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Sample records for leech theromyzon tessulatum

  1. A Glutamine-Rich Factor Affects Stem Cell Genesis in Leech

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    Kristi A. Hohenstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leech embryogenesis is a model for investigating cellular and molecular processes of development. Due to the unusually large size of embryonic stem cells (teloblasts: 50–300 μm in the glossiphoniid leech, Theromyzon tessulatum, and the presence of identifiable stem cell precursors (proteloblasts, we previously isolated a group of genes upregulated upon stem cell birth. In the current study, we show that one of these genes, designated Theromyzon proliferation (Tpr, is required for normal stem cell genesis; specifically, transient Tpr knockdown experiments conducted with antisense oligonucleotides and monitored by semiquantitative RT-PCR, caused abnormal proteloblast proliferation leading to embryonic death, but did not overtly affect neuroectodermal or mesodermal stem cell development once these cells were born. Tpr encodes a large glutamine-rich (∼34% domain that shares compositional similarity with strong transcriptional enhancers many of which have been linked with trinucleotide repeat disorders (e.g., Huntington's.

  2. When Leeches reveal Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnell, Ida Bærholm

    to provide information about vertebrate biodiversity. This thesis covers the development of a monitoring method based on iDNA extracted from terrestrial haematophagous leeches, a continuation of the work presented in Schnell et al., 2012. The chapters investigate and/or discuss different subjects regarding...

  3. When Leeches reveal Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnell, Ida Bærholm

    to provide information about vertebrate biodiversity. This thesis covers the development of a monitoring method based on iDNA extracted from terrestrial haematophagous leeches, a continuation of the work presented in Schnell et al., 2012. The chapters investigate and/or discuss different subjects regarding...

  4. Control of aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) us- ing Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should not be used in water bodies that contain fish because it is toxic to fish at the dose required to control leeches. Keywords: Aquatic Leech/Lymnatis nilotica; Cattle; Phytolacca dodecandra/ ... Leeches feed on blood of various animals to.

  5. Findings of Bone Scintigraphy After Leech Theraphy

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    Sinem Özyurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present a 70 year old female patient who had recieved Leech therapy (hirudotherapy on her leg without informing referring physician. In dynamic bone scintigraphy there was increased perfusion and hyperemia in her left ankle and leg, also in late static images moderate increased uptake was seen in soft tissue region and at the fracture site of ankle. We learned that she had Leech therapy applied on her leg, which could explain the increased perfusion and hyperemia in dynamic and blood pool phases of bone scintigraphy because of Leech therapy’s dilatory effects on superficial veins. Leech therapy may lead to an increase in perfusion and hyperemia in blood pool phase of bone scintigraphy, which may cause confusion in differential diagnosis. To our best knowledge this report is the first case that shows the scintigraphic findigs after Leech therapy.

  6. The dynamics of group formation among leeches

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    Giacomo eBisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2-3 hours, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control.

  7. Repellents Against Land Leeches for Military Use

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    T. Koshy

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available A short account of the habits and nature of depredations of the leeches in the Himalayan region is given. The requirements for a leech repellent, to be of use in a hot humid and rainy area are stressed. A brief survey of the repellents and the need for their suitable screening for use in this area is made. Mention is made of some newer insect and mite repellents, which are likely to prove leech repellents as well.It is suggested that emphasis should be made on the choice of a impregnated repellent for military use in the area rather than on a 'skin repellent.

  8. From bloodletting to bioconcentration: Science resurrects the leech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorvalski, M.

    1990-07-01

    Leeches are being used by environmental chemists at the Westwater Research Center at the University of British Columbia to measure the contamination levels of local rivers. As the chemical Agent Orange is broken down, chlorinated phenols are released and absorbed by the leeches. The levels of the chlorophenols are too small to be detected by conventional methods, so the leeches are used as monitoring organisms. The leeches are being tested to see if they could be used to monitor other pollutants as well.

  9. An overview of leech and its therapeutic applications

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    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hirudotherapy has a broad spectrum of therapeutic application in the medical field ranging from cardiology, gynaecology, ophthalmology, plastic and reconstructive surgeries. In medieval and early modern medicine, leeches were used to remove blood from patients in an attempt to balance the biological humours. Leeches are widely used to treat venous congestion in microvascular replantation, free and conventional flap surgery and traumatology. Recently, Food and Drug Administration has approved the usage of live leeches as medical device for therapeutic applications. Presently, some of the leech species have declined dramatically in its population due to the over utilization of leech for medicinal purposes and also due to pollution in several parts of the world particularly in European and Asian countries. This review presents an overview of leech including the history, biology, classification, and its application as medical device. Further, it also covers the controversies and misconception related to leech species identification and complications of post hirudotherapy.

  10. An overview of leech and its therapeutic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimannan Sivachandran; Rajandas Heera; Pattabhiraman Lalitha; Manickam Ravichandran; Shalini Sivadasan; Kasi Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Hirudotherapy has a broad spectrum of therapeutic application in the medical field ranging from cardiology, gynaecology, ophthalmology, plastic and reconstructive surgeries. In medieval and early modern medicine, leeches were used to remove blood from patients in an attempt to balance the biological humours. Leeches are widely used to treat venous congestion in microvascular replantation, free and conventional flap surgery and traumatology. Recently, Food and Drug Administration has approved the usage of live leeches as medical device for therapeutic applications. Presently, some of the leech species have declined dramatically in its population due to the over utilization of leech for medicinal purposes and also due to pollution in several parts of the world particularly in European and Asian countries. This review presents an overview of leech including the history, biology, classification, and its application as medical device. Further, it also covers the controversies and misconception related to leech species identification and complications of post hirudotherapy.

  11. The literature review of Leech therapy

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    Jang Hyo-kil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To review the trend of the study related to Leech therapy and to establish the hereafter direction for the study on Leech therapy. Methods : I reviewed and analyzed all the theses published in Domestic and Foreign research institution from 1990 to 2009. Results : The following results were obtained in this study. 1. Analyzed number of theses published, there was no significance per year. 2. Classified by theme of journal, journals related to surgery were most(41 journals, 75.92% among 54 kinds. 3. Classified by theses by research method and thesis types, case report accounted for nearly twothirds (52 pieces, 68.42% of all theses and consideration of document was next(9 pieces, 11.84%. 4. With the most case of venous congestion after plastic and reconstructive surgery(33 pieces, 63.46%, leech therapy was effective on illnesses such as haematoma, macroglossia, purpura, varicous vein, avulsion injury, neurovascular compression, diabetic neuropathy, penoscrotal oedema, buerger's disease, rheumatoid arthritis. 5. Two most appeared adverse effects were anemia and infection. Immediate blood transfusion was done for recovering anemia and prophylactic 3rd generation antibiotics to infection were emphasized in more than half of case reports. 6. All of consideration of documents was retrospective study of cases related leech therapy and 3 pieces of them emphasized prophyratic antibiotic treatment for preventing infection. 7. The study of clinical trail type started first in 2002 and osteoarthritis of knee and carpometacarpal joint were main target. As see above result, Leech therapy was effective cure and could be used in disease induced by venous congestion. And I think that it is necessary to perform additional study related to solution of problems about leech therapy and protocol for using in clinical practice.

  12. Building exploration with leeches Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch

    2015-08-01

    Safe evacuation of people from building and outdoor environments, and search and rescue operations, always will remain actual in course of all socio-technological developments. Modern facilities offer a range of automated systems to guide residents towards emergency exists. The systems are assumed to be infallible. But what if they fail? How occupants not familiar with a building layout will be looking for exits in case of very limited visibility where tactile sensing is the only way to assess the environment? Analogous models of human behaviour, and socio-dynamics in general, are provided to be fruitful ways to explore alternative, or would-be scenarios. Crowd, or a single person, dynamics could be imitated using particle systems, reaction-diffusion chemical medium, electro-magnetic fields, or social insects. Each type of analogous model offer unique insights on behavioural patterns of natural systems in constrained geometries. In this particular paper we have chosen leeches to analyse patterns of exploration. Reasons are two-fold. First, when deprived from other stimuli leeches change their behavioural modes in an automated regime in response to mechanical stimulation. Therefore leeches can give us invaluable information on how human beings might behave under stress and limited visibility. Second, leeches are ideal blueprints of future soft-bodied rescue robots. Leeches have modular nervous circuitry with a rich behavioral spectrum. Leeches are multi-functional, fault-tolerant with autonomous inter-segment coordination and adaptive decision-making. We aim to answer the question: how efficiently a real building can be explored and whether there any dependencies on the pathways of exploration and geometrical complexity of the building. In our case studies we use templates made on the floor plan of real building.

  13. U-Duality and the Leech Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Rios, Michael

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the full automorphism group of the Leech lattice, Conway's group Co_0, can be generated by 3 x 3 matrices over the octonions. We show such matrices are of type F_4 in E_{6(-26)}, the U-duality group for N=2, D=5 exceptional magic supergravity. By mapping points of the Leech lattice to black hole charge vectors, it is seen Conway's group Co_0 is generated by U-duality transformations acting as rotations in the charge space for BPS black holes.

  14. Leeches as a source of mammalian viral DNA and RNA - a study in medicinal leeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Jensen, Randi Holm

    2017-01-01

    leeches suggest that host viruses may also be detectable. To systematically test this hypothesis, we performed a proof of concept study using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to detect DNA viruses (bovine herpesvirus [BHV], human adenovirus [HAdV]) and RNA viruses (influenza A [InfA] and measles morbillivirus [Me......V]) from nucleic acids extracted from medicinal leeches fed with blood spiked with each virus. All viruses except BHV showed a gradual decline in concentration from day 1 to 50, and all except BHV were detectable in at least half of the samples even after 50 days. BHV exhibited a rapid decline at day 27...... and was undetectable at day 50. Our findings in medicinal leeches indicate that leeches collected in the wild might be an untapped resource for detecting vertebrate viruses and could provide new opportunities to study wildlife viral diseases of rare species in challenging environments, where capturing and handling...

  15. Medical leech therapy in plastic reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houschyar, Khosrow S; Momeni, Arash; Maan, Zeshaan N; Pyles, Malcolm N; Jew, Olivia S; Strathe, Marion; Michalsen, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of Hirudo medicinalis in clinical practice has increased in recent years. The primary indication in plastic surgery has traditionally been venous congestion. However, other reported clinical applications were in varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, and osteoarthritis. In this review, we summarize recent data elucidating the role that medicinal leeches play in the field of plastic surgery.

  16. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae

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    Natasha Kruger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association.

  17. External decontamination of wild leeches with hypochloric acid

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    Tuncer Serdar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, to relieve venous congestion and to improve the microrevascularization of flaps. In many countries, wild leeches are still provided from local markets and utilised with antibiotic prophylaxies. In this research, results of identification of bacteria in the transport fluid is reported, oral and intestinal floras and the antibiograms of the identified microorganisms are investigated. Also, to avoid possible infections, the ability of hypochloric acid, a disinfectant, to suppress the relevant microorganisms without changing the life style and behavior of leeches in terms of sucking function, is investigated. Methods Bacterial identifications and antibiograms of oral and intestinal flora and transport medium were performed for 10 leeches. The optimum concentration of hypochloric acid which eliminated microorganisms without affecting the viability and sucking function of the leeches were determined by dilution of hypochloric acid to 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 ppm concentrations in different groups of 25 leeches. Finally, 20 leeches were applied atraumatically to the bleeding areas of rats, the duration of suction was determined and compared statistically between the leeches treated and not treated with hypochloric acid solution. Results Aeromonas hydrophilia was the most commonly identified microorganism and found to be resistant to first generation cephalosporins, frequently used in prophylaxis at surgical wards. In the next stages of the study, the leeches were subjected to a series of diluted hypochloric acid solutions. Although disinfection of the transport material and suppression of the oral flora of hirudo medicinalis were successful in 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 ppm concentrations; 12.5 ppm solution was the greatest concentration in which hirudo medicinalis could survive and sucking function was not affected significantly. Conclusions

  18. Postmenopausal Vaginal Bleeding after Infesting with Leeches

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    Roghaieh Rahmani-Bilandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and therapeutic measures are immediately taken for abnormal postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, because its causes range from atrophic endometrium to malignancy. In this paper, abnormal bleeding is reported due to leech infection. The patient is a 69-year-old woman who has reached menopause for 12 years and has visited a physician because of vaginal bleeding. The patient had no history of abnormal bleeding or medication. The patient first refused to get hospitalized and continue medical care, but she finally accepted to take diagnostic and therapeutic procedures after a few times of visit and increased bleeding. During general anesthesia and upon opening vagina, a large hemorrhagic and moving mass was observed at the upper posterior vaginal wall which was removed with surgical forceps. Surprisingly, this mass was a leech. Bleeding at the leech’s junction was stopped after half an hour using sterile gas and the patient was discharged on the next day.

  19. Hunting leeches in the dense forests of Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Identifying DNA from prey blood stored inside leeches reveals which animals the leeches have preyed on. This can be used to monitor wildlife. To find out whether this new wildlife screening method might be able to aid conservation efforts in Madagascar, the Centre for GeoGenetics has undertaken...

  20. Modular Leech Trees of Order at Most 8

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    David Leach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975, John Leech asked when can the edges of a tree on n vertices be labeled with positive integers such that the sums along the paths are exactly the integers 1, 2, …, n2. He found five such trees, and no additional trees have been discovered since. In 2011 Leach and Walsh introduced the idea of labeling trees with elements of the group Zk where k=n2+1 and examined the cases for n≤6. In this paper we show that no modular Leech trees of order 7 exist, and we find all modular Leech trees of order 8.

  1. LEECH: A 100 Night Exoplanet Imaging Survey at the LBT

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew; Bailey, Vanessa; Biller, Beth; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin; Defrere, Denis; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Esposito, Simone; Fortney, Jonathan; Henning, Thomas; Hinz, Phil; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Leisenring, Jarron; Males, Jared; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Pascucci, Ilaria; Patience, Jenny; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Skrutskie, Mike; Su, Kate; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E; Zimmerman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH nearly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. In this proceedings, we present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.

  2. Prolonged bleeding on the neck in leech therapy: Case report

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    Atakan Savrun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Superficial skin bleeding can usually be stopped by applying short-time compression, unless the patient suffers from coagulation disorders or uses anticoagulant. Because of the anticoagulant component of leech saliva, a leech bite may cause long-time bleeding, which cannot be stopped via compression. In this study, the case of a patient who applied leech therapy on her neck for the treatment of migraine has been presented. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(4.000: 234-237

  3. Case Study Of Leech Application In Varicose Ulcer

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    Samaranayake G.V.P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Varicose ulcers are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves usually of the legs. They are the major occurrence of chronic wounds occurring in 70 to 90 of leg ulcer cases. In Sushrut Samhita where get the most scientific description of wound and its management. Similarly Sushrut has given the almost importance to Bloodletting therapy and considered leech as the most unique and effective method of bloodletting even in infected wounds and abscesses. Aforesaid description let us to try leech therapy in venous ulcer was advised to continue weekly application of leech around the ulcer which was followed by dressing with Seethodaka oil and Dashanga lepa. This leech therapy proved very effective and the ulcer healed completely within 30 days. However further evaluation is required to be done by taking a large samples size to prove its significant in treating Venous ulcer.

  4. A biogeographic study of intermountain leeches : Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary report for a five year study on leeches in the intermountain west. This work began out of curiosity to determine what, besides fishes, occurred in the...

  5. Intermediate filament genes as differentiation markers in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-10-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton is a general feature of differentiated cells. Its molecular components, IF proteins, constitute a large family including the evolutionarily conserved nuclear lamins and the more diverse collection of cytoplasmic intermediate filament (CIF) proteins. In vertebrates, genes encoding CIFs exhibit cell/tissue type-specific expression profiles and are thus useful as differentiation markers. The expression of invertebrate CIFs, however, is not well documented. Here, we report a whole-genome survey of IF genes and their developmental expression patterns in the leech Helobdella, a lophotrochozoan model for developmental biology research. We found that, as in vertebrates, each of the leech CIF genes is expressed in a specific set of cell/tissue types. This allows us to detect earliest points of differentiation for multiple cell types in leech development and to use CIFs as molecular markers for studying cell fate specification in leech embryos. In addition, to determine the feasibility of using CIFs as universal metazoan differentiation markers, we examined phylogenetic relationships of IF genes from various species. Our results suggest that CIFs, and thus their cell/tissue-specific expression patterns, have expanded several times independently during metazoan evolution. Moreover, comparing the expression patterns of CIF orthologs between two leech species suggests that rapid evolutionary changes in the cell or tissue specificity of CIFs have occurred among leeches. Hence, CIFs are not suitable for identifying cell or tissue homology except among very closely related species, but they are nevertheless useful species-specific differentiation markers.

  6. On exploration of geometrically constrained space by medicinal leeches Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Leeches are fascinating creatures: they have simple modular nervous circuitry yet exhibit a rich spectrum of behavioural modes. Leeches could be ideal blue-prints for designing flexible soft robots which are modular, multi-functional, fault-tolerant, easy to control, capable for navigating using optical, mechanical and chemical sensorial inputs, have autonomous inter-segmental coordination and adaptive decision-making. With future designs of leech-robots in mind we study how leeches behave in geometrically constrained spaces. Core results of the paper deal with leeches exploring a row of rooms arranged along a narrow corridor. In laboratory experiments we find that rooms closer to ends of the corridor are explored by leeches more often than rooms in the middle of the corridor. Also, in series of scoping experiments, we evaluate leeches capabilities to navigating in mazes towards sources of vibration and chemo-attraction. We believe our results lay foundation for future developments of robots mimicking behaviour of leeches.

