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Sample records for leeds metropolitan university

  1. Academic Reading Strategies used by Leeds Metropolitan University Graduates: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sohail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic reading is different from other forms of reading because it is complex and discipline-specific. It involves a measured, challenging, and multifaceted process in which students are dynamically engaged with a range of reading strategies. Academic reading improvement is possible, provided students work on it and there are no short cuts or remedies which will cure the reading problems. Reading improvement is hard work and a difficult task, but it is rewarding as well. This study examined the selection and use of academic reading strategies used by the undergraduate and postgraduate students studying at Leeds Metropolitan University, Headingley Campus, Leeds. A quantitative data study was carried out to investigate three aspects of academic reading strategies: (a efficiency, (b interacting with texts, and (c critical reading strategies. The results of this survey suggest that the participants on balance have proficient reading skills, but a significant number of participants have ineffective reading strategies and bad reading habits. Recommendations and suggestions have been put forward to improve academic reading strategies and for further research.

  2. An institutional approach: education for sustainable development at the University of Leeds

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, M; Young, CW; Marsh, C; Clarke, J

    2013-01-01

    Central to the strategic vision of the University of Leeds is the reaffirmation of the University’s commitment to provide an exceptional student experience centred on inspirational learning and teaching, grounded in world-class research. A key component of this vision is a major curriculum enhancement project. This chapter outlines the intent of this project, which reinforces existing provision that challenges undergraduate students to broaden their academic horizons and develop their capacit...

  3. Promoting Independent Language Learning Cross- Campus at the University of Leeds through a Self- Access Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Language Centre at the University of Leeds concentrates on the full range of language training and preparation courses, both for pre-sessional and for current university students. These courses relate both to the learning of English and of foreign languages. The Self-Access Area constitutes the Language Centre’s resource library for language learning materials and supports learners on Language Centre and other modern language courses, as well as independent language learners from across the university. Catering for approximately 11,000 users, the Self-Access Area opens, on average, for 46 hours per week, with evening and Saturday opening times during term time and exam weeks. Among the services that the Self-Access Area provides are a wide range of language learning resources in print and various audiovisual formats, induction tours, an up-to-date online library catalogue and a social media presence. As part of the Language Centre, the Self- Access Area team is connected with staff and students across the university. The service also offers a range of opportunities which encourage human interaction both amongst language learners and between learners and specialists. It also acts as a flexible social and study space. The main initiatives or valuable ‘accessories’ for language learning to be discussed in this brief overview are: Language learning advising; Language exchange; and Conversation sessions

  4. Enterprising Starships: Metropolitan Universities Face the New Millenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Beth

    1996-01-01

    Edited excerpts from three sessions of a conference on metropolitan universities present perspectives on what cities will look like in the new millennium, and on leadership and service responsibilities of metropolitan universities. Also, excerpts from these and other papers are presented on the following themes: diversity, mission, facing hard…

  5. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

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    Murat Kucukvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  6. Survey of the knowledge, perception, and attitude of medical students at the University of Leeds toward organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, K K; Hakeem, A R; Dave, R; Lewington, A; Sanfey, H; Ahmad, N

    2015-03-01

    The shortage of organ donors is the key rate-limiting factor for organ transplantation in the United Kingdom. Many strategies have been proposed to increase donation; one strategy aims to improve awareness of organ donation and transplantation (ODT) among medical students. This survey seeks to investigate the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of the medical students in the United Kingdom toward ODT and the curriculum content. A 32-item online questionnaire was distributed to 957 medical students at the University of Leeds (October to December 2012). There were 216 (22.6%) respondents. Students were aware of kidney, heart, and liver transplantation (91.6%, 88.8%, and 86.5%). Awareness of small intestine (36.7%) and islet of Langerhans (33.0%) transplantation was poor. Students understood the term "brain stem death" (82.3%); however, they lacked understanding of criteria used for brain stem death testing (75.8%). Their perceptions and attitudes were favorable toward ODT; 43.3% of the students were unhappy with their current knowledge, and 87.6% of the students agree that ODT teaching should be included in the curriculum. Students have a basic understanding of ODT but lack detailed knowledge. They accept its importance and desire further teaching to supplement their current knowledge to be able to understand the issues related to ODT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Realities of and perspectives for languages in the globalised world: Can language teaching survive the inadequacies of policies implemented today at Leeds Beckett University?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Gamir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various newspaper articles report that British ministers, university representatives, exam chiefs and business bodies agree that foreign languages skills in primary, secondary and tertiary UK education are in crisis. Lower funding and policy changes have caused language skills deficiencies felt gravely in the business sectors. Funding and support initiatives pledged by policy makers appear to be election-driven, barely outliving newly elected governments. Others blame secondary school language curriculum for failing to inspire students to take up a language when they reach 13 or 14. Others still argue that severe A-level examinations marking deters students from taking up a foreign language at 6th form level, producing fewer prospective language learners for university departments. Community languages are also undervalued as small-entry languages could soon be axed from GCSE and A-level examinations. In a world increasingly interconnected, it is essential the importance of language learning be reinstated in all our educational institutions. This paper reviews two decades of the conditions of language provision in the UK in general, with an emphasis on Leeds Beckett University. It also attempts to answer two questions emerging form the author’s personal teaching experience and reflections: What are the realities and challenges language teaching faces at Leeds Beckett University? And, how may we support language learners in fulfilling their ambition to acquire the required skills to communicate effectively in this globalised world?

  8. Political apathy amongst students: A case study of Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntsikelelo B. Breakfast

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary motivation for this research, in which a qualitative method was employed, was to examine political apathy amongst students at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. The secondary motivation was to question whether youth political apathy threatens the consolidation of democracy. The researchers arranged four focus groups at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. A purposive sampling technique was utilised. All 50 participants in the study were Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University undergraduate and postgraduate black students, with ages ranging from 21 to 35 years. The researchers encouraged participants to have maximum participation in the focus group deliberations. The researchers also made use of elite interviews in the study. The findings of this study suggest that political apathy does exist amongst students at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. Most of the participants in the focus groups indicated that young people in post-apartheid South Africa have no interest in politics.

  9. A Comprehensive Survey on Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying at a Major Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of students on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a student survey, the authors learn of high levels of perceptions on incidents as an issue but…

  10. School Achievement and Backwardness Analysis Model at the Metropolitan Autonomous University--Cuajimalpa Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Villarroel, Sazcha Marcelo; del Pilar Fuerte-Celis, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This work stems from the need to develop a line of institutional policy recommendations to improve school performance and to reduce the backlog in the graduation of students in the Cuajimalpa Unit of the Metropolitan Autonomous University. The school backlog of students of this university is one of the main institutional concerns, due to the…

  11. Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hajara; Burke, Monica Galloway

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students' levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation,…

  12. Resolving Issues in Innovative Graduate Degree Programs: The Metropolitan State University Doctor of Business Administration Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmont, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Applied Master's Degree and doctoral programs have been criticized widely for their lack of relevance, rigor and quality. New graduate degree programs have responded to these criticisms by implementing innovative academic policies, program curriculum, and student services. A case study of the Metropolitan State University Doctor of Business…

  13. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this…

  14. Campus Community and Student Priorities at a Metropolitan University. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.; Gentemann, Karen

    A student survey at a metropolitan university examined priorities of both traditional and non-traditional students; the survey resulted from anxieties expressed by some students about not having a traditional college experience. The administration was trying to decide whether to allocate resources to create a football program within this commuter,…

  15. Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation Among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University

    OpenAIRE

    Hajara Mahmood; Monica Galloway Burke

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students’ levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation, including five subscales of sociocultural adaptation (N = 413). Demographic questions included gender, age, and country of origin, length of stay i...

  16. Leeds under a cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Before 26 April 1986 few people in the west had heard of Chernobyl. Then Chernobyl experienced the world's worst nuclear power station accident. In the wake of the disaster radioactivity fell on Britain and much of Europe. There was confusion and rumour on the television, in the papers and amongst ordinary people. What would the effect of the Chernobyl accident be? Was it safe to go out of doors? Was it safe to eat fresh vegetables? What was a safe level of radiation? What was a becquerel, a milliSievert or any of the other scientific terms with which we were bombarded by scientists and other experts? This booklet sets out to help answer these questions by looking at a hypothetical disaster at the nuclear power station at Heysham, near Morecambe in Lancashire. Using this scenario it shows what the worst consequences of a nuclear accident might be for the citizens of Leeds. It also explains in a straightforward way the meaning of many technical terms which will help you to understand the advice and comments of experts and to make your own judgement of what they say. (author)

  17. Self-efficacy and academic procrastination of university students in Metropolitan Lima

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    Alberto A. Alegre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is establish the relation between self-efficacy and academic procrastination of university students in Lima City metropolitan area. The sample was obtained by intentional procedure. Assessments were made on 348 university students: 50.6% male and 49% female students; 70.1% from private and 29.9% from state universities. Self-Efficacy Scale and Academic Procrastination Scale were used for assessment and it was found they had both psychometric reliability according to internal consistency method and construct validity according to exploratory factorial analysis. The formulated hypothesis is accepted as the correlation coefficient obtained between both variables was negative (-235 and significant (p˂.000 but low.

  18. Self-Reported Harassment and Bullying in Australian Universities: Explaining Differences between Regional, Metropolitan and Elite Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Peetz, David; Strachan, Glenda; Whitehouse, Gillian; Bailey, Janis; Broadbent, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    We analyse data from the largest survey of university staff in Australia to determine whether bullying and harassment are more common in regional than metropolitan and Go8 universities, and to what extent any differences could be attributed to other factors. While professional staff showed no difference in harassment rates between regional and…

  19. Information manager profile in university libraries from the Metropolitan Region of Recife

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    Anielma Maria Marques Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is a literature of descriptive nature in order to define the profile of the manager of information in university libraries of Recife and its metropolitan area. Method. To achieve the proposed objective was based on a literature in the area of information science, in which it was possible to contextualize the attributes skills of information professionals from qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results. Results indicate issues: a activities performed in the routine of professional b skills that have to do their jobs, c professional d workplace e academic. Conclusions. With the responses is possible to discern the different skills of the librarian in accordance with their professional and personal experience.

  20. Self-reported harassment and bullying in Australian universities: explaining differences between regional, metropolitan and elite institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Peetz, David; Strachan, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Association for Tertiary Education Management and the LH Martin Institute for Tertiary Education Leadership and Management. We analyse data from the largest survey of university staff in Australia to determine whether bullying and harassment are more common in regional than metropolitan...

  1. Energy Efficiency: Comparison between GREENSHIP and LEED

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin; Rahim, Ramli

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the energy efficiency in the two green building rating tools i.e. GREENSHIP and LEED. The study has been carried out by comparing the energy performance standard and the energy calculation method of both rating tools. GREENSHIP uses the OTTV (overall thermal transfer value) to measure the efficiency of energy use of the building design, while LEED uses ASHRAE standard for baseline building. The result shows that the energy standard uses in LEED rating tool is more stringen...

  2. Teaching organisational change management for sustainability : designing and delivering a course at the University of Leeds to better prepare future sustainability change agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Ceulemans, Kim; Scarff Seatter, Carol

    2015-01-01

    A number of universities worldwide have created new courses and degrees or modified existing ones, as a response to the increasing interest by companies to hire sustainability literate graduates. However, many of such courses have been developed with a focus on 'hard' technocentric or managerial

  3. Realities of and Perspectives for Languages in the Globalised World: Can Language Teaching Survive the Inadequacies of Policies Implemented Today at Leeds Beckett University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamir, Saadia

    2017-01-01

    Various newspaper articles report that British ministers, university representatives, exam chiefs and business bodies agree that foreign languages skills in primary, secondary and tertiary UK education are in crisis. Lower funding and policy changes have caused language skills deficiencies felt gravely in the business sectors. Funding and support…

  4. A value-for-money solution in Leeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, M. [United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    A contract energy services scheme is described which supplies all the electric power, heating and chilling needs of the United Leeds Hospital and the University of Leeds campus. In order to meet current needs, a major expansion of capacity and reconfiguration of an existing GSC built as a joint venture between Leeds General Infirmary and the University in the 1970s was required. The estimated capital investment for the project was Pound 6.5 M. The decision to develop the project as an energy services scheme was taken in view of the technical complexity requiring project management and engineering skills not available either in the Hospital or the University. It has been successfully implemented and is meeting expectations in terms both of delivery of service and savings. The Hospital and University have avoided the need to obtain and invest capital themselves, the combination of more energy efficient equipment and better use of existing capacity have reduced revenue costs and management time has been reduced. Over the lifetime of the 20-year contract, savings of Pound 700,000 per annum on average are expected. (UK)

  5. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mallory

    2014-01-01

    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  6. LEED Credit Review System and Optimization Model for Pursuing LEED Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ouk Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating sustainability in construction can result in desirable building attributes and project life cycle. The Leadership in Engineering and Environmental Design (LEED® Rating System helps project teams make the right green building decisions for their projects through a process. However, in current practice, project teams do not have a systematic procedure or tool for choosing the LEED credits appropriate for a particular project. The researchers have developed a tool, which support the LEED integrative process during a charrette, and developed an optimization model that can be utilized to assist project teams determine which credits to pursue for LEED certification, taking into account potential benefits associated with any LEED credit. The tool enables owners to incorporate sustainability in construction by helping the project teams make the right green building decisions for their projects through an integrated procedure.

  7. Finding your ideal (foreign) non-academic partner: Implications for university-industry collaboration, in peripheral and metropolitan regions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, David Fernández

    2018-01-01

    as suppliers, customers, competitors or technical centres). Because of this limitation, firms might have a harder time in finding non-academic partners from which they can learn (that is, partners that can provide access to novel knowledge, but similar enough to facilitate learning). Those firms...... that collaborate with foreign non-academic partners, however, can have an easier time in contacting partners from which they can learn, and these engagements can incentivise that businesses develop their absorptive capacity, and their propensity to engage in university-industry collaboration. It is also....... It is assumed that due to the broader variety of organisations available in metropolitan regions, businesses will not have to opt for international collaboration, in order to contact non-academic partners from which they can learn....

  8. Customer Relationship Management: A Case Study from a Metropolitan Campus of a Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pember, Edward R.; Owens, Alison; Yaghi, Shazhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the users and uses of a centralised customer relationship management (CRM) system at a regional Australian university to improve the understanding of the staff experience of interacting with this customised technology. How and why the software is used by a cross section of university departments is explored through…

  9. The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2010-11-01

    To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 lower super-output areas. Children aged 3-14 years who lived within the Leeds metropolitan boundaries (n=33,594). The number of fast food outlets per area and the distance to the nearest fast food outlet from the child's home address. The weight status of the child: overweight, obese or neither. 27.1% of the children were overweight or obese with 12.6% classified as obese. There is a significant positive correlation (pfast food outlets and higher deprivation. A higher density of fast food outlets was significantly associated (p=0.02) with the child being obese (or overweight/obese) in the generalised estimating equation model which also included sex, age and deprivation. No significant association between distance to the nearest fast food outlet and overweight or obese status was found. There is a positive relationship between the density of fast food outlets per area and the obesity status of children in Leeds. There is also a significant association between fast food outlet density and areas of higher deprivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of the human talent management through competencies model in a university in Metropolitan Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a work proposal that aims to describe the methodology proposed by the Management of Personnel Management from a university in Lima, to implement a management model based on competencies which traceability involves various technical HR processes practiced in the organization and is aligned to institutional outcomes defined in the balance score card. In order to do it, various literature sources were consulted, and the websites of the top ten universities worldwide to identify benchmarks were visited. Generic skills, competencies level, specific skills, competencies dictionary and graduation for each of the managements, occupational categories and administrative headquarters of the University: as a result, the following definitions and elements were obtained. In this way, the institution develops a tool to guide how and to what extent human resources should have and develop skills to achieve specific organizational results

  11. Continuous Improvement: A Way of Integrating Student Enrollment, Advising, and Retention Systems in a Metropolitan University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Karl J.; Moehl, Pamela J.

    1996-01-01

    The University of Missouri-St. Louis has discovered the value of continuous quality improvement methods in upgrading its core student-related administrative processes. As a result, it is increasing efficiency and personalizing a traditionally bureaucratic system of student service. Concurrent goals are to increase retention and decrease time to…

  12. Implementation of the Human Talent Management through Competencies Model in a University in Metropolitan Lima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    This article is a work proposal that aims to describe the methodology proposed by the Management of Personnel Management from a university in Lima, to implement a management model based on competencies which traceability involves various technical HR processes practiced in the organization and is aligned to institutional outcomes defined in the…

  13. The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John

    2007-01-01

    Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

  14. The Metropolitan University as a Principal Ally and Agent of Change for Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Stockwell and Darrell Parker

    2009-01-01

    The University of South Carolina Upstate requested permission of the USC Board of Trustees in September 2007 to undertake planning to locate its business school in downtown Spartanburg. Since that request millions of dollars in private donations have been raised, including the naming of the business school as the George Dean Johnson Jr. College of…

  15. Relations between gratitude and happiness in university students of metropolitan Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón, Reynaldo; Universidad Ricardo Palma; Caycho Rodríguez, Tomás; Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega

    2015-01-01

    Probable relationship between gratitude, as measured by the Scale developed by Alarcón gratitude and happiness, as measured by the Scaleof Happiness Lima, is analyzed both developed by the same autor. The study is substantive in nature, with a predictive causal trans design in which 300 people, 147 males and 153 females, aged between 20 and 30 who are studying in public and private universities in Lima. Among the main results we note that the factors of gratitude, reciprocity and moral obliga...

  16. Implementation of nutrition risk screening using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool across a large metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P L; Raja, R; Golder, J; Stewart, A J; Shaikh, R F; Apostolides, M; Savva, J; Sequeira, J L; Silvers, M A

    2016-12-01

    A standardised nutrition risk screening (NRS) programme with ongoing education is recommended for the successful implementation of NRS. This project aimed to develop and implement a standardised NRS and education process across the adult bed-based services of a large metropolitan health service and to achieve a 75% NRS compliance at 12 months post-implementation. A working party of Monash Health (MH) dietitians and a nutrition technician revised an existing NRS medical record form consisting of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and nutrition management guidelines. Nursing staff across six MH hospital sites were educated in the use of this revised form and there was a formalised implementation process. Support from Executive Management, nurse educators and the Nutrition Risk Committee ensured the incorporation of NRS into nursing practice. Compliance audits were conducted pre- and post-implementation. At 12 months post-implementation, organisation-wide NRS compliance reached 34.3%. For those wards that had pre-implementation NRS performed by nursing staff, compliance increased from 7.1% to 37.9% at 12 months (P compliance improved at MH with strong governance support and formalised implementation; however, the overall compliance achieved appears to have been affected by the complexity and diversity of multiple healthcare sites. Ongoing education, regular auditing and establishment of NRS routines and ward practices is recommended to further improve compliance. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. The use of the Leeds test tools in evaluating image intensifiers fitted to fluoroscopic x-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnell, S.A.; Hamilton, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A set of specialised phantoms for the non-invasive testing of the image intensifiers and associated television equipment fitted to fluoroscopic x-ray machines has been developed in the Medical Physics Department of the University of Leeds. The Radiation Control Section of the South Australian Health Commission has acquired a set of the Leeds Test Tools to use in its program of inspecting and testing diagnotic x-ray equipment. The tools and their use are described, and some preliminary results for South Australia are given

  18. Food insecurity among students living with HIV: Strengthening safety nets at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Steenkamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The HIV prevalence in South Africa among students at higher education institutions (HEIs in 2008 was reported to be 3.4%, with the highest HIV prevalence found in the Eastern Cape Province. Students at these facilities are also increasingly affected by socio-economic constraints that may impact on food security. Little is known about the impact of food insecurity on HIV-infected students in HEIs in South Africa. The purpose of this paper is to describe food insecurity and the nutritional status among HIV-infected students on the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University campuses in South Africa, as well as current initiatives to strengthen the safety nets for food-insecure students. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of known HIV-infected, registered students (n = 63, older than 18 years of age and managed as part of the Campus Health Service antiretroviral therapy (ART programme. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee (NMMU and participants were included in the sample after providing written, informed consent. Findings indicate that food insecurity was common with more than 60% of the sample reporting food insecurity at the household level during the previous month. Of the sample, 51% were classified as being either overweight or obese. Although food insecurity did not contribute to weight loss in our sample, food-insecure students were more likely to consume inadequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, especially antioxidants that are important in supporting the immune system. Food insecurity has been identified as affecting the majority of HIV-infected students in this study, especially regarding their difficulty in accessing nutritious foods. As overweight and obesity also seem to threaten the health and future well-being of the students, appropriate management of the overweight individuals and those with obesity should be instituted in order to prevent

  19. Food insecurity among students living with HIV: Strengthening safety nets at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, L; Goosen, A; Venter, D; Beeforth, M

    2016-12-01

    The HIV prevalence in South Africa among students at higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2008 was reported to be 3.4%, with the highest HIV prevalence found in the Eastern Cape Province. Students at these facilities are also increasingly affected by socio-economic constraints that may impact on food security. Little is known about the impact of food insecurity on HIV-infected students in HEIs in South Africa. The purpose of this paper is to describe food insecurity and the nutritional status among HIV-infected students on the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University campuses in South Africa, as well as current initiatives to strengthen the safety nets for food-insecure students. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of known HIV-infected, registered students (n = 63), older than 18 years of age and managed as part of the Campus Health Service antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee (NMMU) and participants were included in the sample after providing written, informed consent. Findings indicate that food insecurity was common with more than 60% of the sample reporting food insecurity at the household level during the previous month. Of the sample, 51% were classified as being either overweight or obese. Although food insecurity did not contribute to weight loss in our sample, food-insecure students were more likely to consume inadequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, especially antioxidants that are important in supporting the immune system. Food insecurity has been identified as affecting the majority of HIV-infected students in this study, especially regarding their difficulty in accessing nutritious foods. As overweight and obesity also seem to threaten the health and future well-being of the students, appropriate management of the overweight individuals and those with obesity should be instituted in order to prevent the development

  20. Universidad de Leeds - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlin, -

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Located 1,500 m from the center of the city, the Leeds University complex actively participates in city life. Designed in the 60's and built later on, this architectonic complex is outstanding because it offers an «ideal» city, perfectly integrated in the «real» city and conditioned to its own needs, to a great extent. In the beginning, this challenge of converting this university complex with a capacity for 10,000 students, in an architectonically attractive urban center met with difficulties referring to traffic and parking problems corresponding to a city as large as the one projected; this obstacle was overcome by adequate organization of underground and overhead traffic arteries which reserved large garden areas exclusively for pedestrians, freeing them from the traffic congestion and offering the pleasant and relaxed atmosphere required. The large «campus» ¡s sub-divided into different garden areas, connected one to the other and In the center of each one we have a varied and complementary architecture, which breaks with the conventional monolithic style.Situado a 1.500 m del centro de la ciudad, el conjunto universitario de Leeds participa activamente de la misma. Concebido en la década de los 60, y construido posteriormente, este complejo arquitectónico se destaca por encerrar una propuesta de ciudad «ideal», perfectamente integrada en la ciudad «real» y sujeta en buena medida a sus mismas necesidades. La alternativa de convertir a este conjunto universitario, con capacidad para 10.000 estudiantes, en un núcleo urbano arquitectónicamente atractivo, tropezó inicialmente con los condicionamientos surgidos del tráfico, circulación y estacionamiento de vehículos, correspondientes a la magnitud de la ciudad proyectada; impedimento que fue resuelto de forma adecuada mediante la organización de una red subterránea y superficial de circulación vehicular, que reserva grandes espacios verdes para la circulaci

  1. Metropolitan Approaches to Desegregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Director for the Center for National Policy Review, Catholic University Law School, notes that one barrier to the liberation of black people from a legally-sanctioned caste system is the racially segregated structure of metropolitan areas…

  2. Cost analysis of LEED certified United States navy buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Kirar, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document A study was completed at UW-Madison in 2010 that reviewed the energy consumption of US Navy buildings which earned Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). The research compared LEED certified buildings to a commercial counterpart within the US Navy inventory against Executive Order (EO) 13423. The EO mandated that all federal agencies meet a 30 percent reduction of...

  3. Reliability of contemporary data-acquisition techniques for LEED analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Davis, H.L.

    1980-10-01

    It is becoming clear that one of the principal limitations in LEED structure analysis is the quality of the experimental I-V profiles. This limitation is discussed, and data acquisition procedures described, which for simple systems, seem to enhance the quality of agreement between the results of theoretical model calculations and experimental LEED spectra. By employing such procedures to obtain data from Cu(100), excellent agreement between computed and measured profiles has been achieved. 7 figures

  4. Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Mancini, Sandra; Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada - Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    We conducted a re-analysis of data supplied by the New Buildings Institute and the US Green Buildings Council on measured energy use data from 100 LEED-certified commercial and institutional buildings. These data were compared to the energy use of the general US commercial building stock. We also examined energy use by LEED certification level, and by energy-related credits achieved in the certification process. On average, LEED buildings used 18-39% less energy per floor area than their conventional counterparts. However, 28-35% of LEED buildings used more energy than their conventional counterparts. Further, the measured energy performance of LEED buildings had little correlation with certification level of the building, or the number of energy credits achieved by the building at design time. Therefore, at a societal level, green buildings can contribute substantial energy savings, but further work needs to be done to define green building rating schemes to ensure more consistent success at the individual building level. Note, these findings should be considered as preliminary, and the analyses should be repeated when longer data histories from a larger sample of green buildings are available. (author)

  5. Designing healthy communities: A walkability analysis of LEED-ND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing city design in many countries has created sedentary societies that depend on automobile use. Consequently, architects, urban designers, and land planners have developed new urban design theories, which have been incorporated into the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND certification system. The LEED-ND includes design elements that improve human well-being by facilitating walking and biking, a concept known as walkability. Despite these positive developments, relevant research findings from other fields of study have not been fully integrated into the LEED-ND. According to Zuniga-Teran (2015, relevant walkability research findings from multiple disciplines were organized into a walkability framework (WF that organizes design elements related to physical activity into nine categories, namely, connectivity, land use, density, traffic safety, surveillance, parking, experience, greenspace, and community. In this study, we analyze walkability in the LEED-ND through the lens of the nine WF categories. Through quantitative and qualitative analyses, we identify gaps and strengths in the LEED-ND and propose potential enhancements to this certification system that reflects what is known about enhancing walkability more comprehensively through neighborhood design analysis. This work seeks to facilitate the translation of research into practice, which can ultimately lead to more active and healthier societies.

  6. Automated fenestration allocation as complying with LEED rating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Mohamed Talaat El Daly

    2014-12-01

    The allocation of windows, through the help of certain well known heuristic algorithms and simulation programs, could be reached automatically to compromise with the LEED rating system by achieving the required daylight amounts with a minimum solar radiation inside a particular building. This research shows a design method based on simulation techniques with the help of heuristic algorithms through a parametric design that automatically allocate windows to comply with LEED. At the end of the research, a small project is discussed for evaluating the design process.

  7. Perceptions by Faculty, Staff, and Administrators of the Role of Intercollegiate Athletics at a Metropolitan University as a NCAA Division II Athletics Program Reclassifies to a NCAA Division I Athletics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, John B.; Navin, John C.; Sullivan, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides empirical findings associated with the perceptions of faculty, staff, and administrators regarding a decision to reclassify a metropolitan university's athletics program from NCAA Division II to NCAA Division I. A survey is developed that asks respondents about their perceptions of the current state of the athletics program,…

  8. Cost Analysis of Leed Certified United States Navy Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    employee productivity, investors seeking more socially conscious investments, and reputational issues that have been forcing the real estate sector...conscious investments, and reputational issues that have been forcing the real estate sector towards more efficient building techniques. LEED has...2011. 12. Macdonald, N., Cheng, D. Basic Finance for Marketers (Marketing and agribusiness texts - 1). Food and Agriculuture Organization of the

  9. Performance or marketing benefits? The case of LEED certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Daniel C; Noonan, Douglas S; Mazzolini, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Green building adoption is driven by both performance-based benefits and marketing based benefits. Performance based benefits are those that improve performance or lower operating costs of the building or of building users. Marketing benefits stem from the consumer response to green certification. This study illustrates the relative importance of the marketing based benefits that accrue to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) buildings due to green signaling mechanisms, specifically related to the certification itself are identified. Of course, all participants in the LEED certification scheme seek marketing benefits. But even among LEED participants, the interest in green signaling is pronounced. The green signaling mechanism that occurs at the certification thresholds shifts building patterns from just below to just above the threshold level, and motivates builders to cluster buildings just above each threshold. Results are consistent across subsamples, though nonprofit organizations appear to build greener buildings and engage in more green signaling than for-profit entities. Using nonparametric regression discontinuity, signaling across different building types is observed. Marketing benefits due to LEED certification drives organizations to build "greener" buildings by upgrading buildings at the thresholds to reach certification levels.

  10. Critical review of LEED system for rating sustainability of architecture of commercial interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEED rating system for sustainability of architecture has gained large marketing potential in USA and became one of main ways American builders are attacking ecological challenges. In this paper the LEED rating system for commercial interiors is critically reviewed, pointing out its positive - focus on integrated design process - and negative impacts - low thresholds for highest ratings and tendency to gain LEED rating with projects that hardly pass the thresholds, largely neglecting the principles of energy efficiency. Based on a few prominent LEED platinum examples, the beginnings of a LEED style of designing interiors in historical landmark buildings are pointed out as well.

