Sample records for leeds loughborough oakham

  1. Regulating the social impacts of studentification: a Loughborough case study


    Phil Hubbard


    Now a recognised phenomenon in many British cities, studentification is the process by which specific neighbourhoods become dominated by student residential occupation. Outlining the causes and consequences of this process, this paper suggests that studentification raises important questions about community cohesiveness and that intervention may be required by local authorities if social and cultural conflicts are to be avoided. Detailing the social impacts of studentification in Loughborough...

  2. Edward Loughborough Keyes: an early twentieth century leader in urology. (United States)

    Stahl, Peter J; Vaughan, E D; Belt, Edward S; Bloom, David A


    Edward Loughborough Keyes was a renowned urologist, decorated war hero, prolific writer and beloved professor. Having served as president of the American Association of Genitourinary Surgeons, the American Urological Association, the International Urological Society and the Clinical Urological Association, Keyes in large part steered the course of urology during the early twentieth century. We reviewed letters, original publications and historical records pertaining to Doctor Keyes found in the New York Hospital archives, the American Urological Association historical record, the medical literature and the popular press. Edward Loughborough Keyes, Jr. received his M.D. from Columbia in 1895, and went on to hold academic positions in urology at Georgetown, the New York Polyclinic Medical School, St. Vincent's Hospital, Memorial Hospital, New York University and at the Cornell University Medical College, where he spent most of his career. He authored the premier urology textbook of his day, Urology, and published prolifically on a myriad of urological conditions. Doctor Keyes served in World War I as consultant in urology to General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force. During the war he and Hugh Hampton Young led modern history's first public campaign against sexually transmitted disease, and in America he was one of the leaders of the American social hygiene movement from which contemporary sexual education evolved. He spoke Spanish and French fluently, wrote poetry and prose prolifically, and was beloved for his good humor. He died at the age of 75 in New York. Edward Loughborough Keyes is remembered as one of the great urologists of the early twentieth century.

  3. Leeds under a cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Before 26 April 1986 few people in the west had heard of Chernobyl. Then Chernobyl experienced the world's worst nuclear power station accident. In the wake of the disaster radioactivity fell on Britain and much of Europe. There was confusion and rumour on the television, in the papers and amongst ordinary people. What would the effect of the Chernobyl accident be? Was it safe to go out of doors? Was it safe to eat fresh vegetables? What was a safe level of radiation? What was a becquerel, a milliSievert or any of the other scientific terms with which we were bombarded by scientists and other experts? This booklet sets out to help answer these questions by looking at a hypothetical disaster at the nuclear power station at Heysham, near Morecambe in Lancashire. Using this scenario it shows what the worst consequences of a nuclear accident might be for the citizens of Leeds. It also explains in a straightforward way the meaning of many technical terms which will help you to understand the advice and comments of experts and to make your own judgement of what they say. (author)

  4. Energy Efficiency: Comparison between GREENSHIP and LEED


    Baharuddin; Rahim, Ramli


    This paper compares the energy efficiency in the two green building rating tools i.e. GREENSHIP and LEED. The study has been carried out by comparing the energy performance standard and the energy calculation method of both rating tools. GREENSHIP uses the OTTV (overall thermal transfer value) to measure the efficiency of energy use of the building design, while LEED uses ASHRAE standard for baseline building. The result shows that the energy standard uses in LEED rating tool is more stringen...

  5. LEED Credit Review System and Optimization Model for Pursuing LEED Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ouk Choi


    Full Text Available Incorporating sustainability in construction can result in desirable building attributes and project life cycle. The Leadership in Engineering and Environmental Design (LEED® Rating System helps project teams make the right green building decisions for their projects through a process. However, in current practice, project teams do not have a systematic procedure or tool for choosing the LEED credits appropriate for a particular project. The researchers have developed a tool, which support the LEED integrative process during a charrette, and developed an optimization model that can be utilized to assist project teams determine which credits to pursue for LEED certification, taking into account potential benefits associated with any LEED credit. The tool enables owners to incorporate sustainability in construction by helping the project teams make the right green building decisions for their projects through an integrated procedure.

  6. The specificity of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test for recreational soccer players is independent of their intermittent running ability. (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether or not recreational soccer players (SP) and non-soccer players (non-SP) with similar intermittent-running ability had similar physiological responses to a soccer match-simulation protocol. Twenty-two recreational SP and 19 fitness-matched non-SP participated. Yo-Yo level 1 assessed intermittent-running ability, while the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test served as soccer match-simulation protocol. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [La - ] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after each bout (1-5, plus an exhaustive task). SP had lower HR after the third, fourth and fifth bout, compared to non-SP. Similarly, SP had lower [La - ] after the third, fourth and the fifth bout. SP also had lower RPE after the third, fourth and fifth bout. The appropriateness of intermittent-running ability as the main determinant of physical performance in SP was questioned.

  7. Cost analysis of LEED certified United States navy buildings


    Kirar, Carl V.


    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document A study was completed at UW-Madison in 2010 that reviewed the energy consumption of US Navy buildings which earned Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). The research compared LEED certified buildings to a commercial counterpart within the US Navy inventory against Executive Order (EO) 13423. The EO mandated that all federal agencies meet a 30 percent reduction of...

  8. Reliability of contemporary data-acquisition techniques for LEED analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Davis, H.L.


    It is becoming clear that one of the principal limitations in LEED structure analysis is the quality of the experimental I-V profiles. This limitation is discussed, and data acquisition procedures described, which for simple systems, seem to enhance the quality of agreement between the results of theoretical model calculations and experimental LEED spectra. By employing such procedures to obtain data from Cu(100), excellent agreement between computed and measured profiles has been achieved. 7 figures

  9. Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Mancini, Sandra; Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada - Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa (Canada)


    We conducted a re-analysis of data supplied by the New Buildings Institute and the US Green Buildings Council on measured energy use data from 100 LEED-certified commercial and institutional buildings. These data were compared to the energy use of the general US commercial building stock. We also examined energy use by LEED certification level, and by energy-related credits achieved in the certification process. On average, LEED buildings used 18-39% less energy per floor area than their conventional counterparts. However, 28-35% of LEED buildings used more energy than their conventional counterparts. Further, the measured energy performance of LEED buildings had little correlation with certification level of the building, or the number of energy credits achieved by the building at design time. Therefore, at a societal level, green buildings can contribute substantial energy savings, but further work needs to be done to define green building rating schemes to ensure more consistent success at the individual building level. Note, these findings should be considered as preliminary, and the analyses should be repeated when longer data histories from a larger sample of green buildings are available. (author)

  10. Designing healthy communities: A walkability analysis of LEED-ND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran


    Full Text Available Prevailing city design in many countries has created sedentary societies that depend on automobile use. Consequently, architects, urban designers, and land planners have developed new urban design theories, which have been incorporated into the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND certification system. The LEED-ND includes design elements that improve human well-being by facilitating walking and biking, a concept known as walkability. Despite these positive developments, relevant research findings from other fields of study have not been fully integrated into the LEED-ND. According to Zuniga-Teran (2015, relevant walkability research findings from multiple disciplines were organized into a walkability framework (WF that organizes design elements related to physical activity into nine categories, namely, connectivity, land use, density, traffic safety, surveillance, parking, experience, greenspace, and community. In this study, we analyze walkability in the LEED-ND through the lens of the nine WF categories. Through quantitative and qualitative analyses, we identify gaps and strengths in the LEED-ND and propose potential enhancements to this certification system that reflects what is known about enhancing walkability more comprehensively through neighborhood design analysis. This work seeks to facilitate the translation of research into practice, which can ultimately lead to more active and healthier societies.

  11. Automated fenestration allocation as complying with LEED rating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Mohamed Talaat El Daly


    The allocation of windows, through the help of certain well known heuristic algorithms and simulation programs, could be reached automatically to compromise with the LEED rating system by achieving the required daylight amounts with a minimum solar radiation inside a particular building. This research shows a design method based on simulation techniques with the help of heuristic algorithms through a parametric design that automatically allocate windows to comply with LEED. At the end of the research, a small project is discussed for evaluating the design process.

  12. Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ET Willems


    Full Text Available New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract has been shown to enhance high-intensity intermittent treadmill running. We examined the effects of NZBC extract during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST which involves 5 × 15 min blocks with intermittent 15-m maximal sprints, interspersed by moderate and high-intensity running to simulate team sport activity, and a subsequent run to exhaustion. Thirteen males (age: 22 ± 1 year, V ˙ O 2 max : 50 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in three indoor sessions (T: 24 ± 3 °C, humidity: 52% ± 9%. In the first session, a multistage fitness test was completed to determine peak running speed and estimate V ˙ O 2 max . Participants consumed NZBC extract in capsules (300 mg·day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL (300 mg·day−1 microcrystalline cellulose M102 for seven days in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design (wash-out at least seven days. NZBC extract did not affect average 15-m sprint times in each block. NZBC reduced slowing of the fastest sprint between block 1 and 5 (PL: 0.12 ± 0.07 s; NZBC: 0.06 ± 0.12 s; p < 0.05. NZBC extract had no effect on heart rate, vertical jump power, lactate and time to exhaustion (PL: 13.44 ± 8.09 min, NZBC: 15.78 ± 9.40 min, p > 0.05. However, eight participants had higher running times to exhaustion when consuming NZBC extract. New Zealand blackcurrant extract may enhance performance in team sports with repeated maximal sprints.

  13. Cost Analysis of Leed Certified United States Navy Buildings (United States)


    employee productivity, investors seeking more socially conscious investments, and reputational issues that have been forcing the real estate sector...conscious investments, and reputational issues that have been forcing the real estate sector towards more efficient building techniques. LEED has...2011. 12. Macdonald, N., Cheng, D. Basic Finance for Marketers (Marketing and agribusiness texts - 1). Food and Agriculuture Organization of the

  14. Performance or marketing benefits? The case of LEED certification. (United States)

    Matisoff, Daniel C; Noonan, Douglas S; Mazzolini, Anna M


    Green building adoption is driven by both performance-based benefits and marketing based benefits. Performance based benefits are those that improve performance or lower operating costs of the building or of building users. Marketing benefits stem from the consumer response to green certification. This study illustrates the relative importance of the marketing based benefits that accrue to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) buildings due to green signaling mechanisms, specifically related to the certification itself are identified. Of course, all participants in the LEED certification scheme seek marketing benefits. But even among LEED participants, the interest in green signaling is pronounced. The green signaling mechanism that occurs at the certification thresholds shifts building patterns from just below to just above the threshold level, and motivates builders to cluster buildings just above each threshold. Results are consistent across subsamples, though nonprofit organizations appear to build greener buildings and engage in more green signaling than for-profit entities. Using nonparametric regression discontinuity, signaling across different building types is observed. Marketing benefits due to LEED certification drives organizations to build "greener" buildings by upgrading buildings at the thresholds to reach certification levels.

  15. Critical review of LEED system for rating sustainability of architecture of commercial interiors

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    Stevanović Sanja


    Full Text Available The LEED rating system for sustainability of architecture has gained large marketing potential in USA and became one of main ways American builders are attacking ecological challenges. In this paper the LEED rating system for commercial interiors is critically reviewed, pointing out its positive - focus on integrated design process - and negative impacts - low thresholds for highest ratings and tendency to gain LEED rating with projects that hardly pass the thresholds, largely neglecting the principles of energy efficiency. Based on a few prominent LEED platinum examples, the beginnings of a LEED style of designing interiors in historical landmark buildings are pointed out as well.

  16. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation. (United States)

    Lynch, Mallory


    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  17. Rumpel-Leede Phenomenon in a Hypertensive Lady on Amlodipine (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin


    We are describing a 60-year-old hypertensive lady who developed Rumpel-Leede phenomenon following the use of a tourniquet to obtain a blood sample. History revealed that she was on amlodipine therapy and that spontaneous sun-exposure related purpura was often seen since amlodipine was prescribed. Examinations and investigations provided normal results. She refused consent for a skin biopsy. Symptoms resolved after its substitution with enalapril and dihydrochlorothiazide, without any further recurrence. PMID:24959504

  18. A value-for-money solution in Leeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, M. [United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)


    A contract energy services scheme is described which supplies all the electric power, heating and chilling needs of the United Leeds Hospital and the University of Leeds campus. In order to meet current needs, a major expansion of capacity and reconfiguration of an existing GSC built as a joint venture between Leeds General Infirmary and the University in the 1970s was required. The estimated capital investment for the project was Pound 6.5 M. The decision to develop the project as an energy services scheme was taken in view of the technical complexity requiring project management and engineering skills not available either in the Hospital or the University. It has been successfully implemented and is meeting expectations in terms both of delivery of service and savings. The Hospital and University have avoided the need to obtain and invest capital themselves, the combination of more energy efficient equipment and better use of existing capacity have reduced revenue costs and management time has been reduced. Over the lifetime of the 20-year contract, savings of Pound 700,000 per annum on average are expected. (UK)

  19. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience. (United States)

    Trumper, Charlotte


    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team.

  20. A Study on the LEED Energy Simulation Process Using BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Soo Ryu


    Full Text Available In the domestic and international environmentally friendly certification system, energy-related credit occupies a high ratio in the total distribution of certification score Leadership in the Energy and Environmental Design (LEED system is a certification system developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC in order to assess the environmental friendliness of buildings. The energy-related credit is approximately 30% of the total and also the energy simulation ratio specifically is the highest among the single credits as it is 20%. In this research, the energy simulation process using Building Information Modeling (BIM based on the energy simulation case performed at the A-Tower, LEED certification was proposed. It places an emphasis on the verification process which was short in the previous research. The architectural geometry modeled through the BIM tool is converted to the gbXML, and in this process the geometry is verified through the interference check functions, the gbXML Viewer and the FZKViewer. The energy simulation is performed after the verification procedure. The geometry verification process in the A-Tower project is presented throughout this paper. In conclusion, an improved process is proposed for the productivity and reliability of energy simulation.

  1. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the Cookridge area of Leeds

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, K; Judd, P M; Lowe, A J; Shaw, J


    On the 8 and 9 May 2002 representatives of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) performed a radiofrequency electromagnetic field survey in the Cookridge area of Leeds in order to assess exposure to radio signals from transmitters mounted on a water tower/a lattice tower and a radio station tower. Guidelines on limiting exposure to radio signals have been published by NRPB and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are designed to prevent established adverse effects on human health. During this survey, the total exposures due to all radio signals from 30 MHz to 18000 MHz (18 GHz) were measured. This frequency range was chosen as it includes mobile phone base station transmissions, which are at around 900 and 1800 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) transmissions from most of the large microwave dish antennas mounted on the towers. In addition, other major sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the environment such as broadcast radio...

  2. Universidad de Leeds - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlin, -


    Full Text Available Located 1,500 m from the center of the city, the Leeds University complex actively participates in city life. Designed in the 60's and built later on, this architectonic complex is outstanding because it offers an «ideal» city, perfectly integrated in the «real» city and conditioned to its own needs, to a great extent. In the beginning, this challenge of converting this university complex with a capacity for 10,000 students, in an architectonically attractive urban center met with difficulties referring to traffic and parking problems corresponding to a city as large as the one projected; this obstacle was overcome by adequate organization of underground and overhead traffic arteries which reserved large garden areas exclusively for pedestrians, freeing them from the traffic congestion and offering the pleasant and relaxed atmosphere required. The large «campus» ¡s sub-divided into different garden areas, connected one to the other and In the center of each one we have a varied and complementary architecture, which breaks with the conventional monolithic style.Situado a 1.500 m del centro de la ciudad, el conjunto universitario de Leeds participa activamente de la misma. Concebido en la década de los 60, y construido posteriormente, este complejo arquitectónico se destaca por encerrar una propuesta de ciudad «ideal», perfectamente integrada en la ciudad «real» y sujeta en buena medida a sus mismas necesidades. La alternativa de convertir a este conjunto universitario, con capacidad para 10.000 estudiantes, en un núcleo urbano arquitectónicamente atractivo, tropezó inicialmente con los condicionamientos surgidos del tráfico, circulación y estacionamiento de vehículos, correspondientes a la magnitud de la ciudad proyectada; impedimento que fue resuelto de forma adecuada mediante la organización de una red subterránea y superficial de circulación vehicular, que reserva grandes espacios verdes para la circulaci

  3. Study of the local structure of binary surfaces by electron diffraction (XPS, LEED)


    Gereová, Katarína


    Study of local structure of binary surface with usage of ultra-thin film of cerium deposited on a Pd (111) single-crystal surface is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction (XPS, XPD), angle resolved UV photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used for our investigations. LEED and X-ray excited photoemission intensities results represent a surface-geometrical structure. As well, mapping of ultra-violet photoelectron intensities as a...

  4. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK, there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded.

  5. Regional Variations of Credits Obtained by LEED 2009 Certified Green Buildings—A Country Level Analysis

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    Peng Wu


    Full Text Available Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED is one of the most widely recognized green building rating systems. With more than 20% of the projects certified in non-United States (US countries, LEED’s global impact has been increasing and it is critically important for developers and regulatory authorities to understand LEED’s performance at the country level to facilitate global implementation. This study therefore aims to investigate the credit achievement pattern of LEED 2009, which is one of the well-developed versions of LEED, by using 4021 certified projects in the US, China, Turkey, and Brazil. The results show that significant differences can be identified on most rating categories, including sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design. Using a post hoc analysis, country-specific credit allocation patterns are also identified to help developers to understand existing country-specific green building practices. In addition, it is also found that there is unbalanced achievement of regional priority credits. The study offers a useful reference and benchmark for international developers and contractors to understand the regional variations of LEED 2009 and for regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Green Building Council, to improve the rating system, especially on designing regional priority credits.

  6. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Green Building Certification: The BIM-LEED Application Model Development (United States)

    Wu, Wei


    Building information modeling (BIM) and green building are currently two major trends in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This research recognizes the market demand for better solutions to achieve green building certification such as LEED in the United States. It proposes a new strategy based on the integration of BIM…

  7. Chemical reactivity and structural determination of metal and gaseous adsorbates on Cu{100} using TPD and LEED


    Younis Ahmed, Hamid M.


    The structures formed by adsorbing thin-film platinum, formic acid and oxygen on Cu{ 100} single crystal are investigated by quantitative low-energy electrondiffraction (LEED) and Temperature Programmed Reaction Spectroscopy (TPRS) Symmetrized Automated Tensor LEED (SATLEED) calculations are used to determine the structure of the formed surface alloys and overlayers. TPRS was used to probe the surface reactivity of the systems studied while surface composition was obtained using Auger Electro...

  8. An institutional approach: education for sustainable development at the University of Leeds


    Purvis, M; Young, CW; Marsh, C; Clarke, J


    Central to the strategic vision of the University of Leeds is the reaffirmation of the University’s commitment to provide an exceptional student experience centred on inspirational learning and teaching, grounded in world-class research. A key component of this vision is a major curriculum enhancement project. This chapter outlines the intent of this project, which reinforces existing provision that challenges undergraduate students to broaden their academic horizons and develop their capacit...

  9. Assessment of Energy Credits in LEED-Certified Buildings Based on Certification Levels and Project Ownership

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    Asli Pelin Gurgun


    Full Text Available Compared to other categories, the Energy and Atmosphere category contributes the most to the maximum obtainable points in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED certification system. The objective of the study was to identify the extent to which project teams take advantage of the credits in the Energy and Atmosphere category of LEED. This study analyzes the performance of practitioners in achieving points in the Energy and Atmosphere credits of LEED-New Construction (NC 2009 for 1500 buildings that received LEED certification in the US. For a better understanding of the credit patterns, the differences in the performance of practitioners are investigated relative to certification levels and project ownership. Achievement in credits is calculated in terms of percent of maximum points (PMP, since the maximum achievable points differ for each credit. Practitioners’ achievements in the credits were ranked as follows: (1 enhanced commissioning, (2 optimized energy performance, (3 enhanced refrigerant management, (4 green power, (5 measurement and verification, and (6 on-site renewable energy. The largest achievement differences were observed in the on-site renewable energy credit. Concerning building ownership, investors were found to optimize mostly energy efficiency and on-site renewable energy, but to mostly skip enhanced refrigerant management. Performance in the measurement and verification credit was similar for all owner types, whereas investors performed differently from corporations, and government agencies in the enhanced commissioning credit. Practitioners who recognize these priorities and differences are expected to be better positioned to make sustainability-related decisions in building design and construction.

  10. LEED structural analysis of GaAs(001)-c(4X4) surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Jiříček, Petr; Cukr, Miroslav; Bartoš, Igor

    566-568, - (2004), s. 89-93 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : electron-solid interactions * low energy electron diffraction(LEED) * molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) * surface relaxation and reconstruction * gallium arsenide * low index single crystal scattering * diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2004

  11. The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK. (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberley L


    To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 lower super-output areas. Children aged 3-14 years who lived within the Leeds metropolitan boundaries (n=33,594). The number of fast food outlets per area and the distance to the nearest fast food outlet from the child's home address. The weight status of the child: overweight, obese or neither. 27.1% of the children were overweight or obese with 12.6% classified as obese. There is a significant positive correlation (pfast food outlets and higher deprivation. A higher density of fast food outlets was significantly associated (p=0.02) with the child being obese (or overweight/obese) in the generalised estimating equation model which also included sex, age and deprivation. No significant association between distance to the nearest fast food outlet and overweight or obese status was found. There is a positive relationship between the density of fast food outlets per area and the obesity status of children in Leeds. There is also a significant association between fast food outlet density and areas of higher deprivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Indoor environmental quality differences between office types in LEED-certified buildings in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young S. [School of Planning, Design, and Construction, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Guerin, Denise A. [College of Design, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN 55108 (United States)


    The study compared IAQ, thermal quality, and lighting quality between 5 different office types in LEED-certified buildings in relation to employees' environmental satisfaction and their job performance. This was to provide workplaces where workers in each specific office environment could be provided with appropriate office settings regarding these IEQ criteria when organizations comply with LEED standards. The five types of office included private enclosed, private shared, open-plan with high cubicle over 5', open-plan with low cubicle lower than 5', and open-plan with no partitions (bullpen) offices. The study found IAQ enhanced workers' job performance in enclosed private offices more than both high cubicles and low cubicles. All four office types had higher satisfaction with the amount of light and visual comfort of light as well as more enhancement with job performance due to lighting quality than high cubicles. There was no difference in thermal quality between the five office types. IAQ and lighting quality were not different between enclosed private, enclosed shared, and bullpen office types, either. The study findings suggest a careful workplace design considering the height of partitions in LEED-certified buildings to improve employee's environmental satisfaction and job performance. (author)

  13. Investigation of reordered (001) Au surfaces by positive ion channeling spectroscopy, LEED and AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.; Noggle, T.S.; Miller, J.W.; Schow, O.E. III; Zehner, D.M.; Jenkins, L.H.; Barrett, J.H.


    As a consequence of the channeling phenomenon of positive ions in single crystals, the yield of ions Rutherford scattered from an oriented single crystal surface is dependent on the density of surface atoms exposed to the incident ion beam. Thus, the positive ion channeling spectroscopy (PICS) technique should provide a useful tool for studying reordered surfaces. This possibility was explored by examining the surfaces of epitaxially grown thin Au single crystals with the combined techniques of LEED-AES and PICS. The LEED and AES investigations showed that when the (001) surface was sputter cleaned in ultra-high vacuum, the normal (1 x 1) symmetry of the (001) surfaces reordered into a structure which gave a complex (5 x 20) LEED pattern. The yield and energy distributions of 1 MeV He ions scattered from the Au surfaces were used to determine the number of effective monolayers contributing to the normal and reordered surfaces. These combined measurements were used to characterize the nature of the reordered surface. The general applicability of the PICS technique for investigations of surface and near surface regions is discussed

  14. Evaluation of LEED for Neighbourhood Development and Envision Rating Frameworks for Their Implementation in Poorer Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Diaz-Sarachaga


    Full Text Available The unstoppable world population growth is increasing the concentration of people in urban settlements and the number of megacities, especially in developing countries where urbanization exacerbates social and economic inequalities. Green rating systems have been launched during the last decades to facilitate the assessment of sustainable development in terms of building and infrastructure, including the evaluation of sustainable urban development through the study of communities. This article assesses two of the most renowned sustainable rating systems through the prism of economy, environment and society and the international actions undertaken toward the promotion of sustainable development worldwide, in order to determine their effectiveness to assess urban development in poorer nations. Hence, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighbourhood Development (LEED ND and Envision, both from the United States, were chosen as representatives of building and infrastructure fields, respectively, so that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and the New Urban Agenda (Habitat III were the benchmarks selected to define the sustainability aspects required to evaluate their potential application in less developed countries. The absence of metrics in the New Urban Agenda led to relate its commitments to the SDGs, which revealed that the prerequisites and credits included in LEED ND and Envision mainly focused on managerial and environmental aspects and disregarded the economic and social dimensions. Consequently, the premises under which LEED ND and Envision were developed must be updated and complemented with the two latest guidelines recently adopted by the United Nations in the field of urban and sustainable development.

  15. Walkable new urban LEED_Neighborhood-Development (LEED-ND) community design and children's physical activity: selection, environmental, or catalyst effects? (United States)


    Background Interest is growing in physical activity-friendly community designs, but few tests exist of communities explicitly designed to be walkable. We test whether students living in a new urbanist community that is also a pilot LEED_ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-Neighborhood Development) community have greater accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) across particular time periods compared to students from other communities. We test various time/place periods to see if the data best conform to one of three explanations for MVPA. Environmental effects suggest that MVPA occurs when individuals are exposed to activity-friendly settings; selection effects suggest that walkable community residents prefer MVPA, which leads to both their choice of a walkable community and their high levels of MVPA; catalyst effects occur when walking to school creates more MVPA, beyond the school commute, on schooldays but not weekends. Methods Fifth graders (n = 187) were sampled from two schools representing three communities: (1) a walkable community, Daybreak, designed with new urbanist and LEED-ND pilot design standards; (2) a mixed community (where students lived in a less walkable community but attended the walkable school so that part of the route to school was walkable), and (3) a less walkable community. Selection threats were addressed through controlling for parental preferences for their child to walk to school as well as comparing in-school MVPA for the walkable and mixed groups. Results Minutes of MVPA were tested with 3 × 2 (Community by Gender) analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). Community walkability related to more MVPA during the half hour before and after school and, among boys only, more MVPA after school. Boys were more active than girls, except during the half hour after school. Students from the mixed and walkable communities--who attended the same school--had similar in-school MVPA levels, and community groups

  16. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  17. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J


    .... Taking this vision into account, the individual credits that comprise LEED are designed to reward design teams for employing sustainable design strategies that reduce the total environmental impact...

  18. A study of the effects of computer animation on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Nilforooshan


    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing research aimed at investigating the efficacy of computer animations in improving college students’ learning of building sustainability concepts and practices. The use of animations in educational contexts is not new, however scientific evidence that supports their effectiveness as educational materials is still limited. This paper reports an experiment that explored the impact of an educational digital animation, called “LEED-ERS”, on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. Specifically, the animation focused on the LEED category of Sustainable Site. Results of a study with 68 students show that viewing the animation led to an increase in subjects’ declarative knowledge by 15%. Compared to traditional learning methods (e.g. reading assignments with static images, viewing the animation led to significantly higher declarative knowledge gains.

  19. LEED crystallography studies of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Ir, Pt and Rh crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koestner, R.J.


    There have only been a few Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses carried out to determine the structure of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces; most surface crystallography studies concentrated on the structure of clean unreconstructed or atomic adsorbate-covered transition metal faces. The few molecular adsorption systems already investigated by dynamical LEED are CO on Ni(100), Cu(100) and Pd(100) as well as C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 4 adsorbed on Pt(111). The emphasis of this thesis research has been to extend the applicability of LEED crystallography to the more complicated unit cells found in molecular overlayers on transition metals or in there constructed surfaces of clean transition metals

  20. LEED crystallography studies of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Ir, Pt and Rh crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, R.J.


    There have only been a few Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses carried out to determine the structure of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces; most surface crystallography studies concentrated on the structure of clean unreconstructed or atomic adsorbate-covered transition metal faces. The few molecular adsorption systems already investigated by dynamical LEED are CO on Ni(100), Cu(100) and Pd(100) as well as C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ adsorbed on Pt(111). The emphasis of this thesis research has been to extend the applicability of LEED crystallography to the more complicated unit cells found in molecular overlayers on transition metals or in there constructed surfaces of clean transition metals.

  1. Academic Reading Strategies used by Leeds Metropolitan University Graduates: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sohail


    Full Text Available Academic reading is different from other forms of reading because it is complex and discipline-specific. It involves a measured, challenging, and multifaceted process in which students are dynamically engaged with a range of reading strategies. Academic reading improvement is possible, provided students work on it and there are no short cuts or remedies which will cure the reading problems. Reading improvement is hard work and a difficult task, but it is rewarding as well. This study examined the selection and use of academic reading strategies used by the undergraduate and postgraduate students studying at Leeds Metropolitan University, Headingley Campus, Leeds. A quantitative data study was carried out to investigate three aspects of academic reading strategies: (a efficiency, (b interacting with texts, and (c critical reading strategies. The results of this survey suggest that the participants on balance have proficient reading skills, but a significant number of participants have ineffective reading strategies and bad reading habits. Recommendations and suggestions have been put forward to improve academic reading strategies and for further research.

  2. Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED): Norms for emoji and emoticons in seven evaluative dimensions. (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Prada, Marília; Gaspar, Rui; Garrido, Margarida V; Lopes, Diniz


    The use of emoticons and emoji is increasingly popular across a variety of new platforms of online communication. They have also become popular as stimulus materials in scientific research. However, the assumption that emoji/emoticon users' interpretations always correspond to the developers'/researchers' intended meanings might be misleading. This article presents subjective norms of emoji and emoticons provided by everyday users. The Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED) comprises 238 stimuli: 85 emoticons and 153 emoji (collected from iOS, Android, Facebook, and Emojipedia). The sample included 505 Portuguese participants recruited online. Each participant evaluated a random subset of 20 stimuli for seven dimensions: aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. Participants were additionally asked to attribute a meaning to each stimulus. The norms obtained include quantitative descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) and a meaning analysis for each stimulus. We also examined the correlations between the dimensions and tested for differences between emoticons and emoji, as well as between the two major operating systems-Android and iOS. The LEED constitutes a readily available normative database (available at ) with potential applications to different research domains.

  3. Characterization of Si(112) and In/Si(112) studied by SPA-LEED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, Jan; Speckmann, Moritz; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)


    High index surfaces are of strong interest in todays research because of the possibility to grow low dimensional structures. It has for instance already been shown that the adsorption of Ga can induce the formation of 1D metal chains on Si(112) (cf. Snijders et al., PRB 72, 2005). In this work we investigated the clean Si(112) surface and the adsorption of In on Si(112) to establish an analogy to Ga/Si(112) using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). By means of reciprocal space mapping we determined the bare Si(112) surface to be decomposed into alternating (5512) and (111) facets in [1 anti 10] direction with (2 x 1) and (7 x 7) reconstruction, respectively (cf. Baski et al., Surf. Sci. 392, 1997). With SPA-LEED we were able to observe the decreasing intensity of the facet spots in-situ while depositing In on Si(112) and thus reveal the smoothening of the surface due to the deposition of In. At saturation coverage we found a (3.x1) reconstruction, where x is dependent on the deposition temperature and changes from x=7 at 400 C to x=5 at 500 C. This leads us to the assumption that the reconstruction is not incommensurate but a mixture of (3 x 1) and (4 x 1) building blocks, which is very similar to the super structure of Ga on Si(112).

  4. The use of the Leeds test tools in evaluating image intensifiers fitted to fluoroscopic x-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnell, S.A.; Hamilton, D.J.


    A set of specialised phantoms for the non-invasive testing of the image intensifiers and associated television equipment fitted to fluoroscopic x-ray machines has been developed in the Medical Physics Department of the University of Leeds. The Radiation Control Section of the South Australian Health Commission has acquired a set of the Leeds Test Tools to use in its program of inspecting and testing diagnotic x-ray equipment. The tools and their use are described, and some preliminary results for South Australia are given

  5. The two-glass-building in Ratingen. LEED platin for the Coca-Cola headquarter; Das Zwei-Scheiben-Haus in Ratingen. LEED-Platin fuer die Coca-Cola-Zentrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerres, Eberhard


    In order to receive the eco-labeled LEED platinum category, a good planning is essential. In the construction of a new administration building in Ratingen (Federal Republic of Germany), many details have been considered up to the use of ecologically unquestionable building materials. Thus, these details were very purposeful.

  6. CO{sub 2} neutral living and working. LEED project Dockside Green in Canada; CO{sub 2}-neutral leben, wohnen und arbeiten. LEED-Projekt Dockside Green in Kanada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz, Christian


    In the western Canadian city of Victoria a new residential quarter and commercial quarter is uprisen on the area of a closed down harbour. The ambiguous goal: Every 26 buildings of this project shall achieve the LEED certification of the highest level: platinum.

  7. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D.F.


    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  8. On the contraction of the W(001)-(1x1) surface using LEED intensity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, M.N.; Russell, G.J.


    Three recent independent attempts at reducing the W(001)-(1x1) surface structure by LEED beam intensity analysis have yielded contractions of the topmost layer spacing of 6+-6%, 11+-2%, 4.4+-3% normal to the surface plane. The authors investigate possible reasons for the discrepancies by comparing published experimental and theoretical profiles of these workers as well as their own. Their main conclusions are that the direct comparison of experimental data of different investigators shows deviations which are comparable to the changes in the calculated profiles for various surface contractions. Also the deviations between calculated intensity profiles using different (but still realistic) assumed scattering potentials are comparable to the changes in the calculated profiles for various surface contractions. (Auth.)

  9. Uno strumento per la creazione di valore nella realizzazione di edifici sostenibili: la certificazione LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rick Fedrizzi


    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro ha l’obiettivo di delineare gli aspetti chiave della sostenibilità in ambito edilizio focalizzando l’attenzione sul sistema di certificazione LEED® quale strumento “universale” di supporto per la realizzazione, gestione e valutazione di edifici sostenibili. Nella prima parte del lavoro si descrive la rapida diffusione della certificazione LEED nel recente passato quale diretta conseguenza della capacità di questo strumento di rating di adattarsi sia alle specifiche tipologie di edifici, sia alle diversità climatiche e morfologiche dei siti. Nella seconda parte si procede invece a presentare ed analizzare gli aspetti economico-finanziari degli edifici sostenibili con riferimento sia alle metodologie valutative applicabili, sia ai dati della letteratura. Partendo dalle esperienze internazionali in tema di sostenibilità, si procede successivamente a descrivere la situazione italiana, evidenziando la percezione del mercato e le opportunità di sviluppo future.

  10. The UPD of copper on Pt(100): a first quantitative structure determination by LEED (United States)

    Aberdam, D.; Gauthier, Y.; Durand, R.; Faure, R.


    The adsorption of copper on platinum, obtained by electrochemical underpotential deposition (UPD), is a complex phenomenon. As observed by cyclic voltammetry, the underpotential is not limited to a narrow, well defined range of electrochemical potentials, but is spread out on a wide range of potentials. On the Pt(100) surface, a lack of reversibility of adsorption and desorption occurs, and a gradual change in the voltammogram shape takes place under potential cycling. In this paper, we describe a first "ex situ" low energy electron diffraction (LEED) structure investigation of that system, for a copper coverage of about {2}/{3} of a monolayer. The main result is that copper clusters in 2D islands with p(1 × 1) structure and a density of one Cu per Pt atom.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.H. Moll


    Full Text Available SUMMARY In the 1960s, Professor Verna Wright became increasingly interested in possible relationships between certain seronegative “variants of rheumatoid arthritis”, as they were then generally known. At the Rheumatism Research Unit, a department within the division of medicine at Leeds University, he gathered around him a succession of research workers, whom he inspired to study aspects of these relationships. The focus was on family studies, as it was thought that genetic factors could be important. The striking association previously noted between sacroiliitis or full-blown ankylosing spondylitis and several of these disorders to be studied - e.g., psoriatic arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and the arthritis associated with Crohn’s disease - was to be central for each of these studies. As a provisional collective name for these possibly related conditions, the term “Spondarthritides” was chosen. These were the days before HLA B27, and so the research tools were simply clinical, radiological (for sacroiliitis and serological (for rheumatoid factor. The research programme confirmed not only links between the primary disorders with ankylosing spondylitis, but also links between the disorders themselves. Over subsequent years, the spondarthritis concept (dubbed by some “The Leeds Idea” has gained further strength from HLA studies internationally. And membership of the group of conditions fulfilling spondarthritis criteria has grown substantially. It is hoped that this now consolidated framework of spondylitis-related entities will pave the way for further research, with exciting prospects of gene-based prevention and/or cure through the increasing sophistication of molecular biology. Key words: Seronegative spondarthritides, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spndylitis

  12. A survey of job satisfaction, sources of stress and psychological symptoms among general practitioners in Leeds. (United States)

    Appleton, K; House, A; Dowell, A


    The past seven years have seen rapid changes in general practice in the United Kingdom (UK), commencing with the 1990 contract. During the same period, concern about the health and morale of general practitioners (GPs) has increased and a recruitment crisis has developed. To determine levels of psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, and subjective ill health in GPs and their relationship to practice characteristics, and to compare levels of job satisfaction since the introduction of the 1990 GP contract with those found before 1990. Postal questionnaire survey of all GP principals on the Leeds Health Authority list. The main outcome measures included quantitative measures of practice characteristics, job satisfaction, mental health (General Health Questionnaire), and general physical health. Qualitative statements about work conditions, job satisfaction, and mental health were collected. A total of 285/406 GPs (70%) returned the questionnaires. One hundred and forty-eight (52%) scored 3 or more on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which indicates a high level of psychological symptoms. One hundred and sixty GPs (56%) felt that work had affected their recent physical health. Significant associations were found between GHQ-12 scores, total job satisfaction scores, and GPs' perceptions that work had affected their physical health. Problems with physical and mental health were associated with several aspects of workload, including list size, number of sessions worked per week, amount of time spent on call, and use of deputizing services. In the qualitative part of the survey, GPs reported overwork and excessive hours, paperwork and administration, recent National Health Service (NHS) changes, and the 1990 GP contract as the most stressful aspects of their work. Fifty-two per cent of GPs in Leeds who responded showed high levels of psychological symptoms. Job satisfaction was lower than in a national survey conducted in 1987, and GPs expressed the least

  13. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J


    The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Building Assessment System is a performance-based tool for determining the environmental impact of a facility from the whole-building perspective...

  14. Structural and electronic analysis of Hf on Si(1 1 1) surface studied by XPS, LEED and XPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carazzolle, M.F. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Schuermann, M.; Fluechter, C.R.; Weier, D. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); Berges, U. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D44227 Dortmund (Germany); Siervo, A. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Landers, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kleiman, G.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Westphal, C. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D44227 Dortmund (Germany)


    In this work, we present a systematic electronic and structural study of the Hf-silicide formation upon annealing on Si(1 1 1) surface. The electronic structure and surface composition were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). To determine the atomic structure of the surface alloy we used low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron diffraction (XPD). It was possible to verify that, after 600 deg. C annealing, there is alloy formation and after 700 deg. C the Hf diffusion process is predominant. Using LEED and XPD measurements we detected the ordered island formation simultaneously with alloy formation.

  15. Analysis of non-spherical grid geometry for distortion-free LEED apparatus with micro channel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Tatsuo; Ohsaki, Akihiko; Sakurai, Makoto; Honda, Tohru; Tuzi, Yutaka


    A design of non-spherical grid structure for the distortion-free LEED apparalus with a micro channel plate (MCP) is described. The grid structure is assumed as an interface of two electrostatic potentials. The potential interface refracts the diffracted electrons and the LEED patterns can be projected on the MCP just like those observed on a spherical fluorescent screen. The shape of the potential interface is described by a differential equation and numerically calculated for several conditions. The most appropriate geometry is determined by the easiness of the mechanical construction. The effect of energy distribution of diffracted electrons is numerically estimated and the deviation is proved to be negligibly small for most applications. (author)

  16. PLEASE: The Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE – Enabling Rapid Analysis of LEEM and LEED Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Grady


    Full Text Available PLEASE, the Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE, provides an open source and cross-platform graphical user interface (GUI for rapid analysis and visualization of low energy electron microscopy (LEEM data sets. LEEM and the associated technique, selected area micro-spot low energy electron diffraction (μ-LEED, are powerful tools for analysis of the surface structure for many novel materials. Specifically, these tools are uniquely suited for the characterization of two-dimensional materials. PLEASE offers a user-friendly point-and-click method for extracting intensity-voltage curves from LEEM and LEED data sets. Analysis of these curves provides insight into the atomic structure of the target material surface with unparalleled resolution.

  17. Implementation of the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEEDS (trademark) as the Army’s Green Building Rating System (United States)


    Child Development Center Installation: Fort McPherson Project Manager: Morris, Timothy C. Project Status: Approved District SSD POC: Milton, Judith F...Number: 053321 Project Description: Recruiting Brigade Operations B Installation: Fort Gillem Project Manager: Morris, Timothy C Project Status...Martinez, Stephen B. Project Status: oved District SSD POC: Raney , Jeff P. SPiRiT (Actual): 61 (Gold) LEED (Estimated): 31 (Silver) LEED

  18. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB: a protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the

  19. LEED, Its Efficacy and Fallacy in a Regional Context—An Urban Heat Island Case in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Shin


    Full Text Available The use of energy in the building sector has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Accordingly, various building assessment methods have developed in green building practices. However, the questions still remain in regard to how positively green buildings affect regional surroundings. This study investigates the possible relationship between LEED-certified buildings and urban heat island effect. Using GIS with spatial regression, the study found that constructing an LEED building in a 30-m boundary could possibly lower the temperature of the surrounding environment by 0.35 °C. Also, having a higher certification level, such as Gold or Platinum, increased the lowering effect by 0.48 °C, while a lower certification level, such as Certified or Silver, had a lowering effect of 0.26 °C. Although LEED has gained a substantial amount of interest and skepticism at the same time, the study results could be a potential sign that the Sustainable Sites Credits or energy-efficient materials play a positive role in lowering the temperature.