  7. First report of freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhyncobdellida: Glossiphoniidae as a parasite of an anuran amphibian

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    Rocco Tiberti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the first case of parasitism on anuran amphibian, Rana temporaria, by the freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis, in a mountainous area of northwestern Italy. The presence of skin abrasions and haemorrhages attributable to leech attack discards the hypothesis of a simple phoretic relationship between leech and frog.

  8. Poly-paraphyly of Hirudinidae: many lineages of medicinal leeches

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    Phillips Anna J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal leeches became infamous for their utility in bloodletting popularized in the 19th century, and have seen a recent resurgence in post-operative treatments for flap and replantation surgeries, and in terms of characterization of salivary anticoagulants. Notorious throughout the world, the quintessential leech family Hirudinidae has been taken for granted to be monophyletic, as has the non-bloodfeeding family Haemopidae. Results This study is the first to evaluate molecular evidence from hirudinid and haemopid leeches in a manner that encompasses the global scope of their taxonomic distributions. We evaluated the presumed monophyly of the Hirudinidae and assessed previous well-accepted classification schemes. The Hirudinidae were found not to be monophyletic, falling instead into two distinct and unrelated clades. Members of the non-bloodfeeding family Haemopidae were scattered throughout the tree and among traditional hirudinid genera. A combination of nuclear 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA with mitochondrial 12S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase I were analyzed with Parsimony and with Bayesian methods. Conclusion The family Hirudinidae must be refined to include only the clade containing Hirudo medicinalis (European medicinal leech and related leeches irrespective of bloodfeeding behavior. A second clade containing Macrobdella decora (North American medicinal leech and its relatives may yet be recognized in Semiscolecidae in order to avoid paraphyly. The African distribution of species from each of the divergent hirudinid clades suggests that a deep divergence took place in the history of the medicinal leeches hundreds of millions of years ago.

  9. G. N. LEECH - Principles of Pragmatics G. N. LEECH - Principles of Pragmatics

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    Michael R. Scott

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available '0 Leão é manso e justo para quem faz tudo direito...' Income tax notice, Brazil 1984. One of the problems for both linguistics and for users of language lies in the difference between what is said and what is meant. As users of language we have to learn that Você não quer me dar uma mãozinha? is not an odd request for information about someone's negative wishes but, by implicature, a request for action -- and that it has nothing to do with transplant operations. One of the jobs of linguistics, and one which has been swept under the carpet until fairly recently, is to elucidate how it is that we can produce and understand such utterances as (1. This is why Professor Leech's book is so timely. Pragmatics, for Leech usefully defined.as the study of how utterances have meanings in situations (Preface, x attempts in a systematic way to find out and set down the principles behind certain choices in language which govern situational meaning. '0 Leão é manso e justo para quem faz tudo direito...' Income tax notice, Brazil 1984. One of the problems for both linguistics and for users of anguage lies in the difference between what is said and what is meant. As users of language we have to learn that Você não quer me dar uma mãozinha? is not an odd request for information about someone's negative wishes but, by implicature, a request for action -- and that it has nothing to do with transplant operations. One of the jobs of linguistics, and one which has been swept under the carpet until fairly recently, is to elucidate how it is that we can produce and understand such utterances as (1. This is why Professor Leech's book is so timely. Pragmatics, for Leech usefully defined.as the study of how utterances have meanings in situations (Preface, x attempts in a systematic way to find out and set down the principles behind certain choices in language which govern situational meaning.

  10. Clinical uses of the medicinal leech: A practical review

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    B S Porshinsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is an excellent example of the use of invertebrates in the treatment of human disease. Utilized for various medical indications since the ancient times, the medicinal leech is currently being used in a narrow range of well-defined and scientifically-grounded clinical applications. Hirudotherapy is most commonly used in the setting of venous congestion associated with soft tissue replantations and free flap-based reconstructive surgery. This is a comprehensive review of current clinical applications of hirudotherapy, featuring a comprehensive search of all major medical search engines (i.e. PubMed, Google Scholar, ScientificCommons and other cross-referenced sources. The authors focus on indications, contraindications, practical application/handling of the leech, and therapy-related complications.

  11. Leech therapy for epidermoid cysts and review of the literature

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    Abbas Rasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirudo medicinalis sucks blood directly through the external mammalian skin. We recently observed a healthy 64-year-old Iranian man, who presented with numerous asymptomatic multilobular oval-to-round well-defined 0.5 to 1.5 cm cystic lesions with central umbilication (central black eschar over the upper portion of his chest. We made the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, giant comedone and leech bite on the basis of the constellation of clinical features. The patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin at a dose of 2 g daily, and 2% topical erythromycin solution. Despite improvement, the evidence of cystic lesions persisted. There was no history of similar lesions in any other family member. There was no history of trauma. The patient was not using any topical or systemic medication. Two weeks before his visit, he had a history of leech therapy under the supervision of a general practitioner. His medical history was significant for leech therapy of the lesions, five days previously. He was followed up for another two weeks and after disappearance of the inflammation, with the patient under local anesthesia, the well-circumscribed mass was completely evacuated with a sharp curette and comedone extractor. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Considering the efficacy of leeches, it would be favorable to breed a germ-free leech. In Iran, the use of the leeches in surgery, in recent years, has been infrequent. It appears that the positive effects of this ancient remedy may now be explained through scientific methods, promising potentially even more uses of this admirable creature in medicine.

  12. CASE STUDY OF LEECH APPLICATION IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCER

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    Amarprakash P. Dwivedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes, slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation. About 15% of all diabetic patients develops foot ulcer in their life time. The etiological factors include increased sugar level, diabetic micro angiopathy and peripheral neuropathy.Mainstay of treatment includes antibiotics, debridement, and local wound care and footwear improvisation. In spite of all advances in health sciences, statistics reveals that about 3% patients yet have to undergo lower limb amputation.In Sushrut samhita, we get the most scientific description of wound and its management. Similarly, Sushrut has given the utmost importance to Bloodletting therapy and considered Leech as the most unique and effective method of bloodletting even in infected wounds and abscesses.Aforesaid description led us to try Leech therapy in Diabetic foot ulcer. Patient with Diabetic foot ulcer was advised to continue anti diabetic medicine along with weekly application of Leech around the ulcer which was followed by dressing with Nimb-Haridra oil.This Leech therapy proved very effective and the ulcer healed completely within 30 days.However, further evaluation is required to be done by taking a large sample size to prove its significance in treating Diabetic foot ulcer and avoiding lower limb amputation.

  13. Hirudotherapy /Leech therapy: Applications and Indications in Surgery

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    Swaid Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    More recently, HT has found new applications in cancer therapy, hypersensitivity conditions, like asthma, male/female sterility and diabetes. Taking into consideration all the facts, HT efforts should be made in optimizing the success of medicinal leech therapy in clinical and private practice. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(3.000: 172-180

  14. Scanning behavior in the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M Harley

    Full Text Available While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called 'head movement' and another called 'body waving'. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a detailed description of what we now call 'scanning'. Scanning-related behavior has been thought to be involved in orientation; its function has never before been assessed. While previous studies suggested an involvement of scanning in social behavior, or sucker placement, our behavioral studies indicate that scanning is involved in orienting the leech towards prey stimuli. When such stimuli are present, scanning behavior is used to re-orient the leech in the direction of a prey-like stimulus. Scanning, however, occurs whether or not prey is present, but in the presence of prey-like stimuli scanning becomes localized to the stimulus origin. Most likely, this behavior helps the leech to gain a more detailed picture of its prey target. The display of scanning, regardless of the presence or absence of prey stimuli, is suggestive of a behavior that is part of an internally driven motor program, which is not released by the presence of sensory stimuli. The data herein include first steps to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this important behavior.

  15. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    , exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  16. Characterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Maree Ott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial transmission through mucosal-mediated mechanisms is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. One example of this occurs with Hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, where host attraction to shed conspecific mucus facilitates horizontal transmission of a predominant gut symbiont, the Gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii. However, whether this mucus may harbor other bacteria has not been examined. Here, we characterize the microbiota of shed leech mucus through Illumina deep sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP typing with subsequent Sanger Sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene clone library provided qualitative confirmation of the microbial composition. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length 16S rRNA sequences were performed to examine microbial taxonomic distribution. Analyses using both technologies indicate the dominance of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla within the mucus microbiota. We determined the presence of other previously described leech symbionts, in addition to a number of putative novel leech-associated bacteria. A second predominant gut symbiont, the Rikenella-like bacteria, was also identified within mucus and exhibited similar population dynamics to A. veronii, suggesting persistence in syntrophy beyond the gut. Interestingly, the most abundant bacterial genus belonged to Pedobacter, which includes members capable of producing heparinase, an enzyme that degrades the anticoagulant, heparin. Additionally, bacteria associated with denitrification and sulfate cycling were observed, indicating an abundance of these anions within mucus, likely originating from the leech excretory system. A diverse microbiota harbored within shed mucus has significant potential implications for the evolution of microbiomes, including opportunities for gene transfer and utility in host capture of a diverse group of symbionts.

  17. Isolation and Analytical Characterization of Local Malaysian Leech Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alaama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leech saliva contains biologically active compounds that are mainly proteins and peptides. In this study a modified and smooth extraction method of saliva was used without leeches' scarification. UV and Bradford Assay protein methods showed that the saliva extract contains high concentrations of proteins. RP-HPLC chromatogram revealed that more than 30 different peaks were observed in leech saliva extract. Gel electrophoresis revealed the existence of proteins and peptides with different molecular weights. The gel showed up to 25 different bands. Comparison of gel electrophoresis data with protein database revealed the closeness of four molecular weights to known proteins from Hirudinaria leech family. Other proteins detected by gel electrophoresis may be related to completely new biologically active proteins and peptides in the saliva extract or to a modification (isoforms of the existing ones or finally to a mixture of both.ABSTRAK: Air liur pacat secara biologinya mengandungi sebahagian besar campuran aktif protein dan peptida. Dalam kajian ini, kaedah pengestrakan air liur pacat yang telah diubah suai digunakan tanpa perlu membunuh pacat. Kaedah protein Cerakin UV dan Bradford menunjukkan air liur pacat yang diekstrak mengandungi konsentrasi protein yang tinggi. Kromatogram RP-HPLC memperlihatkan lebih daripada 30 puncak berbeza diperolehi semasa air liur pacat diekstrak. Gel elektroforesis memperlihatkan kewujudan protein dan peptida dengan berat molekul yang berbeza. Gel menunjukkan hingga 25 jalur yang berbeza. Perbandingan data menggunakan gel elektroforesis seiring dengan pangkalan data protein memperlihatkan persamaan empat berat molekul, dengan protein yang yang dikenali daripada keluarga pacat Hirudinaria. Jenis protein lain yang dikesan dengan menggunakan gel elektrofosis mungkin juga berkait secara biologinya dengan protein dan peptida aktif yang baru, dalam ekstrak air liur atau pengubahsuaian (beberapa jenis yang berbeza daripada

  18. Case of buerger's disease Improve by Gi-Chim Treatment (Leech Therapy)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objective : The purpose of this case is to show a case of buerger's disease improved by leech therapy. Methods : The patient received Leech Therapy and Oreintal medical therapy(acupunture and herb medicine). Result : We evaluate through visual analog scale(VAS), neurophatic total symptom score(TSS), fontaine grade and picture of patient's foot. Conclusion : Leech therapy and Oriental medical therapy had a good effect on buerger's disease.

  19. Case of buerger's disease Improve by Gi-Chim Treatment (Leech Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak Byung-min

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this case is to show a case of buerger's disease improved by leech therapy. Methods : The patient received Leech Therapy and Oreintal medical therapy(acupunture and herb medicine. Result : We evaluate through visual analog scale(VAS, neurophatic total symptom score(TSS, fontaine grade and picture of patient's foot. Conclusion : Leech therapy and Oriental medical therapy had a good effect on buerger's disease.

  20. [Study on the processing of leech by FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Ning; Wu, Yan-Wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-Qin; Chen, Shun-Cong

    2011-04-01

    The chemical differences of traditional Chinese medicine leech before and after processing were analyzed by FTIR and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The result showed that the leech was high in protein, with characteristic peaks of amide I, II bands. Comparing the IR spectra of samples, the primary difference was that the characteristic peak of fresh leech was at 1 543 cm(-1), while that of crude and processed leech was at 1 535 cm(-1). A 2D-IR spectrum with heating perturbation was used to track the processing dynamics of leech In the 2D-IR correlation spectra, fresh leech exhibited stronger automatic peaks of the amide I and II bands than that of processed leech, which indicates that the protein components of the fresh leech were more sensitive to heat perturbation than the processed one. Moreover, the result of FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectra validated that the 3-dimensional structure of protein was damaged and hydrogen bonds were broken after processing, which resulted in the inactivation of protein. The fatty acids and cholesterol components of leech were also oxidized in this process.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of the Medicinal Leech Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Maltz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are trillions of microbes found throughout the human body and they exceed the number of eukaryotic cells by ten-fold. Metagenomic studies have revealed that the majority of these microbes are found within the gut, playing an important role in the host’s digestion and nutrition. The complexity of the animal digestive tract, unculturable microbes and the lack of genetic tools for most culturable microbes make it challenging to explore the nature of theses microbial interactions within this niche. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, has been shown to be a useful tool in overcoming these challenges, due to the simplicity of the microbiome and the availability of genetic tools for one of the two dominant gut symbionts, Aeromonas veronii. In this study, we utilize 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to further explore the microbial composition of the leech digestive tract, confirming the dominance of two taxa, the Rikenella-like bacterium and A. veronii. The deep sequencing approach revealed the presence of additional members of the microbial community that suggests the presence of a moderately complex microbial community with a richness of 36 taxa. The presence of a Proteus strain as a newly identified resident in the leech crop was confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The metagenome of this community was also pyrosequenced and the contigs were binned into the following taxonomic groups: Rikenella-like (3.1 MB, Aeromonas (4.5 MB, Proteus (2.9 MB, Clostridium (1.8 MB, Eryspelothrix (0.96 MB, Desulfovibrio (0.14 MB and Fusobacterium (0.27 MB. Functional analyses on the leech gut symbionts were explored using the metagenomic data and MG-RAST. A comparison of the COG and KEGG categories of the leech gut metagenome to that of other animal digestive-tract microbiomes revealed that the leech digestive-tract had a similar metabolic potential to the human digestive-tract, supporting the usefulness of this system as a model for studying

  2. The efficacy of medicinal leeches in plastic and reconstructive surgery : A systematic review of 277 reported clinical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, Iain S.; Oboumarzouk, Omar; Rozen, Warren M.; Naderi, Naghmeh; Balasubramanian, S. P.; Azzopardi, Ernest A.; Kon, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although there are numerous case reports and small case series describing the experiences of leech therapy in various circumstances, there are relatively few large studies evaluating the effectiveness of leeching to relieve venous congestion. The therapeutic value of leeching is illustra

  3. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzyslaw Poleszczuk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream. The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments.

  4. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macova, Stanislava; Harustiakova, Danka; Kolarova, Jitka; Machova, Jana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Vykusova, Blanka; Randak, Tomas; Velisek, Josef; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream). The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments. PMID:22573988

  5. Spontaneous electrical activity and behavior in the leech Hirudo medicinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garcia-Perez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of external stimuli, animals explore the environment by performing irregular movements, but the neuronal mechanisms underlying this arrhythmic motion are largely unknown. In this paper we studied the relationship between the spontaneous neuronal activity in the leech (Hirudo medicinalis and its behavior. We analyzed the electrical activity of isolated ganglia, chains of two connected ganglia and semi-intact preparations. The spontaneous electrical activity in ganglia was characterized by the occurrence of irregular bursts of spikes with variable duration and size. Properties of these bursts were modified by synaptic inputs arriving from the neighboring ganglia and from the two primitive brains located in the head and tail. In fact, in semi-intact preparations, unusually large bursts of spikes occurring spontaneously were recorded and caused the leech to move even in the absence of any external sensory stimulation. These large bursts appear to act as internal triggers controlling the spontaneous leech behavior and determining the duration of stereotypical motor patterns.

  6. Pigment reduction in nevus of Ota following leech therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjeev; Chaudhari, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a congenital blue-gray color nevus afflicting unilaterally, the area near the eyes. It poses a huge cosmetic concern besides being a potential threat for developing melanoma sometime in the course of the disease. The treatment options are neither many nor promising besides they are too expensive. We have treated a case of nevus of Ota with leech therapy where leech was applied upon the lesion for five times spanned in a period of 2 months. The results in terms of change in the color of lesion were evaluated with the help of serial photographs following every treatment session to mark the level of color changes in the lesion. A substantial reduction in color of the nevus was reported following the completion of the therapy. The results were demonstrated with the photographs. Although, recommended as the classical Ayurvedic management for skin diseases, leech therapy is not reported earlier in such conditions. It proposes a novel approach to deal with such congenital pigment lesions where other options are not promising. PMID:24948864

  7. Pigment reduction in nevus of Ota following leech therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Rastogi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a congenital blue-gray color nevus afflicting unilaterally, the area near the eyes. It poses a huge cosmetic concern besides being a potential threat for developing melanoma sometime in the course of the disease. The treatment options are neither many nor promising besides they are too expensive. We have treated a case of nevus of Ota with leech therapy where leech was applied upon the lesion for five times spanned in a period of 2 months. The results in terms of change in the color of lesion were evaluated with the help of serial photographs following every treatment session to mark the level of color changes in the lesion. A substantial reduction in color of the nevus was reported following the completion of the therapy. The results were demonstrated with the photographs. Although, recommended as the classical Ayurvedic management for skin diseases, leech therapy is not reported earlier in such conditions. It proposes a novel approach to deal with such congenital pigment lesions where other options are not promising.

