions on the effects of the construction of a desalination plant on the island of Milos (Greece) which suffers - as many other islands in Cyclades - from lack of water. In particular: - To identify the current situation regarding the water supply on the island. - To examine the effects that the construction of the desalination plant will have on the local development. - To identify the different sectors of every day life which may be affected the most by better quality of water. - To examine the views concerning the environmental effects during project construction and operation. The main conclusion is that: Most of the inhabitants perceive the proposed project as beneficial for different sectors of the local development (mining, agriculture, tourism) and for every day life

  12. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Efpraxia; Tsoutsos, Theocharis


    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

  13. Multi-levelling and externalizing migration and asylum: lessons from the southern European islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Triandafyllidou


    Full Text Available Southern European countries have come to constitute the most vulnerable external border of the European Union (EU over the last decade. Irregular migration pressures have been acutely felt on the EU’s southern sea borders, and particularly on four sets of islands: Canary Islands (Spain, Lampedusa and Linosa (Italy, Malta, and Aegean Islands (Greece. This quartet is, to a large extent, used as stepping stones by irregular migrants and asylum seekers to reach the European continent. This paper studies the role of these islands as ‘outposts’ of a framework of externalization. It starts by discussing the notion of externalization and its different facets. It considers how externalization is linked to both fencing and gate-keeping strategies of migration and asylum control. The second part of the paper focuses on the special role of the island quartet with respect to the externalization web cast by national and EU-wide migration policies. It concludes with a critical reflection on the multi-level character of externalization policies and practices that occur both within the EU and between the EU and third countries.

  14. Radiological and hydrochemical study of thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea and Sperchios areas, Greece: insights into groundwater natural radioactivity and geology. (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, C; Mitropoulos, P; Argyraki, A


    A radiological and hydrochemical study has been conducted on thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea Island and eastern central Greece. Both areas are characterized by complex geology and are renowned since antiquity for their hot springs, that are exploited for therapeutic spa purposes until today. The aim of the study was to combine radiological and hydrochemical data in order to achieve a holistic water quality assessment with insights into the geology of the study areas. All samples were characterized with respect to their major and trace ion and element composition, as well as activity concentrations of 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K. The samples demonstrated elevated natural radioactivity and U concentrations, especially in some locations of the Kamena Vourla area, reaching 179 Bq/L 222 Rn, 2.2 Bq/L 226 Ra, 2.9 Bq/L 228 Ra, and 17 μg/L U. The estimated circulation depth of thermal groundwater ranges between 250 m in central Greece and 1240 m in north Euboea study area, whereas the calculated water residence times range between 27 and 555 years. Our data suggest the possible presence of an unknown until know U-rich plutonic rock formation in Kamena Vourla area and immiscibility of the fresh and thermal groundwaters in the studied areas.

  15. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris


    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  16. The solar thermal market in Greece - review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiriou, A.A.; Mirasgedis, S.


    The Hellenic solar thermal market is actually one of the most developed worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of this market since its start in the mid-1970s until today. The reasons for its success are discussed in detail: the role of the manufacturers, the quality assurance practices applied and the incentives on the demand and supply sides. The role of economic instruments towards the development of the Hellenic solar thermal market is investigated using a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Although commercially successful, solar thermal applications today in Greece still cover a very limited percentage of their potential applications. The perspectives and potential barriers for their future development are presented, analysed by a CBA and discussed. This information is useful for all parties related to this market, manufacturers, potential users, policy makers, etc. Countries having a solar energy potential similar to that of Greece but a less developed solar market may also identify in this work parameters that will contribute to the development of their national market. (author)

  17. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović


    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  18. Top Income Shares in Greece: 1957-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Chrissis


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of top income shares in Greece for the period 1957 to 2010 following Piketty (2001 methodology. We present the 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 2%, 1.5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1% income shares estimates which are based on tax statistics. The empirical results indicate that the behavior of the alternative estimated top income shares is quite similar. A ‘flat’ Ushaped pattern for most cases seems to exist. This common pattern is more apparent for the 2.5-0.1% top income shares. The top 10% and 5% income shares seem to be more volatile, accompanied with an increasing trend by the end of the period. This paper is an attempt to extend the existing research in southern Europe by presenting the relevant Greek experience. For the whole period, country comparisons show that the 1% top income share in Greece is in lower levels than that of USA and the other European countries (Italy, Portugal, Spain, France, Germany.

  19. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli


    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  20. Constructing the health care system in Greece: responsibility and powerlessness. (United States)

    Lentza, Vassiliki; Montgomery, Anthony J; Georganta, Katerina; Panagopoulou, Efharis


    Based on health care professionals' (HPs) and patients' interviews about work demands and quality of care in hospitals, the study explores the way that patients and HPs constructed their identities to describe and construct the health care system in Greece. This is a qualitative study using a focus group (FG) design. Seven FGs discussions were conducted: three FGs discussions were conducted for the assessment of job stressors (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses and 1 for residents) and four FGs discussions for the assessment of quality of care (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses, 1 for residents and 1 for patients). The sample consisted of health care professionals working in a teaching hospital in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece, and patients who had at least one experience of any kind in the same hospital. Transcripts of the FGs discussions underwent discourse analysis. The results showed that both HPs and patients construct the health care system based on bipolar constructions of responsibility and powerlessness. In particular, participants use these constructions to allocate the responsibility to different levels of the health care system hierarchy or to the system per se constructing, at the same time, themselves as the 'viewers' of this system. The study allowed a deeper understanding of issues related to quality of care in hospitals providing context-specific information. Identity in health care organizations was inextricably linked to power and responsibility. The need to deconstruct this responsibility/powerlessness ideology is discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Decadal changes in extreme daily precipitation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Nastos


    Full Text Available The changes in daily precipitation totals in Greece, during the 45-year period (1957–2001 are examined. The precipitation datasets concern daily totals recorded at 21 surface meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed over the Greek region. First and foremost, the application of Factor Analysis resulted in grouping the meteorological stations with similar variation in time. The main sub groups represent the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of Greece with common precipitation characteristics. For representative stations of the extracted sub groups we estimated the trends and the time variability for the number of days (% exceeding 30 mm (equal to the 95% percentile of daily precipitation for eastern and western regions and equal to the 97.5% percentile for the rest of the country and 50 mm which is the threshold for very extreme and rare events. Furthermore, the scale and shape parameters of the well fitted gamma distribution to the daily precipitation data with respect to the whole examined period and to the 10-year sub periods reveal the changes in the intensity of the precipitation.

  2. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece. (United States)

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E


    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  3. Organ transplantation in Greece: the need for mediation. (United States)

    Zanni, A


    Organ transplants are not regarded as an exclusively medical process, because they involve financial, religious, philosophic, and bioethical parameters. It becomes clear that if they are to achieve their purpose, which we believe extends well beyond the medical dimension, the creation of a comprehensive framework of communication between the involved parties is of paramount importance. The aim of this paper is to present an outline and a number of considerations regarding the communicational, bioethical, and legal issues that arise from a rather dramatic state of affairs in Greece today: In 2012 the rate of organ transplants stood at only 7 per 1 million of the population. The outdated legal framework and the lack of trust on the part of patients and the public have led to a highly inefficient system that is lagging behind in many respects. The proposition made in this paper is that there is a need for a new system of communication between doctors, patients, relatives of patients, and hospitals: bioethical mediation. This is a system that has played a vital role and has produced astounding results in other countries. There is also every indication that the introduction of such a system is crucial for Greece, especially as the symptoms of the acute financial crisis are become fully visible and tangible. Mediation aims to identify solutions that are oriented toward the interests and wishes of patients, are acknowledged and accepted by all parties involved, and are in tune with the values and the principles of medical practice.

  4. Future prospects for the management of radioactive waste in greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savidou, A.


    In Greece, there isn.t yet any decision for construction of a disposal facility. Since the predisposal management of radioactive waste should be aligned with the disposal solutions, the determination of the disposal options is essential for the selection of the technology needed for treatment and conditioning of the wastes. The scope of the present study is the investigation of the disposal options for Greece. Firstly, the study deals with the preliminary inventory as well as the classification of the existing radioactive waste and the prediction of the expected waste from decommissioning of the open pool type at 5 MW Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1). The existing radioactive waste includes the institutional waste from the operation of GRR-1 and associated facilities as well as orphan sources and other radioactive items collected in the frame of emergency by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) and kept at the interim storage of the National Centre for Scientific Research ''Demokritos'' NCSR ''D''. Based on the present inventory of radioactive waste, the establishment of a small scale and LILW geological repository seems to be the appropriate and most acceptable by the public disposal solution. (authors)

  5. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece. (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris


    The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Update of indicators for climate change mitigation in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C.; Ziomas, I.


    This paper analyses the factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Greece, (i.e. the drivers of pressures on climate change), using environmental indicators related to energy, demographics and economic growth. The analysis is based on the data of 2008 and considers types of fuel and sectors. The Kaya identity is used to identify the relationship between drivers and pressures, using annual time series data of National GHG emissions, population, energy consumption and gross domestic product. The analysis shows that over the period 2000-2008, GHG emissions show a slight variation, but they are almost stabilised, with a total increase of 1.6%. Despite the economic growth over that period, this stabilisation may be considered as a combination of reductions in the energy intensity of GDP and the carbon intensity of energy, which are affected by improvements in energy efficiency and introduction of 'cleaner' fuels, such as natural gas and renewables in the energy mixture of the country. - Highlights: → We analyse drivers affecting GHG emissions (pressures on climate) in Greece, using indicators. → Indicators relate to energy, demographics and economic growth. → Kaya identity identifies the relationship between drivers and pressures. → GHG emissions are almost stable due to reductions in energy intensity and carbon intensity of energy. → Improvements in energy efficiency and introduction of clean fuels in energy mix reduce emissions.

  7. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.


    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  8. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.


    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  9. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert


    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  10. Geological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Aspects for Critical and Rare Metals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Melfos


    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is highly dependent on critical and rare metals which are very important for a sustainable development. However, European industry is not able to cover its demands from native sources and it imports commodities from third countries. Greece is one of the EU countries with the most potential for supplying these strategic metallic raw materials in the future, since it hosts a large number of ore deposits. The epithermal- and porphyry-type deposits and the reduced intrusion related systems of the Serbomacedonian and the Rhodope metallogenic provinces in Northeastern Greece are promising targets for a future exploitation and exploration in Sb, Te, Mo, Re, Ga, In, REE and PGE. Greece is the leading producer of Ni and Al in the EU from laterites and bauxites of central and northern Greece. These deposits also contain significant amounts of Co or REE which should be considered in the future plans of the processing industries. REE are found in high contents at the placer deposits between Chalkidiki and Kavala (North Greece and elevated PGE concentrations are associated with the chromitites of northwestern Greece. Therefore, the mineral wealth of Greece can contribute significantly to a sustainable and a competitive economy of Europe.

  11. Suicide by firearms on the island of Crete: a 9-year record. (United States)

    Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Kranioti, Elena F; Papavdi, Asteria; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis


    Whereas firearm suicide mortality has been a longstanding public concern worldwide, in Greece no systematic analysis has been reported so far despite the recent evidence of a rising rate of gun ownership. To estimate the proportion of firearm suicides on the island of Crete, Southern Greece, well-known for its widespread gun ownership; to describe the victims' sociodemographic profile and firearm-related suicide variables; and to assess the severity of suicidal intention in the group. Records of suicides between 1999 and 2007 were reviewed and information was extracted into a computerized database. A rating of the circumstances section of the Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) for each case was also performed. The firearm suicide rate was 1.3 per 100,000, with males constituting the vast majority. These men were more likely to be less than 55 years of age, to have lived in the western part of the island, to have some degree of planning prior to the suicidal act, and to have used a shotgun, but less likely to have left a note. As an important first step toward implementing preventive initiatives the authors stress the need for a thorough look at the sociocultural factors associated with firearms in the region.