  20. Life-cycle thinking and the LEED rating system: global perspective on building energy use and environmental impacts. (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M


    This research investigates the relationship between energy use, geographic location, life cycle environmental impacts, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The researchers studied worldwide variations in building energy use and associated life cycle impacts in relation to the LEED rating systems. A Building Information Modeling (BIM) of a reference 43,000 ft(2) office building was developed and situated in 400 locations worldwide while making relevant changes to the energy model to meet reference codes, such as ASHRAE 90.1. Then life cycle environmental and human health impacts from the buildings' energy consumption were calculated. The results revealed considerable variations between sites in the U.S. and international locations (ranging from 394 ton CO2 equiv to 911 ton CO2 equiv, respectively). The variations indicate that location specific results, when paired with life cycle assessment, can be an effective means to achieve a better understanding of possible adverse environmental impacts as a result of building energy consumption in the context of green building rating systems. Looking at these factors in combination and using a systems approach may allow rating systems like LEED to continue to drive market transformation toward sustainable development, while taking into consideration both energy sources and building efficiency.

  1. Promoting Independent Language Learning Cross- Campus at the University of Leeds through a Self- Access Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Schneider


    Full Text Available The Language Centre at the University of Leeds concentrates on the full range of language training and preparation courses, both for pre-sessional and for current university students. These courses relate both to the learning of English and of foreign languages. The Self-Access Area constitutes the Language Centre’s resource library for language learning materials and supports learners on Language Centre and other modern language courses, as well as independent language learners from across the university. Catering for approximately 11,000 users, the Self-Access Area opens, on average, for 46 hours per week, with evening and Saturday opening times during term time and exam weeks. Among the services that the Self-Access Area provides are a wide range of language learning resources in print and various audiovisual formats, induction tours, an up-to-date online library catalogue and a social media presence. As part of the Language Centre, the Self- Access Area team is connected with staff and students across the university. The service also offers a range of opportunities which encourage human interaction both amongst language learners and between learners and specialists. It also acts as a flexible social and study space. The main initiatives or valuable ‘accessories’ for language learning to be discussed in this brief overview are: Language learning advising; Language exchange; and Conversation sessions

  2. Titanium dioxide surfaces and interfaces studied using ESDIAD, LEED and STM

    CERN Document Server

    Cocks, I D


    resolved into two contributions: H atoms bonded at the oxide substrate, and the rupture of the C-H bonds of the acetate. It is proposed that acetates are bridge bonded with five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + ions, with their molecular plane perpendicular to the surface. Decomposition of acetate at room temperature occurs under electron beam radiation, desorbing CH sub 2 CO and CH sub 3 /CH sub 4. Adsorption of benzoic acid at the TiO sub 2 (110) surface is dissociative, forming benzoate and surface hydroxyls. Adsorbed benzoate is bonded with the five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + cations, forming a pseudo (2x1) overlayer at a saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. Attractive interactions between benzoate aromatic rings leads to the formation of dimerised benzoate rows along the [001] direction. TiO sub 2 surfaces have been studied by electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The TiO sub 2 (100) surface was stu...

  3. Allbutt of Leeds and Duchenne de Boulogne: Newly discovered insights on Duchenne by a British neuropsychiatrist. (United States)

    Reynolds, E H; Broussolle, E


    It is well-established that Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (1806-1875), and Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) were the founding fathers of Parisian and French neurology during the second half of the 19th century, although much more is known about Charcot than about his "master" Duchenne. In Britain, Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836-1925) was Leeds' most distinguished physician of the 19th century, eventually becoming Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge. Allbutt's 1860-1861 year of postgraduate study in Paris and his friendship with Duchenne profoundly influenced his own contributions to nervous system and mental diseases, partly in collaboration with his colleague James Crichton-Browne (1840-1938) at the nearby West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield, Yorkshire. The present report briefly recalls the careers of Duchenne and Allbutt, and also presents a unique account by Allbutt of Duchenne in action at the height of his powers, investigating and defining the previously uncharted field of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of his localized electrization techniques. This account is discussed in relation to: Duchenne's personality and pioneering neurological achievements; the origins of French neurology; and the development of Anglo-French neurological relationships during the 19th century. Interestingly, both Duchenne and Crichton-Browne separately made important and much-appreciated contributions to the third major book by Charles Darwin (1809-1882), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, published in 1872. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon Footprint of Housing in the Leeds City Region - A Best Practice Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, John; Dawkins, Elena (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden))|(Univ. of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom))


    The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) was commissioned by the Environment Agency to carry out a carbon footprint analysis of the housing sector, using the Leeds City Region (LCR) as an example. The aim was to determine our ability to meet the 80 per cent by 2050 challenge of energy efficiency in the housing sector. The study relates specifically to LCR but its findings will help any planning and development teams make the right decisions and gain the resources necessary to meet carbon budgets at regional and local levels. With a growing population and an additional 263,000 housing units to be built within LCR by 2026, the housing sector would need to reduce its expected total carbon dioxide emissions by 38 million tonnes between 2010 and 2026 to be on track for 80 per cent savings in 2050. The report outlines the most detailed analysis to date of the required measures to deliver a growth-based regional housing strategy, alongside reducing carbon emissions. If the city region's new and existing housing is to attain the levels of energy efficiency necessary to deliver these carbon savings, big changes will be required in the way we build, maintain and run our homes over the next 20 years. There are pockets of good practice already in the region and the study shows that by combining innovative measures on construction standards, improvements to existing housing, low and zero carbon technologies and changing behaviour of householders, LCR can achieve the necessary savings to meet its carbon budget

  5. Strategic energy planning within local authorities in the UK: A study of the city of Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, Catherine S.E.; Foxon, Timothy J.; Hannon, Matthew J.; Gale, William F.


    This paper considers the development of a strategic energy body in a local authority in the UK and looks at the perceived need for, and possible roles of, such a body. Historically, energy provision and management has not usually been a strategic priority for UK local authorities. Yet energy considerations are implicit in key local authority responsibilities such as transport, waste management, planning, and the provision of housing services. In addition, recent UK central government policies support the move to localism and provide incentives for low-carbon energy generation. A study was undertaken to assess the potential (including both the perceived benefits and actual capacity to deliver) for Leeds City Council to develop a strategic body to execute delivery of city-level energy decision-making. We examine the perceived benefits to a range of main stakeholders, using data drawn from interviews with managers responsible for low-carbon and renewable energy projects across the city. Through participant observation we explore the capacity of a local authority to deliver a strategic energy body, and we briefly examine the possible forms of delivery. We conclude with recommendations for national policy that would enable the development of strategic energy bodies across local governments in the UK. - Highlights: ► Strategic energy planning is currently not a priority for UK local authorities. ► We present an empirical study of strategic energy planning in local authorities. ► Results from stakeholder interviews suggest support for a strategic energy body. ► We identify the capacity barriers to implementing a strategic energy body. ► We make recommendations for ways forward and support needed from national policy.

  6. The Leeds food preference questionnaire after mild sleep restriction - A small feasibility study. (United States)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Zant, Janneke C; Aussems, Audrey; Faatz, Vivian; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, Andries


    Besides the increased sedentary lifestyle and increased caloric intake, changes in dietary composition may play an important role in the increased prevalence of obesity. Because inadequate sleep could be a risk factor in the aetiology of obesity, reliable methods for assessing food intake and food choice after sleep restriction are needed. We translated the Leeds food preference questionnaire (LFPQ), addressing preferences for sweet/savoury tastes and low-fat/high-fat foods, into Dutch, and tested it in 15 mildly sleep-restricted psychology students. The participants completed the LFPQ in our laboratory on two separate occasions, with approximately one week in between. Sleep on the preceding night was not controlled, but mild sleep-restriction was confirmed by a short sleep latency test (sSLT) or a short maintenance of wakefulness test (sMWT). Each participant completed the sSLT and sMWT once, just before the LFPQ, in a cross-over design randomised for the first test. Differences were present in preferences for food items from different categories (sweet/savoury and low-fat/high-fat; pchoice frequencies for various food categories were comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The choice frequencies for individual items were also comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The LFPQ is easily implemented under mild sleep-restricted conditions, and translation is straightforward. Future studies using the LFPQ after sleep restriction could elucidate if restricting sleep or longer periods affects food choice, which could underlie increases in obesity risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing and Developing the Application of LEED Green Building Rating System as a Sustainable Project Management and Market Tool in the Italian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa S. E. Ismaee


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the recent introduction of the LEED system to the Italian context in order to assess its role to promote sustainable building process in the Italian context, pointing out its potentials on one hand as well as their gaps and limitations on the other hand, and suggests means for its future development. The study discusses the application of LEED as a ‘Sustainable Project management tool’ to guide sustainable building performance. This requires investigating the following: its structure, tools, assessment criteria along with its benchmarks and references. It also discusses the application of LEED as a ‘Sustainable building Certification and market tool’. This investigates the role and value of the LEED certification in the Italian Green market. The research method is comprised of three parts. The first part is a comparative analysis of LEED categories against Italian national initiatives for sustainability. The comparison showed that most LEED categories are already mandated by national norms and directives but they may differ in their stringency creating some areas of precedence of LEED system or drawbacks. This streamlines the adaptation process of LEED system to the Italian context. The second part investigates LEED projects’ market analysis. The result showed that the shift towards a sustainable building process is occurring slowly and on a vertical scale focusing on some building sectors rather than others. Its market diffusion in the Italian context faces challenges regarding the insufficient availability of green materials and products satisfying its requirements, as well as high soft cost of sustainability tests and expertise required. The Third part presents a practical review-citing the methodology and results of a survey conducted by the researchers in mid-2012. It is composed of a web-based questionnaire and interviews among a sample of LEED professionals in Italy. The result shows that LEED systems needs

  8. The use of Leeds Test Objects in the assessment of the performance of radiological imaging systems: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.


    Over the preceding decade the Leeds Radiological Imaging Group have developed a range of test objects with which to assess the performance of radiological imaging systems. The types of imaging equipment which can be assessed include X-ray image intensifier television systems, small-format 100mm/105mm fluorography systems and radiographic screen-film combinations. We have recently extended our interest to the evaluation of digital radiological imaging equipment including digital subtraction fluorography and digital (greyscale) radiographic imaging systems. These test objects were initially developed for the purpose of evaluating imaging performance under laboratory conditions but they have also proved useful under field (clinical) conditions. (author)

  9. Osteolisis tibial secundaria a un implante ligamentoso de Leeds-Keio: Presentación de un caso


    Zafra, M.A.; Ballester, J.; Román, Manuel; Carpintero Benítez, Pedro


    Hasta hace algunos años, el ligamento artificial de Leeds-Keio, se usó en muchos casos para la reconstrucción de lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior. Hoy día no se usa para este tipo de lesiones debido a los pobres resultados que se observaron a medio y largo plazo. No obstante, su uso está indicado en otras lesiones, como son la reconstrucción del aparato extensor de la rodilla, y en inestabilidades del hombro y de la columna vertebral. Presentamos un caso de osteolisis masiva del platil...

  10. Single-layer ZnS supported on Au(111): A combined XPS, LEED, STM and DFT study (United States)

    Deng, Xingyi; Sorescu, Dan C.; Lee, Junseok


    Single-layer of ZnS, consisting of one atomic layer of ZnS(111) plane, has been grown on Au(111) and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). While the LEED measurement indicates a coincidence structure of ZnS-(3×3)/Au(111)-(4×4), high resolution STM images reveal hexagonal unit cells of 6.7×6.7 Å2 and 11.6×11.6 Å2, corresponding to √3 and 3 times the unit cell of the ideal zincblende ZnS-(1×1), respectively, depending on the tunneling conditions. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indicate a significantly reconstructed non-planar structure of ZnS single-layer on Au(111) with 2/3 of the S anions being located nearly in the plane of the Zn cations and the rest 1/3 of the S anions protruding above the Zn plane. The calculated STM image shows similar characteristics to those of the experimental STM image. Additionally, the DFT calculations reveal the different bonding nature of the S anions in ZnS single-layer supported on Au(111).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna de Lima Medeiros


    Full Text Available The research intended to analyze the adoption process of the green certification “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED from the hotel sector establishments that has already adopted it. For its concretization it was proceeded a bibliographical research, secondary fact-gathering in journals, institutional sites and documentaries, and primary fact-gathering by means of semi structured interviews carried out with responsible people of the certified hotels and of the responsible entity of the certification in Brazil (Green Building Council Brazil. There were 21 interviewee, being 02 of the GBC Brazil and 19 of means of lodging (31% of the certified. For data analysis, it was utilized content analysis technique with the aid of ATLAS.ti software. The results permitted to identify the chronology of the processes of certification and the profile of the hotel categories that adopt the LEED program. Beyond that, the interviews enabled the discussion of the initial motivations for seeking the certification, as well the advantages and the obstacles perceived regarding its adoption.

  12. Energy efficiency benchmarks and the performance of LEED rated buildings for Information Technology facilities in Bangalore, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabapathy, Ashwin; Ragavan, Santhosh K.V.; Vijendra, Mahima; Nataraja, Anjana G. [Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd, 90, Hosur Road, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068 (India)


    This paper provides a summary of an energy benchmarking study that uses performance data of a sample of Information Technology facilities in Bangalore. Information provided by the sample of occupiers was used to develop an Energy Performance Index (EPI) and an Annual Average hourly Energy Performance Index (AAhEPI), which takes into account the variations in operation hours and days for these facilities. The EPI and AAhEPI were modelled to identify the factors that influence energy efficiency. Employment density, size of facility, operating hours per week, type of chiller and age of facility were found to be significant factors in regression models with EPI and AAhEPI as dependent variables. Employment density, size of facility and operating hours per week were standardised and used in a separate regression analysis. Parameter estimates from this regression were used to normalize the EPI and AAhEPI for variance in the independent variables. Three benchmark ranges - the bottom third, middle third and top third - were developed for the two normalised indices. The normalised EPI and AAhEPI of LEED rated building, which were also part of the sample, indicate that, on average, LEED rated buildings outperform the other buildings. (author)

  13. Reducing the V2O3(0001) surface through electron bombardment – a quantitative structure determination with I/V-LEED


    Feiten, F.; Kuhlenbeck, H.; Freund, H.


    The (0001) surface of vanadium sesquioxide, V2O3, is terminated by vanadyl groups under standard ultra high vacuum preparation conditions. Reduction with electrons results in a chemically highly active surface with a well-defined LEED pattern indicating a high degree of order. In this work we report the first quantitative structure determination of a reduced V2O3(0001) surface. We identify two distinct surface phases by STM, one well ordered and one less well ordered. I/V-LEED shows the order...

  14. Surface structure and electronic states of epitaxial β-FeSi.sub.2./sub.(100)/Si(001) thin films: Combined quantitative LEED, ab initio DFT, and STM study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Hattori, K.; Someta, M.; Daimon, H.


    Roč. 90, č. 15 (2014), "155305-1"-"155305-9" ISSN 1098-0121 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101201; Murata Science Foundation(JP) Project n. 00295 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : iron silicide * LEED I-V * DFT * STM * surface reconstruction * surface states Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  15. Effects of Contract Delivery Method on the LEED(trademark) Score of U.S. Navy Military Construction Projects (Fiscal Years 2004-2006) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Deanna S


    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 484 KB. ABSTRACT: This research study focused on determining the effects that the two major contract delivery methods had on the LEED score of projects over the design and construction time horizon...

  16. Energy Provisions of the ICC-700, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR Mapped to the 2009 IECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Michelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Robin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kora, Angela R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Erin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document provides the results of a comparison of building energy efficient elements of the ICC-700 National Green Building Standard, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR versions 2, 2.5, and 3.0 to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (2009 IECC). This comparison will provide a tool for states and local municipalities as they consider adoption of these programs. The comparison is presented in a series of appendices. The first appendix provides a summary chart that visually represents the comprehensive comparison of the programs to the 2009 IECC topic areas. Next there are a series of individual tables (one appendix for each program) that include the specific program mapping to the 2009 IECC elements with comments that briefly discuss how well the elements mapped. Finally, a comprehensive table is included that shows all five of the programs mapped to the 2009 IECC elements to allow a detailed comparison.

  17. Challenging Racist Violence and Racist Hostility in 'Post-Racial' Times: Research and Action in Leeds, UK, 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Law


    Full Text Available Despite increasing understanding of, information about and official commitment to challenge these patterns, racist hostility and violence continue to have an enduring presence in urban and rural life in the UK. This indicates the paradoxical nature of this racial crisis and challenges for antiracism as a political project. This paper charts how these issues play out at the local level through an examination of a five year process from problem identification through to research, response, action and aftermath from 2006 to 2012 in the city of Leeds, UK, with a focus on two predominantly white working class social housing estates in the city. We explore how embedded tensions and antagonisms can begin to be challenged, while examining how the contemporary climate of austerity and cuts in services, together with prevailing post-racial thinking, make the likelihood of such concerted action in the UK increasingly remote.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukvar


    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  19. Evaluation plan and recommendations - ‘Can’t Wait to be Healthy’: A briefing paper on evaluation for Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy.


    South, J; Kime, NH


    The rise in childhood obesity is a major public health challenge and a national priority for health action. Obesity is associated with many illnesses and is directly related to increased mortality and lower life expectancy. The Children’s Plan recognises child obesity as one of the most serious challenges for children and links it to a number of poor outcomes, physical, social and psychological (Department for Children, Schools and Families 2007). ‘Can’t wait to be healthy’- Leeds Childhood O...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Verderber


    Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina displaced nearly one million citizens from the New Orleans metro region in 2005. Five years after the catastrophe, in August of 2010, more than 150,000 citizens remained scattered across the United States. Katrina was the largest Diaspora in the nation’s history. The number of homes damaged or destroyed by Katrina’s devastation numbered more than 125,000. An award-winning case study is presented of a unique partnership forged between academia, a local social service agency, professional architectural and engineering firms, and a national humanitarian aid organization whose mission is to provide affordable housing for homeless persons in transition. This collaboration resulted in a sustainable design/build project that originated in a research-based university design studio. The facility is a 38-bed family shelter for homeless mothers and their children seeking to rebuild their lives in post-Katrina New Orleans. The site for this 4,400 facility did not flood when the city’s federally built levee system failed in 2005. This case study is presented from its inception, to programming and design, construction, occupancy, and the postoccupancy assessment of the completed building. This facility is the first LEED certified (Silver building in New Orleans. Project limitations, lessons learned, and recommendations for future initiatives of this type are discussed, particularly in the context of any inner urban community coping with the aftermath of an urban disaster.

  1. From Provider to Enabler of Care? Reconfiguring Local Authority Support for Older People and Carers in Leeds, 2008 to 2013. (United States)

    Yeandle, Sue


    This article explores developments in the support available to older people and carers (i.e., caregivers) in the city of Leeds, United Kingdom, and examines provision changes during a period characterized by unprecedented resource constraint and new developments in national-local governance. Using documentary evidence, official statistics, and findings from recent studies led by the author, the effects of these changes on service planning and delivery and the approach taken by local actors to mitigate their impact are highlighted. The statistical data show a marked decline in some types of services for older people during a 5-year period during which the city council took steps to mobilize citizens and develop new services and system improvements. The analysis focuses on theories of social quality as a framework for analysis of the complex picture of change related to service provision. It concludes that although citizen involvement and consultations exerted a positive influence in delivering support to some older people and carers, research over a longer timescale is needed to show if these changes are adequate to protect older people and carers from the effects of ongoing budgetary constraints.

  2. Bandgap opening in graphene templates on Ru(0001) from subsurface hydrogen effects studied by STM, LEED, and DFT (United States)

    Grady, Maxwell; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Valovcin, Darren; Hagelberg, Frank; Pohl, Karsten


    Graphene has aroused tremendous interest due to its remarkable electronic and mechanical properties. Graphene's optical properties, conductance, and the fact that it can be transferred to many substrates make it an ideal candidate for use in nanoelectronic devices and organic photoelectric devices. The lack of a bandgap, however, causes a serious challenge for implementing graphene as a material for electrical switches and therefore creative ways of inducing this bandgap are needed. We will present a STM/LEED/DFT study of the single layer graphene on Ru(0001) system in the presence of hydrogen. Structural studies show arrays of moiré superlattices with sizes ranging from 0.9 to 3.0 nm in the presence of hydrogen on the compact surface of ruthenium. First principle calculations help explain the appearance of these arrays of graphene reconstructions driven by the H presence at the Ru(0001) interface, and furthermore, predict the appearance of a bandgap with values correlated with the moiré superstructure sizes in the presence of hydrogen. Control over moiré superstructure size can aid in future work using graphene as a nanotemplate for self assembled growth of nanoelectronic devices an organic photovoltaics. This work was supported by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (NSF NSEC-425826) and NSF DMR-1006863

  3. Survey of the knowledge, perception, and attitude of medical students at the University of Leeds toward organ donation and transplantation. (United States)

    Bedi, K K; Hakeem, A R; Dave, R; Lewington, A; Sanfey, H; Ahmad, N


    The shortage of organ donors is the key rate-limiting factor for organ transplantation in the United Kingdom. Many strategies have been proposed to increase donation; one strategy aims to improve awareness of organ donation and transplantation (ODT) among medical students. This survey seeks to investigate the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of the medical students in the United Kingdom toward ODT and the curriculum content. A 32-item online questionnaire was distributed to 957 medical students at the University of Leeds (October to December 2012). There were 216 (22.6%) respondents. Students were aware of kidney, heart, and liver transplantation (91.6%, 88.8%, and 86.5%). Awareness of small intestine (36.7%) and islet of Langerhans (33.0%) transplantation was poor. Students understood the term "brain stem death" (82.3%); however, they lacked understanding of criteria used for brain stem death testing (75.8%). Their perceptions and attitudes were favorable toward ODT; 43.3% of the students were unhappy with their current knowledge, and 87.6% of the students agree that ODT teaching should be included in the curriculum. Students have a basic understanding of ODT but lack detailed knowledge. They accept its importance and desire further teaching to supplement their current knowledge to be able to understand the issues related to ODT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soft tissue reinforcement with a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament in revision surgery for dislocated total hip arthroplasty. (United States)

    Aota, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Ohashi, Hironori; Kitano, Naoko; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Konno, Shin-Ichi


    Since dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) greatly diminishes patient's quality of life, the THA frequently needs revision. However, it is common for the dislocation not to heal even after reconstruction, but rather to become intractable. The 17 patients with dislocated THA, mean age of 71 years (range 51-87 years), who underwent a revision THA together with soft tissue reinforcement with a Leeds-Keio (LK) ligament were enrolled. The purposes of reinforcement with LK ligament were to restrict the internal rotation of the hip joint, and to encourage the formation of fibrous tissue in the posterior acetabular wall to stabilise the femoral head. We determined the success rate of surgical treatment for dislocation, the Harris Hip Score (HHS), a factor of recurrent dislocation. There was no recurrent dislocation in 82% of the cases (14 joints) during the mean postoperative follow-up period of 63.5 months (15-96 months). The HHS was 82 ± 18 points preoperatively and 82 ± 14 points postoperatively. Recurrent dislocation after this surgical procedure occurred in 2 hips with breakage of the LK ligaments, and intracapsular dislocation in 1 hip with loosening of the LK ligament. Although the risk of recurrent dislocation still exists with this procedure, when performed to provide reinforcement with an LK ligament for dislocated THA it may be useful in intractable cases with soft tissue defects around the hip joint.

  5. Reducing the V2O3(0001) surface through electron bombardment--a quantitative structure determination with I/V-LEED. (United States)

    Feiten, Felix E; Kuhlenbeck, Helmut; Freund, Hans-Joachim


    The (0001) surface of vanadium sesquioxide, V2O3, is terminated by vanadyl groups under standard ultra high vacuum preparation conditions. Reduction with electrons results in a chemically highly active surface with a well-defined LEED pattern indicating a high degree of order. In this work we report the first quantitative structure determination of a reduced V2O3(0001) surface. We identify two distinct surface phases by STM, one well ordered and one less well ordered. I/V-LEED shows the ordered phase to be terminated by a single vanadium atom per surface unit cell on a quasi-hexagonal oxygen layer with three atoms per two-dimensional unit cell. Furthermore we compare the method of surface reduction via electron bombardment with the deposition of V onto a vanadyl terminated film. The latter procedure was previously proposed to result in a structure with three surface vanadium atoms in the 2D unit cell and we confirm this with simulated STM images.

  6. Establishing daily quality control (QC) in screen-film mammography using leeds tor (max) phantom at the breast imaging unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute (United States)

    Acaba, K. J. C.; Cinco, L. D.; Melchor, J. N.


    Daily QC tests performed on screen film mammography (SFM) equipment are essential to ensure that both SFM unit and film processor are working in a consistent manner. The Breast Imaging Unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute has been conducting QC following the test protocols in the IAEA Human Health Series No.2 manual. However, the availability of Leeds breast phantom (CRP E13039) in the facility made the task easier. Instead of carrying out separate tests on AEC constancy and light sensitometry, only one exposure of the phantom is done to accomplish the two tests. It was observed that measurements made on mAs output and optical densities (ODs) using the Leeds TOR (MAX) phantom are comparable with that obtained from the usual conduct of tests, taking into account the attenuation characteristic of the phantom. Image quality parameters such as low contrast and high contrast details were also evaluated from the phantom image. The authors recognize the usefulness of the phantom in determining technical factors that will help improve detection of smallest pathological details on breast images. The phantom is also convenient for daily QC monitoring and economical since less number of films is expended.

  7. Realities of and perspectives for languages in the globalised world: Can language teaching survive the inadequacies of policies implemented today at Leeds Beckett University?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Gamir


    Full Text Available Various newspaper articles report that British ministers, university representatives, exam chiefs and business bodies agree that foreign languages skills in primary, secondary and tertiary UK education are in crisis. Lower funding and policy changes have caused language skills deficiencies felt gravely in the business sectors. Funding and support initiatives pledged by policy makers appear to be election-driven, barely outliving newly elected governments. Others blame secondary school language curriculum for failing to inspire students to take up a language when they reach 13 or 14. Others still argue that severe A-level examinations marking deters students from taking up a foreign language at 6th form level, producing fewer prospective language learners for university departments. Community languages are also undervalued as small-entry languages could soon be axed from GCSE and A-level examinations. In a world increasingly interconnected, it is essential the importance of language learning be reinstated in all our educational institutions. This paper reviews two decades of the conditions of language provision in the UK in general, with an emphasis on Leeds Beckett University. It also attempts to answer two questions emerging form the author’s personal teaching experience and reflections: What are the realities and challenges language teaching faces at Leeds Beckett University? And, how may we support language learners in fulfilling their ambition to acquire the required skills to communicate effectively in this globalised world?

  8. The (001) 3C SiC surface termination and band structure after common wet chemical etching procedures, stated by XPS, LEED, and HREELS (United States)

    Tengeler, Sven; Kaiser, Bernhard; Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier; Jaegermann, Wolfram


    The (001) surface of cubic silicon carbide (3C SiC) after cleaning, Ar sputtering and three different wet chemical etching procedures was thoroughly investigated via (angle resolved) XPS, HREELS, and LEED. While Ar sputtering was found to be unsuitable for surface preparation, all three employed wet chemical etching procedures (piranha/NH4F, piranha/HF, and RCA) provide a clean surface. HF as oxide removal agent tends to result in fluorine traces on the sample surface, despite thorough rinsing. All procedures yield a 1 × 1 Si-OH/C-H terminated surface. However, the XPS spectra reveal some differences in the resulting surface states. NH4F for oxide removal produces a flat band situation, whereas the other two procedures result in a slight downward (HF) or upward (RCA) band bending. Because the band bending is small, it can be concluded that the number of unsaturated surface defects is low.

  9. Structural and electronic changes in the growth of mercury overlayers on Cu(001) - A helium beam scattering, LEED and ARPES study (United States)

    Vidali, G.; Li, W.; Dowben, P. A.; Karimi, M.; Hutchings, C. W.; Lin, J.; Moses, C.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.


    We used ABS, LEED and angle-resolved photo-electron spectroscopy (ARPES) to study bilayer films of Hg on Cu(001). In the surface temperature range of 180 to 330 K, the first Hg layer forms two ordered phases, a c(2x2) (with coverage-0.5 of Cu(001)) and a high density (partially commensurate) c(4x4) (coverage-0.62). ARPES data show that there is little or no dispersion of the 5d band of Hg. ABS data show that this layer is not flat, with in-registry Hg atoms lying about 0.15 below the not-in-registry Hg atoms. From ABS we find that the second layer forms a completely registered c(4x4) phase. From ARPES we obtain that the second layer has an electronic structure, particularly the 5d levels, characteristic of bulk mercury. Preliminary results of calculations of the structure of the bilayer are given.

  10. REPORTAGE\\ud Editorial Photo spread: Brexit : et au milieu coule l’Angleterre in Libération (France) Photographs © Garry Clarkson with journalist Guillaume Gendron, Envoyé spécial à Leeds et à Follifoot — 17 May 2016


    Clarkson, Garry; Gendron, Guillaume; Libération Newspaper


    Libération (the one founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973) visit to North Yorkshire and Leeds concerning the Brexit European Referendum debate. \\ud \\ud Photographs © Garry Clarkson: Leeds Councillors, Dan Cohen and Neil Buckly, Slaughterhouse worker, Steve Hanson and environment around Follifoot village Yorkshire to show quintessential 'middle England'\\ud \\ud

  11. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.


    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  12. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)


    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  13. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  14. Yorkshire's influence on the understanding and treatment of mental diseases in Victorian Britain: The golden triad of York, Wakefield, and Leeds. (United States)

    Rollin, Henry R; Reynolds, Edward H


    In the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a more humane approach to the care of the insane in Britain was catalyzed in part by the illness of King George III. The Reform Movement envisaged "moral" treatment in asylums in pleasant rural environments, but these aspirations were overwhelmed by industrialization, urbanization, and the scale of the need, such that most asylums became gigantic institutions for chronic insanity. Three institutions in Yorkshire remained beacons of enlightenment in the general gloom of Victorian alienism: the Retreat in York founded and developed by the Quaker Tuke family; the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield led by Sir James Crichton-Browne, which initiated research into brain and mental diseases; and the Leeds Medical School and Wakefield axis associated with Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, which pioneered teaching of mental diseases and, later, the first Chair of Psychiatry. Three other Yorkshiremen who greatly influenced nineteenth-century "neuropsychiatry" in Britain and abroad were Thomas Laycock in York and Edinburgh, and Henry Maudsley and John Hughlings Jackson in London.

  15. Agreement Between the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 Questions and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Questionnaires to Classify Neuropathic Pain among Patients with Leprosy (United States)

    Santana, Jamilly C. V.; Santos, Victor S.; Gurgel, Ricardo Q.; Santana, Julianne C. V.; Reis, Francisco P.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Feitosa, Vera L. C.


    Neuropathic pain (NP) often occurs during the course of leprosy, and screening tools to differentiate NP from non-NP are often used. However, their performance varies in different settings. The most frequently used scales are the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 questions (DN4) and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) questionnaires. Thus, we conducted a study to evaluate the agreement between DN4 and LANSS questionnaires to classify NP in 195 leprosy patients attending two reference centers in Sergipe, Brazil. The DN4 and LANSS classified 166 and 110 patients, respectively, as having NP. One hundred and seven (54.8%) were classified as NP by both questionnaires; 59 (30.2%) solely by the DN4 questionnaire and three (1.5%) solely by the LANSS. The agreement of the questionnaires was 66.2% (weak agreement, Kappa = 0.30). Although both questionnaires identified a high proportion of NP, the development of more robust instruments is necessary to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis of leprosy patients classified as having NP. PMID:27458041

  16. Use of Leeds-Keio connective tissue prosthesis (L-K CTP) for reconstruction of deficient extensor mechanism with total knee replacement. (United States)

    Sherief, Tamer I; Naguib, Ashraf M; Sefton, Graham K


    This study was carried out in order to assess the results of reconstruction of a deficient extensor mechanism in the presence of a total knee replacement (TKR) using the Leeds-Keio Connective Tissue Prosthesis (L-K CTP). The L-K CTP is available as flat tapes constructed from polyester in an open weave structure. It was used to reinforce and reconstruct the extensor mechanism, which was deficient in three patients who had undergone total knee replacement or were about to undergo total knee replacement. Two cases had extensor mechanism deficiency as a complication following total knee replacement while the third case had extensor mechanism deficiency at the time of the primary knee replacement. The average follow-up was 2 years (range of follow up was 12 to 48 months). All three cases showed good results with no extension lag and good range of movement at follow up. The use of L-K CTP for reconstruction of the knee extensor mechanism offers a good option for the management of the uncommon but difficult problem of extensor mechanism deficiency in patients with a total knee replacement.

  17. Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Commercial Buildings: An Elicitation Study of U.S. Building Professionals’ Beliefs on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kientzel


    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental programs (VEPs have become increasingly popular around the world to address energy efficiency issues that mandatory building codes have not been able to tackle. Even though the utility of voluntary schemes is widely debated, they have become a de facto reality for many professionals in the building and construction sector. One topic that is neglected, however, in both academic and policy discussions, relates to how professionals (architects, engineers, real estate developers, etc. perceive the rise of voluntary rating schemes. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the present study investigates beliefs underlying adoption behavior regarding one of the most prominent voluntary assessment and certification programs in the U.S. building industry, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED scheme. In this paper, an elicitation study, based on 14 semi-structured interviews with building professionals in the North East of the United States, was conducted to analyze this question. Building on the Reasoned Action Approach, this paper shows that, in addition to more conventional factors such as financial calculations and marketing aspects, the understanding of beliefs held by building professionals offers important insights into their decisions to work with Voluntary Environmental Assessment and Rating Programs.

  18. Efficiency analysis in the application of indicators LEED-ND, the arid zone of the north of Mexico, case of study: Parajes del Sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua; Analisis de la eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores LEED-ND, en la zona arida del norte de Mexico, caso de estudio: parajes del sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Barrera, Leticia [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)


    This article presents the analysis realized to the urban design of a colony applying the indicators of The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). The advantages that represent as far as impact are established and also the limits are pointed out, evaluating their efficiency in the application of indicators to improve performance and energy saving. Based on the analysis applied to the colony under study, some right solutions in the urban design are obtained that should be established as a part of the in force standardization. Nevertheless, the follow up to this same company in other developments, reflects that the proposals are not determined as a strategy of self planning but only to fulfill the asked requirements, obtaining a result with smaller impact and as an index that allows offering residential alternatives in the city tending to the sustained development. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el analisis realizado al diseno urbano de un fraccionamiento aplicando los indicadores de The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). Se establecen las ventajas que presenta en cuanto a impacto y tambien se senalan las limitantes, evaluando su eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores para mejorar desempeno y ahorro energetico. Con base en el analisis aplicado al fraccionamiento en estudio, se tienen algunas soluciones acertadas en el diseno urbano que debieran establecerse como parte de la normatividad vigente, sin embargo, el seguimiento a esta misma empresa en otros desarrollos, refleja que las propuestas no estan determinadas como una estrategia de planeacion propia sino unicamente para cumplir con los requerimientos solicitados, obteniendo un resultado con menor impacto y como indice que permitan ofrecer alternativas habitacionales en la ciudad tendientes al desarrollo sostenido.

  19. Validation of the Malayalam version of Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale in cancer patients in the Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukkathali Anzar


    Full Text Available Objective: The Self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS is a 7-item self-report scale developed to identify pain which is of predominantly neuropathic origin. The aim of this study was to develop a Malayalam version of the LANSS and to test its validity and reliability in chronic pain patients. Methodology: We enrolled 101 Malayalam-speaking chronic pain patients who visited the Division of Palliative Medicine, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The translated version of S- LANSS was constructed by standard means. Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were identified by an independent pain physician and were subjected to the new pain scale by a palliative care nurse who was blinded to the diagnosis. The “gold standard diagnosis” is what the physician makes after clinical examination. Its validation, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined. Results: Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were subjected to the Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale for validity testing. The agreement by Cohen's Kappa 0.743, Chi-square test P < 0.001, sensitivity 89.58, specificity 84.91, positive predictive value 84.31, negative predictive value 90.00, accuracy by 87.13, and likelihood ratio 5.94. Conclusion: The Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale is a validated screening tool for identifying neuropathic pain in chronic pain patients in Malayalam-speaking regions.

  20. Development of the Japanese Version of the Leeds Assessment of the Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale: Diagnostic Utility in a Clinical Setting. (United States)

    Isomura, Tatsuya; Sumitani, Masahiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Inoue, Reo; Hozumi, Jun; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Oshima, Hirofumi; Mori, Kanto; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Tahara, Keitaro; Yamagami, Ryota; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro


    We aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of the linguistically validated Japanese version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale (LANSS-J) as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in the clinical setting. Patients with neuropathic pain or nociceptive pain who were 20 to 85 years of age were included. Sensitivity and specificity using the original cutoff value of 12 were assessed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the LANSS-J. Sensitivity and specificity with possible cutoff values were calculated, along with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We then evaluated agreement regarding assessment of the LANSS-J by two investigators. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total score and Cohen's kappa coefficient for each item. Data for patients with neuropathic pain (n = 30) and those with nociceptive pain (n = 29) were analyzed. With a cutoff of 12, the sensitivity was 63.3% (19/30) and the specificity 93.1% (27/29). Sensitivity improved substantially with a cutoff of ≤ 11 (≥ 83.3%, 25/30). High specificity (93.1%, 27/29) was sustained with a cutoff of 9 to 12. The ICC for the total score was 0.85, indicating sufficient agreement. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.68 to 0.84. The LANSS-J is a valid screening tool for detecting neuropathic pain. Our results suggest that employing the original cutoff value provides high specificity, although a lower cutoff value of 10 or 11 (with its high specificity maintained) may be more beneficial when pain attributed to neuropathic mechanisms is suspected in Japanese patients. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation. (United States)

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Böhnke, Jan R; Gabe, Rhian; Croudace, Tim J; Tober, Gillian; Raistrick, Duncan


    To examine the relationship between three outcome measures used by a specialist addiction service (UK): the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ), the Social Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ) and the 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10). A clinical sample of 715 service user records was extracted from a specialist addiction service (2011) database. The LDQ (dependence), SSQ (social satisfaction) and CORE-10 (psychological distress) were routinely administered at the start of treatment and again between 3 and 12 months post-treatment. A mixed pre/post-treatment dataset of 526 service users was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Parallel Analysis and the Hull method were used to suggest the most parsimonious factor solution. Exploratory factor analysis with three factors accounted for 66.2% of the total variance but Parallel Analysis supported two factors as sufficient to account for observed correlations among items. In the two-factor solution, LDQ items and nine of the 10 CORE-10 items loaded on the first factor >0.41, and the SSQ items on factor 2 with loadings >0.63. A two dimensional summary appears sufficient and clinically meaningful. Among specialist addiction service users, social satisfaction appears to be a unique construct of addiction and is not the same as variation due to psychological distress or dependence. Our interpretation of the findings is that dependence is best thought of as a specific psychological condition subsumed under the construct psychological distress. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Validation of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) questionnaire and its correlation with visual analog pain scales in Greek population. (United States)

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Chan, Philip; Bargiota, Alexandra; Giannoukas, Athanasios D


    One of the diagnostic tools of neuropathetic pain (NP) relies on screening questionnaires including the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) questionnaire. To apply and validate the LANSS questionnaire in Greek population. To assess any correlation between LANSS score and visual analog pain scales. A prospective instrument validation study of LANSS was conducted in University Hospital of Larissa, on 70 patients (35 NP and 35 nociceptive pain), from April 2015 to June 2015. Visual analog pain scales (VAS-ADL; impact of pain on daily living activities, VAS-INT; pain intensity) were also assessed and correlated with LANSS scale. The mean age of NP and nociceptive pain group was 67.11±10.05 and 39.14±17.07years respectively. The mean LANSS score was 12.84 (±9.27) in initial test, and 12.54 (±9.41) in the retest evaluation. Cronbach's alpha was 0.895 and 0.901 at initial and retest examinations respectively, both values indicating good internal consistency. NP group had significant higher LANSS score than nocipeptive pain group (21.34 [±1.39] vs 4.34 [±4.86], pquestionnaire to distinguish neuropathic and nociceptive pain was 94.29% (95% CI: 80.81-99.13%), while its specificity was 88.57% (95% CI: 73.24-96.73%). A significant correlation was noticed between total LANSS score and VAS-ADL (initial r=0.248; p<0.05 and retest evaluation r=0.288; p<0.05). The LANSS score is a reliable and valuable instrument to assess neuropathic pain in diabetic patients and to differentiate it from nociceptive pain in Greek population. In diabetic patients LANSS score is associated with impact on daily activities and potentially with quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J.


    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  4. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.


    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  5. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)


    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  6. Iniciativas para melhoria do fluxo de informações do processo licitatório de obras públicas que visam a obtenção de certificação LEED


    Richter, Karoline


    Resumo: O presente trabalho se propôs a efetuar uma análise tanto quantitativa como qualitativa do processo licitatório de uma obra em execução de uma IFE que visa à obtenção da certificação ambiental LEED. Para a concretização do trabalho, primeiramente, efetuouse um estudo maior com relação aos sistemas de certificação ambiental existentes no mundo e quais encontram-se mais difundidos em aspectos nacionais. Dentre estas, verificou-se qual certificação possuía critérios que se adaptassem ao...