  8. Pigment reduction in nevus of Ota following leech therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjeev; Chaudhari, Priyanka

    2014-04-01

    Nevus of Ota is a congenital blue-gray color nevus afflicting unilaterally, the area near the eyes. It poses a huge cosmetic concern besides being a potential threat for developing melanoma sometime in the course of the disease. The treatment options are neither many nor promising besides they are too expensive. We have treated a case of nevus of Ota with leech therapy where leech was applied upon the lesion for five times spanned in a period of 2 months. The results in terms of change in the color of lesion were evaluated with the help of serial photographs following every treatment session to mark the level of color changes in the lesion. A substantial reduction in color of the nevus was reported following the completion of the therapy. The results were demonstrated with the photographs. Although, recommended as the classical Ayurvedic management for skin diseases, leech therapy is not reported earlier in such conditions. It proposes a novel approach to deal with such congenital pigment lesions where other options are not promising.

  9. A classic model animal in the 21st century: recent lessons from the leech nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The medicinal leech (genus Hirudo) is a classic model animal in systems neuroscience. The leech has been central to many integrative studies that establish how properties of neurons and their interconnections give rise to the functioning of the animal at the behavioral level. Leeches exhibit several discrete behaviors (such as crawling, swimming and feeding) that are each relatively simple. Importantly, these behaviors can all be studied - at least at a basal level - in the isolated nervous system. The leech nervous system is particularly amenable to such studies because of its distributed nature; sensory processing and generation of behavior occur to a large degree in iterated segmental ganglia that each contain only ∼400 neurons. Furthermore, the neurons are relatively large and are arranged with stereotyped topography on the surface of the ganglion, which greatly facilitates their identification and accessibility. This Commentary provides an overview of recent work on the leech nervous system, with particular focus on circuits that underlie leech behavior. Studies that combine the unique features of the leech with modern optical and genetic techniques are also discussed. Thus, this Commentary aims to explain the continued appeal of the leech as an experimental animal in the 21st century.

  10. PREVENTING INFECTIVE COMPLICATIONS FOLLOWING LEECH THERAPY : IS PRACTICE KEEPING PACE WITH CURRENT RESEARCH?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, Iain S.; Kamya, Cyril; Azzopardi, Ernest A.; Graf, Joerg; Kon, Moshe; Lineaweaver, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite several publications strongly advocating prophylactic antibiotics during leech therapy, and recent primary articles shedding new light on the microbiota of leeches, many units either do not use antibiotic prophylaxis, or are continuing to use ineffective agents. Methods: A 5-year

  11. Molecular genetic microbiological and clinical analysis of Hirudo species (leeches) : implications for use in surgical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, I.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this thesis are to investigate the historical journey of the use of leeches in medicine (Chapter 2) and to review the mechanisms of action relevant to the reconstructive surgeon (Chapter 3). With a specific focus on infective complications following leech therapy, we will investigate the

  12. PREVENTING INFECTIVE COMPLICATIONS FOLLOWING LEECH THERAPY : IS PRACTICE KEEPING PACE WITH CURRENT RESEARCH?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, Iain S.; Kamya, Cyril; Azzopardi, Ernest A.; Graf, Joerg; Kon, Moshe; Lineaweaver, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite several publications strongly advocating prophylactic antibiotics during leech therapy, and recent primary articles shedding new light on the microbiota of leeches, many units either do not use antibiotic prophylaxis, or are continuing to use ineffective agents. Methods: A 5-year

  13. Leech-Repellent Property of Eastern Red-Spotted Newts, Notophthalmus viridescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pough, F H

    1971-12-10

    Eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens, Salamandridae) are rarely attacked by leeches. This protection is not shared by related salamandrids or by Ambystoma (Ambystomatidae). Tetrodotoxin is not the repelent. The immunity of Notophthalmus to leech parasitism is probably most significant in its aquatic stages, although the terrestrial efts are also protected.

  14. Medicinal use of leeches in the texts of ancient Greek, Roman and early Byzantine writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavramidou, N; Christopoulou-Aletra, H

    2009-09-01

    Blood-letting was a common therapeutic method in antiquity; many means were used to draw blood, including the application of leeches. In this paper, ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine authors up to the 7th century AD were studied, a research that provided us with references that may be divided into two groups: those related to the medicinal use of leeches, and those related to cases in which leeches were swallowed and had to be removed. In the first group, detailed descriptions of the method of usage and of the diseases requiring leeching were found. In the second group, brief reference is made to the problems caused by swallowing leeches, and to the methods used to expel them from the human organism. The earliest references to the medicinal use of leeches may be found in the writings of Theocritus (3rd century BC), Nicander (2nd century BC) and Horace (1st century BC, while the phenomenon of swallowing a leech is first mentioned in one of the Epidaurian 'iamata' dating to the 4th century BC.

  15. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however......, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  16. Innate and procured immunity inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Silver

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Especially when combined with unique biological adaptations, invertebrate animals provide important insights into innate immunity because the immune response is not complicated by adaptive immunity that vertebrates evolved. One such example is the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, which is unusual in two aspects, it contains a simple microbial community and it stores large amounts of vertebrate blood for a several months. In this review we will discuss aspects of the innate immunity of the leech and from the ingested blood that we term procured immunity to differentiate it from the immunity encoded by the leech genome.

  17. [Extract of Hirudo medicinalis leeches: biogenic substance for the creation of effective drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, G I; Titova, E A; Lebedeva, A O

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of the extract of medicinal leech Girulux established parameters that enable one to verify the authenticity of related drugs using the characteristics of their UV spectra the and anticoagulant and antithrombin activity. The limits of pH must range from 5.5 to 7.5. Pilot-scale series of medical leech extract are in compliance with terms of "microbiological purity" quality characteristics. The natural storage has been used to assess the temporal stability of leech extract. The obtained characteristics showed that the activity of extract was retained after 3-year storage.

  18. Characterization and optimization of lyophilization and storage conditions of Leech saliva extract from the tropical leech Hirudinaria manillensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Ghawi, Abbas Mohammad; Alaama, Mohamed; Awang, Mohamed; Merzouk, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    The medicinal Malaysian leeches have been used in traditional medicine to treat many different ailments. In this study, leech saliva extract (LSE) was collected from the medicinal Malaysian leech Hirudinaria manillensis. Gel electrophoresis of LSE was carried out to estimate the peptide and protein molecular weights of its content. Results showed that LSE contains more than 60 peptides and proteins with molecular masses ranging from 1.9-250kDa. Thrombin time assay in vitro was employed to assess the collected LSE antithrombin activity. First, to study its stability, LSE was lyophilized under the following different conditions: pre-freezing temperature, type of container and lyophilization cycle. Pre-freezed LSE sample at -20°C and lyophilized for 24 hours retained about 100-95% of its original biological activities. Second, the LSE antithrombin activity was monitored for a period of six months. Storage temperature, type of the container and photosensitivity effects on antithrombin activity of the lyophilized (solid state) and non-lyophilized (liquid state) were investigated. Results showed that storage temperature drastically affected the biological activity of LSE with -20 °C as the optimum temperature. Samples stored at ambient temperature and +4 °C were light photosensitive and adversely affected when stored in polypropylene tubes. Lyophilized samples were more stable than non-lyophilized ones over the period of study. To sum up, in order to have a biologically active stock of LSE, it has to be lyophilized for no more than 24 hours following freezing at -20°C and has to be stored at -20°C in glass tubes protected from light.

  19. Control of epileptiform bursting in the leech heart interneuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, William; Anquez, Martin; Harris, Torrey; Cymbalyuk, Gennady

    2009-11-01

    The network controlling heartbeat in the medicinal leech contains leech heart interneurons (HNs). We modeled them under specific pharmacological conditions. The Ca^2+ currents were blocked by Co^2+. The K^+ currents, apart from the non-inactivating current, IK2, were blocked by 4AP. The hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, was blocked by Cs^+. Under these conditions, epileptiform bursting characterized by long interburst intervals (IBI) has been shown. We considered three distinct cases. Model 1 included IK2, Ih, and the fast Na^+ current, INa. Model 2 was characterized by INa, IK2, and the persistent Na^+ current, INaP. Model 3 consisted of INa, IK2, Ih, and INaP. We also investigated the bi-stability of bursting and silence as the leak conductance, gleak, was varied. We showed that in 1 and 3, model HNs demonstrated bi-stability of silence and bursting. We analyzed how IBI and burst duration are controlled by the manipulation of Ih and INaP. In 1, as V1/2 of Ih decreased, IBI grew towards infinity one over the square root of the parameter difference. In 2, we showed that as gNaP decreased from 6.156 nS to 6.155 nS, IBI grew in accordance with the one over square root law. The system underwent a saddle-node bifurcation just below 6.155 nS. Supported by NSF PHY-0750456.

  20. The Leech with a taste for oranges / Merje Järv-Griffiths

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järv-Griffiths, Merje

    2007-01-01

    Rockansamblist Leech (kontserdid 23. nov. klubis Rockstar's Tallinnas, 30. nov. Lutsu Teatris Tartus ja 21. dets. festivalil Green Christmas Rakveres), heliplaadist "Tram-O-Gram" (vt. www.leechband.net)

  1. The Leech with a taste for oranges / Merje Järv-Griffiths

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järv-Griffiths, Merje

    2007-01-01

    Rockansamblist Leech (kontserdid 23. nov. klubis Rockstar's Tallinnas, 30. nov. Lutsu Teatris Tartus ja 21. dets. festivalil Green Christmas Rakveres), heliplaadist "Tram-O-Gram" (vt. www.leechband.net)

  2. Host Matters: Medicinal Leech Digestive-Tract Symbionts and their Pathogenic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Marden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digestive-tract microbiota exert tremendous influence over host health. Host-symbiont model systems are studied to investigate how symbioses are initiated and maintained, as well as to identify host processes affected by resident microbiota. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, is an excellent model to address such questions owing to a microbiome that is consistently dominanted by two species, Aeromonas veronii and Mucinivorans hirudinis, both of which are cultivable and have sequenced genomes. This review outlines current knowledge about the dynamics of the H. verbana microbiome. We discuss in depth the factors required for A. veronii colonization and proliferation in the leech crop and summarize the current understanding of interactions between A. veronii and its annelid host. Lastly, we discuss leech usage in modern medicine and highlight how leech-therapy associated infections, often attributable to Aeromonas spp., are of growing clinical concern due in part to an increased prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant strains.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Leech Symbiont Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael C.; Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T was isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, and is the type species of a new genus within the Rikenellaceae. Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of this bacterium.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Leech Symbiont Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael C; Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2015-02-05

    Mucinivorans hirudinis M3(T) was isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, and is the type species of a new genus within the Rikenellaceae. Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of this bacterium.

  5. Prolonged venous bleeding due to traditional treatment with leech bite: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun Hasan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been used in the treatment of many diseases for thousands of years. In Turkey, it is used most commonly in the management of venous diseases of lower extremities. Case presentation A 25-year-old Turkish woman presented to our emergency room with bleeding from her left leg. She had been treated for varicose veins in her lower extremities with leeches about 24 hours before admission to the emergency room. The bleeding was controlled by applying pressure with sterile gauze upon the wound, and she was discharged. She returned after four hours having started bleeding again. Hemostasis was achieved by vein ligation under local anesthesia. Conclusions Leech bite should be evaluated as a special injury. Prolonged bleeding can be seen after leech bites. In such cases, hemostasis either with local pressure or ligation of the bleeding vessel is mandatory.

  6. Comparison of effect of nicotine and levamisole and ivermectin on mortality of leech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of different doses of nicotine on Limnatis in comparison with levamisole and ivermectin. Methods: In this interventional experimental study in July 2012, the amount of 61 mature leeches of Limnatis nilotica species were collected and anti-parasitic effects of drug treatments using anti-leech method were assessed. So that, a leech was placed in the dishes with 600 mL spring water and leech's paralysis and death time were recorded accurately for 720 min. A total of 9 replicates were considered for each treatment. Six drug treatments were considered. Pharmacological treatments include nicotine (5, 1 0 and 20 mg doses, levamisole (1 0 mg, ivermectin (10 mg and distilled water. Data were analyzed using the Sigma ASA 2 software and pair t-test method with less than 0.05 confidence levels. Results: The results of present study show that doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg of nicotine, with time average of 2.44依0.52, 1.88依0.78 and 1.55依0.72 min cause to death of leeches. Ivermectin and levamisole cause to death of leeches, averaging 7.44依1.12 and 14.66依5.09 min, respectively. Distilled water treatment has been reported as an ineffective group. Data analysis showed that the group receiving 5 mg nicotine, had minimum time of death and there are statistical differences among all groups (P>0.05, but there are not significant differences between treatments receiving 10 mg nicotine, with 5 and 20 mg nicotine treatments. Conclusions: It appears that nicotine compound as the effective substance of tobacco plant has the strong anti-leech effect on Limnatis nilotica species and can be used as leech purposes in the future.

  7. Intracellular Recording, Sensory Field Mapping, and Culturing Identified Neurons in the Leech, Hirudo medicinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Titlow, Josh; Majeed, Zana R.; Nicholls, John G.; Cooper, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is a versatile model organism that has been used to address scientific questions in the fields of neurophysiology, neuroethology, and developmental biology. The goal of this report is to consolidate experimental techniques from the leech system into a single article that will be of use to physiologists with expertise in other nervous system preparations, or to biology students with little or no electrophysiology experience. We demonstrate how to disse...

  8. Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leeches have gained a fearsome reputation by feeding externally on blood, often from human hosts. Orificial hirudiniasis is a condition in which a leech enters a body orifice, most often the nasopharyngeal region, but there are many cases of leeches infesting the eyes, urethra, vagina, or rectum. Several leech species particularly in Africa and Asia are well-known for their propensity to afflict humans. Because there has not previously been any data suggesting a close relationship for such geographically disparate species, this unnerving tendency to be invasive has been regarded only as a loathsome oddity and not a unifying character for a group of related organisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new genus and species of leech from Perú was found feeding from the nasopharynx of humans. Unlike any other leech previously described, this new taxon has but a single jaw with very large teeth. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes using parsimony and Bayesian inference demonstrate that the new species belongs among a larger, global clade of leeches, all of which feed from the mucosal surfaces of mammals. CONCLUSIONS: This new species, found feeding from the upper respiratory tract of humans in Perú, clarifies an expansion of the family Praobdellidae to include the new species Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp., along with others in the genera Dinobdella, Myxobdella, Praobdella and Pintobdella. Moreover, the results clarify a single evolutionary origin of a group of leeches that specializes on mucous membranes, thus, posing a distinct threat to human health.

  9. New Records of Lake Baikal Leech Fauna: Species Diversity and Spatial Distribution in Chivyrkuy Gulf

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    Irina A. Kaygorodova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of several Lake Baikal leech collections offered us the possibility to determine species diversity in the Chivyrkuy Gulf, the biggest one in the lake. As a result, the first information on the Chivyrkuy Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata has been revealed. There are two orders and four families of leeches in the Chivyrkuy Gulf: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae and order Arhynchobdellida (families Erpobdellidae and Haemopidae. In total, 22 leech species and 2 subspecies belonging to 11 genera were identified. Of these, 4 taxa belong to the family Glossiphoniidae (G. concolor, A. hyalina, A. heteroclita f. papillosa, and A. heteroclita f. striata recorded in Baikal for the first time. Representatives of 8 unidentified species (Glossophinia sp., Baicaloclepsis sp., Baicalobdella sp., Piscicola sp. 1, Piscicola sp. 2, Erpobdella sp. 1, Erpobdella sp. 2, and Erpobdella sp. 3 have been also recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leech parasites, their hosts, and distribution within the Chivyrkuy Gulf. The analysis of spatial distribution has shown that the leech species diversity is correlated with the biological productivity of the bay. The most diverse community of leech species is detected in the eutrophic zone of the lake.

  10. Detection of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Leeches Hemiclepsis marginata and Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Behnam; Abdi, Kazem

    2016-12-01

    Leeches have been reported to harbor several important fish pathogens, including spring viremia of carp virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and also may contain blood protozoa. In the present study, leeches were collected from water bodies located in Kurdistan province, Iran. The specimens were tested for IHNV, VHSV, and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using the PCR method. The results showed that two different species of leeches, Hemiclepsis marginata and Hirudo medicinalis, were infected by IPNV among the seven species studied. The infected leeches were found in areas that were polluted with untreated sewage coming from upstream fish farms culturing Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, the fish at fish farms in the vicinity had been infected with IPNV 9 months previously. Our results showed that the virus causing infectious pancreatic necrosis is present in the leeches H. marginata and H. medicinalis, suggesting that leeches are a potential source of IPNV in fish farms. Received October 14, 2015; accepted June 1, 2016.

  11. First Isolation of a Giant Virus from Wild Hirudo medicinalis Leech: Mimiviridae isolation in Hirudo medicinalis

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    Mondher Boughalmi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Giant viruses and amoebae are common in freshwater, where they can coexist with other living multicellular organisms. We screened leeches from the species Hirudo medicinalis for giant viruses. We analyzed five H. medicinalis obtained from Tunisia (3 and France (2. The leeches were decontaminated and then dissected to remove internal parts for co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The genomes of isolated viruses were sequenced on a 454 Roche instrument, and a comparative genomics analysis was performed. One Mimivirus was isolated and the strain was named Hirudovirus. The genome assembly generated two scaffolds, which were 1,155,382 and 25,660 base pairs in length. Functional annotations were identified for 47% of the genes, which corresponds to 466 proteins. The presence of Mimividae in the same ecological niche as wild Hirudo may explain the presence of the mimivirus in the digestive tract of the leech, and several studies have already shown that viruses can persist in the digestive tracts of leeches fed contaminated blood. As leeches can be used medically and Mimiviruses have the potential to be an infectious agent in humans, patients treated with leeches should be surveyed to investigate a possible connection.