  12. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  13. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  14. Economic Growth and Defense Spending in Greece, Turkey and Cyprus: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianou Tasos


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and defense spending for three adjacent countries, namely Greece, Turkey and Cyprus. Greece and Cyprus, members-countries of European Union spend much more money than other member countries of EU relatively to their GDP. Turkey is in accession negotiations with EU and is among the top 15 countries with the highest military expenditure. These three countries are particularly interesting case studies because of their high military burdens and the bad relations between them (Greece and Cyprus opposite Turkey. The empirical analysis is based on panel data analysis of data over the period 1960 – 2006.

  15. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    bird populations of the island group have led to it being declared an Important Bird Area by BirdLife .... 2000) and South African (Barnes 2000) classifications of conservation status are indicated, as well as the trend over the most recent decade ..... Congruity with a number of Southern Ocean is- land nature reserves of other ...

  16. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)


    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  17. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C


    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  18. Hawaii's Sugar Islands. (United States)

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  19. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...

  20. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands (United States)

    Ford, M.


    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  1. Dendrochronological Investigations of Valonia Oak Trees in Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Papadopoulos


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Valonia oak (Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy Hedge & Yalt. is an east Mediterranean endemic, xerothermic and deciduous tree of particular interest in forestry. There has been a growing demand lately to include the species in reforestations in Greece which also increased the interest to investigate its response to climate change. The main purpose of this research is to study valonia oak from a dendrochronological – dendroclimatological point of view within its Mediterranean distribution range. Materials and Methods: Sampling took place in characteristic valonia oak stands where cross sections or tree-cores were taken from 40 trees. The cross sections and the tree-cores were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods and tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the Windendro software program. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring data and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The inter-annual variability of tree-ring width and the radial growth trend were examined. Finally, tree-ring widths to climate relationships were calculated by orthogonal regression in combination with the bootstrap procedure using master residual chronology and monthly precipitation, temperature data and scPDSI drought index, from October of the n-1 year up to November of the n year. Results: The master chronology of valonia oak trees in Western Greece reaches 365 years, with an average ring width of 0.89 mm and with mean sensitivity being 0.21. The variation of the tree-ring widths indicates the influence of climate and human intervention in the past. Tree-ring to climate relationships show that valonia oak growth is positively affected by precipitations in January and March and by drought reduction during June and July. Conclusions: Valonia oak in Western Greece is a species of great interest for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies

  2. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.


    to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores...... patterns (five questions in total); island ontogeny and past climate change (4); island rules and syndromes (3); island biogeography theory (4); immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics (5); speciation and diversification (4); dispersal and colonization (3); community assembly (6); biotic interactions (2...

  3. Third Case of Streptococcus suis Infection in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianneta Chatzopoulou


    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that can cause severe disease to both pigs and humans. Its zoonotic potential was first recognized in 1968 when the first human case of meningitis was reported in Denmark. Since then, over 1600 human cases have been reported worldwide, the vast majority of which originated in Southeast Asia, and, thus, S. suis has been fairly characterized as an emerging pathogen. Infection in humans presents most commonly as bacteremia and/or meningitis while less common clinical manifestations such as endocarditis and septic arthritis can occur. S. suis infection is extremely uncommon in Greece and this is the third human case to be reported. Correct identification is of importance for optimization of antimicrobial treatment and epidemiological monitoring.

  4. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece (United States)

    Maravelias, G.


    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  5. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers. (United States)

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis


    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for "reshuffling" clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy.

  6. Education and training on nuclear security in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pafilis, C. N.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Maltezos, A.; Seferlis, S.; Dimitriou, P.; Matikas, T. E.


    The Greek Atomic Energy Commission is the competent authority responsible for designing, implementing and supervising the radiation protection programme in Greece. According to its statutory law one of its main responsibilities is the provision of education and training to people involved in the national emergency response plan against nuclear and radiological threats. Due to the high requirements demanded for the safe conduct of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, a nuclear security programme was established and the nuclear security infrastructure of the country was upgraded. Under this framework, GAEC provided training on radiation protection, prevention, detection, emergency preparedness and response to the personnel involved in the emergency plan. Since that time, the GAEC continues to organize seminars frequently addressed to the organizations involved in the emergency plan, in order to establish the sustainability of national operational capability on preparedness and response. (authors)

  7. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece. (United States)

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos


    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  8. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  9. Uranium exploration in Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampanellos, John; Persianis, Demetrios.


    In accordance with the Greek AEC Project for Uranium Exploration in Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greece) car-borne scintillometer, ground scintillometer and geochemical stream sediment surveys along with reconnaissance geological mapping have been carried out within the area of map sheets 2623(II,III)-2622 (Feres-Lefkimmi, Evros Dept., Thrace). The results of these surveys, presented in a series of 15 maps, indicate that three areas totalling 380 km 2 require further detailed examination in order to test their potential of economic uranium deposits. Of these areas Kotronia and Dadia-Nipsa-Loutros covering 325 km 2 should be given first priority and be further investigated by detailed stream sediment and bank soil sampling, detailed ground scintillometer measurements, grid soil and radon soil gas samplings, as well as by detailed geological mapping. (author)

  10. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar


    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  11. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece. (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos


    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  12. Energy demand and environmental taxes: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects that energy taxes may have on reducing environmental pollution in Greece. We study the demand for residential energy for the period 1965-1998, and on the basis of these estimates we make forecasts for CO 2 emissions in the coming years. Furthermore we develop alternative scenarios for tax changes, and study their effects on CO 2 emissions. According to our findings the harmonization of the Greek energy taxes to the average European Union levels implies an increase of total CO 2 emissions by 6% annually. If taxes are raised, however, to the highest European Union levels, the CO 2 emissions are restricted significantly. These empirical findings may indicate that environmental taxation cannot be the unique instrument for combating pollution

  13. Energy demand and environmental taxes: the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, V.T.; Polemis, M.L.


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects that energy taxes may have on reducing environmental pollution in Greece. We study the demand for residential energy for the period 1965-1998, and on the basis of these estimates we make forecasts for CO 2 emissions in the coming years. Furthermore we develop alternative scenarios for tax changes, and study their effects on CO 2 emissions. According to our findings the harmonization of the Greek energy taxes to the average European Union levels implies an increase of total CO 2 emissions by 6% annually. If taxes are raised, however, to the highest European Union levels, the CO 2 emissions are restricted significantly. These empirical findings may indicate that environmental taxation cannot be the unique instrument for combating pollution. (author)

  14. Spatial and temporal analysis of dry spells in Greece (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Chr.; Maheras, P.; Karacostas, T.; Vafiadis, M.

    A spatio-temporal analysis of the dry spells that occur in the Greek area is carried out for an extended period of 40 years (1958-1997). The dry spells can be defined as a number of consecutive days with no rain. The number of days defines the length of the dry spells. The longest spells are identified in central (Cyclades) and the south-east Aegean Sea whereas dry spells with the minimum length are shown over the north-west of the Greek area that reflects the significance of the latitude and the topography. Negative Binomial Distribution and Markov Chains of second order have been used to fit the duration of the dry spells of different lengths. The study of the seasonal and annual distribution of the frequency of occurrence of dry spells revealed that the dry spells in Greece depict a seasonal character, while medium and long sequences are associated with the duration and hazards of drought.

  15. Solar cooling technologies in Greece. An economic viability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Karagiorgas, Michalis; Agoris, Dimosthenis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece); Anagnostou, Joanna; Pritchard, Colin [Edinburgh Univ., Centre for the Study of Environmental Change and Sustainability, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    In Greece, during the summer, the demand for electricity greatly increases because of the extensive use of air-conditioning systems. This is a source of major problems in the country's electricity supply and contributes to an increase of the CO{sub 2} emissions. The use of solar energy (SE) to drive cooling cycles is attractive since the cooling load is roughly in phase with SE availability. An economic evaluation of two types of solar cooling systems is made (an absorption and an adsorption system). The analyses indicated that, because of their high investment cost, these systems would be marginally competitive with standard cooling systems at present energy prices. (Author)

  16. [The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece]. (United States)

    Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya


    This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage.

  17. Fan fiction, early Greece, and the historicity of canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvia Kahane


    Full Text Available The historicity of canon is considered with an emphasis on contemporary fan fiction and early Greek oral epic traditions. The essay explores the idea of canon by highlighting historical variance, exposing wider conceptual isomorphisms, and formulating a revised notion of canonicity. Based on an analysis of canon in early Greece, the discussion moves away from the idea of canon as a set of valued works and toward canon as a practice of containment in response to inherent states of surplus. This view of canon is applied to the practice of fan fiction, reestablishing the idea of canonicity in fluid production environments within a revised, historically specific understanding in early oral traditions on the one hand and in digital cultures and fan fiction on the other. Several examples of early epigraphic Greek texts embedded in oral environments are analyzed and assessed in terms of their implications for an understanding of fan fiction and its modern contexts.

  18. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece. (United States)

    Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis


    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pederasty, heroism, and the family in classical Greece. (United States)

    Ungaretti, J R


    Male homosexuality in Classical Greece found its expression in relationships that conformed to a pederastic model. This socially endorsed hierarchical relationship between older lover and younger beloved can be understood as an integral part of the culture by examining the concept of heroism and of the ideal warrior/hero presented in the poems of Homer and discussed in classical literature. Pederasty functioned to support the family and the continued primacy of masculine values and ethics. There is evidence that by the Classical period, traditional views, formed on the model of the warrior/hero, were undergoing a weakening and confusion. Social critics of the time rediculed these weaknesses and urged a return to values that stressed the dominance and strength of the hero.

  20. A climatological study of rural surface ozone in central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas


    Full Text Available Recent studies show that surface ozone levels at rural sites in Greece are generally high when compared with rural ozone measurements at northern European sites. The area of SE Europe, including Greece, is not very well monitored regarding rural ozone in comparison to central and northern Europe. In order to have the best possible picture of the rural surface ozone climatology in the area, based on the available data-sets of long-term continuous monitoring stations, the 10-year measurement records (1987-1996 of the Athens peripheral station of Liossia, (12 km N of the city center and the urban background station of Geoponiki (3 km W as well as the 4-year record (1996-1999 of the rural station of Aliartos (100 km NW of Athens, are analyzed in this paper. The data for Liossia and Geoponiki stations are screened for cases of strong airflow from rural areas (N-NE winds stronger than 5 m/s. The variation characteristics of the average rural ozone afternoon levels (12:00-18:00, with the best vertical atmospheric mixing, are mainly examined since these measurements are expected to be representative of the broader area. In all three stations there is a characteristic seasonal variation of rural ozone concentrations with lowest winter afternoon values at about 50 μg/m3 in December-January and average summer afternoon values at about 120 μg/m3 in July-August, indicating that high summer values are observed all over the area. The rural summer afternoon ozone values are very well correlated between the three stations, implying spatial homogeneity all over the area but also temporal homogeneity, since during the 13-year period 1987-1999 the rural afternoon ozone levels remained almost constant around the value of 120 μg/m3.

  1. Mountainous areas and decentralized energy planning: Insights from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.