  7. Contribuição ao entendimento da aplicação da certificaçao LEED TM no Brasil com base em dois estudos de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available No setor da construção civil, a busca por sustentabilidade ainda é incipiente. Este trabalho tem por objetivos analisar a aplicação da certificação LEED TM a empreendimentos brasileiros, entendendo as restrições de uso em uma realidade diferente da referência original norte-americana, e disseminar os resultados obtidos para dois estudos de caso nacionais. Os resultados obtidos confirmaram que (a a certificação LEED TM não é tarefa fácil e, no Brasil, significa, para vários aspectos, saltar da completa ausência de referência para atender a normas americanas; e (b mesmo em centros avançados da construção civil brasileira, o mercado ainda não está preparado para os "selos verdes" internacionais. Apesar dos obstáculos e limitações existentes, a entrada de certificações no Brasil abre a discussão para assuntos antes nunca abordados. Certificações, iniciativas voluntárias e instrumentos de market pull possuem o importante papel de propulsores da transformação do mercado da construção civil na busca da sustentabilidade. Não se pode perder de vista que estas pressupõem uma base anterior - composta de pesquisa e desenvolvimento e transferência de conhecimento e tecnologia ao mercado - para que possam se desenvolver plenamente. Deve-se evitar a ansiedade pela busca de certificação sem o preparo do mercado. Caso contrário, corre-se o risco de fragilizar o papel transformador das certificações.

  8. Academic Libraries and Social and Learning Space: A Case Study of Loughborough University Library, UK (United States)

    Bryant, Joanna; Matthews, Graham; Walton, Graham


    A key area of debate within the public and academic library sectors across the world is use of physical space. Changing ideas about what a library should be, coupled with the growth of digital collections, has raised fundamental questions about how library buildings are used and the role of space in library services. Alongside these drivers is the…

  9. Faculty Perceptions of Loughborough's Online Reading List System (LORLS) at Dublin Business School (DBS) (United States)

    O'Neill, Marie; Musto, Lara


    Using a mixed methods research approach this study explores faculty perceptions of LORLS at DBS. Data generated by the study will inform advocacy, marketing and training initiatives to promote the platform. The study concludes with a number of deductive and inductive findings. The first is that although DBS faculty are highly predisposed to using…

  10. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Leeds Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sabri Garoushi


    Oct 3, 2017 ... old [2]. A score of 12 or more out of 24 is used as a cut-point to identify pain that is predominantly neu- ropathic in origin. The S-LANSS was designed to remove the need ... neuropathic pain in a sample of adults experiencing chronic pain .... eye problems (e.g. cataract n = 28, 25.7%), erectile dysfunction (n ...

  11. Radiological Laboratory, Utility, Office Building LEED Strategy & Achievement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, Nicole R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Missions that the Radiological Laboratory, utility, Office Building (RLUOB) supports are: (1) Nuclear Materials Handling, Processing, and Fabrication; (2) Stockpile Management; (3) Materials and Manufacturing Technologies; (4) Nonproliferation Programs; (5) Waste Management Activities - Environmental Programs; and (6) Materials Disposition. The key capabilities are actinide analytical chemistry and material characterization.

  12. Electron attenuation anisotropy at crystal surfaces from LEED

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Bartoš, Igor


    Roč. 603, č. 17 (2009), s. 2789-2792 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0601; GA AV ČR IAA100100628 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : electron attenuation length, low energy electron diffraction, photoelectron diffraction, electron–solid scattering and transmission, copper * low energy electron diffraction * photoelectron diffraction * electron–solid scattering and transmission * copper Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2009

  13. NEWS: Institute news (United States)


    -March onwards include Guildford, Brighton, Gosport, Leeds, Loughborough, Oakham, Wolverhampton, Framlingham (Suffolk), Hatfield and London. Further details from Catherine Wilson ( ). Courses and conferences Physics Update courses will be held in four locations this year. Details of the Malvern course (1 - 3 April) have already been circulated to schools and colleges. Details of the York course (8 - 10 July) will be circulated early next term. An Update course for teachers in Scotland will be held at Stirling University on 9 - 10 June and the final Update of the year will be held at Oxford University on 8 - 10 December. Further details are available from Leila Solomon ( ). Entitled `Hands on, minds on: raising standards by sharing good practice', the Education Group's Annual Conference 2000 will be held at the University of Durham on 7 - 8 July. Further details can be obtained from Jasmina Bolfek-Radovani ( ) in the Institute's Conference Department. Other dates: * Schools Physics Group annual one-day meeting, 8 June 2000, Rugby School. * Scottish Branch one-day meeting for physics teachers, 8 June 2000, Stirling University. Posters A set of four full-colour A2 posters has recently been produced, with another set of four in preparation. The aim is to get across the message `Physics at the heart of everything' by means of eye-catching images - and to brighten up school and college labs and corridors in the process. Further explanations of the physics depicted are printed on the back of the posters. Sets of the first four posters are being circulated to all schools but additional copies will be available on request from . And finally ... The Institute's Schools and Colleges Affiliation Scheme is to be relaunched later this year, as a free scheme for all schools and colleges which will provide low-cost items on a regular basis. There will also be a second, subscription tier giving

  14. LEED Platin for Coca-Cola. Office park at Duesseldorf; LEED Platin fuer Coca-Cola. Bueropark Ratingen Ost bei Duesseldorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinig, Melanie


    The current trend confirms that building-owners and investors more and more have to offer certified real estates in order to be marketable. Whether a purely economic thought or real impetus: the result serves the environment. On the former industrial site Balke-Duerr in Ratingen near Dusseldorf, RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky GmbH and Co. KG (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) has constructed a new building complex which impresses through its sustainable approach. One of the main themes was the integral comprehensive planning.

  15. Putting the Young in Business: Policy Challenges for Youth Entrepreneurship. Territorial Development. LEED Notebook No. 29. (United States)

    Cornell, Robert

    Policies and practices promoting youth entrepreneurship in Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) member countries were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following issues: youth unemployment; contrasting employment situations and policy approaches in individual OECD countries; a definition of self-employment; and the…

  16. LEED (Trademark) for Homes - Pilot Study: Evaluation for Use in Army Family Housing (United States)


    Exchange Cafeteria, Fast Food/Snack Bar (Cyber Cafe , Food Court, Burger King, Popeyes, etc.), Post (Installation) Dining Facilities School Dependent...Water-efficient showerhead with H2Okinetic technology from Delta • WeatherTRAK smart irrigation controls from HydroPoint Data Sys- tems, Inc...worship (protestant, catholic, Jewish), restaurant (food court, Burger King, combined club), other neighborhood-serving retail (cyber cafe , military

  17. Estudio de arquitectura en South Milford Leeds, Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton, Goad


    Full Text Available The two factors present in this building are very rarely present in any building project: the architects' designing their own building and a coveted lot, profusely populated with trees. The result was a building with great simplicity, totally glass-enclosed, which won the British Royal Architectural Institute Award in 1974. The building's transparency is complemented by a spacial structure system for the roof, consisting of a complex of joints which entwine the different components of the metallic structures, facilitating installation and adjustment during construction. The technical solution adopted, which permits optimum functionality and economic results, is combined with a diaphanous architecture which makes it possible to incorcorporate the natural environment in the human space.No siempre coinciden en la realización de un proyecto los dos factores que explican esta obra: los arquitectos diseñando su propio estudio, y una parcela envidiable, profusamente poblada de árboles, como emplazamiento. El resultado ha sido un edificio de extraordinaria simplicidad, enteramente acristalado, que mereció el premio del Real Instituto de Arquitectos Británicos en 1974. La transparencia de la obra se reafirma mediante un sistema de estructura espacial para la cubierta, que consiste en un conjunto de nudos mediante los cuales se articulan, en obra, los distintos componentes del entramado metálico, facilitándose el montaje y el ajuste durante la construcción. A la solución técnica adoptada, que permite óptimos resultados funcional y económico, se une el acierto de una arquitectura diáfana que posibilita una efectiva incorporación del entorno natural en el espacio humano.

  18. The Leeds food preference questionnaire after mild sleep restriction - A small feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Zant, Janneke C; Aussems, Audrey; Faatz, Vivian; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, A.


    Besides the increased sedentary lifestyle and increased caloric intake, changes in dietary composition may play an important role in the increased prevalence of obesity. Because inadequate sleep could be a risk factor in the aetiology of obesity, reliable methods for assessing food intake and food

  19. Overview of gynecomastia in the modern era and the Leeds Gynaecomastia Investigation algorithm. (United States)

    Rahmani, Samir; Turton, Philip; Shaaban, Abeer; Dall, Barbara


    Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of male breast glandular tissue. At least a third of males are affected at some time during their lifetime. Idiopathic causes exceed other etiologies and relate to an imbalance in the ratio of estrogen to androgen tissue levels or end-organ responsiveness to these hormones. Assessment must include a thorough history and clinical examination, specific blood investigations and usually tissue sampling and/or breast imaging. Management consists of a combination of measures that may include simple reassurance, pharmacological manipulation, medical treatment or surgery. Hormone therapy may help to abort the acute proliferative phase of gynecomastia with a 30% response rate but should not be considered in chronic established cases. Surgical treatment may comprise simple liposuction for a predominant fatty component or direct excision when glandular tissue is predominant. The main aim is to control the patient's symptoms and to exclude other etiological factors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Development and use of in vivo neutron activation analysis at Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkinshaw, L.; Oxby, C.B.; Ellis, R.E.


    We have devised a technique for measuring the total amounts of the elements K, N, Na, Cl, P and Ca in the living human body by neutron activation analysis. We have used it to study changes in body composition associated with disease and are now extending it to measure total body C, H and O also. (author)

  1. The data acquisition system for the Leeds Infirmary MWPC X-ray imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinton, S.; Gibbings, D.; Jones, D.; Norton, H.


    An electronic system is described which is designed to acquire and process data from a MWPC X-ray imaging detector. Two dimensional information from the chamber is obtained by using cathode plane delay-line readout. A single crate CAMAC assembly is used as the chamber-computer interface. The use of control source units for the delay line scalers and TV display driver functions together with an intermediate memory in the crate allows input data rates up to 1MHz and TV display facilities without constant computer refreshing. (author)

  2. A survey of job satisfaction, sources of stress and psychological symptoms among general practitioners in Leeds.


    Appleton, K; House, A; Dowell, A


    BACKGROUND: The past seven years have seen rapid changes in general practice in the United Kingdom (UK), commencing with the 1990 contract. During the same period, concern about the health and morale of general practitioners (GPs) has increased and a recruitment crisis has developed. AIM: To determine levels of psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, and subjective ill health in GPs and their relationship to practice characteristics, and to compare levels of job satisfaction since the intro...

  3. Application of LEED (trademark) and SPiRiT to a Proposed Building Design (United States)


    using ultralowflow toilets (for both men and women) and waterless urinals (for men). In theory , infrared sensors on toilets are supposed to help...Water Use Reduction – This credit is possible. Infrared sensors for faucets help reduce water use. While in theory , infrared sensors on toilets are...Hermosa Montessori School, Tucson, AZ Marana High School, Marana, AZ Nadaburg Elementary, Wittmann, AZ Sahuarita USD, Sahuarita, AZ Show Low

  4. Identifying patients at risk of nursing home admission: The Leeds Elderly Assessment Dependency Screening tool (LEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fear Jon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discharge from hospital to a nursing home represents a major event in the life of an older person and should only follow a comprehensive functional and medical assessment. A previous study identified 3 dependency scales able to discriminate across outcomes for older people admitted to an acute setting. We wished to determine if a single dependency scale derived from the 3 scales could be created. In addition could this new scale with other predictors be used as a comprehensive tool to identify patients at risk of nursing home admission. Methods Items from the 3 scales were combined and analysed using Rasch Analysis. Sensitivity and specificity analysis and ROC curves were applied to identify the most appropriate cut score. Binary logistic regression using this cut-off, and other predictive variables, were used to create a predictive algorithm score. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio scores of the algorithm scores were used to identify the best predictive score for risk of nursing home placement. Results A 17-item (LEADS scale was derived, which together with four other indicators, had a sensitivity of 88% for patients at risk of nursing home placement, and a specificity of 85% for not needing a nursing home placement, within 2 weeks of admission. Conclusion A combined short 17-item scale of dependency plus other predictive variables can assess the risk of nursing home placement for older people in an acute care setting within 2 weeks of admission. This gives an opportunity for either early discharge planning, or therapeutic intervention to offset the risk of placement.

  5. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings (United States)

    Malkani, Arvin P.


    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is…

  6. Institute news (United States)


    : Heriot-Watt University 4 Nov: Strathclyde University 17 Nov: York University 24 Nov: Bristol University 1 Dec: Open University 7 Dec: Kent University 14 Dec: Cardiff University 15 Dec: University of Wales, Swansea 24 Jan: Reading University 10 Feb: Abingdon School 16 Feb: Plymouth University 2 Mar: Sheffield University 7 Mar: CLRC Daresbury Laboratory 8 Mar: Liverpool University 9 Mar: Manchester 10 Mar: Lancaster University 15 Mar: Surrey University 16 Mar: Brighton University 17 Mar: St Vincent College, Gosport 22 Mar: Leeds University 23 Mar: Loughborough Grammar School 24 Mar: Oakham School 30 Mar: St Peter's School, Wolverhampton 18 May: University of Hertfordshire 11 Jul: Science Museum 12 Jul: Royal Institution The assistance of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, CLRC Daresbury Laboratory and DERA Malvern is acknowledged in staging this year's events. Courses, lectures and competitions `Physics in perspective', the study course for sixth-formers and college students, will take place in London on 6 - 8 February 2000, offering insights into many different aspects of physics. The programme commences during the afternoon of Sunday 6 February at King's College London with a Balloon debate, followed by Brian O'Rourke's talk on the `Physics of Formula 1 cars'. On Monday 7 February at the Royal Institution, John Avison (former Honorary Editor of Physics Education) will develop the `Thinking physics' theme by presenting the audience with varied topics in an unusual and challenging way. The second talk of the afternoon, by Professor Roy Sambles, will cover `Lasers, light and liquid crystals'. On the final day (Tuesday 8 February), again at the Royal Institution, Sara Ellison will lead the audience in `Heavenly pursuits', whilst later Dr Colin Wright will entertain with `Juggling - theory and practice'. Futher information and bookings for the course can be made by contacting Mrs Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH

  7. Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) and Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) Questionnaires into the Greek Language. (United States)

    Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Lyrakos, George; Drachtidi, Kalliopi; Stamatiou, Georgia; Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia


    The LANSS and S-LANSS questionnaires represent two widely accepted and validated instruments used to assist the identification of neuropathic pain worldwide. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the LANSS and S-LANSS questionnaires into the Greek language. Forward and backward translations of both questionnaires were performed from the English to Greek language. The final versions were assessed by a committee of clinical experts, and they were then pilot-tested in 20 patients with chronic pain. Both questionnaires were validated in 200 patients with chronic pain (100 patients for each questionnaire), using as the "gold standard" the diagnosis of a clinical expert in pain management. Sensitivity and specificity of questionnaires were assessed, as well as the internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha coefficient) and correlation with the "gold standard" diagnosis (using Pearson correlation coefficient). Sensitivity and specificity of the LANSS questionnaire were calculated to be 82.76% and 95.24%, while for the S-LANSS 86.21% and 95.24%, respectively. Positive predictive value for neuropathic pain was 96% for the LANSS and 96.15% for the S-LANSS. Cronbach's alpha was revealed to be acceptable for both questionnaires (0.65 for LANSS and 0.67 for the S-LANSS), while a significant correlation was observed compared to the "gold standard" diagnosis (rLANSS   = 0.79 και tSLANSS   = 0.77, respectively, P = 0.01). The LANSS and the S-LANSS diagnostic tools have been translated and validated into the Greek language and can be adequately used to assist the identification of neuropathic pain in everyday clinical practice. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)


    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  9. Implementation of the U.S. Green Building Council's LEEDS (trademark) as the Army's Green Building Rating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Richard L; Stumpf, Annette L


    ...) principles into installation planning and infrastructure projects, including development of technical guidance for policy implementation to better enable facilities to minimize non-renewable energy...

  10. ELS-LEED-study of low-dimensional plasmons in DySi2 layers and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugeramigabo, Eddy Patrick


    Low-dimensional dysprosium silicide metal systems grown on Si have been characterized by means of energy loss spectroscopy of low energy electron diffraction. The several silicide phases depending on the growth conditions have been observed. Moreover collective charge excitations were clearly detected and identified as low-dimensional plasmons which have a different dispersion compared to the well known bulk and surface plasmons. Dy-silicide has been grown on Si(111) by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Due to its small lattice mismatch (-0.3%) to Si(111), Dy-silicide grows in epitaxial high quality crystalline layers. In the submonolayer regime, many silicide phases coexist until the silicide coverage approaches 1ML, and shows the characteristic 1 x 1 diffraction pattern with the stoichiometry DySi 2 . With further increasing of the coverage, the silicide turns to the multilayer phase. The collective electronic excitations in the monolayer structure have been found to have a 2D-character. Accordingly the plasmon dispersion reaches zero in the long-wavelength limit (at vanishing wave number q) and shows a √(q) behaviour until it entered the domain of strong damping. When grown on Si (001) the Dy-silicide formed an array of parallel nanowires, in the direction normal to the dimer row direction and their length was limited by the crossing of another nanowire. A structure dependent energy loss was observed: the energy loss were only sufficiently intense when the 7 x 2 reconstruction has formed. An possibility of creating vast area with only parallel nanowires in one direction was performed on vicinal Si(001) with four degree miscut. At the same coverage where the 7 x 2 reconstruction occurs on flat Si(001), it was surprising that, besides the 7 x 2 periodicity, the diffraction pattern revealed a mixture of phases, with periodicities ranging from the 10 x 2 to that of the 7 x 2, which was observed as the limit of shifting reflex positions. We were able to confirm the highest loss intensity yield at 0.4 ML, the same as on flat Si(001). Plasmon dispersion in the nanowire direction and the lack of plasmon losses in the normal direction to the nanowires confirmed the 1D-structure of the Dy-silicide nanowires. Studying the plasmon dispersion in the silicide nanowires brought us to new plasmon modes. The electron density and effective mass extracted from both low-dimensional systems are found to be in the same order of magnitude. (orig.)

  11. Structure and grain coarsening during the processing of engineering ceramics. Ph.D. Thesis - Leeds Univ., United Kingdom (United States)

    Shaw, Nancy J.


    Studies have been made of three ceramic systems (Al2O3, Y2O3/MgO, and SiC/C/B), both to explore a surface area/density diagram approach to examining the coarsening processes during sintering and to explore an alternative coarsening parameter, i.e., the grain boundary surface area (raising it at a given value of the density) and not the pore surface area; therefore, pinning of the grain boundaries by solid-solution drag is the only function evidenced by these results. The importance of such pinning even at densities as low as 75% of theoretical is linked to the existence of microstructural inhomogeneities. The early stages of sintering of Y2O3 powder have been examined using two techniques, BET surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Each has given some insight into the process occurring and, used together, have provided some indication of the effect of MgO on coarsening during sintering. Attempts to further elucidate effects of MgO on the coarsening behavior of Y2O3 by the surface area/density diagram approach were unsuccessful due to masking effects of contaminating reactions during sintering and/or thermal etching. The behavior of the undoped SiC which only coarsens can be clearly distinguished by the surface area/density diagram from that of SiC/C/B which also concurrently densifies. Little additional information was obtainable by this method due to unfavorable sample etching characteristics. The advantages, disadvantages, and difficulties of application of these techniques to the study of coarsening during sintering are discussed.

  12. The structure and reactivity of adsorbates on stepped Rh and Pt surfaces investigated by LEED, HREELS, TPD, XPS and STM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batteas, J.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.


    Defects on surfaces such as steps play an important role in surface chemistry. In order to obtain an understanding of the influence of steps in surface chemical reactions, the structure and reactivity of small molecules (O{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) on atomically stepped surfaces of RH and Pt have been investigated. The detailed structures of CO and oxygen bonded to the Rh(110) surface were determined. The CO molecules bond near the short bridge sites with the CO molecular axis tilted approximately 24{degree} from the surface normal. Oxygen atoms are bound asymmetrically in the 3-fold fcc hollow-sites to the (111) facets of the steps. The interactions of CO and oxygen on the Rh(311) surface were examined. The reaction of CO with the ordered phases of O shows two distinct reaction channels, a low temperature reaction limited channel (200 K) and a high temperature diffusion limited channel (350 K). Models of the reaction geometry and dynamics are proposed. The thermal decomposition of ethylene was examined on the Rh(311) surface. The stable decomposition species (C{sub 2}H, CH and C{sub 2}) are formed near 300 K, approximately 100 K lower on the stepped Rh(311) than on the flatter Rh(111) surface. The formation of these species at lower temperatures is attributed to the stepped nature of the surface. Finally, in situ STM was used to examine surface structural changes of a stepped Pt(111) crystal under coadsorption of sulfur and CO. This is the first direct evidence for a new mechanism by which a surface covered with an unreactive, strongly chemisorbed overlayer can form new sites, for bonding and reactions to occur, by massive surface restructuring at the step edges. This new surface phenomenon answers some of the puzzles of metal surface catalysis and its implications are described. 278 refs.

  13. 77 FR 40318 - Availability of Addendum to Documentation Supporting the Proposal of the Leeds Metal Site to the... (United States)


    ... proposal was based on a hazardous waste quantity for TCE of 10,000, a toxicity value for TCE of 10,000 and.../hrsres/tools/scdm.htm ). Among the factors that changed, which affect the toxicity and drinking water... Priorities List was based on an observed release to ground water of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and...

  14. Pamphlet day


    Eastwood, Phil; Dunne, Chris; Fowler, Stephen


    Pamphlet Day: A Political Protest Pamphlet and Zine Event focused around the occupation of Loughborough Public Library, Granby Street, Loughborough, LE11 3DZ, UK. ABSTRACT “Throughout the 20th Century artists have engaged provocatively with text, images and performance, publishing writings, pamphlets, and manifestos that challenge the status quo.” (1) Loughborough Echo, May 2017 A s...

  15. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centre for Nonlinear Mathematics and Applications, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, United Kingdom; Grupo de Sistemas Complejos, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda.

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain. 3Centre for Nonlinear Mathematics and Applications, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough. University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, United Kingdom. 4Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, ...

  17. Teaching organisational change management for sustainability : designing and delivering a course at the University of Leeds to better prepare future sustainability change agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Ceulemans, Kim; Scarff Seatter, Carol


    A number of universities worldwide have created new courses and degrees or modified existing ones, as a response to the increasing interest by companies to hire sustainability literate graduates. However, many of such courses have been developed with a focus on 'hard' technocentric or managerial

  18. Sustainable Urban Development? Exploring the Locational Attributes of LEED-ND Projects in the United States through a GIS Analysis of Light Intensity and Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell M. Smith


    Full Text Available LEED®-ND™ is the latest attempt to develop more sustainable urban environs in the United States. The LEED®-ND™ program was created to provide a green rating system that would improve the quality of life for all people through the inclusion of sustainable development practices. To achieve this, a premium is placed on the locational attributes of proposed projects under the “Smart Location and Linkages” credit category. The purpose of this paper is to explore the locational attributes of LEED®-ND™ projects in the United States to determine if projects are being located in areas that will result in achieving the program’s stated objectives. Specifically, this paper will examine two locational variables (i.e., night-time light intensity and land use cover through the use of GIS to determine the effectiveness of these criteria.

  19. SPA-LEED Study of the Morphology and Nucleation of a Novel Growth Mode and the ''devil's staircase'' on Pb/Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang-Chi Vincent Yeh


    This thesis was developed to address the following questions for the Pb/Si(111) system: (1) Is it possible to control the nano-structure growth by changing the initial substrate; (2) is the nucleation theory applicable to the case of the 7-step growth mode; and (3) what phase or phases could be formed between coverage 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML? The first question was answered in chapter 2, different growth results were observed for different initial substrate, suggesting the possibility of controlling nano-structure growth by selecting the initial substrate. The applicability of nucleation theory was determined to be unclear in chapter 3, from the results that the saturation island density does not depend on deposition rate, in contrary to the prediction of nucleation theory. Chapter 4 revealed a novel ''devil's staircase'' in Pb/Si(111) within the coverage range 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML. Low temperature deposition experiments showed high order of self-organization in such a system. Theoretical studies are needed to understand such a low temperature behavior. In general, this thesis provides possibilities of controlling nano-structure growth, which can be possibly an indication for future application. It also raises interesting questions in fundamental researches: a modified theory of nucleation is needed, and a detailed study of low temperature behavior is required. Details of the conclusions in each of the chapters are collected in the following sections

  20. Certificação ambiental de habitações: comparação entre LEED for Homes, Processo Aqua e Selo Casa Azul


    Grünberg,Paula Regina Mendes; Medeiros,Marcelo Henrique Farias de; Tavares,Sergio Fernando


    Visando incentivar mudanças no setor da construção civil para adequação às agendas de sustentabilidade, foram desenvolvidos, em vários países, sistemas de certificação ambiental de edificações. Voltadas principalmente para questões relativas ao consumo de recursos naturais e impactos ao meio ambiente; essas ferramentas também são denominadas selos verdes para edifícios. Com o intuito de identificar a certificação de melhor desempenho a ser utilizada para edificações residenciais no Brasil, us...

  1. Green building: análise das dificuldades (ainda) enfrentadas durante o processo de certificação LEED no Brasil


    Amaral, Marco Antônio Teixeira de


    A preocupação com o esgotamento dos recursos naturais e a conscientização sobre as questões ligadas à sustentabilidade provocaram o estudo em um setor que tem sido apontado como de grande importância para a transformação do meio ambiente: a construção civil. Com isso percebemos o surgimento de um conjunto de práticas e procedimentos visando as chamadas "construções sustentáveis", que introduziram uma nova realidade comercial no segmento da construção civil. Para avaliar se uma construção é ou...

  2. Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)-Auger-Thin-Layer Electrochemical Studies of the Underpotential Deposition of Lead onto Gold Single Crystals. (United States)


    probably has kinetics too complex for the apparent charge value to have direct sig - nificance. The intercept of the linear region of the plots in Figures 5.2...56. J. Henrion and G. E. Rhead, Surf. Sci., 29, 20 (1972) 57. A. Sepulveda and G. E. Rhead, Surf. Sci., 66, 436 (1977) 58. C. B. Duke, "Advances in

  3. School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Department of Fuel and Energy, University of Leeds report for the academic year 1998-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The annual report lists the research grants awarded during the session, records short course and events held, publications, conference attendances, degrees and diplomas awarded and committee membership of staff. It gives summaries of investigations being undertaken by research students reading for higher degrees. The main research theme remains combustion-based topics but increasingly with a renewable energy aspect, working towards efficient use of combustion of fossil fuels and hence reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and other pollutants, and increasing use of renewables especially biomass and solar energy. Projects are listed under headings: spark ignition engine emissions; diesel engine emissions; and process burners. Most projects are listed under the names of the supervisor.

  4. Pathways to impact in local government : the mini-Stern review as evidence in policy making in the Leeds city region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, A.; Gouldson, A.


    Although in recent years great emphasis has been placed on global agreements and national commitments on climate change, ultimately action on mitigation and adaptation must take place at the local level. Many local authorities have to face questions of whether they should develop policies on climate

  5. The Intracranial-B2LEED3S Score and the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Ischemic Stroke Patients Under Antiplatelet Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Sissani, Leila; Labreuche, Julien; Vicaut, Eric; Bousser, Marie Germaine; Chamorro, Angel; Fisher, Marc; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Hennerici, Michael G; Mattle, Heinrich; Rothwell, Peter M; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L; Greving, Jacoba P; Algra, Ale


    BACKGROUND: Chronic antiplatelet therapy in the post-acute phase of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke is limited by the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) complications. METHODS: We developed an ICH risk score based on the PERFORM trial cohort (n = 19,100), which included patients with a

  6. Realities of and Perspectives for Languages in the Globalised World: Can Language Teaching Survive the Inadequacies of Policies Implemented Today at Leeds Beckett University? (United States)

    Gamir, Saadia


    Various newspaper articles report that British ministers, university representatives, exam chiefs and business bodies agree that foreign languages skills in primary, secondary and tertiary UK education are in crisis. Lower funding and policy changes have caused language skills deficiencies felt gravely in the business sectors. Funding and support…

  7. ENERGY STAR and Green Buildings--Using ENERGY STAR Resources for Green Building Rating Systems: LEED[R], Green Globes[R] and CHPS (United States)

    Utebay, Kudret


    Every building, from the smallest school to the tallest skyscraper, uses energy. This energy is most often generated by burning fossil fuels, which releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. Existing commercial buildings offer a significant opportunity for low-cost, immediate emissions and energy cost…

  8. Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology ’The Tribology Design of Machine Elements’ (15th) 6-9 September 1988 (United States)


    the asperities in virtual contact. In addition also the poslt:ve hydrodynamic pressure originated by the wavy morphology of the sealing surfaces is...Thompson (Mouseman) furniture factory and see traditional. hand-crafted and hand-carved solid oak furniture being made and also to Niew the showroom

  9. Erialahariduse arengu eduks / Aira Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Aira, 1958-


    7.-8. sept. 1994 toimunud Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli infoteaduste osakonna ja Loughborough Ülikooli (Ühendatud Kuningriik) raamatukogu- ja infoteaduste osakonna infoteadusalase ülikoolihariduse ja täienduskoolituse teemalisest ühisseminarist

  10. Sustentabilidade na revitalização de centros urbanos: análise do Plano de Reabilitação do Hipercentro de Belo Horizonte sob os critérios do LEED


    Albrecht, Clarissa Ferreira


    Os projetos de revitalização em áreas centrais são cada vez mais comuns no planejamento urbano contemporâneo, pois além de preservarem o valioso conteúdo histórico-cultural, de localização e simbologia para a memória e referência da cidade são um instrumento valioso para a busca da sustentabilidade urbana. Com o objetivo de relacionar a problemática da importância dos projetos de revitalização para a sustentabilidade urbana é que se posiciona este trabalho. Nesse contexto, foi traçada a histó...

  11. SPA-LEED Study of the Morphology and Nucleation of a Novel Growth Mode and the ''devil's staircase'' on Pb/Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Wang-Chi Vincent [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis was developed to address the following questions for the Pb/Si(111) system: (1) Is it possible to control the nano-structure growth by changing the initial substrate; (2) is the nucleation theory applicable to the case of the 7-step growth mode; and (3) what phase or phases could be formed between coverage 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML? The first question was answered in chapter 2, different growth results were observed for different initial substrate, suggesting the possibility of controlling nano-structure growth by selecting the initial substrate. The applicability of nucleation theory was determined to be unclear in chapter 3, from the results that the saturation island density does not depend on deposition rate, in contrary to the prediction of nucleation theory. Chapter 4 revealed a novel ''devil's staircase'' in Pb/Si(111) within the coverage range 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML. Low temperature deposition experiments showed high order of self-organization in such a system. Theoretical studies are needed to understand such a low temperature behavior. In general, this thesis provides possibilities of controlling nano-structure growth, which can be possibly an indication for future application. It also raises interesting questions in fundamental researches: a modified theory of nucleation is needed, and a detailed study of low temperature behavior is required. Details of the conclusions in each of the chapters are collected in the following sections.

  12. An interview with Dr. Martin Lamb on research in English language learning and teaching


    Torras Vila, Berta


    The author interviewed Dr. Martin Lamb (University of Leeds, United Kingdom) at the School of Education in Leeds, about research on English language learning and teaching and about the main challenges that this field of research currently faces.

  13. A carbon structure on the Re/0001/ surface. (United States)

    Zimmer, R. S.; Robertson, W. D.


    The (0001) face of a rhenium single crystal was prepared by spark cutting and electropolishing for obtaining LEED intensity data. The six-domain LEED pattern observed in the course of cleaning the crystal in vacuum is attributed to carbon.

  14. 78 FR 43901 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations (United States)


    .../index.php/ Leeds, 1040 Park Leeds, AL 35094. alabama/ Drive, Leeds, AL jefferson-3/. 35094. Arizona... Street, om/index.php/ Thornton, 9500 Thornton, CO colorado/adams/. Civic Center 80241. Drive, Thornton.../index.php/ 0273P). County Board of 13th Street, colorado/boulder/ Commissioners, Suite 203, . P.O. Box...

  15. Existence, character and origin of surface-related bands in the high temperature iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2-xCoxAs2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heumen, E.; Vuorinen, J.; Koepernik, K.; Massee, F.; Huang, Y.; Shi, M.; Klei, J.; Goedkoop, J.; Lindroos, M.; van den Brink, J.; Golden, M.S.


    Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) experiments, LEED simulations, and finite slab density functional calculations are combined to study the cleavage surface of Co doped BaFe2-xCoxAs2 (x=0.1,0.17). We demonstrate that the energy dependence of the LEED data can only be understood from a

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Anderson, Steven, Black Hills State University,USA. Anil Kumar, G, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad. Asthana, Deepanker, Indian School of Mines, ... Kent, Ray W, University of Loughborough, UK. Keszthelyi, Laszlo P, U. S. Geological Survey. Kochhar, Naresh, Punjab University, Chandigarh. Liégeois ...

  17. Positioning Industrial Design Students to Operate at the "Fuzzy Front End": Investigating a New Arena of University Design Education (United States)

    Wormald, Paul W.


    This paper describes pedagogic research to instigate, support and understand a significant change in the education of undergraduate industrial design students. Design educators at Loughborough University, UK, have proposed that it will be critical for future industrial designers to learn new knowledge and abilities which will enable them to…

  18. The Effects on Soccer Passing Skills When Warming Up with Two Different Sized Soccer Balls (United States)

    Burcak, Keskin


    The purpose of the present research is studying the effects of warm-up with two different sizes of balls on passing skills. Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT) was conducted on 28 non-elite football players, who participated in the present research for 10 training days. LSPT is a passing skill protocol established on completing 16 passes…

  19. Knowledge Management: Opportunities for LIS Graduates. (United States)

    Morris, Anne

    Market research has been undertaken in preparation for a new postgraduate program in "Information and Knowledge Management" to be taught by the staff at the Department of Information Science at Loughborough University (England). The research was needed to shape the curriculum and to define program parameters. This paper presents the…

  20. Meeting the Expectation of Industry: An Integrated Approach for the Teaching of Mechanics and Electronics to Design Students (United States)

    Bingham, Guy A.; Southee, Darren J.; Page, Tom


    This paper examines the traditional engineering-based provision delivered to Product Design and Technology (B.Sc.) undergraduates at the Loughborough Design School and questions its relevancy against the increasing expectations of industry. The paper reviews final-year design projects to understand the level of transference of engineering-based…

  1. Using Sport to Engage and Motivate Students to Learn Mathematics (United States)

    Robinson, Carol L.


    This article describes how technology has been used to motivate the learning of mathematics for students of Sports Technology at Loughborough University. Sports applications are introduced whenever appropriate and Matlab is taught to enable the students to solve realistic problems. The mathematical background of the students is varied and the…

  2. The Training of Library and Information Staff in the Handling of Online Electronic Journals. (United States)

    Meadows, Jack; And Others


    Describes the creation of "InfoTrain," an experimental electronic journal to be used for training, and the initial use made of it and two commercial electronic journals by library and information students at Loughborough University (England), the University of South Australia, and the City University of London (England). (PEN)

  3. Factors Affecting Students' Usage and Perceptions of a Generic Intranet Learning Resource: Models of Use (United States)

    Drew, Sue; Thorpe, Louise


    The Key to Key Skills Project made portable to other universities an intranet system, developed at Leeds Metropolitan University, to support students' Key Skills. The system was piloted and evaluated in three partner institutions (Sheffield Hallam University, Leeds Metropolitan University and the University of Plymouth). The evaluation revealed…

  4. University Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design: How Postsecondary Institutions Use the LEEDRTM Green Building Rating System (United States)

    Chance, Shannon Massie


    This descriptive, exploratory study focused on how institutions of higher education have used the United States Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]) Green Building Rating system. It employed statistical methods to assess which types of universities have used LEED, what ratings they earned, and…

  5. Achieving and Maintaining Existing Building Sustainability Certification at Georgetown University (United States)

    Payant, Richard P.


    Sustainability is the promotion of high performance, healthful, energy-efficient, and environmentally stable buildings. Buildings intended for sustainable certification must meet guidelines developed by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the U.S. Green Building Council. The problem is that LEED certification often fails to…

  6. Perspectives from the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute: The Wildland Research institute (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; H. Ken Cordell; Neelam C. Poudyal


    The Wildland Research Institute (WRi) at the University of Leeds (UK) came into being in October 2009. Its origins go back to a United Kingdom research councilfunded seminar series called Wilderness Britain? which ran between 1998 and 2000 and was coordinated from the University of Leeds. This opened up the wider debate on wilderness and rewilding in the UK and later...

  7. Escape from Flatland: strain and quantum size effect driven growth of metallic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, Tjeerd Rogier Johannes


    In this thesis, we show the influence of and subtle balance between QSE and strain stabilizing interactions on the growth, as well as on structural and electronic properties of nanostructures. We present a LEEM and µLEED study in combination with Tensor LEED calculations illustrating the relevance

  8. Maritime Evaluation of Aerosol Fire Knock Down Tools. Part 2: Toxicity and Corrosion Potential (United States)


    2 ppm can have some physiological impacts particularly in the case of children between the ages of 5 and 12, and asthmatic adults [10]. As such, the...Ventilation Controlled Fires: Toxicity Assesment and Modelling," PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, England, 2012. [43] Workers’ Compensation Board

  9. Changes in markers of fatigue following a competitive match in elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett. University, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom ... Keywords: collision sport, monitoring, sports injuries. S Afr J Sports Med 2016;28(1):2-5. .... Technology, Adelaide, Australia) that measured ground reaction forces at 600 Hz. A standardised ...

  10. Growth of Optically Active p-Phenylene Needles on Mica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter


    Structural and optical properties of p-phenylene oligomers (p-nP, n=4, 5, 6) grown on mica (0 0 0 1) are investigated via low energy electron diffraction (LEED) using a multi-channelplate LEED as well as linear absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Single-crystalline fibres of laying...

  11. Theory, Design, and Measurement of Novel Uniform Circular Antenna Arrays for Direction of Arrival Estimation (United States)


    azimuth angles is desired. Significant work on UCAs using directional elements has been undertaken by Davies, Rahim, et al . for beamforming [12, 13, 14, 15...was on a modification to the Capon algorithm for directional antenna arrays and optimizing the antenna elements themselves was not discussed. Circular...estimation for directional and isotropic antenna arrays,” in Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conf. (LAPC), 2011, pp. 1–4. [23] ——, “ Capon -like

  12. Electron spin polarization effects in low-energy electron diffraction, ion neutralization, and metastable-atom deexcitation at solid surfaces. Progress report No. 3, January 1-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, G.K.; Dunning, F.B.


    The importance of electron spin polarization (ESP) effects in the various spectroscopies used to study solid surfaces has become increasingly apparent in recent years. Recent low energy electron diffraction (LEED) investigations in this laboratory and elsewhere have shown that a great deal of new information contributing to the understanding of the geometrical arrangements of atoms at a surface can be obtained if the polarization of the various LEED beams is measured, or if the incident electron beam is polarized. Polarized LEED studies have shown large polarization features that are very sensitive to the presence of adsorbed layers, surface reconstruction, etc. In addition, theory suggests that polarization measurements can provide a more sensitive test of many of the parameters used in a surface model than can conventional LEED intensity measurements alone. Polarized LEED has also been applied to the study of surface magnetism. In the present contract year, polarized LEED has been used, together with Auger analysis and LEED intensity measurements, as a diagnostic to characterize Ni(001) surfaces produced by laser annealing

  13. Interpretation of diffuse low-energy electron diffraction intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, D.K.; Pendry, J.B.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.


    It is shown that the diffuse low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) that occurs between sharp LEED beams can be used to determine the local bonding configuration near disordered surface atoms. Two approaches to the calculation of diffuse LEED intensities are presented for the case of lattice-gas disorder of an adsorbate on a crystalline substrate. The capabilities of this technique are most similar to those of near-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure, but avoid the restrictions due to the use of photons

  14. Avaliação dos indicadores de iluminação artificial estudo de caso: edificios comerciais e escola


    Cristiane Mitiko Sato Furuyama


    O objetivo desse trabalho é verificar se os critérios e indicadores das certificações LEED New Construction, LEED Existing Building - Operations and Maintenance, LEED Comercial Interiors, AQUA Escritórios e Edifícios escolares e o regulamento brasileiro PROCEL, podem ser atendidos pelas tecnologias disponíveis no Brasil em termos de lâmpadas, luminárias, reatores (sistemas de iluminação), bem como avaliar se tais critérios e indicadores estão de acordo com as normas da ABNT e/ou normas intern...

  15. Antibiotic therapy and Clostridium difficile infection – primum non nocere – first do no harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther GS


    Full Text Available Grace S Crowther,1 Mark H Wilcox1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, Leeds, UK Abstract: Treatment options for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI remain limited despite this usually nosocomial infection posing an urgent threat to public health. A major paradox of the management of CDI is the use of antimicrobial agents to treat infection, which runs the risk of prolonged gut microbiota perturbation and so recurrence of infection. Here, we explore alternative CDI treatment and prevention options currently available or in development. Notably, strategies that aim to reduce the negative effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota offer the potential to alter current antimicrobial stewardship approaches to preventing CDI. Keywords: treatment, prevention, CDI, SYN-004, vaccine, beta-lactams

  16. The Green Building Handbook of South Africa: Volume 10: The Essential Guide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available Although not explicitly stated, green A. rating systems fundamentally aim to improve building performance albeit with a bias toward environmental issues. Thus LEED promotes its system as being "resource efficient"reducing water and energy use...