  12. Entangling gates in even Euclidean lattices such as Leech lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, Michel

    2010-01-01

    We point out a organic relationship between real entangling n-qubit gates of quantum computation and the group of automorphisms of even Euclidean lattices of the corresponding dimension 2n. The type of entanglement that is found in the gates/generators of Aut() depends on the lattice. In particular, we investigate Zn lattices, Barnes-Wall lattices D4, E8, 16 (associated to n = 2, 3 and 4 qubits), and the Leech lattices h24 and 24 (associated to a 3-qubit/qutrit system). Balanced tripartite entanglement is found to be a basic feature of Aut(), a nding that bears out our recent work related to the Weyl group of E8 [1, 2].

  13. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV from the leech Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851

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    Faisal Mohamed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leech Myzobdella lugubris is widespread in the Lake Erie Watershed, especially Lake St. Clair. However, its role in pathogen transmission is not fully understood. In this same watershed, several widespread fish mortalities associated with the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV were recorded. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia is an emerging disease in the Great Lakes Basin that is deadly to the fish population, yet little is known about its mode of transmission. To assess the potential role of M. lugubris in VHSV transmission, leeches were collected from Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie and pooled into samples of five. Cell culture and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were used to determine the presence of the virus and its identity. Results showed that 57 of the 91 pooled leech samples were positive by cell culture for VHSV and 66 of the 91 pooled leech samples were positive by RT-PCR for the VHSV. Two representative virus isolates were sequenced for further genetic confirmation and genotype classification. VHSV detected within M. lugubris was homologous to the Great Lakes strain of VHSV genotype IVb. This is the first record of the VHSV being detected from within a leech, specifically M. lugubris, and suggests the potential of M. lugubris being involved in VHSV transmission.

  14. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV) from the leech Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohamed; Schulz, Carolyn A

    2009-01-01

    The leech Myzobdella lugubris is widespread in the Lake Erie Watershed, especially Lake St. Clair. However, its role in pathogen transmission is not fully understood. In this same watershed, several widespread fish mortalities associated with the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV) were recorded. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia is an emerging disease in the Great Lakes Basin that is deadly to the fish population, yet little is known about its mode of transmission. To assess the potential role of M. lugubris in VHSV transmission, leeches were collected from Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie and pooled into samples of five. Cell culture and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the presence of the virus and its identity. Results showed that 57 of the 91 pooled leech samples were positive by cell culture for VHSV and 66 of the 91 pooled leech samples were positive by RT-PCR for the VHSV. Two representative virus isolates were sequenced for further genetic confirmation and genotype classification. VHSV detected within M. lugubris was homologous to the Great Lakes strain of VHSV genotype IVb. This is the first record of the VHSV being detected from within a leech, specifically M. lugubris, and suggests the potential of M. lugubris being involved in VHSV transmission. PMID:19785752

  15. May salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?

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    Sarah Lemke

    Full Text Available Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp. contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host. Leech therapy is used to treat many different ailments in humans, although only a small fraction of salivary proteins are characterized yet. Moreover, we do not know whether complete transfer of salivary proteins stored in the unicellular salivary glands in a leech to the host during feeding may generate concentrations that are sufficiently high to affect physiological processes in the host. Our 3D reconstruction of a portion of internal leech tissue from histological sections revealed that one leech contains approx. 37,000 salivary gland cells. Using tissue slices from pig liver and mouse skeletal muscle for reference, we obtained data for protein densities in leech salivary gland cells. As individual salivary cells are voluminous (67,000 µm(3 and the stored proteins are densely packed (approx. 500 µg/mm(3, we extrapolated that a single leech may contain up to 1.2 mg of salivary proteins. Analyzing protein extracts of unfed or fed leeches by 2D electrophoresis, we calculated the relative molar amounts of individual salivary proteins in the mass range of 17-60 kDa which may be released from a single leech during feeding. Distribution of these salivary proteins in the host (assumed plasma volume of 5 l may result in concentrations of individual compounds between 3 and 236 pmol/l. Such concentrations seem sufficiently high to exert biochemical interactions with target molecules in the host.

  16. Leech Lattice Extension of the Non-linear Schrodinger Equation Theory of Einstein spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chapline, George

    2015-01-01

    Although the nonlinear Schrodinger equation description of Einstein spaces has provided insights into how quantum mechanics might modify the classical general relativistic description of space-time, an exact quantum description of space-times with matter has remained elusive. In this note we outline how the nonlinear Schrodinger equation theory of Einstein spaces might be generalized to include matter by transplanting the theory to the 25+1 dimensional Lorentzian Leech lattice. Remarkably when a hexagonal section of the Leech lattice is set aside as the stage for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, the discrete automorphism group of the complex Leech lattice with one complex direction fixed can be lifted to continuous Lie group symmetries. In this setting the wave function becomes an 11x11 complex matrix which represents matter degrees of freedom consisting of a 2-form abelian gauge field and vector nonabelian SU(3)xE6 gauge fields together with their supersymmetric partners. The lagrangian field equations fo...

  17. Local (Malaysian Leech as Alternative Healing Treatment and an Islamic Perspective

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    ZULHISYAM, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapy is known from the time of extreme antiquity, dating back more than 2,500 years ago and still being practiced nowadays. This fact testifies to its efficiency in various health problems. In some cases, traditional medical practitioners use leeches for therapeutic healing treatment which is known as ‘cupping’. Such remedial method is quickly gaining acceptance amongst the local folks which is now becoming a thriving business. Some have made this treatment as their main business even though the therapy is quite recent for people in this country. This article discusses the process of cupping by using leech in the Islamic perspective and also the uniqueness of the hirudin protein in leeches respectively.

  18. The Leech method for diagnosing constipation: intra- and interobserver variability and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorijn, Fleur de; Voskuijl, Wieger P.; Taminiau, Jan A.; Benninga, Marc A. [Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van; Henneman, Onno D.F. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heijmans, Jarom [Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The data concerning the value of a plain abdominal radiograph in childhood constipation are inconsistent. Recently, positive results have been reported of a new radiographic scoring system, ''the Leech method'', for assessing faecal loading. To assess intra- and interobserver variability and determine diagnostic accuracy of the Leech method in identifying children with functional constipation (FC). A total of 89 children (median age 9.8 years) with functional gastrointestinal disorders were included in the study. Based on clinical parameters, 52 fulfilled the criteria for FC, six fulfilled the criteria for functional abdominal pain (FAP), and 31 for functional non-retentive faecal incontinence (FNRFI); the latter two groups provided the controls. To assess intra- and interobserver variability of the Leech method three scorers scored the same abdominal radiograph twice. A Leech score of 9 or more was considered as suggestive of constipation. ROC analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Leech method in separating patients with FC from control patients. Significant intraobserver variability was found between two scorers (P=0.005 and P<0.0001), whereas there was no systematic difference between the two scores of the other scorer (P=0.89). The scores between scorers differed systematically and displayed large variability. The area under the ROC curve was 0.68 (95% CI 0.58-0.80), indicating poor diagnostic accuracy. The Leech scoring method for assessing faecal loading on a plain abdominal radiograph is of limited value in the diagnosis of FC in children. (orig.)

  19. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  20. Hemorrhagic shock due to hirudotherapy made with uncontrolled multiple leech bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hirudotherapy is a alternative treatment method using leeches. It is especially used for the treatment of pain, sialadenitis, osteoartritis and venous insufficiency. Hirudin which is one of the secreted substances of leeches prevents blood coagulation and causes bleeding. In this paper, we aimed to draw attention to the unconsciously and uncontrolled done hirudotherapy which can become a serious life-threatening health problem. For this purpose, a rare case using warfarin for deep vein thrombosis in his legs and who admitted to emergency department with skin hemorrhages and hemorrhagic shock due to unconsciously done hirudotherapy is presented.

  1. Complete penile amputation during ritual neonatal circumcision and successful replantation using postoperative leech therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Omaya I; Fox, Janelle A; Gander, Brian H; Grunwaldt, Lorelei J; Cannon, Glenn M

    2014-08-01

    Circumcision is the most common surgical procedure in males in the United States, and minor complications are not uncommon. Major complications like partial penile amputations have been reported with successful replantation. Complete penile amputations in adult males have been described, and successful replantation has been reported with increasing success. We report a case of complete penile amputation at the penopubic junction using a Mogen clamp in a 7-day-old neonate with replantation using postoperative leech therapy. To our knowledge this is the first time leech therapy has been used postoperatively for neonatal penile amputation.

  2. Leeches (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae)--parasites of Antarctic fish from Channichthyidae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Aleksander; Rokicka, Magdalena; Ropelewska, Ewa; Dziekońska-Rynko, Janina

    2008-01-01

    There has hitherto been very few research projects focusing on ectoparasites of Antarctic fishes. The presently reported study provides data on the prevalence and the intensity of leeches (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) infecting fishes. The materials were collected in December-February 1986/87 off the Elephant Island, South Georgia, Joinville Island, and South Shetlands. The following leech taxa were recorded in the Antarctic fishes of the family Channichthyidae: Trulliobdella capitis (Brinkmann, 1947); Cryobdella antarctica Epstein, 1970; Nototheniobdella sawyeri Utevsky, 1997; and Cryobdella sp. The above findings constitute new geographic records from off Elephant and Joinville Island and South Georgia.

  3. Origin and fate of hematopoietic stem precursor cells in the leech Hirudo medicinalis

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    A Grimaldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The hematopoietic process by which blood cells are formed has been intensely studied for over a century using several model systems. An increasing amount of evidence shows that hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, immune response and the regulating these processes (i.e., cytokines are highly conserved across taxonomic groups. Over the last decade, the leech Hirudo medicinalis, given its simple anatomy and its repertoire of less varied cell types when compared to vertebrates, has been proposed as a powerful model for studying basic steps of hematopoiesis and immune responses. Here, I provide a broad overview of H. medicinalis hematopoiesis and I highlight the benefits of using leech as a model.

  4. Land Leeches of the g. Haemadipsa (Haemadipsoidea: Haemadipsidae). I. Conditions Essential to Laboratory Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    immed- iately when the leech finds a "suitable spot" (38) and is completed in 80 to 90 seconds (8). Sensations associated with penetration vary with...H. orizzta and H. picta. H. ornata produces a stinging sensation during penetration (31) and has been given the common name of "The 3 Stinging Land...Leech" (9). Moore (42) characterized the bite of IH. picta as " pungent ." 11. ornata is the only species reported which produces a feeling of mild

  5. Genetic barcoding of marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) from Florida sea turtles and their divergence in host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowin, Audrey E; Truong, Triet M; Corbett, Adrian M; Bagley, Dean A; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Bresette, Michael J; Weege, Steven T; Clark, Dave

    2011-03-01

    Ozobranchus margoi and Ozobranchus branchiatus are the only two species of marine turtle leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) known to inhabit the Atlantic coast of the United States and the Gulf of Mexico. In early reports of fibropapillomatosis (FP) in green turtles (Chelonia mydas), O. branchiatus was implicated as a vector in the transmission of Fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV). It is imperative that the leech species be identified to elucidate the role Ozobranchus spp. may play in disease transmission. In this study, Ozobranchus branchiatus has been identified for the first time on a loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtle, and the molecular data for this species is now available for the first time in GenBank. Both species of leeches were also found infecting a single C. mydas. Using morphological taxonomy combined with distance- and character-based genetic sequence analyses, this study has established a DNA barcode for both species of Ozobranchus spp. leech and has shown it can be applied successfully to the identification of leeches at earlier stages of development when morphological taxonomy cannot be employed. The results suggest a different haplotype may exist for O. branchiatus leeches found on C. caretta versus C. mydas. Leech cocoon residue collected from a C. mydas was identified using the new method.

  6. Medicinal Leech Therapy for Glans Penis Congestion After Primary Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias Repair in an Infant: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenheim, Gavin N; Au, Jason; Gargollo, Patricio C

    2016-01-01

    Many postoperative complications have been reported after repair of classic bladder exstrophy. We present a case of medicinal leech therapy for glans penis congestion following exstrophy repair in an infant. A 2-week-old male with classic bladder exstrophy underwent complete primary repair. On postoperative day 1, he developed rapidly worsening glans penis venous congestion. Medicinal leech therapy was instituted with antibiotics and blood transfusions to maintain a hematocrit >30%. After 24 hours, venous congestion improved and therapy was discontinued. The patient's remaining hospital course was uncomplicated. Medicinal leeches are an effective therapy to relieve glans penis venous congestion.

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of glacial-drift aquifers, Leech Lake Indian Reservation, north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Among the duties of the water managers of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in north-central Minnesota are the development and protection of the water resources of the Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Leech Lake Indian Reservation Business Committee, conducted a three and one half-year study (1988-91) of the ground-water resources of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation. The objectives of this study were to describe the availability and quality of ground water contained in glacial-drift aquifers underlying the Reservation.

  8. The Physiology and Mechanics of Undulatory Swimming: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Medicinal Leeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The medicinal leech is a useful animal model for investigating undulatory swimming in the classroom. Unlike many swimming organisms, its swimming performance can be quantified without specialized equipment. A large blood meal alters swimming behavior in a way that can be used to generate a discussion of the hydrodynamics of swimming, muscle…

  9. High contrast imaging at the LBT: the LEECH exoplanet imaging survey

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew J; Esposito, Simone; Skrutskie, Michael F; Defrere, Denis; Bailey, Vanessa; Leisenring, Jarron; Apai, Daniel; Biller, Beth; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin; De Rosa, Robert J; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E; Zimmerman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its $\\sim$130-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4-meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reduce the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 $\\mu$m), as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 $\\mu$m) of other surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deep mass sensitivity, especially around nearby adolescent ($\\sim$0.1-1 Gyr) stars. LEECH's contrast is competitive with other extreme adaptive optics systems, while providing an alternative survey strategy. Additionally, LEECH is characterizing known exoplanetary systems with observations from 3-5$\\mu$m in preparation for JWST.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain Hv1, an Isolate from Medicinal Leech Mucosal Castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brittany M; Beka, Lidia; Graf, Joerg; Rio, Rita V M

    2015-12-17

    The Pedobacter sp. Hv1 strain was isolated from the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, mucosal castings. These mucosal sheds have been demonstrated to play a role in horizontal symbiont transmission. Here, we report the draft 4.9 Mbp genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. strain Hv1.

  11. The Leech Nervous System: A Valuable Model to Study the Microglia Involvement in Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Le Marrec-Croq

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS. During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  12. Identification, isolation and expansion of myoendothelial cells involved in leech muscle regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Adult skeletal muscle in vertebrates contains myoendothelial cells that express both myogenic and endothelial markers, and which are able to differentiate into myogenic cells to contribute to muscle regeneration. In spite of intensive research efforts, numerous questions remain regarding the role of cytokine signalling on myoendothelial cell differentiation and muscle regeneration. Here we used Hirudo medicinalis (Annelid, leech as an emerging new model to study myoendothelial cells and muscle regeneration. Although the leech has relative anatomical simplicity, it shows a striking similarity with vertebrate responses and is a reliable model for studying a variety of basic events, such as tissue repair. Double immunohistochemical analysis were used to characterize myoendothelial cells in leeches and, by injecting in vivo the matrigel biopolymer supplemented with the cytokine Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, we were able to isolate this specific cell population expressing myogenic and endothelial markers. We then evaluated the effect of VEGF on these cells in vitro. Our data indicate that, similar to that proposed for vertebrates, myoendothelial cells of the leech directly participate in myogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, and that VEGF secretion is involved in the recruitment and expansion of these muscle progenitor cells.

  13. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  14. Microsurgical replantation and postoperative leech treatment of a large severed nasal segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemann Andersen, Peter; Elberg, Jens Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The survival of a microsurgically replanted segment of nose in a 41-year-old woman was facilitated by the assistance of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. An arterial microanastomosis was made to a severed partial segment of nose with no possibility of recreating a venous anastomosis. The re...

  15. An unusual cause of severe dyspnea: A laryngeal live leech: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Anajar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Leeches should be suspected as an airway foreign body in patients with a recent history of drinking from stream water. Prevention remains the best treatment for such cases based simply on hygiene measures like not drinking stream water directly and filtering drinking water before it is used.

  16. The Physiology and Mechanics of Undulatory Swimming: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Medicinal Leeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The medicinal leech is a useful animal model for investigating undulatory swimming in the classroom. Unlike many swimming organisms, its swimming performance can be quantified without specialized equipment. A large blood meal alters swimming behavior in a way that can be used to generate a discussion of the hydrodynamics of swimming, muscle…

  17. Infections following the application of leeches: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maetz Benjamin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Since the 1980s, leeches have been ingeniously used in the management of venous flap congestion. The presence of anticoagulative substances in their saliva improves the blood drainage. Their digestive tract contains several bacterial species, the main ones being Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, which contribute to the digestion of ingested blood. These bacteria can be the cause of infections. Case presentation We report two cases of septicemia related to Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria that presented after leeches had been applied to congested transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for delayed mammary reconstructions. Patient number 1 was a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the sixth postoperative day she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s skin and blood bacteriological samples. Her fever ceased after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Patient number 2 was a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the seventh postoperative day we noticed that she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s blood cultures and local bacteriological samples. An antibiogram showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Her fever ceased on the eleventh postoperative day after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Conclusion The rate of infection after application of leeches is not negligible. The concentration of Aeromonas inside the digestive tracts of leeches largely decreases when the patient is under antibiotic therapy. These germs are sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. We recommend preventive treatment based on classical measures of asepsis and on oral antibioprophylaxy with a fluoroquinolone

  18. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  19. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie Tasiemski; François Massol; Virginie Cuvillier-Hot; Céline Boidin-Wichlacz; Emmanuel Roger; Franck Rodet; Isabelle Fournier; Frédéric Thomas; Michel Salzet

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish-or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced b...