    Mountainous areas have particular characteristics, whose influence on energy planning is explored in this paper, through a suitably tailored methodology applied to the case of Greece. The core element of the methodology is a linear optimization model with a “total cost” objective function, which includes financial, as well as external costs and benefits. Altitude proves to have decisive influence on energy optimization results, because it affects energy demand. The improvement of local energy systems provides greater socioeconomic benefits in mountainous settlements, due to the high shares of renewables and energy efficiency interventions in the optimal solutions. Energy poverty can be alleviated by redesigning local energy systems and the structure of the energy market. However, spatial and aesthetic restrictions, presented often in mountainous settlements, may affect the operational costs of energy systems, which is a crucial parameter for confronting energy poverty. Furthermore, the study indicates that it could be better to electrify remote areas, far from electricity grids, by decentralized systems than by grid expansion. The results of this study and the assumptions made about the way in which energy market should function, could be utilized for reconsidering energy policy measures, aiming at supporting sensitive societies to improve their development perspectives. - Highlights: •The influence of mountains' characteristics on energy planning was analyzed. •Optimal energy solutions present differentiations with respect to altitude. •Greater socioeconomic benefits by energy optimization in mountainous areas. •Remoteness favors the development of decentralized energy systems. •The study is based on data from Greece.

  2. Presence of third molars in orthodontic patients from northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G


    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Georgios Tretiakov,1 Theodosios Theodosiou,2 Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou31School of Dentistry, 2Biostatistics, Department of Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceObjective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of presence of third molar teeth and their distribution in each jaw and each side, according to sex, in a group of orthodontic patients with permanent dentition from northern Greece.Methods: The sample included panoramic radiographs from 220 patients with permanent dentition (mean age 13.62 ± 1.81. The Χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between the variables, and the Fisher's exact test was used in cases where the expected frequencies in each cell were <5.Results: The frequency of third molar presence was 79.1%, and 20.9% was the frequency of third molar agenesis. Intersexual differences in the number of third molars was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between the distribution of third molars on the right and the left side (Fisher's exact test = 100.788; P = 0. The two sides showed the same tendency toward the presence or absence of third molars. A correlation was also found between the distribution of maxillary and mandibular third molars (Fisher's exact test = 24.372; P = 0. In each jaw, the presence or absence of third molars was highly related to the number of third molars found in the other jaw.Conclusion: The present results showed that in this orthodontic group of northern Greek patients, presence accounted for 79.1% and agenesis for 20.9%. No significant difference was found between the frequencies of third molar presence on the left and right sides in either the maxilla or mandible.Keywords: third molars, presence, orthodontic population, Greeks

  3. Typhoid vaccination for international travelers from Greece visiting developing countries. (United States)

    Smeti, Paraskevi; Pavli, Androula; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C


    Typhoid fever is one of the most common diagnoses in returned international travelers. Our aim was to study the typhoid vaccine prescription practices for travelers from Greece visiting developing countries. A prospective questionnaire-based study was conducted during 2009-2012 in 57 Public Health Departments, which are the only sources of typhoid vaccine in Greece. A total of 3,680 travelers were studied (median age: 38.1 years). Typhoid vaccine was delivered to 1,108 (30.1%) of them. Of those who traveled to sub-Saharan Africa, South America, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, South Africa, East Asia, North Africa, and Central America, 31.6, 17.1, 35, 44.2, 36.9, 31, 17.7, 31.6, and 36.8% received typhoid vaccine, respectively. Of travelers who stayed travel, typhoid vaccine was administered to 32.7% of those who traveled for leisure, to 28.8% of those who traveled for business, and to 24.1% of those visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Of travelers who stayed in urban areas, rural areas, and urban and rural areas, 36.3, 30.1, and 26.8% were vaccinated, respectively. The majority of travelers who received the typhoid vaccine stayed in camps (62.9%) or at local residences (41%). Typhoid vaccine administration was statistically significantly associated with destination, duration of travel, purpose of travel, area of stay, and type of accommodation. There is a need to increase awareness of travelers and public health professionals for typhoid vaccination and particularly for high-risk groups of travelers, such as travelers to the Indian subcontinent and VFRs. Strategies for continuing professional education should be developed for travel health professionals. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. Public attitudes towards photovoltaic developments: Case study from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsantopoulos, Georgios; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Tampakis, Stilianos


    The present decade is considered to be vitally important both as regards addressing energy requirements and for environmental protection purposes. The decisions taken, both on an individual and a collective level, will have a decisive impact on the environment, and primarily on climate change, due to the increased energy demands and the need to reduce carbon use in energy generation. The present study was designed and carried out while an extensive debate was ongoing in Greece regarding changes to the legislative framework that would specifically disallow new applications for the installation of photovoltaic systems; its aim is to depict the attitude of Greek citizens, through the completion of 1068 questionnaires. The research results show that over half the respondents are informed about the use of photovoltaic systems for electricity generation. Furthermore, almost half are willing to invest in such systems, either at home or on a plot of land. The factors contributing to the installation of photovoltaic systems are mainly “environmental”, “financial” and “social”. Finally, the citizens who are most willing to invest in residential photovoltaic systems are mainly university or technical school graduates; they would rather take such a decision after being motivated by institutional bodies and would do so for reasons of recognition. - Highlights: • The circumstances for RES are favorable both in the EU and in Greece. • The growth of renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic systems, is provenly following an upward trend. • The photovoltaic electricity production is an environmentally-friendly, sustainable and socially acceptable answer to the future energy requirements of society. • The Greek citizens state that they are adequately informed and sufficiently willing to invest in photovoltaic systems either residentially or in a plot of land

  5. Exergy analysis of the energy use in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, Christopher J.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.; Xydis, George A.


    In this work, an analysis is being done on the concept of energy and exergy utilization and an application to the residential and industrial sector of Greece. The energy and exergy flows over the period from 1990 to 2004 were taken into consideration. This period was chosen based on the data reliability. The energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated for the residential and industrial sectors and compared to the findings of a previous study concerning the exergy efficiency of the Greek transport sector. The residential energy and exergy efficiencies for the year 2003 were 22.36% and 20.92%, respectively, whereas the industrial energy and exergy efficiencies for the same year were 53.72% and 51.34%, respectively. The analysis of energy and exergy utilization determines the efficiency of the economy as a whole. The results can play an important role in the establishment of efficiency standards of the energy use in various economy sectors. These standards could be utilized by energy policy makers. - Research highlights: → This work analyzes energy and exergy utilization in the energy sector of Greece by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2004. → Energy and exergy analyses and hence efficiencies for the residential and industrial sector are then obtained and compared to transport energy and exergy efficiencies. → The industrial sector appears to be the most energy and exergy efficient one. → It should be noted that due to non-availability of data concerning the fuel energy consumption of the appliances as well as of industrial processes, a general methodology was employed in order to calculate the energy and exergy efficiencies. → It may also be concluded that the exergy analysis offers constructive suggestions for the optimization and improvement of the energy utilization effectiveness of the sectors under study.

  6. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal (United States)

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.


    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  7. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bogaert (Debby); G.A. Syrogiannopoulos; I.N. Grivea; R. de Groot (Ronald); N.G. Beratis; P.W.M. Hermans (Peter)


    textabstractA total of 145 penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from young carriers in Greece and analyzed by antibiotic susceptibility testing, serotyping, restriction fragment end labeling (RFEL), and penicillin-binding protein

  8. Historical, Comparative and Statistical Perspectives of School Effectiveness Research: Rethinking Educational Evaluation in Greece. (United States)

    Verdis, Athanasios; Kriemadis, Thanos; Pashiardis, Petros


    Offers insights into educational evaluation in Greece by presenting history and the current state of school effectiveness research. Reviews a number of studies, including studies from other countries, to examine the policy implications of school effectiveness research. (SLD)

  9. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece) (United States)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina


    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  10. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis


    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  11. Antifungal Compounds Isolated from Smyrnium olusatrum L. Essential Oil, Growing Wild in Cephalonia, Greece. Chemical Analysis and Structure Elucidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimia Tsasi


    Full Text Available The essential oils (EOs from the leaves and the flowers of Smyrnium olusatrum L. , growing wild in the island of Cephalonia (Greece, were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Fifty nine constituents, which accounted for 90.3% (fl and 97.1% (lvs of the oils, were identified. Furanodiene, g ermacrone and furanoeremophil-1-one were the major constituents in both essential oils; they were also isolated from the flowers essential oil and identified using spectroscopic methods, ie. 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS . In addition b -myrcene ( 11.7% and b -phellandrene (5.2% were main constituents in the essential oil of the leaves. The essential oils and the pure isolates were evaluated for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, P. verucosum var. cyclopium by using the microdilution method and proved to possess significant antifungal effect. Among them, (+ furanoeremophil-1-one was particularly active with MIC values in the range of 0.0008-0.125 mg/mL and MFC values of 0.025-0.050 mg/mL and proved more effective than the commercial mycotics ketoconazole and bifonazole used as positive controls.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karamvasis


    Full Text Available Coastal zones are vulnerable to erosion and loss by level sea rise. Subsidence caused by the reduction of fluvial sediments in coastal zones found close to dams, is another important deformation factor. Quantification of the deformation rate of coastal region is essential for natural and anthropogenic activities. The study utilizes Interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar techniques and exploits the archive of Sentinel-1 TOPS data for the period 2014–2016. The freely available, wide ground coverage (250 × 170 km and small temporal resolution Sentinel-1 TOPS datasets are promising for coastal applications. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI methodologies are considered state-of-the-art remote sensing approaches for land deformation monitoring. The selected PSI method is the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS multitemporal InSAR technique. The study area of this study is the coastal zone of west region of Lesvos Island, Greece. The main characteristic of the area is the reduction of the fluvial sediment supply from the coastal drainage basins due to construction of dams and the abstraction of riverine sediments. The study demonstrates the potentials of the SBAS method for measuring and mapping the dynamic changes in coastal topography in terms of subsidence rates and discusses its advantages and limitations. The results show that natural and rural environments appear to have diverse ground deformation patterns.

  13. Competitiveness in the Southern Euro Area; France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain


    Bogdan Lissovolik; Julio Escolano; Stefania Fabrizio; Werner Schule; Herman Z Bennett; Stephen Tokarick; Yuan Xiao; Marialuz Moreno Badia; Eva Gutierrez; Iryna V. Ivaschenko


    This collection of studies analyzes developments in nonprice external competitiveness of France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. While France, Italy, and Portugal have experienced substantial export market share losses, Greece and Spain performed relatively well. Export market share losses appear associated with rigidities in resource allocation (sectoral, geographical, technological) relative to peers and lower productivity gains in high value-added sectors. Disaggregated analysis of goo...

  14. Considerations on the Current Universal Vaccination Policy against Hepatitis A in Greece after Recent Outbreaks


    Mellou, Kassiani; Sideroglou, Theologia; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Bitsolas, Nikolaos; Verykouki, Eleni; Triantafillou, Eleni; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos


    Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP). Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects ...



    Prokou, Eleni


    The argument of this article is that during the last two decades or so, in lifelong learning policies in Greece, priority was given to the confrontation of social exclusion that stems from unemployment and, thus, to the achievement of the aims of employability and social inclusion. EU funding and the relatively centralised character of the regulated part of adult/continuing education in Greece favoured the expansion of training programmes for the unemployed. As in the 1990s, so in the 2000s, ...

  16. Endoparasites of Wild Mammals Sheltered in Wildlife Hospitals and Rehabilitation Centres in Greece


    Liatis, Theophanes K.; Monastiridis, Antonios A.; Birlis, Panagiotis; Prousali, Sophia; Diakou, Anastasia


    Wildlife parasitic diseases represent an important field of investigation as they may have a significant impact on wild animals’ health and fitness, and may also have zoonotic implications. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites in wild mammals admitted to wildlife hospitals and rehabilitation centres in Greece. Sixty-five animals belonging to 17 species and originated from various areas of continental and insular Greece were included in the survey. The most numerous ...