  17. Michigani puitmööblitehas on USAs esimene roheehitis / Arni Alandi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alandi, Arni, 1969-


    Firma Steelcase Inc rajatud puitmööblitehas Grand Rapidsis Michiganis (arhitektid Leonardo Tombelli ja Mark Barnikow) on esimene tehas, mis ehitatud vastavalt USA rohelise ehituse nõukogu LEED sertifitseerimisprogrammi nõuetele

  18. FEMP Focus - Summer 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Features information about renewable energy and sustainable design, State and Utility Partnership gets geothermal off the ground, federal agencies are designing new buildings to LEED, federal agencies partner with Native Americans to develop renewable energy, and more for federal agencies.

  19. Pilot Study of a Plug Load Management System: Preparing for Sustainability Base (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. high-performance office building targeting a LEED Platinum rating. Plug loads are expected to...

  20. Low-energy electron diffraction experiment, theory and surface structure determination

    CERN Document Server

    Hove, Michel A; Chan, Chi-Ming


    Surface crystallography plays the same fundamental role in surface science which bulk crystallography has played so successfully in solid-state physics and chemistry. The atomic-scale structure is one of the most important aspects in the understanding of the behavior of surfaces in such widely diverse fields as heterogeneous catalysis, microelectronics, adhesion, lubrication, cor­ rosion, coatings, and solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces. Low-Energy Electron Diffraction or LEED has become the prime tech­ nique used to determine atomic locations at surfaces. On one hand, LEED has yielded the most numerous and complete structural results to date (almost 200 structures), while on the other, LEED has been regarded as the "technique to beat" by a variety of other surface crystallographic methods, such as photoemission, SEXAFS, ion scattering and atomic diffraction. Although these other approaches have had impressive successes, LEED has remained the most productive technique and has shown the most versatility...

  1. Application of Inductive Monitoring System to Plug Load Anomaly Detection (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. LEED Platinum office building. Plug loads are expected to account for a significant portion...

  2. Sustainability Base: The Self-guided "Tour" (United States)

    Grymes, Rosalind; Poll, Scott


    This series of 6 information sheets was designed to familiarize readers with the performance capabilities of Sustainability Base. The set described the design intentions and operational characteristics of this LEED Platinum facility

  3. Occupant comfort and health in green and conventional university buildings. (United States)

    Hedge, A; Miller, L; Dorsey, J A


    Green building standards are significantly impacting modern construction practices. The resulting structures are more energy efficient, but their impact on occupant health has not been widely studied. To investigate a range of indoor environment and ergonomic issues in green buildings. Retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 319 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings and one conventional building on a Canadian University campus. Results show that working in the LEED buildings was a generally positive experience for their health, performance, and satisfaction. However, the LEED buildings did not always receive the highest ratings for environmental conditions or for health and productivity. Respondents indicated a range of concerns with thermal conditions, office lighting, noise and their overall workstation designs and these were not always better in the green buildings. These results highlight the need for better integration of ergonomic design into green buildings and into the LEED rating system, and these implications are discussed.

  4. Symposium on Applied Mathematical Programming and Modeling (APMOD93) Held in Budapest, Hungary on January 6-8, 1993. Volume of Extended Abstracts (United States)


    School of Computer Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT. UK "Dpt. de Inteligencia Artificial , Universidad Politecnica de Madrid 28660-Madrid...cuts. Then it creates a new source by adding an artificial vertex S and a new arc (S, s) with capacity U to the network, where s was the old source...b and each coefficient of the matrix A are integer numbers). This problem arises in several applications in computer science, namely in Artificial

  5. Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field


    Shah, Neeraj M; Hussain, Sidra; Cooke, Mark; O’Hara, John P; Mellor, Adrian


    Neeraj M Shah,1 Sidra Hussain,2 Mark Cooke,3 John P O’Hara,3 Adrian Mellor3,4 1Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King’s College London, UK; 2School of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK; 4Academic Department of Military Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Travel to high altitude is increasingly p...

  6. Biliary stenting in advanced malignancy: an analysis of predictive factors for survival


    Afshar, Mehran; Ma,Yuk Ting; Punia,Pankaj; Khanom,Koudeza


    Mehran Afshar,1 Koudeza Khanom,2 Yuk Ting Ma,1,3 Pankaj Punia1 1Cancer Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK; 2St James Institute of Oncology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK; 3School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Purpose: Stenting of the biliary tree is a common palliative procedure to relieve obstructive jaundice in advanced malignancy. Although effective in relief of biliary obstr...

  7. Corticosteroid transdermal delivery to target swelling, edema and inflammation following facial rejuvenation procedures


    Iannitti, Tommaso; Rottigni,; Palmieri,Beniamino


    T Iannitti,1,2 V Rottigni,2,3 B Palmieri2,31School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2Poliambulatorio del Secondo Parere, Modena, Italy; 3Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Surgical Clinic, Modena, ItalyBackground and aim: The use of transdermal therapeutic systems has spread worldwide since they allow effective local drug delivery. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of...

  8. Catalysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.N.; Ellis, W.P.


    The New Research Initiatives Program (NRIP) project on catalysis in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Group CMB-8 has made significant progress towards performing the first basic in situ experimental studies of heterogeneous catalysis on solid compound surfaces in a LEED-Auger system. To further understand the surface crystallography of a possible catalyst compound, LEED-Auger measurements were made on UO 2 (approximately 100) vicinal surfaces. These (approximately 100) vicinal surfaces were shown to decompose irreversibly into lower index facets, including prominent (100) facets, at temperatures below those needed for creation of lowest index faceting on (approximately 111) vicinal surfaces. LEED examination of fully faceted surfaces from both types of UO 2 vicinal cuts did not show evidence of cyclopropane or propene chemisorption. The existing LEED-Auger system was modified to allow catalytic reactions at approximately less than 10 -3 torr. A sample holder, specifically designed for catalysis measurements in the modified system, was tested while examining single crystals of CoO and Cr 2 O 3 . Extensive LEED-Auger measurements were made on CoO in vacuo and in the presence of light hydrocarbons and alcohols plus H 2 O, NO, and NH 3 . No chemisorptive behavior was observed except with H 2 O in the presence of the electron beam. Although only examined briefly, the Cr 2 O 3 was remarkable for the sharp LEED features obtained prior to any surface treatment in the vacuum system

  9. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zagoskin, Alexandre


    Written by Dr Alexandre Zagoskin, who is a Reader at Loughborough University, Quantum Mechanics: A Complete Introduction is designed to give you everything you need to succeed, all in one place. It covers the key areas that students are expected to be confident in, outlining the basics in clear jargon-free English, and then providing added-value features like summaries of key ideas, and even lists of questions you might be asked in your exam. The book uses a structure that is designed to make quantum physics as accessible as possible - by starting with its similarities to Newtonian physics, ra

  10. Shifts in the field of mathematics education Stephen Lerman and the turn to the social

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Peter


    Professor Stephen Lerman has been a leader in the field of mathematics education for thirty years. His work is extensive, making many significant contributions to a number of key areas of research. Stephen retired from South Bank University in 2012, where he had worked for over 20 years, though he continues to work at Loughborough University. In this book several of his long standing colleagues and collaborators reflect on his contribution to mathematics education, and in so doing illustrate how some of Steve's ideas and interventions have resulted in significant shifts in the domain.

  11. A rigorous computational approach to linear response (United States)

    Bahsoun, Wael; Galatolo, Stefano; Nisoli, Isaia; Niu, Xiaolong


    We present a general setting in which the formula describing the linear response of the physical measure of a perturbed system can be obtained. In this general setting we obtain an algorithm to rigorously compute the linear response. We apply our results to expanding circle maps. In particular, we present examples where we compute, up to a pre-specified error in the L∞ -norm, the response of expanding circle maps under stochastic and deterministic perturbations. Moreover, we present an example where we compute, up to a pre-specified error in the L 1-norm, the response of the intermittent family at the boundary; i.e. when the unperturbed system is the doubling map. This work was mainly conducted during a visit of SG to Loughborough University. WB and SG would like to thank The Leverhulme Trust for supporting mutual research visits through the Network Grant IN-2014-021. SG thanks the Department of Mathematical Sciences at Loughborough University for hospitality. WB thanks Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Pisa. The research of SG and IN is partially supported by EU Marie-Curie IRSES ‘Brazilian-European partnership in Dynamical Systems’ (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES 318999 BREUDS). IN was partially supported by CNPq and FAPERJ. IN would like to thank the Department of Mathematics at Uppsala University and the support of the KAW grant 2013.0315.

  12. Influence of Sn on the optical anisotropy of single-domain Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astropekakis, A.; Power, J.R.; Fleischer, K.; Esser, N.; Richter, W.; Galata, S.; Papadimitriou, D.


    We apply reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) to the study of Sn deposited on a single-domain vicinal Si(001) sample. Large variations in RAS are recorded when up to 5 monolayers (ML) of Sn is deposited on the Si substrate at room temperature. We observe (2x2) and (1x1) LEED patterns for the 0.5-ML and 1.0-ML Sn covered surfaces, respectively. The (1x1) LEED pattern exists beyond this coverage and up to 5.0-ML deposition. Even though a (1x1) LEED pattern is observed upon deposition of 1.5 ML, surprisingly, a significant optical anisotropy is observed. After annealing to 570 degree sign C for 2 min, we observe a progression of LEED pattern changes from c(4x4)→(6x2)→c(8x4)→(5x1) with increased Sn coverage up to 1.5 ML. Similar RAS line shapes are obtained for all reconstructions produced through annealing with the exception of the (5x1). For the (5x1) phase, a significant anisotropy appears in the region of 1.8 eV. Similarities in the RAS line shape for both the (5x1) phase and that obtained after deposition of 1.5 ML of Sn at room temperature may indicate a RAS sensitivity to Sn dimer orientation within the uppermost layer

  13. Surface composition and structure of nickel ultra-thin films deposited on Pd(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carazzolle, M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Maluf, S.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Siervo, A. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nascente, P.A.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Landers, R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kleiman, G.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Ultra-thin nickel films deposited on the Pd(111) surface were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). Up to 3 ML coverage, a LEED (1 x 1) pattern with a diffuse background due to a random distribution of Ni atoms on the surface is observed. Annealing at 600 deg. C reduced the background drastically and sharp (1 x 1) spots appeared on the screen, but XPS showed no presence of nickel on the surface, indicating diffusion into the bulk. Annealing at 300 deg. C for 30 min yielded also a sharp (1 x 1) LEED pattern, and the XPS Ni/Pd intensity ratio decreased with annealing time. The comparison between experimental and theoretical XPD results indicated that the surface was covered partially by Ni islands and partially by a random Ni-Pd surface alloy.

  14. The study of geometric structure of Na films on Cu(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeybek, O.


    In order to understand the geometric structure of Na films on Cu( 110) substrate, a couple of surface science techniques have been applied in this study. The thickness of the Na films were calculated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data and Mean Free Path. The coverages were compared with the work function changes in this study and other investigations. Sub-monolayer and up to 2 ML thickness of Na films on Cu(110) have been investigated using Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Ultra Violet Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy. It is found that the (1 x 1) LEED pattern of Cu(110) changes to (1 x 2) with increasing Na coverage up to 1 ML. Af ter 1 ML Na films, LEED shows again (1 x 1) structure

  15. Atmospheric deterioration of clean surface of epitaxial (001)-YBaCuO films studied by low-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Tomoyuki; Sakuta, Ken; Kamishiro, Makio; Kobayashi, Takeshi


    The effects of gas exposure on the clean surface of the epitaxial YBaCuO thin films were closely investigated using the low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) method. The clean surface was obtained by in-vacuum annealing at 500degC. Once the clean surface was exposed to air, even at room temperature, the LEED spots disappeared or sometimes became faint. To ensure the degradation mechanism of the YBaCuO clean surface, the specimens were exposed to pure O 2 and N 2 gases separately and measured by LEED. As a result, it was found that O 2 is very safe but N 2 serves as a poisonous gas for the YBaCuO clean surface. (author)

  16. Existence, character, and origin of surface-related bands in the high temperature iron pnictide superconductor BaFe(2-x)Co(x)As2. (United States)

    van Heumen, Erik; Vuorinen, Johannes; Koepernik, Klaus; Massee, Freek; Huang, Yingkai; Shi, Ming; Klei, Jesse; Goedkoop, Jeroen; Lindroos, Matti; van den Brink, Jeroen; Golden, Mark S


    Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) experiments, LEED simulations, and finite slab density functional calculations are combined to study the cleavage surface of Co doped BaFe(2-x)Co(x)As2 (x = 0.1,0.17). We demonstrate that the energy dependence of the LEED data can only be understood from a terminating 1/2 Ba layer accompanied by distortions of the underlying As-Fe2-As block. As a result, surface-related Fe 3d states are present in the electronic structure, which we identify in angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments. The close proximity of the surface-related states to the bulk bands inevitably leads to broadening of the ARPES signals, which excludes the use of the BaFe(2-x)Co(x)As2 system for accurate determination of self-energies using ARPES.

  17. Surface physics : experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalia, B.D.


    In this report, discussion is confined to some important ultra high vacuum surface techniques such as ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the low energy electron diffraction (LEED). An attempt is made to cover the basic principles and the experimental details of XPS and AES. Selected examples illustrating the potentialities of the above techniques to solve the important basic as well as applied problems relating to surfaces are presented. Salient features of the available commercial machines in which UPS, AES and LEED are combined to facilitate surface examination sequentially or simultaneously under identical experimental conditions are indicated. (auth.)

  18. Environment-friendly building complex of the BBVA bank in Madrid, Spain. Sustainable and healthy indoor climate in a new office building; Spaans BBVA-cornplex milieuvriendelijk gebouwd. Duurzaam en gezond binnenklimaat nieuw hoofdkantoor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G. [Swegon, Capelle aan den IJssel (Netherlands)


    In the design and construction of the new office building of the Spanish bank BBVA (Madrid) sustainability and environmental effects were important aspects. The office building complex will certified by the American company Leed Gold. The energy efficient installations are made possible by Eurovent-certified heat recovery units and comfort units. [Dutch] Bij de bouw van het nieuwe hoofdkantoor van de Spaanse bank BBVA in Madrid staan duurzaamheid en milieuvriendelijkheid hoog in het vaandel. Het complex zal na de oplevering worden gecertificeerd conform het Amerikaanse Leed Gold. De energiezuinige installatie wordt mede mogelijk gemaakt door Eurovent-gecertificeerde wtw-units en comfortunits.

  19. Redukce wolframanových prekurzorů v plazmatu buzeném ve směsi vodíku a vhodného uhlovodíku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Eliáš, M.; Janča, J.


    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2005), s. 167 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemických spoločností /57./. Tatranské Matliare, 05.09.2005-08.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Keywords : tungstates * leed tungstate * hydrogen plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. "I'm Just a Linguist--All I Can Do Is Teach or Translate". Broadening Language Graduates' Horizons through Employer Engagement (United States)

    Leggott, Dawn


    Employers in the UK recognise that a lack of language skills can limit their company's international growth. Many students on language degrees, however, feel unprepared for working in a business environment. The final year "Working with Languages" module on Leeds Beckett University's language degrees aims to help the students to expand…

  1. Acute Respiratory Infections in the Middle-Belt Region of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ARI continues to be a leeding cause of death among children globally beyond the year 2000. Close 12 million children under the age of 5years die each year in the developing countries, mainly from preventable causes and approximately 2.28 million (19%) were due to acute respiratory infections (ARI).

  2. modelling of queuing process at airport check-in system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    models in queue studies. The study adopted travel demand data for Manchester and Leeds-Bradford airports from the United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority database. 1.2 Analytical Models for Queuing Studies. Previous researchers have examined queuing process extensively and developed analytical models used for.

  3. Using Assessment to Showcase Employability in IWLP (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline


    Assessment is a critical part of teaching and learning so it is important that students are encouraged to engage positively with it. The Institution-Wide Language Programme (IWLP) at the University of Leeds redesigned its model of assessment for modules at upper-intermediate and advanced levels, broadly equivalent to the Common European Framework…

  4. Cradle-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory of Hardboard and Engineered Wood Siding and Trim Produced in North America (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman


    Developing wood product LCI data helps construct product LCAs that are then incorporated into developing whole building LCAs in environmental footprint software such as the Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings (ASMI 2015). Conducting whole building LCAs provide for points that go toward green building certification in rating systems such as LEED v4, Green Globes, and...

  5. What Happens in Different Contexts and How to Do Learner Autonomy Better? (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoling


    Chongqing University, as one of the experimental universities in China, has implemented computer-assisted language learning to support and practice learner autonomy since 2003. But in 2006, as a Visiting Fellow from Chongqing at the University of Leeds, the author noted pedagogical differences in promoting learner autonomy of language teaching…

  6. Top man: Mathematician, geographer, vice chancellor , Sir Alan Wilson the new director general of higher education at the DfES, has a reputation for solving complicated problems. He talks to Jim Kelly

    CERN Multimedia

    Kelly, J


    "Sir Alan Wilson, vice-chancellor of Leeds University, has made a career out of solving big problems. This week he landed himself one of the biggest. Appointed the government's first ever director general of higher education, he becomes responsible for advising Charles Clarke at a pivotal moment in the history of the sector" (1 page).

  7. Multi-fuctional heat recovery systems. Really energy saving; Multifunktionale Waermerueckgewinnung. Wie man wirklich Energie spart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Heinz [SEW Systemtechnik fuer Energierecycling und Waermeflussbegrenzung GmbH, Kempen (Germany)


    An energy saving leeds only to a correct optimized operation, if a demand-oriented total design is integrated into the building. In special for air-conditioning energy saving measures are presented and essential criteria named, to save in fact effectively, efficiently, reliably and profitably energy and enhance simultanously user quality. (orig./GL)

  8. Sustainable Architecture that Teaches: Promoting Environmental Education through Service-Learning (United States)

    Eason, Grace; Berger, Rebecca; Green, Pamela Davis


    The University of Maine at Farmington (UMF) has undertaken a commitment to establish a culture of environmental sustainability. With two new Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings on site, a green building curriculum has been developed. This multidimensional curriculum involves university faculty, students, K-12…

  9. Sn interaction with the CeO.sub.2./sub.(111) system: bimetallic bonding and ceria reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škoda, M.; Cabala, M.; Cháb, Vladimír; Prince, K. C.; Sedláček, L.; Skála, T.; Šutara, F.; Matolín, V.


    Roč. 254, č. 14 (2008), 4375-4379 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : resonant photoemission * RPES * XPS * LEED * ceria * tin * reduction * bimetallic interaction * bimetallic bonding Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2008

  10. 76 FR 4612 - Community Trade Adjustment Assistance Program Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report (United States)


    ... Trade and Globalization Adjustment Assistance Act (TGAAA) of 2009, which was included as subtitle I... Design (LEED) program. The business incubator for biomedical, life science and biotechnology start-ups... Corporation to build a roadway for improved access to the Triangle North Franklin Business Park. The grantee...

  11. The Video Role Model as an Enterprise Teaching Aid (United States)

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda


    This article examines the need to develop a more enterprising approach to learning by adopting an experiential approach. It specifically examines the use of video case studies of entrepreneurial role models within an enterprise module at Leeds Metropolitan University. The exercise enables students to act as a consultant or counsellor and apply…

  12. Modelling of queuing process at airport check-in system: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study built a Simulation Model (SM) using SimEvents toolbox in MATLAB for implementing Analytical Models (AM) of queuing process at airport check - in system. Air travel demand data for Manchester and Leeds - Bradford airports in 2014 were adopted for validation of the model. There was no statistical differenc e ...

  13. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder M


    Full Text Available Matthew Pinder,1 Katie Lummis,1 Christian P Selinger1,2 1Leeds Gastroenterology Institute, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, 2University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD affects many women of childbearing age. The course of IBD is closely related to pregnancy outcomes with poorly controlled IBD increasing the risk of prematurity, low weight for gestation, and fetal loss. As such, women with IBD face complex decision making weighing the risks of active disease versus those of medical treatments. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of IBD treatments during pregnancy and lactation aiming to provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians. Over 50% of women have poor IBD- and pregnancy-related knowledge, which is associated with views contrary to medical evidence and voluntary childlessness. This review highlights the effects of poor patient knowledge and critically evaluates interventions for improving patient knowledge and outcomes. Keywords: pregnancy, breast feeding, nursing, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis

  14. Learning to Some Purpose (United States)

    Nuttgens, Patrick


    The kind of education needed after the industrial and social revolutions is discussed by the director of Leeds Polytechnic. Focus is on a critical review of the immediate educational inheritance, a personal outline of the relevant realities of the world in terms of technology and design, and an approach to a more creative educational pattern.…

  15. Demonstration of Noncorrosive, Capacitance- Based Water-Treatment Technology for Chilled-Water Cooling Systems (United States)


    ER327E0031137500. Adjustable length E/R probe with 40-mil, epoxy sealed , wire loop element in carbon steel/copper on ¾-in. MNPT nylon fitting. Transmitters: IN2500E...compared to when chemically treating the tower water 2. The water savings and use of gray water could con- tribute to LEED points and compliance


    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and ScreeningDavid Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3 1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  17. It's Not Easy Building Green. (United States)

    Higgins, Joseph


    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  18. Successful Strategies for Planning a Green Building. (United States)

    Browning, William D.


    Presents several strategies for successful green building on campus: develop a set of clear environmental performance goals (buildings as pedagogical tools, climate-neutral operations, maximized human performance), use Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) as a gauge of performance, and use the project to reform the campus building…

  19. The Development and Application of Policy-Based Tools for Institutional Green Buildings (United States)

    Cupido, Anthony F.


    In 2008, APPA forwarded a Web-based survey on the author's behalf to all designated representatives of APPA member institutions. The purpose of the survey was to determine if institutional policies are an important criterion for an institution's sustainable building practices and the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]).…

  20. Hudson Nyabuga Nyambaka and Janice Ryley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Hudson Nyabuga Nyambaka'" and Janice Ryley? 'Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O.Box, 43844, Nairobi, Kenya. 'Procter Department of Food Science, University of Leeds, UK. (Received March 7, 2001; revised June 13, 2001). ABSTRACT, Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) are rich source of pro-vitamin ...

  1. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  2. (Editors). Dictionaries of Medieval Germanic Languag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    From 4 to 7 July 1994 the University of Leeds hosted the first International. Medieval Congress. Three sessions were dedicated to "Dictionaries of Medieval. Languages". They dealt with the following themes: "Projects", in which several dictionary projects were presented, "Historical Background", which focuses on.

  3. Tertiary Treatment and Recycling of Wastewater (United States)


    Center gpd gallons per day HRT hydraulic retention time HU hydrologic unit kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt hour LCA Life Cycle Analysis LEED Leadership...All data will be compiled and stored electronically . 29 6.0 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT The following discussion summarizes the measured and

  4. High rise building becomes a ''green tower''. Modernization of the Deutsche Bank administrative building at Frankfurt/Main; Hochhaus wird Green Tower. Modernisierung der Firmenzentrale Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt/M.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The modernization work on the Deutsche Bank building started in 2008 and will be finished by 2010. The modernized building will be environment-friendly and energy-saving. Energy consumption is to be reduced by at least 50 percent. The building will be the first object in Germany to receive the US Leed platinum certificate. (orig.)

  5. Spectroscopic ellipsometric investigation of clean and oxygen covered copper single crystal surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanekamp, L.J.; Lisowski, W.F.; Bootsma, G.A.


    Spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements (400–820 nm) have been performed on clean and oxygen covered Cu(110) and Cu(111) surfaces in an AES-LEED UHV system. The complex dielectric functions of the clean surfaces were calculated from measurements between room temperature and 600 K. In contrast with

  6. Lyophilization of Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin. (United States)


    minimal effect on met Hb formation. E. P5o Sample analysis is presently under way using the Hemox analyzer . Minimal changes have been seen to-date. 4 U" F...size distributions were analyzed by Leeds and Northrup Microtrac, a laser light scattering machine. Although limited runs have been analyzed , the trend

  7. Archiving a feminist animation archive


    Taylor, Rebekah


    This paper looks at the processes behind cataloguing an animation archive - Leeds Animation Workshop archive - it looks at archival processes, research opportunities, and archival description and terminology to catalogue a collection with a range of identities - including feminism, disability, and race.

  8. School Science Inspired by Improving Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Reid, Heather; Renfrew, Ian A.; Vaughan, Geraint


    High winds and heavy rain are regular features of the British weather, and forecasting these events accurately is a major priority for the Met Office and other forecast providers. This is the challenge facing DIAMET, a project involving university groups from Manchester, Leeds, Reading, and East Anglia, together with the Met Office. DIAMET is part…

  9. The conservation message of the rehabilitated facilities of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J. Rullan


    Over a period of about 20 years, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) and its collaborators developed and implemented a facilities plan that included both new and restored facilities. Among the restored facilities, the historic Headquarters Building received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certificate, and was...

  10. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rates were usually corrected for water oxidation (usually 10", of total a te) con ducted simultaneously in the blank experiments. Oxidations were usually conducted for 30 min. to 3 hr. depending on the substr - of S2Os were ~30%. The pHs of the re before and after the experiments in a pH meter (Leeds and Northrup ( 'at. No.

  11. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ADMITTANCE TECHNIQUE OF GRAVITY DATA. J.M. Nnange*, Y.H. Poudjom Djomani**, J.D. Fairhead+ and C.Ebinger++. *IRGM, B.P. 4110 Yaounde Cameroon. **School of Earth Sciences, Macquaire University, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 2109. +Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, England.

  12. Single crystal surface structure by bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens


    X-ray diffraction is becoming an important tool in the measurements of surface structures. Single crystalline samples are used as in Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)-studies. The X-ray technique is somewhat more involved due to the need of bright, collimated photon sources, in general...

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I as intraovarian regulator of hyaluronic acid synthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagyová, Eva; Procházka, Radek

    č. 28 (2002), s. 31 ISSN 1476-3990. [Society for Reproduction and Fertility-Annual Conference. 00.06.2002-00.06.2002, Leeds] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5045102 Keywords : insulin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. A molecular surface science study of the structure of adsorbates on surfaces: Importance to lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, C.M.


    The interaction and bonding of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces is explored under ultra-high vacuum conditions using a variety of surface science techniques: high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), work function measurements, and second harmonic generation (SHG). 164 refs., 51 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Investigation of the Si(111) surface in uhv: oxidation and the effect of surface phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, H.W.K.; Zhu, X.D.; Shen, Y.R.; Somorjai, G.A.


    We have studied the initial stages of oxidation, the segregation of phosphorus, and the effect of phosphorus on oxidation of the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface using optical second-harmonic generation. We have also observed a (√3 x √3)R30 0 LEED pattern for P on Si

  16. "I'm 70 and I'm a Community Activist" (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul


    In this article, the author discusses a project that turns residents of some of South Leeds' most deprived neighbourhoods into community researchers and is giving people an opportunity to make concrete, positive changes to their communities. Armed with homemade tools, some coloured pens, and masses of post-it notes, the "Community…

  17. Le Traitement Chirurgical Des Poches De Rétraction Tympaniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influence hearing potentialities. The evolution course of atelectasic disease leeding to localized retraction may be the principal cause for cholesteatoma witch complicates the management of the retraction pockets. The authors report a retrospective study about 137cases of retraction pockets collaged from 1992 to 2001.

  18. Immunophenotyping of Gastrointestinal Mesenchymal Tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: Materials were formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of GMT diagnosed in Lagos Nigeria between January 1995 and February 2007. Sections were stained with CD117, CD34, SMA, S100 and Desmin antibodies at the research Laboratory of The Leeds General Infirmary, United Kingdom following standard ...

  19. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY: The voluntary l'eed intake of non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating Merino- and S.A. Mutton Merino ewes on native pasture and ... On a lucerne diet it was tbund that the average feed intake of the ewes plus that of theirlambspermetabolicbody size of the ..... the calves was added to that of their mothers dunng the.

  20. Mathematical Education for Geographers (United States)

    Wilson, Alan


    Outlines mathematical topics of use to college geography students identifies teaching methods for mathematical techniques in geography at the University of Leeds; and discusses problem of providing students with a framework for synthesizing all content of geography education. For journal availability, see SO 506 593. (Author/AV)

  1. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Graham Dutfield is Professor of International Governance at the Centre for International Governance, School of Law, University of Leeds. ...... Technical assistance programmes of the Economic Development Sector at WIPO are aimed primarily at building up the legal and administrative infrastructure required to protect IPRs.

  2. Philosophical Papers: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian McLaughlin (Rutgers) Chris Megone (Leeds) Seumas Miller (Charles Sturt) Ruth Garrett Millikan (Connecticut) Michael Pendlebury (Witwatersrand) John Perry (Stanford) Philip Pettit (Australian National University) Amélie Oksenberg Rorty (Brandeis) Mark Sainsbury (Texas—Austin) John Searle (California Berkeley)

  3. Non-destructive assessment of the polarity of GaN nanowire ensembles using low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Fernández-Garrido, S.; Jiříček, Petr; Bartoš, Igor; Geelhaar, L.; Brandt, O.; Paskova, T.


    Roč. 106, č. 2 (2015), "021602-1"-"021602-4" ISSN 0003-6951 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101201 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : GaN nanowires * X-ray photoelectron diffraction * LEED I-V * GaN polarity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  4. UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    quasicrystal have been found in nature: a mineral discovered 3 years ago in the Koryak Mountains in eastern Russia. (Evidence for the extraterrestrial origin of a natural quasicrystal, L Bindi et al, PNAS, 109, 1396, 2012) ... LEED is very surface sensitive due to limited mean free path of low energy electrons (20-. 200 eV).

  5. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.


    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  6. Promoting Mental Health and Wellbeing with Men and Boys: What Works?


    Robertson, S; White, A; Gough, B; Robinson, R; Seims, A; Raine, G; Hanna, E


    In May 2014 the Movember Foundation commissioned the Centre for Men’s Health, Leeds Beckett University, in collaboration with the Men’s Health Forum (England & Wales), to gather the current research evidence and practical (‘tacit’) knowledge about the core elements that make for successful work with boys and men around mental health promotion, early intervention and stigma reduction.

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, New Fairfield, Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This LEED Platinum home was built on the site of a 60-year-old bungalow that was demolished. It boasts views of Candlewood Lake, a great deal of daylight, and projected annual energy savings of almost $3,000. This home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  8. Effects of stavudine - based antiretroviral therapy on distal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... immuno deficiency virus care and treatment clinic in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika Zaria between August 2005 and May 2006 They were evaluated using a protocol modified from the subjective peripheral neuropathy screen and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain score.

  9. Auger Physicists visit CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael


    Visit at CERN P5 CMS in the experimental cavern Alan Watson, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Leeds; Jim Cronin, Nobel Laureate, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Chicago; Jim Virdee, CMS Former Spokesperson, Imperial College; Jim Matthews, Auger Co-Spokesperson, Louisiana State University

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeke, P.T.. Vol 37, No 1 (2018) - Articles Modelling of queuing process at airport check-in system: a case study of Manchester and Leeds-Bradford airports. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2467-8821. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  11. PS. 137. BY DIE RIVIERE VAN BABEL. In verskillende opsigte staan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    die ballingskap teruggekeer het na Palestina, en nou die leed en beledigings van die ballingskap herdink?). Maar ook dit is nie goed aanvaarbaar nie. Want as die digter nou in Jerusalem of in sy nabyheid vertoef, watter sin kan dit dan nog hê dat hy sweer dat hy Jerusalem nie sal ver geet nie ? Sodoende het weer ander ...

  12. Growth and decay of hcp-like Cu hut-shaped structures on W(100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, Tjeerd Rogier Johannes; van Gastel, Raoul; Wormeester, Herbert; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene


    We have studied both the morphology and structure of thin Cu deposits on W(100) during growth and desorption, using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and selective area low-energy electron diffraction (μLEED). During growth at 674 K hut-shaped Cu crystallites with steep facets (> 54∘) coexist

  13. C-TEC: Ohio's First All-Green School (United States)

    Krall, Angie


    In Ohio's Licking County, the Career and Technology Education Centers (C-TEC) is a leader in the green movement. This eco-friendly school incorporates environmental sustainability in all aspects of its programming and is the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified public building in the state. While eco-friendly…

  14. Profile: parents help themselves. (United States)

    Woods, G E


    A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.

  15. New Fellows and Honorary Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1974 Section: Engineering & Technology. Krishna, Dr Maddaly Gopala Ph.D. (Leeds). Date of birth: 18 July 1922. Date of death: 5 June 1978. Specialization: Fuel Technology and Chemical Engineering. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  16. Sequelae of traumatic stress: psychopathology, cortisol, and attentional function in the aftermath of a disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, M.L.


    Marie-Louise Meewisse onderzocht 260 getroffenen van de vuurwerkramp in Enschede. Twee jaar na de ramp leed de helft aan een psychische stoornis. Posttraumatische stress stoornis (PTSS) kwam voor bij 22 procent, een fobie bij 21 procent en een depressie bij 16 procent. Direct na de ramp had ongeveer

  17. 1998 Technology Showcase. JOAP International Condition Monitoring Conference. (United States)


    morphological parameters to assist in the elucidation of of the wear process! Proc. 18th Leeds - Iyon Tribology Symp. (1991),75 - 79 30. Stachowiak G.W., Kirk...T.B. and Stachowiak , G.B. ’Ferrography and fractal analysis of contamination particles in unused lubricating oils’ Trib. Int’l. 24,6 (1991) 329 - 334 31

  18. Sustainability Assessment of a Military Installation: A Template for Developing a Mission Sustainability Framework, Goals, Metrics and Reporting System (United States)


    bus, light rail ) options Annual survey/county data; goal could be 90- 100% satisfaction Percentage satisfied w/ alternative transportation...than private vehicles (e.g., bus, cabs, light rail , bicycle, walk) LEED-ND % of arrivals via means other than private vehicles Scaled to

  19. Papers in Literacy. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series B, Volume 12. (United States)

    Larrimore, B., Ed.

    Four papers relating to literacy education for Australian Aboriginal peoples are presented. "Testing Epenthetic Vowels in Anindilyakwa" by Velma J. Leeding reports on a study of Aboriginal perceptions of a short transitional vowel. In "Diagnostic Testing of the Anindilyakwa Orthography for Both Reading and Writing," Velma J.…

  20. Epitaxial Growth of a Methoxy-Functionalized Quaterphenylene on Alkali Halide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Sun, Rong; Parisi, Jürgen


    The epitaxial growth of the methoxy functionalized para-quaterphenylene (MOP4) on the (001) faces of the alkali halides NaCl and KCl and on glass is investigated by a combination of lowenergy electron diffraction (LEED), polarized light microscopy (PLM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X...

  1. Green buildings need good ergonomics. (United States)

    Hedge, A; Dorsey, J A


    A retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 44 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum buildings on a US college campus is reported. The Internet survey covered a range of indoor environment and ergonomics issues. Results show that working in these buildings were a generally positive experience for their health, performance and satisfaction. However, in one building there were persistent issues of variability in air temperature, air freshness, air quality and noise that affected the perceived health and performance of the occupants. Although the buildings were energy-efficient and sustainable structures, ergonomics design issues were identified. Implications for the role of ergonomics in green buildings and in the US LEED rating system are discussed. This survey identified a number of ergonomics design issues present in the LEED Platinum energy-efficient and sustainable buildings that were studied. These results highlight the importance of integrating ergonomics design into green buildings as a component in the US LEED rating system.

  2. Exploring the impact of travel experiences on Italian youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because academic literature has dedicated little attention to youth tourism, preferring to focus on workplace .... more than a trade-off between quality and price, and includes social, emotional and epistemic benefits .... study upheld the existing insights on perceived travel benefits. (e.g. Leed, 1991) by concluding that young ...

  3. Anomalous structural evolution and √ 3 x√ 3 reconstruction of a clean Si(111) surface observed after thermal desorption of thallium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocán, P.; Krejčí, Ondřej; Tochihara, H.


    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2015), "021408-1"-"021408-8" ISSN 0734-2101 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface structure * Si(111) * thallium * LEED * STM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2015

  4. Protecting the Force: Lessons from Fort Hood (United States)


    Ms. Victoria Darwin Maren Leed, PhD Ms. Melissa Lopez Laura Miller, PhD Mr. Dorian Sajona Ms. Marcella Sandiford Mr. George Truss Force...Edward P. Mulvey , Loren Roth, and Eric Silver, “An Actuarial Model of Violence Risk Assessment for Persons With Mental Disorders,” Psychiatric Services 56

  5. The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halabisky, David; Potter, Jonathan; Thompson, Stuart

    OECD's LEED Programme and the European Commission's DG on Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion recently published the second book as part of their programme of work on inclusive entrepreneurship. The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 examines how public policies at national and local levels can...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith


    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this seventh quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, the Localized Dynamic subgrid Kinetic energy Model (LDKM) was improved and an initial Turbulent Artificial Neural Net (TANN) was developed. Validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the Vanderbilt lean premixed combustor and the Loughborough University combustor port flow experiment. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of the subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the In Situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT) approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the TANN approach in CFD-ACE+ will be accomplished.

  7. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.


    for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority......In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...

  8. Meeting the expectation of industry: an integrated approach for the teaching of mechanics and electronics to design students (United States)

    Bingham, Guy A.; Southee, Darren J.; Page, Tom


    This paper examines the traditional engineering-based provision delivered to Product Design and Technology (B.Sc.) undergraduates at the Loughborough Design School and questions its relevancy against the increasing expectations of industry. The paper reviews final-year design projects to understand the level of transference of engineering-based knowledge into design practice and highlights areas of opportunity for improved teaching and learning. The paper discusses the development and implementation of an integrated approach to the teaching of Mechanics and Electronics to formalise and reinforce the key learning process of transference within the design context. The paper concludes with observations from the delivery of this integrated teaching and offers insights from student and academic perspectives for the further improvement of engineering-based teaching and learning.

  9. Modern trends in superconductivity and superfluidity

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, M Yu


    This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetism in novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject...

  10. Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harland


    Full Text Available What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design.

  11. Can we (control) Engineer the degree learning process? (United States)

    White, A. S.; Censlive, M.; Neilsen, D.


    This paper investigates how control theory could be applied to learning processes in engineering education. The initial point for the analysis is White's Double Loop learning model of human automation control modified for the education process where a set of governing principals is chosen, probably by the course designer. After initial training the student decides unknowingly on a mental map or model. After observing how the real world is behaving, a strategy to achieve the governing variables is chosen and a set of actions chosen. This may not be a conscious operation, it maybe completely instinctive. These actions will cause some consequences but not until a certain time delay. The current model is compared with the work of Hollenbeck on goal setting, Nelson's model of self-regulation and that of Abdulwahed, Nagy and Blanchard at Loughborough who investigated control methods applied to the learning process.

  12. Preparing the way for mainstream sustainable product design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Lofthouse


    Full Text Available This paper proposes that there is a need to prepare undergraduate design students to be responsible practitioners when they enter the workplace. The multi-faceted approach adopted by the Design School at Loughborough University to achieve this is presented. The paper outlines and reflects on the differences between the idealistic environment provided within an educational setting and the actual situation in the design industry, where there is little evidence of mainstream sustainable design practice. The paper concludes that it is valuable to provide students with a range of skills that support sustainable design thinking, even if they are not currently required by the design industry because doing so turns the students into informed individuals with the potential to lead the next generation of design practitioners.

  13. Providing Information about Reading Lists via a Dashboard Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jason Cooper


    Full Text Available As developers of the open source LORLS Resource/Reading List Management System we have developed a dashboard to better support academic staffs’ understanding of how their students use reading lists. This dashboard provides both graphical and tabulated information drawn from LORLS and the Aleph Integrated Library System. Development of the dashboard required changes to back-end functionality of LORLS such as logging views of reading lists and caching of loan data. Changes to the front end included the use of HTML5 canvas elements to generate pie charts and line graphs. Recently launched to academic staff at Loughborough University, the dashboard has already garnered much praise. It is hoped that further development of the dashboard will provide even more support for academics in the compilation of their reading lists.

  14. Can we (control) Engineer the degree learning process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A S; Censlive, M; Neilsen, D


    This paper investigates how control theory could be applied to learning processes in engineering education. The initial point for the analysis is White's Double Loop learning model of human automation control modified for the education process where a set of governing principals is chosen, probably by the course designer. After initial training the student decides unknowingly on a mental map or model. After observing how the real world is behaving, a strategy to achieve the governing variables is chosen and a set of actions chosen. This may not be a conscious operation, it maybe completely instinctive. These actions will cause some consequences but not until a certain time delay. The current model is compared with the work of Hollenbeck on goal setting, Nelson's model of self-regulation and that of Abdulwahed, Nagy and Blanchard at Loughborough who investigated control methods applied to the learning process


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons


    Full Text Available Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70% and high-intensities (90% set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test. Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA's revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player's achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on

  16. Effects of isolated or combined carbohydrate and caffeine supplementation between 2 daily training sessions on soccer performance. (United States)

    Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Bishop, David; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo


    This study aimed to investigate whether isolated or combined carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) supplementation have beneficial effects on performance during soccer-related tests performed after a previous training session. Eleven male, amateur soccer players completed 4 trials in a randomized, double-blind, and crossover design. In the morning, participants performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). Then, participants ingested (i) 1.2 g·kg(-1) body mass·h(-1) CHO in a 20% CHO solution immediately after and 1, 2, and 3 h after the LIST; (ii) CAF (6 mg·kg(-1) body mass) 3 h after the LIST; (iii) CHO combined with CAF (CHO+CAF); and (iv) placebo. All drinks were taste-matched and flavourless. After this 4-h recovery, participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, a Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT), and a repeated-sprint test. There were no main effects of supplementation for CMJ, LSPT total time, or best sprint and total sprint time from the repeated-sprint test (p>0.05). There were also no main effects of supplementation for heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pleasure-displeasure, and perceived activation (p>0.05). However, there were significant time effects (p<0.05), with heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, RPE, and perceived activation increasing with time, and pleasure-displeasure decreasing with time. In conclusion, isolated and/or combined CHO and CAF supplementation is not able to improve soccer-related performance tests when performed after a previous training session.