  11. Rumpel-Leede Phenomenon in a Hypertensive Lady on Amlodipine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2014-01-01

    We are describing a 60-year-old hypertensive lady who developed Rumpel-Leede phenomenon following the use of a tourniquet to obtain a blood sample. History revealed that she was on amlodipine therapy and that spontaneous sun-exposure related purpura was often seen since amlodipine was prescribed. Examinations and investigations provided normal results. She refused consent for a skin biopsy. Symptoms resolved after its substitution with enalapril and dihydrochlorothiazide, without any further recurrence. PMID:24959504

  12. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Charlotte

    2016-09-08

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team.

  13. A Study on the LEED Energy Simulation Process Using BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Soo Ryu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the domestic and international environmentally friendly certification system, energy-related credit occupies a high ratio in the total distribution of certification score Leadership in the Energy and Environmental Design (LEED system is a certification system developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC in order to assess the environmental friendliness of buildings. The energy-related credit is approximately 30% of the total and also the energy simulation ratio specifically is the highest among the single credits as it is 20%. In this research, the energy simulation process using Building Information Modeling (BIM based on the energy simulation case performed at the A-Tower, LEED certification was proposed. It places an emphasis on the verification process which was short in the previous research. The architectural geometry modeled through the BIM tool is converted to the gbXML, and in this process the geometry is verified through the interference check functions, the gbXML Viewer and the FZKViewer. The energy simulation is performed after the verification procedure. The geometry verification process in the A-Tower project is presented throughout this paper. In conclusion, an improved process is proposed for the productivity and reliability of energy simulation.

  14. “THE LEEDS IDEA”: AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE SPONDARTHRITIS CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.H. Moll

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In the 1960s, Professor Verna Wright became increasingly interested in possible relationships between certain seronegative “variants of rheumatoid arthritis”, as they were then generally known. At the Rheumatism Research Unit, a department within the division of medicine at Leeds University, he gathered around him a succession of research workers, whom he inspired to study aspects of these relationships. The focus was on family studies, as it was thought that genetic factors could be important. The striking association previously noted between sacroiliitis or full-blown ankylosing spondylitis and several of these disorders to be studied - e.g., psoriatic arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and the arthritis associated with Crohn’s disease - was to be central for each of these studies. As a provisional collective name for these possibly related conditions, the term “Spondarthritides” was chosen. These were the days before HLA B27, and so the research tools were simply clinical, radiological (for sacroiliitis and serological (for rheumatoid factor. The research programme confirmed not only links between the primary disorders with ankylosing spondylitis, but also links between the disorders themselves. Over subsequent years, the spondarthritis concept (dubbed by some “The Leeds Idea” has gained further strength from HLA studies internationally. And membership of the group of conditions fulfilling spondarthritis criteria has grown substantially. It is hoped that this now consolidated framework of spondylitis-related entities will pave the way for further research, with exciting prospects of gene-based prevention and/or cure through the increasing sophistication of molecular biology. Key words: Seronegative spondarthritides, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spndylitis

  15. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the Cookridge area of Leeds

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, K; Judd, P M; Lowe, A J; Shaw, J

    2002-01-01

    On the 8 and 9 May 2002 representatives of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) performed a radiofrequency electromagnetic field survey in the Cookridge area of Leeds in order to assess exposure to radio signals from transmitters mounted on a water tower/a lattice tower and a radio station tower. Guidelines on limiting exposure to radio signals have been published by NRPB and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are designed to prevent established adverse effects on human health. During this survey, the total exposures due to all radio signals from 30 MHz to 18000 MHz (18 GHz) were measured. This frequency range was chosen as it includes mobile phone base station transmissions, which are at around 900 and 1800 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) transmissions from most of the large microwave dish antennas mounted on the towers. In addition, other major sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the environment such as broadcast radio...

  16. Study of the local structure of binary surfaces by electron diffraction (XPS, LEED)

    OpenAIRE

    Gereová, Katarína

    2006-01-01

    Study of local structure of binary surface with usage of ultra-thin film of cerium deposited on a Pd (111) single-crystal surface is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction (XPS, XPD), angle resolved UV photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used for our investigations. LEED and X-ray excited photoemission intensities results represent a surface-geometrical structure. As well, mapping of ultra-violet photoelectron intensities as a...

  17. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  18. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  19. Factors Affecting Students' Usage and Perceptions of a Generic Intranet Learning Resource: Models of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Sue; Thorpe, Louise

    2006-01-01

    The Key to Key Skills Project made portable to other universities an intranet system, developed at Leeds Metropolitan University, to support students' Key Skills. The system was piloted and evaluated in three partner institutions (Sheffield Hallam University, Leeds Metropolitan University and the University of Plymouth). The evaluation revealed…

  20. non-metropolitan practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Sometimes standardization based on metropolitan models become unreasonable or too undifferentiated. Where are those climatic regions and subregions elaborated for construction rules and regulations by the regulatory structure of the USSR? Being located in the eleven time zones, from the subtropics to the Arctic, in seismically active zones and on anthropogenic soils, on the shores of three oceans, across deserts and mountain ranges, doesn’t Russia need them? Non-metropolitan practices in architecture, town-planning and the state of life can only “mitigate” the equalitarian impact caused by the capital. What forms and what ideological contents do these practices have all over our multinational and multiconfessional country? How can non-metropolitan architects make their cities healthier, more comfortable and more attractive for the growing human capital assets in the competitive battle against the capital and against each other? As usual, the issue of our journal is full of vital and urgent questions.

  1. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  2. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK, there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded.

  3. University Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design: How Postsecondary Institutions Use the LEEDRTM Green Building Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Shannon Massie

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study focused on how institutions of higher education have used the United States Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]) Green Building Rating system. It employed statistical methods to assess which types of universities have used LEED, what ratings they earned, and…

  4. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  5. Regional Variations of Credits Obtained by LEED 2009 Certified Green Buildings—A Country Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED is one of the most widely recognized green building rating systems. With more than 20% of the projects certified in non-United States (US countries, LEED’s global impact has been increasing and it is critically important for developers and regulatory authorities to understand LEED’s performance at the country level to facilitate global implementation. This study therefore aims to investigate the credit achievement pattern of LEED 2009, which is one of the well-developed versions of LEED, by using 4021 certified projects in the US, China, Turkey, and Brazil. The results show that significant differences can be identified on most rating categories, including sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design. Using a post hoc analysis, country-specific credit allocation patterns are also identified to help developers to understand existing country-specific green building practices. In addition, it is also found that there is unbalanced achievement of regional priority credits. The study offers a useful reference and benchmark for international developers and contractors to understand the regional variations of LEED 2009 and for regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Green Building Council, to improve the rating system, especially on designing regional priority credits.

  6. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Green Building Certification: The BIM-LEED Application Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Building information modeling (BIM) and green building are currently two major trends in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This research recognizes the market demand for better solutions to achieve green building certification such as LEED in the United States. It proposes a new strategy based on the integration of BIM…

  7. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  8. Chemical reactivity and structural determination of metal and gaseous adsorbates on Cu{100} using TPD and LEED

    OpenAIRE

    Younis Ahmed, Hamid M.

    2003-01-01

    The structures formed by adsorbing thin-film platinum, formic acid and oxygen on Cu{ 100} single crystal are investigated by quantitative low-energy electrondiffraction (LEED) and Temperature Programmed Reaction Spectroscopy (TPRS) Symmetrized Automated Tensor LEED (SATLEED) calculations are used to determine the structure of the formed surface alloys and overlayers. TPRS was used to probe the surface reactivity of the systems studied while surface composition was obtained using Auger Electro...

  9. Assessment of Energy Credits in LEED-Certified Buildings Based on Certification Levels and Project Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Pelin Gurgun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other categories, the Energy and Atmosphere category contributes the most to the maximum obtainable points in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED certification system. The objective of the study was to identify the extent to which project teams take advantage of the credits in the Energy and Atmosphere category of LEED. This study analyzes the performance of practitioners in achieving points in the Energy and Atmosphere credits of LEED-New Construction (NC 2009 for 1500 buildings that received LEED certification in the US. For a better understanding of the credit patterns, the differences in the performance of practitioners are investigated relative to certification levels and project ownership. Achievement in credits is calculated in terms of percent of maximum points (PMP, since the maximum achievable points differ for each credit. Practitioners’ achievements in the credits were ranked as follows: (1 enhanced commissioning, (2 optimized energy performance, (3 enhanced refrigerant management, (4 green power, (5 measurement and verification, and (6 on-site renewable energy. The largest achievement differences were observed in the on-site renewable energy credit. Concerning building ownership, investors were found to optimize mostly energy efficiency and on-site renewable energy, but to mostly skip enhanced refrigerant management. Performance in the measurement and verification credit was similar for all owner types, whereas investors performed differently from corporations, and government agencies in the enhanced commissioning credit. Practitioners who recognize these priorities and differences are expected to be better positioned to make sustainability-related decisions in building design and construction.

  10. LEED structural analysis of GaAs(001)-c(4X4) surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Jiříček, Petr; Cukr, Miroslav; Bartoš, Igor

    566-568, - (2004), s. 89-93 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : electron-solid interactions * low energy electron diffraction(LEED) * molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) * surface relaxation and reconstruction * gallium arsenide * low index single crystal scattering * diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2004

  11. Metropolitan gardens : Gardens in the interstices of the metropolitan tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneity of the contemporary metropolitan landscape has led to a multiplicity of intermediate spaces, in between and within the different tissues of the metropolitan landscape. These interstices can provide favourable conditions to be transformed into gardens. What design instruments can be

  12. Indoor environmental quality differences between office types in LEED-certified buildings in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young S. [School of Planning, Design, and Construction, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Guerin, Denise A. [College of Design, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The study compared IAQ, thermal quality, and lighting quality between 5 different office types in LEED-certified buildings in relation to employees' environmental satisfaction and their job performance. This was to provide workplaces where workers in each specific office environment could be provided with appropriate office settings regarding these IEQ criteria when organizations comply with LEED standards. The five types of office included private enclosed, private shared, open-plan with high cubicle over 5', open-plan with low cubicle lower than 5', and open-plan with no partitions (bullpen) offices. The study found IAQ enhanced workers' job performance in enclosed private offices more than both high cubicles and low cubicles. All four office types had higher satisfaction with the amount of light and visual comfort of light as well as more enhancement with job performance due to lighting quality than high cubicles. There was no difference in thermal quality between the five office types. IAQ and lighting quality were not different between enclosed private, enclosed shared, and bullpen office types, either. The study findings suggest a careful workplace design considering the height of partitions in LEED-certified buildings to improve employee's environmental satisfaction and job performance. (author)

  13. Investigation of reordered (001) Au surfaces by positive ion channeling spectroscopy, LEED and AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.; Noggle, T.S.; Miller, J.W.; Schow, O.E. III; Zehner, D.M.; Jenkins, L.H.; Barrett, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    As a consequence of the channeling phenomenon of positive ions in single crystals, the yield of ions Rutherford scattered from an oriented single crystal surface is dependent on the density of surface atoms exposed to the incident ion beam. Thus, the positive ion channeling spectroscopy (PICS) technique should provide a useful tool for studying reordered surfaces. This possibility was explored by examining the surfaces of epitaxially grown thin Au single crystals with the combined techniques of LEED-AES and PICS. The LEED and AES investigations showed that when the (001) surface was sputter cleaned in ultra-high vacuum, the normal (1 x 1) symmetry of the (001) surfaces reordered into a structure which gave a complex (5 x 20) LEED pattern. The yield and energy distributions of 1 MeV He ions scattered from the Au surfaces were used to determine the number of effective monolayers contributing to the normal and reordered surfaces. These combined measurements were used to characterize the nature of the reordered surface. The general applicability of the PICS technique for investigations of surface and near surface regions is discussed

  14. Evaluation of LEED for Neighbourhood Development and Envision Rating Frameworks for Their Implementation in Poorer Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Diaz-Sarachaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The unstoppable world population growth is increasing the concentration of people in urban settlements and the number of megacities, especially in developing countries where urbanization exacerbates social and economic inequalities. Green rating systems have been launched during the last decades to facilitate the assessment of sustainable development in terms of building and infrastructure, including the evaluation of sustainable urban development through the study of communities. This article assesses two of the most renowned sustainable rating systems through the prism of economy, environment and society and the international actions undertaken toward the promotion of sustainable development worldwide, in order to determine their effectiveness to assess urban development in poorer nations. Hence, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighbourhood Development (LEED ND and Envision, both from the United States, were chosen as representatives of building and infrastructure fields, respectively, so that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and the New Urban Agenda (Habitat III were the benchmarks selected to define the sustainability aspects required to evaluate their potential application in less developed countries. The absence of metrics in the New Urban Agenda led to relate its commitments to the SDGs, which revealed that the prerequisites and credits included in LEED ND and Envision mainly focused on managerial and environmental aspects and disregarded the economic and social dimensions. Consequently, the premises under which LEED ND and Envision were developed must be updated and complemented with the two latest guidelines recently adopted by the United Nations in the field of urban and sustainable development.

  15. Occupant comfort and health in green and conventional university buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, A; Miller, L; Dorsey, J A

    2014-01-01

    Green building standards are significantly impacting modern construction practices. The resulting structures are more energy efficient, but their impact on occupant health has not been widely studied. To investigate a range of indoor environment and ergonomic issues in green buildings. Retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 319 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings and one conventional building on a Canadian University campus. Results show that working in the LEED buildings was a generally positive experience for their health, performance, and satisfaction. However, the LEED buildings did not always receive the highest ratings for environmental conditions or for health and productivity. Respondents indicated a range of concerns with thermal conditions, office lighting, noise and their overall workstation designs and these were not always better in the green buildings. These results highlight the need for better integration of ergonomic design into green buildings and into the LEED rating system, and these implications are discussed.

  16. non-metropolitan stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitals gather constellations of bright and creative people, attracting them from the peripheries. Tchekhov’s sisters were anxious to get to Moscow, d’Artagnan – to Paris. Evtushenko, Shukshin and Gaidai ascended to the climax of their glory, having moved to the capital. Vampilov, Rasputin and Astafiev became internationally famous without leaving their home grounds, but having joined in the metropolitan whirl. In this regard, the architectural profession differs greatly from the literary and cinematographic ones. The destinies of the masters who fulfilled themselves far from the capital are different but equally bright and unique. The Irkutsk “Varangians”of the sixtieth – Voronezhsky, Bukh and Pavlov – built up their relations with geography in a different way:someone came from the capitals just for a few years that became the brightest, the most fruitful and the most interesting years of his creative life. But someone stayed in the non-metropolitan city for a long time and even forever. This subsection contains certain examples of self-fulfillment in the cities distant from the capitals: Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Anzhero-Sudzhensk.

  17. LEED AND THE DESIGN/BUILD EXPERIENCE: A SHELTER FOR HOMELESS FAMILIES RETURNING TO POST-KATRINA NEW ORLEANS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Verderber

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina displaced nearly one million citizens from the New Orleans metro region in 2005. Five years after the catastrophe, in August of 2010, more than 150,000 citizens remained scattered across the United States. Katrina was the largest Diaspora in the nation’s history. The number of homes damaged or destroyed by Katrina’s devastation numbered more than 125,000. An award-winning case study is presented of a unique partnership forged between academia, a local social service agency, professional architectural and engineering firms, and a national humanitarian aid organization whose mission is to provide affordable housing for homeless persons in transition. This collaboration resulted in a sustainable design/build project that originated in a research-based university design studio. The facility is a 38-bed family shelter for homeless mothers and their children seeking to rebuild their lives in post-Katrina New Orleans. The site for this 4,400 facility did not flood when the city’s federally built levee system failed in 2005. This case study is presented from its inception, to programming and design, construction, occupancy, and the postoccupancy assessment of the completed building. This facility is the first LEED certified (Silver building in New Orleans. Project limitations, lessons learned, and recommendations for future initiatives of this type are discussed, particularly in the context of any inner urban community coping with the aftermath of an urban disaster.

  18. Walkable new urban LEED_Neighborhood-Development (LEED-ND) community design and children's physical activity: selection, environmental, or catalyst effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Interest is growing in physical activity-friendly community designs, but few tests exist of communities explicitly designed to be walkable. We test whether students living in a new urbanist community that is also a pilot LEED_ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-Neighborhood Development) community have greater accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) across particular time periods compared to students from other communities. We test various time/place periods to see if the data best conform to one of three explanations for MVPA. Environmental effects suggest that MVPA occurs when individuals are exposed to activity-friendly settings; selection effects suggest that walkable community residents prefer MVPA, which leads to both their choice of a walkable community and their high levels of MVPA; catalyst effects occur when walking to school creates more MVPA, beyond the school commute, on schooldays but not weekends. Methods Fifth graders (n = 187) were sampled from two schools representing three communities: (1) a walkable community, Daybreak, designed with new urbanist and LEED-ND pilot design standards; (2) a mixed community (where students lived in a less walkable community but attended the walkable school so that part of the route to school was walkable), and (3) a less walkable community. Selection threats were addressed through controlling for parental preferences for their child to walk to school as well as comparing in-school MVPA for the walkable and mixed groups. Results Minutes of MVPA were tested with 3 × 2 (Community by Gender) analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). Community walkability related to more MVPA during the half hour before and after school and, among boys only, more MVPA after school. Boys were more active than girls, except during the half hour after school. Students from the mixed and walkable communities--who attended the same school--had similar in-school MVPA levels, and community groups

  19. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  20. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    .... Taking this vision into account, the individual credits that comprise LEED are designed to reward design teams for employing sustainable design strategies that reduce the total environmental impact...

  1. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  2. A study of the effects of computer animation on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Nilforooshan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing research aimed at investigating the efficacy of computer animations in improving college students’ learning of building sustainability concepts and practices. The use of animations in educational contexts is not new, however scientific evidence that supports their effectiveness as educational materials is still limited. This paper reports an experiment that explored the impact of an educational digital animation, called “LEED-ERS”, on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. Specifically, the animation focused on the LEED category of Sustainable Site. Results of a study with 68 students show that viewing the animation led to an increase in subjects’ declarative knowledge by 15%. Compared to traditional learning methods (e.g. reading assignments with static images, viewing the animation led to significantly higher declarative knowledge gains.

  3. LEED crystallography studies of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Ir, Pt and Rh crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koestner, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    There have only been a few Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses carried out to determine the structure of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces; most surface crystallography studies concentrated on the structure of clean unreconstructed or atomic adsorbate-covered transition metal faces. The few molecular adsorption systems already investigated by dynamical LEED are CO on Ni(100), Cu(100) and Pd(100) as well as C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 4 adsorbed on Pt(111). The emphasis of this thesis research has been to extend the applicability of LEED crystallography to the more complicated unit cells found in molecular overlayers on transition metals or in there constructed surfaces of clean transition metals

  4. LEED crystallography studies of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Ir, Pt and Rh crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    There have only been a few Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses carried out to determine the structure of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces; most surface crystallography studies concentrated on the structure of clean unreconstructed or atomic adsorbate-covered transition metal faces. The few molecular adsorption systems already investigated by dynamical LEED are CO on Ni(100), Cu(100) and Pd(100) as well as C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ adsorbed on Pt(111). The emphasis of this thesis research has been to extend the applicability of LEED crystallography to the more complicated unit cells found in molecular overlayers on transition metals or in there constructed surfaces of clean transition metals.

  5. Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED): Norms for emoji and emoticons in seven evaluative dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Prada, Marília; Gaspar, Rui; Garrido, Margarida V; Lopes, Diniz

    2018-02-01

    The use of emoticons and emoji is increasingly popular across a variety of new platforms of online communication. They have also become popular as stimulus materials in scientific research. However, the assumption that emoji/emoticon users' interpretations always correspond to the developers'/researchers' intended meanings might be misleading. This article presents subjective norms of emoji and emoticons provided by everyday users. The Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED) comprises 238 stimuli: 85 emoticons and 153 emoji (collected from iOS, Android, Facebook, and Emojipedia). The sample included 505 Portuguese participants recruited online. Each participant evaluated a random subset of 20 stimuli for seven dimensions: aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. Participants were additionally asked to attribute a meaning to each stimulus. The norms obtained include quantitative descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) and a meaning analysis for each stimulus. We also examined the correlations between the dimensions and tested for differences between emoticons and emoji, as well as between the two major operating systems-Android and iOS. The LEED constitutes a readily available normative database (available at www.osf.io/nua4x ) with potential applications to different research domains.

  6. Characterization of Si(112) and In/Si(112) studied by SPA-LEED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, Jan; Speckmann, Moritz; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    High index surfaces are of strong interest in todays research because of the possibility to grow low dimensional structures. It has for instance already been shown that the adsorption of Ga can induce the formation of 1D metal chains on Si(112) (cf. Snijders et al., PRB 72, 2005). In this work we investigated the clean Si(112) surface and the adsorption of In on Si(112) to establish an analogy to Ga/Si(112) using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). By means of reciprocal space mapping we determined the bare Si(112) surface to be decomposed into alternating (5512) and (111) facets in [1 anti 10] direction with (2 x 1) and (7 x 7) reconstruction, respectively (cf. Baski et al., Surf. Sci. 392, 1997). With SPA-LEED we were able to observe the decreasing intensity of the facet spots in-situ while depositing In on Si(112) and thus reveal the smoothening of the surface due to the deposition of In. At saturation coverage we found a (3.x1) reconstruction, where x is dependent on the deposition temperature and changes from x=7 at 400 C to x=5 at 500 C. This leads us to the assumption that the reconstruction is not incommensurate but a mixture of (3 x 1) and (4 x 1) building blocks, which is very similar to the super structure of Ga on Si(112).

  7. 75 FR 37245 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... a micropolitan statistical area closely parallels that of the metropolitan statistical area, but a... of local opinion--the universe of combined statistical areas is heterogeneous and incomplete. This...

  8. The two-glass-building in Ratingen. LEED platin for the Coca-Cola headquarter; Das Zwei-Scheiben-Haus in Ratingen. LEED-Platin fuer die Coca-Cola-Zentrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerres, Eberhard

    2011-07-01

    In order to receive the eco-labeled LEED platinum category, a good planning is essential. In the construction of a new administration building in Ratingen (Federal Republic of Germany), many details have been considered up to the use of ecologically unquestionable building materials. Thus, these details were very purposeful.

  9. CO{sub 2} neutral living and working. LEED project Dockside Green in Canada; CO{sub 2}-neutral leben, wohnen und arbeiten. LEED-Projekt Dockside Green in Kanada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz, Christian

    2012-07-01

    In the western Canadian city of Victoria a new residential quarter and commercial quarter is uprisen on the area of a closed down harbour. The ambiguous goal: Every 26 buildings of this project shall achieve the LEED certification of the highest level: platinum.

  10. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  11. On the contraction of the W(001)-(1x1) surface using LEED intensity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, M.N.; Russell, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Three recent independent attempts at reducing the W(001)-(1x1) surface structure by LEED beam intensity analysis have yielded contractions of the topmost layer spacing of 6+-6%, 11+-2%, 4.4+-3% normal to the surface plane. The authors investigate possible reasons for the discrepancies by comparing published experimental and theoretical profiles of these workers as well as their own. Their main conclusions are that the direct comparison of experimental data of different investigators shows deviations which are comparable to the changes in the calculated profiles for various surface contractions. Also the deviations between calculated intensity profiles using different (but still realistic) assumed scattering potentials are comparable to the changes in the calculated profiles for various surface contractions. (Auth.)

  12. Uno strumento per la creazione di valore nella realizzazione di edifici sostenibili: la certificazione LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rick Fedrizzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro ha l’obiettivo di delineare gli aspetti chiave della sostenibilità in ambito edilizio focalizzando l’attenzione sul sistema di certificazione LEED® quale strumento “universale” di supporto per la realizzazione, gestione e valutazione di edifici sostenibili. Nella prima parte del lavoro si descrive la rapida diffusione della certificazione LEED nel recente passato quale diretta conseguenza della capacità di questo strumento di rating di adattarsi sia alle specifiche tipologie di edifici, sia alle diversità climatiche e morfologiche dei siti. Nella seconda parte si procede invece a presentare ed analizzare gli aspetti economico-finanziari degli edifici sostenibili con riferimento sia alle metodologie valutative applicabili, sia ai dati della letteratura. Partendo dalle esperienze internazionali in tema di sostenibilità, si procede successivamente a descrivere la situazione italiana, evidenziando la percezione del mercato e le opportunità di sviluppo future.

  13. The UPD of copper on Pt(100): a first quantitative structure determination by LEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdam, D.; Gauthier, Y.; Durand, R.; Faure, R.

    1994-04-01

    The adsorption of copper on platinum, obtained by electrochemical underpotential deposition (UPD), is a complex phenomenon. As observed by cyclic voltammetry, the underpotential is not limited to a narrow, well defined range of electrochemical potentials, but is spread out on a wide range of potentials. On the Pt(100) surface, a lack of reversibility of adsorption and desorption occurs, and a gradual change in the voltammogram shape takes place under potential cycling. In this paper, we describe a first "ex situ" low energy electron diffraction (LEED) structure investigation of that system, for a copper coverage of about {2}/{3} of a monolayer. The main result is that copper clusters in 2D islands with p(1 × 1) structure and a density of one Cu per Pt atom.

  14. Metropolitan siting: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, D.F.

    1978-09-01

    The paper discusses the development and implementation of the Reactor Site Criteria and particularly the evolving posture of the agency on the subject of metropolitan siting. The review actions on nine sites are described to illustrate the various issues and positions and to clarify at least some of the bases for current practices of the NRC staff

  15. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Doudna, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The Universe explores the science of what we see in the night sky. Kids will learn about the life cycle of a star, find out how our universe was created, explore nebulae, galaxies, black holes, giant stars and more. Engaging photos, exciting graphics, and a fun quiz at the end of each book will keep them learning. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Super Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  16. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  17. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Martinez, Manuel Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  18. A survey of job satisfaction, sources of stress and psychological symptoms among general practitioners in Leeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K; House, A; Dowell, A

    1998-03-01

    The past seven years have seen rapid changes in general practice in the United Kingdom (UK), commencing with the 1990 contract. During the same period, concern about the health and morale of general practitioners (GPs) has increased and a recruitment crisis has developed. To determine levels of psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, and subjective ill health in GPs and their relationship to practice characteristics, and to compare levels of job satisfaction since the introduction of the 1990 GP contract with those found before 1990. Postal questionnaire survey of all GP principals on the Leeds Health Authority list. The main outcome measures included quantitative measures of practice characteristics, job satisfaction, mental health (General Health Questionnaire), and general physical health. Qualitative statements about work conditions, job satisfaction, and mental health were collected. A total of 285/406 GPs (70%) returned the questionnaires. One hundred and forty-eight (52%) scored 3 or more on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which indicates a high level of psychological symptoms. One hundred and sixty GPs (56%) felt that work had affected their recent physical health. Significant associations were found between GHQ-12 scores, total job satisfaction scores, and GPs' perceptions that work had affected their physical health. Problems with physical and mental health were associated with several aspects of workload, including list size, number of sessions worked per week, amount of time spent on call, and use of deputizing services. In the qualitative part of the survey, GPs reported overwork and excessive hours, paperwork and administration, recent National Health Service (NHS) changes, and the 1990 GP contract as the most stressful aspects of their work. Fifty-two per cent of GPs in Leeds who responded showed high levels of psychological symptoms. Job satisfaction was lower than in a national survey conducted in 1987, and GPs expressed the least

  19. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Building Assessment System is a performance-based tool for determining the environmental impact of a facility from the whole-building perspective...

  20. Situated University, Situated Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  1. Structural and electronic analysis of Hf on Si(1 1 1) surface studied by XPS, LEED and XPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carazzolle, M.F. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mcarazzo@ifi.unicamp.br; Schuermann, M.; Fluechter, C.R.; Weier, D. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); Berges, U. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D44227 Dortmund (Germany); Siervo, A. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Landers, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kleiman, G.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Westphal, C. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    In this work, we present a systematic electronic and structural study of the Hf-silicide formation upon annealing on Si(1 1 1) surface. The electronic structure and surface composition were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). To determine the atomic structure of the surface alloy we used low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron diffraction (XPD). It was possible to verify that, after 600 deg. C annealing, there is alloy formation and after 700 deg. C the Hf diffusion process is predominant. Using LEED and XPD measurements we detected the ordered island formation simultaneously with alloy formation.

  2. Analysis of non-spherical grid geometry for distortion-free LEED apparatus with micro channel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Tatsuo; Ohsaki, Akihiko; Sakurai, Makoto; Honda, Tohru; Tuzi, Yutaka

    1985-01-01

    A design of non-spherical grid structure for the distortion-free LEED apparalus with a micro channel plate (MCP) is described. The grid structure is assumed as an interface of two electrostatic potentials. The potential interface refracts the diffracted electrons and the LEED patterns can be projected on the MCP just like those observed on a spherical fluorescent screen. The shape of the potential interface is described by a differential equation and numerically calculated for several conditions. The most appropriate geometry is determined by the easiness of the mechanical construction. The effect of energy distribution of diffracted electrons is numerically estimated and the deviation is proved to be negligibly small for most applications. (author)

  3. PLEASE: The Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE – Enabling Rapid Analysis of LEEM and LEED Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Grady

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PLEASE, the Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE, provides an open source and cross-platform graphical user interface (GUI for rapid analysis and visualization of low energy electron microscopy (LEEM data sets. LEEM and the associated technique, selected area micro-spot low energy electron diffraction (μ-LEED, are powerful tools for analysis of the surface structure for many novel materials. Specifically, these tools are uniquely suited for the characterization of two-dimensional materials. PLEASE offers a user-friendly point-and-click method for extracting intensity-voltage curves from LEEM and LEED data sets. Analysis of these curves provides insight into the atomic structure of the target material surface with unparalleled resolution.