  17. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  18. Transfrontier consequences to the population of Greece of large scale nuclear accidents: a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.; Catsaros, Nicolas.


    In this report the consequences to the population of Greece from hypothetical large scale nuclear accidents at the Kozlodui (Bulgaria) nuclear power station are estimated under some simplifying assumptions. Three different hypothetical accident scenarios - the most serious for pressurized water reactors - are examined. The analysis is performed by the current Greek version of code CRAC2 and includes health and economic consequences to the population of Greece. (author)

  19. Project work Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization?


    Hvastija, Darka; Kos, Jasna


    In this paper the project for 15-year-old students with the title Ancient Greece and Rome and the sub-title Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization? is introduced. It shows how to connect mathematics with art, history, physics, geography and philosophy by studying ancient Greek scientists and their achievements. Collaborative teaching is introduced. The major aim of the project was to show mathematics as a part of human civilization and to follow...

  20. Portraits and politics in classical Greece and early imperial China: an institutional approach to comparative art


    Tanner, J. J.


    This article develops a comparative approach to the history of portraiture in classical Greece and early imperial China, with a particular focus on institutions of state honorific portraiture. It argues that a key role in the development of portraiture in classical Greece and early imperial China was played by the formation of differentiated political organisation in the two societies, and the need to develop new forms of reward symbolism to engage emergent elites in the project of state buil...

  1. Smoke-free hospitals in Greece: Personnel perceptions, compliance and smoking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzilepi Penelope


    Full Text Available Abstract Smoke-free environments in Greece are scarce. Despite existent legislation that forbids smoking in all health care service centers, smoking is still evident. Using a random sample of hospital personnel from a large university hospital in Greece, we evaluated their smoking habits, perceptions and compliance towards hospital smoking regulations. 57.8% of the nursing personnel and 34.5% of medical/research staff were found to be current smokers (p

  2. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  3. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac


    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  4. Neutron activation and statistical analysis of pottery from Thera, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilikoglou, V.; Grimanis, A.P.; Karayannis, M.I.


    Neutron activation analysis, in combination with multivariate analysis of the generated data, was used for the chemical characterization of prehistoric pottery from the Greek islands of Thera, Melos (islands with similar geology) and Crete. The statistical procedure which proved that Theran pottery could be distinguished from Melian is described. This discrimination, attained for the first time, was mainly based on the concentrations of the trace elements Sm, Yb, Lu and Cr. Also, Cretan imports to both Thera and Melos were clearly separable from local products. (author) 22 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  5. Health, economic crisis, and austerity: A comparison of Greece, Finland and Iceland. (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Rodriguez, Javier M


    Reports have attributed a public health tragedy in Greece to the Great Recession and the subsequent application of austerity programs. It is also claimed that the comparison of Greece with Iceland and Finland-where austerity policies were not applied-reveals the harmful effect of austerity on health and that by protecting spending in health and social budgets, governments can offset the harmful effects of economic crises on health. We use data on life expectancy, mortality rates, incidence of infectious diseases, rates of vaccination, self-reported health and other measures to examine the evolution of population health and health services performance in Greece, Finland and Iceland since 1990-2011 or 2012-the most recent years for which data are available. We find that in the three countries most indicators of population health continued improving after the Great Recession started. In terms of population health and performance of the health care system, in the period after 2007 for which data are available, Greece did as good as Iceland and Finland. The evidence does not support the claim that there is a health crisis in Greece. On the basis of the extant evidence, claims of a public health tragedy in Greece seem overly exaggerated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić


    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  8. Fault-plane Solutions Determined by Waveform Modeling Confirm Tectonic Collision in the Eastern Adriatic (United States)

    Louvari, E.; Kiratzi, A.; Papazachos, B.; Hatzidimitriou, P.

    - Source parameters for thirteen earthquakes in the SE Adriatic region have been determined using P and SH body-waveform inversion. The results of this modeling are combined with eleven other earthquakes with M>=5 whose focal mechanisms have been determined mainly by waveform modeling. The results confirm that movement on mainly low-angle reverse faults causes the deformation in coastal southern Yugoslavia through Albania up to the Lefkada Island in NW Greece. This zone of thrusting has a NW-SE trend (N34°W), follows the coastline, and dips towards the continent. The slip vectors of these events trend at N229° along the Dalmatian coasts, to N247° along Albania and NW Greece. The deformation is attributed to the continental collision between the Adriatic block to the west and Eurasia to the east. Along the mountain line in eastern Albania (Albanides Mts.) and in NW Greece (Hellenides Mts.), E-W extension is occurring. The E-W extension associated with the orogenic belt could be attributed to a variety of models such as: gravity, internal deformation of the thrust wedge, a probable down bulge of the dense lithosphere of the Adriatic block beneath the Eurasian lithospheric plate in combination with the compressional stresses applied along the collision belt.

  9. The effects of historical fragmentation on major histocompatibility complex class II β and microsatellite variation in the Aegean island reptile,Podarcis erhardii. (United States)

    Santonastaso, Trent; Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Jones, Kenneth L; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Anthony, Nicola M


    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in disease resistance and is the most polymorphic gene region in vertebrates. Although habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to a loss in MHC variation through drift, the impact of other evolutionary forces may counter this effect. Here we assess the impact of selection, drift, migration, and recombination on MHC class II and microsatellite variability in 14 island populations of the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii . Lizards were sampled from islands within the Cyclades (Greece) formed by rising sea levels as the last glacial maximum approximately 20,000 before present. Bathymetric data were used to determine the area and age of each island, allowing us to infer the corresponding magnitude and timing of genetic bottlenecks associated with island formation. Both MHC and microsatellite variation were positively associated with island area, supporting the hypothesis that drift governs neutral and adaptive variation in this system. However, MHC but not microsatellite variability declined significantly with island age. This discrepancy is likely due to the fact that microsatellites attain mutation-drift equilibrium more rapidly than MHC. Although we detected signals of balancing selection, recombination and migration, the effects of these evolutionary processes appeared negligible relative to drift. This study demonstrates how land bridge islands can provide novel insights into the impact of historical fragmentation on genetic diversity as well as help disentangle the effects of different evolutionary forces on neutral and adaptive diversity.

  10. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.


    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  11. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos


    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  12. Biomass resources for heat and electricity in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, M.; Panoutsou, C. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi (Greece); Lychnaras, V. [Agricultural Univ. of Greece, Athens (Greece). Laboratory of Agribusiness Management


    The aim of this study is to present bioenergy pathways for the heat and electricity markets in Greece. Bioenergy in Greece follows a rising trend the last ten years. From small agro-industrial applications covering mainly process and space heat, new cogeneration plants were initiated in the waste and sewage treatment sectors. There are good opportunities for biomass heat applications in the commercial sector (tourist settlements, public buildings, etc.) as well as for co-firing biomass in the lignite power stations. The first electricity plants from bioenergy (CHP) were initiated on 1997, after the initiation of the strong support measures. According to the National Statistic Service, in 2001 bio energy use was estimated at 39 PJ/year, about 3.4% of the total primary energy consumption in the country by that year. Of this, biomass (mostly wood consumed directly in the domestic/residential sector) accounted for 64.4%, or 0.946 Mtoe. Domestic use of wood (burning of wood in open heaths for cooking, water and space heating) accounted for about 74% (0.70 Mtoe) of total biomass energy production. The remaining 26% (0.24 Mtoe) was produced by the combustion of wood by-products and agricultural residues, and the utilisation of biogas produced in landfills, agro-food industries and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Traditional biomass resources in Greece include agricultural crops, crop and forest residues, agro-industrial residues, animal and municipal wastes and energy crops. It was estimated that approximately 3.8 million dry tones of field crop and arboricultural residues are theoretically available for energy production as well as 600,000 dry tones of agro-industrial residues, with a respective total energy potential of 69 PJ/year and 10 PJ/year. Intensive livestock farming results in a daily production of 3,200 m{sup 3}, 491 m{sup 3} and 2,000 m{sup 3} animal wastes from cattle, pig and poultry breeding, respectively, with a biogas potential of 240,000 m{sup 3

  13. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava


    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  14. Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece (United States)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Lykousis, Vasilis; Alexandri, Matina; Rousakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Lampridou, Danai; Alves, Tiago; Ballas, Dionysios


    Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece Nomikou P.1, Lykousis V.2, Alexandri M.2, Rousakis G.2, Sakellariou D.2, Lampridou D.1 , Alves T.3, Ballas D.2 1University of Athens, Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, Panepistimioupoli Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece. 2Inst. of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. 33D Seismic Laboratory, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building-Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK. The swath bathymetric survey of the South Cretan Margin has been conducted during the HERMES-1 (May-June 2005) and HERMES-2 (September-October 2005) cruises onboard R/V "AEGAEO" using the 20 kHz, SEABEAM 2120 system. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry outlines in unprecedented detail the shape and the morphological features of the region. One of the most dominant geomorphological structures of the southwest Cretan slope is the submarine Samaria Canyon (Western Cretan Trough) which is characterized by high relief steep walls and V-shaped cross sections. Despite the fact that the trough trends predominantly northeastward, with a central axis oriented from east to west, the head displays a north-trending hook termination on the continental shelf. The minimum depth of its axis is 1400 m and the thalweg ranges from 1500 to 3500m. In addition, abrupt alternation in the axial trend of the canyon is observed, accompanied by sharp changes in axial gradient and in the geometry of the canyon profile ending in a flat area of 3600 m depth. From Paleochora up to Sindonia, numerous small canyons trending N-S crosscut the steep Cretan southern margin, that reaches the 2000 m isobath. These are transversal to the main direction E-W of the slope. Furthermore, the detailed bathymetric map reveals the morphology of several troughs bounded by steep flanks. Their flat bottom may reach up to 3000m water depth. The most characteristic one, Ptolemy trough (eastern South Cretan Trough), is located in

  15. Breaking News: Decoding the earliest "computer": The antikythera astrolabe. Science and technology in ancient Greece (United States)

    Liritzis, I.