  17. A novel method for producing x-ray test objects and phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakou, C; Horrocks, J A; Marshall, N W; Speller, R D


    A novel method for producing customized x-ray test objects and clinically realistic phantoms has been developed. Test objects can be created with a drawing software package and the digital images can be printed on a standard inkjet printer but using potassium iodide solution in place of the cartridge's ink. The reproducibility and the consistency, the limiting spatial resolution, the uniformity as well as the potassium iodide thickness per print have been evaluated. The relationship between the number of prints, grey levels and the radiation contrast was investigated and quantified. A copy of the Leeds TO10 contrast detail test object was printed and the x-ray images of the Leeds TO10 and of the printed Leeds TO10 were compared. In addition, the potential use of this method was demonstrated by reproducing a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty clinical digital image. The reproducibility and consistency of this method was found to be better than 0.1%. The limiting spatial resolution of the printer using ink was found to be 3.55 lp mm -1 but it deteriorated when the ink was replaced with potassium iodide and as the print density increases. The uniformity across the printed area was found to be satisfactory although an artefact due to the printer was present in the x-ray images. The comparison between the Leeds TO10 and the printed Leeds TO10 gave differences less than 10%. A good agreement between the clinical image and the printed clinical image was found. In conclusion, the method is a reliable, cost-effective, flexible and alternative way for producing x-ray test objects and clinically related phantoms

  18. Surface structures from low energy electron diffraction: Atoms, small molecules and an ordered ice film on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materer, Nicholas F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    We investigated the surface bonding of various adsorbates (0, S, C2H3 and NO) along with the resulting relaxation of the Pt(111) surface using low energy electron diffiraction (LEED). LEED experiments have been performed on these ordered overlayers along with theoretical structural analysis using automated tensor LEED (ATLEED). The resulting surface structures of these ordered overlayers exhibit similar adsorbate-induced relaxations. In all cases the adsorbate occupies the fcc hollow site and induces an approximately 0.1 A buckling of the metal surface. The three metal atoms directly bonded to the adsorbate are ``pulled`` out of the surface and the metal atom that is not bound to the adsorbate is `pushed`` inward. In order to understand the reliability of such details, we have carried out a comprehensive study of various non-structural parameters used in a LEED computation. We also studied the adsorption of water on the Pt(lll) surface. We ordered an ultra thin ice film on this surface. The film`s surface is found to be the (0001) face of hexagonal ice. This surface is apparently terminated by a full-bilayer, in which the uppermost water molecules have large vibrational amplitudes even at temperatures as low as 90 K. We examined two other metal surfaces besides Pt(111): Ni(111) and Fe(lll). On Ni(111), we have studied the surface under a high coverage of NO. On both Ni(111) and Pt(111) NO molecules occupy the hollow sites and the N-0 bond distances are practically identical. The challenging sample preparation of an Fe(111) surface has been investigated and a successful procedure has been obtained. The small interlayer spacing found on Fe(111) required special treatment in the LEED calculations. A new ATLEED program has been developed to handle this surface.

  19. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton


    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  20. Structure investigation of organic molecules on Au(111) surfaces; Strukturuntersuchung organischer Molekuele auf Au(111)-Oberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazempoor, Michel


    The present work covers two topics namely the coadsorption of formic acid and water on Au(111) and the structure of biphenylalkanthiole SAMs on Au(111) surfaces. The coadsorption of formic acid and water on Au(111) surfaces has been investigated by means of vibrational and photoelectron spectroscopy (HREELS, XPS). Formic acid adsorbs at 90 K molecularly with vibrational modes characteristic for flat lying zig-zag chains in the mono- and multilayer regime, like in solid formic acid. The structure of the flat lying formic acid chains was determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) as a (2r3 x r19) unit cell. Annealing results in a complete desorption at 190 K. Sequential adsorption of formic acid and water at 90 K shows no significant chemical interaction. Upon annealing the coadsorbed layer to 140 K a hydrogenbonded cyclic complex of formic acid with one water molecule could be identified using isotopically labelled adsorbates. Upon further annealing this complex decomposes leaving molecularly adsorbed formic acid on the surface at 160 K, accompanied by a proton exchange between formic acid and water. The influence of the alkane spacer chain length on the structure of biphenylalkanethiols on Au(111) surfaces was investigated as well. A systematic study was done on BPn-SAMs deposited from the gas phase. For every chain length a structure was found by LEED. Furthermore the influence of temperature on the structure was investigated in the range from room temperature up to about 400 K. To obviate influences from different preparation methods BP3 and BP4 was deposited from gas phase and from solution. No LEED spots were observed on BP4 SAMs deposited from solution. For BP3 an influence of the preparation could be excluded. For all BPn-SAMs a good agreement between LEED and STM data's was found. Nevertheless different unit cells were determined by LEED and STM consistent structures could be suggested considering the unit cell size given by LEED and the

  1. Peer Effects and Voluntary Green Building Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Qiu


    Full Text Available Empirical evidence is provided to show that peer effects have statistically significant and positive impacts on the diffusion of green building certificates. Application and approval records of green certificates by commercial buildings in NY and AZ are used. The challenge of self-selection is addressed by the usage of fixed effects and the challenge of reflection is addressed by the time lag delay between a building’s application and its approval. Empirical results show that an additional approved LEED certificate within a zip code will increase the probability of a commercial building in the same zip code to apply for a LEED certificate by 3–4 percentage points; an additional approved Energy Star certificate within a zip code will increase the probability of a commercial building in the same zip code to apply for an Energy Star certificate by 1–2 percentage points.

  2. Towards Archetypes-Based Software Development (United States)

    Piho, Gunnar; Roost, Mart; Perkins, David; Tepandi, Jaak

    We present a framework for the archetypes based engineering of domains, requirements and software (Archetypes-Based Software Development, ABD). An archetype is defined as a primordial object that occurs consistently and universally in business domains and in business software systems. An archetype pattern is a collaboration of archetypes. Archetypes and archetype patterns are used to capture conceptual information into domain specific models that are utilized by ABD. The focus of ABD is on software factories - family-based development artefacts (domain specific languages, patterns, frameworks, tools, micro processes, and others) that can be used to build the family members. We demonstrate the usage of ABD for developing laboratory information management system (LIMS) software for the Clinical and Biomedical Proteomics Group, at the Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds.

  3. The importance of ergonomics to sustainability throughout a building's life cycle. (United States)

    Miller, Linda; Dorsey, Julie; Jacobs, Karen


    Protecting and conserving environmental resources is a global concern. Over the past decade, a number of certification processes have emerged to help designers and operators of buildings assess the potential impact of a building on the environment. Certifications such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) consider the environmental impact through the lifecycle of a building, but may not be considering the people that construct and utilize it. It is important to remember the human factor. Considering the human factor throughout the lifecycle is crucial to ensure individuals are protected during construction and in operation in the built environment. The paper highlights how ergonomics can be integrated into the life cycle of a building to promote sustainability goals for both the human factor and the environment. A case study approach will be used to illustrate how ergonomics was integrated into a LEED renovation and expanded into its daily operations on a large university campus..

  4. Cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosgrove J


    Full Text Available Jeremy Cosgrove, Jane Elizabeth Alty Department of Neurology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK Abstract: Cognitive dysfunction is a common and significant non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD. PD mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI is evident in approximately one-quarter of patients at the time of PD diagnosis, and half of PD patients have progressed to PD dementia (PDD after 10 years. The transition to PDD from PD-MCI is not linear and may depend on the facets of cognition affected. Despite increased understanding of pathological, neurotransmitter and genetic drivers, there are no proven pharmacological treatments for PD-MCI and those licensed for PDD are of modest benefit only. Biomarkers to predict those most at risk of developing PDD are under investigation and are likely to be essential so that early and individualized treatment can be provided. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, dementia

  5. Controlling atomistic processes on Pb films via quantum size effects and lattice rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The two main techniques used to record the data in this dissertation were Spot Profile Analysis - Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). A specific data analysis technique for LEED data called G(S) curves is described in depth. G(S) curves can provide a great deal of structural information about the surface; including step heights, island size, and island separation. The effects of quantum size effects (QSE) on the diffusion and critical island sizes of Pb and In on Pb films are reported. Pb depositions on the 2D In phases {radical}3 and {radical}31 to see how the phases affect the Pb growth and its strong QSE are reported.

  6. Surface potential effects in low-energy current image diffraction patterns observed on the Al(001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine structure observed in high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) measurements near the energy threshold for emergence of new beams has been attributed to surface barrier effects. Recently, the surface barrier has been suggested as the source of the fine structure observed in current image diffraction (CID) patterns obtained by rastering the primary beam across an Al(001) crystal surface at a constant energy. This suggestion was based on kinematic arguments which correlated the emergence angle for a new electron beam with the observed structure in the CID pattern. In this work, the angular dependence of the elastic component of the total crystal reflectivity is calculated at constant energy. The calculations are based on full dynamical theories such as used in LEED but incorporating different surface barrier models to account for the saturating image potential. The results are compared with the experimental CID results

  7. Demystifying first-cost green building premiums in healthcare. (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; Vittori, Gail; Guenther, Robin


    This study assesses the extent of "first-cost green building construction premiums" in the healthcare sector based on data submitted by and interviews with 13 current LEED-certified and LEED-registered healthcare project teams, coupled with a literature survey of articles on the topics of actual and perceived first-cost premiums associated with green building strategies. This analysis covers both perceived and realized costs across a range of projects in this sector, leading to the following conclusions: Construction first-cost premiums may be lower than is generally perceived, and they appear to be independent of both building size and level of "green" achievement; projects are using financial incentives and philanthropy to drive higher levels of achievement; premiums are decreasing over time; and projects are benefiting from improvements in health and productivity which, although difficult to monetize, are universally valued.

  8. Growth of an α-Sn film on an InSb(111) A-(2x2) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Daiyu; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Shima, Masahide; Takeyama, Wakaba; Nakamura, Kenya; Ono, Kanta; Oshima, Masaharu; Kasukabe, Yoshitaka


    We have investigated the initial growth process of α-Sn films on the In-terminated InSb(111)A-(2x2) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. Taking the LEED observation and the Sn coverage-dependent integrated intensities of the In 4d, Sb 4d, and Sn 4d core-level spectra into account, we conclude that the α-Sn film grows epitaxially by a bilayer mode and that there is no interdiffusion of the substrate atoms as suggested in the literature. Furthermore, the coverage-dependent In 4d and Sn 4d core levels indicate that the In vacancy site of InSb(111)A-(2x2) surface is not the preferable Sn absorption site

  9. Investigation of the atomic and electronic structures of highly ordered two-dimensional germanium on Au(111) (United States)

    Wang, W.; Uhrberg, R. I. G.


    Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to study an ordered structure formed by Ge atoms deposited onto the Au(111) surface. Based on a careful analysis of STM images and LEED patterns, we propose a ( 5 0 8 -14 ) unit cell for the atomic structure of the Ge layer. Core-level data indicate that some Ge atoms diffuse into the Au(111) crystal during annealing after deposition at room temperature. This is further corroborated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) measured for different amounts of Ge remaining after sputtering and annealing. The results of the ARPES study clearly disprove an earlier assignment of a parabolic band, centered at normal emission, as a part of a Dirac cone of germanene.

  10. Mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy investigation of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(100) and (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.S.; Henderson, M.A.; Starkweather, K.A.; McDaniel, E.P.


    We have studied the (100) and (110) surfaces of yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 using Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), direct recoil spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The concentration of yttrium at the surface was weakly influenced by the surface structure under the experimental conditions investigated. Both MSRI and SIMS indicated a more enhanced yttrium signal than zirconium signal at the surface compared to the respective bulk concentrations. The surfaces were not very well ordered as indicated by LEED. The yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 single crystal surfaces may not be a suitable model material for pure phase ZrO 2 surfaces due to significant yttria concentrations at the surface. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  11. Possible mechanism for the room-temperature stabilization of the Ge(111) T > 300 deg.C phase by Ga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhringer, M.; Molinás-Mata, P.; Zegenhagen, J.


    At low coverages, Ga on Ge(111) induces a hexagonal, domain wall modulated (2 x 2) adatom phase, stable at room temperature, that is characterized in low energy electron diffraction (LEED) by split 1/2-order reflections. This pattern closely resembles the one observed for a phase of clean Ge(111......) appearing at temperatures above 300 degrees C (T > 300 degrees C phase). We report scanning tunneling microscopy, LEED, as well. as surface x-ray diffraction measurements on the Ga-induced room-temperature (RT) phase and compare it with a model for the T > 300 OC phase of clean Ge(111). RT deposition of Ga...... yields a metastable c(2 x 8) structure which upon annealing transforms to the hexagonal (2 x 2) one. The transition occurs at considerably lower temperatures compared to clean Ge(111) and is irreversible due to pinning of adatom domains at Ga-induced defects, preventing the reordering of the adatoms...

  12. Probing long-range structural order in SnPc/Ag(111) by umklapp process assisted low-energy angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (United States)

    Jauernik, Stephan; Hein, Petra; Gurgel, Max; Falke, Julian; Bauer, Michael


    Laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is performed on tin-phthalocyanine (SnPc) adsorbed on silver Ag(111). Upon adsorption of SnPc, strongly dispersing bands are observed which are identified as secondary Mahan cones formed by surface umklapp processes acting on photoelectrons from the silver substrate as they transit through the ordered adsorbate layer. We show that the photoemission data carry quantitative structural information on the adsorbate layer similar to what can be obtained from a conventional low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) study. More specifically, we compare photoemission data and LEED data probing an incommensurate-to-commensurate structural phase transition of the adsorbate layer. Based on our results we propose that Mahan-cone spectroscopy operated in a pump-probe configuration can be used in the future to probe structural dynamics at surfaces with a temporal resolution in the sub-100-fs regime.

  13. Electron spin polarization effects in low energy electron diffraction, ion neutralization and metastable atom deexcitation at solid surfaces. Progress report No. 4, 1 January-31 December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In the present contract year, a GaAs polarized electron source has been used to undertake a polarized LEED study of order-disorder transformations at Cu 3 Au (100) and (111) surfaces. A polarized LEED study of Cu (100) has also been initiated. A polarized MDS study of Ni(110) surface magnetism has been completed. Spin dependences in the Auger electron yield were observed that provide a measure of the surface magnetism and were used to probe the dependence of surface magnetism on temperature and adsorbate coverage. A similar study using a ferromagnetic glass is now underway. A Mott polarization analyzer, constructed to measure the ESP of the ejected electrons, is also being installed on the apparatus. Such measurements provide direct information concerning the dynamics of secondary electron ejection and the details of adsorbate-substrate bonding

  14. Pumpless extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for life-threatening asthma. (United States)

    Elliot, Stuart C; Paramasivam, Kumar; Oram, John; Bodenham, Andrew R; Howell, Simon J; Mallick, Abhiram


    To report the use of pumpless extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in two cases of acute severe asthma. Case reports. Adult general intensive care unit, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK. A 74-yr-old male and 52-yr-old female with life-threatening asthma developed progressive hypercapnia and severe acidosis that proved nonresponsive to all other therapies. Initiation of extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal using the Novalung device (Novalung GmbH, Lotzenäcker 3, D-72379 Hechingen, Germany). The addition of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to mechanical ventilation corrected hypercapnia and acidosis, allowing reduction of other supportive measures. In both cases, adequate gas exchange was maintained until their underlying condition improved sufficiently for device removal. The two patients were subsequently weaned from mechanical ventilation and made a full recovery. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal proved to be a valuable adjunct to mechanical ventilation and other medical treatment.

  15. Adsorption mode of the chiral modifier cinchonidine on Au(1 1 1) (United States)

    Behzadi, B.; Ferri, D.; Baiker, A.; Ernst, K.-H.


    The adsorption of the chiral modifier cinchonidine on Au(l 1 1) in UHV has been studied by means of TPD, LEED and XPS. In the monolayer the molecule is bound via nitrogen lone pair electrons of its quinoline part rather than via the π-system of this aromatic moiety. Intact molecular desorption is only observed for the multilayers. Decomposition in the first monolayer upon heating occurs above 400 K, indicating a stronger interaction in the monolayer. No long-range ordered structures were observed via LEED. Long-time exposure leads to rearrangement and further stabilization of the first molecular monolayer. Quinoline is bound to gold via the nitrogen lone pair as well. The binding energy of 9.6 kcal/mol is characteristic for physisorption.

  16. Museum under seven hills. New building of the Academy of Science at San Francisco/USA by Renzo Piano; Museum unter sieben Huegeln. Neubau Wissenschaftsakademie in San Francisco/USA von Renzo Piano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alle, Nicole; Koch, Tom


    In September 2008, the new building of the California Academy of Science was inaugurated. It is a building of superlatives. Not only is it the world's biggest public building with Leed Platinum certificate but also an example of integrative architecture which cites the history and architecture of San Francisco. The building structure and shell are based on solar engineering and on the knowledge of bionics. (orig.)

  17. Surface contraction of the clean W(001) face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.; Ignatiev, A.; Tong, S.Y.; VanHove, M.


    Extensive comparison of efficient dynamical LEED calculations with new, more complete experimental data has shown the clean state of the W(001) surface as compressed by about 11% such that the top layer spacing is reduced by 0.18 +- 0.03 A. This is a greater contraction than had originally been proposed and is more in line with the magnitude of contraction observed in other bcc (001) surfaces

  18. The Hold and Release Practice: A New Way into Meditation and Mindfulness


    Cohen, E


    I initially developed the ‘Hold and Release Practice’ (HRP) whilst working with enhanced-care service users in the NHS and private practice (between 2005-2009). The HRP was subsequently developed and introduced to BA(Hons) Psychology & Society undergraduates between (2011-2014) and to Interdisciplinary Psychology MA students at Leeds Metropolitan University (2013-2014), and to over 100 participants at various ‘Yoga Manchester – Meditation for Beginners’ workshops (from 2013 onwards). More rec...

  19. Application of Updated Construction and Demolition Waste Reduction Policy to Army Projects (United States)


    solid waste . Provide explanations for any waste not recycled or reused. With each application for pay- ment...diversion data. NOTE: The Solid Waste Diversion Reports and SWAR data are separate documentation than the LEED documentation.  3.5. RECYCLING AND... recycling and waste mini- mization performance as specified in Solid Waste Management Plan (Section 01 57 20.00 10, para- graph Line and

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced


    Bannaga AS; Selinger CP


    Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anx...

  1. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?


    Tillotson, MR; Liu, J; Guan, D; Wu, P; Zhao, X; Zhang, G; Pfister, S; Pahlow, M


    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was organized. The Water Footprint Symposium was held in December 2013 at the University of Leeds, UK. In particular, four areas were highlighted for discussion: water footprint and agriculture, quantif...

  2. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN (United States)

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  3. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; Weerd, M.-C.; Fournée, V. de, E-mail: [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine), Parc de Saurupt, F-54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Hahne, M.; Gille, P. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Crystallography Section, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstrasse 41, D-80333 München (Germany); Ivarsson, D. C. A.; Armbrüster, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Materials for Innovative Energy Concepts, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Ardini, J.; Held, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AD (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Maccherozzi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bayer, A. [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Lowe, M. [Surface Science Research Centre and Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Pussi, K. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Diehl, R. D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)


    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ∼580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ∼660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and “global” measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature.

  4. Intruder Polarization. (United States)


    field coneonenti in the ground-frane in ter-s of j- P... cvcan ’Se ochieved. That result is given in (;.!J-a, b, c) of Ref. !.Tt is re,)eato𔃻 Selo ,: in...steps would leed to tern~s wit’, increasinrjr hipher or ’er veriation with and the ratio 4i). The latter r-tio approaches unity ~ ~ ( a )Ib’)race as

  5. "Between the Earth and the Skies" The Challenges to Catholic Institution-Building in Pennsylvania’s Croatian Communities, 1894-1924. (United States)


    hundred villagers from a tiny selo could not live in the same splendid isolation they had enjoyed in Europe. Croatians from different villages now...relatives left behind or paid for their later passage to the United States. Some of it went to the old church in the immigrants selo (village). Some...Duic. Parish school opened: 1914. Notes: Church was rebuilt in 1956. Greensburg nirreese 8-Saint Anthony’s (Sveti Ante).*** Address: 1178 Leeds

  6. Synthesis of Novel Hydrocarbon Soluble Multifunctional Anionic Initiators: Tools for Synthesis of Novel Dendrimer and Molecular Brush Polymer Architectures (United States)


    DYNACOP Final Conference on Dynamics of Architecturally Complex Polymers: Current and Future Trends, Leeds , England, December 12-14, 2012...high vacuum techniques and butyllithium purged, all glass sealed reactors in the initial work with such an initiator to insure that there are the reactor containing 300 mL of benzene by fracturing the break- seals which resulted in the immediate development of a yellow color

  7. Quantifying the Role of Atmospheric Forcing in Ice Edge Retreat and Advance Including Wind-Wave Coupling (United States)


    C. Furthermore, melt ponds on the floes had frozen over and snow covered the floes and many meltponds, increasing the albedo and certainly...marine X-band radar Leeds, CIRES/NOAA local fetch, l precip structure, sea state Satellite ( MODIS ) NOAA, NASA large-scale...conditions likely to be encountered and desired (high winds, snow , darkness, fog, significant swell) will take time, and may on frequent occasions not be

  8. Letters to the Editor (United States)


    A Local Physics Teachers Day: an amateur model for INSET Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School Secretary, loP Education Group Determining a Slinky's spring constant Eric Kincanon Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258-0051, USA Word Juxtapoz: an interesting tool for promoting physics education R Subramaniam, N K Goh and L S Chia Singapore Science Centre, Science Centre Road, Singapore 609081 Division of Chemistry, Nanyang Technological University, 469 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259756

  9. Oculoplastic surgery in Madagascar: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Norris


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the oculoplastic practices in Madagascar, including the nature of presenting disease and the surgical procedures performed. The study formed part of the initial phase of a training link between Madagascar and Leeds University Teaching Hospitals Trust. We hoped to identify areas of practice that required more specific surgical training. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies looking specifically at oculoplastic disease prevalence in Madagascar or any African country.

  10. Assessment of Energy-Saving Practices of the Hospitality Industry in Macau


    Xu Wang; NaiQi Wu; Yan Qiao; QingBin Song


    Macau is building a world tourism and leisure center. In the context of flourishing hospitality development, energy issues have attracted more and more attention in recent years. On the basis of the field survey of 28 hotels, an evaluation index system is built to assess the status of energy-saving and environmental protection practices in the hospitality industry in Macau. This system is built by selecting some credits from Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and adding seve...

  11. A Guide to Building Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.


    Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.

  12. Quantifying the Comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Co-Benefits of Green Buildings


    Mozingo, Louise; Arens, Ed


    This report quantifies, for the first time, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions co-­‐benefits associated with water, waste and transportation usage in certified green commercial office buildings in California. The study compares the measured values of water, waste and transportation usage self-­‐reported by a set of office buildings certified under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system for Existing Building Operations and Maintenance (LEED-­‐EBOM) to both baseline val...

  13. Dual certification for bank skyscrapers. A company headquarter gets a Green Building; Duale Zertifizierung fuer Bank-Tuerme. Eine Konzernzentrale wird zum Green Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, Christian; Bauer, Michael [Drees und Sommer Advanced Building Technologies GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Fire protection regulations force the Deutsche Bank AG (Frankfurt/Main, Federal Republic of Germany) to extensive reorganization measures in order to continuously operate their buildings. As part of a complete renovation, Deutsche Bank AG has stipulated a modern, innovative and sustainable example. This is confirmed by the Green Building Certification with the US american label LEED registered in Platinum as well as the German sustainability certificate of the Germain Sustainable Building Council (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) in gold.

  14. Comparing responses to violence and uncertainty in Brazil and the UK: a collaborative project


    Lynne Cameron (The Open University, UK)


    This article situates a collaborative project between Brazil and the UK that aims to compare people's responses to violence in the two contexts through a report of the method and findings of the original UK study. The Perception and Communication of Terrorist Risk project investigated responses to terrorist risk by focus groups of Muslims and non-Muslims in London and Leeds, some months after the London bombings of July 2005, which were carried out by young Muslim men. Metaphor-led discourse ...

  15. FJ Pop, Apostolaat in Druk en Vertroosting, GF Callenbach, Nijkerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    F. J. Pop, Apostolaat in Druk en Vertroosting, G. F. Callenbach, Nijkerk,. 1953. In die serie, De Prediking van het Nieuwe Testament, vorm hierdie werk die kommentaar op II Korinthiërs. Die bewerker het die titel gekies na aanleiding van II Kor. 1:5-7 en dit is ook gepasd. In geen van sy briewe laat die apostel sy leed en sy ...

  16. Sexuální výchova a sexuální zkušenosti adolescentů


    MEZEROVÁ, Hana


    The work deals with sex education and adolescent sexual experiences. Em-phasis is placed on adolescence as the period of risk and the importace of sexuality in human life. The theoretical part comprises free thematic units ? adolescence, sexuality and sex education. The practical part deals with a view od adolescents on this issue. The aim is to find out what adolescents have sexual experience and how the concept of sex education at school for thein Leeds. The research was carried out quantit...

  17. Structure of the cobalt-filled missing-row reconstruction of Pt(110)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, C.; Koller, R.; Lundgren, E.; Máca, František; Redinger, J.; Schmid, M.; Varga, P.


    Roč. 70, č. 15 (2004), 153403/1-153403/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010214 Grant - others:RTN(XX) HPRN-CT-2000-00143 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Co * Pt * LEED * ab initio calculation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2004

  18. Epitaxial Growth of Rhenium with Sputtering (United States)


    typically composed of terraced hexagonal islands with screw dislocations, and island size gets larger with high temperature post-deposition annealing...transferred into various analysis chambers for the RHEED, LEED, AES and STM studies without breaking vacuum. Base pressure of the system is about 1×10-10...island has a screw dislocation at the center as shown in Fig. 3(c). This indicates that the growth proceeds in a spiral mode with the screw

  19. Assessment of BRAC 133 Final Environmental Assessment of July 2008 and Transportation Management Plan of July 2010 (United States)


    requirements • Sustainable design capable of meeting a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver rating • In Virginia and within one...detailed description of aesthetic and visual resources was given for the GSA site. The architecture style /type and the aesthetic quality of the...employees are present at work every day due to many factors including vacation, illness, travel, flexible work schedule, and telecommuting . Of the 6,409

  20. Peruvian lessons to inform Bradford pilot. (United States)

    Hinitt, Ian; Noakes, Catherine


    Ian Hinitt, deputy director of estates, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and Department of Built Environment, University of Central Lancashire, and Dr Catherine Noakes, AMIMechE, Pathogen Control Engineering Research Group, University of Leeds School of Civil Engineering, discuss whether infection control can be improved by applying physical barriers and mixed mode ventilation, with particular reference to a proposed pilot project at Bradford Royal Infirmary.

  1. Quantitative low-energy electron diffraction analysis of the GaN(000-1) (1×1) reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Jiříček, Petr; Paskova, T.


    Roč. 606, 7-8 (2012), s. 740-743 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/10/P028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : gallium nitride * semiconductor surfaces * quantitative low-energy electron diffraction * LEED Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2012

  2. Low energy electron loss peaks of CuInTe/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, C. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik); Schulze, S. (Technische Hochschule, Karl-Marx-Stadt (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik/Elektronische Bauelemente); Tomlinson, R.D. (Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)


    Reflection low energy electron loss spectra were observed from CuInTe/sub 2/ monocrystals. The spectra were taken with a LEED system to obtain the first derivative of the scattered electron energy distribution using primary energies of 50, 90, and 190 eV. The second derivative and the loss maxima energies have been determined after a smoothing procedure. The loss peaks are coordinated to plasmon features, surfaces states, and interband transitions.

  3. Research Support Facility - A Model of Super Efficiency (RSF) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This fact sheet published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discusses the lab's newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF). The RSF is a showcase for ultra-efficient workplaces. Various renewable energy and energy efficiency features have been employed so that the building achieves a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum rating from the U.S. Green Building Council.

  4. Tetrafluoromethane monolayer physisorbed on graphite : its orientational walls and its complex phase diagram


    Croset , B.; Marti , C.; Thorel , P.; Lauter , H.


    Neutron diffraction results for a monolayer of CF4 physisorbed on different graphites show the complexity of the system, mainly due to the non spherical shape of the admolecule. From our neutron data and LEED results [6] we recognize at least 6 different phases. These are, with decreasing temperature, liquid, plastic, commensurate solid, incommensurate solid, incommensurate tilted and a surprising triple-peaked incommensurate phase. This low temperature phase is especially studied and compare...

  5. How green in our library?


    Horsfall, JM; Pitt, K


    An environment group has had a presence within Leeds Met Libraries since December 2004. Initially the group chose to look at simple things which could have a positive impact on how we use resources in the workplace. We introduced recycling bins for plastic cups and cans in the staff tearooms, provided dispensers for plastic carrier bags near the self-service machines and arranged training hours for library staff to learn more about environmental issues and to look at their carbon footprint. I...

  6. Vibrations of Bladed Disk Assemblies (United States)


    PROFESSIONAL DATA Education : B.Sc. (ME), with First Class Honors, University of Leeds, England, 1970 M.Sc. (EE) Control Engineering, University of...QFT Application to Ship Propulsion Systems, Texas A&M Univesity , Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, March 22, 1991. F. Thesis Supervision. (Major Advisor...317) 463-5487 Birthdate: April 25, 1951, Allahabad, India Education : 1976-1981 Ph.D. in Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota

  7. Initial stages of Zr-Fe-Si alloy formation on Zr(0001) surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková, Kateřina; Cichoň, Stanislav; Lančok, Ján; Sajdl, P.; Cháb, Vladimír


    Roč. 657, Mar (2017), s. 28-34 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : leed crystallographic analysis * transition-metal alloys * zirconium * adsorption * oxidation * oxygen * segregation * kinetics * films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2016

  8. Learning Through Imaginative Play; A Collaboration of Primary School Pupils and Architecture Students


    Stott, CR; Warren, S


    In 2013 the Leeds School of Architecture’s Project Office [a design and research collaboration of staff and students] was approached by Morley Newlands Primary School to design and construct a play area through which their 550 pupils aged 3 – 11 would learn and develop skills through imaginative play. An innovative process of social engagement between the school pupils and architecture students evolved, creating a playful learning environment which empowered the pupils as patron whilst simult...

  9. An Internet of Things Framework for Smart Energy in Buildings: Designs, Prototype, and Experiments


    Pan, Jianli; Jain, Raj; Paul, Subharthi; Vu, Tam; Saifullah, Abusayeed; Sha, Mo


    Smart energy in buildings is an important research area of Internet of Things (IoT). Buildings as important parts of the smart grids, their energy efficiency is vital for the environment and global sustainability. Using a LEED-gold-certificated green office building, we built a unique IoT experimental testbed for our energy efficiency and building intelligence research. We first monitor and collect one-year-long building energy usage data and then systematically evaluate and analyze them. The...

  10. Zero Energy Housing for Military Installations (United States)


    cost LCCA life-cycle cost analysis LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design m2 square meter MARR minimum acceptable rate of return...project team. It was through her vision the teams came together to successfully implement the project. Heidi Kaltenhauser of Concurrent Technologies...project. Private companies use a minimum acceptable rate of return ( MARR ) as the metric for project acceptance; the investment opportunity is

  11. Growth and structure of titanium dioxide on the transition metal surfaces Re(10-10) and Ru(0001); Wachstum und Struktur von Titandioxid auf den Uebergangsmetalloberflaechen Re(10-10) und Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, D.


    In this work, we studied the growth and structure of titanium dioxide films on two morphologically different transition metal surfaces, namely the trench-like rhenium(10-10) and the hexagonal ruthenium(0001). The following methods were used: X-ray photoelectron and Auger-electron spectroscopy (XPS and AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), low energy Helium-ion scattering (LEIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Titanium dioxide films on rhenium(10-10) were synthesized by co-adsorption of titanium vapor in an oxygen atmosphere up to a thickness of 500 Aa and investigated by means of LEED, LEIS, XPS and XRD. In order to calibrate the titanium flux, the growth mode of titanium on the Re(10-10) surface was determined by means of LEIS, XPS and LEED. The growth of titanium dioxide on the hexagonal ruthenium(0001) surface was investigated by means of STM, XPS and AES. Due to the alloying affinity of Ti and Ru, a titanium oxide film pre-grown at low temperature was finally/fully oxidized at elevated temperature and pressure. First experiments concerning the growth of gold on these titanium dioxide films are presented. One important result of the ongoing work is the imaging of gold clusters with 2-5 atoms in the troughs of rutile(110) beside the typically observed clusters with 3 nm diameter by STM. (orig.)

  12. Atomic structure of a metal-supported two-dimensional germania film (United States)

    Lewandowski, Adrián Leandro; Schlexer, Philomena; Büchner, Christin; Davis, Earl M.; Burrall, Hannah; Burson, Kristen M.; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter; Heyde, Markus; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Freund, Hans-Joachim


    The growth and microscopic characterization of two-dimensional germania films is presented. Germanium oxide monolayer films were grown on Ru(0001) by physical vapor deposition and subsequent annealing in oxygen. We obtain a comprehensive image of the germania film structure by combining intensity-voltage low-energy electron diffraction (I/V-LEED) and ab initio density functional theory (DFT) analysis with atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. For benchmarking purposes, the bare Ru(0001) substrate and the (2 ×2 )3 O covered Ru(0001) were analyzed with I/V-LEED with respect to previous reports. STM topographic images of the germania film reveal a hexagonal network where the oxygen and germanium atom positions appear in different imaging contrasts. For quantitative LEED, the best agreement has been achieved with DFT structures where the germanium atoms are located preferentially on the top and fcc hollow sites of the Ru(0001) substrate. Moreover, in these atomically flat germania films, local site geometries, i.e., tetrahedral building blocks, ring structures, and domain boundaries, have been identified, indicating possible pathways towards two-dimensional amorphous networks.

  13. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics


    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  14. Growth and characterization of ultrathin epitaxial MnO film on Ag(001) (United States)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.


    We present here a comprehensive growth procedure to obtain a well-ordered MnO(001) ultrathin film on Ag(001) substrate. Depending upon the oxygen partial pressure during the growth, different phases of manganese oxide have been detected by Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) studies. A modified growth scheme has been adopted to get well-ordered and stoichiometric MnO(001) ultrathin film. The detailed growth mechanism of epitaxial MnO film on Ag(001) has been studied step by step, using LEED and XPS techniques. Observation of sharp (1 × 1) LEED pattern with a low inelastic background, corresponds to a long-range atomic order with low defect densities indicating the high structural quality of the film. The Mn 2p and Mn 3s core-level spectra confirm the oxidation state as well as the stoichiometry of the grown MnO films. Apart from the growth optimization, the evolution of strain relaxation of the MnO(001) film with film thickness has been explored.

  15. Measuring LEED–NC applicability in design for hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marie Cracknell


    Full Text Available Mounting awareness of climate change in recent years has led the construction industry to initiate new approaches toward sustainable building design, yet stakeholders in hospitality development still hesitate to build green. This reluctance is due to perceived high guest expectations of comfort levels and amenity access among these properties. Research was conducted to determine precisely which green building innovations present the most significant barriers to incorporating sustainability into design for hospitality. Average LEED credit implementation rates among 28 existing LEED hotel projects were calculated and compared with average credits employed among common commercial building projects. 15 of those projects’ designers also offered survey opinions on which sustainable innovations were most commonly avoided in their approaches for hospitality. The results indicate that certain credits do experience decreased popularity among hospitality projects, yet guest comfort was not the only barrier identified. Cost of implementation and local applicability affected by climate and local bylaws were also found as major role players in the selection of credits specific to hospitality design. Conclusions are presented according to the data and recommendations made to support further growth and success in future applications of LEED sustainable design in hospitality.

  16. Labs21 environmental performance criteria Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul A.


    Laboratory facilities present a unique challenge for energy efficient and sustainable design, with their inherent complexity of systems, health and safety requirements, long-term flexibility and adaptability needs, energy use intensity, and environmental impacts. The typical laboratory is about five times as energy intensive as a typical office building and costs about three times as much per unit area. The Labs21 Environmental Performance Criteria (EPC) is a rating system for use by laboratory building project stakeholders to assess the environmental performance of laboratory facilities. Currently, the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED{trademark} Rating System is the primary tool used. However, LEED{trademark} was designed for U.S. commercial office buildings and as such, lacks some attributes essential to the sustainable design of this unique and complex building type. To facilitate widespread use and to avoid ''re-inventing the wheel'' this effort builds on the existing LEED{trademark} Rating System 2.0.

  17. Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SK


    Full Text Available Susannah K Lee,1 Jill Dawson,2 Jack A Lee,3 Gizem Osman,4 Maria O Levitin,5 Refika Mine Guzel,5 Mustafa BA Djamgoz5,61Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA; 2Healthcare Communications Consultancy, Danville, CA, USA; 3College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; 5Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Solutions to Cancer Research Group, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK; 6Cyprus International University, Biotechnology Research Centre, Haspolat, North Cyprus, Mersin, TurkeyAbstract: In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and GABA “mimetics” (eg, gabapentin appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancer pain can

  18. Cultural Heritage Recording Utilising Low-Cost Closerange Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kirchhöfer


    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is under a constant threat of damage or even destruction and comprehensive and accurate recording is necessary to attenuate the risk of losing heritage or serve as basis for reconstruction. Cost effective and easy to use methods are required to record cultural heritage, particularly during a world recession, and close-range photogrammetry has proven potential in this area. Off-the-shelf digital cameras can be used to rapidly acquire data at low cost, allowing non-experts to become involved. Exterior orientation of the camera during exposure ideally needs to be established for every image, traditionally requiring known coordinated target points. Establishing these points is time consuming and costly and using targets can be often undesirable on sensitive sites. MEMS-based sensors can assist in overcoming this problem by providing small-size and low-cost means to directly determine exterior orientation for close-range photogrammetry. This paper describes development of an image-based recording system, comprising an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera, a MEMS-based 3D orientation sensor and a GPS antenna. All system components were assembled in a compact and rigid frame that allows calibration of rotational and positional offsets between the components. The project involves collaboration between English Heritage and Loughborough University and the intention is to assess the system’s achievable accuracy and practicability in a heritage recording environment. Tests were conducted at Loughborough University and a case study at St. Catherine’s Oratory on the Isle of Wight, UK. These demonstrate that the data recorded by the system can indeed meet the accuracy requirements for heritage recording at medium accuracy (1-4cm, with either a single or even no control points. As the recording system has been configured with a focus on low-cost and easy-to-use components, it is believed to be suitable for heritage recording by non

  19. Influence of building resolution on surface water inundation outputs (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Pattison, Ian


    Surface water (pluvial) flooding occurs when intense precipitation events overwhelm the drainage capacity of an area and excess water is unable to infiltrate into the ground or drain via natural or artificial drainage channels. In the UK, over 3 million properties are at risk from surface water flooding alone, accounting for approximately one third of all UK flood risk. This risk is predicted to increase due to future climatic changes resulting in an increasing magnitude and frequency of intense precipitation events. Numerical modelling is a well-established method of investigating surface water flood risk, allowing the researcher to gain an understanding of the depth, extent and severity of actual or hypothetical flood scenarios. Although numerical models allow the simulation of surface water inundation in a particular region, the model parameters (e.g. roughness, hydraulic conductivity) and resolution of topographic data have been shown to exert a profound influence on the inundation outputs which often leads to an over- or under-estimation of flood depths and extent without the use of external validation data to calibrate model outputs. Although previous research has demonstrated that model outputs are highly sensitive to Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mesh resolution, with flood inundation over large and complex topographies often requiring mesh resolutions coarser than the structural features (e.g. buildings) present within the study catchment, the specific influence of building resolution on surface flowpaths and connectivity during a surface water flood event has not been investigated. In this study, a LiDAR-derived DEM and OS MasterMap buildings layer of the Loughborough University campus, UK, were rasterized into separate 1m, 5m and 10m resolution layers. These layers were combined to create a series of Digital Surface Models (DSM) with varying, mismatching building and DEM resolutions (e.g. 1m DEM resolution, 10m building resolution, etc.) to understand

  20. Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring’s blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan NA


    Full Text Available Nisreen A Alwan,1 Debbie A Lawlor,2 Harry J McArdle,3 Darren C Greenwood,4 Janet E Cade11Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Research, University of Bristol, Bristol; 3Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen; 4Biostatistics Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Experimental animal studies suggest that mothers deficient in iron during pregnancy are more likely to have offspring who become obese with high blood pressure. C282Y mutation carriers are more likely to have higher iron stores.Methods: We undertook an instrumental variable (IV analysis, using maternal C282Y as an indicator for the mother’s iron status, to examine its association with offspring blood pressure (BP, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, and compared the results to that of ordinary least squares (OLS regression. Offspring of a sub-cohort of mothers from the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS were recruited in 2009–2010 (n = 348, mean age = 41 years. Their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at their local general medical practice, and they were asked to self-measure their waist circumference. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Maternal ferritin was used as a biomarker of maternal iron status.Results: Maternal C282Y was strongly associated with maternal ferritin (mean difference per allele = 84 g/L, 95% confidence interval: 31–137, P = 0.002. Using IV analyses, maternal ferritin was not linked to offspring’s BP, BMI, or WC. The first stage F-statistic for the strength of the instrument was 10 (Kleibergen–Paap rk LM P = 0.009. Maternal ferritin was linked to offspring diastolic BP, WC, and BMI in univariable, but not in multivariable OLS analysis. There

  1. Health information technology and sociotechnical systems: a progress report on recent developments within the UK National Health Service (NHS). (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick


    This paper summarises some of the research that Ken Eason and colleagues at Loughborough University have carried out in the last few years on the introduction of Health Information Technologies (HIT) within the UK National Health Service (NHS). In particular, the paper focuses on three examples which illustrate aspects of the introduction of HIT within the NHS and the role played by the UK National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT). The studies focus on stages of planning and preparation, implementation and use, adaptation and evolution of HIT (e.g., electronic patient records, virtual wards) within primary, secondary and community care settings. Our findings point to a number of common themes which characterise the use of these systems. These include tensions between national and local strategies for implementing HIT and poor fit between healthcare work systems and the design of HIT. The findings are discussed in the light of other large-scale, national attempts to introduce similar technologies, as well as drawing out a set of wider lessons learnt from the NPfIT programme based on Ken Eason's earlier work and other research on the implementation of large-scale HIT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Iterative student-based testing of automated information-handling exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Ramaiah


    Full Text Available Much laboratory teaching of information-handling involves students in evaluating information provided either online or via a computer package. A lecturer can help students carry out these tasks in a variety of ways. In particular, it is customary to provide students with hand-outs, and there is good evidence that such hand-outs are a valuable resource, especially for lower-ability students (see, for example Saloman, 1979. In many of these exercises, students are passive receivers of information, in the sense that they assess the information but do not change it. However, it is sometimes possible to use student feedback to change the original input. In this case, the users' mental models of the system can be employed to modify the user-interface set up by the original designer (see Moran, 1981. A number of experiments have been carried out in the Department of Information and Library Studies at Loughborough University to examine how computer interfaces and instruction sheets used in teaching can be improved by student feedback. The present paper discusses examples of this work to help suggest both the factors to be taken into account and the sorts of changes involved. Our approach has been based on the concept of 'iterative usability testing', the value of which has recently been emphasized by Shneiderman (1993.