  4. Implementation of the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEEDS (trademark) as the Army’s Green Building Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Child Development Center Installation: Fort McPherson Project Manager: Morris, Timothy C. Project Status: Approved District SSD POC: Milton, Judith F...Number: 053321 Project Description: Recruiting Brigade Operations B Installation: Fort Gillem Project Manager: Morris, Timothy C Project Status...Martinez, Stephen B. Project Status: oved District SSD POC: Raney , Jeff P. SPiRiT (Actual): 61 (Gold) LEED (Estimated): 31 (Silver) LEED

  5. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB: a protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the

  6. LEED, Its Efficacy and Fallacy in a Regional Context—An Urban Heat Island Case in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy in the building sector has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Accordingly, various building assessment methods have developed in green building practices. However, the questions still remain in regard to how positively green buildings affect regional surroundings. This study investigates the possible relationship between LEED-certified buildings and urban heat island effect. Using GIS with spatial regression, the study found that constructing an LEED building in a 30-m boundary could possibly lower the temperature of the surrounding environment by 0.35 °C. Also, having a higher certification level, such as Gold or Platinum, increased the lowering effect by 0.48 °C, while a lower certification level, such as Certified or Silver, had a lowering effect of 0.26 °C. Although LEED has gained a substantial amount of interest and skepticism at the same time, the study results could be a potential sign that the Sustainable Sites Credits or energy-efficient materials play a positive role in lowering the temperature.

  7. Life-cycle thinking and the LEED rating system: global perspective on building energy use and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2015-04-07

    This research investigates the relationship between energy use, geographic location, life cycle environmental impacts, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The researchers studied worldwide variations in building energy use and associated life cycle impacts in relation to the LEED rating systems. A Building Information Modeling (BIM) of a reference 43,000 ft(2) office building was developed and situated in 400 locations worldwide while making relevant changes to the energy model to meet reference codes, such as ASHRAE 90.1. Then life cycle environmental and human health impacts from the buildings' energy consumption were calculated. The results revealed considerable variations between sites in the U.S. and international locations (ranging from 394 ton CO2 equiv to 911 ton CO2 equiv, respectively). The variations indicate that location specific results, when paired with life cycle assessment, can be an effective means to achieve a better understanding of possible adverse environmental impacts as a result of building energy consumption in the context of green building rating systems. Looking at these factors in combination and using a systems approach may allow rating systems like LEED to continue to drive market transformation toward sustainable development, while taking into consideration both energy sources and building efficiency.

  8. Titanium dioxide surfaces and interfaces studied using ESDIAD, LEED and STM

    CERN Document Server

    Cocks, I D

    1998-01-01

    resolved into two contributions: H atoms bonded at the oxide substrate, and the rupture of the C-H bonds of the acetate. It is proposed that acetates are bridge bonded with five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + ions, with their molecular plane perpendicular to the surface. Decomposition of acetate at room temperature occurs under electron beam radiation, desorbing CH sub 2 CO and CH sub 3 /CH sub 4. Adsorption of benzoic acid at the TiO sub 2 (110) surface is dissociative, forming benzoate and surface hydroxyls. Adsorbed benzoate is bonded with the five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + cations, forming a pseudo (2x1) overlayer at a saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. Attractive interactions between benzoate aromatic rings leads to the formation of dimerised benzoate rows along the [001] direction. TiO sub 2 surfaces have been studied by electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The TiO sub 2 (100) surface was stu...

  9. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  10. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  11. Allbutt of Leeds and Duchenne de Boulogne: Newly discovered insights on Duchenne by a British neuropsychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E H; Broussolle, E

    2018-02-01

    It is well-established that Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (1806-1875), and Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) were the founding fathers of Parisian and French neurology during the second half of the 19th century, although much more is known about Charcot than about his "master" Duchenne. In Britain, Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836-1925) was Leeds' most distinguished physician of the 19th century, eventually becoming Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge. Allbutt's 1860-1861 year of postgraduate study in Paris and his friendship with Duchenne profoundly influenced his own contributions to nervous system and mental diseases, partly in collaboration with his colleague James Crichton-Browne (1840-1938) at the nearby West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield, Yorkshire. The present report briefly recalls the careers of Duchenne and Allbutt, and also presents a unique account by Allbutt of Duchenne in action at the height of his powers, investigating and defining the previously uncharted field of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of his localized electrization techniques. This account is discussed in relation to: Duchenne's personality and pioneering neurological achievements; the origins of French neurology; and the development of Anglo-French neurological relationships during the 19th century. Interestingly, both Duchenne and Crichton-Browne separately made important and much-appreciated contributions to the third major book by Charles Darwin (1809-1882), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, published in 1872. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon Footprint of Housing in the Leeds City Region - A Best Practice Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, John; Dawkins, Elena (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden))|(Univ. of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom))

    2008-06-15

    The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) was commissioned by the Environment Agency to carry out a carbon footprint analysis of the housing sector, using the Leeds City Region (LCR) as an example. The aim was to determine our ability to meet the 80 per cent by 2050 challenge of energy efficiency in the housing sector. The study relates specifically to LCR but its findings will help any planning and development teams make the right decisions and gain the resources necessary to meet carbon budgets at regional and local levels. With a growing population and an additional 263,000 housing units to be built within LCR by 2026, the housing sector would need to reduce its expected total carbon dioxide emissions by 38 million tonnes between 2010 and 2026 to be on track for 80 per cent savings in 2050. The report outlines the most detailed analysis to date of the required measures to deliver a growth-based regional housing strategy, alongside reducing carbon emissions. If the city region's new and existing housing is to attain the levels of energy efficiency necessary to deliver these carbon savings, big changes will be required in the way we build, maintain and run our homes over the next 20 years. There are pockets of good practice already in the region and the study shows that by combining innovative measures on construction standards, improvements to existing housing, low and zero carbon technologies and changing behaviour of householders, LCR can achieve the necessary savings to meet its carbon budget

  13. Strategic energy planning within local authorities in the UK: A study of the city of Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, Catherine S.E.; Foxon, Timothy J.; Hannon, Matthew J.; Gale, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the development of a strategic energy body in a local authority in the UK and looks at the perceived need for, and possible roles of, such a body. Historically, energy provision and management has not usually been a strategic priority for UK local authorities. Yet energy considerations are implicit in key local authority responsibilities such as transport, waste management, planning, and the provision of housing services. In addition, recent UK central government policies support the move to localism and provide incentives for low-carbon energy generation. A study was undertaken to assess the potential (including both the perceived benefits and actual capacity to deliver) for Leeds City Council to develop a strategic body to execute delivery of city-level energy decision-making. We examine the perceived benefits to a range of main stakeholders, using data drawn from interviews with managers responsible for low-carbon and renewable energy projects across the city. Through participant observation we explore the capacity of a local authority to deliver a strategic energy body, and we briefly examine the possible forms of delivery. We conclude with recommendations for national policy that would enable the development of strategic energy bodies across local governments in the UK. - Highlights: ► Strategic energy planning is currently not a priority for UK local authorities. ► We present an empirical study of strategic energy planning in local authorities. ► Results from stakeholder interviews suggest support for a strategic energy body. ► We identify the capacity barriers to implementing a strategic energy body. ► We make recommendations for ways forward and support needed from national policy.

  14. The Leeds food preference questionnaire after mild sleep restriction - A small feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Zant, Janneke C; Aussems, Audrey; Faatz, Vivian; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2016-02-01

    Besides the increased sedentary lifestyle and increased caloric intake, changes in dietary composition may play an important role in the increased prevalence of obesity. Because inadequate sleep could be a risk factor in the aetiology of obesity, reliable methods for assessing food intake and food choice after sleep restriction are needed. We translated the Leeds food preference questionnaire (LFPQ), addressing preferences for sweet/savoury tastes and low-fat/high-fat foods, into Dutch, and tested it in 15 mildly sleep-restricted psychology students. The participants completed the LFPQ in our laboratory on two separate occasions, with approximately one week in between. Sleep on the preceding night was not controlled, but mild sleep-restriction was confirmed by a short sleep latency test (sSLT) or a short maintenance of wakefulness test (sMWT). Each participant completed the sSLT and sMWT once, just before the LFPQ, in a cross-over design randomised for the first test. Differences were present in preferences for food items from different categories (sweet/savoury and low-fat/high-fat; pchoice frequencies for various food categories were comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The choice frequencies for individual items were also comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The LFPQ is easily implemented under mild sleep-restricted conditions, and translation is straightforward. Future studies using the LFPQ after sleep restriction could elucidate if restricting sleep or longer periods affects food choice, which could underlie increases in obesity risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing and Developing the Application of LEED Green Building Rating System as a Sustainable Project Management and Market Tool in the Italian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa S. E. Ismaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the recent introduction of the LEED system to the Italian context in order to assess its role to promote sustainable building process in the Italian context, pointing out its potentials on one hand as well as their gaps and limitations on the other hand, and suggests means for its future development. The study discusses the application of LEED as a ‘Sustainable Project management tool’ to guide sustainable building performance. This requires investigating the following: its structure, tools, assessment criteria along with its benchmarks and references. It also discusses the application of LEED as a ‘Sustainable building Certification and market tool’. This investigates the role and value of the LEED certification in the Italian Green market. The research method is comprised of three parts. The first part is a comparative analysis of LEED categories against Italian national initiatives for sustainability. The comparison showed that most LEED categories are already mandated by national norms and directives but they may differ in their stringency creating some areas of precedence of LEED system or drawbacks. This streamlines the adaptation process of LEED system to the Italian context. The second part investigates LEED projects’ market analysis. The result showed that the shift towards a sustainable building process is occurring slowly and on a vertical scale focusing on some building sectors rather than others. Its market diffusion in the Italian context faces challenges regarding the insufficient availability of green materials and products satisfying its requirements, as well as high soft cost of sustainability tests and expertise required. The Third part presents a practical review-citing the methodology and results of a survey conducted by the researchers in mid-2012. It is composed of a web-based questionnaire and interviews among a sample of LEED professionals in Italy. The result shows that LEED systems needs

  16. Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

    The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

  17. The use of Leeds Test Objects in the assessment of the performance of radiological imaging systems: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Over the preceding decade the Leeds Radiological Imaging Group have developed a range of test objects with which to assess the performance of radiological imaging systems. The types of imaging equipment which can be assessed include X-ray image intensifier television systems, small-format 100mm/105mm fluorography systems and radiographic screen-film combinations. We have recently extended our interest to the evaluation of digital radiological imaging equipment including digital subtraction fluorography and digital (greyscale) radiographic imaging systems. These test objects were initially developed for the purpose of evaluating imaging performance under laboratory conditions but they have also proved useful under field (clinical) conditions. (author)

  18. Osteolisis tibial secundaria a un implante ligamentoso de Leeds-Keio: Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Zafra, M.A.; Ballester, J.; Román, Manuel; Carpintero Benítez, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Hasta hace algunos años, el ligamento artificial de Leeds-Keio, se usó en muchos casos para la reconstrucción de lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior. Hoy día no se usa para este tipo de lesiones debido a los pobres resultados que se observaron a medio y largo plazo. No obstante, su uso está indicado en otras lesiones, como son la reconstrucción del aparato extensor de la rodilla, y en inestabilidades del hombro y de la columna vertebral. Presentamos un caso de osteolisis masiva del platil...

  19. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  20. Theoretical Aspects of Territorial and Metropolitan Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Popescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to become engines of development, large cities require modernization in the area of urban governance. The first part of the article focuses on theoretical concepts of governance and territorial governance, including the instruments that promote good governance, such as the fight against corruption, and its measurement indicators. The second part of the article deals with governance in metropolitan areas, describing several metropolitan bodies of governance, specialised in spatial planning and transportation, discussing the need of coordination and the collaborative approach as a premise for ensuring better transport accessibility and more harmonized spatial plans. Finally, the article presents solutions and recommendations for an efficient reform of metropolitan governance.

  1. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  2. Youth suicide trends in Australian metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, 1988-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Gunnell, D

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine trends in suicide among 15-34-year-olds living in Australian metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas between 1988 and 1997. Suicide and population data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. We calculated overall and method-specific suicide rates for 15-24 and 25-34-year-old males and females separately, according to area of residence defined as non-metropolitan (firearm suicide, rates remain 3-fold higher among nonmetropolitan residents. Non-metropolitan males aged 15-24 years have disproportionately higher rates of suicide than their metropolitan counterparts. Reasons for this require further investigation. Hanging is now the most favoured method of non-metropolitan suicide replacing firearms from 10 years ago. Although legislation may reduce method-specific suicide the potential for method-substitution means that overall rates may not fall. More comprehensive interventions are therefore required.

  3. Single-layer ZnS supported on Au(111): A combined XPS, LEED, STM and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingyi; Sorescu, Dan C.; Lee, Junseok

    2017-04-01

    Single-layer of ZnS, consisting of one atomic layer of ZnS(111) plane, has been grown on Au(111) and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). While the LEED measurement indicates a coincidence structure of ZnS-(3×3)/Au(111)-(4×4), high resolution STM images reveal hexagonal unit cells of 6.7×6.7 Å2 and 11.6×11.6 Å2, corresponding to √3 and 3 times the unit cell of the ideal zincblende ZnS-(1×1), respectively, depending on the tunneling conditions. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indicate a significantly reconstructed non-planar structure of ZnS single-layer on Au(111) with 2/3 of the S anions being located nearly in the plane of the Zn cations and the rest 1/3 of the S anions protruding above the Zn plane. The calculated STM image shows similar characteristics to those of the experimental STM image. Additionally, the DFT calculations reveal the different bonding nature of the S anions in ZnS single-layer supported on Au(111).

  4. ADOÇÃO DA CERTIFICAÇÃO LEED EM MEIOS DE HOSPEDAGEM: ESVERDEANDO A HOTELARIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna de Lima Medeiros

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research intended to analyze the adoption process of the green certification “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED from the hotel sector establishments that has already adopted it. For its concretization it was proceeded a bibliographical research, secondary fact-gathering in journals, institutional sites and documentaries, and primary fact-gathering by means of semi structured interviews carried out with responsible people of the certified hotels and of the responsible entity of the certification in Brazil (Green Building Council Brazil. There were 21 interviewee, being 02 of the GBC Brazil and 19 of means of lodging (31% of the certified. For data analysis, it was utilized content analysis technique with the aid of ATLAS.ti software. The results permitted to identify the chronology of the processes of certification and the profile of the hotel categories that adopt the LEED program. Beyond that, the interviews enabled the discussion of the initial motivations for seeking the certification, as well the advantages and the obstacles perceived regarding its adoption.

  5. Energy efficiency benchmarks and the performance of LEED rated buildings for Information Technology facilities in Bangalore, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabapathy, Ashwin; Ragavan, Santhosh K.V.; Vijendra, Mahima; Nataraja, Anjana G. [Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd, 90, Hosur Road, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper provides a summary of an energy benchmarking study that uses performance data of a sample of Information Technology facilities in Bangalore. Information provided by the sample of occupiers was used to develop an Energy Performance Index (EPI) and an Annual Average hourly Energy Performance Index (AAhEPI), which takes into account the variations in operation hours and days for these facilities. The EPI and AAhEPI were modelled to identify the factors that influence energy efficiency. Employment density, size of facility, operating hours per week, type of chiller and age of facility were found to be significant factors in regression models with EPI and AAhEPI as dependent variables. Employment density, size of facility and operating hours per week were standardised and used in a separate regression analysis. Parameter estimates from this regression were used to normalize the EPI and AAhEPI for variance in the independent variables. Three benchmark ranges - the bottom third, middle third and top third - were developed for the two normalised indices. The normalised EPI and AAhEPI of LEED rated building, which were also part of the sample, indicate that, on average, LEED rated buildings outperform the other buildings. (author)

  6. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH, which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university studies and incomplete, and the woman has a probability of 83,11397% more than men of working part time.

  7. Reducing the V2O3(0001) surface through electron bombardment – a quantitative structure determination with I/V-LEED

    OpenAIRE

    Feiten, F.; Kuhlenbeck, H.; Freund, H.

    2016-01-01

    The (0001) surface of vanadium sesquioxide, V2O3, is terminated by vanadyl groups under standard ultra high vacuum preparation conditions. Reduction with electrons results in a chemically highly active surface with a well-defined LEED pattern indicating a high degree of order. In this work we report the first quantitative structure determination of a reduced V2O3(0001) surface. We identify two distinct surface phases by STM, one well ordered and one less well ordered. I/V-LEED shows the order...

  8. Census Metropolitan Areas As Culture Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Coish, David

    2004-01-01

    The report examines culture in census metropolitan areas (CMAs) in 2001. The report uses the 1996 and 2001 censuses, and data from Statistics Canada's Culture Statistics Program and the Centre for Education Statistics.

  9. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1996 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC.......The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC....

  10. Validation of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) questionnaire and its correlation with visual analog pain scales in Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Chan, Philip; Bargiota, Alexandra; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2015-01-01

    One of the diagnostic tools of neuropathetic pain (NP) relies on screening questionnaires including the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) questionnaire. To apply and validate the LANSS questionnaire in Greek population. To assess any correlation between LANSS score and visual analog pain scales. A prospective instrument validation study of LANSS was conducted in University Hospital of Larissa, on 70 patients (35 NP and 35 nociceptive pain), from April 2015 to June 2015. Visual analog pain scales (VAS-ADL; impact of pain on daily living activities, VAS-INT; pain intensity) were also assessed and correlated with LANSS scale. The mean age of NP and nociceptive pain group was 67.11±10.05 and 39.14±17.07years respectively. The mean LANSS score was 12.84 (±9.27) in initial test, and 12.54 (±9.41) in the retest evaluation. Cronbach's alpha was 0.895 and 0.901 at initial and retest examinations respectively, both values indicating good internal consistency. NP group had significant higher LANSS score than nocipeptive pain group (21.34 [±1.39] vs 4.34 [±4.86], pquestionnaire to distinguish neuropathic and nociceptive pain was 94.29% (95% CI: 80.81-99.13%), while its specificity was 88.57% (95% CI: 73.24-96.73%). A significant correlation was noticed between total LANSS score and VAS-ADL (initial r=0.248; p<0.05 and retest evaluation r=0.288; p<0.05). The LANSS score is a reliable and valuable instrument to assess neuropathic pain in diabetic patients and to differentiate it from nociceptive pain in Greek population. In diabetic patients LANSS score is associated with impact on daily activities and potentially with quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface structure and electronic states of epitaxial β-FeSi.sub.2./sub.(100)/Si(001) thin films: Combined quantitative LEED, ab initio DFT, and STM study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Hattori, K.; Someta, M.; Daimon, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 15 (2014), "155305-1"-"155305-9" ISSN 1098-0121 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101201; Murata Science Foundation(JP) Project n. 00295 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : iron silicide * LEED I-V * DFT * STM * surface reconstruction * surface states Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  12. Effects of Contract Delivery Method on the LEED(trademark) Score of U.S. Navy Military Construction Projects (Fiscal Years 2004-2006) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Deanna S

    2005-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 484 KB. ABSTRACT: This research study focused on determining the effects that the two major contract delivery methods had on the LEED score of projects over the design and construction time horizon...

  13. Energy Provisions of the ICC-700, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR Mapped to the 2009 IECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Michelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Robin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kora, Angela R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Erin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This document provides the results of a comparison of building energy efficient elements of the ICC-700 National Green Building Standard, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR versions 2, 2.5, and 3.0 to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (2009 IECC). This comparison will provide a tool for states and local municipalities as they consider adoption of these programs. The comparison is presented in a series of appendices. The first appendix provides a summary chart that visually represents the comprehensive comparison of the programs to the 2009 IECC topic areas. Next there are a series of individual tables (one appendix for each program) that include the specific program mapping to the 2009 IECC elements with comments that briefly discuss how well the elements mapped. Finally, a comprehensive table is included that shows all five of the programs mapped to the 2009 IECC elements to allow a detailed comparison.

  14. Challenging Racist Violence and Racist Hostility in 'Post-Racial' Times: Research and Action in Leeds, UK, 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing understanding of, information about and official commitment to challenge these patterns, racist hostility and violence continue to have an enduring presence in urban and rural life in the UK. This indicates the paradoxical nature of this racial crisis and challenges for antiracism as a political project. This paper charts how these issues play out at the local level through an examination of a five year process from problem identification through to research, response, action and aftermath from 2006 to 2012 in the city of Leeds, UK, with a focus on two predominantly white working class social housing estates in the city. We explore how embedded tensions and antagonisms can begin to be challenged, while examining how the contemporary climate of austerity and cuts in services, together with prevailing post-racial thinking, make the likelihood of such concerted action in the UK increasingly remote.

  15. A comparison of country and metropolitan general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, H; Miles, D A; Bridges-Webb, C; Neary, S; Charles, J; Traynor, V

    1993-11-01

    .7% of those contacted and available, the response rate being better in country (57.5%) than in metropolitan (36.5%) areas. A practice profile questionnaire which included questions regarding the doctor and the practice was completed by 97.4% of participants, while a questionnaire on distance from support services was completed by 93.8% of country participants. The final weighted data set included 51,741 encounters with country GPs and 11,351 with metropolitan GPs. The general practitioners: Country GPs were less likely to be female or to conduct consultations in a language other than English, and were more likely to do some work on a salaried or sessional basis. GPs from small country towns were older, more likely to be in solo practice, and more likely to belong to a professional organisation. "Remoteness" of towns: Nearly all towns were within 25 km of a hospital, but far fewer small and medium country towns were within 50 km of a base hospital than large country towns. X-ray services were almost universally available within 50 km, and with the exception of small country towns so were pathology services. Access to medical specialists and to a lesser degree other health professionals decreased with population size--patients in 30% of small towns had to travel over 100 km to see many specialists and some health professionals. Self-reported procedural work: GPs in small and medium country towns were more likely than those in large towns to report performing procedural work, the largest difference being in the area of em

  16. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    spatial planning traditions. The aim of this paper is thereby to advance and apply a qualitative framework to compare metropolitan spatial plans in Scandinavia, more precisely the cases of Copenhagen and Oslo. Both cases are rooted in contexts of polity and planning culture, which are often identified...... be to coordinate a number of themes; within the institutional framework of the Oslo region, on the other hand, where local governance still has significant political power, the problem of the metropolitan plan might be reduced to securing the coherence of overarching structure such as transport networks, leaving......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  17. Evaluation plan and recommendations - ‘Can’t Wait to be Healthy’: A briefing paper on evaluation for Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy.

    OpenAIRE

    South, J; Kime, NH

    2008-01-01

    The rise in childhood obesity is a major public health challenge and a national priority for health action. Obesity is associated with many illnesses and is directly related to increased mortality and lower life expectancy. The Children’s Plan recognises child obesity as one of the most serious challenges for children and links it to a number of poor outcomes, physical, social and psychological (Department for Children, Schools and Families 2007). ‘Can’t wait to be healthy’- Leeds Childhood O...

  18. From Provider to Enabler of Care? Reconfiguring Local Authority Support for Older People and Carers in Leeds, 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeandle, Sue

    2016-03-14

    This article explores developments in the support available to older people and carers (i.e., caregivers) in the city of Leeds, United Kingdom, and examines provision changes during a period characterized by unprecedented resource constraint and new developments in national-local governance. Using documentary evidence, official statistics, and findings from recent studies led by the author, the effects of these changes on service planning and delivery and the approach taken by local actors to mitigate their impact are highlighted. The statistical data show a marked decline in some types of services for older people during a 5-year period during which the city council took steps to mobilize citizens and develop new services and system improvements. The analysis focuses on theories of social quality as a framework for analysis of the complex picture of change related to service provision. It concludes that although citizen involvement and consultations exerted a positive influence in delivering support to some older people and carers, research over a longer timescale is needed to show if these changes are adequate to protect older people and carers from the effects of ongoing budgetary constraints.

  19. Bandgap opening in graphene templates on Ru(0001) from subsurface hydrogen effects studied by STM, LEED, and DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Maxwell; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Valovcin, Darren; Hagelberg, Frank; Pohl, Karsten

    2013-03-01

    Graphene has aroused tremendous interest due to its remarkable electronic and mechanical properties. Graphene's optical properties, conductance, and the fact that it can be transferred to many substrates make it an ideal candidate for use in nanoelectronic devices and organic photoelectric devices. The lack of a bandgap, however, causes a serious challenge for implementing graphene as a material for electrical switches and therefore creative ways of inducing this bandgap are needed. We will present a STM/LEED/DFT study of the single layer graphene on Ru(0001) system in the presence of hydrogen. Structural studies show arrays of moiré superlattices with sizes ranging from 0.9 to 3.0 nm in the presence of hydrogen on the compact surface of ruthenium. First principle calculations help explain the appearance of these arrays of graphene reconstructions driven by the H presence at the Ru(0001) interface, and furthermore, predict the appearance of a bandgap with values correlated with the moiré superstructure sizes in the presence of hydrogen. Control over moiré superstructure size can aid in future work using graphene as a nanotemplate for self assembled growth of nanoelectronic devices an organic photovoltaics. This work was supported by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (NSF NSEC-425826) and NSF DMR-1006863

  20. Soft tissue reinforcement with a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament in revision surgery for dislocated total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aota, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Ohashi, Hironori; Kitano, Naoko; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2017-10-16

    Since dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) greatly diminishes patient's quality of life, the THA frequently needs revision. However, it is common for the dislocation not to heal even after reconstruction, but rather to become intractable. The 17 patients with dislocated THA, mean age of 71 years (range 51-87 years), who underwent a revision THA together with soft tissue reinforcement with a Leeds-Keio (LK) ligament were enrolled. The purposes of reinforcement with LK ligament were to restrict the internal rotation of the hip joint, and to encourage the formation of fibrous tissue in the posterior acetabular wall to stabilise the femoral head. We determined the success rate of surgical treatment for dislocation, the Harris Hip Score (HHS), a factor of recurrent dislocation. There was no recurrent dislocation in 82% of the cases (14 joints) during the mean postoperative follow-up period of 63.5 months (15-96 months). The HHS was 82 ± 18 points preoperatively and 82 ± 14 points postoperatively. Recurrent dislocation after this surgical procedure occurred in 2 hips with breakage of the LK ligaments, and intracapsular dislocation in 1 hip with loosening of the LK ligament. Although the risk of recurrent dislocation still exists with this procedure, when performed to provide reinforcement with an LK ligament for dislocated THA it may be useful in intractable cases with soft tissue defects around the hip joint.

  1. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  2. METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT, PHASE IN THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINCĂ Dragoş Valentin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan development succeeds chronologically, as well as structurally urban development, this means a new phase in the urban system development through the extension beyond its initial boundaries. Along with the cities’ surrounding areas population growth, especially through emigration from the cities, but as well as through the attraction of population from other localities, the geographical and the administrative boundaries of the cities become inadequate for the definition of the urban agglomerations that emerge. This extension is generated as well by an ample endogenous process of local economic development that is forcing the association of several local communities around an urban center becoming a growth pole in order to develop its level of competitiveness. Metropolitan development represents thus an administrative and economical challenge regarding the management and the coordination of an increased palette of resources.

  3. NOISE POLLUTION OF KONYA METROPOLITAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Celalettin ÖZDEMİR; Şükrü DURSUN; Yüksel BURDURLU

    1999-01-01

    Novadays, one of the environmental pollution which effects the human health is noise pollution. Researches on this subject result in that noise pollution has become important public health problems recently. In this research study, first comprehensive survey (Hamilton Ankesiyete Test) was performed on 200 people who are in different ages and deal with different jobs. Noise Amplitude were measured at 66 test locations in Konya metropolitan area. The results showed that there are several locati...

  4. Transforming the student experience: Manchester Metropolitan University’s EQAL project

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Eunis Elite Award recipient In 2010, with top level support and direction from its Deputy Vice Chancellor, Manchester Metropolitan University(MMU) set up the EQAL Programme – “Enhancing Quality and Assessment for Learning”. The goal was to make a step-change improvement in student satisfaction by refreshing the entire undergraduate curriculum whilst simultaneously reengineeringadministrative processes and creating a seamless personalised experience that wrapped the university’s...

  5. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  7. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Newspaper Journalists in Metropolitan Markets in the United States Regarding Food Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Tom A.; Briers, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 88 journalists from metropolitan newspapers found a low level of knowledge about food biotechnology. Most considered genetic modification of plants acceptable, of animals somewhat acceptable. They trusted university scientists as sources and believed farmers would accept food biotechnology sooner than consumers would. (Contains 31…

  8. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Karna Prasad; Niemelä, Jari Kalevi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted fr...

  9. Will talent attraction and retention improve metropolitan labor markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreason, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, metropolitan entities and local governments have targeted incentives, policies, and investments with the goal of highly educated and skilled workers to locate in their communities. These efforts focus on attracting workers who hold a bachelor’s degree or higher and have had a profound effect on the form and management of metropolitan areas, but there is not clear evidence that growth in bachelor’s or higher degree attainment improves metropolitan labor market outcomes. ...

  10. Model LPA Terpadu untuk Wilayah Surabaya Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimien Bt. M. Al Muhdhar a Henie Irawati

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish the integrated LPA model for Surabaya Metropolitan Area. The methods used are literature overviews, comparative studies to well-established areas, and expert assistantships through national seminars. The result shows that the integrated LPA has opportunity to combine some activities such as sorting and classifying, producing, wrapping and containing, selling the compost and decayed materials, and filling residual waste by landfill system. In 25 Ha land area, 14.10 Ha is allocated for waste management, and 10.90 Ha for sanitary landfill.