    In the Easter of 1900, just off the tiny island of Antikythera in the Aegean Sea, sponge-fishers from Simi found by chance a very important ancient shipwreck dated to 2nd to the early 1st century B.C. The plethora of objects included bronze fragments of furniture, marble and bronze statues and statuettes, pottery, luxury glass and silver vases, wooden parts of the ship and other. Of the most important find was a corroded bronze mechanism embedded to calcareous cemented matter caused by the seawater. The mechanism was associated to the School of Poseidonius of Rhodes and dated c.87 B.C. The mechanism is a four piece fragmentary, fragile and partly missing calculating device with geared wheels, display scales and Greek inscriptions, displayed at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. Early research (1902-1934) was made by Svoronos, Stais, Rados, Rediadis, Theophanides and even attempted a reconstruction. Later research (1953-1974) was applied by mechanical engineer in collaboration with Karakalos (1973) who applied industrial X-ray radiography and recovered revolutionary structural data and 30 geared wheels. Dr Derek de Solla Price made a second model (two replicas) (Price, 1974). Since then, several other models were made by Roumeliotis, Freeth (2002 a, b), Casselman and Lysozyme. The third research phase (1990 till today) was studied by computer scientists (Bromley and Gardner) as well as mechanical engineer Michael Wright, Greenwich Museum, London. The film images were taken by the laborious X-ray linear tomography. A replica was made by Michael Wright upgrading earlier model by Price producing eventually modifications till this year. The last research effort (2005 till today) the mechanism was studied by the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project researchers from a consortium of public and private establishments led by Mike Edmunds University of Cardiff and included Universities of Athens and Thessaloniki, The National Archaeological Museum Athens, the

  16. On some rarely caught fish in the southeastern Aegean Sea (Greece, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corsini-Foka


    Full Text Available The marine region of the Dodecanese Islands (Greece is heavily affected by climate changes, intensification of anthropogenic interferences and biological invasions. Its ichthyofauna diversity is still poorly known, despite the development of marine research during the last decades, both in shallow and deep waters, and the increasing interest of fishermen to biodiversity knowledge and conservation. Regardless of its oligotrophic character, with only 1-3 % of the total Greek fishery production (ELSTAT, 2015, at least 60 % of the total fish species known in the Hellenic seas (510 has been recorded in the area (Papaconstantinou, 2014. Between 2009 and 2014, 14 uncommon species - Alopias superciliosus, Gymnura altavela, Aulopus filamentosus, Sudis hyalina, Gymnothorax unicolor, Ophisurus serpens, Nemichthys scolopaceus, Lophotus lacepede, Naucrates ductor, Alectis alexandrinus, Brama brama, Pomadasys incisus, Schedophilus ovalis and Mola mola - were captured. The first records of P. incisus and S. ovalis in the area significantly enlarge their known distribution in the Hellenic Aegean waters (Papaconstantinou, 2014. The capture of L. lacepede (approx. 140 cm total length in Patmos (2011 confirms the occurrence of this rare species in the Dodecanese, given that a juvenile is preserved at the Hydrobiological Station of Rhodes since the 1950s, and constitutes the third official record in the Aegean waters, after Gökova Bay and Chalkidiki findings (Bilecenoğlu et al., 2001; Minos et al., 2013. The captures of S. hyalina (2011 and N. scolopaceus (2014 confirm their occurrence some years after their first reports in the same area in 2004 and 2002 respectively (Corsini-Foka, 2009. The occurrence of A. superciliosus, a species infrequent in local fishery, is poorly documented in the Mediterranean and the species is considered scarce or rare in the basin (Madiraca and Davidov, 2015. The scattered records of the remaining above species contribute to monitor

  17. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece. (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos


    considered as a case study, where the majority of the coastline appears to be undergoing erosion, with approximately 25% of the Aegean coastline, consisting mainly of beach zones and low-lying coastal (including deltaic) plains. In terms of economic activates coastal tourism is most effected, as beach zones are very high vulnerable to erosion. Also, small ports in remote islands are also found to be highly vulnerable. Acknowledgments This work was implemented within the framework of "Post-Doctoral Excellence Scholarship. State Scholarships Foundation, Greece IKY- Siemens Action"

  18. Evaluation of tsunami risk in Heraklion city, Crete, Greece, by using GIS methods (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Fokaefs, Anna; Novikova, Tatyana; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos A.; Vaitis, Michalis


    The Hellenic Arc is the most active seismotectonic structure in the Mediterranean region. The island of Crete occupies the central segment of the arc which is characterized by high seismic and tsunami activity. Several tsunamis generated by large earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides were reported that hit the capital city of Heraklion in the historical past. We focus our tsunami risk study in the northern coastal area of Crete (ca. 6 km in length and 1 km in maximum width) which includes the western part of the city of Heraklion and a large part of the neighboring municipality of Gazi. The evaluation of tsunami risk included calculations and mapping with QGIS of (1) cost for repairing buildings after tsunami damage, (2) population exposed to tsunami attack, (3) optimum routes and times for evacuation. To calculate the cost for building reparation after a tsunami attack we have determined the tsunami inundation zone in the study area after numerical simulations for extreme tsunami scenarios. The geographical distribution of buildings per building block, obtained from the 2011 census data of the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT) and satellite data, was mapped. By applying the SCHEMA Damage Tool we assessed the building vulnerability to tsunamis according to the types of buildings and their expected damage from the hydrodynamic impact. A set of official cost rates varying with the building types and the damage levels, following standards set by the state after the strong damaging earthquakes in Greece in 2014, was applied to calculate the cost of rebuilding or repairing buildings damaged by the tsunami. In the investigation of the population exposed to tsunami inundation we have used the interpolation method to smooth out the population geographical distribution per building block within the inundation zone. Then, the population distribution was correlated with tsunami hydrodynamic parameters in the inundation zone. The last approach of tsunami risk

  19. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.


    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  20. Medical practice in the ancient Asclepeion in Kos island. (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Tzitzis, Panagiotis M


    Asclepius was called "a great doctor for every disease". Asclepius was born in Trikala, Thessaly, in the middle of Greece, where the first Asclepeion was established. Patients coming to the Asclepeia were first taking cleaning baths and then entered the main Asclepeion, where they were examined by priests-therapists and were accommodated in certain areas-rooms of the Asclepeion. Inscriptions found in marble plaques describe treatment of some diseases and the sum of money paid for every treatment. These were the first medical records and fees in ancient Greece. Patients were considered as a unique psychosomatic entity. Patients followed many instructions in order to relax and rest, submitted daily baths, exercises, massages, entertainment attending theatrical or poetic or athletic races, reading special books, promenades, special diets or were kept fasting and were instructed to take many kinds of medicine per os, suppositories, ointments, eye drops etc. The main diseases treated in the Asclepeia were: chronic neuropsychological disorders, skin diseases and chronic lung diseases. Other diseases gynaecological, ophthalmic and surgical were also treated. Today, like in the ancient Asclepeia, the psychology of patients is important and certain preparatory drugs are administered before the actual main treatment of surgery or of some psychic disorders. In Aalborg, Denmark, a large prototype medical university hospital, is scheduled to be built in an area of 350acres within the next 15 years. The psychosomatic dogma and principals of a "green building" will be well respected. The Asclepeion of the island of Kos, where as we know Hippocrates was born, was built on the 5th century B.C. and functioned till the 4th century A.D. and had three floors. The Asclepeion had many dedications, of which many parts of the human body in marble: an ear, a damaged penis and two breasts. Surgical tools were also found and are now exhibited in the Dion Museum. After the 4th century A.D. the

  1. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim


    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  2. Establishment of dose reference levels for mammography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalathaki, M.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Economides, S.; Tritakis, P.; Manousaridis, G.; Kalyvas, N.; Simantirakis, G.; Kipouros, P.; Kamenopoulou, V.


    Full text of publication follows: Diagnostic Reference Levels (D.R.L.) are dose levels established in medical practices for typical x-ray examinations concerning groups of standard size patients or standard phantoms and broadly defined types of equipment. When good and normal practice is performed, these levels are not expected to be exceeded. This work is an attempt to establish for the first time the D.R.L. for mammography in Greece. At present, there are 402 mammographic systems in clinical use all over the country. This study that lasted 3 years (2000-2003), includes 117 of these systems, 85% of which are installed in private and 15% in public sector countrywide. Measurements of entrance surface dose (E.S.D.) were performed as a part of the regular inspections performed by the Licensing and Inspections Department of Greek Atomic Energy Commission on the basis of the laboratories licensing procedure. Moreover, the entire performance of the mammographic units was assessed by quantitative and qualitative measurements of specific parameters. In order to establish the national D.R.L., a standard phantom was used during the quality control of the mammographic units and E.S.D. measurements were performed based on the clinical practice of each laboratory. The D.R.L. for this type of examination was established according to the 75. percentile of the E.S.D. curve and found equal to 7 mGy per single view. The comparison of this value with the one reported by the European Commission (10 mGy per view), indicates that the D.R.L. for mammography is lower in Greece. However, the primary concern of a mammographic examination is to keep breast dose as low as reasonably achievable while providing images with the maximum amount of diagnostic information. The quality of the produced images was therefore assessed for all systems examined, regardless of meeting or exceeding the quality criteria reference surface entrance dose. The results showed that the average total score of the

  3. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece (United States)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios


    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (, the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  4. SOTUNKI: An Island Of Education and Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi HEIKKILÄ


    .Information points:Ø amphitheatre and Mount Olympus for Ancient Greece and RomeØ Medieval tavern for Medieval literatureØ Midsummer Night’s fairy cave for RenaissanceØ Robinson Crusoe’s island for 18th century EnlightenmentØ cemetery and crypt for RomanticismØ a small, poor cottage for RealismØ a lighthouse (as in Virginia Woolf’s novel for ModernismØ a hobbit’s home for PostmodernismIt was crucial that the information points were in chronological order -that way students can “walk” through the history of Western literature themselves instead of just reading about it from a book and chronological order makes it is easier to remember the order of different time periods. I wish to share here the information points to reflect the stylistic periods they presented so it would be easy to learn something of a stylistic period by just looking around: it activates visual memory and helps to connect information with the place where it was found. For instance, students can learn things about 19th century Romanticism in a cemetery and in a mad scientist’s lab and remember that the era was not all about sweet, romantic dreams about love and more about monsters, death and mad scientists -and love with ruinous consequences.On every information point there are both theory and exercises available. There is at least one big board that holds the most important information about that time period written on it. When a student clicks on a board he gets an English translation and all the board’s information on a Notecard that can be saved in the student’s personal inventory. Then he can for instance go to sit on a beach, watch a sunset and study.Most of the information points have “talking” objects, by which I mean objects with scripts in them: when you click them, the object sends a chat-message with some information about literature. Below every information board there is an object (usually an apple and by clicking it a student gets a set of questions about that time period

  5. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (United States)


    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands... geographic coordinates for Bucholz AAF in the Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, Class D airspace legal...

  6. 76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (United States)


    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... part 71 by amending Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993... Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the Federal ] Register on October 7, 2010, FR Doc...

  7. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.


    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  8. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi


    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  9. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean. (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant


    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  10. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  11. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J


    Full Text Available expeditions to Marion Island from 1948 to 1985 and research visits to Prince Edward Island from 1965 to 1985. A third appendix is a bibliography relevant to the study of historical sites at the Prince Edward islands...

  12. Screening for faecal contamination in primary schools in Crete, Greece. (United States)

    Kyriacou, A; Drakopoulou, S; Georgaki, I; Fountoulakis, M; Mitsou, E; Lasaridi, K E; Manios, Y; Manios, T


    Hygienic conditions in primary schools are a major concern for both governmental organizations and families. Particularly, the occurrence of faecal indicators on children's hands and various school surfaces has been associated with increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases. The presence of faecal streptococci on environmental surfaces and children's hands and the possible correlation with socio-economic factors were examined. Overall, 1956 samples from hands and 1470 samples from surfaces were collected from 20 primary schools in Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Faecal streptococci were found at 52.9% of children's hands and at 16.7% of other surfaces. Children, who had parents with the highest education level (>12 years), had the lowest percentage (48.8%) of faecal contamination on their hands. Furthermore, boys exhibited higher levels of hands contamination compared with girls. Among the environmental surfaces examined, the school canteen reception was the most contaminated area. High faecal contamination was detected in primary schools in the examined region. Children's hands were highly infected (52.9%), while boys exhibited higher levels of contamination. The educational level of parents correlated well with the contamination of children's hands.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Andra SIMIONESCU


    Full Text Available The concept Yin-Yang represents the unity of opposites and complementarity. In this respect, from the economical point of view a positive Yin phase represents the cash flow, brings nutrition, gentleness and protection, while a negative Yin phase means capital loss, sloth and passive obedience, a positive Yang phase is translated as an action based on funds, emphasising the creation, the construction and the development of infrastructure thanks to an economical action plan, while a negative Yang phase leads to conflicts, to excessive product stocks and to a stock market collapse, causing, in this line, crisis and inflation by increasing prices and decreasing purchasing power. In the European Union, Greece faces a Yang negative phase. When having too much positive Yin monetary stimulus from the EU, the Yin-Yang balance turns in favour of a negative Yang bankrupcy and unemployment. Thus, I explore not only the Greece’s economical dimension, but also its geographic role, the synergy between culture and DNA and the last, but not the least, the human’s ability in creating a new positive Yin-Yang flourishing future.