  3. Hijacking hypermedia and other highways to learn computer science on a distancelearning course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Wilson


    Full Text Available A teaching project using Computer-Mediated Communication (CMQ to aid students' understanding of computer science took place from February to November 1995 at the Open University. The project fell within that of STILE (Students' and Teachers' Integrated Learning Environment, and the course was M205 - STILE: Fundamentals of Computing. Four different institutions were involved: the Universities of Leicester, Loughborough, De Montfort and the Open University (Ruggles, 1995; Ruggles et al, 1995; Underwood et al, 1996; Zhao et al, 1996. One of the main aims of the Open University implementation was to improve the presentation of the computer science course by enabling structured access to online facilities for both tutor-to-student and student-to-student communication. The nine tutors and 110 computer science students were situated nationwide and in Europe. In line with our partners, we used the Netscape browser version 1 revision N, with Trumpet version 2 revision B. Although use of the Web for teaching and learning was underpinned by a wealth of literature about hypertext and hypermedia (see Nielsen 1993; Laurillard, 1994, it did not successfully sustain conferencing in 1995. Therefore we also adopted the FirstClass conferencing system (version 2.6 to accommodate our distance-learning students.

  4. Carbohydrate gel ingestion significantly improves the intermittent endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol. (United States)

    Phillips, Shaun M; Turner, Anthony P; Sanderson, Mark F; Sproule, John


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Eleven participants [mean age 13.5 ± 0.7 years, height 1.72 ± 0.08 m, body mass (BM) 62.1 ± 9.4 kg] performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they completed four 15 min periods of part A of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (part B). In the 5 min pre-exercise, participants consumed 0.818 mL kg(-1) BM of a CHO or a non-CHO placebo gel, and a further 0.327 mL kg(-1) BM every 15 min during part A of the LIST (38.0 ± 5.5 g CHO h(-1) in the CHO trial). Intermittent endurance capacity was increased by 21.1% during part B when the CHO gel was ingested (4.6 ± 2.0 vs. 3.8 ± 2.4 min, P games players during a simulated team games protocol.

  5. Acoustic black holes: recent developments in the theory and applications. (United States)

    Krylov, Victor


    Acoustic black holes are relatively new physical objects that have been introduced and investigated mainly during the last decade. They can absorb almost 100% of the incident wave energy, and this makes them very attractive for such traditional engineering applications as vibration damping in different engineering structures and sound absorption in gases and liquids. They also could be useful for some ultrasonic devices using Lamb wave propagation to provide anechoic termination for such waves. So far, acoustic black holes have been investigated mainly for flexural waves in thin plates, for which the required gradual changes in local wave velocity with distance can be easily achieved by changing the plates' local thickness. The present paper provides a brief review of the theory of acoustic black holes, including their comparison with optic black holes introduced about five years ago. Review is also given of the recent experimental work carried out at Loughborough University on damping structural vibrations using the acoustic black hole effect. This is followed by the discussion on potential applications of the acoustic black hole effect for sound absorption in air.

  6. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip G. Bell


    Full Text Available This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day. On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ, agility and muscle soreness (DOMS were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP, muscle damage (CK and oxidative stress (LOOH were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6 was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  7. Transportable high-energy high-power generator (United States)

    Novac, B. M.; Smith, I. R.; Senior, P.; Parker, M.; Louverdis, G.


    High-power applications sometimes require a transportable, simple, and robust gigawatt pulsed power generator, and an analysis of various possible approaches shows that one based on a twin exploding wire array is extremely advantageous. A generator based on this technology and used with a high-energy capacitor bank has recently been developed at Loughborough University. An H-configuration circuit is used, with one pair of diagonally opposite arms each comprising a high-voltage ballast inductor and the other pair exploding wire arrays capable of generating voltages up to 300 kV. The two center points of the H configuration provide the output to the load, which is coupled through a high-voltage self-breakdown spark gap, with the entire autonomous source being housed in a metallic container. Experimentally, a load resistance of a few tens of Ohms is provided with an impulse of more than 300 kV, having a rise time of about 140 ns and a peak power of over 1.7 GW. Details of the experimental arrangement and typical results are presented and diagnostic measurements of the current and voltage output are shown to compare well with theoretical predictions based on detailed numerical modeling. Finally, the next stage toward developing a more powerful and energetic transportable source is outlined.

  8. High-Intensity Small-Sided Games versus Repeated Sprint Training in Junior Soccer Players. (United States)

    Eniseler, Niyazi; Şahan, Çağatay; Özcan, Ilker; Dinler, Kıvanç


    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity small-sided games training (SSGT) versus repeated-sprint training (RST) on repeated-sprint ability (RSA), soccer specific endurance performance and short passing ability among junior soccer players. The junior soccer players were recruited from of a professional team (age 16.9 ± 1.1 years). The tests included the repeated-shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSAT), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Nineteen participants were randomly assigned to either the small-sided games training (SSGTG) (n = 10) or repeated-sprint training group (RSTG) (n = 9). Small-sided games or repeated-sprint training were added to the regular training sessions for two days of the regular practice week. The Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to examine differences in groups and training effects. A time x training group effect was found in the improvement of short-passing ability for the smallsided games training group which showed significantly better scores than the repeated-sprint training group (p ≤ 0.05). Both groups showed similar improvements in RSAdecrement (p games training can be used as an effective training mode to enhance both repeated sprint ability and short-passing ability.

  9. Effects of wearing compression garments on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity in temperate environmental conditions. (United States)

    Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K


    Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (pteam sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports.

  10. Clinical librarianship in the UK: temporary trend or permanent profession? Part I: a review of the role of the clinical librarian. (United States)

    Sargeant, Sally J E; Harrison, Janet


    This paper is the first of a two-part series of articles presenting the role of the clinical librarian (CL) in the UK today. It situates the CL concept historically, and specifically reports the findings from a study in 2002 (Skinner, The Role of the Clinical Librarian in the UK. MSc Dissertation. Loughborough University: Department of Information Science). The impetus for the 2002 study was the awareness of an increase in job advertisements within the NHS for roles seeking to enhance the practice of evidence-based medicine, which included elements of clinical librarianship. Therefore the research was undertaken to establish whether this increase was coincidental, or the beginning of a new professional role for librarians. A content analysis of CL job advertisements, examining job titles and duties was undertaken. Twenty-three advertisements were scrutinized, and these results are presented here. As a complementary investigation, a postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of practising CLs in the UK. Several duties can be classified as core to the role of the CL. However there is a great diversity of duties attached to this core, reflecting an absence of nationally accepted practice. Further work was necessary to assess current practice and how clinical librarianship can continue to grow at local and national levels. This is addressed in Part Two of this series.

  11. Mental Fatigue Impairs Soccer-Specific Physical and Technical Performance. (United States)

    Smith, Mitchell R; Coutts, Aaron J; Merlini, Michele; Deprez, Dieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Marcora, Samuele M


    To investigate the effects of mental fatigue on soccer-specific physical and technical performance. This investigation consisted of two separate studies. Study 1 assessed the soccer-specific physical performance of 12 moderately trained soccer players using the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Study 2 assessed the soccer-specific technical performance of 14 experienced soccer players using the Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests (LSPT, LSST). Each test was performed on two occasions and preceded, in a randomized, counterbalanced order, by 30 min of the Stroop task (mentally fatiguing treatment) or 30 min of reading magazines (control treatment). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort and motivation were measured after treatment. Distance run, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded during the Yo-Yo IR1. LSPT performance time was calculated as original time plus penalty time. LSST performance was assessed using shot speed, shot accuracy, and shot sequence time. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher after the Stroop task in both studies (P soccer-specific running, passing, and shooting performance.

  12. X-ray-based machine vision system for distal locking of intramedullary nails. (United States)

    Juneho, F; Bouazza-Marouf, K; Kerr, D; Taylor, A J; Taylor, G J S


    In surgical procedures for femoral shaft fracture treatment, current techniques for locking the distal end of intramedullary nails, using two screws, rely heavily on the use of two-dimensional X-ray images to guide three-dimensional bone drilling processes. Therefore, a large number of X-ray images are required, as the surgeon uses his/her skills and experience to locate the distal hole axes on the intramedullary nail. The long-term effects of X-ray radiation and their relation to different types of cancer still remain uncertain. Therefore, there is a need to develop a surgical technique that can limit the use of X-rays during the distal locking procedure. A robotic-assisted orthopaedic surgery system has been developed at Loughborough University to assist orthopaedic surgeons by reducing the irradiation involved in such operations. The system simplifies the current approach as it uses only two near-orthogonal X-ray images to determine the drilling trajectory of the distal locking holes, thereby considerably reducing irradiation to both the surgeon and patient. Furthermore, the system uses robust machine vision features to reduce the surgeon's interaction with the system, thus reducing the overall operating time. Laboratory test results have shown that the proposed system is very robust in the presence of variable noise and contrast in the X-ray images.

  13. A Tesla-pulse forming line-plasma opening switch pulsed power generator (United States)

    Novac, B. M.; Kumar, R.; Smith, I. R.


    A pulsed power generator based on a high-voltage Tesla transformer which charges a 3.85 Ω/55 ns water-filled pulse forming line to 300 kV has been developed at Loughborough University as a training tool for pulsed power students. The generator uses all forms of insulation specific to pulsed power technology, liquid (oil and water), gas (SF6), and magnetic insulation in vacuum, and a number of fast voltage and current sensors are implemented for diagnostic purposes. A miniature (centimeter-size) plasma opening switch has recently been coupled to the output of the pulse forming line, with the overall system comprising the first phase of a program aimed at the development of a novel repetitive, table-top generator capable of producing 15 GW pulses for high power microwave loads. Technical details of all the generator components and the main experimental results obtained during the program and demonstrations of their performance are presented in the paper, together with a description of the various diagnostic tools involved. In particular, it is shown that the miniature plasma opening switch is capable of reducing the rise time of the input current while significantly increasing the load power. Future plans are outlined in the conclusions.

  14. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C


    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  15. Discursive social psychology now. (United States)

    Parker, Ian


    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. 10th International Symposium on Computer Science in Sports

    CERN Document Server

    Soltoggio, Andrea; Dawson, Christian; Meng, Qinggang; Pain, Matthew


    This book presents the main scientific results of the 10th International Symposium of Computer Science in Sport (IACSS/ISCSS 2015), sponsored by the International Association of Computer Science in Sport in collaboration with the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP), which took place between September 9-11, 2015 at Loughborough, UK. This proceedings aims to build a link between computer science and sport, and reports on results from applying computer science techniques to address a wide number of problems in sport and exercise sciences. It provides a good platform and opportunity for researchers in both computer science and sport to understand and discuss ideas and promote cross-disciplinary research. The strictly reviewed and carefully revised papers cover the following topics: Modelling and Analysis, Artificial Intelligence in Sport, Virtual Reality in Sport,  Neural Cognitive Training,  IT Systems for Sport, Sensing Technologies and Image Processing.

  17. Environmental issues in operations management (United States)

    Muthulingam, Suresh

    Adoption of sustainable operating practices is becoming an increasingly important issue for many organizations in the world today. In this dissertation, I use empirical methods to investigate factors that influence the adoption of sustainable practices and also identify issues that may hinder the adoption of such practices. I explore these issues in two diverse settings. In Chapter 1, I investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, I identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. In Chapter 2, I examine the depth of adoption of the voluntary LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards for green buildings. Depth of adoption refers to the extent to which the buildings adopt practices related to the standard

  18. How to Make a Virtual Landscape with Outcrops for Use in Geoscience Teaching (United States)

    Houghton, J.; Gordon, C.; Craven, B.; Robinson, A.; Lloyd, G. E. E.; Morgan, D. J.


    We are using screen-based virtual reality landscapes to augment the teaching of basic geological field skills and to enhance 3D visualisation skills. Here we focus on the processes of creating these landscapes, both imagined and real, in the Unity 3D game engine. The virtual landscapes are terrains with embedded data for mapping exercises, or draped geological maps for understanding the 3D interaction of the geology with the topography. The nature of the landscapes built depends on the learning outcomes of the intended teaching exercise. For example, a simple model of two hills and a valley over which to drape a series of different geological maps can be used to enhance the understanding of the 3D interaction of the geology with the topography. A more complex topography reflecting the underlying geology can be used for geological mapping exercises. The process starts with a contour image or DEM, which needs to be converted into RAW files to be imported into Unity. Within Unity itself, there are a series of steps needed to create a world around the terrain (the setting of cameras, lighting, skyboxes etc) before the terrain can be painted with vegetation and populated with assets or before a splatmap of the geology can be added. We discuss how additional features such as a GPS unit or compass can be included. We are also working to create landscapes based on real localities, both in response to the demand for greater realism and to support students unable to access the field due to health or mobility issues. This includes adding 3D photogrammetric images of outcrops into the worlds. This process uses the open source/freeware tools VisualSFM and MeshLab to create files suitable to be imported into Unity. This project is a collaboration between the University of Leeds and Leeds College of Art, UK, and all our virtual landscapes are freely available online at

  19. Surface alloy formation by adsorption of holmium on Ag/Mo(112) bimetallic surfaces (United States)

    Kołaczkiewicz, Jan; Oleksy, Czesław


    Work function change measurements, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT) are used to determine the structures formed on Ag/Mo(112) bimetallic surfaces upon deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) of holmium. As the bimetallic surfaces, we have chosen the Mo(112) substrate covered with 1 or 2 ML of Ag. Such surfaces have the same symmetry as the Mo(112) face but different electronic properties. LEED experiment indicates that the c(2 × 2) structure is formed on (1 ML Ag)/Mo(112) bimetallic surface upon deposition of 0.5 ML of Ho. DFT calculations show that a type of Ag-Ho surface alloy is formed, with Ho atoms 0.6 Å below the distorted layer of Ag. This is neither a substitutional nor a subsurface alloy. It is found that the adsorption structure formed on the (2 ML Ag)/Mo(112) bimetallic surface depends on the annealing temperature. After deposition of 0.5 ML of Ho at 300 K, the LEED pattern of p(2 × 2) symmetry is observed. Annealing of the overlayer at 640 K irreversibly changes the p(2 × 2) pattern into a pattern of c(2 × 2) type. The results of DFT computations show that the c(2 × 2) structure of the Ag-Ho surface alloy is energetically most favorable. In this structure, 0.5 ML of Ho is between the two monolayers of Ag, and the symmetry of the topmost layer is changed. The work function change calculated for the c(2 × 2) structure is in a good agreement with the measured value (0.22 eV). The results show that adsorption of Ho on the Ag/Mo(112) bimetallic surfaces is substantially different than on the clean Mo(112).

  20. Thickness-dependent evolution of structure, electronic structure, and metal-insulator transition in ultrathin V2O3(0001) films on Ag(001) (United States)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.


    Epitaxial hexagonal V2O3(0001) films were grown on cubic Ag(001) substrate for coverages ranging from 1-20 monolayers equivalent (MLE) and have studied their structure, electronic structure and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) using Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) techniques. Detailed LEED and XPS study reveal that, for the lower film coverages (∼1 MLE), a complex (coexisting phase of) vanadium oxide is formed while from 3 MLE coverage onwards, three-dimensional crystallites of V2O3 grows epitaxially. Our LEED results also show that the hexagonal surface of V2O3(0001) is stabilizing on top of square symmetry substrate by the formation of twin-domain structure, where each domain is rotated by 90o. Our photoemission results show that the surface of V2O3 is more insulating than its bulk, similar to the case of many strongly correlated oxide surfaces which is discussed based on the valence band electronic structure with varying probing depth. Evolution of the surface electronic structure was also studied as a function of the film thickness. Further, the effect of lattice strain, film thickness and the domain formation on the metal-insulator transition (MIT) are discussed. The change in the orbital occupancy of (a1 g, egπ) and (egπ, egπ) orbitals of V 3 d, a vanishing of quasiparticle (QP) peak and opening an energy gap at the Fermi level is observed below a critical temperature as a consequence of the MIT.

  1. Teaching Basic Field Skills Using Screen-Based Virtual Reality Landscapes (United States)

    Houghton, J.; Robinson, A.; Gordon, C.; Lloyd, G. E. E.; Morgan, D. J.


    We are using screen-based virtual reality landscapes, created using the Unity 3D game engine, to augment the training geoscience students receive in preparing for fieldwork. Students explore these landscapes as they would real ones, interacting with virtual outcrops to collect data, determine location, and map the geology. Skills for conducting field geological surveys - collecting, plotting and interpreting data; time management and decision making - are introduced interactively and intuitively. As with real landscapes, the virtual landscapes are open-ended terrains with embedded data. This means the game does not structure student interaction with the information as it is through experience the student learns the best methods to work successfully and efficiently. These virtual landscapes are not replacements for geological fieldwork rather virtual spaces between classroom and field in which to train and reinforcement essential skills. Importantly, these virtual landscapes offer accessible parallel provision for students unable to visit, or fully partake in visiting, the field. The project has received positive feedback from both staff and students. Results show students find it easier to focus on learning these basic field skills in a classroom, rather than field setting, and make the same mistakes as when learning in the field, validating the realistic nature of the virtual experience and providing opportunity to learn from these mistakes. The approach also saves time, and therefore resources, in the field as basic skills are already embedded. 70% of students report increased confidence with how to map boundaries and 80% have found the virtual training a useful experience. We are also developing landscapes based on real places with 3D photogrammetric outcrops, and a virtual urban landscape in which Engineering Geology students can conduct a site investigation. This project is a collaboration between the University of Leeds and Leeds College of Art, UK, and all

  2. Sistema para avaliação de sustentabilidade do ambiente construído: aplicação à habitação de interesse social na região metropolitana do Recife


    Jorge Duarte de Azevedo, Naasson


    A avaliação de sustentabilidade de edificações é um importante meio para verificar e demonstrar para qual rumo seguir, tendo em vista o desenvolvimento sustentável. Métodos como BREEAM e LEED, por exemplo, utilizados em vários países, se referem quase que exclusivamente aos aspectos ambientais. Nos países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil, as dimensões social e econômica de sustentabilidade são tão importantes quanto à dimensão ambiental, especialmente nos casos de empreendimen...

  3. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Martin; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Lančok, Ján; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, Jan


    Roč. 6, Apr (2016), 1-7, č. článku 23663. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně; SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : graphene * ARPES * LEED * AFM * copper * nanofaceting Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. Framework for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaption in Cities by Utilizing Green Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Davidson, Cliff I.; Jindal, Ranjina

    infrastructure frameworks with indicators from green building rating systems (LEED 2009, BCA Green Mark 4.0, CASBEE, and TREES-NC 1.0). The climate change mitigation and adaptation framework addresses benefits from applying different GI technologies as well as limitations in existing rating systems and the green......Climate change has threatened global security of ecosystems, human health and natural resources. These threats have increased demand for various mitigation technology solutions as well as effective strategies for adapting to anticipated impacts. Green infrastructure (GI) technologies such as green...

  5. Dipole-Assisted Self-Assembly of Light-Emitting p-nP Needles on Mica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Rubahn, Horst-Günter


    We report on dipole-assisted, self-assembled formation of p-6P and p-5P needles on cleaved and heated mica (0001) surfaces. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) reveals that the needles are single crystalline with the (1) face parallel to the surface, consisting of parallel stacks of laying...... molecules oriented along the direction of microscopic dipoles on the mica surface. They have submicrometer cross-sectional dimensions and lengths as large as millimeters. Moreover, due to the strong dipole confinement of individual molecules, the needles form large domains with parallel oriented entities...

  6. Surface analysis with low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taglauer, E.; Heiland, W.


    Principles and applications of low energy ion scattering for surface analysis are presented. Basic features are the binary collision concept, the scattering cross-sections and the ion neutralization process. The potential and the limitations of the method are outlined. Some pertinent experimental aspects are considered. In a number of examples the performance of the technique is demonstrated for qualitative composition analysis and for studies of surface structures. Finally a few comparisons are made with other techniques, such as AES, LEED, or SIMS. (orig.) [de

  7. Deformation Behavior of Thin Lubricant Films at Elevated Pressure. (United States)


    Polymers, R. N. Haward , Ed., John Wiley & Sons, (1973) 279-339. 25. P.W. Bridgman, The Physics of High Pressure, Dover, N.Y. (1970). 26. C.W. Burham... John Wiley & Sons (1987). 10. J.K. Appeldoorn, E.H. Okrent and W. Phillippoff, "Viscosity and Elasticity at High Pressures and High Shear Rates," Proc...Investigations into Shear Localization in Operating Concentrated Contact," Proc. 19th Leeds-Lyon Symposium (1992). 42. John Harris, Rheology and Non-Newtonian

  8. A Calculation Method for Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Multiply-Slotted Film-Cooling Applications. (United States)



  9. Big Creek Flood Control Project, Cleveland, Ohio. Phase II. General Design Memorandum. Appendix A. Soils, Geology, and Construction Materials. (United States)


    8217* 7. AND OHIO~’i3 ’ RAILROAD - DC , -,- \\C’~ k~ i y ~ DCTDC7 7 IDI-’ A-78 3 OC 82-; 5\\ I.- DC -’~ 706"’! Kf I A 0. 01 SELO .- ED I- LM k ’D -/ - \\\\\\II...ULVTCSDEPTH LEED CLSIICllssO ATERIALS SCORE SNO EAK L149" g No . mpm (0. no d . I Wa ".dwit Brb~~*1 ~~’ Loss Z ~ O~aajfe ’toi’ Orc~rv. ’ ?)o Fdi Dr’j. eaesI- 4

  10. Tutorial Guide: Computer-Aided Structural Modeling (CASM). Version 5.00 (United States)


    Estimate self weight: 26.0 plf. Eutwowg Sol Weight F26.0 pN 0 Update Agog Shuckne Leeds 19 Add eN Weigh >> Note: Beam weight was not smeared Into the...0.0 0.0 75.0 702.0 Floor TMpe 1 148.2 20.0 2963.2 40.0 5926.4 Beam SelO Weight 6.2 20.0 124.0 40.0 248.0 Column Self Weight 1.7 20.0 34.6 40.0 69.1 Sum



    Oliveira, Lacyane Krysna dos Santos; Rêgo, Rejane de Moraes; Frutuoso, Maria Núbia Medeiros de Araújo; Rodrigues, Sofia Suely Ferreira Brandão


    Este artigo aborda a importância da arquitetura sustentável, discutindo conceitos e definições desta temática, diferenciando a Bioarquitetura, Arquitetura Bioclimática e Arquitetura Sustentável. Explana sobre as vantagens e características de um projeto sustentável, onde destaca a eficiência energética das edificações. Indica métodos de projeto e avaliação da eficiência e qualidade ambiental das edificações como BREEAM, LEED, HQE e Selo Azul, assim como o Programa Brasileiro de Etiquetagem En...

  12. ViSA : construction d’un objet-frontière et d’une forme de métacommunication


    Leeds-Hurwitz, Wendy


    La métacommunication comme stratégie dans la recherche interdisciplinaire Littéralement, métacommunication signifie communication sur la communication (Bateson 1956 ; Leeds-Hurwitz 1989). Une interaction possède toujours au moins deux niveaux : le niveau concret (le contenu du message) et le niveau abstrait (la discussion à propos de ce contenu). Les personnes sont capables de gérer ces deux niveaux simultanément : parler (ou agir) et dans le même temps envoyer un second message expliquant co...

  13. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet


    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  14. Professor Philip D. Marsh is New Associate Editor of Journal of Oral Microbiology


    Olsen, Ingar


    Philip D. Marsh is Professor of Oral Microbiology at the School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, UK, and is Programme Leader for the TB & Public Health Microbiology group at Public Health England, Salisbury, UK. He has published over 240 research papers and review articles, and is co-author of a leading text book on oral microbiology.(Published: 25 November 2014)Citation: Journal of Oral Microbiology 2014, 6: 26584 -

  15. A survey of the attitudes and beliefs about the use of TENS for pain management by physiotherapists working in two cities in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissanayaka TD


    Full Text Available Thusharika D Dissanayaka,1 Gourav Banerjee,2,3 Mark I Johnson2,3 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; 2Centre for Pain Research, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK; 3Leeds Pallium Research Group, Leeds, UK Introduction: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a noninvasive, inexpensive, self-administered technique used throughout the world to relieve pain. In Sri Lanka, physiotherapists may use TENS for their patients as they receive a small amount of education about the principles and practice of TENS in their undergraduate training. To date, there have been no data gathered about the use of TENS by physiotherapists in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapists working in Sri Lanka about their use of TENS for pain management. Methods: A postal survey was undertaken using a 12-item questionnaire developed by the investigators to gather information about attitudes, beliefs and use of TENS in clinical practice. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 physiotherapists working in three government hospitals and six private hospitals in the cities of Kandy and Colombo. A descriptive analysis of data was performed. Results: Sixty-seven completed questionnaires were returned (67% response rate. Over half of the respondents (58.2% reported that they used TENS to treat pain “often” or “very often”, with use for musculoskeletal/orthopedic (61.3% and neuropathic/neuralgic (79.1% pain being most common. TENS was used less for postsurgical pain and rarely for cancer pain. Most (95.5% respondents reported that their patients benefitted “considerably” from TENS. 76.1% of the respondents reported that they did not recommend and/or prescribe TENS for patients to use at home. Conclusion: Physiotherapists value TENS as a treatment option to manage musculoskeletal and

  16. 'Green Isle' on the 'Red Isle'. The gasometer in Berlin becomes a centre of the 'European Energy Forum'; 'Gruene Insel' auf der 'Roten Insel'. Der Berliner Gasometer wird zum Zentrum des 'Europaeischen Energie Forums'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ulf


    If the ARD political talk show with Guenther Jauch starts on Sunday night after the crime thriller, only few viewers know that they are tele-guests on the former gasometer site in Berlin-Schoeneberg. Currently, this site is being transformed into an environmentally friendly campus called the 'European Energy Forum' (EUREF). According to the will of the owner and architect Reinhard Mueller, the campus will become the largest CO{sub 2} neutral office and business location in Europe. Totally 600 million Euro will be invested. All new buildings should be ecological 'green buildings' and received the LEED Gold certification.

  17. DOE ZERH Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Taft School, Watertown, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 33 without PV or HERS -14 with PV, with 8.5” double 2x4 walls with 8.5” (R-32) blown cellulose plus R-6 rigid foam, basement with 3” ccsf on interior plus 2x4 stud walls with R-13 blown cellulose, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; a central heat pump; HRV; heat pump water heater; 100% LED; and Passive House Institute U.S.+, LEED platinum, and Living Building Challenge certifications.

  18. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  19. La musica nel secolo delle masse (Musica e società. Risposta a Carlo Sini (21/10/13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Carboni


    Full Text Available A proper reflection about the music in the masses era can develop itself only if it’s interwoven with the media totalitarianism which seems to be the fate of our times. Beyond the ideology and the fashion of “contamination” that leeds towards a levelling of values, it’s much better to sharpen instead the real difference between the distinct practices of listening, without academic prejudices but also without misleading homologations. Neither puritanisms nor false transgressions: classical music and pop music must be received iuxta propria principia, each of them along its own specific language.

  20. Digital mammography with PCR: experience with 20 000 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, G.J.S.; Cowen, A.R.


    The Mammography Unit at Leeds General Infirmary is a referral center for symptomatic or at risk patients. Digital mammography was introduced in 1994, and the whole service now runs on digital imaging. PCR provides the high-quality input required, but the service could easily be adapted to any digital input that meets the required quality standards. PCR shows everything that can be seen on conventional screen-film mammograms at a comparable dose, and is sometimes better, particularly in the case of dense breasts. Because the technique is rapid, convenient and standardized, an identical high-quality imaging service is assured for all patients. (orig.)

  1. Sidwell Friends Quaker School, Washington, DC, by KieranTimberlake Architects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez; Stylsvig Madsen, Ulrik


    In 2006 the new Middle School Building on the campus of Sidwell Friends School in Washington DC was completed at a cost of $28 million. The project is a renovation and addition to a fifty-year-old educational facility transforming the building and the surrounding landscape into a green expression...... of the school’s ambition to create a teaching landscape in close connection to the natural environment. The project designed by KieranTimberlake Associates was awarded LEED Platinum certification, making it the first school for this age group (8-12) in the United States to receive platinum rating....

  2. Instituciones educativas sustentables en Colombia caso de estudio colegio Rochester


    García Gonzalez, Verónica; Bonilla Ruiz, Juliana; Cadena Sanchez, Laura Andrea


    En el proyecto en curso se pretende explicar cuáles son las condiciones y requisitos para implementar la cultura de organizaciones verdes en las instituciones educativas de nuestro país. Partiendo desde la transformación del colegio Rochester en un green school, teniendo en cuenta los requerimientos que exige el sistema de certificación LEED “Leadership Energy & Enviromental Desing” y los procesos administrativos que este involucra. Este estudio se llevara a cabo a través de una metodología q...

  3. Automated Quality Assurance Applied to Mammographic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Davis


    Full Text Available Quality control in mammography is based upon subjective interpretation of the image quality of a test phantom. In order to suppress subjectivity due to the human observer, automated computer analysis of the Leeds TOR(MAM test phantom is investigated. Texture analysis via grey-level co-occurrence matrices is used to detect structures in the test object. Scoring of the substructures in the phantom is based on grey-level differences between regions and information from grey-level co-occurrence matrices. The results from scoring groups of particles within the phantom are presented.

  4. Mechanical exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) enabled by Br2 intercalation. (United States)

    Herbig, Charlotte; Kaiser, Markus; Bendiab, Nedjma; Schumacher, Stefan; Förster, Daniel F; Coraux, Johann; Meerholz, Klaus; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten


    We show here that Br(2) intercalation is an efficient method to enable exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on metals by adhesive tape. We exemplify this method for high-quality graphene of macroscopic extension on Ir(111). The sample quality and the transfer process are monitored using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The developed process provides an opportunity for preparing graphene of strictly monatomic thickness and well-defined orientation including the transfer to poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foil.

  5. Letters to the Editor (United States)


    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  6. A incubação de ovos e larvas em Genidens genidens (Valenciennes (Siluriformes, Ariidae da Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Eggs and larvae mouthbreeding in Genidens genidens (Valenciennes (Siluriformes, Ariidae from Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso da C Chaves


    Full Text Available At Guaraluba bay, the catfish Genidens genidens shows incubating behavior during the summer months. The larvae are either less or heavier than the eggs, and their stomach analysis confirms the exogenous leeding during incubation. Embryos sizes can increase to 59mm in total lenght and 2,8g in total weight, including the yolksac. It was observed that the largest larvae are guarded by the largest adults, and that the embryo size is similar among individuals from the same adult.

  7. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic, Anisotropic, Germanium Rich FeGe(001) Alloys


    Lungu, George A.; Apostol, Nicoleta G.; Stoflea, Laura E.; Costescu, Ruxandra M.; Popescu, Dana G.; Teodorescu, Cristian M.


    Ferromagnetic Fe x Ge1?x with x = 2%?9% are obtained by Fe deposition onto Ge(001) at high temperatures (500 ?C). Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) investigation evidenced the preservation of the (1 ? 1) surface structure of Ge(001) with Fe deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at Ge 3d and Fe 2p core levels evidenced strong Fe diffusion into the Ge substrate and formation of Ge-rich compounds, from FeGe3 to approximately FeGe2, depending on the amount of Fe deposited. Room ...

  8. Drama leaves

    CERN Multimedia


    A new production by Unlimited Theatre, a Leeds-based collaborative group of five actors, directors, writers and performers, interweaves two narratives. One thread concerns a train journey, during which there is a chance meeting between a wannabe stand-up comedian and a librarian on tranquillisers. Intercut is a spoof lecture by a crazed professor who seeks to use particle physics to unravel our complex lives, but whose ideas and accompanying slides grow more and more bizarre. The play entitled 'Neutrino' won the Fringe First Award at the Edinburgh.

  9. First principles calculations for the cleaved and annealed Ge(111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, N.; Tosatti, E.; Selloni, A.


    We use ab initio Molecular Dynamics to study the structural and electronic properties of cleaved and annealed Ge(111) surfaces. New features emerge for both structures. For the (2x1) it is found that even though the stable state has a π-bonded chain structure, there are two isomers with the tilt angle of the chain in opposite directions. For the c(2x8) we find an asymmetry in the surface unit cell, in agreement with LEED experiments that show weak quarter-order spots. This inequivalence also produces a splitting of the rest atom and adatom dangling bond, which explains recent STM experiments. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs

  10. Sustainability Base Construction Update (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael


    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  11. The Arabidopsis co-expression tool (act): a WWW-based tool and database for microarray-based gene expression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jen, C. H.; Manfield, I. W.; Michalopoulos, D. W.


    gene co-expression patterns. To demonstrate the ability of the software to develop testable hypotheses on gene function within a defined biological process we have used the example of cell wall biosynthesis genes. The resource is freely available at, and dissection into cliques of co-regulated genes. We illustrate the applications of the software by analysing genes encoding functionally related proteins, as well as pathways involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. These analyses demonstrate novel biological relationships underlying the observed...

  12. The coadsorption of hydrogen and carbon dioxide versus adsorption of formic acid on Cs-dosed Cu(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godowski, P. J.; Onsgaard, Jens; Hoffmann, S. V.


    , represent "fingerprints" of adsorbed species which were used for determination of their chemical identity. The photoelectron spectra of formic acid and formate are discussed and compared with the results from molecules formed during surface reactions. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Investigations of the CO2/H coadsorption system on Cs-modified Cu(1 1 0), using surface sensitive spectroscopies (photoelectron spectroscopy, LEED, work function changes-Delta Phi), are presented. The valence band spectra, obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy excited by synchrotron radiation...

  13. The interaction of Co with Pd supported on CeOx ultrathin films


    Wilson, E. L.


    A key goal in oxide surface science is to determine the mechanism of catalytic reactions at the atomic level. Here we are ultimately interested in CO oxidation over a model automobile catalyst: Pd supported on Ce02(lll) ultrathin films. The degree of reduction (Ce3+ concentration) is thought to play an important role in determining the catalyst performance. In this work X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) is used to study the degree to which the C...

  14. IAQ performance of interior finishing products and the role of LCA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N


    Full Text Available ; flooring systems; and fixed furniture and fittings. The US CRI’s Green Label Plus (Type I label) is cited as a measure of low-VOC carpet. LEED’s IEQ prerequisites in respect of low-emitting building products awards credits for specification which...:// EDCMAG, 2009. LEED 2009 Cites FloorScore certification as indicator of indoor air quality . Available at: HBN, 2000. Healthy Buildings Mission Statement. Available at: www...

  15. Test of High-pT Scaling from Cosmic-Ray Interactions up to 400 TeV (United States)

    Hazen, W. E.; Hendel, A. Z.; Ash, A. G.; Foster, J. M.; Hodson, A. L.; Porter, M. R.; Bull, R. M.


    The rate of subcores in cosmic-ray air showers has been measured near sea level with a close-packed 35-m2 array of spark chambers at Leeds. Auxiliary experiments demonstrate that our transition effects are negligible. The rate of subcores versus shower size is translated into the rate of high-pT events versus energy of the interacting hadron. Comparison with calculations of Halzen favors pT-4 over pT-8 scaling. The highest energy bin is centered on 350 TeV.

  16. Introduction to the theory of low-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerland, A.; Tomasek, M.


    An elementary introduction to the basic principles of the theory of low-energy electron diffraction is presented. General scattering theory is used to classify the hitherto known approaches to the problem (optical potential and one-electron approximation; formal scattering theory: Born expansion and multiple scattering; translational symmetry: Ewald construction; classification of LEED theories by means of the T matrix; pseudokinematical theory for crystal with clean surface and with an adsorbed monomolecular layer; dynamical theory; inclusion of inelastic collisions; discussion of a simple example by means of the band-structure approach)

  17. Layered phenomena in the mesopause region (United States)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.


    This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).

  18. The 'renewable' stakes of the national debate on energies; Les enjeux ''renouvelables'' du debat national sur les energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Renewable energies do not produce any additional greenhouse gas emissions and do not leed to the production of dangerous wastes. The facilities used for their valorization are easily dismantled at the end of their life, and they offer many advantages in terms of employment, local economy, decentralization and national development. Their main drawbacks concern the required land surfaces and the intermittency of their availability. This paper analyzes the feasibility and the medium- and long-term perspectives of development of renewable energies in France and in Europe: costs and conditions (decentralized production, public acceptability, competitiveness, investments, operating costs, international cooperation). (J.S.)

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Manatee County Habitat for Humanity, Ellenton, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this 18-home community, all homes are LEED Platinum and meet ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 requirements, HERS 23–53. Half way through the project, Habitat for Humanity heard about the DOE Challenge Home program and signed on, committing to build the next home, a three-bedroom, two-bath, 1,143 ft2 duplex, to Challenge Home criteria. The home is the first DOE Challenge Home in Manatee County, and was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the affordable builder category.

  20. Three-fold diffraction symmetry in epitaxial graphene and the SiC substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, D A; Zhou, S Y; El Gabaly, F; Schmid, A K; McCarty, K F; Lanzara, A


    The crystallographic symmetries and spatial distribution of stacking domains in graphene films on 6H-SiC(0001) have been studied by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and dark field imaging in a low energy electron microscope (LEEM). We find that the graphene diffraction spots from 2 and 3 atomic layers of graphene have 3-fold symmetry consistent with AB (Bernal or rhombohedral) stacking of the layers. On the contrary, graphene diffraction spots from the buffer layer and monolayer graphene have apparent 6-fold symmetry, although the 3-fold nature of the satellite spots indicates a more complex periodicity in the graphene sheets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project involved the installation of an 83 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system tied into the energy management system of Hudson County's new 60,000 square foot Emergency Operations and Command Center and staff offices. Other renewable energy features of the building include a 15 kW wind turbine, geothermal heating and cooling, natural daylighting, natural ventilation, gray water plumbing system and a green roof. The County intends to seek Silver LEED certification for the facility.

  2. Surface, segregation profile for Ni50Pd50(100)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    A recent dynamical LEED study [G.N. Derry, C.B. McVey, P.J. Rous, Surf. Sci. 326 (1995) 59] reported an oscillatory surface segregation profile in the Ni50Pd50(100) system with the surface layer enriched by Pd. We have performed ab-initio total-energy calculations for the surface of this alloy...... system using the coherent potential approximation and obtain an oscillatory segregation profile, in agreement with experiments. We discuss the energetic origin of the oscillatory segregation profile in terms of effective cluster interactions. We include relaxation effects by means of the semi...

  3. Disability Awareness for Libraries – How Have the Open Rose Group Used Their Training Package in Four Member Institutions?


    Peacock, AC


    At Leeds Met, we have delivered four workshops on dyslexia to over 70 staff. We watched the fi lm, did a language de-coding exercise, a short quiz, we also asked staff to pick out who they thought was dyslexic from a picture list of 30 famous people, varying our materials and delivery styles. We then did something a little different to our usual training format and made the scenario session in the supporting materials very hands on, the idea being to take staff out of their comfort zones and ...

  4. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joel Glenn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  5. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)


    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  6. Training in radiological protection - a pool of practical exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Hudson, A.P.