  20. Humoral response of captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to salivary gland proteins of the leech Branchellion torpedinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marancik, David P; Leary, John H; Fast, Mark M; Flajnik, Martin F; Camus, Alvin C

    2012-10-01

    Parasitism by the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis is known to cause disease and mortality in captive elasmobranchs and is difficult to control when inadvertently introduced into public aquaria. Preliminary characterization of the salivary gland transcriptome of B. torpedinis has identified anticoagulants, proteases, and immunomodulators that may be secreted into host tissues to aid leech feeding. This retrospective study examined antigen-specific serum IgM responses in captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to leech salivary gland extract. Antibody response was examined by ELISA and Western blot assays in 20 serum samples from six zebra sharks, with a 5 year history of leech infection, and 18 serum samples from 8 captive bred zebra sharks, with no history of leech exposure. ELISA demonstrated significantly higher serum IgM titers to salivary gland extract in exposed zebra sharks compared to the non-exposed population. No obvious trends in antibody titers were appreciated in exposed zebra sharks over a four-year period. One-dimensional and two-dimensional Western blot assays revealed IgM targeted specific salivary gland proteins within the 40, 55, 70 and 90 kD range. Antigenic proteins identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and de novo peptide sequencing include a secreted disintegrin, metalloproteinase and thrombospondin motif containing protein (ADAMTS), tubulin, aldehyde dehydrogenase and two unknown proteins. Humoral immune responses to leech salivary gland proteins warrants further investigation as there may be options to exploit immune mechanisms to reduce parasite burdens in aquaria.

  1. Basic morphofunctional features of pharmaceutic leech (Hirudo verbana Carena, 1820) tissues in various forms of response after hirudotherapeutic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Aleksandr K; Litvinenko, Raisa A

    2015-01-01

    It is analyzed morphofunctional features of Hirudo verbana tissues on histological sections in order to determine the possible causes of their partial death after hirudotherapeutic procedure. In the study was taken 4 groups of leeches: hungry (control), healthy well-fed, well-fed that vomited blood and well-fed dead. Morphofunctional changes in midgut of healthy well-fed H. verbana compared to the hungry are the changes of epithelium height through stretching eaten blood. In well-fed that vomited blood and well-fed dead leeches in the intestinal epithelium were observed degenerative processes that are accompanied by a decrease in the height of the epithelium, its partial desquamation. Botryoidal tissue of hungry leeches is in an inactive state, in healthy well-fed ones it responds with an increased physiological vascularization, activation of some botryoidal granulocytes with an increase in their average size, on receipt of the products of digestion. Activation of some botryoidal granulocytes, without a significant increase in their sizes, in well-fed leeches that vomited eaten blood and well-fed dead leeches, with increased infiltration of the adjacent connective tissue lymphocyte- and macrophage-like cells, amebocytes and granulocytes indicates the development of pathological processes, which are resulting in immunological conflict between eaten human blood and leeches' tissue microenvironment.

  2. Leech predation on amphibian eggs%水蛭捕食两栖类卵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio ROMANO; Anna Rita Di CERBO

    2007-01-01

    Many oviparous organisms develop elaborate strategies against egg-predators to reduce the likelihood of mortality, since predatory pressure on early stages of development in organisms with complex life cycles can strongly influence their survival. Amphibian eggs are preyed upon by a wide range of taxa including macrophagous leeches. We surveyed the literature for references where amphibian egg predation by leeches was reported and uncovered 27 papers. Amphibian egg predation by leeches was previously reported for a greater percentage of anurans (3.6%, n=591) than urodeles (1.6%, n=255). Furthermore, we provided the first record of leech predation on the eggs of Northern spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata. This appears to be the first report for Western European urodeles. No significant difference between the two amphibian orders was observed. However, when we analyzed the data from the three geographic areas of North America, Europe and Asia separately, differences were observed between anuran and urodele species in Northern America. Leeches were observed foraging upon all amphibian life stages. Leeches should be included, therefore, among the natural enemies of some species of amphibians.%许多卵生动物具有对付食卵者的精巧策略以降低死亡率,因为早期发育阶段的捕食压力能显著影响具复杂生活史动物的生存.两栖动物卵被水蛭等很多物种所捕食.我们查阅了水蛭捕食两栖类卵的文献,发现27篇论文.在所报道的水蛭捕食两栖类卵的例子中,无尾类(3.6%, n=591)明显多于有尾类(1.6%, n=255).此外,我们第一次记录到水蛭捕食四趾螈(Salamandrina perspicillata)卵,这也是西欧有尾类的第一例报道.我们没有发现两个两栖动物类群间存在差异.然而,当我们分别分析来自北美、欧洲和亚洲三个地区的数据时,发现北美的有尾类和无尾类间存在显著差异.水蛭可捕食各生活史阶段的两栖动物,因此,水蛭

  3. Functional morphology of suction discs and attachment performance of the Mediterranean medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana Carena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampowski, Tim; Eberhard, Laura; Gallenmüller, Friederike; Speck, Thomas; Poppinga, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Medicinal leeches use their suction discs for locomotion, adhesion to the host and, in the case of the anterior disc, also for blood ingestion. The biomechanics of their suction-based adhesion systems has been little understood until now. We investigated the functional morphology of the anterior and posterior suckers ofH irudo verbena by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we analysed the adhesion qualitatively and quantitatively by conducting behavioural and mechanical experiments. Our high-speed video analyses provide new insights into the attachment and detachment processes and we present a detailed description of the leech locomotion cycle. Pull-off force measurements of the anterior and posterior suction organs on seven different substrates under both aerial and water-submersed conditions reveal a significant influence of the surrounding medium, the substrate surface roughness and the tested organ on attachment forces and tenacities.

  4. New species of rhynchobdellid leech (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae): a parasite of turtles from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, Serapio; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    A new species of rhynchobdellid leech, Placobdella ringueleti n. sp., is described based on the examination of 25 specimens. Leeches were collected from body appendages of freshwater turtles (Kinosternon leucostomum, Dermatemys mawii, and Staurotypus triporcatus ) from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species resembles other members of the genus in the ocular morphology, bilobated ovaries, and presence of 1 pair of elongated mycetomes, but it is distinguished from them by the dorsal papillar pattern, by having a continuous longitudinal mid-dorsal stripe along the dorsal surface and papillae on the dorsal surface of the posterior sucker. Placobdella ringueleti represents the third species of the genus in Mexico. The type locality of the new species is part of the “El Ocote” Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico.

  5. Alpha-conotoxin ImI disrupts central control of swimming in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Daniel A; Gonzalez, Ruben; Ries, David C; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2010-11-26

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) swim using a metachronal, front-to-back undulation. The behavior is generated by central pattern generators (CPGs) distributed along the animal's midbody ganglia and is coordinated by both central and peripheral mechanisms. Here we report that a component of the venom of Conus imperialis, α-conotoxin ImI, known to block nicotinic acetyl-choline receptors in other species, disrupts swimming. Leeches injected with the toxin swam in circles with exaggerated dorsoventral bends and reduced forward velocity. Fictive swimming in isolated nerve cords was even more strongly disrupted, indicating that the toxin targets the CPGs and central coordination, while peripheral coordination partially rescues the behavior in intact animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On Leech's Politeness Principle%谈利奇的礼貌语言原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娟

    2001-01-01

    @@ Among the princples proposed by pragmaticists to explain the phenomena in the use of language in conversation, Ciriee's Cooperative Principle(CP) is one of the basic ones. But Leech thinks that it fails to explain all the phenomena in language use, especially fails to explain why people tend to use many indirect speech acts to violate CP, so he puts forword the Politeness Principle (PP). Here are the two examples he uses to illustrate PP is "a necessary complement" of CP:

  7. Origin and fate of hematopoietic stem precursor cells in the leech Hirudo medicinalis

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMALDI, A

    2016-01-01

    The hematopoietic process by which blood cells are formed has been intensely studied for over a century using several model systems. An increasing amount of evidence shows that hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, immune response and the regulating these processes (i.e., cytokines) are highly conserved across taxonomic groups. Over the last decade, the leech Hirudo medicinalis, given its simple anatomy and its repertoire of less varied cell types when compared to vertebrates, has been ...

  8. A New Potent Inhibitor of Thrombin from the Leech Haemendipsa Yanyuanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two components of anticoagulant protein were isolated from the leech Haemendipsa yanyuanensis by heparin agarose affinity chromatography and ultracentrifugation. The determination of anticoagulant activity and characterization analysis of the pro tein using the method of chromogenic substrate indicates that the anticoagulant protein is thrombin-specific but not factor Xa-specific. The results lay a foundation for the research of the anticoagulant mechanism and application of anticoagulant protein from H. yanyua nensis.

  9. Human recombinant RNASET2-induced inflammatory response and connective tissue remodeling in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzini, Nicolò; Pedrini, Edoardo; Girardello, Rossana; Tettamanti, Gianluca; de Eguileor, Magda; Taramelli, Roberto; Acquati, Francesco; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2017-01-09

    In recent years, several studies have demonstrated that the RNASET2 gene is involved in the control of tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, a role in establishing a functional cross-talk between cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment has been unveiled for this gene, based on its ability to act as an inducer of the innate immune response. Although several studies have reported on the molecular features of RNASET2, the details on the mechanisms by which this evolutionarily conserved ribonuclease regulates the immune system are still poorly defined. In the effort to clarify this aspect, we report here the effect of recombinant human RNASET2 injection and its role in regulating the innate immune response after bacterial challenge in an invertebrate model, the medicinal leech. We found that recombinant RNASET2 injection induces fibroplasias, connective tissue remodeling and the recruitment of numerous infiltrating cells expressing the specific macrophage markers CD68 and HmAIF1. The RNASET2-mediated chemotactic activity for macrophages has been further confirmed by using a consolidated experimental approach based on injection of the Matrigel biomatrice (MG) supplemented with recombinant RNASET2 in the leech body wall. One week after injection, a large number of CD68(+) and HmAIF-1(+) macrophages massively infiltrated MG sponges. Finally, in leeches challenged with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with the environmental bacteria pathogen Micrococcus nishinomiyaensis, numerous macrophages migrating to the site of inoculation expressed high levels of endogenous RNASET2. Taken together, these results suggest that RNASET2 is likely involved in the initial phase of the inflammatory response in leeches.

  10. De novo transcriptome assembly databases for the central nervous system of the medicinal leech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibsh, Dror; Schori, Hadas; Efroni, Sol; Shefi, Orit

    2015-01-01

    The study of non-model organisms stands to benefit greatly from genetic and genomic data. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving neuronal development, and to characterize the entire leech Hirudo medicinalis central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome we combined Trinity for de-novo assembly and Illumina HiSeq2000 for RNA-Seq. We present a set of 73,493 de-novo assembled transcripts for the leech, reconstructed from RNA collected, at a single ganglion resolution, from the CNS. This set of transcripts greatly enriches the available data for the leech. Here, we share two databases, such that each dataset allows a different type of search for candidate homologues. The first is the raw set of assembled transcripts. This set allows a sequence-based search. A comprehensive analysis of which revealed 22,604 contigs with high e-values, aligned versus the Swiss-Prot database. This analysis enabled the production of the second database, which includes correlated sequences to annotated transcript names, with the confidence of BLAST best hit. PMID:25977819

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly databases for the central nervous system of the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibsh, Dror; Schori, Hadas; Efroni, Sol; Shefi, Orit

    2015-01-01

    The study of non-model organisms stands to benefit greatly from genetic and genomic data. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving neuronal development, and to characterize the entire leech Hirudo medicinalis central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome we combined Trinity for de-novo assembly and Illumina HiSeq2000 for RNA-Seq. We present a set of 73,493 de-novo assembled transcripts for the leech, reconstructed from RNA collected, at a single ganglion resolution, from the CNS. This set of transcripts greatly enriches the available data for the leech. Here, we share two databases, such that each dataset allows a different type of search for candidate homologues. The first is the raw set of assembled transcripts. This set allows a sequence-based search. A comprehensive analysis of which revealed 22,604 contigs with high e-values, aligned versus the Swiss-Prot database. This analysis enabled the production of the second database, which includes correlated sequences to annotated transcript names, with the confidence of BLAST best hit.

  12. EFFICACY OF LEECH THERAPY AND AYURVEDIC COMPOUND IN VITILIGO: A QUASI EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Hemanta kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This interventional, quasi-experimental study (pre-post test design was conducted at Ayurveda Central Research Institute, New Delhi to study the efficacy of Leech Therapy along with some Ayurvedic medicine in vitiligo. Patients were selected by non-probability purposive sampling method after obtaining an informed consent. Twenty patients suffering from vitiligo (12 male and 08 female, aged more than 15 years and involving less than 25% of body surface area were enrolled. All the patients were kept in a single group. All the patients were called to OPD for Leech application once in a week. The patients were followed up weekly for first month and later on fortnightly for five months to monitor the improvement and adverse effects. The mean re-pigmentation achieved was 60 % (VASI score of 3.69, while the arrest of progression (stationary was noted in 35 % of patients. In 5% of patient it was spreading. We recommend that leech therapy along with internal administration of Ayurvedic medicine is effective in the treatment of Vitiligo.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition studies by natural leech inhibitors by capillary electrophoresis and competition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, Laurence; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Huybrechts, Roger; Hens, Korneel; Vieau, Didier; Salzet, Michel

    2004-06-01

    A protocol to follow the processing of angiotensin I into angiotensin II by rabbit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its inhibition by a novel natural antagonist, the leech osmoregulator factor (LORF) using capillary zonal electrophoresis is described. The experiment was carried out using the Beckman PACE system and steps were taken to determine (a) the migration profiles of angiotensin and its yielded peptides, (b) the minimal amount of angiotensin II detected, (c) the use of different electrolytes and (d) the concentration of inhibitor. We demonstrated that LORF (IPEPYVWD), a neuropeptide previously found in leech brain, is able to inhibit rabbit ACE with an IC(50) of 19.8 micro m. Interestingly, its cleavage product, IPEP exhibits an IC(50) of 11.5 micro m. A competition assay using p-benzoylglycylglycylglycine and insect ACE established that LORF and IPEP fragments are natural inhibitors for invertebrate ACE. Fifty-four percent of insect ACE activity is inhibited with 50 micro m IPEP and 35% inhibition with LORF (25 mm). Extending the peptide at both N- and C-terminus (GWEIPEPYVWDES) and the cleavage of IPEP in IP abolished the inhibitory activity of both peptides. Immunocytochemical data obtained with antisera raised against LORF and leech ACE showed a colocalization between the enzyme and its inhibitor in the same neurons. These results showed that capillary zonal electrophoresis is a useful technique for following enzymatic processes with small amounts of products and constitutes the first evidence of a natural ACE inhibitor in invertebrates.

  14. Karyotype characterization of the endemic piscine leech from Lake Baikal with vindication of Baicalobdella cottidarum Dogiel, 1957 (Piscicolidae, Hirudinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaygorodova Irina A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present for the first time data on karyotype analysis of leeches of the genus Baicalobdella (Piscicolidae parasitizing Lake Baikal endemic cottoid fishes. Both mitotic and meiotic chromosomes are described. Leech testisacs were processed by a “shaking-blotting” technique, and chromosomal preparations were stained with water-based fuchsine. Diploid and haploid chromosome sets demonstrated 2n=34 and n=17, respectively, with maximal chromosome length of 1.5-3.0 μm. Comparative karyotype analysis of two ecological forms of Baicalobdella leeches revealed differences in chromosome numbers and its morphology. Previously studied Baicalobdella torquata (Grube, 1871 parasitizing Baikal amphipods had smaller diploid and haploid sets (2n=32, n=16. In addition to numerical superiority, differing patterns of chromosome size gradation and presence of satellite elements were found in the karyotype of piscine Baicalobdella leeches. This confirms the systematic position of the Baikal cottoid leech parasite as a separate species, validating the original name Baicalobdella cottidarum sensu Dogiel, 1957.

  15. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-12-04

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial.

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida: Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Hopkins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis is among the most intriguing and imperiled amphibians in North America. Since the 1970s and 80s, western populations of the Ozark and eastern subspecies in Missouri have declined by nearly 80%. As a result of population declines, the Ozark hellbender was recently federally protected as an endangered species, and the eastern subspecies was granted protection under CITES. Although habitat degradation is probably the biggest threat to hellbender populations, recent evidence suggests that pathogens including chytrid fungus and “flesh-eating” bacteria may also contribute to declines in Ozark hellbenders. Leeches, which are very common on Ozark hellbenders, have recently been implicated as possible vectors of disease among Ozark hellbenders but have not been described in eastern hellbenders or outside of Missouri and Arkansas. We discovered a population of leeches on eastern hellbenders in southwest Virginia and confirmed that the species of leech is within the genus Placobdella, but is morphologically and genetically distinct from all previously described leech species. We named the new species Placobdella appalachiensis sp. n. Moser and Hopkins, based on the mountainous region in which it was discovered. Our surveys over a three consecutive year period suggested that this leech species may be patchily distributed and/or have a narrow geographic range. We consistently detected leeches at one site (mean prevalence in 80 hellbenders = 27.5%; median intensity = 3.0 leeches per parasitized hellbender [range 1 - >250 leeches] during three years of surveys, but we never found leeches in any of our other seven study sites in two streams (mean prevalence in 139 hellbenders = 0%. We found a significant positive relationship between hellbender body size and the intensity of parasitism, and we suggest the possibility that the behavioral ecology of adults leading up to reproduction may increase their encounter

  17. Evidence for a novel chemotactic C1q domain-containing factor in the leech nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Daha, Mohamed R; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2009-02-01

    In vertebrates, central nervous system (CNS) protection is dependent on many immune cells including microglial cells. Indeed, activated microglial cells are involved in neuroinflammation mechanisms by interacting with numerous immune factors. Unlike vertebrates, some lophotrochozoan invertebrates can fully repair their CNS following injury. In the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis, the recruitment of microglial cells at the lesion site is essential for sprouting of injured axons. Interestingly, a new molecule homologous to vertebrate C1q was characterized in leech, named HmC1q (for H. medicinalis) and detected in neurons and glial cells. In chemotaxis assays, leech microglial cells were demonstrated to respond to human C1q. The chemotactic activity was reduced when microglia was preincubated with signaling pathway inhibitors (Pertussis Toxin or wortmannin) or anti-human gC1qR antibody suggesting the involvement of gC1qR in C1q-mediated migration in leech. Assays using cells preincubated with NO chelator (cPTIO) showed that C1q-mediated migration was associated to NO production. Of interest, by using anti-HmC1q antibodies, HmC1q released in the culture medium was shown to exhibit a similar chemotactic effect on microglial cells as human C1q. In summary, we have identified, for the first time, a molecule homologous to mammalian C1q in leech CNS. Its chemoattractant activity on microglia highlights a new investigation field leading to better understand leech CNS repair mechanisms.