  14. Psychological distress, anxiety and depression among nursing students in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapountzi-Krepia D.


    Full Text Available It is usually observed that nursing students undergo tremendous stress during various stages oftheir course but the knowledge about the stress process and depressive symptoms in this population is limited. TheAim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, anxiety and depression amongnursing students in Greece. For that purpose 170 nursing students (34 males, 136 females of the Department of Nursingof the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki completed 3 self-report questionnaires, the General HealthQuestionnaire (GHQ, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The mean agewas 21.5 years. No difference in stress and depression on the basis of gender was observed. Our results showed that thescores on the GHQ, BDI and STAI tend to increase in the year 2 and 3. The majority of students reported relatively highscores on the GHQ suggesting increased psychiatric morbidity. 52.4% of students experienced depressive symptoms(34.7% mild, 12.9% moderate and 4.7% severe. The scores on the state scale were higher in the years 2 and 3, whilethe majority of students who had no or mild stress was observed in the first and the last year. Low stress personalitytraits were also observed in the first and the last year. However, no significant differences between the four years wereobserved. Our results suggest that nursing students experience different levels of stress and depression and that thesefactors are positively correlated.

  15. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece]. (United States)

    Ban, Deokjin


    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  16. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece). (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  17. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece. (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  18. Pournari Dam (W. Greece) Impoundment and Triggered Seismicity (United States)

    Pavlou, K.; Kouskouna, V.; Makropoulos, K.; Drakatos, G.; Petrou, P.


    The Pournari dam is located in the seismically active area of W. Greece, close to Arta. The height of the dam is 87m, with maximum water level height at 126m and maximum volume 865X106m3. The first impoundment commenced in January 1981, and was accompanied by a considerable number of low magnitude seismic events, as well as two major ones on March 10 and April 10, 1981, with magnitudes ML=5.6 and ML=4.7 and focal depths 13km and 10km, respectively, all located in the broader area of the dam. Potential triggering of the second event was studied through the calculation of Coulomb stress changes distribution, due to the occurrence of the first ML=5.6 event. Additionally, the detailed study of temporal correlation between water level increase and seismicity showed triggering seismicity due to both the initial filling and the disordered structure, controlled by the presence of evaporites, south and west of Pournari dam area. Further processing of the recorded seismicity for the period 1982-2010, in comparison with the variations of Pournari dam water level, presented an increase of shallow seismicity in the vicinity of the reservoir up to a 10 km distance -in contrast to the initial period, characterized by a number of deeper events- which was due to the background response change from undrained to drained status.

  19. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall over Greece (United States)

    Markonis, Y.; Batelis, S. C.; Dimakos, Y.; Moschou, E.; Koutsoyiannis, D.


    Recent studies have showed that there is a significant decrease in rainfall over Greece during the last half of the pervious century, following an overall decrease of the precipitation at the eastern Mediterranean. However, during the last decade an increase in rainfall was observed in most regions of the country, contrary to the general circulation climate models forecasts. An updated high-resolution dataset of monthly sums and annual daily maxima records derived from 136 stations during the period 1940-2012 allowed us to present some new evidence for the observed change and its statistical significance. The statistical framework used to determine the significance of the slopes in annual rain was not limited to the time independency assumption (Mann-Kendall test), but we also investigated the effect of short- and long-term persistence through Monte Carlo simulation. Our findings show that (a) change occurs in different scales; most regions show a decline since 1950, an increase since 1980 and remain stable during the last 15 years; (b) the significance of the observed decline is highly dependent to the statistical assumptions used; there are indications that the Mann-Kendall test may be the least suitable method; and (c) change in time is strongly linked with the change in space; for scales below 40 years, relatively close regions may develop even opposite trends, while in larger scales change is more uniform.

  20. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors. (United States)

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen


    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

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    Yiannis Alamanos


    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  2. Carbonatitic dykes during Pangaea transtension (Pelagonian Zone, Greece) (United States)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie


    Carbonatitic dykes surrounded by K-Na-fenites were discovered in the Pelagonian Zone in Greece. Their carbonate portions have an isotopic mantle signature of δ13C and δ18O ranging from -5.18 to -5.56 (‰ vs. VPDB) and from 10.68 to 11.59 (‰ vs. VSMOW) respectively, whereas their mafic silicate portions have high Nb, Ta and ɛNd values, typical of alkaline basalts. Textural relationships hint at a cogenetic intrusion of silicate and carbonate liquids that according to antithetic REE profiles segregated at shallow depths (rims (δ18O = 6.78-7.02). From 300 to 175 Ma the ɛNd of the Pelagonian magmatism rose irregularly to more primitive values attesting to a higher increment of asthenosphere-derived melts. In this context, the carbonatite formed within a transtensional regime of an intra-Pangaea dextral transform fault that signalled the forthcoming penetrating breakoff of the supercontinent, manifested in the Permo-Triassic.

  3. An overview of radiation protection at national level in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, P.A.


    The Greek radiation protection Regulations were revised extensively and harmonized with the relevant Euratom Directives in 1991, covering almost all applications of ionizing radiation. According to the low in force, Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. Among others is responsible: for evaluating the environmental radiation, for introducing emergency plans to responsible Ministries to cope with radiation accidents or increased radioactivity levels, for issuing safety regulation concerning the operation employing ionizing radiation, performing inceptions to all installations or laboratories where radioisotopes or radiation producing machines are employed including all medical applications and issuing the certificate of compliance with the radiation protection regulations. GAEC is the governmental licensing authority for import, export, possession, use, transport and disposal of radioactive materials including fissile materials, and is also responsible for providing training and education to scientists and technical personnel on radiation protection and operates a two years postgraduate course in Medical radiation Physics in collaboration with three Greek Universities, leading to an M Sc degree.The achievements, initiatives and perceptivities of GAEC in the fields of its responsibility are discussed. Statistical data concerning the application of ionising radiation in Greece during the last five years are also presented (author)

  4. The retail store managers' role: Evidence from Greece

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    Zairis, A.


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the retail manager's role is determinant for a store's performance, and there is abundant wisdom about how to be an outstanding manager or what are the characteristics of a successful retail manager, there is no detailed description about the store managers' role or their actual work. Furthermore, the continuous developments in the retail sector have established different roles and created higher levels of responsibility for store managers. The aim of the present paper is to empirically investigate the role of retail store managers in Greece and identify any potential differences in terms of personal characteristics, tasks and various job-related factors. For the purposes of this research a survey was conducted focusing on the sectors of apparel/footwear and food, in an attempt to explore any potential differences within the two divisions. The results revealed the profile of the Greek store managers (male, over the age of 40, with a secondary level of education and more than five years of work experience and their multi-factor role. The three major roles that they perform were labeled as: sales oriented, supervisor, and customer experience oriented. The research also indicated that the two most popular sub-sectors in the Greek retail industry employ different profile managers. The issues of work experience, job satisfaction and security were also analysed.

  5. Mercury in the Urban Topsoil of Athens, Greece

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    Efstratios Kelepertzis


    Full Text Available The present study documents the Hg content in 45 urban topsoil samples from the highly urbanized city of Athens, Greece. The Hg concentrations were quantified by applying aqua regia digestion on the <100 μm soil fraction followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS with a detection limit of 5 μg·kg−1. The median concentration of Hg in Athens soil is 96 μg·kg−1; ten out of 45 soil samples were found to contain Hg concentrations higher than 200 μg·kg−1, which is the maximum concentration value expected to be present in normal uncontaminated soils. Results obtained by multivariate principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis incorporating a large suite of chemical elements were notably effective for elucidating the anthropogenic origin of Hg in the studied soil. The elevated concentrations are most likely related to site-specific point source contamination rather than to the widely documented influences from the vehicular traffic emissions in urban settings. Given the proximity of urban population to the contaminated urban soils, we suggest the implementation of different soil extraction tests with the aim to evaluate the fraction of soil Hg available for absorption by the human body.

  6. Entertainment in View of Politicians in Ancient Greece and Rome

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    Valdas Pruskus


    Full Text Available The article discloses the cultural and social conditions of the entertainment phenomenon in Ancient Greece and Rome and the attitude of the authorities to it. The appearance of entertainment is closely related to the worship of cult of Gods. It is shown that the Romans being more materialistic and pragmatic paid less attention to spiritual entertainment than Greeks who fostered dramatic performances. Greek rulers and noblemen saw relaxational and educational function of the entertainment and also considered it as reducing tension and promoting solidarity. However, they did not intrude into its practical organization and had only a monitoring position, whereas the Romans were more interested in daily life and its bodily pleasures. Accordingly in recreational activities – games there dominated the spirit of competition, especially the gladiators games, which were bloody and cruel, but heated passions of spectators whose majority was comprised of plebs. There is shown that the authorities considered the entertainment as an effective tool to reach political aims, especially for gaining the support of commons in various elections, so they financed gladiators’ performances generously.This tradition is still topical in the flow of years. These days it has become the constituent part of the political marketing.

  7. Occupational Exposure to Ionising Radiation in Greece (1994-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenopoulou, V.; Drikos, G.; Dimitriou, P.


    This study was scheduled in order to analyse the individual annual dose information on classified workers in Greece, monitored and assessed by the central dosimetry service at the Greek Atomic Energy Commission for the years 1994-98. This service provides film badges to about 7500 workers all over the country on a monthly basis. Dose summaries were recorded and processed by the Dose Registry Information System, the database of which has been totally renewed since 1994. The statistical analysis provided refers to and deals with the mean annual dose, the collective dose, the distribution of the dose over the different specialities and the number of workers that have exceeded any of the established dose levels. Results concerning the annual dose summaries demonstrate a decrease in the collective and the mean individual dose to workers in the year 1995 and a slight but steady year-by-year increase thereafter during the period under consideration. This increasing tendency is discussed along with the increase in the ionising radiation applications, especially those in the medical sector, the change of the positioning of the film badge and the quality control measures provided by Greek law for radiation laboratories. (author)

  8. Estimating the Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions over Greece

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    Ermioni Dimitropoulou


    Full Text Available Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (BNMVOCs emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation developed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS and theoretical equations in order to produce an emission inventory on a 6 × 6 km2 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1 h covering one year (2016. For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: updated satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature, and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily, and annual isoprene, monoterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes, and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.

  9. Risk perception of NSAIDs in hospitalized patients in Greece. (United States)

    Karakitsiou, M; Varga, Z; Kriska, M; Kristova, V


    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used analgesics worldwide in different syndromes. There is a relevant evidence about NSAIDs various adverse effects (AEs) on gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, nervous systems. Many of these problems are preventable with respects to appropriate patient´s risk perception. The main goal of our study was to examine drug risk perception with relation to participation factors as comorbidities in patients. A structured questionnaire was delivered to 124 patients hospitalized at Department of Internal Medicine in a selected General Hospital in Greece. Data were evaluated using a descriptive statistics. Low awareness of NSAID risk was recorded, with 45.16 % of respondents unaware of any particular AEs. Lack of this knowledge appears to be attributed to low communication of physicians and pharmacists with patients about possible risk from comorbidity, over half of respondents (55.8 %) had history of hypertension, and 25.9 % were diabetics, which would increase the risk of NSAID therapy. Our study revealed a restricted knowledge about risk of NSAIDs in the studied population and showed some important data related to the presence of comorbidity in patients, which could potentiate the risk of cardiovascular AEs (Fig. 5, Ref. 22).