    Courses in Radiological Protection have been organised at Leeds by the NRPB since its formation, and prior to that by the Leeds Centre of the Radiological Protection Service. From the outset it seemed essential that such courses should contain a practical element, and accordingly a number of exercises were drawn up. Since that time further exercises have been added, often in response to a specific requirement from a customer or group of customers. Most of the exercises have involved the design and construction of 'one-off' items of equipment, a number of which can be considered to represent interesting approaches towards radiological protection teaching. The construction of a 'second generation' of hardware has focused attention on the objectives and design features of the exercises, which in turn has prompted a desire to publish a series of short papers describing the pool of exercises that is currently available for inclusion in the various courses run by the NRPB Centres. The first of these papers puts the series into context and provides a background to the descriptions of specific exercises. (author)

  7. From Tragedy to Triumph: Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas To Be a 100% Renewable Energy City; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Billman, L.; Wallach, D.


    On May 4, 2007, Greensburg, Kansas, was hit by a 1.7-mile wide tornado with 200 mph-plus wind speeds. This tornado destroyed or severely damaged 90% of Greensburg?s structures. We discuss the progress made in rebuilding Greensburg, with a focus on the built environment and on meeting Greensburg?s goal of 100% renewable energy, 100% of the time. We also discuss key disaster recovery efforts that enabled Greensburg to reach this goal. Key strategies included a Sustainable Comprehensive Master Plan, an ordinance resolving that city-owned buildings achieve LEED Platinum and 42% energy savings, a strong focus on rebuilding 'right' with an integrated design process, attracting significant and sustained technical experts and national media attention, and linking renewable and energy efficiency technologies to business development. After three years, more than half the homes that have been rebuilt are rated at an average of 40% energy savings. All significant commercial buildings, including the school, hospital, banks, courthouse, and retail buildings, have been rebuilt to LEED Gold and Platinum standards and exceed 40% savings, with many exceeding 50% savings. Greensburg recently constructed a 12.5-MW community wind farm to provide all the remaining energy needed for its energy-efficient buildings and homes.

  8. Characterization of Rh films on Ta(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.Q.; Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.


    The surface and electronic structure of Rh films on Ta(110) up to several monolayers thick on Ta(110) are characterized by photoemission, Auger emission, low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). From the variation of the Rh Auger peak-to-peak intensity as a function of evaporation time, Rh appears to grow in the Stranski--Krastanov mode at room temperature. However, the LEIS data show that the Rh adatoms begin to cluster on Ta(110) before growth of the monolayer is completed. Diffuse LEED scattering suggests that the Rh films are disordered. Photoemission shows that Rh chemisorption on Ta(110) generates two peaks located at -1.5 and -2.5 eV binding energy during the initial phase of thin-film growth (0 3.7 ML). CO dissociates on the Rh/Ta(110) surface for Rh coverages<2.5 ML and the surface develops a site capable of molecular CO adsorption above 0.3-ML Rh coverage

  9. 37th British Mass Spectrometry Society annual meeting. (United States)

    Wright, Patricia; Eckers, Christine


    The 37th British Mass Spectrometry Society (BMSS) annual meeting took place over a brilliantly sunny 3 days by the sea in the historic Eastbourne Winter Gardens on the south coast of England. It was held between 13 and 15 September 2016. Two-hundred attendees enjoyed a conference covering all aspects of MS with speakers drawn from across Europe and North America. The BMSS is particularly proud of the encouragement it offers students and early career scientists, both financially in the form of travel grants and also in terms of opportunities to present at an international level in a supportive atmosphere. Further encouragement to newcomers to the field is offered in the form of the Barber Prize for best oral presentation and the Bordoli Prize for the best poster. This year's winners were Patrick Knight (University of Leeds), the Bordoli Prize for the poster 'Characterising the Interaction of Ataxin-3 and the Poly-Glutamine Aggregation Inhibitor QBP1'; Lisa Deininger (Sheffield Hallam University), the Barber Prize for 'Out Damned Spot! Bottom Up Proteomics for the Analysis of Bloodied Fingermarks'. In addition, the Delegates Choice for best poster went to Hannah Britt (Durham University) for 'Monitoring Reactions of Small Molecules with Cell Membranes by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry'. For services to the MS community, Professor Gareth Brenton (Swansea University) was awarded the BMSS Medal; Professor Alison Ashcroft (Leeds University) and Anna Upton (former BMSS administrator) were given lifetime membership of the BMSS.

  10. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H


    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  11. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials). (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E


    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  12. Applications of low-energy electron diffraction to ordering at crystal and quasicrystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, E.G.; Malic, R.A.


    The ability to measure low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensity profiles has been enhanced by use of low-current well-defined primary electron beams in conjunction with position-sensitive detection (PSD) of the diffracted electrons. The following are examples of applications of LEED-PSD. Compositional ordering at ordering alloy Cu 3 Au (100) and (110) surfaces - the ordering of the (100) surface is believed to conform to a conventional picture in which the already-ordered bulk acts as a template, but the profiles measured in the course of ordering of the (110) surface are of the shapes expected if the ordering occurred first at the surface. Disordering of Ge(111) surface 150 K below the bulk melting temperature - the intensities and profiles are inconsistent with surface melting or roughening, but a model based on molecular dynamics simulations is not ruled out. Order and disordering at decagonal quasicrystal Al 65 Cu 15 Co 20 surfaces - at room temperature the quasicrystalline order is well developed at both the 'ten-fold' surface (perpendicular to the ten-fold surface (perpendicular to the ten-fold periodic axis) and a 'two-fold' one (parallel to the ten-fold axis) as evidenced by narrow beam profiles. The ten-fold surface undergoes a disordering transition at 700 K, but the temperature dependence of the profiles is unlike that expected for the roughening transition anticipated theoretically. 57 refs., 15 figs

  13. Preparation of well-defined samples of AlPdMn quasicrystals for surface studies (United States)

    Jenks, C. J.; Delaney, D. W.; Bloomer, T. E.; Chang, S.-L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Shen, Z.; Zhang, C.-M.; Thiel, P. A.


    We have developed a method for preparing single-grain, quasicrystalline AlPdMn samples for surface studies in ultrahigh vacuum. The main issues of concern are phase purity, the quality of the surface structure, and the surface, and the surface composition. Phase purity is enhanced by annealing the sample in ultra-pure Ar in a sealed quartz ampoule for several days before polishing. Polishing with colloidal silica allows secondary phases to be detected readily with an optical microscope. As a final precaution, phase purity can be checked sensitively with scanning Auger microscopy. After this stage, the sample can be cleaned in ultrahigh vacuum with ion bombardment. Annealing is required after bombardment to restore surface structure and to obtain a low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern of an oriented sample. However, both ion bombardment and heating to temperatures above 870 K in vacuum, produce Pd-rich surfaces. As a final step, for the five-fold surface, we recommend heating briefly to 1050-1100 K and then annealing at 870 K for several hours. This produces both an excellent LEED pattern, and a surface composition close to that of the bulk.

  14. The effect of using an audience response system on learning, motivation and information retention in the orthodontic teaching of undergraduate dental students: a cross-over trial. (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Harmeet Kaur; Allen, Mark; Kang, Jing; Bates, Claire; Hodge, Trevor


    New methods of teaching and learning are constantly being sought in the adult learning environment. Audience Response Systems (ARS) have been used in many different learning environments, especially in the field of medical education. The objective of this investigation was to ascertain the effect of ARS use in undergraduate teaching in a UK dental school. A cross-over clustered randomized educational trial. Leeds Dental Institute. Year 4 undergraduate dental students in orthodontics. Students at Leeds Dental Institute were taught two different topics within the curriculum to test the use of ARS in a cross-over trial. A questionnaire was delivered to the test (ARS) and control (non-ARS) groups. The response rate to the questionnaires was 89·5% (test group) and 82·9% (control group). The ARS enabled students to perform better as shown by knowledge retention (P = 0·013). Students found the seminar more interesting (P = 0·013), easier to concentrate (P = 0·025) and easier to participate in (P = 0·020) when ARS was used. When ARS was used, students were more able to answer questions (Pteaching and significantly improved knowledge retention. ARS may be useful in facilitating orthodontic teaching in the future.

  15. Are green building features safe for preventive maintenance workers? Examining the evidence. (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed Shamun; Quinn, Margaret M; Buchholz, Bryan; Geiser, Ken


    Many newly constructed green buildings (GB) are certified using the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system for new construction and major renovation which focuses on architectural and mechanical design to conserve energy, reduce environmental harm, and enhance indoor quality for occupants. This study evaluated the preventive maintenance (PM) worker occupational safety and health (OSH) risks related to the design of GB. PM job hazard analyses (JHA) were performed on the tasks required to operate and maintain five GB features selected from 13 LEED certified GB. A 22-item JHA and OSH risk scoring system were developed. Potentially serious OSH hazards included: green roofs made of slippery material without fall protection; energy recovery wheels and storm water harvesting systems in confined spaces; skylights without guard rails; and tight geothermal well mechanical rooms constraining safe preventive practices. GB can present PM OSH risks and these should be eliminated in the building design phase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Crystallographic structure and energetics of the Rh(1 0 0)-(3 × 1)-2O phase. (United States)

    Kißlinger, T; Ferstl, P; Schneider, M A; Hammer, L


    In this study we investigate the crystallographic structure of the Rh(1 0 0)-([Formula: see text])-2O phase by quantitative low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy as well as the energetics of the system applying density functional theory calculations (DFT). The ([Formula: see text]) structure forms upon exposing the clean Rh(1 0 0) surface to 1200 L of oxygen at 520 K. A full-dynamical LEED intensity analysis (Pendry R-factor [Formula: see text]) reveals an oxygen-induced shifted row-reconstruction of the rhodium top layer where every third Rh-row is displaced by half a surface lattice parameter along the [0 1 1]-direction. There are two oxygen atoms within the unit cell which assume threefold coordinated sites on both sides of the shifted Rh-row with one bond to the shifted and two bonds to the unshifted rows. DFT calculations yield a total energy gain of 0.27 eV per oxygen atom compared to adsorption on the unreconstructed surface. This by far overcompensates the energetic penalty of 0.10 eV per oxygen atom for shifting the Rh-row and thus drives the substrate reconstruction. A coadsorption of oxygen at remaining regular sites of the substrate is not observed in experiment and is found to be energetically unfavorable.

  17. Competitive surface segregation of C, Al and S impurities in Fe(100)

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, V; Meier, W; Hammer, L; Heinz, K


    The stoichiometries and geometric structures formed by the segregation of C, Al and S on a Fe(100) surface have been investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy and quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Step-wise annealing of a sputtered surface with increasing annealing temperature reveals the successive segregation of C, Al and S. According to quantitative LEED analyses, each segregand forms a distinct c(2 x 2) long-range ordered structure. Also, each segregand removes the preceding one from the surface entirely, i.e. segregation in the Fe(100)-(C, Al, S) system is purely competitive with no ordered co-segregation regimes involving two or even three elements. The c(2 x 2) phases of segregated carbon and sulfur consist of elemental surface adlayers with the adatoms residing in four-fold symmetric hollow sites of the iron substrate. This is in contrast to segregated Al which, according to an earlier analysis, forms a c(2 x 2)-symmetric surface alloy layer with iron. In all cases there is some c...

  18. Normal emission photoelectron diffraction: a new technique for determining surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, S.D.


    One technique, photoelectron diffraction (PhD) is characterized. It has some promise in surmounting some of the problems of LEED. In PhD, the differential (angle-resolved) photoemission cross-section of a core level localized on an adsorbate atom is measured as a function of some final state parameter. The photoemission final state consists of two components, one of which propagates directly to the detector and another which scatters off the surface and then propagates to the detector. These are added coherently, and interference between the two manifests itself as cross-section oscillations which are sensitive to the local structure around the absorbing atom. We have shown that PhD deals effectively with two- and probably also three-dimensionally disordered systems. Its non-damaging and localized, atom-specific nature gives PhD a good deal of promise in dealing with molecular overlayer systems. It is concluded that while PhD will never replace LEED, it may provide useful, complementary and possibly also more accurate surface structural information

  19. Health Co-Benefits of Green Building Design Strategies and Community Resilience to Urban Flooding: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Houghton


    Full Text Available Climate change is increasingly exacerbating existing population health hazards, as well as resulting in new negative health effects. Flooding is one particularly deadly example of its amplifying and expanding effect on public health. This systematic review considered evidence linking green building strategies in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design® (LEED Rating System with the potential to reduce negative health outcomes following exposure to urban flooding events. Queries evaluated links between LEED credit requirements and risk of exposure to urban flooding, environmental determinants of health, co-benefits to public health outcomes, and co-benefits to built environment outcomes. Public health co-benefits to leveraging green building design to enhance flooding resilience included: improving the interface between humans and wildlife and reducing the risk of waterborne disease, flood-related morbidity and mortality, and psychological harm. We conclude that collaborations among the public health, climate change, civil society, and green building sectors to enhance community resilience to urban flooding could benefit population health.

  20. Turbulent Flame Speed Scaling for Positive Markstein Number Expanding Flames in Near Isotropic Turbulence (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung


    In this work we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity on turbulent flame speed and it's scaling, from analysis and experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding flames propagating in near isotropic turbulence. For all C0-C4 hydrocarbon-air mixtures presented in this work and recently published C8 data from Leeds, the normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual mixtures approximately follows the recent theoretical and experimental ReT, f 0 . 5 scaling, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property. We observe that for a constant ReT, f 0 . 5 , the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Mk. This could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the large wavenumber, flame surface fluctuation dissipation mechanism. As originally suggested by the theory, replacing thermal diffusivity with Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, the present and Leeds dataset could be scaled by the new ReT, f 0 . 5 irrespective of the fuel considered, equivalence ratio, pressure and turbulence intensity for positive Mk flames. This work was supported by the Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001198 and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  1. Final Technical Report for DOE Grant, number DE-FG02-05ER15701; Probing Surface Chemistry Under Catalytic Conditions: Olefin Hydrogenation,Cyclization and Functionalization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurock, Matthew


    The specific goal of this work was to understanding the catalytic reactions pathways for the synthesis of vinyl acetate over Pd, Au and PdAu alloys. A combination of both experimental methods (X-ray and Auger spectroscopies, low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and theory (Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and Monte Carlo methods under various different reactions) were used to track the surface chemistry and the influence of alloying. The surface intermediates involved in the various reactions were characterized using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy and LEED to identify the nature of the surface species and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) to follow the decomposition pathways and measure heats of adsorption. These results along with those from density functional theoretical calculations were used determine the kinetics for elementary steps. The results from this work showed that the reaction proceeds via the Samanos mechanism over Pd surfaces whereby the ethylene directly couples with acetate to form an acetoxyethyl intermediate that subsequently undergoes a beta-hydride elimination to form the vinyl acetate monomer. The presence of Au was found to modify the adsorption energies and surface coverages of important surface intermediates including acetate, ethylidyne and ethylene which ultimately influences the critical C-H activation and coupling steps. By controlling the surface alloy composition or structure one can begin to control the steps that control the rate and even the mechanism.

  2. Another 2-dimensional oxide quasicrystal: Strontium titanate on Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Sebastian; Hammer, Rene; Schumann, Florian; Foerster, Stefan; Meinel, Klaus [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Widdra, Wolf [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)


    Recently the formation of a BaTiO{sub 3}-derived 2-dimensional oxide quasicrystal (OQC) with 12-fold diffraction symmetry has been discovered on Pt(111) substrates [1]. Following an analogous preparation procedure, we show that SrTiO{sub 3} on Pt(111) develops an OQC as well. First, a closed SrTiO{sub 3} film on Pt(111) has been prepared using MBE. The stoichiometry and structure of the film has been analyzed by means of AES and SPA-LEED. Annealing the film in an O{sub 2} atmosphere yields the formation of 3-dimensional SrTiO{sub 3} islands with bare Pt(111) in between. Annealing in UHV causes a rewetting on the Pt(111) via surface diffusion of SrTiO{sub 3} from the islands. SPA-LEED and STM reveal that at temperatures around 700 C an OQC is formed in the rewetting layer. The SrTiO{sub 3} derived OQC is composed by quadratic, triangular, and rhombic elements of equal side length of about 0.6 nm. They form an aperiodic structure, which displays a well-ordered 12-fold diffraction pattern. Our results suggest that OQC formation is a general process of oxide perovskites on suitable substrates.

  3. The role of nitrogen in the preferential chromium segregation on the ferritic stainless steel (1 1 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, J.; Matsui, T.


    The temperature dependence on the segregation behavior of the ferritic stainless steel single crystal (1 1 1) surface morphology has been examined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). AES clearly showed the surface segregations of chromium and nitrogen upon annealing. Nanoscale triangular chromium nitride clusters were formed around 650 deg. C and were regularly aligned in a hexagonal configuration. In contrast, for the ferritic stainless steel (1 1 1) surface with low-nitrogen content, chromium and carbon were found to segregate on the surface upon annealing and Auger spectra of carbon displayed the characteristic carbide peak. For the low-nitrogen surface, LEED identified a facetted surface with (2 x 2) superstructure at 650 deg. C. High-resolution STM identified a chromium carbide film with segregated carbon atoms randomly located on the surface. The facetted (2 x 2) superstructure changed into a (3 x 3) superstructure with no faceting upon annealing at 750 deg. C. Also, segregated sulfur seems to contribute to the reconstruction or interfacial relaxation between the ferritic stainless steel (1 1 1) substrate and chromium carbide film.

  4. Segregation and morphology on the surface of ferritic stainless steel (0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, H.; Matsui, T.; Yuhara, J.


    The temperature dependence of the segregation and morphology of ferritic steel (0 0 1) surfaces has been examined by a combination of Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and low-energy electron loss spectroscopy. Upon annealing ferritic steel at 500 °C, the topmost layer was observed to be mainly composed of Fe-Cr alloy. Oxygen segregation was also detected locally in the STM images. LEED showed a (1 × 1) pattern and a weak (√5 × √5)R27° reconstruction corresponding to Fe and Cr 4 O 5 , respectively. Upon annealing at 600 °C, carbon and chromium co-segregated to the surface, forming two different regions composed of CrC and Cr-based steel, while the Cr 4 O 5 domains disappeared. Upon annealing at 700 °C, nitrogen segregated to the surface, and the topmost layer was observed to be mainly composed of CrN domains with local CrC domains.

  5. China’s Urban-Rural Integration Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqing Ye


    Full Text Available The analysis presented here is based on the keynote speech discussing the most recent developments in rural policy on urban-rural integration in China delivered in Chinese by Professor Ye Xingqing at the Ninth European Conference on Agriculture and Rural Development in China (ECARDC9 held at the University of Leeds in the UK on 3-5 April 2009. Professor Ye’s paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main initiatives, their rationale and their context, including some of the debates surrounding them. Professor Ye, who is an invited keynote speaker of ECARDC9 and the director-general of the Department for Rural Economy, Research Office of the State Council, People’s Republic of China, has been personally involved in the process of formulating these policy initiatives.Translated from Chinese by Prof. Flemming Christiansen, professor in Chinese Studies, Department of East Asian Studies, University of Leeds and also Director of National Institute of Chinese Studies, White Rose East Asia Centre, United Kingdom.

  6. Health Co-Benefits of Green Building Design Strategies and Community Resilience to Urban Flooding: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos


    Climate change is increasingly exacerbating existing population health hazards, as well as resulting in new negative health effects. Flooding is one particularly deadly example of its amplifying and expanding effect on public health. This systematic review considered evidence linking green building strategies in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ® (LEED) Rating System with the potential to reduce negative health outcomes following exposure to urban flooding events. Queries evaluated links between LEED credit requirements and risk of exposure to urban flooding, environmental determinants of health, co-benefits to public health outcomes, and co-benefits to built environment outcomes. Public health co-benefits to leveraging green building design to enhance flooding resilience included: improving the interface between humans and wildlife and reducing the risk of waterborne disease, flood-related morbidity and mortality, and psychological harm. We conclude that collaborations among the public health, climate change, civil society, and green building sectors to enhance community resilience to urban flooding could benefit population health.

  7. Multi-technique application of a double reflection electron emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-liang, J.; Bao-gui, S.; Guo-jun, Z


    Full text: In this paper the results acquired with the most recently developed double reflection electron emission microscope applied in different imaging modes are presented. The novel illumination system is based on a (100)-oriented single crystalline W wire electron microreflector and an electron gun placed in the back focal plane of the immersion objective. After being elastically reflected from the W tip surface, the primary electrons of energy ranging from 1 to 6 keV are decelerated to the desired impact energy in the range 0 to 200 eV for mirror electron microscopy (MEM), low energy electron emission microscopy (LEEM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) modes or to 5 keV for the secondary electron imaging mode. Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), MEM, LEEM, secondary images of Pd/Si(111) and a set of selected area LEED patterns of the W(100) surface taken at energies ranging from 5 to 40 eV are presented for the first time. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  8. Dental students interacting with dental nurses: an investigation of the role of gender and ethnicity in inter-professional communication and working styles. (United States)

    Freeman, R; McWilliams, C; Gorter, R; Williams, S


    To examine the influence of dental students' gender and ethnicity on their perceptions of dental nurses' duties and upon their communication and working styles when interacting with dental nurses (DNs). A survey of clinical dental students attending Queen's University Belfast and University of Leeds. Students were invited to complete the 34 item Communication and Working Styles Questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the students' perceptions of the duties of a DN and the students' communication and working styles. Factor analysis revealed two communication and working styles which were friendly and difficult styles, respectively. Two hundred and forty-eight students participated giving a response rate of 88%: 58% were female and 30% of students from Leeds were from various ethnic minority groups. The students' perceptions as to the duties of a DN were affected by university attended and ethnicity. The majority of students used friendly communication styles. The type of style used was determined by university attended, gender and ethnicity. Male students had higher mean scores for friendly working styles whereas students from minority ethnic groups had higher mean scores for gender-related communication style. Female students and students from minority ethnic groups had higher mean scores for items relating to teamwork. This survey illustrates the different communication and working styles used by male and female and dental students from different ethnic backgrounds when interacting and working with DNs.

  9. Inferring relative proportions of DNA variants from sequencing electropherograms. (United States)

    Carr, I M; Robinson, J I; Dimitriou, R; Markham, A F; Morgan, A W; Bonthron, D T


    Determination of the relative copy number of single-nucleotide sequence variants (SNVs) within a DNA sample is a frequent experimental goal. Various methods can be applied to this problem, although hybridization-based approaches tend to suffer from high-setup cost and poor adaptability, while others (such as pyrosequencing) may not be accessible to all laboratories. The potential to extract relative copy number information from standard dye-terminator electropherograms has been little explored, yet this technology is cheap and widely accessible. Since several biologically important loci have paralogous copies that interfere with genotyping, and which may also display copy number variation (CNV), there are many situations in which determination of the relative copy number of SNVs is desirable. We have developed a desktop application, QSVanalyzer, which allows high-throughput quantification of the proportions of DNA sequences containing SNVs. In reconstruction experiments, QSVanalyzer accurately estimated the known relative proportions of SNVs. By analyzing a large panel of genomic DNA samples, we demonstrate the ability of the software to analyze not only common biallelic SNVs, but also SNVs within a locus at which gene conversion between four genomic paralogs operates, and within another that is subject to CNV. QSVanalyzer is freely available at It requires the Microsoft .NET framework version 2.0, which can be installed on all Microsoft operating systems from Windows 98 onwards. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Oral biofilms: molecular analysis, challenges, and future prospects in dental diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do T


    Full Text Available Thuy Do,1 Deirdre Devine,1 Philip D Marsh1,21Department of Oral Biology, Leeds Dental Institute, Leeds, 2Health Protection Agency Microbiology Services, Salisbury, UKAbstract: Oral biofilms are functionally and structurally organized polymicrobial communities that are embedded in an extracellular matrix of exopolymers on mucosal and dental surfaces. These biofilms are found naturally in health, and provide benefits to the host. However, this relationship can break down, and disease can occur; disease is associated with a shift in the balance of the species within these biofilms. Simple diagnostic tests have been developed that involve the culture of selected bacteria, eg, those implicated in dental caries, facilitating an assessment of risk of further disease in individual patients. However, oral diseases have a complex etiology, and because only around 50% of oral biofilm can be grown at present, culture-independent molecular-based approaches are being developed that give a more comprehensive assessment of the presence of a range of putative pathogens in samples. The diversity of these biofilms creates challenges in the interpretation of findings, and future work is investigating the ability of novel techniques to detect biological activity and function in oral biofilms, rather than simply providing a catalogue of microbial names.Keywords: oral biofilms, dental plaque, dental diagnostics, molecular techniques, polymerase chain reaction, next-generation sequencing

  11. Self-Organized Growth, Structure, and Magnetism of Monatomic Transition-Metal Oxide Chains. (United States)

    Ferstl, Pascal; Hammer, Lutz; Sobel, Christopher; Gubo, Matthias; Heinz, Klaus; Schneider, M Alexander; Mittendorfer, Florian; Redinger, Josef


    We report on the self-organized growth of monatomic transition-metal oxide chains of (3×1) periodicity and unusual MO_{2} stoichiometry (M=Ni, Co, Fe, Mn) on Ir(100). We analyze their structural and magnetic properties by means of quantitative LEED, STM, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. LEED analyses reveal a fascinating common atomic structure in which the transition-metal atoms sit above a missing-row structure of the surface and are coupled to the substrate only via oxygen atoms. This structure is confirmed by DFT calculations with structural parameters deviating by less than 1.7 pm. The DFT calculations predict that the NiO_{2} chains are nonmagnetic, CoO_{2} chains are ferromagnetic, while FeO_{2} and MnO_{2} are antiferromagnetic. All structures show only weak magnetic interchain coupling. Further, we demonstrate the growth of oxide chains of binary alloys of Co and Ni or Fe on Ir(100), which allows us to produce well-controlled ensembles of ferromagnetic chains of different lengths separated by nonmagnetic or antiferromagnetic segments.

  12. Subcore observations and high psub(t)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, W.E.; Hendel, A.Z.; Bull, R.


    The observations of subcores with the Leeds 35m 2 spark chamber array have shown a much lower frequency of subcores than observed at Kiel and at Tokyo with detectors also well suited to observe detailed shower structure. However, overlying material was quite different and the resulting transition effects are difficult to correct for. One seems forced to compare results for subcores occuring only under relatively thin roof material. The discrepancy is thereby nearly removed. As a further test, the Leeds array has recently been run with simulated roof beams above the array. A spin-off from this run is the verification of the ability of our detectors to show ''subcores'' of all sizes and the ability of our scanners to find them. When we calculate psub(t) for our subcores in the traditional manner, no values > 5 GeV/c result. Further, in another paper, we present simulation results showing that there is poor correlation between psub(t) calculated in the usual manner on an event by event basis. The conclusion is that a meaningful utilization of the data requires a comparison of frequency of observable subcore parameters derived from simulations that include QCD nuclear physics to the observed frequencies

  13. A self-sustainable winery, an advanced passive building and remote monitoring of environments in wineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Boulton


    Full Text Available The self-sustainable winery was conceived in 2006 and the intention was to create a building and its related utility systems that would operate independently from the energy and water grids and to eliminate hydrocarbon fuels from its operation, capture and sequester the carbon dioxide from its fermentations and create a zero carbon footprint facility. The winery was the highest scoring LEED building at any university when it was completed and the first LEED Platinum Winery in the USA. The adjacent Jess Jackson sustainable winery building is a highly passive research and utility space that will house the advanced energy and water systems that make this off-grid performance possible. Together these buildings will operate every daily in energy and water positive modes and at capacities, which exceed the demands even during the harvest season. The data system incorporated into these buildings for one hundred and fifty research fermentors, fourteen teaching fermentors will also monitor all energy, water and building activities in a secure, cloud-based software system that supports both web and handheld access, with the potential for bidirectional date and control functions. This data network has been extended to include real time monitoring of temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds in five production areas within two commercial winery sites and two creamery facilities, located more than 100 km from Davis. This now provides an example of a distributed dynamic network for the monitoring of the built environment in remote commercial food and wine facilities.

  14. Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods: What do they really certify?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangel, Josefin; Wallhagen, Marita; Malmqvist, Tove; Finnveden, Göran


    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development – BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward. - Highlights: • BREEAM-C and LEED-ND were analysed in terms of content and structure. • Specific attention was given to the type of indicators used for showing compliance. • In both systems procedure and feature indicators dominate over performance indicators. • Several other limitations of these certification systems were also identified. • Altogether the limitations imply that a certificate does not warrant sustainability.

  15. Stabilization of polar Mn3O4(001) film on Ag(001): Interplay between kinetic and structural stability (United States)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Barman, Sukanta; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.


    Stabilization processes of polar surfaces are often very complex and interesting. Understanding of these processes is crucial as it ultimately determines the properties of the film. Here, by the combined study of Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) techniques we show that, although there can be many processes involved in the stabilization of the polar surfaces, in case of Mn3O4(001)/Ag(001), it goes through different reconstructions of the Mn2O4 terminated surface which is in good agreements with the theoretical predictions. The complex surface phase diagram has been probed by LEED as a function of film thickness, oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature during growth, while their chemical compositions have been probed by XPS. Below a critical film thickness of ∼ 1 unit cell height (8 sublayers or 3 ML) of Mn3O4 and oxygen partial pressure range of 2 × 10-8 mbar 5 × 10-7 mbar) and higher temperature UHV annealing. The origin of these stripes has been explained with the help of UPS results.

  16. REVISITING PUBLIC SPACE IN POST-WAR SOCIAL HOUSING IN GREAT BRITAIN / Repensando el espacio público de las viviendas sociales de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sendra


    Full Text Available SUMMARY This paper addresses the issue of the urban obsolescence of public space of social housing neighbourhoods built during the post-war period in Great Britain. Great Britain has been chosen because of the active role played by modern architects in the construction of the welfare state advocated by post-war governments, which involved building large areas of social housing. The aims of this paper are to understand the context in which these neighbourhoods were built as well as their evolution and the complexity of their obsolescence. To achieve these objectives, it first looks at the causes that prompted the slum clearance process, at its implementation during the post-war reconstruction and at the effects that this process has had on contemporary cities. Secondly, it is illustrated through a detailed analysis of a case study, Loughborough Estate in Brixton, London, looking at the initial conditions of the council estate when it was built, investigating its evolution over the past five decades and factors that may have contributed to the obsolescence of its public space and to its social problems. The paper concludes with a warning that a generalist critique of modern architecture does not solve the problems of such neighbourhoods, but a substantial intervention on the public space is needed to bring them to life. These interventions should focus on the spatial configuration of public space and its design and maintenance.RESUMEN Este artículo aborda la cuestión de la obsolescencia urbana del espacio público en las barriadas de viviendas sociales construidas durante el periodo de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña. Se ha escogido el caso de Gran Bretaña debido al papel tan activo que tuvieron los arquitectos del movimiento moderno en la construcción del estado del bienestar, por la que abogaron los gobiernos de post-guerra y la cual implicó la construcción de una gran cantidad de viviendas. Los objetivos de este artículo son comprender el

  17. Rainfall simulators in hydrological and geomorphological sciences: benefits, applications and future research directions (United States)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Cerdà, Artemi; Fister, Wolfgang; Seitz, Steffen; Keesstra, Saskia; Green, Daniel; Gabriels, Donald


    Rainfall simulators are used extensively within the hydrological and geomorphological sciences and provide a useful investigative tool to understand many processes, such as: (i) plot-scale runoff, infiltration and erosion; (ii) irrigation and crop management, and; (iii) investigations into flooding within a laboratory setting. Although natural rainfall is desirable as it represents actual conditions in a given geographic location, data acquisition relying on natural rainfall is often hindered by its unpredictable nature. Furthermore, rainfall characteristics such as the intensity, duration, drop size distribution and kinetic energy cannot be spatially or temporally regulated or repeated between experimentation. Rainfall simulators provide a suitable method to overcome the issues associated with depending on potentially erratic and unpredictable natural rainfall as they allow: (i) multiple measurements to be taken quickly without waiting for suitable natural rainfall conditions; (ii) the simulation of spatially and/or temporally controlled rainfall patterns over a given plot area, and; (iii) the creation of a closed environment, allowing simplified measurement of input and output conditions. There is no standardisation of rainfall simulation and as such, rainfall simulators differ in their design, rainfall characteristics and research application. Although this impedes drawing meaningful comparisons between studies, this allows researchers to create a bespoke and tailored rainfall simulator for the specific research application. This paper summarises the rainfall simulators used in European research institutions (Universities of Trier, Valencia, Basel, Tuebingen, Wageningen, Loughborough and Ghent) to investigate a number of hydrological and geomorphological issues and includes details on the design specifications (such as the extent and characteristics of simulated rainfall), as well as a discussion of the purpose and application of the rainfall simulator.

  18. 9th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures (DAMAS 2011) (United States)

    Ouyang, Huajiang


    Dear Delegates We would like to welcome you to the 9th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures. This series of conferences has been held as a biannual event since 1995. The previous venues were Pescara (Italy, 1995), Sheffield (UK, 1997), Dublin (Ireland, 1999), Cardiff (UK, 2001), Southampton (UK, 2003), Gdansk (Poland, 2005), Torino (Italy, 2007) and Beijing (China, 2009). The conference will cover all research topics relevant to damage assessment of engineering structures and systems including signal processing of sensor measurements and theoretical techniques as well as experimental case studies, and numerical simulations. It has established itself as a major international forum for the above research areas. Typically over 100 papers are presented at each conference. It is thought appropriate to keep the conference at this size to facilitate knowledge exchange. DAMAS Conferences have had support from other learned societies and industry. These include the Technical Division of Vibration and Acoustics of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the British Society for Strain Measurement, to name a few. There are exhibitors at some conferences. The venue of DAMAS2011, Oxford, is a world-renowned university town. Oxford is also located in the Cotswolds, an area of outstanding natural beauty. And July is arguably the best month of the year in UK. It is hoped that all delegates will enjoy the conference and continue to support DAMAS conferences in the future. Huajiang Ouyang On behalf of the Organising Committee: Professor Huajiang Ouyang, University of Liverpool, UK (Conference Chair) Professor Vadim Silberschmidt, University of Loughborough, UK Professor Fulei Chu, Tsinghua University, China Professor Wieslaw Ostachowicz, Polish Academy of Science, Poland Professor Cecilia Surace, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

  19. Poorer Intermittent Sprints Performance in Ramadan-Fasted Muslim Footballers despite Controlling for Pre-Exercise Dietary Intake, Sleep and Training Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz


    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1 and after (CON2 the Ramadan month, and with the Ramadan-fasted (RAM trials performed within the Ramadan month. After familiarization, 14 players completed a modified 60-min (4 × 15-min exercise blocks interspersed with 3-min intervals of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST of fixed speeds of walking, jogging, running, but with all-out effort sprints. During the interval periods, capillary blood glucose and blood lactate measures were taken, rectal and skin temperatures were recorded and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC of the dominant leg and hand-grip were performed to provide some indication to the cause(s of ‘fatigue’ during exercise. Players were provided with standardized 24-h pre-packed meals prior to all trials. Sleep hours were objectively assessed and perceived training loads were monitored and these were equivalent between RAM and CON trials. Sprint times throughout mLIST were significantly faster in both CON1 and CON2 as compared to RAM trials (all P < 0.017; d = small to moderate, and this poorer performance in RAM was observed as early as during the first 15-min of the mLIST. Blood markers, MVIC and thermoregulatory results were not substantially different between both CON and RAM trials. In conclusion, despite similarities in dietary intake, sleeping hours and training loads between conditions, results still indicate that Ramadan fasting had an adverse effect on prolonged intermittent performance. Nocebo effects plays a dominant role during exercise in the Ramadan-fasted state.

  20. Investigation of Relationship between Level of Awareness around Health, Safety and Environment Management System and Its Effects on Safety Climate and Risk Perception by Employees in an Iran Oil Refinery, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh


    Full Text Available Special attention of and oil, gas and petrochemical large corporation in the world to the HSE management system is due to its importance in the designing and development of products, services and processes by considering its health, safety and environment requirements. Staff's perception of the existing job risks has a significant impact on their safe behavior at work. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between safety climate and staff's perception of risk with an awareness level among employees of the HSE management system in an oil refinery in Kermanshah. The study population was employees in one of the oil refineries in Iran. After designing and questionnaire psychometric assessment of staff knowledge of HSE management system (Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 and its validity was assessed by certified professionals, Loughborough safety climate questionnaire and Flin risk perception questionnaire were used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS V22 software. Results showed that the relationship between safety climate and awareness level of the HSE management system; also the relationship between safety climate and perception of risk was also getting significant. However, the relationship between perception of risk and awareness level of the HSE management system was not significant. The results of this study showed a moderate awareness of HSE Management System in refinery workers. In this regard, appropriate and proper management policy should be committed to improving the situation. The results of this study is a profile the situation of safety climate in the refinery, which can be used as an indicator for the development of preventive policies and evaluate the performance of the organization's safety and the results of the safety improvement organization.

  1. Enhancement of absorption and resistance of motion utilizing a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to effectively monitor physiological signs during sport exercise (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain


    This study presents an effective engineering approach for human vital signs monitoring as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work is to study how to capture critical physiological parameters efficiently through a well-constructed electronic system and a robust multi-channel opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS), together with a wireless communication. A unique design comprising multi-wavelength illumination sources and a rapid response photo sensor with a 3-axis accelerometer enables to recover pulsatile features, compensate motion and increase signal-to-noise ratio. An approved protocol with designated tests was implemented at Loughborough University a UK leader in sport and exercise assessment. The results of sport physiological effects were extracted from the datasets of physical movements, i.e. sitting, standing, waking, running and cycling. t-test, Bland-Altman and correlation analysis were applied to evaluate the performance of the OEPS system against Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha.There was no difference in heart rate measured using OEPS and both Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha (both p<0.05). Strong correlations were observed between HR measured from the OEPS and both the Acti-graph and Mio-Alpha (r = 0.96, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis for the Acti-Graph and OEPS found the bias 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm for lower and upper limits of agreement respectively, for the Mio-Alpha and OEPS the bias is 1.63 bpm, standard deviation SD8.62 bpm, lower and upper limits of agreement, - 15.27 bpm and +18.58 bpm respectively. The OEPS demonstrates a real time, robust and remote monitoring of cardiovascular function.

  2. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running. (United States)

    Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Maddison, Ralph; Ali, Ajmol; Foskett, Andrew; Gant, Nicholas


    Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output) GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m) was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80%) and shuttle (-3.17±2.46%) trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99). Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m). Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  3. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Rawstorn

    Full Text Available Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80% and shuttle (-3.17±2.46% trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99. Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m. Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  4. The impact of injuries study. multicentre study assessing physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning post injury - a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick Denise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large numbers of people are killed or severely injured following injuries each year and these injuries place a large burden on health care resources. The majority of the severely injured are not fully recovered 12-18 months later. Psychological disorders are common post injury and are associated with poorer functional and occupational outcomes. Much of this evidence comes from countries other than the UK, with differing health care and compensation systems. Early interventions can be effective in treating psychological morbidity, hence the scale and nature of the problem and its impact of functioning in the UK must be known before services can be designed to identify and manage psychological morbidity post injury. Methods/Design A longitudinal multi-centre study of 680 injured patients admitted to hospital in four areas across the UK: Nottingham, Leicester/Loughborough, Bristol and Surrey. A stratified sample of injuries will ensure a range of common and less common injuries will be included. Participants will complete a baseline questionnaire about their injury and pre-injury quality of life, and follow-up questionnaires 1, 2, 4, and 12 months post injury. Measures will include health and social care utilisation, perceptions of recovery, physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. A nested qualitative study will explore the experiences of a sample of participants, their carers and service providers to inform service design. Discussion This study will quantify physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health and social care utilisation following a range of different types of injury and will assess the impact of psychological disorders on function and health service use. The findings will be used to guide the development of interventions to maximise recovery post injury.

  5. Surface stress and large-scale self-organization at organic-metal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollinger, Florian


    The role of elastic interactions, particularly for the self-organized formation of periodically faceted interfaces, was investigated in this thesis for archetype organic-metal interfaces. The cantilever bending technique was applied to study the change of surface stress upon formation of the interface between 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) and Ag(111). The main focus of this work was on the investigation of the formation of the long-range ordered, self-organized faceted PTCDA/Ag(10 8 7) interface. Reciprocal space maps of this interface were recorded both by spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) and low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) in selected area LEED mode. Complementary to the reciprocal data, also microscopic real-space LEEM data were used to characterize the morphology of this interface. Six different facet faces ((111), (532), (743), (954), (13 9 5), and (542)) were observed for the preparation path of molecular adsorption on the substrate kept at 550 K. Facet-sensitive dark-field LEEM localized these facets to grow in homogeneous areas of microscopic extensions. The temperature-dependence of the interface formation was studied in a range between 418 K and 612 K in order to learn more about the kinetics of the process. Additional steeper facets of 27 inclination with respect to the (111) surface were observed in the low temperature regime. Furthermore, using facet-sensitive dark-field LEEM, spatial and size distributions of specific facets were studied for the different temperatures. Moreover, the facet dimensions were statistically analyzed. The total island size of the facets follows an exponential distribution, indicating a random growth mode in absence of any mutual facet interactions. While the length distribution of the facets also follows an exponential distribution, the width distribution is peaked, reflecting the high degree of lateral order. This anisotropy is temperature-dependent and occurs

  6. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T


    Full Text Available Tania Stafinski1, Devidas Menon2, Caroline Davis1, Christopher McCabe31Health Technology and Policy Unit, 2Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process.Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers.Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations

  7. Epitaxial growth of cobalt oxide phases on Ru(0001) for spintronic device applications (United States)

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Ladewig, Chad; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Randle, Michael D.; Nathawat, Jubin; Kwan, Chun-Pui; Bird, Jonathan P.; Chakraborti, Priyanka; Dowben, Peter A.; Cheng, Tao; Goddard, W. A., III


    Cobalt oxide films are of technological interest as magnetic substrates that may support the direct growth of graphene, for use in various spintronic applications. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled growth of both Co3O4(111) and CoO(111) on Ru(0001) substrates. The growth is performed by Co molecular beam epitaxy, at a temperature of 500 K and in an O2 partial pressure of 10-4 Torr for Co3O4(111), and 7.5 × 10-7 Torr for CoO(111). The films are distinguished by their dissimilar Co 2p x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra, while XPS-derived O/Co stoichiometric ratios are 1.33 for Co3O4(111) and 1.1 for CoO(111). Electron energy loss (EELS) spectra for Co3O4(111) indicate interband transitions at ˜2.1 and 3.0 eV, while only a single interband transition near 2.0 eV is observed for CoO(111). Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) data for Co3O4(111) indicate twinning during growth, in contrast to the LEED data for CoO(111). For Co3O4(111) films of less than 20 Å average thickness, however, XPS, LEED and EELS data are similar to those of CoO(111). XPS data indicate that both Co oxide phases are hydroxylated at all thicknesses. The two phases are moreover found to be thermally stable to at least 900 K in UHV, while ex situ atomic force microscopy measurements of Co3O4(111)/Ru(0001) indicate an average surface roughness below 1 nm. Electrical measurements indicate that Co3O4(111)/Ru(0001) films exhibit dielectric breakdown at threshold voltages of ˜1 MV cm-1. Collectively, these data show that the growth procedures yield Co3O4(111) films with topographical and electrical characteristics that are suitable for a variety of advanced device applications.