  11. NOISE POLLUTION OF KONYA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin ÖZDEMİR

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Novadays, one of the environmental pollution which effects the human health is noise pollution. Researches on this subject result in that noise pollution has become important public health problems recently. In this research study, first comprehensive survey (Hamilton Ankesiyete Test was performed on 200 people who are in different ages and deal with different jobs. Noise Amplitude were measured at 66 test locations in Konya metropolitan area. The results showed that there are several locations which have noise amplitude value higher than reference limiting values. According to the test results noise pollution map of Konya were drawn.

  12. The metropolitan name game : The pathways to place naming shaping metropolitan regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonhas Viseu Cardoso, R.; Meijers, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of metropolitan regions in policy and research does not mean they are perceived by their population as having a meaningful identity. This affects their political legitimacy, economic development prospects and place qualities. However, the ongoing scalar expansion of our spatial

  13. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  14. LANDFILL SITTING USING MCDM in TEHRAN METROPOLITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Abediniangerabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing Municipal Solid Waste in order to control waste materials in Tehran Metropolitan with a population of over 8.5 million persons and daily production of 7500 tons of trash seems an evitable necessity. Daily production of such amount of trash and accumulation of them in the southern part of Tehran (Kahrizak due to lack of proper and standard methods of landfilling have caused severe problems by creating a latex lake of twelve hectares. Among these problems, penetration of infection and contamination to underground waters, causing excessive problems for soil and agricultural lands can be mentioned. In such conditions caused for Tehran, lack of solution finding for the issue would bring heavy outcomes for the Tehran Metropolitan in terms of environmental and economic issues. In this paper, efforts are taken to find a new place as a landfill by applying sustainable development approach. For this, in order to use the criteria propounded in sustainable development, multi-criteria decision making methods has been applied for weighing and spatial analysis has been used to combining them for indicating the most appropriate site. In this way, the new site would be selected by observance of sustainable development would be a place with the least environmental and social damages while being economically affordable.

  15. The Question of Metropolitan Form: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vernez Moudon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Posing the concept of ‘metropolitan form’ as a question, as in the call for papers for this issue of Footprint, is an absolute necessity at this stage of development of urbanised areas. Many of the papers in this issue begin with the straw-man notion of a formless agglomeration of activities and spaces, the – for lack of a better phrase – postmodern urban experience.[1] There is a persistent theme in the related literatures of architecture, urban design and urban and regional planning that the physical form of the contemporary metropolis is un-describable. Soja’s six metaphors (post-Fordist industrial, cosmopolis, expolis, fractal city, carceral archipelago, simcities are being indicative of the wide range of possible images.[2] The eight papers in this issue of Footprint take an opposite approach. They begin to trace the contours of the debate around how the noun ‘metropolitan form’ might be understood, how it might be studied, and how it might be possible to move from an empirical understanding of its structure to more intuitive design solutions.

  16. Business profile of metropolitan Las Vegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    This first report describes the present makeup of the Las Vegas metropolitan statistical area (MSA) economy and analyzes the climate for business expansion. The second report contains an assessment of the competitiveness of the area as a location for new or expanded facilities investment by companies in approximately 600 business groups. The third report projects Las Vegas' competitiveness at the start of the next century in the absence of a nuclear waste storage facility and then evaluates the potential impacts of siting that facility near Las Vegas on its ability to attract and retain business investment. The primary purpose of these reports is to contribute to the overall assessment of the environmental impact of the US Department of Energy's proposed action to build and operate an underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first two reports also serve a second purpose -- they can be used by economic development organizations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area in their ongoing efforts to attract new business investment. Information contained in the business climate analysis found in this first report can be incorporated into marketing materials. The competitiveness assessment contained in the second report can be used by these organizations in identifying targets they wish to pursue

  17. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  18. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert s...

  19. Project 1990: Educational Planning at the Metropolitan Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Austin D.; Lamitie, Robert E.

    This paper describes a project designed to provide educational decisionmakers with projections of and forecasts about future metropolitan conditions and problems, and information about the implications of alternative ways of solving metropolitan problems. Project components included (1) population and economic projections and forecasts, (2)…

  20. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  1. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,

  2. Reducing the V2O3(0001) surface through electron bombardment--a quantitative structure determination with I/V-LEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiten, Felix E; Kuhlenbeck, Helmut; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-28

    The (0001) surface of vanadium sesquioxide, V2O3, is terminated by vanadyl groups under standard ultra high vacuum preparation conditions. Reduction with electrons results in a chemically highly active surface with a well-defined LEED pattern indicating a high degree of order. In this work we report the first quantitative structure determination of a reduced V2O3(0001) surface. We identify two distinct surface phases by STM, one well ordered and one less well ordered. I/V-LEED shows the ordered phase to be terminated by a single vanadium atom per surface unit cell on a quasi-hexagonal oxygen layer with three atoms per two-dimensional unit cell. Furthermore we compare the method of surface reduction via electron bombardment with the deposition of V onto a vanadyl terminated film. The latter procedure was previously proposed to result in a structure with three surface vanadium atoms in the 2D unit cell and we confirm this with simulated STM images.

  3. Establishing daily quality control (QC) in screen-film mammography using leeds tor (max) phantom at the breast imaging unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acaba, K. J. C.; Cinco, L. D.; Melchor, J. N.

    2016-03-01

    Daily QC tests performed on screen film mammography (SFM) equipment are essential to ensure that both SFM unit and film processor are working in a consistent manner. The Breast Imaging Unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute has been conducting QC following the test protocols in the IAEA Human Health Series No.2 manual. However, the availability of Leeds breast phantom (CRP E13039) in the facility made the task easier. Instead of carrying out separate tests on AEC constancy and light sensitometry, only one exposure of the phantom is done to accomplish the two tests. It was observed that measurements made on mAs output and optical densities (ODs) using the Leeds TOR (MAX) phantom are comparable with that obtained from the usual conduct of tests, taking into account the attenuation characteristic of the phantom. Image quality parameters such as low contrast and high contrast details were also evaluated from the phantom image. The authors recognize the usefulness of the phantom in determining technical factors that will help improve detection of smallest pathological details on breast images. The phantom is also convenient for daily QC monitoring and economical since less number of films is expended.

  4. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  5. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  6. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  7. Darwinism and cultural struggles in rural Askov and metropolitan Copenhagen in nineteenth-century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    of students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country......, around 1900 as Darwinism was widely criticized in scientific circles, a young generation of Grundtvigians transformed evolutionary theory into ‘safe science' and made it a legitimate subject at several folk high schools in the country. This paper argues that the cultural differences between metropolitan...

  8. Universities as Intermediaries: Impact Investing and Social Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekula, Rebecca; Shah, Archana; Jhamb, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan universities are well poised in communities to be intermediaries among various actors involved in social innovation. Pace University established one of the first institutes on social entrepreneurship. Its unique position at the university level allows programming to transcend certain institutional challenges. The emerging field of…

  9. Essentials for sustainable urban transport in Brazil's large metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes four main pillars for sound development and long-term sustainability of the urban transport sector in large metropolitan areas, and suggests how they can be introduced. These pillars are: a) a Regional Transport Coordination Comm...

  10. Metropolitan (Im)migrants in the "Lettered City"

    OpenAIRE

    Balkan, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Metropolitan (Im)migrants in the 'Lettered City'" Stacey Balkan employs Ángel Rama's discussion of audience as a means of analyzing a Latin American diaspora that exists beyond the "rational periphery" of the state. Herein, the term diaspora is redefined as a translocal phenomenon wherein the metropolitan (im)migrant moves from rural margin to urban center. Normative definitions of exile — persons displaced from autonomous nation-states — are likewise scrutinized in the contex...

  11. The (001) 3C SiC surface termination and band structure after common wet chemical etching procedures, stated by XPS, LEED, and HREELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengeler, Sven; Kaiser, Bernhard; Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    The (001) surface of cubic silicon carbide (3C SiC) after cleaning, Ar sputtering and three different wet chemical etching procedures was thoroughly investigated via (angle resolved) XPS, HREELS, and LEED. While Ar sputtering was found to be unsuitable for surface preparation, all three employed wet chemical etching procedures (piranha/NH4F, piranha/HF, and RCA) provide a clean surface. HF as oxide removal agent tends to result in fluorine traces on the sample surface, despite thorough rinsing. All procedures yield a 1 × 1 Si-OH/C-H terminated surface. However, the XPS spectra reveal some differences in the resulting surface states. NH4F for oxide removal produces a flat band situation, whereas the other two procedures result in a slight downward (HF) or upward (RCA) band bending. Because the band bending is small, it can be concluded that the number of unsaturated surface defects is low.

  12. Structural and electronic changes in the growth of mercury overlayers on Cu(001) - A helium beam scattering, LEED and ARPES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, G.; Li, W.; Dowben, P. A.; Karimi, M.; Hutchings, C. W.; Lin, J.; Moses, C.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.

    1990-01-01

    We used ABS, LEED and angle-resolved photo-electron spectroscopy (ARPES) to study bilayer films of Hg on Cu(001). In the surface temperature range of 180 to 330 K, the first Hg layer forms two ordered phases, a c(2x2) (with coverage-0.5 of Cu(001)) and a high density (partially commensurate) c(4x4) (coverage-0.62). ARPES data show that there is little or no dispersion of the 5d band of Hg. ABS data show that this layer is not flat, with in-registry Hg atoms lying about 0.15 below the not-in-registry Hg atoms. From ABS we find that the second layer forms a completely registered c(4x4) phase. From ARPES we obtain that the second layer has an electronic structure, particularly the 5d levels, characteristic of bulk mercury. Preliminary results of calculations of the structure of the bilayer are given.

  13. Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viwatpanich, Kanvee

    2015-03-01

    The combination between quantitative and qualitative research, "Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan" aimed to study causes of homelessness, patterns of living, problems, health status, social and health needs. Purposive sampling of 60 older homeless people could be divided into two groups; temporary and permanent homeless. Causes of homelessness were health problems, money problems, family background, emotional management, cultural sensitivities, limitation of extended family, financial management, political control, and domestic violence. Their living problems included:financial insecurity, police suppression, social and medical services, attacks from the young generations, sexual harassment, stealing, and social hierarchy of homelessness. 63.3% reported having hearing problems and a peptic ulcer before becoming homeless. These evolved into musculo-skeletal problems, accident-injuries, and skin diseases. 95% performed ADL/IADLs independently, 78.3% were depressed, 5% diagnosed with severe stress depression. 70% rated themselves happier than the rest ofthe population, and 75% were identified as having normal cognition. 58.3% had a good relationship with a religious network, 55% still had some contacts with theirfamily members. More than 90% indicated that they were satisfied, could sustainin a life on the street, were happy with theirfreedom, liked being close to green areas, learned about human life,fulfilled the dhamma, and felt close to the king.

  14. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  15. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.

  16. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  17. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education, income, housing tenure, number of children, and changes in relationship status. Experience of IPV in the past 12 months was significantly associated with increased odds of domestic relocation. This association remained significant after controlling for age, social support, area of residence, income, number of children, education, and housing situation. Change in relationship status attenuated the association between recent IPV and domestic relocation. Metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence had no major influence on these results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Department of Fuel and Energy, University of Leeds report for the academic year 1998-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The annual report lists the research grants awarded during the session, records short course and events held, publications, conference attendances, degrees and diplomas awarded and committee membership of staff. It gives summaries of investigations being undertaken by research students reading for higher degrees. The main research theme remains combustion-based topics but increasingly with a renewable energy aspect, working towards efficient use of combustion of fossil fuels and hence reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and other pollutants, and increasing use of renewables especially biomass and solar energy. Projects are listed under headings: spark ignition engine emissions; diesel engine emissions; and process burners. Most projects are listed under the names of the supervisor.

  19. THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF ORADEA - DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of Oradea has certain directions of development settled in accordance with the objectives of development assumed by The Local Council of Oradea on 10 March 2015 once with the approval of the strategy for development of Oradea Municipality for the period 2016 – 2020. It is very important for for the Municipality of Oradea to become, by quantifiable arguments in a relatively short period of time a real competitor of the great cities surrounding it or of Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Debrecen. Domains, in which Oradea can excel as a clear differentiator in front of its competitor, are closely related to the local traditional specific and resources. Thus, Oradea proposed to be the capital of Art Nouveau and thermal-ism. The fulfilment of this goal would definitely bring more tourists and obviously additional financial resources to the local budget. At this moment, OMA is prepared in what concerns the hotelier infrastructure and utilities for taking the new tourists. In addition, another important objective regarded at macro level for the entire OMA is the assurance of a security comfort for the citizens of the Municipality of Oradea and implicitly of the neighbouring villages. One of the objectives – Oradea, the safest city – is closely linked to another one which represents the follow-up of some successful beginnings in 2012 with the award Oradea – the green city. In the following period an increase of the surfaces covered with green spaces and recreational areas is being planned for the optimum comfort of the inhabitants and tourists of the OMA. The three main objectives mentioned above must be added to the imperative need of completing the necessary investments for the increase of the quality of life. The infrastructure for the assurance of the quality of health and education is reflected by the completed HURO programme accessed by the executive of OMA.

  20. Internal audit risk management in metropolitan municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit functions (IAFs of organisations are regarded as crucial components of the combined assurance model, alongside the audit committee, management and external auditors. The combined assurance model aims at having integrated and aligned assurance in organisations with the overall aim of maximising risk and governance oversight and control efficiencies. In this regard, internal audit plays a crucial role, insofar as it consists of experts in risk, governance and control consultancy who provide assurance to senior management and the audit committee. Audit committees are dependent on internal audit for information and their effectiveness revolves around a strong and well-resourced internal audit function which is able to aid audit committees to meet their oversight responsibilities. There is thus a growing demand for managing risk through the process of risk management and internal audit is in a perfect position to assist with the improvement of such processes. If internal auditors wish to continue being an important aspect of the combined assurance model, they need to address the critical area, amongst others, of risk management as part of their work. If not, it follows that the board, audit committees and other levels of management will remain uninformed on the status of these matters which, in turn, will negatively impact the ability of these stakeholders to discharge their responsibilities. This study therefore focuses on analysing the functioning of IAFs, with specific reference to their risk management mandate. The study followed a mixed method approach to describe internal audits risk management functioning in the big eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results show that internal audit provide a broad scope of risk management work which assist senior management in the discharge of their responsibilities. However, in the public eye, internal audits risk management functioning is scant

  1. University Academics' Experiences of Learning through Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Trudy; Harvey, Marina; Cahir, Jayde

    2016-01-01

    The use of mentoring for staff development is well established within schools and the business sector, yet it has received limited consideration in the higher education literature as an approach to supporting learning for academics. In this study located at one metropolitan university in Australia, an online questionnaire and one-on-one…

  2. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  3. Budgeting Issues in the Act on Metropolitan Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ofiarska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resolved in 2015 the act on metropolitan unions was meant to be a legal instrument with complex character. It included regulations concerning constitution and tasks of the unions and basics of budget management, as well the budgetary procedures. They are not exhaustive regulations and some of them may be even regarded as needless from point of view of correct legislative standards. However, for the metropolitan unions budgeting issues, the regulations have no comprehensive nature and basically they are only an outline of the financial status concept, including budgetary one, of these entities. The metropolitan union's financial law and budgeting position must be therefore shaped using regulations taken from separate laws, especially, the law on public finances and the law on regional accounting chambers.

  4. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  5. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  6. Printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Banulescu Bodoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Fustei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni’s activity. The religious and secular prints made from Chisinau’s Diocesan typography by Metropolitan Gavriil promote the idea of national unity of people from Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Due to the new documents from archives, more evidences and „more light” are being spread over the activity of famous hierarch, whose life is linked with the history of culture of three nations – Romanians, Ukrainians and Russians.

  7. Challenges for the curriculum of a comprehensive university: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subsequent Report of the Shape and Size Task Team of the Council for Higher Education (CHE 2000) proposed mergers between certain higher education institutions to create Comprehensive Universities. Their primary function would be to deliver vocational qualifications. The Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University ...

  8. REPORTAGE\\ud Editorial Photo spread: Brexit : et au milieu coule l’Angleterre in Libération (France) Photographs © Garry Clarkson with journalist Guillaume Gendron, Envoyé spécial à Leeds et à Follifoot — 17 May 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Garry; Gendron, Guillaume; Libération Newspaper

    2016-01-01

    Libération (the one founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973) visit to North Yorkshire and Leeds concerning the Brexit European Referendum debate. \\ud \\ud Photographs © Garry Clarkson: Leeds Councillors, Dan Cohen and Neil Buckly, Slaughterhouse worker, Steve Hanson and environment around Follifoot village Yorkshire to show quintessential 'middle England'\\ud \\ud http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2016/05/17/brexit-et-au-milieu-coule-l-angleterre_1453266

  9. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in the USA : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of a major data gathering effort aimed at tracking deployment of nine infrastructure components of the metropolitan ITS infrastructure in 78 of the largest metropolitan areas in the nation. The nine components are: F...

  10. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Orlando : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  11. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  12. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Oklahoma City : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  13. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Kansas City : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  14. 77 FR 47535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... final action to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the definition of volatile...

  15. 76 FR 28942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State... proposed modifications by adding a definition for ``Federal Major Modifications'' which incorporates the...

  16. 77 FR 47581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the definition of volatile organic...

  17. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Detroit, Ann Arbor : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  18. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2012-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  19. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  20. Sustainable urban development of metropolitan Johannesburg: The lessons learned from international practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosha A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of an overview of programmes supporting sustainable planning and management in the City of Johannesburg one of the most important social and economic hubs of the transitional Republic of South Africa. Following from this is an analysis of the experience identified as most appropriate for Johannesburg City and its metropolitan region (Gauteng. This case study is used to highlight efforts and lessons learned from the international project "Designing, Implementing and Measuring Sustainable Urban Development" (DIMSUD which have intended to contribute to new solutions for sustainable urban development through a collaborative multi-disciplinary, and participatory approach combining research, urban design, and capacity building. DIMSUD (http://sustainability.ethz.ch is carried out jointly by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden, University of Botswana, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa and the Catholic University of Santiago de Chile. Another partner was the United Nations University (UNU at Tokyo. The project has enabled a global overview of core problems, providing a synthesis of realizable strategies and offering both a scientific forum and an "urban field laboratory" for joint learning. The strategies developed will not only help improve the conditions in the case study cities (Gaborone Johannesburg, Santiago de Chile, but will also provide working examples so that other cities can learn from and adapt and adopt appropriate "best practices".

  1. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  2. Yorkshire's influence on the understanding and treatment of mental diseases in Victorian Britain: The golden triad of York, Wakefield, and Leeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Henry R; Reynolds, Edward H

    2018-01-01

    In the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a more humane approach to the care of the insane in Britain was catalyzed in part by the illness of King George III. The Reform Movement envisaged "moral" treatment in asylums in pleasant rural environments, but these aspirations were overwhelmed by industrialization, urbanization, and the scale of the need, such that most asylums became gigantic institutions for chronic insanity. Three institutions in Yorkshire remained beacons of enlightenment in the general gloom of Victorian alienism: the Retreat in York founded and developed by the Quaker Tuke family; the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield led by Sir James Crichton-Browne, which initiated research into brain and mental diseases; and the Leeds Medical School and Wakefield axis associated with Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, which pioneered teaching of mental diseases and, later, the first Chair of Psychiatry. Three other Yorkshiremen who greatly influenced nineteenth-century "neuropsychiatry" in Britain and abroad were Thomas Laycock in York and Edinburgh, and Henry Maudsley and John Hughlings Jackson in London.

  3. Agreement Between the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 Questions and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Questionnaires to Classify Neuropathic Pain among Patients with Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jamilly C. V.; Santos, Victor S.; Gurgel, Ricardo Q.; Santana, Julianne C. V.; Reis, Francisco P.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Feitosa, Vera L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) often occurs during the course of leprosy, and screening tools to differentiate NP from non-NP are often used. However, their performance varies in different settings. The most frequently used scales are the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 questions (DN4) and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) questionnaires. Thus, we conducted a study to evaluate the agreement between DN4 and LANSS questionnaires to classify NP in 195 leprosy patients attending two reference centers in Sergipe, Brazil. The DN4 and LANSS classified 166 and 110 patients, respectively, as having NP. One hundred and seven (54.8%) were classified as NP by both questionnaires; 59 (30.2%) solely by the DN4 questionnaire and three (1.5%) solely by the LANSS. The agreement of the questionnaires was 66.2% (weak agreement, Kappa = 0.30). Although both questionnaires identified a high proportion of NP, the development of more robust instruments is necessary to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis of leprosy patients classified as having NP. PMID:27458041

  4. Use of Leeds-Keio connective tissue prosthesis (L-K CTP) for reconstruction of deficient extensor mechanism with total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherief, Tamer I; Naguib, Ashraf M; Sefton, Graham K

    2005-08-01

    This study was carried out in order to assess the results of reconstruction of a deficient extensor mechanism in the presence of a total knee replacement (TKR) using the Leeds-Keio Connective Tissue Prosthesis (L-K CTP). The L-K CTP is available as flat tapes constructed from polyester in an open weave structure. It was used to reinforce and reconstruct the extensor mechanism, which was deficient in three patients who had undergone total knee replacement or were about to undergo total knee replacement. Two cases had extensor mechanism deficiency as a complication following total knee replacement while the third case had extensor mechanism deficiency at the time of the primary knee replacement. The average follow-up was 2 years (range of follow up was 12 to 48 months). All three cases showed good results with no extension lag and good range of movement at follow up. The use of L-K CTP for reconstruction of the knee extensor mechanism offers a good option for the management of the uncommon but difficult problem of extensor mechanism deficiency in patients with a total knee replacement.

  5. Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Commercial Buildings: An Elicitation Study of U.S. Building Professionals’ Beliefs on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kientzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental programs (VEPs have become increasingly popular around the world to address energy efficiency issues that mandatory building codes have not been able to tackle. Even though the utility of voluntary schemes is widely debated, they have become a de facto reality for many professionals in the building and construction sector. One topic that is neglected, however, in both academic and policy discussions, relates to how professionals (architects, engineers, real estate developers, etc. perceive the rise of voluntary rating schemes. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the present study investigates beliefs underlying adoption behavior regarding one of the most prominent voluntary assessment and certification programs in the U.S. building industry, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED scheme. In this paper, an elicitation study, based on 14 semi-structured interviews with building professionals in the North East of the United States, was conducted to analyze this question. Building on the Reasoned Action Approach, this paper shows that, in addition to more conventional factors such as financial calculations and marketing aspects, the understanding of beliefs held by building professionals offers important insights into their decisions to work with Voluntary Environmental Assessment and Rating Programs.

  6. Efficiency analysis in the application of indicators LEED-ND, the arid zone of the north of Mexico, case of study: Parajes del Sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua; Analisis de la eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores LEED-ND, en la zona arida del norte de Mexico, caso de estudio: parajes del sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Barrera, Leticia [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    This article presents the analysis realized to the urban design of a colony applying the indicators of The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). The advantages that represent as far as impact are established and also the limits are pointed out, evaluating their efficiency in the application of indicators to improve performance and energy saving. Based on the analysis applied to the colony under study, some right solutions in the urban design are obtained that should be established as a part of the in force standardization. Nevertheless, the follow up to this same company in other developments, reflects that the proposals are not determined as a strategy of self planning but only to fulfill the asked requirements, obtaining a result with smaller impact and as an index that allows offering residential alternatives in the city tending to the sustained development. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el analisis realizado al diseno urbano de un fraccionamiento aplicando los indicadores de The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). Se establecen las ventajas que presenta en cuanto a impacto y tambien se senalan las limitantes, evaluando su eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores para mejorar desempeno y ahorro energetico. Con base en el analisis aplicado al fraccionamiento en estudio, se tienen algunas soluciones acertadas en el diseno urbano que debieran establecerse como parte de la normatividad vigente, sin embargo, el seguimiento a esta misma empresa en otros desarrollos, refleja que las propuestas no estan determinadas como una estrategia de planeacion propia sino unicamente para cumplir con los requerimientos solicitados, obteniendo un resultado con menor impacto y como indice que permitan ofrecer alternativas habitacionales en la ciudad tendientes al desarrollo sostenido.

  7. 23 CFR 450.336 - Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Secretary concerning a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP developed through the processes... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  8. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Houston-Galveston... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been...

  9. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...

  10. 24 CFR 570.510 - Transferring projects from urban counties to metropolitan cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... counties to metropolitan cities. 570.510 Section 570.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... GRANTS Grant Administration § 570.510 Transferring projects from urban counties to metropolitan cities... county to a new metropolitan city, provided: the city was an included unit of general local government in...

  11. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.102 Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) consists of...

  12. The Tshwane metropolitan municipality and strategic partnerships in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality commissioned research to investigate the potential of strategic partnerships for the optimal facilitation and co-operative governance of sport and recreation. The aim of this project was to identify the possible structure and nature of partnerships in order to facilitate effective management, ...

  13. Challenges for sustainable food systems in metropolitan landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan landscapes are facing the challenge to find a balance between urban development on the one hand and the preservation of farmland and natural resources on the other. Conventional land use planning approaches are often not up to this complex challenge and many regions are in need for

  14. Governing metropolitan green infrastructure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Young; E. Gregory McPherson

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether the enhancement of urban ecosystem services through largescale metropolitan treeplanting initiatives is being planned and executed as a component of traditional municipal government or represents new transdisciplinary strategies in environmental governance Drawing on qualitative interviews with...

  15. Marketing of hooves and horns in Maiduguri metropolitan area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of hooves and horns in Maiduguri metropolitan area of Borno State, Nigeria. M Goni, IM Sulumbe, M Sabo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.141-144. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Relationships Between the ABC Inventory and the Metropolitan Readiness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, K. Roger; Holland, Jean M.

    1974-01-01

    The predictive validity and factor structure of the ABC Inventory were analyzed by comparing scores obtained by preschoolers on this test with scores on the Metropolitan Reading Test. The correlational and factor analyses results reveal significant empirical and conceptual relationships between the two tests. (Author/PC)

  17. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  18. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.0% of barrow-pushers alone. About 2.3% of van-loaders were infected with ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of intestinal parasites. Sahel Medical ...

  19. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  20. Urban Electronic Government - Innovation, Adoption, and Metropolitan Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Franzel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines e-government, outlines non-market failure which is believed to be a factor in e-government provision, highlights some previous applicable literature on government innovation, and offers findings from a regression model created using factors offered by previous literature and recent data from sixty-seven of the largest US metropolitan areas.

  1. Designing metropolitan landscapes for biodiversity: deriving guidelines from metapopulation ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The decentralization of planning is giving local planning groups more power in decision making on the spatial development of metropolitan landscapes. However, because scientific knowledge is rarely used in these decision-making processes, there is a risk of discrepancies between the conservation

  2. OXYGEN TRANSFER STUDIES AT THE MADISON METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies at the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District facilities were conducted over a 3-year period to obtain long-term data on the performance of fine pore aeration equipment in municipal wastewater. The studies were conducted on several basins in the East Plant containi...

  3. South African metropolitan consumers' response to health- related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high prevalence of nutrition-related conditions and diseases in South Africa and scientific evidence regarding the health benefits offered by vegetables, guided this nationally representative study among South African metropolitan consumers. Vegetables have become a symbol of health for consumers, as they are ...

  4. The Video Role Model as an Enterprise Teaching Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the need to develop a more enterprising approach to learning by adopting an experiential approach. It specifically examines the use of video case studies of entrepreneurial role models within an enterprise module at Leeds Metropolitan University. The exercise enables students to act as a consultant or counsellor and apply…

  5. Will talent attraction and retention improve metropolitan labor markets? The labor market impact of increased educational attainment in U.S. metropolitan regions 1990 - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Andreason, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, metropolitan entities and local governments have targeted incentives, policies, and investments with the goal of highly educated and skilled workers to locate in their communities. These efforts focus on attracting workers who hold a bachelor's degree or higher and have had a profound effect on the form and management of metropolitan areas, but there is not clear evidence that growth in bachelor's or higher degree attainment improves metropolitan labor market outcomes. ...

  6. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  7. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  8. Validation of the Malayalam version of Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale in cancer patients in the Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukkathali Anzar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS is a 7-item self-report scale developed to identify pain which is of predominantly neuropathic origin. The aim of this study was to develop a Malayalam version of the LANSS and to test its validity and reliability in chronic pain patients. Methodology: We enrolled 101 Malayalam-speaking chronic pain patients who visited the Division of Palliative Medicine, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The translated version of S- LANSS was constructed by standard means. Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were identified by an independent pain physician and were subjected to the new pain scale by a palliative care nurse who was blinded to the diagnosis. The “gold standard diagnosis” is what the physician makes after clinical examination. Its validation, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined. Results: Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were subjected to the Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale for validity testing. The agreement by Cohen's Kappa 0.743, Chi-square test P < 0.001, sensitivity 89.58, specificity 84.91, positive predictive value 84.31, negative predictive value 90.00, accuracy by 87.13, and likelihood ratio 5.94. Conclusion: The Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale is a validated screening tool for identifying neuropathic pain in chronic pain patients in Malayalam-speaking regions.