  18. A homologous form of human interleukin 16 is implicated in microglia recruitment following nervous system injury in leech Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Tuzova, Marina; Tahtouh, Muriel; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Cruikshank, William W; Pestel, Joel; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to mammals, the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis can completely repair its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. This invertebrate model offers unique opportunities to study the molecular and cellular basis of the CNS repair processes. When the leech CNS is injured, microglial cells migrate and accumulate at the site of lesion, a phenomenon known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons. In the present study, we demonstrate that a new molecule, designated HmIL-16, having functional homologies with human interleukin-16 (IL-16), has chemotactic activity on leech microglial cells as observed using a gradient of human IL-16. Preincubation of microglial cells either with an anti-human IL-16 antibody or with anti-HmIL-16 antibody significantly reduced microglia migration induced by leech-conditioned medium. Functional homology was demonstrated further by the ability of HmIL-16 to promote human CD4+ T cell migration which was inhibited by antibody against human IL-16, an IL-16 antagonist peptide or soluble CD4. Immunohistochemistry of leech CNS indicates that HmIL-16 protein present in the neurons is rapidly transported and stored along the axonal processes to promote the recruitment of microglial cells to the injured axons. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of a functional interleukin-16 homologue in invertebrate CNS. The ability of HmIL-16 to recruit microglial cells to sites of CNS injury suggests a role for HmIL-16 in the crosstalk between neurons and microglia in the leech CNS repair.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  20. A new glossiphoniid leech from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2008-04-01

    Haementeria acuecueyetzin n. sp. from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico, is described based on the examination of 6 specimens. This new hematophagous leech species resembles other members of the genus in the number and position of the eyespots, number of compact salivary glands, and in the presence of 2 pairs of spheroidal mycetomes, but it is distinguished from the other species by having 6 rows of longitudinal smooth white papillae in the dorsal surface and numerous tubercles in dorsal and ventral surfaces. This new species represents the third species of Haementeria in the Northern Hemisphere of the Americas.

  1. A leech model for homeostatic plasticity and motor network recovery after loss of descending inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Brian J

    2016-04-01

    Motor networks below the site of spinal cord injury (SCI) and their reconfiguration after loss of central inputs are poorly understood but remain of great interest in SCI research. Harley et al. (J Neurophysiol 113: 3610-3622, 2015) report a striking locomotor recovery paradigm in the leech Hirudo verbena with features that are functionally analogous to SCI. They propose that this well-established neurophysiological system could potentially be repurposed to provide a complementary model to investigate basic principles of homeostatic compensation relevant to SCI research.

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Kazal-Type Trypsin Inhibitor from the Leech of Hirudinaria manillensis

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    Yanmei Lai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors are found in a large number of living organisms and play crucial roles in various biological and physiological processes. Although some Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors have been identified in leeches, none has been reported from Hirudinaria manillensis, which is a medically important leech. In this study, a novel Kazal-type trypsin inhibitor was isolated from leech H. manillensis, purified and named as bdellin-HM based on the sequence similarity with bdellin-KL and bdellin B-3. Structural analysis revealed that bdellin-HM was a 17,432.8 Da protein and comprised of 149 amino acid residues with six cysteines forming three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Bdellin-HM showed similarity with the Kazal-type domain and may belong to the group of “non-classical” Kazal inhibitors according to its CysI-CysII disulfide bridge position. Bdellin-HM had no inhibitory effect on elastase, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, Factor (F XIIa, FXIa, FXa, thrombin and plasmin, but it showed a potent ability to inhibit trypsin with an inhibition constant (Ki of (8.12 ± 0.18 × 10−9 M. These results suggest that bdellin-HM from the leech of H. manillensis plays a potent and specific inhibitory role towards trypsin.

  3. An annotated check list of the leeches (Annelida : Hirudinea of the Kruger National Park with a key to the species

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    J.H. Oosthuizen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis, distribution and bionomics of the ten species of leeches occurring in the Kruger National Park and a key to the identification of the species are presented. Seven species belong to the family Glossiphoniidae, two to the family Hirudinidae and one species to the family Salifidae. The African fish leech Batracobdelloides tricarinatus and the reptilian parasite Placobdelloidesmultistriatus are the most common species in the park. Two of the three snail leeches occurring in the reserve, viz. Alboglossiphoniadisjuncta and Helobdella conifera, the predaceous Salifa perspicax and the sanguivorous Hirudo michaelseni are widespread but not common. The snail leech Alboglossiphonia conjugata occurs only in the small Madzaringwi River and its tributaries located in the most northern part of the park. The amphibian parasite Oosthuizobdella stuhlmanni was found only at two adjacent localities in the most southern reaches of the park with the sanguivorous Asiatic obdella buntonensis limited to the southern half of the reserve. The host-specific parasite of hippopotami, Placobdelloidesjaegerskioeldi, is restricted to habitats inhabited by its host.

  4. Dopamine Induces Rhythmic Activity and Enhances Postinhibitory Rebound in a Leech Motor Neuron Involved in Swimming and Crawling Behaviors

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    James D. Angstadt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Amine neurotransmitters play an important role in controlling motor behavior in many animals, including the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis. Previous studies have established serotonin as an important modulator of swimming behavior. Serotonin levels are elevated in the blood of frequently swimming leeches and bath application of serotonin to isolated nerve cord preparations evokes fictive swimming. Serotonin alters the intrinsic electrical properties of interneurons and motor neurons involved in generating swimming behavior. In particular, serotonin increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration, of postinhibitory rebound (PIR responses in cell DE-3, a motor neuron that innervates the dorsal longitudinal muscle cells of the body wall. More recent studies have implicated dopamine in the suppression of swimming behavior and the initiation of crawling. Here we show that bath application of dopamine to isolated leech ganglia induces rhythmic oscillatory activity in cell DE-3. The long cycle period of these oscillations is consistent with crawling, but not swimming behavior. Dopamine increases the amplitude of PIR responses in cell DE-3, but unlike serotonin does not decrease its duration. These effects provide further support for the hypothesis that dopamine promotes crawling behavior in the leech.

  5. More than just one: multiplicity of Hirudins and Hirudin-like Factors in the Medicinal Leech, Hirudo medicinalis.

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    Müller, Christian; Mescke, Katharina; Liebig, Stephanie; Mahfoud, Hala; Lemke, Sarah; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blood-sucking leeches like the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, have been used for medical purposes since ancient times. During feeding, medicinal leeches transfer a broad range of bioactive substances into the host's wound to prevent premature hemostasis and blood coagulation. Hirudin is probably the best known of these substances. Despite its long history of investigation, recombinant production and clinical use, there still exist conflicting data regarding the primary structure of hirudin. Entirely unclear is the potential biological significance of three different subtypes and many isoforms of hirudins that have been characterized so far. Furthermore, there is only incomplete information on their cDNA sequences and no information at all on gene structures and DNA sequences are available in the databases. Our efforts to fill these gaps revealed the presence of multiple hirudin-encoding genes in the genome of Hirudo medicinalis. We have strong evidence for the expression of all three subtypes of hirudin within individual leeches and for the expression of additional hirudins or hirudin-like factors that may have different biological functions and may be promising candidates for new drugs.

  6. Study of the Effect of Leeching on Plasma Endothelin and Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    CHENG Shi-ping; LIU Jia-lin; YUAN Jing

    2005-01-01

    Objective:to explore the mechanism of leeching in treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: Forty-four patients with SLE were randomly divided into conventional corticosteroid treated group (control group, n =20) and conventional treatment group with leeching intervention added (leeching group, n= 24). Before and after treatment the concentration of plasma endothelin (ET) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) were determined. Results: Before treatment the level of plasma ET and sIL-2R in the SLE patients were all higher than those in the normal healthy group, (P<0.01). But after treatment the level of these in both groups were significantly improved than those of before treatment (P<0.05), and comparison between these two treated groups showed that the difference between them was significant (P<0.05).Conclusion: Leeching added to conventional treatment of SLE could be more effective in improving the level of plasma ET and sIL-2R, and ameliorating the impairment of renal tissues.

  7. Toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide in leech Retzius nerve cells: the protective role of glutathione.

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    Jovanovic, Zorica; Jovanovic, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the ability of glutathione (GSH) to detoxify exogenously applied cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). Exposure of leech Retzius nerve cells to CHP (1.5 mM) induced a marked prolongation of the spontaneous spike potential of these cells. Early after depolarization, and a cardiac-like action potential with a rapid depolarization followed by a sustained depolarization or plateau, which is terminated by a rapid repolarization were recorded. GSH (0.2 mM) significantly inhibited the effects of CHP on the duration of the action potential and suppressed CHP-induced spontaneous repetitive activity. Voltage-clamp recordings showed that CHP (1.5 mM) caused significant changes in the outward potassium currents. The fast and slow steady part of the potassium outward current was reduced by 46% and 39%, respectively. GSH applied in a concentration of 0.2 mM partially blocked the effect of CHP on the calcium-activated potassium currents. The fast and slow calcium-activated potassium currents were suppressed by about 20% and 15%, respectively. These results suggest that the neurotoxic effect of CHP on spontaneous spike electrogenesis and calcium-activated potassium currents of leech Retzius nerve cells was reduced in the presence of GSH.

  8. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure-like behavior and neural hyperactivity in the medicinal leech.

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    Hahn, Elizabeth; Burrell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors. During in vitro experiments in which extracellular recordings of connective nerve activity were made, bath application of 1 μM PTZ in Mg(2+)-free saline elicited a significant increase in spontaneous activity. This PTZ-induced increase in activity was completely inhibited by phenytoin. Interestingly, PTZ-induced hyperactivity was also blocked by co-application of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. These findings suggest that the leech can be a useful system in which to study potential anti-epileptic treatments.

  9. Decision Points: The factors influencing the decision to feed in the medicinal leech

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    Quentin eGaudry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The decision to feed is a complex task that requires several small independent choices. Am I hungry? Where do I look for food? Is there something better I’d rather be doing? When should I stop? With all of these questions, it is no wonder that decisions about feeding depend on several sensory modalities and that the influences of these sensory systems would be evident throughout the nervous system. The leech is uniquely well suited for studying these complicated questions due to its relatively simple nervous system, its exceptionally well-characterized behaviors and neural circuits, and the ease with which one can perform semi-intact preparations to study the link between physiology and decision-making. We will begin this review by discussing the cellular substrates that govern the decision to initiate and to terminate a bout of feeding. We will then discuss how feeding temporarily blocks competing behaviors from being expressed while the animal continues to feed. Then we will review what is currently known about how feeding affects long-term behavioral choices of the leech. Finally, we conclude with a short discussion of the advantages of the leech’s decision-making circuit’s design and how this design might be applicable to all decision circuits.

  10. Effect of broodstock density on reproduction and juvenile culture of green buffalo leech, Hirudinea manillensis

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    Zulhisyam Abdul Kari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the broodstock density on reproduction and juvenile culture of green buffalo leech, Hirudinea manillensis was examined with six different densities (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ind tank-1. The number of cocoons produced was significantly different among the different densities (p = 0.00 after three months of culture. Although hatching rate was not (p = 0.354, the average number of hatchings per cocoon was also significantly different (p<0.05 with 5 ind tank-1 gave the highest number (6.61±1. The 25 ind tank-1 produced the highest mortality of parent leeches (67±13.16%. According to their length and diameter, the sizes of the cocoons were not significantly different among the treatments, with the 5 ind tank-1 having the largest cocoon of 22.19±0.92 mm and 13.25±0.07 mm, respectively. The wet weight of cocoons was significantly different at p<0.05 with the 5 ind tank-1 producing the heaviest cocoons of 1.26±0.11g compared to the 25 ind tank-1producing the lightest cocoons of 0.22±0.38 g.

  11. Field and experimental evidence of a new caiman trypanosome species closely phylogenetically related to fish trypanosomes and transmitted by leeches

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    Bruno R. Fermino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma terena and Trypanosoma ralphi are known species of the South American crocodilians Caiman crocodilus, Caiman yacare and Melanosuchus niger and are phylogenetically related to the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma grayi of the African Crocodylus niloticus. These trypanosomes form the Crocodilian clade of the terrestrial clade of the genus Trypanosoma. A PCR-survey for trypanosomes in caiman blood samples and in leeches taken from caimans revealed unknown trypanosome diversity and frequent mixed infections. Phylogenies based on SSU (small subunit of rRNA and gGAPDH (glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase gene sequences revealed a new trypanosome species clustering with T. terena and T. ralphi in the crocodilian clade and an additional new species nesting in the distant Aquatic clade of trypanosomes, which is herein named Trypanosoma clandestinus n. sp. This new species was found in Caiman yacare, Caiman crocodilus and M. niger from the Pantanal and Amazonian biomes in Brazil. Large numbers of dividing epimastigotes and unique thin and long trypomastigotes were found in the guts of leeches (Haementeria sp. removed from the mouths of caimans. The trypanosomes recovered from the leeches had sequences identical to those of T. clandestinus of caiman blood samples. Experimental infestation of young caimans (Caiman yacare with infected leeches resulted in long-lasting T. clandestinus infections that permitted us to delineate its life cycle. In contrast to T. terena, T. ralphi and T. grayi, which are detectable by hemoculturing, microscopy and standard PCR of caiman blood, T. clandestinus passes undetected by these methods due to very low parasitemia and could be detected solely by the more sensitive nested PCR method. T. clandestinus n. sp. is the first crocodilian trypanosome known to be transmitted by leeches and positioned in the aquatic clade closest to fish trypanosomes. Our data show that caimans can host trypanosomes

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide through endocannabinoids release in microglia activation during the course of CNS regeneration in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafah, Karim; Croix, Dominique; Vizioli, Jacopo; Desmons, Annie; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The medicinal leech is notable for its capacity to regenerate its central nervous system (CNS) following mechanical trauma. Using an electrochemical nitric oxide (NO)-selective electrode to measure NO levels, we found that the time course of NO release in the injured leech CNS is partially under the control of endocannabinoids, namely, N-arachidonyl ethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Relative quantification of these endocannabinoids was performed by stable isotope dilution (2AGd8 and AAEd8) coupled to mass spectrometry in course of regeneration process or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) treatment. Data show that 2-AG levels rose to a maximum about 30 min after injury or ATP treatment, and returned to baseline levels 4 h after injury. In same conditions, AEA levels also rapidly (within 5 min) dropped after injury or ATP treatment to the nerve cord, but did not fully return to baseline levels within 4 h of injury. In correlation with these data, chemoattraction activities of endocannabinoids on isolated leech microglial cells have been shown in vitro and in vivo reflecting that control over NO production is accompanied by the controlled chemoattraction of microglia directed from the periphery to the lesion site for neuronal repair purposes. Taken together, our results show that in the leech, after injury concurrent with ATP production, purinergic receptor activation, NO production, microglia recruitment, and accumulation to lesion site, a fine imbalance occurs in the endocannabinoid system. These events can bring explanations about the ability of the leech CNS to regenerate after a trauma and the key role of endocannabinoids in this phenomenon.