  8. Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation 2 (PRESSURE 2): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Smith, Isabelle L; Brown, Julia M; Hulme, Claire; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Stubbs, Nikki; Nelson, E Andrea; Muir, Delia; Rutherford, Claudia; Walker, Kay; Henderson, Valerie; Wilson, Lyn; Gilberts, Rachael; Collier, Howard; Fernandez, Catherine; Hartley, Suzanne; Bhogal, Moninder; Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane E


    demonstrating either superiority, inferiority of mattresses or futility of the trial. The trial optimises the potential for producing robust clinical evidence on the effectiveness of two commonly used mattresses in clinical practice earlier than in a conventional design. ISRCTN01151335 . Registered on 14 May 2013. Protocol version: 5.0, dated 25 September 2015 Trial sponsor: Clare Skinner, Faculty Head of Research Support, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT; 0113 343 4897;

  9. Fieldwork Skills in Virtual Worlds (United States)

    Craven, Benjamin; Lloyd, Geoffrey; Gordon, Clare; Houghton, Jacqueline; Morgan, Daniel


    conventional field classes and really enhances their learning experience. This project is part of the larger Virtual Landscapes project, which is a collaboration between The University of Leeds and Leeds College of Art, UK. All our current virtual landscapes are freely available online at

  10. “My patients are better than yours”: optimistic bias about patients’ medication adherence by European health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyne W


    Full Text Available Wendy Clyne,1 Sarah McLachlan,2 Comfort Mshelia,3 Peter Jones,4 Sabina De Geest,5,6 Todd Ruppar,7 Kaat Siebens,6 Fabienne Dobbels,6 Przemyslaw Kardas8 1Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, 2Department of Physiotherapy, King’s College London, London, 3Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, 4Institute of Science and Technology in Medicines, Keele University, Keele, UK; 5Institute of Nursing Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Academic Center for Nursing and Midwifery, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 7Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 8Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the perceptions of European physicians, nurses, and pharmacists about the extent of nonadherence by patients in their country relative to their perception of nonadherence by their own patients, and to investigate the occurrence of optimistic bias about medication adherence. The study explored a key cognitive bias for prevalence and likelihood estimates in the context of health care professionals’ beliefs about patients’ use of medicines.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of 3,196 physicians (855, nurses (1,294, and pharmacists (1,047 in ten European countries (Austria, Belgium, England, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Switzerland was used.Results: Participants differed in their perceptions of the prevalence of medication adherence initiation, implementation, and persistence present in their own patients with a chronic illness in comparison to patients with a chronic illness in general. Health care professionals demonstrated optimistic bias for initiation and persistence with medicine taking, perceiving their own patients to be more likely to initiate and persist with treatment than other patients, but reported significantly lower prevalence

  11. Energy savings, emission reductions, and health co-benefits of the green building movement. (United States)

    P, MacNaughton; X, Cao; J, Buonocore; J, Cedeno-Laurent; J, Spengler; A, Bernstein; J, Allen


    Buildings consume nearly 40% of primary energy production globally. Certified green buildings substantially reduce energy consumption on a per square foot basis and they also focus on indoor environmental quality. However, the co-benefits to health through reductions in energy and concomitant reductions in air pollution have not been examined.We calculated year by year LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification rates in six countries (the United States, China, India, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey) and then used data from the Green Building Information Gateway (GBIG) to estimate energy savings in each country each year. Of the green building rating schemes, LEED accounts for 32% of green-certified floor space and publically reports energy efficiency data. We employed Harvard's Co-BE Calculator to determine pollutant emissions reductions by country accounting for transient energy mixes and baseline energy use intensities. Co-BE applies the social cost of carbon and the social cost of atmospheric release to translate these reductions into health benefits. Based on modeled energy use, LEED-certified buildings saved $7.5B in energy costs and averted 33MT of CO 2 , 51 kt of SO 2 , 38 kt of NO x , and 10 kt of PM 2.5 from entering the atmosphere, which amounts to $5.8B (lower limit = $2.3B, upper limit = $9.1B) in climate and health co-benefits from 2000 to 2016 in the six countries investigated. The U.S. health benefits derive from avoiding an estimated 172-405 premature deaths, 171 hospital admissions, 11,000 asthma exacerbations, 54,000 respiratory symptoms, 21,000 lost days of work, and 16,000 lost days of school. Because the climate and health benefits are nearly equivalent to the energy savings for green buildings in the United States, and up to 10 times higher in developing countries, they provide an important and previously unquantified societal value. Future analyses should consider these co-benefits when weighing policy

  12. Low-energy positron and electron diffraction and positron-stimulated secondary electron emission from Cu(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.H.


    The results of two series of experiments are reported. In the first, an electrostatically guided beam of low-energy (40-400 eV) positrons, delta/sub p/ was used to study low-energy positron diffraction (LEPD) from a Cu(100) surface under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) data were obtained from the same sample in the same apparatus. Comparison of LEPD and LEED intensity versus energy data with model calculations made using computer programs developed by C.B. Duke and collaborators indicated that: LEPD data is adequately modeled using potentials with no exchange-correlation term. The inelastic mean free path, lambda/sub ee/, is shorter for positrons than for electrons at low (< approx.80 eV). LEED is better than LEPD at making a determination of the first-layer spacing of Cu(100) for the particular data set reported. In the second set of experiments, the same apparatus and sample were used to compare positron- and electron-stimulated secondary-electron emission (PSSEE and ESSEE). The results were found to be consistent with existing models of secondary-electron production for metals. The energy distributions of secondary-electrons had broad low-energy (<10 eV) peaks for both positron and electron stimulation. But the PSEE distribution showed no elastic peak. Measurements of secondary-electron angular distributions, found to be cosine-like in both the PSSEE and ESSEE case, were used to obtain total secondary yield ratios, delta, at four beam energies ranging from 40-400 eV. The secondary yield ratio for primary positrons and the yield for primary electrons, delta/sub e/, were similar at these energies. For 400-eV primary particles the secondary yields were found to be delta/sub p/ = 0.94 +/- 0.12 and delta/sub e/ = 0.94 +/- 0./12, giving a ratio of unity for positron-stimulated secondary yield to electron-stimulated secondary yield

  13. The development, implementation and evaluation of a cross organisational clinical guideline for the management and prevention of wound infection. (United States)

    Stubbs, Nikki; Sandoe, Jonathan; Mc Ginnis, Elizabeth; Edmunds, Heather


    The Tissue Viability services in acute and primary care in Leeds had concerns about the increasing inappropriate use of topical antiseptic dressings for wound management and were aware that the use was disproportionate to the evidence supporting their prescribing. A scoping exercise of the use of topical antiseptics and systemic antibiotic usage in Leeds led to the identification of heterogeneous prescribing of systemic antibiotics and an almost £500,000 spend on topical antiseptics across Leeds community. The project involved the following stages. 1- Local scoping of topical antiseptics and systemic antibiotic prescribing. 2- A cross organisational working group to develop and implement a clinical best practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis and management of wound infection. 3- Development of a revised local dressings formulary. 4- The establishment of a new referral process to Tissue Viability for wounds requiring topical antiseptic treatments. 5- Evaluation of the new guideline through- monitoring prescribing- monitoring wound sampling- monitoring A & E admissions- collecting patient feedback through the ‘Tell Tissue Viability’ process. *Expenditure on topical antiseptic dressings for the period Oct 2009-Dec 2009 was £128,864 and this reduced to £65,604 for the period Nov 2011-Jan 2012. This demonstrates an overall saving of £63,260 with a projected annual saving of £237,584 within the community trust alone. *A reduction in the number of wound swabs sent to microbiology from inpatient locations by 1500/year comparing 2008/9 with 2010/11. *An increase in wound swabs sent from GPs by 100/year comparing 2008/9 with 2010/11. *A reduction in penicillin V and co-fluampicil prescriptions and an increase in flucloxacillin prescriptions in general practise suggesting greater concordance with local antibiotic prescribing recommendations. The implementation of a clinical guideline in association with support from the specialist team, for patients

  14. Structural and chemical characterization of terbia thin films grown on hexagonally close packed metal substrates (United States)

    Cartas, William

    Rare earth oxides (REOs) exhibit favorable catalytic performance for a diverse set of chemical transformations, including both partial and complete oxidation reactions. I will discuss our efforts to develop thin film systems of terbia for model surface science investigations of a REO that is effectively reducible, and which is thus expected to promote complete oxidation chemistry of adsorbed species. The growth of terbia on Cu(111) is shown to produce a complex surface that exhibits multiple phases of the oxide as well as exposed substrate. Growing the film on Pt(111) results in more uniform, single phase, and closed film. We used low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to characterize the structural properties of terbia thin films grown on Pt(111) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using physical vapor deposition. We find that the REO grows as a high quality Tb2O 3(111) film, and adopts oxygen-deficient fluorite structures wherein the metal cations form a hexagonal lattice in registry with the Pt(111) substrate, while oxygen vacancies are randomly distributed within the film. The Tb 2O3(111) films are thermally stable when heated to 1000 K in UHV. LEED and STM show that a fraction of the Tb2O3 forms hexagonal islands when first deposited, and further depositions typically result in three dimensional growth of the film. The Tb2O3 (111) / Pt(111) system produces a coincidence structure, seen very clearly in LEED images. We have also found that Tb2O3(111) films can be oxidized in UHV by exposure to plasma-generated atomic oxygen beams. The oxidized films have an estimated TbO2 stoichiometry and decompose to Tb2O3 during heating, with O2 desorption starting at about 500 K. Terbia films oxidized at 90 K show a weakly bound state of oxygen that is likely chemisorbed. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) studies using methanol show that increased oxygen in the film does not modify the chemical selectivity of the film; however

  15. National antimicrobial stewardship and fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao M


    Full Text Available Meng Xiao,1,* Jing-Wei Cheng,1,2,* Timothy Kudinha,3 Fanrong Kong,4 Ying-Chun Xu1,21Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 2Faculty of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China; 3School of Biomedical Sciences, The Charles Sturt University, Leeds Parade, Orange, 4Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR–Pathology West, Westmead Hospital, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workIn a recent report, Dingle et al showed that national intervention programs aimed at judicious antimicrobial usage, especially restrictions to fluoroquinolones, contributed to a significant decrease in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI in England.1 This is considered an outstanding achievement in combating antimicrobial resistance worldwide.

  16. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... or environmental thinking and this finds expression in new approaches to the design of building facades, roofs, atria. Another is that new software simulation tools have changed energy assumptions and hence building forms. In a fast evolving arena, the book shows how architects are reshaping their practices....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  17. Design strategies for integration of green roofs in sustainable housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Friedman


    Full Text Available Green roofs are the integration of plant material and its supporting structures in buildings. Such an approach provides a habitat for local flora and fauna, helps manage storm water, reduces heat demand in winter and the cooling load in the summer, enhances the aesthetic values of dwellings, provides the occupants with comfort and amenities and strengthens environmental responsibility. Because roofs represent approximately 40 percent to 50 percent of the surfaces in urban areas, green roofs have an important role in drainage and as a result water management as well. In fact, when a green roof is installed on 50 percent or more of the roof’s surface, it guarantees 2 points and can contribute 7 additional points toward LEED certification - almost 20 percent of the required rating. This paper classifies green roofs and offers strategies for their integration in residential buildings and examines their benefits, construction principles and applications.

  18. A set of X-ray test objects for quality control in television fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.; Clarke, O.F.; Coleman, N.J.; Cowen, A.R.


    The history of performance testing in Leeds of television fluoroscopic systems is briefly outlined. Using the visual, physical and technological requirements as a basis, a set of nine test objects for quality control in television fluoroscopy is described. The factors measured by the test objects are listed in the introduction; the test objects and their function are fully described in the remainder of the paper. The test objects, in conjunction with a television oscilloscope, give both subjective and objective information about the X-ray system. Three of the test objects enable the physicist or engineer to adjust certain aspects of the performance of the X-ray system. The set of nine test objects is available commercially. (author)

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a look at prosthetics - past, present and possible future (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Randy; MacDonald, Peter B.


    Biological tissue autograft reconstruction using the patellar tendon or quadrupled semitendinosus/gracilis tendons has become the most popular procedure in surgical treatment of a ruptured ACL. This article provides a review of the history of the use of prosthetics with respect to ACL reconstruction grafts including Carbon Fibre, Gore-Tex and Dacron prosthetics as well as the Leeds-Keio Artificial Ligament and the Kennedy Ligament Augmentation Device (LAD). Emphasis is placed on the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) as preliminary investigations of its use have been encouraging. Significant progress has been made recently with respect to the understanding of ACL anatomy, composition, biomechanics, and healing processes, leading to innovative techniques using approaches based in tissue engineering principles and computer – assisted surgery. While research into improved ACL treatment options continues, the synthesis of recent advancements provides a new optimism towards the regeneration of an ACL mirroring its original stability, function, and longevity. PMID:18523530

  20. The sensitivity of laser induced fluorescence instruments at low pressure to RO2 radicals and the use of this detection method to determine the yield of HO2 during OH-initiated isoprene oxidation (United States)

    Heard, D. E.; Whalley, L. K.; Blitz, M. A.; Seakins, P. W.


    Ambient measurements of HO2 have almost exclusively been made by chemical titration of HO2 to OH by NO and the subsequent detection of the OH radical using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) at low pressures (~ 1 Torr) (Heard and Pilling, 2003). Until recently it was assumed that higher peroxy radicals (RO2) could not act as an HO2 interference in LIF because although these species also react with NO to form an alkoxy radical (RO) at 1 Torr the subsequent reaction RO + O2 to give HO2 is too slow. Independent laboratory studies conducted at the University of Leeds, UK and at the Forschungzentrum, Julich, Germany (Fuchs et al., 2011), however, have revealed that alkene-derived RO2 radicals and longer chain alkane-derived RO2 (>C3) are able to rapidly convert to HO2 in the presence of NO in a LIF detection cell. The yield of HO2 from a range of different RO2 species has been determined in Leeds and in the most part these yields agree well with model predictions based on the Master Chemical Mechanism ( For ethene and isoprene derived RO2 species, the relative sensitivity was found to be close to 100% with respect to that for HO2. The sensitivity of different LIF instruments/LIF operating conditions to this interference has been found to be highly variable, however. Under the operating conditions employed during the 2008 OP3 campaign that took place in the Borneo rainforest, the University of Leeds ground-based LIF instrument was not sensitive to detection of these RO2 species. The high pumping capacity of the system coupled with poor mixing of NO into the ambient air-stream for the titration of HO2 to OH effectively minimised this potential interference. Using the ground-based LIF detection cell coupled to a flow-tube, experiments to determine the time-resolved yield of HO2 radicals during the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene have been conducted. OH was generated by photolysis of t-butyl-hydro-peroxide by 254 nm radiation from a Hg lamp in

  1. Comparative Policy Study for Green Buildings in U.S. and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina; Romankiewicz, John; Feng, Wei; Zhou, Nan; Ye, Qing


    Prominent barriers facing the U.S. green building industry include the fact that government bodies that supervise health, fire safety, land, and other public operations are slow to revise codes to accommodate green building (regulatory barrier). In China, the lack of a green building professional accreditation process similar to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) AP process limits the green building workforce capacity development (informational barrier). The main policies highlighted in this report to tackle these barriers are 1) comprehensive codes and labeling plan (informational, institutional), 2) government-led targets and demonstrations (risk), 3) education and awareness programs (informational), 4) fiscal policy that supports green building investment (financial), and 5) integrated design promotion (institutional, financial).

  2. 6th International Workshop on Computer-Aided Scheduling of Public Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, Isabel; Paixão, José


    This proceedings volume consists of papers presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Computer-Aided Scheduling of Public Transpon, which was held at the Fund~lio Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon from July 6th to 9th, 1993. In the tradition of alternating Workshops between North America and Europe - Chicago (1975), Leeds (1980), Montreal (1983), Hamburg (1987) and again Montreal (1990), the European city of Lisbon was selected as the venue for the Workshop in 1993. As in earlier Workshops, the central theme dealt with vehicle and duty scheduling problems and the employment of operations-research-based software systems for operational planning in public transport. However, as was initiated in Hamburg in 1987, the scope of this Workshop was broadened to include topics in related fields. This fundamental alteration was an inevitable consequence of the growing demand over the last decade for solutions to the complete planning process in public transport through integrated systems. Therefore, the program of thi...

  3. Multialkali photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique (United States)

    Dubovoi, I. A.; Chernikov, A. S.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.; Schelev, Mikhail Y.; Ushakov, Victor N.


    A new technique of bialkali photocathodes growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MI3E) has been developed. The photocathode film was deposited onto the substrate from molecular beams produced by simultaneously operating molecular sources of Sb, Na and K. Thus suggested procedure is noticeably differed from the classical one. Growth rate was about 1 A/sec and complete cycle of photocathode fabrication was 15-20 minutes. A special ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber for MBE of multialkali photocathodes has been designed. The chamber is a part of UHV system consisting of an analysis vessel supplied with Auger and ESCA electron spectrometer and low energy electron diffractometer (LEED), the MBE chamber itself and a chamber for cold sealing of photocathodes with device body through indium ring. The system gives a possibility to carry out investigations of multialkali photocathode physics and to produce commercial devices. Developed technique can be used for fabrication of vacuum devices including streak tubes.

  4. Surface buckling of black phosphorus: Determination, origin, and influence on electronic structure (United States)

    Dai, Zhongwei; Jin, Wencan; Yu, Jie-Xiang; Grady, Maxwell; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Kim, Young Duck; Hone, James; Dadap, Jerry I.; Zang, Jiadong; Osgood, Richard M.; Pohl, Karsten


    The surface structure of black phosphorus materials is determined using surface-sensitive dynamical microspot low energy electron diffraction (μ LEED ) analysis using a high spatial resolution low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) system. Samples of (i) crystalline cleaved black phosphorus (BP) at 300 K and (ii) exfoliated few-layer phosphorene (FLP) of about 10 nm thickness which were annealed at 573 K in vacuum were studied. In both samples, a significant surface buckling of 0.22 Å and 0.30 Å, respectively, is measured, which is one order of magnitude larger than previously reported. As direct evidence for large buckling, we observe a set of (for the flat surface forbidden) diffraction spots. Using first-principles calculations, we find that the presence of surface vacancies is responsible for the surface buckling in both BP and FLP, and is related to the intrinsic hole doping of phosphoresce materials previously reported.

  5. Zero Energy Is an A+ for Education: Discovery Elementary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Currently experiencing a population boom, Arlington County is facing massive growth in the next decade and is seeking to add half a million square feet in educational facilities. During competitive design procurement, one of the teams suggested a zero energy goal could be accomplished within the given budget. Proponents at the district level who had been championing energy efficiency were receptive because sustainability was a core value of the project from the start, but they were skeptical that it could be done within the budget aimed at LEED Silver. Not only did the project end up coming under budget, including the solar array, but the building is more efficient than the originally predicted. Now Discovery saves $100,000 per year in utility costs, enough to cover the salaries of two teachers.

  6. Lecture 10: The European Bioinformatics Institute - "Big data" for biomedical sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dana, Jose


    Part 1: Big data for biomedical sciences (Tom Hancocks) Ten years ago witnessed the completion of the first international 'Big Biology' project that sequenced the human genome. In the years since biological sciences, have seen a vast growth in data. In the coming years advances will come from integration of experimental approaches and the translation into applied technologies is the hospital, clinic and even at home. This talk will examine the development of infrastructure, physical and virtual, that will allow millions of life scientists across Europe better access to biological data Tom studied Human Genetics at the University of Leeds and McMaster University, before completing an MSc in Analytical Genomics at the University of Birmingham. He has worked for the UK National Health Service in diagnostic genetics and in training healthcare scientists and clinicians in bioinformatics. Tom joined the EBI in 2012 and is responsible for the scientific development and delivery of training for the BioMedBridges pr...

  7. EOC construction update (United States)


    Work on Stennis Space Center's new Emergency Operations Center is progressing on schedule, according to Robert Perkins, construction manager with Jacobs Technology. At the turn of the New Year, construction contractors had completed the pervious paving for the north and west parking lots. Part of the facility's `green' design, pervious paving allows water to pass through and be absorbed directly into the ground below, preventing erosion from runoff. Through January, workers concentrated on installing the roof, sprinkler piping and overhead cable trays for electrical and communication lines. The next step will be interior work, erecting wallboard and installing electrical equipment. Perkins said NASA seeks to earn a Silver LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Rating for the project's environmentally-friendly and sustainable design, construction and operation. The facility has a projected completion date of February 2009.

  8. Virtual simulation. First clinical results in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchali, A.; Dinges, S.; Koswig, S.; Rosenthal, P.; Salk, S.; Harder, C.; Schlenger, L.; Budach, V.


    Investigation of options of virtual simulation in patients with localized prostate cancer. Twenty-four patients suffering from prostate cancer were virtual simulated. The clinical target volume was contoured and the planning target volume was defined after CT scan. The isocenter of the planning target volume was determined and marked at patient's skin. The precision of patients marking was controlled with conventional simulation after physical radiation treatment planning. Mean differences of the patient's mark revealed between the 2 simulations in all room axes around 1 mm. The organs at risk were visualized in the digital reconstructed radiographs. The precise patient's mark of the isocentre by virtual simulation allows to skip the conventional simulation. The visualisation of organs at risk leeds to an unnecessarity of an application of contrast medium and to a further relieve of the patient. The personal requirement is not higher in virtual simulation than in conventional CT based radiation treatment planning. (orig./MG) [de

  9. The Si(100)-Sb 2x1 and Ge(100) 2x1 surfaces: A multi-technique study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.


    The electronic and geometric structures of the clean and Sb terminated Si(100)2x1 and Ge(100)-2x1 surfaces have been investigated using a multi-technique approach. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) spectroscopy and angle-integrated core-level photoemission electron spectroscopy (PES) were employed to measure the surface symmetry, defect structure, relevant bond lengths, atomic coordination and electronic structure. By employing a multi-technique approach, it is possible to correlate changes in the geometric structure to specific features of the core-level lineshape of the substrate. This allows for the assignment of components of the core-level lineshape to be assigned to specific surface and near-surface atoms

  10. Major Successes of Theory-and-Experiment-Combined Studies in Surface Chemistry and Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin


    Experimental discoveries followed by theoretical interpretations that pave the way of further advances by experimentalists is a developing pattern in modern surface chemistry and catalysis. The revolution of modern surface science started with the development of surface-sensitive techniques such as LEED, XPS, AES, ISS and SIMS, in which the close collaboration between experimentalists and theorists led to the quantitative determination of surface structure and composition. The experimental discovery of the chemical activity of surface defects and the trends in the reactivity of transitional metals followed by the explanations from the theoretical studies led to the molecular level understanding of active sites in catalysis. The molecular level knowledge, in turn, provided a guide for experiments to search for new generation of catalysts. These and many other examples of successes in experiment-and-theory-combined studies demonstrate the importance of the collaboration between experimentalists and theorists in the development of modern surface science.

  11. Liberation in OpenLIVES Critical Pedagogy: “empowerability” and critical action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martínez-Arboleda


    Full Text Available his article will examine the educational experience of OpenLIVES at the University of Leeds by looking at its learning methods and contents, its ideological influences and coincidences and its transformational potential for students, Higher Education and society. Particular attention will be paid to the publication of student coursework online, in the form of Open Educational Resources (OER, as a key component of student praxis, as well as to the students’ freedom to explore different genres of audio research-based production in order to engage with audiences online. It will be argued that these two features of the OpenLIVES pedagogy enable us to fulfil some of the ideals of liberation defended by Critical Pedagogy and update and translate, in a 21st Century Higher Education context, the Gramscian ideal of “critical thinking”.

  12. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - assessing the fluoroscopic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakov, S.


    The X-ray fluoroscopic image has a considerably lower resolution than the radiographic one. This requires a careful quality control aiming at optimal use of the fluoroscopic equipment. The basic procedures for image quality assessment of Image Intensifier/TV image are described. Test objects from Leeds University (UK) are used as prototypes. The results from examining 50 various fluoroscopic devices are shown. Their limiting spatial resolution varies between 0.8 lp/mm (at maximum II field size) and 2.24 lp/mm (at minimum field size). The mean value of the limiting spatial resolution for a 23 cm Image Intensifier is about 1.24 lp/mm. The mean limits of variation of the contrast/detail diagram for various fluoroscopic equipment are graphically expressed. 14 refs., 1 fig. (author)

  13. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  14. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic, Anisotropic, Germanium Rich FeGe(001 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian M. Teodorescu


    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic FexGe1−x with x = 2%–9% are obtained by Fe deposition onto Ge(001 at high temperatures (500 °C. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED investigation evidenced the preservation of the (1 × 1 surface structure of Ge(001 with Fe deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS at Ge 3d and Fe 2p core levels evidenced strong Fe diffusion into the Ge substrate and formation of Ge-rich compounds, from FeGe3 to approximately FeGe2, depending on the amount of Fe deposited. Room temperature magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE evidenced ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature, with about 0.1 Bohr magnetons per Fe atom, and also a clear uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the in-plane  easy magnetization axis. This compound is a good candidate for promising applications in the field of semiconductor spintronics.

  15. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.


    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  16. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.


    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH 3 synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures

  17. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.


    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH/sub 3/ synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures. (DLC)

  18. Tracking Users for a Targeted Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bautier


    Full Text Available How to build a dissemination and communication strategy in a world where users have easy access to a deluge of data and information from various origins and where IT tools and design standards change so quickly that users behaviour and their expectations are continuously modified? The first challenge of Eurostat is clearly to know what users want: we know our different types of users but we have to identify how they get our data, what they do with our data, how they react to our outputs and which sort of new service they would like us to propose. Translating these needs into a visual dissemination is a new challenge undertaken by Eurostat through a new portal, new mobile apps and new info graphs and basic application as well as increasing the visibility on Google. The objective of this paper is to share Eurostat's experience in identifying user Leeds and to show how concretely this information has been visually disseminated.

  19. Efficient numerical method for computation of thermohydrodynamics of laminar lubricating films (United States)

    Elrod, Harold G.


    The purpose of this paper is to describe an accurate, yet economical, method for computing temperature effects in laminar lubricating films in two dimensions. The procedure presented here is a sequel to one presented in Leeds in 1986 that was carried out for the one-dimensional case. Because of the marked dependence of lubricant viscosity on temperature, the effect of viscosity variation both across and along a lubricating film can dwarf other deviations from ideal constant-property lubrication. In practice, a thermohydrodynamics program will involve simultaneous solution of the film lubrication problem, together with heat conduction in a solid, complex structure. The extent of computation required makes economy in numerical processing of utmost importance. In pursuit of such economy, we here use techniques similar to those for Gaussian quadrature. We show that, for many purposes, the use of just two properly positioned temperatures (Lobatto points) characterizes well the transverse temperature distribution.

  20. Adsorption of phthalocyanines on noble metal surfaces; Adsorption von Phthalocyaninen auf Edelmetalloberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Ingo


    In this thesis the adsorbate systems CuPc/Ag(111), CuPc/Au(111), CuPc/Cu(111), H2Pc and TiOPc/Ag(111) were investigated and characterized in great detail using complementary methods. The focus of the experiments was the determination of lateral geometric structures with spot-profile-analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), as well as the measurement of adsorption heights using the method of normal incidence X-ray standing waves (NIXSW). High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to characterize the vibronic properties of the molecule and the interface dynamical charge transfer (IDCT). The electronic structure and the charge transfer into the molecule were investigated with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The most important results of this work are related with the interplay between adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate interaction of Phthalocyanines in the submonolayer regime. (orig.)

  1. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J


    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  2. Reducing the risk, managing safety. (United States)

    Aldridge, Peter


    Fire safety in healthcare premises has always been a challenge to those that discharge this duty. Statutory compliance should be a matter of course, but in an ever increasingly challenged NHS, even this is not a given. While the NHS is driven by managing very complex risk to deliver cutting edge healthcare, providers cannot be risk averse. Which risk, however, takes priority? Here Peter Aldridge, fire and corporate services manager at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, and Secretary to the National Association of Healthcare Fire Officers (NAHFO)--which will this month and next jointly stage fire safety seminars with IHEEM; see page 8--considers the key issues, with input from a fire officer at a leading mental health and community Trust.

  3. Effects of Aglumin on the rectal bleeding following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Michitaka; Tanaka, Motoshi; Yoshimura, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Shigeru


    Aglumin was administered to 20 cases which had rectal bleeding following radiotherapy. The results were as follows. Rectal bleeding decreased in 16 of 20 cases (80%): remarkably effective, 15%; effective, 25%; slightly effective, 40%. Bleeding time decreased in 11 cases (55%). Rumpel-Leede test gave remarkable improvement in 10 of 14 cases which had been abnormal (71.4%). Platelet increased in 18 of 20 cases (90%). Liver function test and peripheral blood findings showed no remarkable changes. No side effects such as intestinal disturbance etc were noted. In the series of symptomatic treatment for rectal disturbance resulting from radiotherapy, this drug had considerable effect of hemostasis. It was concluded that this drug is useful in combined use with other antiphlogistics, analgesic, and hematinic etc. (Ueda, J.)

  4. Coverage dependence of FE flicker noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Ch.


    Field emission flicker noise spectral density functions W(f) have been determined for potassium on W(112) and W(111) single planes. The coverage dependence of the spectral densities W(fsub(j)) shows pronounced maxima and minima, whereas the slopes epsilon obtained from double logarithmic plots of W(f) approximately fsup(-epsilon) vary considerably. Minima and maxima of W(fsub(j)) are assumed to be due to coherent and disordered adlayers, respectively, and the behaviour of the exponents epsilon supports further the proposed observation of order-disorder transitions of the potassium adsorbate. LEED results for W(112)K and W(111)K are in fair agreement with the corresponding coverages from noise measurements. (Auth.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Sossoe


    Full Text Available The influence of the annealing temperature to desorb a protective Te capping layer of the zinc telluride (ZnTe (100 surface was investigated. The surface reconstruction of the ZnTe (100 upon the removal of a Te capping layer grown by the molecular beam epitaxy was characterized by different methods. Auger spectroscopy brought out the chemical composition of the surface before and after annealing; the Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED gave information about the crystallographic structure. The surface crystallographic configurations of tellurium Te (c (2x2 and Te (c (2x1 are confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. Such a study reveals a phase transition from a rich-Te to a poor-Te surface as the annealing temperature increases. 

  6. A preliminary investigation of the imaging performance of photostimulable phosphor computed radiography using a new design of mammographic quality control test object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Brettle, D.S.; Coleman, N.J.; Parkin, G.J.S.


    Leeds Test Object TOR[MAM] has been designed to supplement the current FAXIL mammography test object TOR[MAX]. It contains a range of details that have a more natural radiographic appearance and has been designed as a test that more closely approximates the image quality achieved in clinical mammography. Physical aspects of the design and implementation of TOR[MAM] are presented. The TOR[MAM] has been used in a preliminary physical evaluation of the comparative image qualities produced by conventional (screen-film) and phostostimulable phosphor computed mammography and the results are discussed. TOR[MAX] results are also presented. The influence of digital image processing (enhancement) on the image quality of computed mammograms is also considered. The results presented indicate the sensitivity of TOR[MAM]. (author)

  7. A schedule of radiotherapy, including the use of the Cathetron for advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, A.J.; Stubbs, B.; Dixon, B.; Firth, L.A.


    Since 1971, 78 patients with stage IIb and III carcinoma of the cervix have been treated in Leeds with the high-activity Cathetron afterloading device combined with external irradiation directed at the whole of the defined tumour volume. In four or more years of follow-up, no difference in the tumour response was found whether the external irradiation was given in an environment of air or hyperbaric oxygen. Although the results for all patients were satisfactory from the point of view of local control and survival, it was felt that an attempt should be made to devise a scheme which would reduce the level of morbidity, particularly in the bowel. Thus a modified treatment schedule has been adopted in the last two years in which the external irradiation component of the treatment is given by conventional fractionation and the volume treated is determined by lymphangiograms. (U.K.)

  8. Visiting rights only: the diplomas in nursing in the UK in the interwar period. (United States)

    Brooks, Jane


    The aim of this article is to explore the institution and organisation of the diplomas in nursing at the universities of Leeds and London, which were established in 1921 and 1926, respectively. It will be argued that the success of these courses for the individuals who undertook them, and the profession as a whole was ultimately limited. It is accepted that the purpose of the diplomas was at least in part for the nursing elite to maintain their grip on the leadership. Nevertheless, the institution of the courses, when few women in general attended university, identifies a 'radicalness' within the profession, which has rarely been considered. Moreover, that there was a body of nurses capable of university level education challenges previous assumptions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa BĂTRÂNCEA


    Full Text Available Created mostly for tax purposes and boasting other financial services like asset protection or financial investments, tax havens have been often associated across time with tax incentives and tax noncompliance (either avoidance or evasion. On the grounds of double tax treatise, banking secrecy and lack of collaboration with international tax authorities, tax havens have succeeded to concentrate over 50% of the world’s financial industry and to manage 32 billion dollars, fuelling unfair competition on global market. Lately, due to pressure exerted by international bodies like the OECD, Joint International Tax Shelter Information Center, Seven Country Working Group on Tax Havens, The Leeds Castle Group or the United Nations, many countries have renounced banking secrecy and started to share client details with tax authorities. Amid rapid changes, a new generation of tax havens emerges in the Southern hemisphere.

  10. Research Support Facility (RSF): Leadership in Building Performance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This brochure/poster provides information on the features of the Research Support Facility including a detailed illustration of the facility with call outs of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Imagine an office building so energy efficient that its occupants consume only the amount of energy generated by renewable power on the building site. The building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) occupied by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employees, uses 50% less energy than if it were built to current commercial code and achieves the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED{reg_sign}) Platinum rating. With 19% of the primary energy in the U.S. consumed by commercial buildings, the RSF is changing the way commercial office buildings are designed and built.

  11. The Accelerator Facility at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) (United States)

    Thevuthasan, S.; Peden, C. H. F.; Engelhard, M. H.; Baer, D. R.; Herman, G. S.; Liang, Y.


    The EMSL, a new Department of Energy (DOE) user facility located at PNNL, will have several state-of-the-art systems, including an accelerator facility that can be used by scientists from around the world. The accelerator facility at EMSL consists of a model 9SDH-2 Pelletron 3.4 MV electrostatic tandem ion accelerator with three beam lines. These beam lines are dedicated to UHV ion scattering capabilities, implantation capabilities, and HV ion scattering capabilities, respectively. The end station attached to the UHV beam line has several electron spectroscopies such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in addition to the ion scattering capabilities. This end station will be interfaced with the EMSL transfer capability that allows a sample to be synthesized, processed, and characterized in several surface science UHV systems. We will discuss the accelerator facility and the capabilities along with some initial results. (Work supported by the DOE/ER/OHER)

  12. Resonant magnetic X-ray reflectivity on Co/Cu/Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Valeriano Ferreras; Brueck, Sebastian; Goering, Eberhard; Schuetz, Gisela [Max Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    The interaction between ferromagnetic layers across a nonmagnetic or isolating spacer layer has reached great technological importance during the last years, i.e. GMR sensors. A Co/Cu/Co has been grown epitaxially on a Cu(100) single crystal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The quality of the film is controlled by LEED and TEM. On this system resonant magnetic X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed at BESSY II, which allows the determination of the magnetic depth profile in an element selective way. This has been done on the Co and Cu L{sub 3} edge in order to learn more about the origin of the oscillatory exchange coupling in such systems.

  13. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB2 (United States)

    Gill, Tobias G.; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; Prüser, Henning; Friedlein, Rainer; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Yamada-Takamura, Yukiko


    Using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal that is formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. The 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting to the silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.

  14. Opportunities for systematic change in the academic research library: elements of the post-digital library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Neal


    Full Text Available This paper, based on a talk delivered at the University of Leeds on 19 April 2011, seeks to outline a series of important trends that are influencing the roles and responsibilities of the academic research library, and a program of radical collaboration that would enable deeper integration of resources and a more systemic approach to the critical collection and service challenges. The academic research library must sustain its core responsibilities, albeit in an increasingly digitized, networked and mobile condition, enrich fundamental relationships with its user communities, and assume powerful new roles in support of learning and scholarship. New measures of quality, impact, productivity, innovation and leadership must be advanced. The paper suggests that the evolution of the academic library will focus more on an evolving period of polygamy, parabiosis and particularism, as we think beyond the transition to electronic and more about a post-digital context.

  15. Structural study, by surface differential diffraction of neutrons, of the surface of a nickel powder covered with deuterium (United States)

    Beaufils, J. P.


    The analysis of the data of a neutron surface differential diffraction experiment, using H positions determined in the literature whenever available, supports the following model: Grains of the studied nickel powder are limited by (20 ± 10)% of (111) faces and 80% of (110) faces. The (110) faces expose (111) and (1¯11) facets because of anisotropic roughening. A new interpretation of the streaks observed in LEED patterns and a discussion of the coverage provides additional arguments in favour of the roughening. On the facets of the rough faces, the D atoms are displaced from the position they would have on a genuine (111) face. They are no longer on a C3 axis. The Ni atoms of the rough faces suffer an average displacement of 0.015 ± 0.015 nm in the [110] outward direction. The shortest NiD distance on the rough face is equal to 0.19 ± 0.015 nm.

  16. Multi-element analysis of the obese subject by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek, R.A.; Burkinshaw, L.; Oxby, C.B.; Robinson, P.A.J.


    The Leeds facility for in vivo neutron activation analysis has been modified and calibrated for the simultaneous measurement of nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus and calcium in obese patients weighing up to 210 kg. The effects of body size and shape were incorporated into the calibration by measuring 14 anthropomorphic phantoms of known composition representing individual patients being treated for obesity. The phantoms were constructed from tissue substitutes representing lean skeletal and adipose tissues, arranged to simulate the distributions of the corresponding tissues within the patients, as visualised by CT scanning. The precision of the method, determined by measuring a single phantom ten times over a period of ten weeks, is between two and three per cent for all elements except calcium, for which it is 11.3%. Accuracy is estimated to be similar to precision. The procedure has been used to study changes in body composition of patients undergoing therapeutic starvation. (author)

  17. Afghan Women and the Taliban: An Exploratory Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seran de Leede


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in visible and sometimes even prominent roles for women in terrorist organisations. Both academics and organisations involved in counter-terrorism have paid increasing attention to he role of women not only as supporters of, but also as opponents to political violence. This Policy Brief examines the position of women in Afghanistan vis-à-vis the Taliban. Research Fellow Seran de Leede explores if Afghan women have been involved in the armed struggle of the Taliban as either active or passive supporters. She also considers the resilience women have shown towards political violence in Afghanistan and the possible role women can play in countering violent extremism in the country. Ultimately, this Policy Brief aims to contribute to a better understanding of the role of women in (countering political violence in Afghanistan.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECULESCU Silviu Alexandru


    Full Text Available The paper follows to offer the most efficient solutions for the attainment by Romania of the economic development level associated to the Western European countries. It proposes the division of the flexibility of labour market in three components, namely: internal flexibility, external flexibility and wage flexibility. The analysis performed within the present study will emphasize the wage flexibility. Wage flexibility can be classified in four components: a plans of individual and group incentives; b plans of assigning wages out of productivity; c plans of distribution of profits and, respectively, d plans of suggestions. The labour market flexibility, in general, and especially the wage flexibility contributes to the increase of employee motivation at the workplace, aspect which leeds to the growth of labour productivity, through this one being put the bases of the medium- and long-term economic development.

  19. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne. (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit


    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Modification of the adsorptive properties of Ru(1010) by Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhov, M.; Kiskinova, M.


    The absorption of CO at 300 K on Ru(1010) modified with different amounts of Cu has been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), thermal desorption, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), low energy electron loss diffraction (LEED) and work function (WF) measurements. It was found that the effect of the adsorbed Cu on the CO adsorption kinetics and energetics depends strongly on the actual Cu site occupation and Cu coverage θ Cu . The presence of Cu in the submonolayer region does not not cause changes in the CO initial sticking coefficient, S o , and initial dipole moment, μ o , but reduces the CO saturation coverage. At θ Cu larger than a monolayer, both S o and μ o are reduced, accompanied with a complete removal of the CO adsorption states at 300 K. The observed behaviour of the precursor state model for the adsorption and ensemble and ligand effects on modified surfaces. (author)