  9. Development of the Japanese Version of the Leeds Assessment of the Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale: Diagnostic Utility in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Tatsuya; Sumitani, Masahiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Inoue, Reo; Hozumi, Jun; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Oshima, Hirofumi; Mori, Kanto; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Tahara, Keitaro; Yamagami, Ryota; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of the linguistically validated Japanese version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale (LANSS-J) as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in the clinical setting. Patients with neuropathic pain or nociceptive pain who were 20 to 85 years of age were included. Sensitivity and specificity using the original cutoff value of 12 were assessed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the LANSS-J. Sensitivity and specificity with possible cutoff values were calculated, along with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We then evaluated agreement regarding assessment of the LANSS-J by two investigators. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total score and Cohen's kappa coefficient for each item. Data for patients with neuropathic pain (n = 30) and those with nociceptive pain (n = 29) were analyzed. With a cutoff of 12, the sensitivity was 63.3% (19/30) and the specificity 93.1% (27/29). Sensitivity improved substantially with a cutoff of ≤ 11 (≥ 83.3%, 25/30). High specificity (93.1%, 27/29) was sustained with a cutoff of 9 to 12. The ICC for the total score was 0.85, indicating sufficient agreement. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.68 to 0.84. The LANSS-J is a valid screening tool for detecting neuropathic pain. Our results suggest that employing the original cutoff value provides high specificity, although a lower cutoff value of 10 or 11 (with its high specificity maintained) may be more beneficial when pain attributed to neuropathic mechanisms is suspected in Japanese patients. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Böhnke, Jan R; Gabe, Rhian; Croudace, Tim J; Tober, Gillian; Raistrick, Duncan

    2014-11-01

    To examine the relationship between three outcome measures used by a specialist addiction service (UK): the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ), the Social Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ) and the 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10). A clinical sample of 715 service user records was extracted from a specialist addiction service (2011) database. The LDQ (dependence), SSQ (social satisfaction) and CORE-10 (psychological distress) were routinely administered at the start of treatment and again between 3 and 12 months post-treatment. A mixed pre/post-treatment dataset of 526 service users was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Parallel Analysis and the Hull method were used to suggest the most parsimonious factor solution. Exploratory factor analysis with three factors accounted for 66.2% of the total variance but Parallel Analysis supported two factors as sufficient to account for observed correlations among items. In the two-factor solution, LDQ items and nine of the 10 CORE-10 items loaded on the first factor >0.41, and the SSQ items on factor 2 with loadings >0.63. A two dimensional summary appears sufficient and clinically meaningful. Among specialist addiction service users, social satisfaction appears to be a unique construct of addiction and is not the same as variation due to psychological distress or dependence. Our interpretation of the findings is that dependence is best thought of as a specific psychological condition subsumed under the construct psychological distress. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    , and urban sprawl remains a problem. The recent economic crisis has slowed down urbanisation in the most distant areas of the Copenhagen metropolitan region, which is consolidating. This project was funded by the Centre for Strategic Urban Research (Realdania Research) and the EU-FP6 integrated research......87 % of the Danish population lives in urban areas and thus urbanisation in Denmark may have come to an end, but urban growth has not. We are continuously using more and more urban land per capita, and the pace is increasing. Every year, around 15 km2, the size of the city of Ringsted, become...... transformed from natural to urban land in Denmark. A driving force behind this is the emergence of metropolitan regions, which integrate vast parts of rural areas into the urban system. Peri-urban areas are one of the hot spots of change. Agricultural and nature areas are under significant transformation...

  12. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  13. Analysis of Solid Waste Management and Strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palika Wannawilai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and analyze strategic gaps and the environment of waste management of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in order to suggest suitable waste management strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan. The study was conducted by interviewing BMA and districts’ administrators and officers, local leaders and people, and private sectors, conducting a focus group, as well as reviewing relevant documents. The data was analyzed by applying Gap analysis and SWOT analysis. The proposed five strategies are: 1 enhancement of efficiency in solid waste and hazardous waste management; 2 discipline, participation and responsibility of citizens and all sectors related to waste management; 3 appropriate and integrated waste management; 4 capacity building for BMA’s staff and improvement of solid waste management system; and 5 research and development of knowledge and technology in waste management. The study also suggested driving approaches for effective implementation of the strategies.

  14. Metropolitan researchers undertaking rural research: benefits and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, L

    1999-08-01

    Can or should metropolitan residents research their rural counterparts and if they do are there inherent pitfalls or benefits? Throughout the history of social and anthropological research there has been debate on the insider-outsider/native-stranger controversy as to who should carry out the field work. This discourse will explore the author's personal experiences in the context of planning a rural health project, entering the field, accessing the informants, interviewing the informants and leaving the field.

  15. Landslide Inventory Report of Chittagong Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, B.; Rahman, M. S.; Rahman, S.; Huq, F. F.; Ara, S.

    2014-01-01

    Landslides are one of the most significant natural damaging disasters in hilly environments. Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA), the second largest city of Bangladesh, is vulnerable to landslide hazard with an increasing trend of frequency and damage. Devastating landslides have hit CMA repeatedly in recent years. Landslide events occurred at a much higher rainfall amount compared to the monthly average. Moreover, rapid urbanization, increased population density, improper land-...

  16. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  17. Digital soil mapping of available water capacity for metropolitan France

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Dobarco, Mercedes; Martin, Manuel; Saby, Nicolas; Bourennane, Hocine; Arrouays, Dominique; Cousin, Isabelle; Le Bas, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Soil hydraulic characteristics are often required for modeling hydrological processes, crop pro- ductivity, biogeochemical cycles, and movement of pollutants. The objective of this study was producing a digital soil map of available water capacity (AWC) for metropolitan France following GlobalSoilMap (GSM) specifications. The digital soil mapping approach consisted in predicting sand and clay for the six GSM depth intervals and then applying pedotransfer functions (PTF) for es...

  18. Latin America's supercity--the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Big and still growing, Mexico City and its environs is soon to be the world's largest metropolitan area. The lure of city amenties--jobs, health care, schooling, and cheap food--and the hope of a better life bring 1000 rural migrants to Mexico City every day. Between 1950 and 1980, Mexico City grew at an annual average rate of 5.4%. Mexico City is typical of Latin American supercities, holding an impressive portion of the nation's population and commanding the lion's share of the country's economic activities. It is primarily due to the rapid growth in the northern periphery of the municipalities that Mexico City is expected to grow into the world's largest metropolitan area by the year 2000. Given the high proportion of youth relative to the total population, it is not suprising that average household sizes in Mexico City are large. About 60% to 70% of all families have no access to the formal housing market; much of the urban expansion has occurred through the emergence of squatter communities. Water may indeed be the most serious of all of Mexico City's infrastructural problems. Other problems include: 1) the government cannot meet the demands for educational buildings and personnel; 2) in 1982, 10.3% of the metropolitan population lived in extreme poverty and an additional 22.6% were unable to satisfy their basic needs; and 3) transport is a central problem. Demographic sources for Mexico are discussed.

  19. Is Urban Planning in Australia Hindered by Poor Metropolitan Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Burton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many calls for urban planning in Australia to be reformed, although often in contradictory ways. For example, some argue it should be capable of delivering greater certainty to developers while others call for more flexibility in processes of urban development regulation; some would like to roll back its regulatory impact while others argue for a renewal of planning’s commitment to promoting social and spatial justice. The Australian planning system is also held to be hindered by a comparative lack of planning at and for the metropolitan scale. This is connected to the absence of well-developed structures of metropolitan governance in what is a three-tier federal system, with most power over planning concentrated at the State and Territory government scale. The paper explores this putative hindrance by considering three important issues in Australian urban policy debates about the efficacy of contemporary multi-level governance arrangements: spatial scale; identity and legitimacy; and efficiency and effectiveness. It includes some analysis of the case made for a more explicit and rigorous national urban policy and how this might relate to lower level planning regimes. The paper focuses on recent urban policy and planning initiatives in South East Queensland, one of Australia’s fastest growing metropolitan regions, and concludes that while incremental but nonetheless significant improvements in planning policy and practice are possible, these are unlikely to satisfy those calling for more radical changes to improve the Australian planning system.

  20. A Development Program for Metropolitan Junior College, Kansas City. Volume Three: The Economy, Population, and Manpower Requirements of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The economy, population, and manpower requirements of the Kansas City metropolitan area are examined in this volume of a report for the planning and development of Metropolitan Junior College (MJC). Part I looks at the Kansas City economy, first from a historical perspective and then in terms of recent trends in economic growth; the comparative…

  1. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  2. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  3. Geostatistical exploration of spatial variation of summertime temperatures in the Detroit metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Oswald, Evan M.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brines, Shannon J.; Gronlund, Carina J.; White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Rood, Richard B.; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of the warming climate urban temperature patterns have been receiving increased attention. Temperature within urban areas can vary depending on land cover, meteorological and other factors. High resolution satellite data can be used to understand this intra-urban variability, although they have been primarily studied to characterize urban heat islands at a larger spatial scale. Objective This study examined whether satellite-derived impervious surface and meteorological conditions from multiple sites can improve characterization of spatial variability of temperature within an urban area. Methods Temperature was measured at 17 outdoor sites throughout the Detroit metropolitan area during the summer of 2008. Kriging and linear regression were applied to daily temperatures and secondary information, including impervious surface and distance-to-water. Performance of models in predicting measured temperatures was evaluated by cross-validation. Variograms derived from several scenarios were compared to determine whether high-resolution impervious surface information could capture fine-scale spatial structure of temperature in the study area. Results Temperatures measured at the sites were significantly different from each other, and all kriging techniques generally performed better than the two linear regression models. Impervious surface values and distance-to-water generally improved predictions slightly. Restricting models to days with lake breezes and with less cloud cover also somewhat improved the predictions. In addition, incorporating high-resolution impervious surface information into cokriging or universal kriging enhanced the ability to characterize fine-scale spatial structure of temperature. Conclusions Meteorological and satellite-derived data can better characterize spatial variability in temperature across a metropolitan region. The data sources and methods we used can be applied in epidemiological studies and public health

  4. Impact of Universities' Promotional Materials on College Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jami J.; Lumsden, D. Barry

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of printed promotional materials on the recruitment of college freshmen using focus groups of students attending a large, southern metropolitan university. Students provided detailed suggestions on ways to improve the method of distribution, graphic design, and content of the materials. (Author/DB)

  5. The MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) confronts the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Morita, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2011-12-01

    On April 2007, we have launched the special project for earthquake disaster mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Fiscal 2007-2011). As a part of this project, construction of the MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) has been completed, with about 300 stations deployed at mainly elementary and junior-high schools with an interval of about 5 km in space. This results in a highly dense network that covers the metropolitan area. To achieve stable seismic observation with lower surface ground noise, relative to a measurement on the surface, sensors of all stations were installed in boreholes at a depth of about 20m. The sensors have a wide dynamic range (135dB) and a wide frequency band (DC to 80Hz). Data are digitized with 200Hz sampling and telemetered to the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. The MeSO-net that can detect and locate most earthquakes with magnitudes above 2.5 provides a unique baseline in scientific and engineering researches on the Tokyo metropolitan area, as follows. One of the main contributions is to greatly improve the image of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and provides an accurate estimation of the plate boundaries between the PSP and the Pacific plate, allowing us to possibly discuss clear understanding of the relation between the PSP deformation and M7+ intra-slab earthquake generation. Also, the latest version of the plate model in the metropolitan area, proposed by our project, attracts various researchers, comparing with highly-accurate solutions of fault mechanism, repeating earthquakes, etc. Moreover, long-periods ground motions generated by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) were observed by the MeSO-net and analyzed to obtain the Array Back-Projection Imaging of this event (Honda et al., 2011). As a result, the overall pattern of the imaged asperities coincides well with the slip distribution determined based on other waveform inversion

  6. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  7. Urban climate in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jun; Fujibe, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Long-term climate changes related with urbanization in Tokyo, Japan, and recent temperature and heavy rainfall distribution in the Tokyo metropolitan area are reviewed. A relatively high temperature increase in annual mean temperature at the rate of 3.0°C/century was detected in Tokyo for the period 1901-2015. Some observational evidence showed the existence of both thermal and mechanical effects of urbanization on recent heavy rainfall occurrences, and modeling studies also support precipitation enhancement. Urban influences were recognized in other climatological elements, such as number of fog days, relative humidity, and wind circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Population deconcentration in metropolitan Manila in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, W F; Bacol-montilla, M

    1981-10-01

    "The present analysis is intended to delineate the extent of population deconcentration through an examination of changes in core-periphery growth and density patterns within the Metropolitan Manila complex. Specifically, [the authors] examine changes in absolute and relative population growth and density levels in the central city of Manila, the inner suburban ring, and the outer suburban ring from 1903 to 1975. [The authors] also present a preliminary assessment of the demographic processes underlying the post-World War II trends." Data are from the 1975 Philippine census. excerpt

  9. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions characterization of Karachi metropolitan wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nergis, Y.; Sharif, M.; Farooq, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To prove the hypothesis that the inert products are given to environment due to biological degradation of substrate in activated sludge operations. This study was design to investigate the inert fractions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in metropolitan effluent. An aerobic batch reactor system was experimentally setup and maintained up to 480 hours. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO = 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI 218 mg/L, respectively. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI = 218 mg/L respectively. This study is focused on inert COD fractions of metropolitan wastewater which consist of domestic as well as local industrial effluent. Soluble inert COD (SI) must be determined for discharge standards since it did not give any reaction in activated sludge system and was given with wastewater discharge. However particulate inert COD (XI) accumulated in system depending on sludge retention time due to it is only wasted from system by wasted sludge. Experimental techniques were used attained Zohu X. et al. [1, 2] in order to determine directly influent particulate and soluble inert fractions. The experimental study was carried out until COD profile reached to steady state or depletion of degradable substrate. The conventional parameters of municipal characterization were as follows: total COD (CTO) = 412 mg/L, total soluble COD (STO) = 131 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) = 197 mg/L, total biochemical oxygen demand (BODt) = 351 mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) = 264 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) = 26.6 mg/L, grease and oil (G and O) = 17.5 mg/L and pH were 7.4 SU, respectively. (author)

  10. LA COMPETITIVITA’ DELLE REGIONI METROPOLITANE NELLE CONTEE DI VISEGRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Lengyel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competition between regions and consequently the examination of regional competitiveness has become a research question of outstanding importance. In our study we will first look at the definition of competitiveness and the frames of interpretation related to its definition. Afterwards we will proceed to analyse the competitiveness of 93 NUTS3 level regions of 4 East-Central European countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia with the help of an empirical data base, using principal component analysis method. Regional competitiveness studies tend to be relative, that is why we mostly compare the competitiveness of the metropolitan regions to each other.

  11. Seroprevalence of leptospires in sheep slaughtered at Sokoto metropolitan Abattoir

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bashiru; O.O. Faleke; M.D. Salihu; H.S. Garba; N. Suleiman; S. Bashir; M. Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    In a study to determine the seroprevalence of leptospiralantibodies in sheep slaughtered at Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Nigeria, bloodwas collected from 282 sheep made up of both male and female. The serum wascollected and analysed using an antigen coated IgG ELISA, out of which 20 tested positive by the ELISA giving anoverall prevalence of 7.1%. Prevalences recorded for age was 18.48% for ≤ 2yrsand 1.58% for > 2yrs, and sex was 3.09% for male and 12.50% for females.There was a significant ...

  12. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  13. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  14. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  15. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  16. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  17. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  18. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  19. Spatial mismatch, wages and unemployment in metropolitan areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial mismatch hypothesis states that a lack of connection to job opportunities may affect an individual’s prospects in the labour market, especially for low-skilled workers. This phenomenon is especially observed in large urban areas, in which low-skilled minorities tend to live far away from jobs and face geographical barriers to finding and keeping jobs. This paper aims to investigate whether this negative relationship between spatial mismatch and labour market outcomes is valid in Brazil after controlling for individual characteristics. Our conclusions indicate that there is no clear relation between different measures of accessibility to jobs and the probability of being unemployed. However, for wages there is a clear correlation, which is stronger in larger metropolitan areas in the country. Given the exploratory nature of this work, our results still rely on strong identification hypotheses to avoid potential bias related to simultaneous location decisions of workers and firms within the city. Even if these conditions do not hold, the results are still meaningful as they provide a better understanding of the conditional distribution of wages and the unemployment rate in the biggest metropolitan areas of Brazil.

  20. A Collaborative, Ongoing University Strategic Planning Framework: Process, Landmines, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan E. Kogler; Thomas, Edward G.; Keller, Lawrence F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the strategic planning process at Cleveland State University, a large metropolitan state university in Ohio. A faculty-administrative team used a communicative planning approach to develop a collaborative, ongoing, bottom-up, transparent strategic planning process. This team then spearheaded the process through plan…

  1. Nutritional status and metabolic risk in HIV-infected university students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L Steenkamp

    bDepartment of Pharmacy, Drug Utilization Research Unit (DURU), Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa ... Objective: This study aims to describe challenges in the management of HIV-infected university students focusing on their ... (ART), the life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals.

  2. The influence of population on the economic efficiency of the metropolitan governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose. In order to implement the optimal metropolitan governance model, it is important to understand the conditions under which this or that model is economically effective. There is a need to develop a quantitatively justified methodology for choosing the optimal metropolitan governance model for different types of metropolitan areas. It has been emphasized in some federal documents of Russia, for example, in the “Recommendations for the selection of pilot projects for approbation and improvement of mechanisms for managing the development of metropolitan areas in the Russian Federation”.Materials and methods. Domestic researchers (N. Zubarevich, K. Gonchar, etc. and foreign researchers (Glaeser Edward L., Nakamura, Ciccone A., Hall R., etc. carried out the study of quantitative relationships between the economic growth of cities and the characteristics of cities.However, for metropolitan areas, the analysis of the relationship has not yet been implemented between the outpacing economic growth of the metropolitan area relative to the average country values (labor productivity and GDP per capita, the institutional factor (the type of metropolitan governance model, andthe non-institutional factor (population size. To identify the dependencies we are interested in, we used the OECD statistical database and OECD researches to identify the metropolitan governance model in the sample of metropolitan areas in the world. The sample in this research was 87 metropolitan areas in Europe and was divided into groups, depending on the population and the introduced metropolitan governance model. For each group, a correlation-regression analysis was performed and a weighted average was calculated from the indexes of the economic growth. As the leading index of the economic growth, labor productivity was used, as the final - GDP per capita. Then a comparison was made between the real value of economic growth in each surveyed metropolitan area and

  3. [Metropolitan and regional health planning: dilemmas of the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Nico; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Morais, Maria de Lima Salum e; Barboza, Renato

    2012-05-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between metropolitan and regional health planning based on the processes of regionalization and the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil. The method used was a case study in two stages, namely during initial implementation of the Pact for Health (2007) and the Regional Administration Committees (CGR) and in 2010. Municipal and regional health systems managers and the director of the Metropolitan Agency were interviewed, and records were analyzed from ten years of meetings of the Regional Inter-Administration Committee and the Regional Development Council. Four issues emerged: financing and infrastructure; health services utilization; inefficiency of the Regional Health Administration's instruments and decision-making levels; and the relationship between different levels in the Administration. Metropolitan health management remained as an underlying issue, appearing only incidentally or tangentially to regional management. Despite some limitations, the CGR has been legitimized as a space for regional health management.

  4. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  5. Urban food security at the crossroads between metropolitan food planning and global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Dirk Michael; Jeurissen, Leonne

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Life Cycle Thinking, the Metropolitan Foodscape Planner (MFP) tool provides ecological footprint maps and supply/demand data showing a large potential for metropolitan food supplies. In the discussion, we examine these results in the light of recent research on the impacts of the

  6. 40 CFR 81.40 - Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.40 Section 81.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.40 Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  7. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2013-0064; FRL-9777-7] Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State...

  8. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2013-0064; FRL-9777-8] Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY... on a proposed approval of a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District...

  9. Techniques of data analysis and presentation for planners of the metropolitan environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelee Normand

    1977-01-01

    Relationships between the characteristics of the physical environment of a metropolitan area and the activities of its human inhabitants can be used to predict probable future dynamic trends, both demographic and environmental. Using simple linear regression, we were able to highlight several dynamic features of the metropolitan area of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Computer movies...

  10. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  11. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial area...

  12. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial area...

  13. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial area...

  14. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been revised...

  15. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial area...

  16. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of the...

  17. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of the...

  18. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of the...

  20. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of the...

  1. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  2. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial area...

  3. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of the...

  5. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  6. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial area...

  7. 23 CFR 450.322 - Development and content of the metropolitan transportation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation demand of persons and goods in the metropolitan planning area over the period of the... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and... transportation planning process shall include the development of a transportation plan addressing no less than a...

  8. Metropolization Process for enhancing local and regional planning : an experience of cirebon metropolitan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi Rustidja, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metropolitan develops in line with resource utilization, investment, and transactions of regional activities. Metropolization of an area gives emerge urban economy that changes the situation, form, and pattern of urban space interactions. On the other hand, metropolism concerns the strategy of changing variation of urban space, so that metropolitan invasion not only form of urban space but also the process of interaction among stakeholders in developing metropolitan area. Based on participatory research, this article explores metropolitan invasion process for enhancing local and regional planning, both indigenous and intrusive cataclysmic. The study find that the primeval, rural, and urban as elemental environment must be considered in developing metropolitan, not merely form the structure and pattern of urban space. The metropolization process also requires the strategic of rural urban linkage, context setting and local assessment, strategic community investment, and interculturalist approach. The other findings of the study show that metropolization in Cirebon Metropolitan, West Java emphasizing on promotion of competitiveness strategy, value chain urban activities, and networking of urban areas. Cirebon Metropolitan must promote the realization of growth centers and connect the interregional activities of metropolitan area for providing sustainable economic growth.

  9. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073181773; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since

  10. CSIR and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University research collaboration report 2011 - 2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available of ZnO nanostructures · Dr Brian van Wilgen Prof Richard Cowling, Tineke Kraaij A comprehensive assessment of pine-based plantation forestry in the Western and Eastern Cape · Natural environment Lara van Niekerk Prof Janine Adams, Dr Gavin Snow... electrochemical microflow cell that can easily be scaled up to accommodate larger volumes and concentrations by using electrode manufacturing principles used in the lead-acid battery industry. Outputs Peer-reviewed journal article Student trained 1 1...

  11. Challenges Faced by African International Students at a Metropolitan Research University: A Phenomenological Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evivie, Loretta Gbemudu

    2009-01-01

    The number of international students coming to the United States has increased from 48,486 in 1959-1960 to 623,805 in the 2007-2008 academic years (Open Doors, 2008). These students contributed $15.5 billion to the United States economy, making education the nation's fifth largest service export (Open Doors, 2008). The literature has focused on…

  12. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d...

  13. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Salt Lake City, Ogden : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  14. Navigating trade-offs in complex systems : deliberative multi criteria decision analysis of CCMPO metropolitan transportation plan, 2010-2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    "Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) are required by Federal law to develop a long-range Metropolitan Transportation Plan (MTP) at least every five years. This research focuses on assessing the trade-offs between business-as-usual MTP scenario...

  15. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  16. Addendum: Analysis of Market Research Findings Utilizing Race and Income Variables for the Metropolitan Detroit Area and for Columbus, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Detroit.

    This analysis, using race and income variables, presents market research findings for the metropolitan Detroit area and for Columbus, Ohio. The four sections are divided into: (I) summary statements for metropolitan Detroit; (II) description of findings for metropolitan Detroit area; (III) summary statements for Columbus data; and (IV) description…

  17. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  18. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  19. Recent European immigration to the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A W

    1982-01-01

    Patterns of European migration to the Chicago metropolitan area are examined to determine the urban spatial distribution of various ethnic groups. Data are from petitions of 1,185 male immigrants 18 years old and over from Greece, Italy, Poland, and Yugoslavia who applied for U.S. citizenship between June 2, 1975, and June 1, 1976. It is found that the majority of those studied chose to live within the city of Chicago. It is suggested that "residential locations of relatives, availability of low-cost housing, religious affiliations, proximity and access to employment opportunities, and avoidance of Black and Hispanic neighborhoods...were involved in the decision of where to reside." (summary in FRE, SPA) excerpt

  20. Causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality: An exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Marutlulle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM. The article strongly challenges the view that the cause of informal settlements in EMM and other parts of South Africa is predominantly the apartheid government and agrees with literature which provides evidence that to a larger extent, the present government, not the apartheid government, is one of the dominant causes of informal settlements. The article further establishes a common and fertile ground for the convergence of the different views and perspectives into variables which, in addition to the present government, include population growth, government economic policies, economic variables, housing shortage, unavailability of land and unaffordability as the real causes of informal settlements in EMM.

  1. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  2. Urban mobility regulation in metropolitan area of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.

  3. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-01-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment–related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. PMID:28845677

  4. Urban Seismology in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Review and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region. A substantial number of cities and large towns exist on thick sediments in western Taiwan. Larger-magnitude inland earthquakes, for example the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, can cause serious damage in urban areas. Consequently, urban seismology is of great interest to the local seismological community. The Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA is the political, economic, and cultural center of Taiwan. It is situated over a region where the Philippine Sea plate subducts the Eurasian plate. Although seismicity in the TMA is lower than other areas of Taiwan, earthquakes still occur. Seismic risk mitigation is of grave concern in the TMA because of its high population, number of tall buildings, mass rapid transit system, and two nearby nuclear power plants. In this article, procedures for seismic risk mitigation, previous studies, core issues for future research and related topics are described and reviewed.

  5. Quantum metropolitan optical network based on wavelength division multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurana, A; Martínez-Mateo, J; Peev, M; Poppe, A; Walenta, N; Zbinden, H; Martín, V

    2014-01-27

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is maturing quickly. However, the current approaches to its application in optical networks make it an expensive technology. QKD networks deployed to date are designed as a collection of point-to-point, dedicated QKD links where non-neighboring nodes communicate using the trusted repeater paradigm. We propose a novel optical network model in which QKD systems share the communication infrastructure by wavelength multiplexing their quantum and classical signals. The routing is done using optical components within a metropolitan area which allows for a dynamically any-to-any communication scheme. Moreover, it resembles a commercial telecom network, takes advantage of existing infrastructure and utilizes commercial components, allowing for an easy, cost-effective and reliable deployment.

  6. Comparison of US metropolitan region pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Robert J; Vargo, Jason; Sanatizadeh, Aida

    2017-09-01

    Annual US pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities involving motor vehicles have each increased by 30% in just six years, reaching their highest levels in two decades. To provide information to reverse this trend, we quantified pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates in 46 of the largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during two five-year time periods: 1999-2003 and 2007-2011. We divided the annual average number of pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities during 1999-2003 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System by the annual estimates of pedestrian and bicycle trips, kilometers traveled, and minutes traveled from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and the annual average number of fatalities from 2007 to 2011 by similar estimates from the 2009 NHTS. The five most dangerous regions for walking during 2007-2011 averaged 262 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 49 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips. The five most dangerous regions for bicycling averaged 458 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 75 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips. Random-effects meta-analysis identified eight metropolitan regions as outliers with low pedestrian fatality rates, six with high pedestrian fatality rates, one with a low bicyclist fatality rate, and five with high bicyclist fatality rates. MSAs with low pedestrian and bicycle fatality rates tended to have central cities recognized as Walk Friendly Communities and Bicycle Friendly Communities for investing in pedestrian and bicycle projects and programs. Random-effects meta-regression showed that certain socioeconomic characteristics and high pedestrian and bicyclist mode shares were associated with lower MSA fatality rates. Results suggest that pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and safety programs should be complemented with strategies to increase walking and bicycling. In particular, safety initiatives should be honed to reduce pedestrian and

  7. Urban expansion in Tokyo metropolitan area between 1972 and 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to World Bank Report, more than half of the world’s population is now living in cities and over two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions come from cities worldwide. The Kanto Plain is the largest plain in Japan, which experienced the greatest urban expansion in the 20th century. Satellite images collected over a span of years can be used to identify and characterize both natural and anthropogenic changes over large areas of land. Landsat satellite images are ideal for this purpose; imagery recorded over nearly four decades provides a unique resource for temporal analysis of urban area land cover change. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal urban area changes in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (include the neighboring regions). and to investigate the possible causes of those changes. To do this, we applied land-cover classification schemes to Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor images recorded between 1972 and 2002, which we acquired from the Landsat archive. We used two supervised classification methods, the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network method and the subspace method, to accurately classify land cover on Landsat images recorded in 1972, 1985, and 2002. This allowed us to quantitatively present urban area changes between 1972 and 2002, and allowed us to analyze its relation with multi-time 1 kilometer grid population density census data to further report on the trends of urban expansion. Figure 1 shows the urban area in 1972, and figure 2 shows the urban area in 2002. From the two maps, along with the high economic growth of the Japanese economy, the concentration of the population in Tokyo extremely increased over the period from 1972 to 2002. As a result, these factors lead to urban sprawl in the suburban areas of Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Figure 1. Urban area in 1972. Figure 2. Urban area in 2002.

  8. Seismic Microzonation of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2018-01-01

    Microzonation deals with classifying seismic hazards in terms of ground motions resulting from amplification of seismic waves by nature of soil profiles underlying a site, town or city. This paper presents the results of microzonation study for Islamabad metropolitan, the capital of Pakistan. Cumulative SPT- N values from geophysical borehole and microtremor (Tromino Engy Plus) data were used to classify the soils into classes C (very dense soil profile and soft rock) and D (stiff soil profile) as devised by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). Soil response analyses were carried out based on scaled time histories of Kashmir earthquake (2005, 0.02 g), Mangla earthquake (2006, 0.031 g) and Haripur earthquake (2010, 0.13 g) corresponding to return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years. Spectral accelerations on the ground surface are calculated by two different approaches (1) soil response analysis performed using one dimensional shear wave propagation method (equivalent linear approach); and (2) NEHRP and Borcherdt amplification factors. Microzonation maps are produced with respect to ground shaking intensity for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years taking into account the variation of the spectral accelerations calculated based on these two procedures. The results show that the accelerations at the ground surface in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan are in the range of 0.40-0.48 g (for 150 years), 0.59-0.65 g (for 475 years), 0.71-0.77 g (for 975 years), and 0.92-0.94 g (for 2475 years). The amplification factors for these four hazard levels range from 0.96 to 1.38 (150 years), 0.90-1.14 (475 years), 0.85-1.04 (975 years) and 0.84-1.00 (2475 years).