  13. Field and experimental evidence of a new caiman trypanosome species closely phylogenetically related to fish trypanosomes and transmitted by leeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermino, Bruno R.; Paiva, Fernando; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R.; Viola, Laerte B.; Ferreira, Robson C.; Botero-Arias, Robinson; de-Paula, Cátia D.; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmen S.A.; Teixeira, Marta M.G.; Camargo, Erney P.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma terena and Trypanosoma ralphi are known species of the South American crocodilians Caiman crocodilus, Caiman yacare and Melanosuchus niger and are phylogenetically related to the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma grayi of the African Crocodylus niloticus. These trypanosomes form the Crocodilian clade of the terrestrial clade of the genus Trypanosoma. A PCR-survey for trypanosomes in caiman blood samples and in leeches taken from caimans revealed unknown trypanosome diversity and frequent mixed infections. Phylogenies based on SSU (small subunit) of rRNA and gGAPDH (glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase) gene sequences revealed a new trypanosome species clustering with T. terena and T. ralphi in the crocodilian clade and an additional new species nesting in the distant Aquatic clade of trypanosomes, which is herein named Trypanosoma clandestinus n. sp. This new species was found in Caiman yacare, Caiman crocodilus and M. niger from the Pantanal and Amazonian biomes in Brazil. Large numbers of dividing epimastigotes and unique thin and long trypomastigotes were found in the guts of leeches (Haementeria sp.) removed from the mouths of caimans. The trypanosomes recovered from the leeches had sequences identical to those of T. clandestinus of caiman blood samples. Experimental infestation of young caimans (Caiman yacare) with infected leeches resulted in long-lasting T. clandestinus infections that permitted us to delineate its life cycle. In contrast to T. terena, T. ralphi and T. grayi, which are detectable by hemoculturing, microscopy and standard PCR of caiman blood, T. clandestinus passes undetected by these methods due to very low parasitemia and could be detected solely by the more sensitive nested PCR method. T. clandestinus n. sp. is the first crocodilian trypanosome known to be transmitted by leeches and positioned in the aquatic clade closest to fish trypanosomes. Our data show that caimans can host trypanosomes of the aquatic or

  14. Novel genotypes of Trypanosoma binneyi from wild platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and identification of a leech as a potential vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Macgregor, James; Irwin, Peter J; Warren, Kristin; Ryan, Una M

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and pathogenesis of trypanosomes in Australian monotremes, and few genetic characterisation studies have been conducted with these haemoparasites. During the present investigation, molecular and microscopic methods were used to screen peripheral blood (n=28) and ectoparasites (n=10 adult ticks; n=5 tick nymphs; n=1 leech; and n>500 tick eggs) collected from wild Tasmanian platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), for the presence of trypanosomatid-specific DNA and/or trypomastigotes. The genes for the small ribosomal subunit RNA (18S rDNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) were amplified and sequenced, prior to conducting phylogenetic analyses. The detection rate of the parasite-specific 18S rDNA in platypus blood was 85.7% (n=24/28), and the leech was also positive at both loci. Microscopically, high parasitaemia and the presence of abundant trypomastigotes, morphologically consistent with Trypanosoma binneyi Mackerras (1959), were observed in the blood films. Phylogenetic analyses at the 18S locus revealed the existence of four trypanosomatid-like genotypes, with variable similarity to two previously-described genotypes of T. binneyi (range of genetic p-distance: 0.0-0.5%). For the gGAPDH locus, for which only one T. binneyi sequence is available in GenBank, three genotypes closely related T. binneyi were identified (range of genetic p-distance: 0.1-0.4%). The leech-derived trypanosome isolate was virtually identical (at the two loci studied) to the other parasites sequenced from infected platypuses; however, the molecular or morphological identification of the leech species was not possible. Although further studies are required, the molecular detection of trypanosomes in an aquatic leech removed from a platypus, suggests the possibility that these haematophagous hirudineans may be a vector for T. binneyi (and closely related genotypes).

  15. Rediscovery of two rare butterflies Papilio elephenor Doubleday, 1845 and Shijimia moorei Leech, 1889 from proposed Ripu-Chirang Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

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    K. Choudhury

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two rare butterflies Papilio elephenor Doubleday, 1886 and Moore’s Cupid Shijimia moorei Leech, 1889 were rediscovered from the proposed Ripu-Chirang Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India.

  16. Peptides from two sanguinovorous leeches analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector

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    Ling Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirudo nipponica Whitman and Poecilobdella manillensis Lesson fall into the family of Hirudinidae Whitman, both of them are sanguinovorous leeches and used a anticoagulant medicines in China. Their medicinal parts are the dried bodies. However, the peptides in the dried body of the two leeches have not been very clear up to now. Objective: To analyze the peptides from two sanguinovorous leeches, H. nipponica and P. manillensis. Materials and Methods: In this article it is reported that the peptides were obtained from anticoagulant active extracted parts of dried bodies of the two leeches and their molecular weights were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry mass spectrometric detector online. Results: Three peptide components were identified from H. nipponica with their molecular weight separately 14998, 15988, and 15956, six peptide components were identified from P. manillensis with molecular weight 9590, 13642, 14998, 17631, 15988, and 16567. Two of peptides from P. manillensis have the same molecular weight 14998 and 15988 as that in H. nipponica. Conclusion: And the two peptides are the main peaks in the base peak ion chromatogram because they occupied a large ratio of total base peak area. Hence the composition of the extracted active part of the two leeches are very close, difference is in that the extract of P. manillensis has more small peptide peaks, but the extract of H. nipponica has not. Furthermore, the tryptic digestion hydrolysates of the extracted active part of each sample were analyzed and the results showed that there were four peaks which only exist in P. manillensis, but not in Hirudo nipponia. They may be the identified peak between the two leeches. This work support the viewpoint that P. manillensis can be used as a medicinal leech as H. nipponia and these peptide components of dried bodies of the two species leeches are a

  17. Encoding of tactile stimuli by mechanoreceptors and interneurons of the medicinal leech

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    Jutta Kretzberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For many animals processing of tactile information is a crucial task in behavioral contexts like exploration, foraging and stimulus avoidance. The leech, having infrequent access to food, developed an energy efficient reaction to tactile stimuli, avoiding unnecessary muscle movements: The local bend behavior moves only a small part of the body wall away from an object touching the skin, while the rest of the animal remains stationary. Amazingly, the precision of this localized behavioral response is similar to the spatial discrimination threshold of the human fingertip, although the leech skin is innervated by an order of magnitude fewer mechanoreceptors and each midbody ganglion contains only 400 individually identified neurons in total. Prior studies suggested that this behavior is controlled by a three-layered feed-forward network, consisting of four mechanoreceptors (P cells, approximately 20 interneurons and 10 individually characterized motor neurons, all of which encode tactile stimulus location by overlapping, symmetrical tuning curves. Additionally, encoding of mechanical force was attributed to three types of mechanoreceptors reacting to distinct intensity ranges: T cells for touch, P cells for pressure and N cells for strong, noxious skin stimulation. In this study, we provide evidences that tactile stimulus encoding in the leech is more complex than previously thought. Combined electrophysiological, anatomical and voltage sensitive dye approaches indicate that P and T cells both play a major role in tactile information processing resulting in local bending. Our results indicate that tactile encoding neither relies on distinct force intensity ranges of different cell types, nor location encoding is restricted to spike count tuning. Instead, we propose that P and T cells form a mixed type population, which simultaneously employs temporal response features and spike counts for multiplexed encoding of touch location and force intensity

  18. ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF LEECH THERAPY IN THE PATIENTS OF PSORIASIS (EK KUSTHA

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    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ek kustha is a type of kshudra kustha described in different Ayurvedic classics. It is a vata-kaphaj disorder. The clinical symptom of Ek kustha described in Ayurveda resembles with the clinical symptom of Psoriasis. The clinical feature of Ek kustha described by Kashyap represents remission, relapse and seasonal variation, which are present in Psoriasis. In modern medicine there is no definite treatment for this disease. The medicines, which are available to treat the disease, are not very effective and cannot be used for long-term management because of their local and systemic side effect as well as toxicity. Medicines, which are used in Ayurveda, are safe and being practiced since thousands of year. A large number of drugs and measures are described in Ayurveda for the treatment of Kustha. This study was designed to access the anti-inflammatory activity of Leech Therapy in the treatment psoriasis (Ek kustha. The study was randomized open phase clinical trial. The patients of age group 18 to 60 were selected on the basis of Ayurvedic signs and symptoms of Ek kustha. Observations were recorded for sharply defined erythemo-squamous lesions varying in size; presence of erythema, scaling and induration in the lesions; surface consists of non-coherent scales; positive Auspitz sign – (Bleeding occurs after scratching of scales; positive onion peeling sign/candle grease sign (after scratching the scales fall like peels of onion. Since the assessment criteria was Quantitative, paired 't' test was applied. In the current study the treatment was found significantly effective in treating psoriasis. So, we can conclude that leech therapy is effective in the treatment of psoriasis.

  19. Activity-dependent increase of the AHP amplitude in T sensory neurons of the leech.

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    Scuri, Rossana; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Brunelli, Marcello

    2002-11-01

    We identified a new form of activity-dependent modulation of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in tactile (T) sensory neurons of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Repetitive intracellular stimulation with 30 trains of depolarizing impulses at 15-s inter-stimulus interval (ISI) led to an increase of the AHP amplitude (~60% of the control). The enhancement of AHP lasted for >/=15 min. The AHP increase was also elicited when a T neuron was activated by repetitive stimulation of its receptive field. The ISI was a critical parameter for the induction and maintenance of AHP enhancement. ISI duration had to fit within a time window with the upper limit of 20 s to make the training effective to induce an enhancement of the AHP amplitude. After recovery from potentiation, AHP amplitude could be enhanced once again by delivering another training session. The increase of AHP amplitude persisted in high Mg(2+) saline, suggesting an intrinsic cellular mechanism for its induction. Previous investigations reported that AHP of leech T neurons was mainly due to the activity of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and to a Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current (I(K/Ca)). In addition, it has been demonstrated that serotonin (5HT) reduces AHP amplitude through the inhibition of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. By blocking the I(K/Ca) with pharmacological agents, such as cadmium and apamin, we still observed an increase of the AHP amplitude after repetitive stimulation, whereas 5HT application completely inhibited the AHP increment. These data indicate that the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is involved in the induction and maintenance of the AHP increase after repetitive stimulation. Moreover, the AHP increase was affected by the level of serotonin in the CNS. Finally, the increase of the AHP amplitude produced a lasting depression of the synaptic connection between two T neurons, suggesting that this activity-dependent phenomenon might be involved in short-term plasticity associated with learning processes.

  20. Homolog of allograft inflammatory factor-1 induces macrophage migration during innate immune response in leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Tilo; Drago, Francesco; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Vizioli, Jacopo; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-03-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a 17-kDa cytokine-inducible calcium-binding protein that, in vertebrates, plays an important role in the allograft immune response. Its expression is mostly limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Until recently, AIF-1 was assumed to be a novel molecule involved in inflammatory responses. To clarify this aspect, we have investigated the expression of AIF-1 after bacterial challenge and its potential role in regulating the innate immune response in an invertebrate model, the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis). Analysis of an expressed sequence tag library from the central nervous system of Hirudo revealed the presence of the gene Hmaif-1/alias Hmiba1, showing high homology with vertebrate aif-1. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-HmAIF-1 polyclonal antibody revealed the constitutive presence of this protein in spread CD68(+) macrophage-like cells. A few hours after pathogen (bacterial) injection into the body wall, the amount of these immunopositive cells co-expressing HmAIF-1 and the common leucocyte marker CD45 increased at the injected site. Moreover, the recombinant protein HmAIF-1 induced massive angiogenesis and was a potent chemoattractant for macrophages. Following rHmAIF-1 stimulation, macrophage-like cells co-expressed the macrophage marker CD68 and the surface glycoprotein CD45, which, in vertebrates, seems to have a role in the integrin-mediated adhesion of macrophages and in the regulation of the functional responsiveness of cells to chemoattractants. CD45 is therefore probably involved in leech macrophage-like cell activation and migration towards an inflammation site. We have also examined its potential effect on HmAIF-1-induced signalling.

  1. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEECH THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ARTHRITIS

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    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The day-to-day advancement in each and every aspect has made human’s life very fast, hectic and full of stress. In such an outfit every person is compelled to make the life fast and mechanical even shifted their food habits to fast food, altered their social structure and life style, having various negative impacts on the body. Occurrence of arthritis on large scale is one of the outcomes of this modification. It is commonest among acute as well as chronic inflammatory joint disease in which joint become painful, swollen and stiff. This study was designed to access the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Leech Therapy in the treatment Arthritis. The study was randomized open phase clinical trial. Jalauka used for the therapy were obtained from fresh water pond of Madhyam Akara (4-6gms weight. Jalaukas were applied once in every week for six weeks duration.The patients of age group 18 to 60 were selected on the basis of Ayurvedic signs and symptoms of Sandhigata Vata. Observations were recorded for Pain, Swelling, Stiffness, Score of ACR, RA index, ARA joint count, Tenderness. The laboratory values of ESR, CRP and S.uric Acid were also recorded before and after the treatment. Since the assessment criteria was Quantitative, paired 't' test was applied. In the current Study the treatment was found significantly effective in treating arthritis. The effect of treatment was 44% patients were of Uttam Upashya in relieving Pain, 40% in swelling, 28% in stiffness, 32% in restricted movement, 16% in deformity. So, we can conclude that leech therapy is effective in the treatment of arthritis.

  2. From the Worm in a Bottle of Mezcal: iDNA Confirmation of a Leech Parasitizing the Antillean Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, J; Rueda-Calderon, H; Kvist, S; Siddall, M E; Oceguera-Figueroa, A

    2016-10-01

    Invertebrate-derived ingested DNA (iDNA) is quickly proving to be a valuable, non-invasive tool for monitoring vertebrate species of conservation concern. Using the DNA barcoding locus, we successfully identified both the blood-feeding leech Haementeria acuecueyetzin and its blood meal-the latter is shown to be derived from the Caribbean manatee, Trichechus manatus . DNA amplification was successful despite the fact that the specimen was fixed in Mezcal (a beverage distilled from agave). We report the first confirmed case of a leech feeding on a manatee, the first record of H. acuecueyetzin for the State of Chiapas and, to our knowledge, the first case of successful DNA amplification of a biological sample fixed in Mezcal other than the caterpillar "worms" more commonly found in that beverage.

  3. Be ready at any time: postprandial synthesis of salivary proteins in salivary gland cells of the haematophagous leech Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-04-15

    Sanguivorous leeches are ectoparasites having access to body fluids of potential hosts only infrequently. During feeding, salivary proteins are released from unicellular salivary glands into the wound. These substances, among them anti-coagulants, anti-inflammatory or anti-microbial agents, allow these animals proper feeding and long-term storage of host blood in their crops for several months. Using histological, protein biochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated whether synthesis of salivary proteins and refilling of salivary gland cells occur immediately after feeding or later when stored nutrients in the crop are getting scarce. The results of the histological analyses showed that gland cell area was significantly smaller right after feeding when compared with those in unfed animals. This parameter recovered quickly and reached the control level at 1 week after feeding. 2D gel electrophoresis and analysis of the abundance of individual proteins in extracts of leech tissues revealed that a subset of proteins that had been present in extracts of unfed animals virtually disappeared during feeding, but re-appeared within 1 week of feeding (most probably secretory proteins) while another subset did not change during the experimental period (most probably housekeeping proteins). Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of hirudin cDNA prepared from leech RNA samples revealed that the amount of hirudin transcripts increased immediately after feeding, peaked at 5 days after feeding and declined to control values thereafter. Our results indicate that bloodsucking leeches synthesize salivary proteins and refill their salivary gland cell reservoirs within a week of a blood meal to be prepared for another feeding opportunity.

  4. Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes

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    Wincker Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is an important model system for the study of nervous system structure, function, development, regeneration and repair. It is also a unique species in being presently approved for use in medical procedures, such as clearing of pooled blood following certain surgical procedures. It is a current, and potentially also future, source of medically useful molecular factors, such as anticoagulants and antibacterial peptides, which may have evolved as a result of its parasitizing large mammals, including humans. Despite the broad focus of research on this system, little has been done at the genomic or transcriptomic levels and there is a paucity of openly available sequence data. To begin to address this problem, we constructed whole embryo and adult central nervous system (CNS EST libraries and created a clustered sequence database of the Hirudo transcriptome that is available to the scientific community. Results A total of ~133,000 EST clones from two directionally-cloned cDNA libraries, one constructed from mRNA derived from whole embryos at several developmental stages and the other from adult CNS cords, were sequenced in one or both directions by three different groups: Genoscope (French National Sequencing Center, the University of Iowa Sequencing Facility and the DOE Joint Genome Institute. These were assembled using the phrap software package into 31,232 unique contigs and singletons, with an average length of 827 nt. The assembled transcripts were then translated in all six frames and compared to proteins in NCBI's non-redundant (NR and to the Gene Ontology (GO protein sequence databases, resulting in 15,565 matches to 11,236 proteins in NR and 13,935 matches to 8,073 proteins in GO. Searching the database for transcripts of genes homologous to those thought to be involved in the innate immune responses of vertebrates and other invertebrates yielded a set of nearly one hundred

  5. Distribution and functional properties of glutamate receptors in the leech central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, P W; Hochstrate, P; Schlue, W R

    1996-06-01

    1. The effect of kainate and other glutamatergic agonists on the membrane potential (Em), the intracellular Na+ activity (aNai), and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of identified leech neurons and neuropile glial cells was measured with conventional and ion-sensitive microelectrodes, as well as with the use of the iontophoretically injected fluorescent indicators sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate and Fura-2. 2. In Retzius neurons, AE, L, 8, and 101 motoneurons, and in the unclassified 50 neurons (Leydig cells) and AP neurons, as well as in neuropile glial cells, bath application of 100 microM kainate evoked a marked membrane depolarization and an increase in aNai and [Ca2+]i. The kainate-induced aNai increase persisted in solutions with high Mg2+ concentration in which synaptic transmission is blocked. 3. A membrane depolarization as well as an increase in aNai and [Ca2+]i was also evoked by L-glutamate, quisqualate, and L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA). The agonist-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX). 4. In Ca(2+)-free solution, the kainate-induced [Ca2+]i increase was abolished in the neurons and in neuropile glial cells, whereas membrane depolarization and aNai increase were unchanged. In Na(+)-free solution, kainate had no effect on Em, aNai, or [Ca2+]i in the neurons. 5. In the mechanosensory T, P, and N neurons, kainate induced considerably smaller membrane depolarizations than in the other neurons or in neuropile glial cells, and it had no significant effect on aNai or [Ca2+]i. 6. It is concluded that in leech segmental ganglia the majority of the neurons and the neuropile glial cells, but probably not the mechanosensory neurons, possess glutamate receptors of the AMPA-kainate type. In the neurons, the [Ca2+]i increase caused by glutamatergic agonists is due to Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels that are activated by the agonist

  6. The Ozobranchus leech as a mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpes virus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.; Sutton, C.A.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection.