  10. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece. (United States)

    Roinioti, Erifylli; Papathanassopoulou, Aegli; Theodoropoulou, Ioanna; Simsek, Sami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios


    Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product. Eighty (n=80) of the 82 (97.6%) isolates were allocated to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and were classified in 13 distinct haplotypes (9 common and 4 novel) with 12 polymorphic sites. The presence of the dominant haplotype EG1 as was documented in the European populations, was indicated in the country. Almost all regions shared the same common haplotype. In comparison to this predominant haplotype, the number of the nucleotide changes in all the other haplotypes ranged from 1 to 5. All nucleotide changes proved to be transitions (A↔G or C↔T). Two fertile hydatid cysts of sheep origin in different areas (Arkadia, Ilia) of the Peloponnese were identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7 genotype). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Obstacles to the Growth of Alternative Tourism in Greece

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    Athena Smith


    Full Text Available In the midst of the recent economic melt-down in Greece, economists are discussing the potential of tourism to pull the country out of its current woes. More than 16 million tourists visit the country annually whereas the sector contributes 15% to the nation's Gross Domestic Product and offers employment to 16% of the work force (Hellenic Statistical Authority, 2010. Concurrently, mass tourism has also caused a rise in pollution, a depletion of water supplies, desertification, rural emigration to urban centers, erosion of coastal areas and a drop in hygienic standards, all of which have had serious economic costs and caused residents to protest the industry’s mode of expansion. To that purpose, alternative types of tourism such as agrotourism and ecotourism have been defined as overarching objectives that complement the strategy for growth and employment. However, a closer look at the spots mostly known for alternative tourism activities shows the parallel emergence of other socio-economic developments that have slowly eroded Greek rural life and intensified the economic disparities between the local social classes. A closer evaluation of the damaging side effects casts doubt on the potential of alternative tourism as practiced today to inject growth into a stagnating economy.

  12. Discussion on telluric field and seismic activity in Central Greece

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    J. Zlotnicki


    Full Text Available Two stations were installed in the Southeastern Thessaly basin (Central Greece, recording the geomagnetic and telluric fields from 1993 to 1996. The aim was to detect long-term abnormal changes of the telluric field, which were possibly related to imbedding earthquakes. Between January 1993 and October 1996, 213 and185 (Neraida and Mavrolofos stations respectively abnormal changes of the telluric field were observed in association with the seismic activity. The duration of these changes varied from several minutes to 24 days and the maximum amplitude was 3.8 mV/m. Data recording detected 625 and 917 seismic events for Neraida and Mavrolofos station respectively. The percentage of the earthquakes associated with the telluric anomalies is 27% and 16% respectively for each station. Both percentages are considered to be very low. Telluric activity was followed by a burst of seismic activity in areas spreading to different directions from the stations. A correlation of the characteristics of the telluric field with the earthquake magnitude was attempted, but no reliable relationship was obtained.

  13. An Island Called Cuba

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    Jean Stubbs


    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  14. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.


    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  15. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.


    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  16. The market for reproductive tourism: an analysis with special reference to Greece. (United States)

    Paraskou, Anastasia; George, Babu P


    For many people, the need for parenthood remains unfulfilled due to biological reasons and a remedy for these individuals is assisted reproduction (AR). Because of widely differing and sometimes incompatible legislations around the world related to AR, there is considerable confusion across national borders. Within Europe, Greece seems to be in a comparatively favorable position because of lower restrictions and the availability of decent quality specialized medical facilities. This research is a market study with a business perspective and explores the emerging landscape of reproductive tourism (RT) in Greece. The research adopted mixed methods. First, open-ended questions were used to interview foreign medical tourists and staff in various AR clinics. Based on the insights from these interviews and guided by the extent literature, a survey instrument was prepared and administered among 130 patients. Findings indicate that Greece still lack policies that nurture transparency and dynamic response to technological changes in AR. Also, the travel industry lack specialists who can effectively liaison with clinics, who understand the availability of AR technologies, regulations, and the unique needs of AR tourists. Globally, the need for assisted reproduction has tremendously increased; yet, the supply of facilities is lagging far behind. There is a unique advantage for clinics located in touristic locations in countries that offer cheaper treatment options. Given the shape of its debt-ridden economy, Greece needs foreign exchange inflows and gaining first mover advantage in reproductive tourism is probably an important way to achieve this. This research draws up a reproductive tourism strategy for Greece.

  17. The epidemiology of Brucellosis in Greece, 2007-2012: a 'One Health' approach. (United States)

    Fouskis, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Christidou, Athanasia; Tsatsaris, Andreas; Tzanakis, Nikos; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna


    Brucellosis remains a disease that is very difficult to control and eradicate in Greece. Information exchange between the responsible authorities is crucial in order to support public health infrastructure in the sense of the 'One-Health' strategy model. The data for 2007-2012 were retrieved from the notifiable diseases system and analysed statistically for correlations between human brucellosis cases and the disease in small ruminants. Disease-related risk factors were also estimated with parallel exploitation mapping software. In Greece the dominant strain for brucellosis is Brucella melitensis. The average incidence in Greece was estimated to be 1.43/100,000. The majority of human cases were males (67.60%). The age distribution of brucellosis patients differs significantly between men and women. Brucellosis in male patients was related to high risk jobs and animal contact, while brucellosis in females was related to recent consumption of dairy products. Seasonality of the disease was different in relation to the European countries an observation attributed to the traditional customs. There was a statistically significant difference in human brucellosis incidence between the eradication and vaccination zones. The updated information on brucellosis in Greece revealed differences in seasonality and transmission patterns. A more active cooperation between the involved public health-related sectors should be followed in order to effectively fight brucellosis as there are still foci of brucellosis in Greece.

  18. Rural Environmental Management in Greece as a Cultural Frontier between the “Occident” and the “Orient”

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    Kizos, Thanasis


    Full Text Available Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, is biogeographically and culturally a transition zone between the “east” and the “west”. Some of the older farming styles in it were considered as typical examples of an “oriental production style”. In the Greek state, these farming styles were considered as “outdated” and “backward” and the radical transformation of farming and the rural landscape was sought through intensification of agriculture and modernization of the rural society, a target accomplished by the 1970s and strengthened after the accession in the EU. Only recently, some of the features of older farming systems were reevaluated, in the light of negative environmental impacts of some modern farming styles. In this paper, the rural landscapes of Greece today are presented with a mention of the farming styles that have formed them, both “traditional” and “modern”. Some of the most important changes are discussed in an environmental management light via some examples: grazing management and forestry in the mountains; mixed and olive cultivation on the islands and southern Greece; and arable farming in the plains. The paper focuses on the visual and the environmental impacts of farming styles changes and briefly discusses possible future trends. The impacts are evaluated by empirical work, especially for the mixed farming and olive cultivation landscape and by the literature. The findings indicate that “traditional” farming styles did indeed have positive environmental impacts compared to “modern” ones and today some of their features could be used for sustainable rural landscape management.Grecia, en el extremo sur de la provincia de los Balcanes, es cultural y biogeográficamente una zona de transición entre el “este” y el “oeste”. Algunos de los estilos tradicionales agrarios están considerados ejemplos típicos de un “estilo de producción oriental”. En el Estado de Grecia

  19. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Greek Aegean Islands: ecological approaches. (United States)

    Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Pavlou, Christoforos; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Kourouniotis, Christos; Alten, Bulent; Antoniou, Maria


    Blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. Different Phlebotomus species transmit different Leishmania species causing leishmaniases which are neglected diseases emerging/reemerging in new regions. Thirteen sand fly species, ten belonging to the medically important genus Phlebotomus and three belonging to Sergentomyia are known in Greece. An increasing number of human and dog cases are reported each year from all parts of the country including the Aegean Islands. However, no previous study has been conducted on the sand fly fauna on the islands, except for Rhodes and Samos. The aim of this study was to investigate sand fly species in eleven small Aegean islands; to understand species-specific relationships with environmental and climatic factors and to compare sand fly community parameters among islands. A risk analysis was carried out for each species using climatic and environmental variables. Nine sand fly species: Phlebotomus neglectus, P. tobbi, P. similis, P. simici, P. perfiliewi, P. alexandri, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia minuta and S. dentata, were collected from the islands studied. Phlebotomus (Adlerius) sp. and Sergentomyia sp. specimens were also collected but not identified to the species level. There was a positive effect of distance from the sea on the abundance of P. neglectus, S. minuta and S. dentata, and a negative effect on the abundance of P. tobbi, P. simici and P. similis. In general, temperature preferences of sand fly populations were between 21 and 29 °C. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in terms of temperature and relative humidity preference ranges among species. The most important species found, P. neglectus, was indisputably the most adapted species in the study area with a very high reaction norm, favoring even the lower temperature and humidity ranges. Overall, the sand fly fauna in the islands was very rich but there were differences in species diversity, as

  20. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Greek Aegean Islands: ecological approaches

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    Nikolaos Tsirigotakis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. Different Phlebotomus species transmit different Leishmania species causing leishmaniases which are neglected diseases emerging/reemerging in new regions. Thirteen sand fly species, ten belonging to the medically important genus Phlebotomus and three belonging to Sergentomyia are known in Greece. An increasing number of human and dog cases are reported each year from all parts of the country including the Aegean Islands. However, no previous study has been conducted on the sand fly fauna on the islands, except for Rhodes and Samos. The aim of this study was to investigate sand fly species in eleven small Aegean islands; to understand species-specific relationships with environmental and climatic factors and to compare sand fly community parameters among islands. A risk analysis was carried out for each species using climatic and environmental variables. Results Nine sand fly species: Phlebotomus neglectus, P. tobbi, P. similis, P. simici, P. perfiliewi, P. alexandri, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia minuta and S. dentata, were collected from the islands studied. Phlebotomus (Adlerius sp. and Sergentomyia sp. specimens were also collected but not identified to the species level. There was a positive effect of distance from the sea on the abundance of P. neglectus, S. minuta and S. dentata, and a negative effect on the abundance of P. tobbi, P. simici and P. similis. In general, temperature preferences of sand fly populations were between 21 and 29 °C. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in terms of temperature and relative humidity preference ranges among species. The most important species found, P. neglectus, was indisputably the most adapted species in the study area with a very high reaction norm, favoring even the lower temperature and humidity ranges. Overall, the sand fly fauna in the islands was very rich but there

  1. Proposals for the conservation of otters Lutra lutra L. on Corfu island (Ionian Sea, Greece

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    Xavier Grémillet


    Full Text Available Abstract Suggested measures for the conservation of otters (Lutra lutra on Corfu include: 1 a nature sanctuary ("Otter Haven" for some little remote lagoons near Aghios Stephanos in the north-east; 2 a lagoon restoration scheme including restoration of traditional fishing with joint nature tourism for the large reedbeds and lagoons: Antinioti (100 ha in the north, Chalkiopoulou (380 ha in the suburbs of Kerkyra, Korission (500 ha in the south-west; 3 the stopping of raw sewage discharge, illegal infilling, building and waste dumping in the wetlands; 4 the limitation of intensive fish farming schemes. Such a policy is reconcilable with economic activities (tourism, fishing, trade or administration. Riassunto Proposte per la conservazione della lontra Lutra lutra L. nell'isola di Corfù (Mare Jonio, Grecia - Per la conservazione della lontra (Lutra lutra nell'Isola di Corfù sono suggeriti i seguenti interventi: 1 creazione di "santuari naturali" per la specie comprendenti le piccole lagune vicino a Aghios Stephanos nella parte nord-est dell'isola; 2 riqualificazione degli ambienti a canneto e delle lagune, abbinata a1 ripristino della pesca tradizionale e allo sviluppo del turismo ecologico: Antinioti (100 ha nella parte settentrionale, Chalkiopoulou (380 ha nell'area suburbana di Kerkyra, Korission (500 ha nella parte sud-ovest; 3 divieto di scarichi fognari e abusivi, divieto di costruzione di insediamenti abitativi e eliminazione di discariche nelle zone umide; 4 limitazioni allo sviluppo degli allevamenti ittici intensivi. Gli interventi prospettati si inquadrano in una politica di gestione ambientale compatibile con le attività economiche presenti (turismo, pesca, commercio.