  9. Spatial Distribution of New Particle Formation over the Seoul Metropolitan Area during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.; Seo, Y. K.; Choi, J. Y.; Lee, Y.; Kim, D. B.; Kang, K.; Chung, H.; Jung, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol number size distributions were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at four selected sites in and around the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) during the Korea-US Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) campaign from May to June 2016. Three sites are located within the SMA: Olympic Park (OP), Global Campus of the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (HUFS), and Mt. Taehwa (MT), which are located about 14 km east-southeast, 35 km southeast, and 42 km southeast of the Seoul City Hall, respectively. The OP site is within a park ( 1.45 km2) surrounded by main roads. The HUFS site is in a valley sloping up to the east, and to the west, rural in character, with small-sized buildings, farmlands, and open spaces. The MT site is in the middle of forests, but an expressway runs in the southeast-northwest direction, about 2.6 km to the northeast. The Baengnyeong Island (BI) site, located about 210 km west-northwest of the Seoul City Hall. BI is considered a background and an upwind site of SMA, in contrast to HUFS and MT downwind of SMA, under prevailing northwesterlies. We investigated the spatial distribution of observed new particle formation (NPF) events to distinguish whether an event was local or regional. The evolutions of the episodes were accounted for in terms of precursor concentrations and meteorological variables, in association with the effects of long-range transport whenever it occurred.

  10. Water Quality Characteristics of Three Rain Gardens Located Within the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS at three locations in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota to assess the effect that bioretention areas, or rain gardens, have on water quality. The rain gardens are located at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA, City of Hugo, and City of Woodbury. These sites were chosen because of their similar ages, differences in design, surrounding land use, precipitation patterns, and geology. This article reports the statistical analysis of six years of data obtained from these three sites. The data characterizes the water quality of the inflow, overflow, vadose zone, and groundwater of each rain garden. Nutrients analyzed included chloride, total suspended solids, ammonia, organic nitrogen, nitrate, and phosphorus. Lysimeters and wells had significantly lower nutrient concentrations compared to inflow for most nutrients. Increased nitrate occurred in the vadose zone at Woodbury and Hugo, suggesting some production of nitrate within the soil profile; however, groundwater beneath the rain gardens contained significantly lower concentrations of nitrate compared to the inflow, providing evidence of nitrate removal at deeper depths. Phosphorus concentrations were reduced in overflow and groundwater, with the exception of dissolved phosphorus at MLA. Rain garden and background wells often contained similar nutrient concentrations, suggesting that the rain gardens had little impact on the local ground water supplies. This unique six year study provides consistent evidence of the ability of these three rain gardens to reduce nutrient concentrations from urban stormwater.

  11. Iniciativas para melhoria do fluxo de informações do processo licitatório de obras públicas que visam a obtenção de certificação LEED

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Karoline

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho se propôs a efetuar uma análise tanto quantitativa como qualitativa do processo licitatório de uma obra em execução de uma IFE que visa à obtenção da certificação ambiental LEED. Para a concretização do trabalho, primeiramente, efetuouse um estudo maior com relação aos sistemas de certificação ambiental existentes no mundo e quais encontram-se mais difundidos em aspectos nacionais. Dentre estas, verificou-se qual certificação possuía critérios que se adaptassem ao...

  12. Usage of Social Media in City Marketing: A Research on 30 Metropolitan Municipalities in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gümüş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.

  13. Achieving and Maintaining Existing Building Sustainability Certification at Georgetown University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payant, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is the promotion of high performance, healthful, energy-efficient, and environmentally stable buildings. Buildings intended for sustainable certification must meet guidelines developed by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the U.S. Green Building Council. The problem is that LEED certification often fails to…

  14. Contribuição ao entendimento da aplicação da certificaçao LEED TM no Brasil com base em dois estudos de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available No setor da construção civil, a busca por sustentabilidade ainda é incipiente. Este trabalho tem por objetivos analisar a aplicação da certificação LEED TM a empreendimentos brasileiros, entendendo as restrições de uso em uma realidade diferente da referência original norte-americana, e disseminar os resultados obtidos para dois estudos de caso nacionais. Os resultados obtidos confirmaram que (a a certificação LEED TM não é tarefa fácil e, no Brasil, significa, para vários aspectos, saltar da completa ausência de referência para atender a normas americanas; e (b mesmo em centros avançados da construção civil brasileira, o mercado ainda não está preparado para os "selos verdes" internacionais. Apesar dos obstáculos e limitações existentes, a entrada de certificações no Brasil abre a discussão para assuntos antes nunca abordados. Certificações, iniciativas voluntárias e instrumentos de market pull possuem o importante papel de propulsores da transformação do mercado da construção civil na busca da sustentabilidade. Não se pode perder de vista que estas pressupõem uma base anterior - composta de pesquisa e desenvolvimento e transferência de conhecimento e tecnologia ao mercado - para que possam se desenvolver plenamente. Deve-se evitar a ansiedade pela busca de certificação sem o preparo do mercado. Caso contrário, corre-se o risco de fragilizar o papel transformador das certificações.

  15. University Rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telichenko Valeriy Ivanovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the analysis of university rankings and defines the differences in evaluation methods and indicators of world ranking agencies, presents new approaches to making global rankings. It defines the position of MGSU in Russian universities TOP-100 ranking. University rankings are not simply information, but the evaluation instrument of quality of education, initiating the improvement of ranking position. It’s important for Russian Universities claiming for higher positions in the world rankings. MGSU position in universities ranking made the University administration consider thoroughly the University positioning in the system of higher education, in the categories of education and science and among possible employers of the university graduates.

  16. Assessing Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Wellbeing Status of Urban Elderly Under Represent of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Alizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the present study describes assessing mental health status (anxiety, depression, and psychological wellbeing of old people in different age groups in tehran metropolitan city. The outcomes of this study could help to health policy makers to develop of better health policy in gerontology field by determine of priorities of mental care in different age groups of old people. Methods & Materials: this was a cross sectional study in 2010. The participants were (n=402 aged 60 years old and over which have underrepresented from Shahid Beheshti University. The survey methods were via face-to-face interviews, and just in a few cases as telephone interviews. The instrument to data collection included demographic questionnaire, k6 and yeild tools. Data analyzed by Stata and SPSS ver.15 through t-test, one-way anova. Regression models applied as well. Results: based on results in the past 4 weeks,10.9% of elderly had sever anxiety or depression symptoms and about half of them (46.5% had moderate psychological distress. The rate of psychological distress increased with age growing, specifically in 60- 79 years old however, this rate declined from age of 80 years and over. Psychological distress levels among elderly women were more than old men in all age groups, except of 60-69 years old people. Regarding psychological wellbeing, feeling of tireless, lone less, and depression are the most common complain of house dowelling old people in tehran metropolitan area. As the results show 43.1% elderly participants were in moderate level and 17% of them were in the bad level of psychological wellbeing. Based on regression model, sex (P=0.012, housing (P=0.004, and retirement salary (P=0.048 were significant variables that effect on psychological distress. The income rate was only important component that effect on psychological wellbeing of elderly participants. There was no significant different between aged groups 60-64 and 65-69 in psychological

  17. METROPOLISATION AND THE METROPOLITAN SPACE: THE PRACTICE OF HORIZONTAL PARTNERSHIPS AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Alupului

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of large cities raises problems to specialists, who must find solutions to the most diverse processes of concentration, to the numerous problems of the communities tightly connected with the metropolitan areas / growth poles. The formation of the metropolitan areas regards not only the most common issues related to the increase of the standard of living, but also the concrete ways of solving the crises and reducing the forms related to the current metropolitan issues. The objective of this article is to present the main favourable aspects of the metropolisation processes, pointing out the advantages of implementing such areas in Romania.

  18. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  19. Tuberculosis Containment among the Homeless in Metropolitan Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mario J; Conwill, David E; Lawrence, Shonda; Jackson, Ann; Bhuiyan, Azad R; Hall, Dianne; Anderson, Brian; Franklin, Donald; Brown, David; Wilkerson, Patricia; Beckett, Gloria

    2015-08-01

    Preventing tuberculosis among the homeless has emerged as an especially difficult challenge. We assessed a 2008-2009 tuberculosis (TB) outbreak ad subsequent prevention strategies among homeless persons in metropolitan Jackson, Hinds County, Mississippi. We compared data about cases and subclinical TB infections (LTBI) among homeless persons during the outbreak and post-outbreak years, interviewed involved homeless persons, compiled observations from visits to Jackson homeless shelters and conducted literature reviews on homelessness and infectious diseases. We reviewed homeless shelter TB prevention methods adopted by other municipalities, guidelines developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and recommendations from other official and ad hoc groups and considered their applicability to metropolitan Jackson. The Mississippi State Department of Health TB Program assisted by the CDC and other agencies, contained the Jackson-area outbreak by the end of 2009 as reflected by progressively lower TB rates among homeless persons thereafter. However, some follow-up activities and enforcement of shelter preventive measures have not been consistently maintained. Resources to prevent further outbreaks continue to be inadequate, and over-reliance on private organizations has continued. In the process, appreciation of the dynamic interaction enhancing TB risk among the homeless and incarcerated persons has emerged. Major outbreak contributors were lack of periodic TB screening among homeless shelter clients, preventive treatment compliance and follow-up difficulties among those with subclinical tuberculosis infections, interrupted preventive measures among infected persons incarcerated in local correctional facilities who disproportionately re-join Jackson's homeless community when released, inadequate attention to shelter environmental preventive strategies such as ultraviolet light germicidal irradiators and proper air-exchange/ventilation, costs of

  20. Radon and lung cancer in Bangalore Metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, L.A.; Nethravathi, K.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas released from the normal decay of 238 U in rocks and soil. It is an invisible, odorless, tasteless gas that seeps up through the ground and diffuses into the air. In a few areas, depending on local geology, radon dissolves into ground water and can be released into the air when the water is used. Radon gas usually exists at very low levels outdoors. However, in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines, radon can accumulate to levels that substantially increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon decays quickly, giving off tiny radioactive particles. When inhaled, these radioactive particles can damage the cells that line the lung. Long-term exposure to radon can lead to lung cancer, the only cancer proven to be associated with inhaling radon. Public interest in radon has been occasionally piqued by articles in the general press. Considerable attention has been given to the high radon levels that were uncovered in the Reading Prong region of Pennsylvania, following the discovery in late 1984 of extremely high levels in one home. Several epidemiological study programmes in different countries are in progress to estimate the population exposures due to natural radiation with a view to obtain the radiation risk coefficients at low dose rate levels. In this regard, radiation surveys in high background areas (HBRAs) can provide excellent settings for epidemiological studies relating to the effects of low doses of radiation. In view of these, a comprehensive estimate of the natural inhalation dose requires both 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in the indoor atmosphere. In this outlook an attempt is made to investigate the 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in dwellings of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Three year results shows that the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, radon in ground water, the concentrations 222 Rn and 220 Rn and the dose rate (mSvy -1 ) are at alarming levels for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. The

  1. Academic Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Performance in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Alberto A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and academic performance of first-year university students in the Metropolitan Lima area. An assessment was made of 284 students (138 male and 146 female students) admitted to a private university of Lima for the 2013-2 term by using…

  2. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  3. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and

  4. New York Metropolitan Transportation Council scenario planning workshop : sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices and key recommendations shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the New York Metropolitan Transportation Council, on July 14-15, 2015, in New York, New York. The Federal Highway Administration...

  5. The New England Drought Study: Water Resources Planning Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The study has traced the water resources planning experience for the metropolitan Boston area from the 17th century to the present in order to investigate how current planning has evolved from seeking...

  6. The Establishment of Metropolitan Cities in Italy: An Advance or a Setback for Italian Regionalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boggero Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a brief assessment of the legal framework of the newly established metropolitan cities in the Italian domestic legal order. After an historical overview of previous attempts to set up metropolitan cities in Italy (1, it summarizes the main statutory provisions of the Delrio Law (No. 56/2014 through which metropolitan cities finally came into operation (2 and it provides an analysis of its implementation, thereby attempting to make clear whether increased institutional pluralism and differentiation in the local government system will strengthen or weaken Italian regionalism (3. The conclusion will argue that, while the enactment of local government reforms combined with the entering into force of a significant constitutional amendment will increasingly diminish the role of the Regions, metropolitan cities, due to their ambivalent nature, still lack any propulsive thrust and face the risk of being marginalized until a consistent legal framework for their proper funding is laid down (4.

  7. U.S. Census Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: Metropolitan Statistical Areas contain grids of demographic and socioeconomic data from the year 2000 U.S. census in...

  8. U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version contains an ARC/INFO Workspace with grids of demographic data from...

  9. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority climate change adaptation pilot project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project Report details the project background of the recently-completed Los Angeles County : Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Transit Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project as well as the various wor...

  10. Can Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) finance transportation projects through bond financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In January 2008 the Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) requested the Transportation : Research Division of the Maine Department of Transportation to conduct research to determine if it is : possible for MPOs to finance projects through ...

  11. U.S. Census Grids (Summary File 3), 2000: Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 3), 2000: Metropolitan Statistical Areas contain grids of demographic and socioeconomic data from the year 2000 U.S. census in...

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  13. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  14. U.S. Census Grids (Summary File 3), 1990: Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Census Grids (Summary File 3), 1990: Metropolitan Statistical Areas contain grids of demographic and socioeconomic data from the year 1990 U.S. Census in ASCII...

  15. U.S. Census Grids (Summary File 1), 1990: Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Census Grids (Summary File 1), 1990: Metropolitan Statistical Areas contain grids of demographic and socioeconomic data from the year 1990 U.S. census in ASCII...

  16. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  17. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  18. U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version contains an ARC/INFO Workspace with grids of demographic data...

  19. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  20. The freight landscape : using secondary data sources to describe metropolitan freight flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Metropolitan areas around the world are seeking to better manage freight flows and reduce negative impacts on local populations. A major challenge to better urban freight management is the lack of data; little is known about freight movements at the ...

  1. The freight landscape : using secondary data sources to describe metropolitan freight flows : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Metropolitan areas around the world are seeking to better manage freight flows and reduce negative impacts on local populations. A major challenge to better urban freight management is the lack of data; little is known about freight movements at the ...

  2. Measuring Sustainability of Urban Systems: An Exploration based on Two Metrics for the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is comprised of two sustainability metrics that have been developed for the Chicago Metropolitan Area under SHC research program. The first sustainability metrics is Ecological Foot Print Analysis. Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) has been extensively deploy...

  3. The Collection of Greek Terracotta Figurines at The Metropolitan Museum of Art

    OpenAIRE

    Karoglou, Kyriaki

    2016-01-01

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s collection of Greek figurative terracottas is little known, but its size and scope makes it one of the richest in North America. A brief overview of this collection is presented here.

  4. Partners In Motion And Customer Satisfaction In The Washington Dc Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    PARTNERS IN MOTION IS A PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING THE QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND AVAILABILITY OF TRAVEL INFORMATION TO TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES, THE MEDIA, AND, ULTIMATELY, TO THE TRAVELER IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. METROPOLITAN AREA. THE PROGRAM WAS INITIA...

  5. Spatial clustering of knowledge-based industries in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Chica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central locations of metropolitan areas have some specific attributes, leading to an accumulation of large knowledge exchanges and extensive knowledge externalities, which encourage the concentration of various economic activities, especially knowledge-based industries (KBI. Other agglomeration economies found in metropolitan areas – such as telecommunications and transport infrastructures connected to global productive circuits and complementary labour markets – are key factors for KBI employment growth. This paper explores the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s (HMA spatial clustering of KBI at the sub-district level, and the role played by agglomeration economies (both specialization and diversity economies in fostering this process. The results reveal that KBI employment shows patterns of concentration in the core and adjacent areas. The specialization and diversity economies found in the metropolitan core and the specialization economies found in others areas lead to KBI spatial clustering in the HMA. Public policies regarding the promotion of science parks have also played a decisive role.

  6. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  7. Working paper : national costs of the metropolitan ITS infrastructure : updated with 2004 deployment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report, "Working Paper National Costs of the Metropolitan ITS infrastructure: Updated with 2004 Deployment Data," is to update the estimates of the costs remaining to deploy Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) infrastructure ...

  8. Strategic development goals of the metropolitan area of Belgrade in the context of European physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Stojkov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the importance of Belgrade has for known reasons seriously deteriorated. For future development under the new circumstances it is therefore necessary to define several primary strategic goals. In this article the most important ones are presented, namely: new definition and positioning of the metropolitan region in relation to the European, macro-regional and regional hinterland or its position and role/function in the framework of Europe and the Balkans; establishment of efficient and sustainable transport infrastructure and adequate inclusion in the European transport system; deconcentrated concentration and restructuring; improving and placing economic structures for increasing economic competitiveness of the metropolitan region; protection and improving natural givings, cultural specifics and strengthening the metropolitan identity, as well as profiling the Belgrade metropolitan region with specialised economic activities, especially service activities oriented towards south-eastern Europe.

  9. Decentralization and Polycentricity: Spatial Changes of Employment in Beijing Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Lv

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization and polycentric spatial structure strategies are important ways to alleviate urban disease in China. However, whether the urban spatial structure is meeting expectations is still unknown. Taking the Beijing Metropolitan Area as a case, the author adopted a non-parametric method to identify the subcenters, then an employment density model was used to analyze the spatial changes of employment and the employment centers’ impacts on the urban spatial structure. The results show that the Beijing Metropolitan Area was undergoing processes of employment decentralization, the monocentric structure was obvious throughout this time, but the polycentric model prevailed. The spatial structure of the Beijing Metropolitan Area was characterized as depicting “all centers aggregation” and the spatial structure of the central district of Beijing can be described as “subcenter agglomeration” between 2004 and 2013. The spatial structure became increasingly polycentric in the Beijing Metropolitan Area, but became more scattered in the central district.

  10. Cooperation of the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Metropolitan Library in Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Budin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors emphasize the connection of the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts, especially its Janez Vajkard Valvasor Foundation from Ljubljana, and the Metropolitan Library, the library of the Zagreb Archbishopric and commend successful collaboration of these two institutions. Author closely indicate varied correlation and collaboration of the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Metropolitan Library. One of them was the exhibition on the occasion of the significant anniversary of printing of the Valvasor’s manuscripts and works that are exclusively kept in the Metropolitan Library. Emphasis is given to the value of the joint Slovene Academy and the Metropolitan Library project Iconotheca Valvasoriana – the facsimile edition of the Valvasor’s graphic collection that is in process of publishing.

  11. Uudised : Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    "Klassikaraadio" vahendab 25. dets. otseülekande New Yorgist Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele W.A. Mozarti ooper "Figaro pulm". 19. dets. nimetati N. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks

  12. Uudised : ERSO menu Rootsis. Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. NYYD Ensemble'i kontserdid / Madis Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Madis, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    ERSO kontserdireisist Rootsis. "Klassikaraadio" teeb 17. veebr. otseülekande New Yorgi Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele Rossini ooepr "Itaallanna Alzhiiris". NYYD Ensemble'i kontsertidest Pärnus ja Tallinnas kontserdisarjas "I Got Rhythm"

  13. U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 3), 2000: New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 3), 2000: New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version contain an ARC/INFO Workspace with grids of demographic data...

  14. URBANIZATION AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN MONTERREY METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the process of urbanization and spatial changes in demographic features in the Monterrey Metropolitan Region (MMR, Mexico. This city is the third largest urban sector in Mexico which has around 4 million population. It is also the industrial and economic capital of the country. The present study found that rapid urbanization in the metropolitan region has a close association with process of industrialization. In population distribution and composition, study found that the metropolitan region had its “demographic transition” during the years seventies and currently the region is taking advantages of demographic bonus cohort, i.e. a higher concentration of population in economic active groups compare to children and old age population. However, this paper indentified a higher imbalance in metropolitan demographic scenario. On the one hand, there is di-populization in the city center region and in other there is a steady increment of population in peri-urban region.

  15. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  16. Analysing contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe through their institutional context, instrumental content and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elinbaum, Pablo; Galland, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    concerning the institutional context, instrumental content and planning processes associated with four contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe, namely London, Copenhagen, Paris and Barcelona. Through the results of a multiple case study and a subsequent cross comparative analysis, the article......This article sets out to propose and apply a qualitative framework for thinking about how to analyze and compare metropolitan spatial plans in a milieu of divergent spatial planning traditions and discretionary planning practices. In doing so, the article reviews and develops an understanding....... In this sense, the metropolitan scale is treated less explicitly as a planning scale per se; rather, it tends to emerge as a “concealed” scale between municipal and regional scales and also between local and regional knowledge in planning. Moreover, the analysis suggests that while metropolitan plans seem...

  17. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  18. FINE PORE DIFFUSER SYSTEM EVALUATION FOR THE GREEN BAY METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District retrofitted two quadrants of their activated sludge aeration system with ceramic and membrane fine pore diffusers to provide savings in energy usage compared to the sparged turbine aerators originally installed. Because significant di...

  19. The New England Drought Study: Water Resources Planning Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce, Charles

    1994-01-01

    .... The drought of the 1960s precipitated a debate between the operators of the metropolitan Boston water system and interested citizens and citizens' groups, who were opposed to a structural solution...

  20. Working paper : national costs of the metropolitan ITS infrastructure : updated with 2005 deployment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report, "Working Paper National Costs of the Metropolitan ITS Infrastructure: Updated with 2005 Deployment Data," is to update the estimates of the costs remaining to fully deploy Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) infrastru...

  1. Working paper : national costs of the metropolitan ITS infrastructure : updated with 2002 deployment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This working paper has been prepared to provide new estimates of the costs to deploy Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure elements in the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. It builds upon estimates that were distribute...

  2. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed.

  3. Movement Technologies, Scale Structure and Metropolitan Life – an Empirical Research on the Effects of the Transportation System on the Metropolitan Process in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a morphological study on Beijing’s metropolitanisation process based on the development of its transportation networks. By extracting the ‘scale structure’ embedded in them, we construct a movement network model for Beijing and use it to analyse changing metropolitan centralities as shopping areas and market places in 1924, 1987 and 2006. Following Taylor’s proposal of Central Flow as a complementary model to Central Place, our study focuses on how the spatial distribution of metropolitan centralities has been affected by the rapid modernisation of transportation networks.

  4. The Challenge of Forecasting Metropolitan Growth: Urban Characteristics Based Models versus Regional Dummy Based Models

    OpenAIRE

    NA

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of errors in forecasting the population of Metropolitan Statistical Areas and the Primary MSAs of Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas and New England MAs. The forecasts are for the year 2000 and are based on a semi-structural model estimated by Mills and Lubelle using 1970 to 1990 census data on population, employment and relative real wages. This model allows the testing of regional effects on population and employment growth. The year 2000 forecasts are f...

  5. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  6. Nature in the metropolis: Mapping biodiversity using metropolitan landscape characterization tools

    OpenAIRE

    Tisma, A.; van der Velde, J.R.T.; Nijhuis, S.; Pouderoijen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cities can be planned and designed to reduce their effect on biodiversity loss and may even be able to sustain biodiversity levels in some instances, due to ‘beta-diversity’. The heterogeneity of metropolitan regions can be expected to have a strong impact on beta-diversity. Tools such as landscape characterization can assist in the understanding of betadiversity in metropolitan regions by mapping the extent and configuration of beta-diversity conditions, in particular microhabitats and habit...

  7. The metropolitan VoD system based on ethernet/SCM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yang, Hongliang; Feng, Dejun; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jande

    2008-11-01

    VoD is a very attractive service which used for entertainment, education and other purposes. In this paper, we present an evolution method that integrates the EPON and SCM-PON by WDM technology to provide high dedicated bandwidth for the metropolitan VoD services. Using DVB, IPTV protocol, unicasting and broadcasting method to maximize the system throughput and by numerical analysis, the hybrid PON system can implement the metropolitan VoD services.

  8. Secular variations of radon in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Slawson, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sampling of radon within the soil from three sites in metropolitan Vancouver is reported. Alpha trace bi-weekly measurements during a period of 4 years show secular variations with a period of 8-15 months. There are low-radon and high-radon episodes enduring several months to a year. Average radon level during the high-radon episodes reaches 5-10 times that of the low-radon periods. During high-radon episodes the high-frequency variations show very high amplitudes. After filtering of the high-frequency fluctuations, the data from different sites demonstrate remarkably similar trends. It is suggested that along with hydrogeological events, stress relaxation in rocks, earthquake, and magma emplacement may contribute to the sources of secular variations of radon. Because of long-term variations, radon level in urban areas should be monitored on a continuous basis. Single measurements, even those integrating radiation over a period of few months, may sample a low-radon episode, and provide a false assurance, or occur during a high-radon episode and give a false alarm

  9. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region.

  10. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Shai, Saray; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-10-06

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of coupling different modes and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralizing force creating congestion in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London—but not for New York—there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multilayer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  12. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  13. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations

  14. Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Purnima; Rai, Vibhuti

    2018-05-01

    Lucknow metropolitan city is one of the most populated cities of India, which have been facing many problems such as chaotic urbanization, overpopulation, water scarcity, waterlogging, etc., among these water scarcity is one of the important problem. Rain water harvesting is a futuristic tool for mitigation of water scarcity problem through conservation and storage of rain water. This rain water can be used for all purposes by human beings, thus it is necessary to check the chemistry of rain water. The rain water samples were collected from the five zones of Lucknow city. For the comparative study, water samples have been collected from two different dates first from first rainfall and second after 3 days of interval in the second rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These heavy metals show the concentration above the permissible limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse health impacts.

  15. E-book Collections in Academic Libraries of Metropolitan Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Fahimifar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present age users not only need to have access information, but they need to have access as fast and as easy as possible. This is one of the reasons that has intensified the current ICT applications and the growing need for it. Today not only countless journals are published in electronic format side by side with their printed versions, but numerous books on diverse subjects are published elecrtronically. To better serve their patrons, academic libraries should also collect electronic books along with printed resources. Managers of academic libraries must consider acquisition of various types of electronic books and provision of facilities for accessing. The present paper initially offers the definitions offered with respect to e-books as well as the workshops held globally, researches carried out in academic libraries as well as the categories of information contained in e-books. It would then investigates the various types of e-books held in the academic libraries within metropolitan Tehran and describes the access method for students and patrons. A survey , using questionnaire as a data collection instrument, was conducted .

  16. Urban atmospheric boundary layer height in Seoul Metropolitan Area, KOREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Hyeok; Park, Moon-Soo

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric boundary-layer height (ABLH) is important parameter in meteorological model for weather forecasting and it's used to model verification. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of ABLH obtained by aerosol lidars and ceilometers deployed at urban commercial area (Gwanghwamun, urban center) and urban residential area (Jungnang, eastern part) of Seoul Metropolitan Area in 2014 are analyzed. The ABLH is determined as the height corresponding to a minimum vertical gradient of backscattered signals observed by an aerosol lidar (532 nm) and a ceilometer (910 nm), respectively. It is found that the ABLH determined by an aerosol lidar shows nearly the same seasonal and diurnal variation as that by a ceilometer. But the ABLH observed at downwind (Jungnang) station is generally higher than that observed at urban center (Gwanghwamun) station. The stable boundary layer (SBL) height in nighttime ranges 10 500 m, and a residual layer is often located over the top of SBL. The unstable boundary layer height grows during the daytime and shows a daily maximum in late afternoon. The daily maximum ABLH has a higher value in spring and a lower value in winter according to surface sensible heat flux, cloud, and precipitation.

  17. Characterization of aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejias Perez, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present study, was to elaborate a profile of the contamination by private matter and to characterize the aerosols collected in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose (Costa Rica). For that, a campaign of sampling was carried out in three points of the city of San Jose, differentiated by there degree of activity: Center of San Jose (Central Station of Firemen), San Isidro of Coronado -Canton of Vasquez of Coronado- (Municipality) and Escazu (Municipality). Such campaign was carried out from April 4 to July 4, 1996 (transition summer-winter), and in two periods of time of 8 hours: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and of 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. The aerosols were collected utilizing Gent Pm-10 samplers, in filters of polycarbonate of 0,4 μm and 8 μm in cascade, with a flow average of 15 L/min., and it determined the composition average of the present aerosols. The concentration of the majority of the anions were obtained by means of ionic chromatography of high resolution, and the main cations by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electro thermic atomization. The space-temporary variations of the concentrations were evaluated and their correlation with the meteorologic variable. (S. Grainger) [es

  18. Reformulated gasolines: The experience of Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Jardon, R.T.; Echeverria, R.S. [Centro de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    The introduction of several reformulated gasolines into the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) in the middle 1986 is an example of using fuel composition to improve, in theory, the air quality. However, although these changes have resulted in an important reduction of lead airborne concentrations, a worsened situation has been created. Ozone levels in the atmosphere MCMZ have presented a sudden rise since the introduction of the first reformulated gasoline, reaching in the 1990`s an annual average of 1,700 exceedances to the Mexican Ozone Air Quality Standard (0.11 ppm not to be exceeded 1 hr. a day one day a year). The authors examine the tendency on ozone air quality in MCMZ in relation with the changes in gasoline composition since 1986. The authors also discuss the importance to perform an air quality impact analysis before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in countries where the local economy do not allow to change the old car fleet not fitted with exhaust treatment devices.

  19. Solid waste characterisation study in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Zone, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernache-Pérez, G; Sánchez-Colón, S; Garmendia, A M; Dávila-Villarreal, A; Sánchez-Salazar, M E

    2001-10-01

    The key findings of a solid waste characterisation study conducted at the Guadalajara Metropolitan Zone, Mexico, are reported. Objectives of the study were to estimate the daily generation rate of household (HSW) and municipal solid waste (MSW), characterise and compare their composition by type of material, determine the proportion that HSW contributes to MSW, explore changes in MSW composition through time after final disposal, and estimate the types and amount of MSW that are sorted out for recycling at final disposal sites. HSW generated during seven days by a sample of 300 households chosen through a two-stage stratified sampling design was collected, weighed and classified. MSW entering the four local disposal sites was recorded for 12 weeks, and materials' sorting was quantified. MSW samples taken by excavating trenches in two final disposal sites were also characterised. The average per capita daily HSW generation rate was 508 g. HSW mainly consisted of putrescible waste (53%), paper (10%) and plastic (9%). The average daily generation rate of MSW was 3119.2 metric tonnes. HSW represented 55.9% of MSW, and the main difference between HSW and MSW was a lower proportion of organic materials (53% vs. 16.5%, respectively). The major changes in MSW composition through time after final disposal, were the result of the quick decomposition of putrescible materials. Only 2.2% of total MSW generated in Guadalajara (mainly package waste) was sorted for recycling.

  20. Cooling Effect of Rivers on Metropolitan Taipei Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature. PMID:24464232

  1. Cooling Effect of Rivers on Metropolitan Taipei Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  2. Cooling effect of rivers on metropolitan Taipei using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-23

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  3. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  4. Upscaling pollutant dispersion in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; Varela, Juan R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, José

    2012-02-01

    Pollutant emission is an important problem in megacities such as Mexico City, imposing serious threats to human health and economic activity. Public policies oriented to deal with pollutant management ought to be based upon a close understanding of the transport mechanisms involved in the commonly complex network of streets and buildings. Modeling and simulation tools have proved to be useful for understanding field measurements and developing efficient monitoring strategies. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the (longitudinal and transverse) dispersion coefficients in upscaled models for pollutant transport in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). To this end, we use the method of volume averaging, which allows calculation of the dispersion coefficients by solving the associated closure problems in some representative regions of the MCMA. The results show that local geometry has an important effect upon contaminant dispersion, especially in the direction that is transverse to the pressure gradient. This suggests that, although winds can remove an important amount of atmospheric contaminants, high transversal dispersion can help in a fast spreading of contaminants within the street network.

  5. Significance of Test-based Ratings for Metropolitan Boston Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Bolon

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 Massachusetts began state-sponsored, annual achievement testing of all students in three public school grades. It has created a school and district rating system for which scores on these tests are the sole factor. It proposes to use tenth-grade test scores as a sole criterion for high school graduation, beginning with the class of 2003. The state is treating scores and ratings as though they were precise educational measures of high significance. A review of tenth-grade mathematics test scores from academic high schools in metropolitan Boston showed that statistically they are not. Community income is strongly correlated with test scores and accounted for more than 80 percent of the variance in average scores for a sample of Boston-area communities. Once community income was included in models, other factors--including percentages of students in disadvantaged populations, (Note 1 percentages receiving special education, percentages eligible for free or reduced price lunch, percentages with limited English proficiency, school sizes, school spending levels, and property values--all failed to associate substantial additional variance. Large uncertainties in residuals of school-averaged scores, after subtracting predictions based on community income, tend to make the scores ineffective for rating performance of schools. Large uncertainties in year-to-year score changes tend to make the score changes ineffective for measuring performance trends.

  6. Mammography screening among Arab American women in metropolitan Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra; Fakhouri, Monty; Bartoces, Monina; Monsur, Joseph; Younis, Amani

    2008-12-01

    Mammography screening behavior has not been well studied among Middle Eastern immigrant women. We conducted a telephone survey of 365 Arab American women residing in metropolitan Detroit, home to one of the largest populations of Middle Eastern immigrants in the US, to determine prevalence of factors associated with mammography, and attitudes and beliefs regarding mammography screening. Of 365 participants, only five were born in the US. Mean age was 53.2 years (SD 10.8). Two hundred twelve (58.1%) reported having mammogram every 1-2 years; 70% ever had mammogram. Age 50-64 years, having health insurance, married status, being in the US over 10 years, and being Lebanese were associated with mammography every 1-2 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, perceived seriousness of disease, general health motivation, and having fewer barriers were associated with more frequent screening. Appropriate mammography screening is decreased in this group. Targeted outreach regarding screening is appropriate for this population; however, lack of insurance may prevent adequate follow-up.

  7. Metropolitan area networks: a corner stone in the broadband era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Adel

    1991-02-01

    Deployment of Broadband ISDN is being influenced by both a market pull and a technology push. New broadband service opportunities exist in the business and residential sectors of the market place. It is envisioned that some customers will need connections directly to broadband switches because of the high bandwidth needed for their applications. At the same time Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) systems will serve those customers with bandwidth requirements less than or equal to 150 Mbps. A given MAN will have a geographical domain to serve where it will carry out the switching tasks within this domain. While MANs couldbe designed using differentarchitecturalconcepts the setofservices expected tobeprovidedby MANs could be equivalent to thelist ofservices thatwillbe supported by the targetbroadband network. This paperpositions MANs as a major building block for Broadband networks. It also examines the evolution process ofMANs as a needed step to assure the successful deployment of these new broadband services. 2. BISDN - OVERVIEW Broadband ISDN (BISDN) is being driven into existence by both a market pull as well as a technology push. Opportunities for new valueadded services are the prime market pull for future broadband networks. These services opportunities extend beyond simple voice and low speed data applications and cover both the residential and the business sectors of the market. It is noted for instance that business customers have growing needs for sophisticated telecommunication vehicles to support their

  8. EVALUATION OF PRIVATE SCHOOL LOCATION IN THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TOPÇU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.

  9. The Amsterdam metropolitan housing market: how a prosperous metropolitan area coexists with a central city dominated by social rental housing for the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Vlist, van der A.

    2002-01-01

    In this Chapter we describe the development of Amsterdam Metropolitan Housing Market over the years. We start-off with a discussion of the historicaldevelopment of Amsterdam and its suburban areas. There we address how main contextual factors like wars, financial crises and prosperity have shaped

  10. An olfactory demography of a diverse metropolitan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andreas; Hempstead, Margaret; Gomez, Iran A; Gilbert, Avery N; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2012-10-10

    Human perception of the odour environment is highly variable. People vary both in their general olfactory acuity as well as in if and how they perceive specific odours. In recent years, it has been shown that genetic differences contribute to variability in both general olfactory acuity and the perception of specific odours. Odour perception also depends on other factors such as age and gender. Here we investigate the influence of these factors on both general olfactory acuity and on the perception of 66 structurally and perceptually different odours in a diverse subject population. We carried out a large human olfactory psychophysics study of 391 adult subjects in metropolitan New York City, an ethnically and culturally diverse North American metropolis. 210 of the subjects were women and the median age was 34.6 years (range 19-75). We recorded ~2,300 data points per subject to obtain a comprehensive perceptual phenotype, comprising multiple perceptual measures of 66 diverse odours. We show that general olfactory acuity correlates with gender, age, race, smoking habits, and body type. Young, female, non-smoking subjects had the highest average olfactory acuity. Deviations from normal body type in either direction were associated with decreased olfactory acuity. Beyond these factors we also show that, surprisingly, there are many odour-specific influences of race, age, and gender on olfactory perception. We show over 100 instances in which the intensity or pleasantness perception of an odour is significantly different between two demographic groups. These data provide a comprehensive snapshot of the olfactory sense of a diverse population. Olfactory acuity in the population is most strongly influenced by age, followed by gender. We also show a large number of diverse correlations between demographic factors and the perception of individual odours that may reflect genetic differences as well as different prior experiences with these odours between demographic groups.

  11. Designing Freshwater Resilience for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    There are few places in the world where the water management challenges associated with global urbanization are as fully visible as in the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). MCMA has a population of 22 million of which only 82% have daily water provision and this figure is projected by local agencies to decrease drastically in the next decade due to population growth, infrastructure degradation and climate change. The city is served by a massive water delivery system, consisting of complex network of infrastructure in the surrounding basins that provides about 40% of the supply for MCMA and is characterized by increasing land use change and competition for water. The remaining 60% of MCMA's water is sourced internally from already depleted groundwater resources whose exploitation also results in significant subsidence throughout the city, further damaging already degraded infrastructure. Consequently, there is interest and need for investments that improve the performance of the freshwater delivery system, including local resources and connected basins, in the face of change and shocks that can be only partially anticipated. The quest for such resilience is a common theme in urban infrastructure design yet practical approaches for achieving it remain nascent. In this study, we use MCMA and the Cutzamala Water supply system to demonstrate a quantitative framework to evaluate investment strategies which seek resilience for the water supply system of MCMA. Multiobjective optimization and decisions under deep uncertainty approaches are used to evaluate the best performing investment portfolios across different resilience performance metrics which encompass social equity, environmental and economic objectives. This analysis shows dynamic system responses that result from different investment portfolios, elucidating difficult planning and management decisions around tradeoffs between allocations as well as performance metrics (e.g short period of total failure

  12. An olfactory demography of a diverse metropolitan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human perception of the odour environment is highly variable. People vary both in their general olfactory acuity as well as in if and how they perceive specific odours. In recent years, it has been shown that genetic differences contribute to variability in both general olfactory acuity and the perception of specific odours. Odour perception also depends on other factors such as age and gender. Here we investigate the influence of these factors on both general olfactory acuity and on the perception of 66 structurally and perceptually different odours in a diverse subject population. Results We carried out a large human olfactory psychophysics study of 391 adult subjects in metropolitan New York City, an ethnically and culturally diverse North American metropolis. 210 of the subjects were women and the median age was 34.6 years (range 19–75. We recorded ~2,300 data points per subject to obtain a comprehensive perceptual phenotype, comprising multiple perceptual measures of 66 diverse odours. We show that general olfactory acuity correlates with gender, age, race, smoking habits, and body type. Young, female, non-smoking subjects had the highest average olfactory acuity. Deviations from normal body type in either direction were associated with decreased olfactory acuity. Beyond these factors we also show that, surprisingly, there are many odour-specific influences of race, age, and gender on olfactory perception. We show over 100 instances in which the intensity or pleasantness perception of an odour is significantly different between two demographic groups. Conclusions These data provide a comprehensive snapshot of the olfactory sense of a diverse population. Olfactory acuity in the population is most strongly influenced by age, followed by gender. We also show a large number of diverse correlations between demographic factors and the perception of individual odours that may reflect genetic differences as well as different

  13. Indoor radon distribution in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita O.; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing radiation from many natural sources. Radon and its progeny have been recognized as the most important contributors to the natural radioactivity dose, accounting for about half of all human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon ( 222 Rn) is a α-radioactive noble gas derived from the natural series of uranium (2 38 U), which occurs in a wide concentration range in all geological materials, especially, in rocks, soils and waters. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to atmosphere and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important radon source in dwellings is its emanation from the construction material. The radon progeny concentration in dwellings has been receiving considerable global attention due to its potential effect in causing lung cancer if it deposited in upper respiratory tract when inhaled. This paper presents radon concentration distribution in dwellings in Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. The effective dose estimate is also presented for the RMBH inhabitants. The geological settings of the area are Archean rocks of Granitic Gnaissic Complex and of metasediments sequences of the great Precambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radon concentration measurements were carried out with continuous detector AlphaGUARD PQ200PRO (Genitron), in passive mode and with passive detectors E-PERM R Eletret Ion Chamber-EIC. The radon progeny concentration was carried out with a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO (Sarad). It was found an indoor radon concentration varying in a large range from 18.5 to 2671.4 Bq/m -3 , with an average value of 148.0 Bqm -3 and geometric mean equal to 128.2 Bqm -3 . The variable results are due mainly to region geological factors and building material composition of dwellings. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny were determined in dwellings, as 0.3 in

  14. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  15. Culture-independent analysis of aerosol microbiology in a metropolitan subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles E; Baumgartner, Laura K; Harris, J Kirk; Peterson, Kristen L; Stevens, Mark J; Frank, Daniel N; Pace, Norman R

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the composition and diversity of microorganisms associated with bioaerosols in a heavily trafficked metropolitan subway environment. We collected bioaerosols by fluid impingement on several New York City subway platforms and associated sites in three sampling sessions over a 1.5-year period. The types and quantities of aerosolized microorganisms were determined by culture-independent phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences by using both Sanger (universal) and pyrosequencing (bacterial) technologies. Overall, the subway bacterial composition was relatively simple; only 26 taxonomic families made up ~75% of the sequences determined. The microbiology was more or less similar throughout the system and with time and was most similar to outdoor air, consistent with highly efficient air mixing in the system. Identifiable bacterial sequences indicated that the subway aerosol assemblage was composed of a mixture of genera and species characteristic of soil, environmental water, and human skin commensal bacteria. Eukaryotic diversity was mainly fungal, dominated by organisms of types associated with wood rot. Human skin bacterial species (at 99% rRNA sequence identity) included the Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis (the most abundant and prevalent commensal of the human integument), S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. caprae, and S. haemolyticus, all well-documented human commensal bacteria. We encountered no organisms of public health concern. This study is the most extensive culture-independent survey of subway microbiota so far and puts in place pre-event information required for any bioterrorism surveillance activities or monitoring of the microbiological impact of recent subway flooding events.

  16. Do Colleges and Universities Increase Their Region's Human Capital? Staff Report No. 401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the degree production and research and development (R&D) activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and types of human capital present in the metropolitan areas where the institutions are located. We find that degree production has only a small positive relationship with local stocks of human capital,…

  17. Students' Attitude to Cloud-Based Learning in University Diverse Environment: A Case of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabekova, Anastasia; Gorbatenko, Rimma; Chilingaryan, Kamo

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the ways how Russian students with different social background view the cloud- based foreign language learning. The empirical data was collected through questionnaires and in-depth interviews of students from metropolitan and regional universities, taking into account the students' family incomes, ethnic and religious…

  18. Iron, Oil, and Emeryville: Resource Industrialization and Metropolitan Expansion in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have largely overlooked the formative role of industry in both California's economic development and the San Francisco Bay Area's metropolitan expansion during the late nineteenth century. Beginning in the early 1880s, leading firms in San Francisco's specialized industries, such as the iron and chemicals sectors, dispersed to the metropolitan periphery. This process of industrial suburbanization created an integrative metropolitan economy, as well as individual suburbs. In this di...

  19. [Emergency eye care in French university hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, J-L

    2018-03-20

    The patient's request for urgent care in ophthalmology (PRUCO) at health care centers is constantly growing. In France, university hospitals are managing 75% of these cases. We sought to quantify PRUCO referred to French university hospital emergency units as well as to approach the structure and the territorial distribution of emergency eye care provided by French university hospitals. We conducted a quick cross-sectional survey sent to the 32 metropolitan and overseas French university hospitals. It inquired for each hospital whether emergency eye care units were available, whether ophthalmologists were on duty or on call overnight and how many PRUCO were managed in 2016. The 32 university hospitals completed the survey. A total of 398650 PRUCO were managed in French university hospitals in 2016. The emergency unit was exclusively dedicated to eye care for 70% of the hospitals, with 47% (15/32) of them employing an ophthalmologist on duty overnight. Every hospital but one had at least one ophthalmologist on call. The city of Paris set aside, university hospitals took care of an annual mean of 9000 PRUCO (min=500; max=32,250). The 32 French university hospitals are actively responding to patient's requests for urgent care in ophthalmology with very heterogeneous patient volumes and organizational systems. Half of them employ ophthalmologists on duty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Hold and Release Practice: A New Way into Meditation and Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, E

    2015-01-01

    I initially developed the ‘Hold and Release Practice’ (HRP) whilst working with enhanced-care service users in the NHS and private practice (between 2005-2009). The HRP was subsequently developed and introduced to BA(Hons) Psychology & Society undergraduates between (2011-2014) and to Interdisciplinary Psychology MA students at Leeds Metropolitan University (2013-2014), and to over 100 participants at various ‘Yoga Manchester – Meditation for Beginners’ workshops (from 2013 onwards). More rec...

  1. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economic...... of the natural landscape. This paper argues that this GIS based analytical methodology has the potential of supporting planning and policy-making in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area. Paper published on a CD....... and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more comprehensive...... in the period between 1990 and 2000, based on the application of the above-mentioned data to the three spatial levels in question. This paper highlights the role of the hydrographical systems of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area as an important spatial unit of analysis to understand the metropolitan urban...

  2. Comparative Analysis of User-Generated Online Yelp Reviews for Periodontal Practices in Multiple Metropolitan Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan J

    2017-02-01

    Previously published research for a single metropolitan market (Austin, Texas) found that periodontists fare poorly on the Yelp website for nearly all measured metrics, including average star ratings, number of reviews, review removal rate, and evaluations by "elite" Yelp users. The purpose of the current study is to confirm or refute these findings by expanding datasets to additional metropolitan markets of various sizes and geographic locations. A total of 6,559 Yelp reviews were examined for general dentists, endodontists, pediatric dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, and periodontists in small (Austin, Texas), medium (Seattle, Washington), and large (New York City, New York) metropolitan markets. Numerous review characteristics were evaluated, including: 1) total number of reviews; 2) average star rating; 3) review filtering rate; and 4) number of reviews by Yelp members with elite status. Results were compared in multiple ways to determine whether statistically significant differences existed. In all metropolitan markets, periodontists were outperformed by all other dental specialties for all measured Yelp metrics in this study. Intermetropolitan comparisons of periodontal practices showed no statistically significant differences. Periodontists were outperformed consistently by all other dental specialties in every measured metric on the Yelp website. These results were consistent and repeated in all three metropolitan markets evaluated in this study. Poor performance of periodontists on Yelp may be related to the age profile of patients in the typical periodontal practice. This may result in inadvertently biased filtering of periodontal reviews and subsequently poor performance in multiple other categories.

  3. Post-communist land use changes related to urban sprawl in the Romanian metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Grigorescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The landscape pattern of the Romanian urban system has experienced significant transformations as a result of the rapid and irreversible changes undertaken after the fall of the communism. In Romania almost 34% of its total population are living in metropolitan areas. The paper is aiming to analyse the landscape-related challenges land-use/land-cover changes in the Romanian metropolitan areas in relation with the main factors involved in the patterns of change: demographic, political and natural. Based on the investigation of relevant cartographic supports of the last 20 years, the authors are making use of different GIS methods in order to conduct a series of complex analysis of the spatial-temporal landscape challenges. The paper will mainly focus on four metropolitan areas considered as case-studies: the capital-city (Bucharest and the three functional metropolitan areas (Oradea, Iaşi and Constanţa, each metropolitan area is facing different patterns and causes of change.

  4. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  5. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t∗ attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t∗ values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t∗ data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the

  6. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Seher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning, forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate

  7. Extended commuting and migration in the Taipei metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C

    1992-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the relative size and extent of labor force commuting and migration among the population 15 years and older in the Taipei, Taiwan, metropolitan area (city, periphery, and other areas), and the variation by labor group. The hypothesis was that extended commuting patterns occur before migration and migrants and commuters come from different groups. There was a well-developed transportation system for long commuters. It was also suspected that commuting and migration were alternatives for each other, because of the long commutes (over 40 minutes) and the young, unmarried age groups associated with migration. Data were obtained from a stratified sample from the October round of the labor force survey in 1988. Data were stratified by degree of urbanization and industrial composition, and within village level units. The migration streams were identified as from Taipei periphery to the city, from other areas to the city, from the city to the periphery, from other areas to the periphery, from the city to other areas, and from the periphery to other areas. Commuter patterns were designated by commuting from the city to the periphery, from the city to other areas, from the periphery to the city, from the periphery to other areas, from other areas to the city, and from other areas to the periphery. The sample population of 8,384,587 was greater than the official estimates by 3.4%. In the weighted sample, 13.5% were missing data, which resulted in an employed population of 1,271,309 persons. The trend has been for stability of population growth of 2% in the city, and a decline to a rate of growth of 1.3% in peripheral areas. Both the city and periphery gained population from other areas: 70,000 and 35,000 persons, respectively; there was a balanced stream between the city and periphery of 30,000 persons. 24.1% of periphery workers were commuters to the city with a commuting population of 250,000 daily. Explanations

  8. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  9. Potential for air quality improvement in the Tokyo metropolitan area from use of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul; Murdock, Mork

    1998-01-01

    A revised estimation has been made of the local air quality improvement that can be achieved in Tokyo as a byproduct of a word-wide hydrogen energy economy based on global reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fuels. The study for the WE-NET Project in Japan examined the potential for reduction in nitrogen oxide emission with hydrogen fuel in the Tokyo metropolitan area where sufficient data exist on trends in population, vehicle registrations, traffic activity, and exhaust emissions. A dynamic model was developed to extrapolate the trends in these data to estimate future NOx emission rates in comparison to regulatory scenarios based on policy and technical decisions of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for improvement of air quality in the metropolitan area. The results of the model show significant potential for reduction of NOx emission by the year 2020 with a concomitant reduction in mean roadside NOx concentration. (author)

  10. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, Richard M; Keku, Emmanuel O; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness.

  11. Spacial economic impacts of creative industries of the metropolitan areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valdivia López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth dynamics in contemporary cities and their territorial organization are subject to the influence of economic activities associated with creative industries. In this research, we perform a spatial analysis of such creative industries across all metropolitan areas of Mexico during the period. In order to show the spatial relevance that creative industries have over the urban structure, we calculate the employment concentration of each of the sectors and subsectors with respect to the distance from the closest metropolitan area’s Central Business District. We conclude that creative industries tend to localize close to the Metropolitan Areas’ CBD and they are the ones with greater capacity to generate positive externalities on employment growth.

  12. Epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, in the treasury of the Hilandar monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, was created between 1346 and 1348. It is unique for its beauty and iconographic program and, at the same time, it is the oldest of the epitaphia preserved in our country. The epitaphios was worn in the course of Holy Liturgy, during the Great Entrance in the cathedral churches and the major monasteries. Metropolitan Jovan presented the epitaphios as a gift to Christ 'my life-giver.' Depicted on its central field is the Epitaphios Threnos (Lamentation at the Tomb. Added around it, at a later time it seems, are bands representing the fourteen scenes of Great Feasts and the officiating Church Fathers, in embroidery. Holy Liturgy is served by the greatest fathers and teachers of the Church and Metropolitan Jovan.

  13. Relationship Between Solid Waste Service Characteristics and Income Level in Metropolitan Bandung Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Maryati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization process has stimulated the emergence of the metropolitan area, including Metropolitan Bandung Raya. The development of the metropolitan region is not equipped by infrastructure. Generally, the level of service of infrastructure varies based on income level. The purpose of this research is to identify the relationship between solid waste service characteristics and household income level. Solid waste service characteristics are measured from waste handling and disposal, waste collection officers, the frequency of waste collection, and fees and payment. The results of the analysis show that there is a relationship between solid waste service and income level: the higher the income, the better the solid waste service. The followings are some significant findings found in this research: (a solid waste service in housing developed by the developer is better compared to those in self-help housing, and (b solid waste service in the urban area is better compared to those in peri-urban and rural area.

  14. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over Untrustful Metropolitan Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD network in a star topology over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate 10 times larger than previous results. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds—security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.

  15. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keku, Emmanuel O.; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J.

    2010-01-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness. PMID:21113109

  16. Intra-metropolitan inequalities in Rio de Janeiro and the Guanabara Bay cleaning programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Silva, Victor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of the Guanabara Bay Cleaning Programme (GBCP) on the Rio de Janeiro urban development process. Based on the magnitude of the budget of the programme (HOW MUCH?) and its relevance to the improvement of the life quality of urban dwellers, the main discussion...... of this paper focuses on the role of GBCP in the context of the Rio de Janeiro urban trends and intra-metropolitan inequality dynamics. In studying the impact of the GBCP, we present: (a) a description of the GBCP intervention process and its goals, (b) a spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area...... the role of the GBCP implementation in the spatial distribution of these patterns throughout these 10 years. The conclusion builds on an analysis of the GBCP role in the current urban development process of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, identifying its influences on the dynamics of intra...

  17. Overseas Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore;…

  18. Factors affecting the formation of sub-downtowns in various metropolitan areas around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Roman; Pomorov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating and compiling systematic knowledge about the factors affecting formation and specificity of urban sub-downtowns (sub-centers). Sub-downtowns are autonomous territories, identical to the downtown and located within one metropolitan area with downtown. Objects corresponding to the concepts of "Edge City", "Edgeless City", "Secondary Business District", "Mixed-Use Development" were investigated as sub-downtowns. Terrestrial and satellite images, as well as functional zoning data of more than 250 metropolitan areas in all world's regions were explored. A special form of sub-downtowns characterized by direct commercial corridor connection with central business district was found and defined as "Total Business District" concept. Eight metropolitan area types were distinguished based on sub-downtown development level criterion. These types were found to have significant relation to the specific world regions. Sub-downtowns are more frequent and diverse in countries with higher level, pace and liberalization of economic development, as well as with higher motorization rate. The closer to the coast or state border the metropolitan area is, the more likely sub-downtowns within it will be developed. In the context of continental, desert, tropical, northern maritime climates sub-downtowns are less common than in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean or Polynesian climates. In most cases, clustered (not just corridor-like) sub-downtowns are likely to be found in metropolitan areas with a population of more than 1.5-3.5 million people, depending on the geographic region of the world. The research results can improve forecasting the development and master planning of sub-downtowns in specific metropolitan areas.

  19. Civic Engagement and Gentrification Issues in Metropolitan Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durington, Matthew; Maddox, Camee; Ruhf, Adrienne; Gass, Shana; Schwermer, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the fall of 2006 a number of Towson University students concentrating in the discipline of anthropology have been part of a civic engagement and service-learning project focusing on an historic African-American community in Baltimore. While the focus of the research project concentrates on the processes of gentrification, individual student…

  20. Profile of Antimicrobial Drug Use Patterns in a Nigerian Metropolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate self-medication practices and prescribing patterns of antimicrobial agents. Methods: The study was carried out in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in 6 hospitals/clinics, 4 community pharmacies and the campus of University of Port Harcourt. 1,200 case files or charts of outpatients treated at the selected ...

  1. The Spatial Changes of Land Use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area 1970s – 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Simion

    2010-01-01

    The article explore the dimension of spatial changes of land use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (BMA) over the past forty years. Using GIS-based land use data sets of the years 1970, 1990 and 2000, combining with statistical data, we attempted to quantify the spatial pattern of land use changes in the BMA. Our findings indicate that most significantly changes occurred with arable lands that have been reduced from 77% of total metropolitan area in 1970 to 71.3% in 2000 and in same time th...

  2. Asthma hospitalisation trends from 2010 to 2015: variation among rural and metropolitan Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Terry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma remains a leading cause of illness, where primary care can assist to reduce hospitalisations through prevention, controlling acute episodes, and overall management of asthma. In Victoria, Asthma hospitalisations were as high as 3.1 hospitalisations per 1000 population in 1993–94. The primary aims of this study are to: determine if changes in asthma hospitalisations have occurred between 2010 and 2015; determine the key factors that impact asthma hospitalisation over time; and verify whether rural and urban asthma hospitalisations are disparate. A secondary aim of the study is to compare 2010–2015 results with asthma data prior to 2010. Methods Hospital separation data from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2015 were obtained through the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset and other agencies. Data included sex, age, Local Government Area, private or public patient, length of stay, and type of discharge. Asthma and predictor variables were analysed according to hospital separation rates after adjusting for smoking and sex. Hierarchical multiple regression examined the association between asthma and predictor variables. Results During the study period, 49,529 asthma hospital separations occurred, of which 77.5% were in metropolitan hospitals, 55.4% hospital separations were aged 0–14 years, and 21.7% were privately funded. State-wide hospital separations were 1.85 per 1000 population and were consistently higher in metropolitan compared to rural areas (1.93 vs 1.64 per 1000 population. When data among metropolitan adults aged 15 and over were analysed, an increase in the proportion of smokers in the population was reflected by an increase in the number of hospital separations (Adj OR 1.035. Further, among rural and metropolitan children aged 0–14 the only predictor of asthma hospital separations was sex, where metropolitan male children had higher odds of separation than metropolitan females of the same age (Adj OR 4

  3. The Role of Great Cities in Romania for the Metropolitan Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the legislation in force, in Romania there are 11 first rank cities that given their size, their importance, the level of services and the economic activity, represent attractions and are subjected to the development pressures. Still, according to the European tendencies, the urban agglomerations tend to approach this type of cooperation regardless the number of the inhabitants. Currently in Romania there are 11 great cities that have developed processes of organizing the metropolitan areas corresponding to them. Among them, two have already created metropolitan areas: Oradea (2001 and Iaşi (2004, both with the assistance of programs financed by USAID.

  4. Researching the rural-metropolitan health differential using the 'social determinants of health'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J; Welch, N

    2000-10-01

    Recent research indicates that the health status of rural people is inferior to that of people living in metropolitan Australia. This paper summarises the rural-metropolitan health differential and turns to the field of research being called the social determinants of health for explanations of rural health inequalities. The paper explores the ways in which psychosocial factors can interact with material, behavioural and sociocultural factors to contribute to health outcomes. It suggests that the concepts of place and rurality may be useful in future research on the determinants of population health. Further research issues are identified that need to be addressed if we are to understand the complexities of rural health disadvantage.

  5. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  6. Relative food prices and obesity in US Metropolitan areas: 1976-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Variyam, Jayachandran N; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of food price on obesity, by exploring the co-occurrence of obesity growth with relative food price reduction between 1976 and 2001. Analyses control for female labor participation and metropolitan outlet densities that might affect body weight. Both the first-difference and fixed effects approaches provide consistent evidence suggesting that relative food prices have substantial impacts on obesity and such impacts were more pronounced among the low-educated. These findings imply that relative food price reductions during the time period could plausibly explain about 18% of the increase in obesity among the U.S. adults in metropolitan areas.