  2. Phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917: morphological and isoenzymatic comparisons of two natural populations from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) and Crete (Greece). (United States)

    Rémy-Kristensen, A; Perrotey, S; Pesson, B; Garcia-Stoeckel, M; Ferté, H; Morillas-Marquez, F; Léger, N


    Samples of two Phlebotomus sergenti natural populations from San Juan (Tenerife), representing the western edge of the distribution area of this species, and Axos (Crete) were collected. The morphological comparison showed marked differences in the lengths of parts of the male genitalia, female pharynx, and spermathecae. The isoenzyme study revealed characteristic monomorphic phenotypes for glucose phosphate isomerase, hexokinase, and phosphoglucomutase in the Canarian specimens as compared with the Cretan population. These results confirm the heterogeneity of P. sergenti and indicate the utility of a systematic double approach for a revision of this taxon.

  3. Geo-Thermochronometric Insights on the Cycladic Basement and Cycladic Blueschist Unit Contact in the Southern Cyclades, Ios Island, Greece (United States)

    Flansburg, M. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Poulaki, E. M.; Soukis, K. I.


    The North Cycladic Detachment System, the West Cycladic Detachment System, and the Naxos-Paros Detachment accommodated large-scale Oligo-Miocene exhumation in the backarc of the retreating Hellenic subduction zone. While bivergent detachment faults in the northern and western Cyclades are either contained within the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) or at the CBU-Upper Unit interface, the sheared contact between the CBU and the underlying Cycladic Basement in the southern Cyclades (Ios) has been debated for over 30 years, largely due to the ambiguous coexistence of both top-to-the-N and top-to-the-S shear sense indicators and a lack of robust timing information. Reliable chronostratigraphic and thermal history constraints allow us to test whether the contact is a low-angle normal fault-possibly part of a larger detachment system-or the South Cycladic Thrust by placing absolute ages on deformation, determining older over younger relationships or vice versa, and quantifying possible differential exhumation during Cenozoic extension. Zircon U-Pb dating for the granitic Basement core of Ios gave Carboniferous-Permian age and shows that surrounding Basement metasedimentary units can be divided into two groups based on detrital zircon signatures. An older group of metasedimentary rocks have maximum depositional ages (MDAs) ranging from 450 Ma to 354 Ma and predate the intrusions, and late Permian Basement paragneisses are younger than the intrusions and likely originally deposited unconformably on the older units. Samples from the CBU in northern Ios yielded MDAs ranging from Mid-Jurassic to Late Cretaceous and appear to be repeated due to either thrusting or subduction accretion and exhibit older over younger relationships. MDA data from mapped CBU at the southern end of Ios yielded Ordovician to Permian ages, calling into question their assignment as CBU, while also revealing older over younger relationships. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages for the Basement and the CBU on Ios are 9-14 Ma and do not exhibit any differential cooling-suggesting that they were juxtaposed prior to Miocene detachment faulting and exhumed together in response to top-to-the-N detachment faulting. This is supported by the fact that both units experienced Eocene subduction metamorphism as evidenced by 60-45 Ma metamorphic zircon rims.

  4. Thirty years after - dramatic change in the coastal marine habitats of Kos Island (Greece, 1981-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Results of recent fieldwork were compared with data collected in 1981, taken as a reference condition. Surveys were conducted with the same method (time-based visual census along random paths, in the same sites, by the same people. Semi-quantitative inventories of conspicuous species were analysed by univariate and multivariate techniques. Available information on the main potential stressors indicated that a regime shift has occurred in these 30+ years: sea surface temperature rose by1-2°C, human pressure grew impressively, and invasion by several alien species took place. Consistently, a phase shift occurred in the biological communities. Of the 120 conspicuous species found in total, only 51 were common to both surveys; 31 species (‘losses’ were found in 1981 but not again in 2013, 38 (‘gains’ were found exclusively in 2013, 16 (‘winners’ increased their abundance, 8 (‘losers’ got scarcer, and 27 underwent little or no change. Gains included 7 alien, 2 nitrophilic, and 7 thermophilic species. Multivariate analysis evidenced biotic homogenisation in 2013 and huge change in rocky reef habitats. The once flourishing algal forests have disappeared to leave space to sponges and wide areas of bare substratum. This has most probably been the result of overgrazing by alien herbivorous fishes (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus, whose establishment and spread has been favoured by seawater warming; the synergic action of local human impacts was also evidenced.

  5. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  6. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  7. Is There a Need for a Higher Dance Institution in Greece? The Reality in Greek Contemporary Dance Institutions (United States)

    Tsompanaki, Eleni


    Is there a need for dance to enter higher education in Greece? Can contemporary dance be viewed as a discipline on its own right? These questions inspired the research conducted in three case study institutions (out of six that exist) in Greece, examining the reality within them as experienced by dance students, lecturers, course leaders and the…

  8. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling


    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  9. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.


    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  10. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.


    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  11. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour


    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over...... the last 130 years and through reconstruction of the vegetation from the end of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (5528 ± 75 cal year BP) using meta-barcoding of plant DNA recovered from the nunatak sediments (sedaDNA). Our results show that several of the plant species detected with sedaDNA are described from...

  12. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands (United States)


    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  13. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  14. Marte Valles Crater 'Island' (United States)


    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  15. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis in a brown bear (Ursus arctos in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos E.


    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm is a filarial nematode found in the pulmonary circulation and the heart of susceptible hosts. It represents an important zoonotic vector-borne disease of domestic dogs and several wildlife species. Herein we report for the first time, the finding of Dirofilaria immitis worms in a brown bear killed in a vehicle collision in Northern Greece. The worms were morphologically identified; molecular examination, based on the analysis of the mitochondrial genes 12S (433 bp and CO1 (610 bp, verified the identification by demonstrating 100% similarity to D. immitis specimens deposited in GenBank. Brown bears in Greece occupy habitats that are shared with the potential wild and domestic hosts and the vectors of D. immitis and thus may be particularly susceptible to this parasite. This report contributes to the knowledge of dirofilariosis spread in Europe and on the epidemiological threats that may affect the survival of the endangered brown bear in Greece.

  16. Government Debt Reduction in the USA and Greece: A Comparative VECM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele MAH


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to estimate comparative debt reduction models for the USA and Greece using Vector Error Correction Model analysis and Granger causality test. The study provides an empirical framework that could assist in policy formulation for countries with high debt rates as well as those experiencing debt crises. The US model revealed a negative and significant relationship between general government debt and inflation as well as negative significance with primary balance. In Greece, the relationship between general government debts with primary balance is found to be positive and significant while negative and significant with net transfer from abroad. Granger causality is from general government debts to inflation in the USA and from primary balance to general government debts in Greece.

  17. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece. (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos


    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  18. Aspects of cold intrusions over Greece during autumn (United States)

    Mita, Constantina; Marinaki, Aggeliki; Zeini, Konstantina; Konstantara, Metaxia


    This study is focused on the description of atmospheric disturbances that caused intense cold intrusions over Greece during autumn for a period of 25 years (1982-2006). The study was based on data analysis from the meteorological station network of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Initially, the days with temperature at the isobaric surface of 850 hPa less or equal to the mean temperature for the 10-day period the day under investigation belongs to are isolated, composing a new confined data set which was further used. An event of intense cold intrusion is identified based on a subjective set of criteria, considering the temperature decrease at the level of 850 hPa and its duration. In particular, the criteria that were used to identify a cold intrusion were: temperature variation between two successive days at the isobaric level of 850 hPa being equal or greater than 50 C at least once during the event and duration of the event of at least two successive days with continuous temperature decrease. Additionally, the synoptic analysis of the atmospheric disturbances involved using weather charts from ECMWF, revealed that all cases were related to low pressure systems at the level of 500 hPa, accompanied by cold air masses. Moreover, a methodology proposed to classify the cold intrusions based on general circulation characteristics of the atmosphere, resulted in seven major categories. More than half of the events belong in two categories, originated northwest of the greater Greek area (Greece and parts of neighbouring countries), between 400 and 600 N. Further analysis indicated that the frequency of events increases from September to November and the majority of the events lasted two to three days. Additionally, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used for the investigation of the statistical significance of the trends appearing in the results. The tests revealed that over

  19. A critical analysis of national policies, systems, and structures of patient empowerment in England and Greece. (United States)

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Lister, Graham


    Comparison of patient empowerment (PE) policies in European countries can provide evidence for improvement and reform across different health systems. It may also influence patient and public involvement, patient experience, preference, and adherence. The objective of this study was to compare PE within national policies, systems, and structures in England and Greece for achieving integrated people-centered health services. We performed a critical search and review of policy and legislation papers in English and Greek languages. This included 1) general health policy and systems papers, 2) PE, patient and/or public involvement or patients' rights policy and legislation (1990-2015), and 3) comparative or discussion papers for England and/or Greece. A total of 102 papers on PE policies, systems, and structures were identified initially; 80 papers were included, in which 46 were policy, legislative, and discussion papers about England, 21 were policy, legislation, and discussion papers about Greece, and 13 were comparative or discussion papers including both the countries. In England, National Health Service policies emphasized patient-centered services, involvement, and empowerment, with recent focus on patients' rights; while in Greece, they emphasized patients' rights and quality of services, with recent mentions on empowerment. The health ombudsman is a very important organization across countries; however, it may be more powerful in Greece, because of the nonexistence of local mediating bodies. Micro-structures at trusts/hospitals are comparable, but legislation gives more power to the local structures in Greece. PE policies and systems have been developed and expressed differently in these countries. However, PE similarities, comparable dimensions and mechanisms, were identified. For both the countries, comparative research and these findings could be beneficial in building connections and relationships, contributing to wider European and international

  20. Reservoir triggering seismicity in Greece: An evidence based review (United States)

    Pavlou, Kyriaki; Drakatos, George; Kouskouna, Vasiliki; Makropoulos, Konstantinos


    First filling and water fluctuation in artificial lakes and reservoirs are known causes of local seismicity. In Greece, 117 dams were built over the past 60 years, of which, however, only 22 have a capacity greater than 20x206cm3 and could thus affect seismicity in a meaningful way. Most of these larger dams have been constructed and operated by the Greek Public Power Corporation (PPC). The paper aims at a comprehensive review of all relevant studies, undertaken so far, and critically examines the evidence of reservoir triggering seismicity and possible accelerated earthquake occurrence provided. The main reservoirs examined include the Marathon, Kremasta, Pournari, Ilarion and Polyphyto artificial lakes, all of which have recorded seismic events associated with their filling and/or operation for the time period up to 2010. Seismic activity that correlates with maximum or minimum water level fluctuations leads to conclusions about a possible triggering seismicity due to a pore pressure diffusion (drained or un-drained response). In each case we review the cross-correlation coefficients between the reservoir levels and triggered events, and discuss the reasons for their association from an engineering geological (mechanical properties of rocks and formations) and seismological (triggered events) perspective. Our work suggests that, whilst in these cases PCC performs very well the task of hydrological and energy management of the reservoirs, it is crucially important to monitor and validate the daily seismicity at and around the artificial lakes for a better understanding of the upmost limit of triggered seismicity, and possible triggered landslides in the areas surrounding its main reservoirs.