  7. Metropolitan Blueprints of Colonial Taxation? Lessons from Fiscal Capacity Building in British and French Africa, c. 1880-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical and social science literature is divided about the importance of metropolitan blueprints of colonial rule for the development of colonial states. We exploit historical records of colonial state finances to explore the importance of metropolitan identity on the comparative development

  8. Rural and Metropolitan Pediatric Burns in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: Does Distance Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ela J; Zeni, Geoffrey; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    To determine if differences exist between children who sustain burns in rural areas and in metropolitan areas, an analysis of children presenting to the Burns Unit at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, from the January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 was performed. In all, 4326 children met the inclusion criteria, of which 21.2% came from rural regions. Just more than a quarter (26.0%) of rural children and 11.6% from metropolitan areas were Indigenous Australian (P burns in both populations. Of the rural children, 40.8% sustained contact burns, 37.7% scald, and 12.5% flame. In contrast, 58.8% metropolitan children sustained scalds, 27.4% contact, and 4.5% flame. The home was the most common place for all burns to occur, but rural injuries commonly occurred outdoors. Burns were associated with risk-taking behavior in 15.3% rural and 8.7% metropolitan children (P burn injuries (≥10% Total BSA) occurred in 3.4% of rural and 2.1% metropolitan children (P = 0.02). Skin grafting was required in 28.3% rural and 16.3% metropolitan children (P = 0.0001). Nearly 32% of rural children required admission to the Burns Unit for >24 hours (15.9% metropolitan; P = 0.0001). Significant differences exist between burns sustained by rural and metropolitan children. This should be accounted for in burns prevention campaigns and the education of local health practitioners.

  9. Demographic Transformation in a Policy Vacuum: The Changing Face of U.S. Metropolitan Society and Challenges for Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordechay, Kfir; Orfield, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Educators and policy makers must confront the race and class disparities in learning opportunities across American society. Nowhere are these disparities more acute than in the country's great metropolitan areas. As the demographic landscape continues to shift, metropolitan areas are fueling the transition to a majority-minority country. This…

  10. Electric power engineering education at Drexel University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischl, R.; Nwankpa, C.O.; MacDonald, E. (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (US))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the power curriculum at Drexel University at both undergraduate and graduate levels. A discussion is presented on the degree requirements, lab facilities, and student enrollment among others. Approximately 15,000 students in the metropolitan Philadelphia, PA area attend Drexel University. Of these 2,000 are in the ECE Department. 1,436 are full time day undergraduate students (45% of the College of Engineering). Evening ECE Department student are estimated at 290. Graduate students total about 350 in the Department. The ECE Department staff has 46 full time and 7 part-time day faculty in addition to 20 evening and graduate adjunct faculty. The power engineering faculty consists of 4 full-time and 3 adjunct faculty.

  11. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    , has put a counter pressure on the university, forcing it to review its role as a driver for sustainable development. Today, universities and intergovernmental institutions have developed more than 31 SHE declarations, and more than 1400 universities have signed a SHE declaration globally. However....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable......Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn...

  12. USAID University

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID University is USAID's learning management system. Features include 1) Access online courses 2) Register for instructor-led courses 3)Access your student...

  13. Einstein's Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)

  14. Undulant Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  15. A study of trace element concentrations in human hair of some local populations in Japan. I. Inhabitants of the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, A.; Fukushima, I.; Shiobara, S.; Terai, M.

    1979-01-01

    By applying instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques, a survey was carried out to determine the levels of a variety of trace element concentrations in human hair of the inhabitants of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants of the residential district in the western part of the Tokyo metropolitan area. The donors were divided into five age groups, ranging from pre-school age to sixty years and above. Each group consisted of twenty males and twenty or more females. The sampling method and washing procedure recommended by the IAEA Advisory Group on the applications of nuclear methods in environmental research were strictly followed. Irradiation of the samples was made in the Rikkyo University 100-kW TRIGA MARK II reactor. By using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, the following 37 elements were quantitatively analysed: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Te, Ti, U, V, W and Zn. NBS standard reference orchard leaves and bovine liver were also analysed in the course of the hair analysis to assess the precision of the analytical techniques. (author)

  16. 78 FR 40146 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and...

  17. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, M.; Bleidorn, W.; Lamb, M.E.; Gosling, S.D.; Rentfrow, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations

  18. A STUDY OF THE NEED FOR A JUNIOR COLLEGE IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, RALPH B.

    A POPULATION INCREASE OF 71 PERCENT IS EXPECTED IN UTAH BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980. THE GREATEST GROWTH IS EXPECTED IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA. THE COLLEGE AGE GROUP (18 TO 21 YEARS) WILL INCREASE BY 80 PERCENT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1970. IF CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATES ARE USED, THE PROPOSED JUNIOR COLLEGE COULD EXPECT AN ENROLLMENT OF APPROXIMATELY…

  19. The Spatial Changes of Land Use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area 1970s – 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Simion

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explore the dimension of spatial changes of land use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (BMA over the past forty years. Using GIS-based land use data sets of the years 1970, 1990 and 2000, combining with statistical data, we attempted to quantify the spatial pattern of land use changes in the BMA. Our findings indicate that most significantly changes occurred with arable lands that have been reduced from 77% of total metropolitan area in 1970 to 71.3% in 2000 and in same time the built up area increase from 6.2% in 1970 to 10.4% in 2000. Vineyards and orchards suffered a reduced of their spread. In the case of vineyards the percentage of total area decrease from 2.7% in 1970 to 0.8% and regarding orchards from 1.1% in 1970 to 0.6% in 2000. The growth of built up indicate the urban influence of Bucharest city on it the large metropolitan area. The decrease of vineyards and orchards can be correlated with agrarian reform passed after the fall of socialist economic system that generated many problems for the farmers that cannot continue to cultivate the land with these kinds of cultures. These findings have implication with the futures strategies on urban and metropolitan planning in this area.

  20. The metropolitan park: searching for a new typology for intermediate green areas in urban fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.; Velde, van der R.; Graaf, de E.; Kruit, E.; Lodder, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing urbanization in metropolitan regions creates a wish for large green areas in the urban peripheries for recreational purposes. Agricultural landscapes are being replaced with woods, nature and water to provide citizens with space for outdoor recreation and other activities. Park-like settings

  1. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation plan and TIP. In developing proposed simplified planning procedures, consideration shall be given... transportation problems in the area. The simplified procedures shall be developed by the MPO in cooperation with... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning...

  2. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  3. Intelligent transportation systems assessment of ITS deployment : review of metropolitan areas : discussions of crosscutting issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the assessment of the development and deployment of ITS products and services in : metropolitan areas sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportations (U.S. DOT) Joint : Program Office for ITS, analysts from the Volpe National Transp...

  4. Metropolitan natural area protection to maximize public access and species representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane A. Ruliffson; Robert G. Haight; Paul H. Gobster; Frances R. Homans

    2003-01-01

    In response to widespread urban development, local governments in metropolitan areas in the United States acquire and protect privately-owned open space. We addressed the planner's problem of allocating a fixed budget for open space protection among eligible natural areas with the twin objectives of maximizing public access and species representation. Both...

  5. The complexities of urban flood response : Flood frequency analyses for the Charlotte metropolitan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Smith, James A.; Yang, Long; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Chaney, Molly; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Deng, Huiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    We examine urban flood response through data-driven analyses for a diverse sample of “small” watersheds (basin scale ranging from 7.0 to 111.1 km2) in the Charlotte Metropolitan region. These watersheds have experienced extensive urbanization and suburban development since the 1960s.

  6. Relationship of WPPSI and Subsequent Metropolitan Achievement Test Scores in Head-Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Bruce K.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT) was administered to 35 original Head-Start children three to four years after initial WPPSI testing. WPPSI Verbal IQ did not correlate significantly with any of the subject areas of the MAT, while Performance IQ correlated only moderately with mathematical components of the MAT (r = .42 - .52). (Author)

  7. Nature in the metropolis : Mapping biodiversity using metropolitan landscape characterization tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tisma, A.; van der Velde, J.R.T.; Nijhuis, S.; Pouderoijen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cities can be planned and designed to reduce their effect on biodiversity loss and may even be able to sustain biodiversity levels in some instances, due to ‘beta-diversity’. The heterogeneity of metropolitan regions can be expected to have a strong impact on beta-diversity. Tools such as landscape

  8. Fiber-supported 60 GHz mobile backhaul links for access/metropolitan deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pang, Xiaodan; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We present a 60 GHz wireless link fully supported with the optical fiber infrastructure. The architecture that we implement is suitable to provide the efficient wireless/fiber mobile backhaul in access/metropolitan area. Bit error rate (BER) performance below the 7% overhead forward error...

  9. On scaling of scientific knowledge production in U.S. metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000

  10. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  11. Metropolitan Foodsheds as Spatial References for a Landscape-Based Assessment of Regional Food Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, D.M.; Eupen, van M.; Corsi, S.; Sali, G.; Zasada, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Food Planning and Innovation for Sustainable Metropolitan Regions (FOODMETRES) project strives to assess the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of food chains, with regard to the spatial, logistical, and resource dimensions of growing food as well as the questions of food safety and quality

  12. 'Wrong but Impeccable': Lehman Wing, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Ada Louise

    1975-01-01

    Although the new Lehman Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art was a controversial project based on a questionable premise, the finished building is an architectural tour de force. Despite restrictions imposed by the Landmarks Commission and the donor, the architects responded with consummate ingenuity, artistry, and skill. (JG)

  13. Excuse Me, Is This a Church? Display as Content at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Risham

    2017-01-01

    This essay explores two canonical installations at the Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Cloisters and African galleries in the Rockefeller wing. After providing a brief history of the formation of these collections and their display strategies, I analyze the effect of exhibition design for a visitor's judgments and impressions of the works of art.…

  14. The Neighborhood Unit: Schools, Segregation, and the Shaping of the Modern Metropolitan Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Ansley T.; Highsmith, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: In the first half of the 20th century, American policy makers at all levels of government, alongside housing and real estate industry figures, crafted mechanisms of racial exclusion that helped to segregate metropolitan residential landscapes. Although educators and historians have recognized the long-term consequences of these…

  15. The Fragmentation of Metropolitan Public School Districts and the Segregation of American Schools: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Meredith P.; Stroub, Kori J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Scholars have increasingly raised concerns about the "fragmentation" or proliferation of metropolitan public school districts, citing the potential for fragmentation to facilitate racial/ethnic segregation by permitting individuals to sort more efficiently across district boundaries. In addition, scholars have expressed…

  16. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  17. Temperature and hydrological variations of the urban environment in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wen-Zer; Peng, Tsung-Ren; Tsai, Hsiao-Chung

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the temperature, precipitation and groundwater level variations and changing patterns with varied time scales are presented for Taipei metropolitan area which consists of the capital city with neighboring counties. Along with the continuous city expansion during the past decades, global warming and heat island effect have generated perceivable negative impacts on environmental and reflect on the climatic and hydrological parameters. In addition to accelerating climate warming, hydrological extremity becomes more evident during the past decades and greatly elevates the risks of drought and floods in the study area. These observations in the Taipei metropolitan area support the common hypothesis that climate variability would increase as climate warms. The air temperature records, in conjunction with hydrological data, provide useful and invaluable information for the ongoing study of subsurface environmental changes resulting from nature and anthropogenic influences in Taipei metropolitan area. The continuing climatic warming and hydrological extremity would create observable impacts on the subsurface environment of Taipei metropolitan area and need to pursue in a fast and efficient pace.

  18. 33 CFR 207.9 - Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mystic River, Mass.; dam of... Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission. (a... section shall mean himself and/or his personnel then on duty at the dam. The positioning and movements of...

  19. The Changing Influence of Educational Policy and Race on Metropolitan Inequality, 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Schools do not receive much recognition within urban sociological research for the role they perform in shaping the demographic, structural, and social features of neighborhoods, cities, and metropolitan areas. In contrast, this article links schools, and the racial avoidance that operates through educational policy, to the extreme economic…

  20. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available located in settlements along the coast and/or in close proximity to the metropolitan area of Cape Town. Furthermore, the first half of the first decade of the twenty first century witnessed the planning authorisation approval of more than two thirds of all...

  1. Niches in the urban forest: Organizations and their role in acquiring metropolitan open space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane A. Ruliffson; Paul H. Gobster; Robert G. Haight; Francis R. Homans

    2002-01-01

    As a response strategy to minimize the impacts of urban sprawl, public and private organizations are striving to acquire open lands that will contribute to a resilient and multifunctional urban forest. In the Chicago metropolitan region, we interviewed representatives of 15 organizations to understand the land acquisition process--the structures and functions of...

  2. Spirometry and impulse oscillometry (IOS) for detection of respiratory abnormalities in metropolitan firefighters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.J.; Malbon, W.; Newbury, W.; Holton, C.; Smith, M.; Morgan, M.; Crockett, A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: As firefighters are at increased risk of adverse health effects, periodic examination of their respiratory health is important. The objective of this study was to establish whether the use of impulse oscillometry (IOS) reveals respiratory abnormalities in metropolitan

  3. Teaching Language Minority Students in Los Angeles and Oslo--A Metropolitan Perspective nr 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Özerk, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of…

  4. Diversity and Educational Challenges in Oslo and Los Angeles--A Metropolitan Perspective nr 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Kamil; Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of…

  5. Regeneration as an approach for the development of informal settlements in Cairo metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Hassan

    2012-09-01

    Finally the paper ends by discussing the capability of the application of this approach in dealing with the informal settlements in Cairo metropolitan as proper approach to cope with the need of dealing effectively with those shadows in the urban context.

  6. Parental Child Care Selection Criteria and Program Quality in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, Jean M.; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Venter-Barkley, Janet

    1998-01-01

    A study of 127 families and 50 child care facilities in 17 Missouri communities found that criteria for selecting child care were similar for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan parents; parents were more concerned with quality child care and caregiver "warmth" than with practical considerations; but ratings on caregiver warmth did not…

  7. A REGIONAL APPROACH TO THE METROPOLITAN ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Teodor Boldeanu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to contribute to metropolitan economic growth literature by carrying out an analysis for 271 areas located in the EU between 2000 and 2013. For this objective the study uses several panel data estimation techniques, namely the GMM, System GMM and the QML estimation. To check the robustness of the results, the time period is divided in two (post and ante economic crisis and by splitting the sample of metropolitan regions in two components, the Western more developed regions and the Central and South-Eastern (the formal communist states, except for Cyprus areas. The results indicate that the industrial, construction and wholesale and retail trade sectors are positively linked with metropolitan growth. The agricultural, fishery and forestry sector is negatively influencing growth. The manufacturing and ITC sectors and migration are not statistically significant. Furthermore population density and size is more important than population growth and European enlargement did not have a substantial positive impact on metropolitan growth for the Central and South-Eastern regions.

  8. A computerized model for integrating the physical environmental factors into metropolitan landscape planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius Gy Fabos; Kimball H. Ferris

    1977-01-01

    This paper justifies and illustrates (in simplified form) a landscape planning approach to the environmental management of the metropolitan landscape. The model utilizes a computerized assessment and mapping system, which exhibits a recent advancement in computer technology that allows for greater accuracy and the weighting of different values when mapping at the...

  9. The historical evolution of planning and metropolitan governance in the Greater Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of metropolitan planning policies and institutions in the Greater Copenhagen Region (GCR) over the past century. The paper’s focus is twofold. First, it develops an understanding regarding the fluctuating planning context in the GCR through a historical anal...... that planning and governance at the metropolitan levels have been historically complex given the inherent discrepancies that commonly emerge between the evolving functional city-region and the political-administrative structures wherein Greater Copenhagen is located....... analysis concerned with the evolution of ad hoc regional plans. Furthering this analysis, the paper then delves into the diverse forms of metropolitan governance in the GCR and classifies them into different periods defined by particular policy milestones. The case of metropolitan planning and governance...... in the GCR is inspiring from an international comparative planning perspective given that the spatial concepts and logics provided by the influential 1947 Finger Plan for Greater Copenhagen as well as its succeeding descendants have endured as the foundation for modern city and regional planning to date...

  10. 76 FR 41237 - Metropolitan Water District of Southern California; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12095-000] Metropolitan... of Southern California (exemptee) for the OC-88 Small Conduit Hydroelectric Project No. 12095. The... from licensing for the OC-88 Small Conduit Hydroelectric Project issued on [[Page 41238

  11. Response of forest soil properties to urbanization gradients in three metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V. Pouyat; Ian D. Yesilonis; Katalin Szlavecz; Csaba Csuzdi; Elizabeth Hornung; Zoltan Kors& #243; s; Jonathan Russell-Anelli; Vincent Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of urban environments on the chemical properties of forest soils in the metropolitan areas of Baltimore, New York, and Budapest. We hypothesized that soils in forest patches in each city will exhibit changes in chemistry corresponding to urbanization gradients, but more strongly with various urban metrics than distance to the urban core....

  12. Polycentric Metropolitan Form: Application of a ‘Northern’ Concept in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Romein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 20th century, large urban areas in advanced economies have experienced a fundamental transformation from relatively compact monocentric cities towards more extended polycentric metropolitan areas. By now, it is being commented repeatedly, but not investigated systematically that the concept of polycentricity is also adequate to characterise recent metropolitan dynamics in Latin-America.This paper aims to present a few key-issues for a future research agenda into polycentricity in Latin-American metropolitan areas. These elements are identified from a review of existing literature. Since no clear-cut definition and operationalisation of polycentricity exist yet, we distinguish some key-elements of this phenomenon in North America as a frame of reference for this review. It reveals that ‘polycentricity U.S. style’ is at best dawning in Latin-America. In order to achieve a more appropriate picture of polycentricity of Latin American metropolitan areas, our ideas for a research agenda take into account these areas typical economic, social and spatial conditions.

  13. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    . The ocean front is historically the wealthiest region of the metropolitan area and is visually and physically separated from the Rio de Janeiro suburbs by mountains characterising a schism between two cities: the ocean front extensively provided with environmental amenities and the suburbs marked...

  14. A Metropolitan Optical Network with support for multicasting in the optical domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; van Bochove, A.C.; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Salvador, M.R.; Thienpont, H.; Berghmans, F.; Danckaert, J.; Desmet, L.

    2001-01-01

    We present the FLAMINGO1 network architecture, an all-optical wavelength-and-timeslotted Metropolitan Optical Network based on a multiple-ring topology. A couple of important aspects of this architecture include all-optical packet switching at intermediate nodes on a ring and the ability to put IP

  15. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  16. Suicide among young Australians, 1964-1993: an interstate comparison of metropolitan and rural trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, M J; Kelk, N J; Florio, T M; Howard, J P; Waters, B G

    1998-07-20

    (i) To compare suicide rates in 15-24 year old men and women; and (ii) for 15-24 year old men, to investigate differences in suicide rates between metropolitan and rural area, and changes in method-specific suicide rates and, in particular, firearm and hanging suicide rates in rural and metropolitan areas. Retrospective analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) suicide data (1964-1993). All Australian States. Young women and men aged 15-24 years who died by suicide. Male youth suicide rates rose substantially over the 30 years in all Australian States, whereas female rates did not increase. Increases in suicide rates in young men in small rural towns consistently exceeded those in metropolitan areas in all Australian States. Metropolitan rates in 1964 were higher than those in small rural towns, but by 1993 the position was reversed. Medium-sized cities were the only areas where there was no consistent interstate trend. Differences were noted in suicide base rates in different States. High car exhaust suicide rates were noted in Western Australia, and high firearm suicide rates in Tasmania and Queensland. The ratio of firearm suicide rates in small rural areas to those in metropolitan areas rose in all mainland States, but the same ratio for hanging suicide rates changed little. All Australian States reflect national suicide trend in relation to sex and residential area. In some States, particular suicide methods predominate. A decreasing trend in overall firearm suicide rates in young men in all States from 1984 to 1993 conceals substantial increases in firearm suicide rates in small rural areas in all mainland States over the 30-year period. This, together with the marked rate ratio difference in firearm suicides between metropolitan and small rural areas, suggests that particular risk factors for suicide are operating in small rural areas. The fact that hanging rate ratios changed little suggests that more general factors in male youth suicide are also

  17. Uncertainty in a College-Town Housing Market: The Case of the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadayuki, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the costs that arise from uncertainty in the college-town housing market in the Urbana-Champaign metropolitan area, the home of the University of Illinois. This research resulted in two principal findings. First, the rental price of housing owned by property owners having more than 10 claims filed against them…

  18. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  19. Evaluating metropolitan spatial development: a method for identifying settlement types and depicting growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Pourpeikari Heris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a method to explore density and growth rates in the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. The outcomes of this method enable planners to understand the growth pattern of a region and compare it with other regions in the country. The main objectives of this research were: (1 to identify settlement types (high, medium and low density, suburbs, and urban fringes in each metropolitan area; (2 to depict and compare general metropolitan structures across the nation; and (3 to evaluate the location of recently developed dwellings in relation to settlement types and structures and estimate growth trends. The paper combined the percentage of impervious surface raster dataset (30-m cell size produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS and block-level housing unit data produced by the Census Bureau to map housing density across the lower 48 states in 2000 and 2010. Neighbourhood density profiles were used to identify the settlement types (high, medium and low density, suburbs, and urban fringes. The paper then compared density-decay functions of 50 metropolitan areas to depict urban growth patterns and to quantify the number of housing units developed in each settlement type. This method effectively distinguishes regions with higher densification (infill development rates versus regions with high-paced sprawl. The results showed that Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas had high percentages of housing units developed in high-density areas between 2000 and 2010, while during the same period Birmingham, Nashville and Charlotte had high percentages of housing development in areas identified as suburbs.

  20. An exploration of nursing research perceptions of registered nurses engaging in research activities at a metropolitan hospital in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gemma; Duggan, Ravani; Boldy, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    To explore perceptions about nursing research of registered nurses (RNs) who were engaged in research activities at a metropolitan hospital in Western Australia. In order to improve RNs' research engagement and promote evidence-based practice, Nurse Research Consultants (NRCs) were appointed jointly by the study hospital and a local university. This joint appointment commenced in 2004 in the hospital's emergency department. Early findings indicated that the NRC role was effective in assisting registered nurses with research activities and hence the NRC role was expanded to all areas of the hospital. However, no formal investigation had been carried out to explore the effect of the NRC role on RNs' engagement with nursing research across the hospital. A qualitative interview process. Ten RN participants from the adult and paediatric wards were interviewed. Audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Four main themes were identified, namely: perceptions of nursing research, perceived enablers, perceived barriers and improving research engagement. There was some overlap with some sub-themes being linked with more than one theme. This appeared to be due to differing levels of research education and research engagement. 6pc some of the RNs that participated in this study were experienced in the conduct of research, finding adequate support from NRCs in the workplace, whilst others experienced barriers limiting their involvement in nursing research activities. These barriers could be reduced with additional education, support, improved communication, time and opportunities to undertake research activities.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Recruitment Strategies in a Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Metropolitan Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iott, Bradley E; Veinot, Tiffany C; Loveluck, Jimena; Kahle, Erin; Golson, Leon; Benton, Akilah

    2018-02-22

    HIV/AIDS-related research requires recruitment of representative samples of MSM; yet, we know little about the comparative yield, diversity and cost-benefit tradeoffs between different recruitment venues. We compared 11 recruitment venues used for nine HIV prevention-related focus groups with MSM in Metropolitan Detroit. Of the 64 participants, 24 were clients recruited via an HIV/AIDS-focused nonprofit, 20 from Grindr advertisements, 6 from university-student email lists, and 5 from flyers/palmcards. Significantly more African-American, low-income and HIV-positive participants were recruited via the nonprofit. The best cost-benefit tradeoffs were for organizational Facebook posts, email groups, personal networking, and nonprofit recruitment. Grindr increased the size of the sample, though at greater expense. Facebook and Scruff advertisements and gay bar outreach represented greater costs than benefits. Only 11.6% of Grindr respondents attended the focus groups. A mix of online and offline recruitment venues can generate a large and diverse sample of MSM, but venue performance is uneven.

  2. Leaching Functions from the Outer Metropolitan Zones (Trade, Services - Increasing Peripherality of Small Towns and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Heffner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive spatial processes taking place around metropolitan areas leads to many economic, structural and social changes in their surroundings. The small towns and rural areas located in the outer zone of metropolitan areas are most affected by this functional changes. In the outer zone of a big urban canters appears a lot of new competing possibilities on the labor market and a comprehensive commercial, service and cultural offer to smaller centres. One of the most competitive advantage of the metropolitan zones becomes modern shopping centres being established in the most accessible places, providing a comprehensive shopping-services and even cultural-recreational offer.

  3. University writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  4. University physics

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  5. University lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  6. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  7. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  8. North Dakota Metropolitan Planning Organization's peer exchange on introducing performance management into the MPO planning process : A TPCB Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at the peer exchange on Introducing Performance Management into the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Planning Process held on June, 19, 2013 in Bismarck, Nor...

  9. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Health Care Needs among Children with Special Health Care Needs in Ohio's Metropolitan and Appalachian Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Elizabeth; Asti, Lindsey; Chisolm, Deena

    2015-08-01

    The study assessed whether children with special health care needs (CSHCN) living in Appalachian Ohio have differential health care utilization, unmet needs, and health outcomes compared with CSHCN in Ohio's metropolitan counties using a statewide Ohio survey. Based on this survey, an estimated 28% of children in Appalachian Ohio counties have special health care needs compared with 25% of children in metropolitan counties. In Appalachia, CSHCN are poorer and more likely to have Medicaid than their metropolitan counterparts, but had no reported significant differences in health outcomes or unmet needs. Data suggested a trend toward higher use of emergency department care and inpatient services and lower use of well-child visits but these differences did not reach significance. We conclude that CSHCN in Appalachian and metropolitan areas face similar levels of health status and unmet needs but results suggest a need for additional research on access to primary care services.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo-Herrera Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water were associated with seropositivity.

  12. Contribution of LPG-derived emissions to air pollution in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; Magdaleno, M; Díaz, L; Melgarejo, L A; Barrera, A; Krüger, B; Arriaga, J L; López-Salinas, E

    2000-10-01

    Measurements of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions generated by the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara City (MAG) are presented in this work. Based on measurements in the course of distribution, handling, and consumption, an estimated 4407 tons/yr are released into the atmosphere. The three most important contributors to LPG emissions were refilling of LPG-fueled vehicles and commercial and domestic consumption. The MAG shows a different contribution pattern of LPG emission sources compared with that of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC). These results show that each megacity has different sources of emissions, which provides more accurate strategies in the handling procedures for LPG to decrease the impact in O3 levels. This work represents the first evaluation performed in Guadalajara City, based on current measurements, of the LPG contribution to polluting emissions.

  13. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g -1 levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at μg g -1 and Ca at mg g -1 . By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental composition. It was

  14. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program of water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square miles and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled.

  15. Measures of social segregation in the context of Warsaw, Berlin and Paris metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorczyk Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social segregation is a subject common in contemporary studies of metropolitan areas. Until recently, studies of segregation focused on the distribution of ethnic groups, immigrants, and the poor. Today, they also cover additional indicators such as demographic properties, education, and affiliation with social and professional categories, which can also serve to determine the causes of the segregation (including the self-segregation of the rich. This article aims to point out the measures of segregation that present the segregation levels in the most complete manner, along with their application in the context of three European metropolitan areas: Warsaw, Berlin, and Paris. The first part of the article is a review of the existing approaches to segregation measures, followed by the selection of research method, presentation of the analysis’ results, and evaluation of the applied methods; presenting the opportunities and limitations in research of the social segregation phenomenon.

  16. Urban form analysis employing land cover and spatial metrics: the case of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Costa, Eduarda; Rocha, Jorge; Rodrigues, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In order to face the challenges of urban planning, there is an increasing need to monitor and quantify urban occupation. This study, conducted within the research project "FURBS: Sustainable Urban Form - Methodological development for Portugal (PTDC/GEO/69109/2006), seeks to examine the urban form of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), and its occupation between 1990 and 2000, using spatial metrics. The LMA congregates nearly 3 million inhabitants, around 26% of the Portuguese total popula...

  17. E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MUMBAI METROPOLITAN REGION: CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay RODE

    2012-01-01

    The use of electronic goods is growing fast because of innovations, low price and easy to use facilities. Due to higher income, standard of living and professional requirement, people are replacing the electronic goods very fast. Mumbai Municipal Corporation is generating high e-waste in Mumbai Metropolitan Region. In Thane district, Thane Municipal Corporation generates high e-waste but Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation generates low e-waste. E-waste generation is depending on population, hea...

  18. A customer profile of the Helsinki metropolitan area craft beer drinker

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Jonne

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to answer the question of who is the average craft beer consumer in the Helsinki metropolitan area. This is done with a quantitative research in the form of a questionnaire which was executed from December 2015 to March 2016. Justification of the topic lies in the current growth of the craft beer sector in Finland. There were 286 respondents to the questionnaire: 255 were qualified for analysis. The theoretical framework of the thesis consists of explaining beer as a be...

  19. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  20. Landslide Inventory in an Urban Setting in the Context of Chittagong Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. S.; Ahmed, B.; Huq, F. F.; Rahman, S.; Al-Hussaini, T.

    2016-01-01

    Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA) is vulnerable to landslide hazards with an increasing trend in frequency and damage. Devastating landslides have hit CMA repeatedly in recent years. Under a project financed through ICIMOD of Nepal, detail survey has been conducted to prepare an inventory of landslides in CMA. Landslide events have been observed to occur at times of much higher rainfall amount compared to the monthly average. Moreover, rapid urbanization, increased population ...