  7. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey. Further constraints on the planet architecture of the HR 8799 system

    CERN Document Server

    Maire, A -L; Hinz, P M; Desidera, S; Esposito, S; Gratton, R; Marzari, F; Skrutskie, M F; Biller, B A; Defrère, D; Bailey, V P; Leisenring, J M; Apai, D; Bonnefoy, M; Brandner, W; Buenzli, E; Claudi, R U; Close, L M; Crepp, J R; De Rosa, R J; Eisner, J A; Fortney, J J; Henning, T; Hofmann, K -H; Kopytova, T G; Males, J R; Mesa, D; Morzinski, K M; Oza, A; Patience, J; Pinna, E; Rajan, A; Schertl, D; Schlieder, J E; Su, K Y L; Vaz, A; Ward-Duong, K; Weigelt, G; Woodward, C E

    2014-01-01

    Context. Astrometric monitoring of directly-imaged exoplanets allows the study of their orbital parameters and system architectures. Because most directly-imaged planets have long orbital periods (>20 AU), accurate astrometry is challenging when based on data acquired on timescales of a few years and usually with different instruments. The LMIRCam camera on the LBT is being used for the LEECH survey to search for and characterize young and adolescent exoplanets in L' band, including their system architectures. Aims. We first aim to provide a good astrometric calibration of LMIRCam. Then, we derive new astrometry, test the predictions of the orbital model of 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance proposed by Go\\'zdziewski & Migaszewski, and perform new orbital fitting of the HR 8799 bcde planets. We also present deep limits on a putative fifth planet interior to the known planets. Methods. We use observations of HR 8799 and the Theta1 Ori C field obtained during the same run in October 2013. Results. We first chara...

  8. Intrinsic frequency response patterns in mechano-sensory neurons of the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Linda; Scherbarth, Frank; Chagnaud, Boris; Felmy, Felix

    2017-07-15

    Animals employ mechano-sensory systems to detect and explore their environment. Mechano-sensation encompasses stimuli such as constant pressure, surface movement or vibrations at various intensities that need to be segregated in the central nervous system. Besides different receptor structures, sensory filtering via intrinsic response properties could provide a convenient way to solve this problem. In leech, three major mechano-sensory cell types can be distinguished, according to their stimulus sensitivity, as nociceptive, pressure and touch cells. Using intracellular recordings, we show that the different mechano-sensory neuron classes in Hirudo medicinalis differentially respond supra-threshold to distinct frequencies of sinusoidal current injections between 0.2 and 20 Hz. Nociceptive cells responded with a low-pass filter characteristic, pressure cells as high-pass filters and touch cells as an intermediate band-pass filter. Each class of mechano-sensory neurons is thus intrinsically tuned to a specific frequency range of voltage oscillation that could help segregate mechano-sensory information centrally. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. A persistent sodium current contributes to oscillatory activity in heart interneurons of the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdyke, C A; Calabrese, R L

    1994-12-01

    1. Normal activity in bilateral pairs of heart interneurons, from ganglia 3 or 4, in the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) is antiphasic due to their reciprocally inhibitory connections. However, Ca(++)-free Co(++)-containing salines lead to synchronous oscillations in these neurons. 2. Internal TEA+ allows expression of full plateaus during Co++ induced oscillations in heart interneurons; these plateaus are not blocked by Cs+. Similar plateaus are also observed with internal TEA+ alone, but under these conditions activity in heart interneurons from ganglia 3 or 4 is antiphasic. 3. Plateaus in heart interneurons induced by Co++ and internal TEA+ involve a conductance increase. 4. A voltage-dependent inward current, IP, showing little inactivation, was isolated using single-electrode voltage-clamp in heart interneurons. This current is carried at least in part by Na+; the current is reduced when external Na+ is reduced and is carried by Li++ when substituted for Na+. 5. Calcium channel blockers such as La3+ and Co++ block neither the TEA+ induced plateaus nor IP, suggesting that Na+ is not using Ca++ channels. Moreover, IP is enhanced by Ca(++)-free CO(++)-containing salines. Thus, IP is correlated with the TEA(+)- and Co(++)-induced plateau behavior.

  10. The European medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis L.: Morphology and occurrence of an endangered species

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    U. Kutschera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis L. 1758 is one of the best-known members of the Hirudinea due to its use in phlebotomy, this species has been confused with the Mediterranean taxon H. verbana Carena 1820. Here we describe the morphology of adult and juvenile H. medicinalis and document its genetic distance to H. verbana, using newly acquired mitochondrial DNA-sequence (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, CO-I-data from specimens collected in Germany. Our CO-I analysis shows that H. medicinalis and H. verbana differ by 9.4 %. Hence, the original Hirudo-population diverged ca. 10 million years ago so that today two geographically separated biospecies exist that co-occur in only a few natural habitats. We analyzed the behaviour of adult H. medicinalis, but could not find differences with respect to its sister taxon H. verbana. Finally, we summarize the occurrence of H. medicinalis in Central Europe and conclude that this once widely distributed freshwater species largely disappeared in many countries. We suggest that the loss of natural freshwater ecosystems, with flat, warm banks, and amphibians (frogs, newts and toads as preferred host organisms for the juveniles, are largely responsible for the decline of H. medicinalis in Northern Europe.

  11. From synapses to behavior: development of a sensory-motor circuit in the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2008-05-01

    The development of neuronal circuits has been advanced greatly by the use of imaging techniques that reveal the activity of neurons during the period when they are constructing synapses and forming circuits. This review focuses on experiments performed in leech embryos to characterize the development of a neuronal circuit that produces a simple segmental behavior called "local bending." The experiments combined electrophysiology, anatomy, and FRET-based voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs). The VSDs offered two major advantages in these experiments: they allowed us to record simultaneously the activity of many neurons, and unlike other imaging techniques, they revealed inhibition as well as excitation. The results indicated that connections within the circuit are formed in a predictable sequence: initially neurons in the circuit are connected by electrical synapses, forming a network that itself generates an embryonic behavior and prefigures the adult circuit; later chemical synapses, including inhibitory connections, appear, "sculpting" the circuit to generate a different, mature behavior. In this developmental process, some of the electrical connections are completely replaced by chemical synapses, others are maintained into adulthood, and still others persist and share their targets with chemical synaptic connections.

  12. Identification of iron and heme utilization genes in Aeromonas and their role in the colonization of the leech digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Michele; LeVarge, Barbara L; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or proteins for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mini Tn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to utilize iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB) was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant, yielding an hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A. veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a potential role in virulence factor of other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental) were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed that in contrast to the siderophore utilization genes heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. The importance of heme utilization in the colonization of the leech further confirms that symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar

  13. Role of the tissue free amino acids in adaptation of medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis L., 1758 to extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaya, L V; Kovalchuk, L A; Nokhrina, E S

    2016-01-01

    The first comparison of the spectra of free amino acids in tissues of the medicinal leeches H. medicinalis from different climatic and geographical Eurasian areas has been performed. Adaptation of H. medicinalis to extreme climatic conditions occurs via intensification of the amino acid metabolism resulting from a significant increase in the content of essential amino acids. Accumulation of arginine, histidine, and lysine (3.6-, 3.9-, and 2.0-fold increases, respectively) has proved to play a special protective role in adaptation of H. medicinalis to the low positive temperatures.

  14. Effect of low potassium concentration on cadmium induced epileptiform activity of leech retzius neurons

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    Milićević Nebojša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsies have a large significance and require detailed investigation of cellular mechanisms that lead to this disorder. Environmental, especially industrial, toxins are having increasingly more prominent role in these investigations. The aim of our research was to investigate the significance of Cd2+ in generation of epileptiform electrical activity of neurons, and the role of Na+/K+ pump in mechanisms that lead to cessation of this activity. Experiments were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga. Intracellularly placed microelectrodes were used to measure membrane potential changes upon administration of Cd2+ (100 µmol/l, and the same concentration of Cd2+ in low K+ (1 mmol/l solution. In our experiments Cd2+ led to generation of rhythmic repetitive oscillatory activity. This activity closely resembles paroxysmal depolarizing shifts (PDS which represent the cellular basis of epilepsy. Cd2+ induced epileptiform activity had the following characteristics: frequency of 3.9±0.8 PDS/minute, PDS duration of 4.0±0.3 s, and PDS amplitude of 8.1±0.7 mV. Cd2+ induces effects similar to those of Ni2+ and Co2+, but in 30 times smaller concentration. Application of Cd2+ in low K+ solution led to a significant reduction of PDS frequency (by 2.34±0.55 PDS/minute, p<0.05, Student's t-test, highly significant increase in PDS duration (by 2.84±0.23 s, p<0.01, Student's t-test and highly significant reduction in PDS amplitude (by 1.91±0.33 mV, p=0.01, Student's t-test. Our results show that Cd2+ is a potent initiator of epileptiform activity, and that Na+/K+ pump significantly affects this activity and has a potentially important role in mechanisms that lead to its cessation.

  15. Dopamine activates the motor pattern for crawling in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Joshua G; Mesce, Karen A

    2008-04-16

    Locomotion in segmented animals is thought to be based on the coupling of "unit burst generators," but the biological nature of the unit burst generator has been revealed in only a few animal systems. We determined that dopamine (DA), a universal modulator of motor activity, is sufficient to activate fictive crawling in the medicinal leech, and can exert its actions within the smallest division of the animal's CNS, the segmental ganglion. In the entire isolated nerve cord or in the single ganglion, DA induced slow antiphasic bursting (approximately 15 s period) of motoneurons known to participate in the two-step elongation-contraction cycle underlying crawling behavior. During each cycle, the dorsal (DE-3) and ventral (VE-4) longitudinal excitor motoneurons fired approximately 180 degrees out of phase from the ventrolateral circular excitor motoneuron (CV), which marks the elongation phase. In many isolated whole nerve cords, DE-3 bursting progressed in an anterior to posterior direction with intersegmental phase delays appropriate for crawling. In the single ganglion, the dorsal (DI-1) and ventral (VI-2) inhibitory longitudinal motoneurons fired out of phase with each DE-3 burst, further confirming that the crawl unit burst generator exists in the single ganglion. All isolated ganglia of the CNS were competent to produce DA-induced robust fictive crawling, which typically lasted uninterrupted for 5-15 min. A quantitative analysis indicated that DA-induced crawling was not significantly different from electrically evoked or spontaneous crawling. We conclude that DA is sufficient to activate the full crawl motor program and that the kernel for crawling resides within each segmental ganglion.

  16. Cycling of dense core vesicles involved in somatic exocytosis of serotonin by leech neurons

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    Citlali eTrueta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the cycling of dense core vesicles producing somatic exocytosis of serotonin. Our experiments were made using electron microscopy and vesicle staining with fluorescent dye FM1-43 in Retzius neurons of the leech, which secrete serotonin from clusters of dense core vesicles in a frequency-dependent manner. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after 1 Hz stimulation showed two pools of dense core vesicles. A perinuclear pool near Golgi apparatuses, from which vesicles apparently form, and a peripheral pool with vesicle clusters at a distance from the plasma membrane. By contrast, after 20 Hz electrical stimulation 47% of the vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, with some omega exocytosis structures. Dense core and small clear vesicles apparently originating from endocytosis were incorporated in multivesicular bodies. In another series of experiments, neurons were stimulated at 20 Hz while bathed in a solution containing peroxidase. Electron micrographs of these neurons contained gold particles coupled to anti-peroxidase antibodies in dense core vesicles and multivesicular bodies located near the plasma membrane. Cultured neurons depolarized with high potassium in the presence of FM1-43 displayed superficial fluorescent spots, each reflecting a vesicle cluster. A partial bleaching of the spots followed by another depolarization in the presence of FM1-43 produced restaining of some spots, other spots disappeared, some remained without restaining and new spots were formed. Several hours after electrical stimulation the FM1-43 spots accumulated at the center of the somata. This correlated with electron micrographs of multivesicular bodies releasing their contents near Golgi apparatuses. Our results suggest that dense core vesicle cycling related to somatic serotonin release involves two steps: the production of clear vesicles and multivesicular bodies after exocytosis, and the formation of new dense core vesicles in

  17. Laboratory evaluation ofLimnatis nilotica leech (Annelida:Hirudinea) as a biocontrol agent for the schistosome-vector snail,Bulinus truncatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yassir Sulieman; Abdel-Aziz A Ahmed; Azzam Afifi; Theerakamol Pengsakul

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the predation efficacy of the freshwater leech,Limnatis nilotica(L. nilotica) as a potential biological control agent against different stages of theBulinus truncatus (B. truncatus), the intermediate host of humanSchistosoma haematobium, under laboratory conditions. Methods:The leechL. nilotica and the snailB. truncatus were collected from El Kiryab Agriculture Scheme, Sudan. Thereafter, the predatory activity of the leech was evaluated against eggs, neonates and adults of the snail in a series of different experiments under laboratory conditions. Results:The findings showed that theL. nilotica leech was a voracious predator towards the eggs and neonates ofB. truncatus snails with a shell length of up to 3 mm, as well as of adult snails with an shell length greater than 3 mm. Conclusions: The results showed thatL. nilotica had a significant impact onB. truncatus populations. However, long term studies under natural field conditions are needed to support these results.

  18. Bifurcation of a Saddle-Node Limit Cycle with Homoclinic Orbits Satisfying the Small Lobe Condition in a Leech Neuron Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOOER Chi-Feng; XU Jian-Xue; ZHANG Xin-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Mechanism of period-adding cascades with chaos in a reduced leech neuron model is suggested as the bifurcation of a saddle-node limit cycle with homoclinic orbits satisfying the "small lobe condition",instead of the blue-sky catastrophe.In every spiking adding,the new spike emerges at the end of the spiking phase of the bursters.

  19. Hm-MyD88 and Hm-SARM: two key regulators of the neuroimmune system and neural repair in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, F; Tasiemski, A; Boidin-Wichlacz, C; Van Camp, C; Vuillaume, C; Slomianny, C; Salzet, M

    2015-04-16

    Unlike mammals, the CNS of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions after lesion. We previously demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response promoting the regenerative processes. Indeed neurons and microglia express sensing receptors like Hm-TLR1, a leech TLR ortholog, associated with chemokine release in response to a septic challenge or lesion. To gain insights into the TLR signaling pathways involved during these neuroimmune responses, members of the MyD88 family were investigated. In the present study, we report the characterization of Hm-MyD88 and Hm-SARM. The expression of their encoding gene was strongly regulated in leech CNS not only upon immune challenge but also during CNS repair, suggesting their involvement in both processes. This work also showed for the first time that differentiated neurons of the CNS could respond to LPS through a MyD88-dependent signalling pathway, while in mammals, studies describing the direct effect of LPS on neurons and the outcomes of such treatment are scarce and controversial. In the present study, we established that this PAMP induced the relocalization of Hm-MyD88 in isolated neurons.

  20. Microbial challenge promotes the regenerative process of the injured central nervous system of the medicinal leech by inducing the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in neurons and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikorski, David; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Leippe, Matthias; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Macagno, Eduardo; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2008-07-15

    Following trauma, the CNS of the medicinal leech, unlike the mammalian CNS, has a strong capacity to regenerate neurites and synaptic connections that restore normal function. In this study, we show that this regenerative process is enhanced by a controlled bacterial infection, suggesting that induction of regeneration of normal CNS function may depend critically upon the coinitiation of an immune response. We explore the interaction between the activation of a neuroimmune response and the process of regeneration by assaying the potential roles of two newly characterized antimicrobial peptides. Our data provide evidence that microbial components differentially induce the transcription, by microglial cells, of both antimicrobial peptide genes, the products of which accumulate rapidly at sites in the CNS undergoing regeneration following axotomy. Using a preparation of leech CNS depleted of microglial cells, we also demonstrate the production of antimicrobial peptides by neurons. Interestingly, in addition to exerting antibacterial properties, both peptides act as promoters of the regenerative process of axotomized leech CNS. These data are the first to report the neuronal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and their participation in the immune response and the regeneration of the CNS. Thus, the leech CNS appears as an excellent model for studying the implication of immune molecules in neural repair.

  1. Population variation and individual maximum size in two leech populations: energy extraction from cannibalism or niche widening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Lennart; Elliott, J Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    The theory of cannibal dynamics predicts a link between population dynamics and individual life history. In particular, increased individual growth has, in both modeling and empirical studies, been shown to result from a destabilization of population dynamics. We used data from a long-term study of the dynamics of two leech (Erpobdella octoculata) populations to test the hypothesis that maximum size should be higher in a cycling population; one of the study populations exhibited a delayed feedback cycle while the other population showed no sign of cyclicity. A hump-shaped relationship between individual mass of 1-year-old leeches and offspring density the previous year was present in both populations. As predicted from the theory, the maximum mass of individuals was much larger in the fluctuating population. In contrast to predictions, the higher growth rate was not related to energy extraction from cannibalism. Instead, the higher individual mass is suggested to be due to increased availability of resources due to a niche widening with increased individual body mass. The larger individual mass in the fluctuating population was related to a stronger correlation between the densities of 1-year-old individuals and 2-year-old individuals the following year in this population. Although cannibalism was the major mechanism regulating population dynamics, its importance was negligible in terms of providing cannibalizing individuals with energy subsequently increasing their fecundity. Instead, the study identifies a need for theoretical and empirical studies on the largely unstudied interplay between ontogenetic niche shifts and cannibalistic population dynamics.

  2. Orientational Recognition and Low-Resistance Passing (LRP) Regulation of Segmental Re-innervation by Central Neurons in Leeches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 张人骥

    1994-01-01

    Re-innervation of sensory and motor neurons on a defined area of the body wall was studied in two species of leeches, Whitmania pigra and Hirudo medicinalis, as a model of segmental animals. Following isolation and rotation of a tube of body wall, the mechanical sensory and annular erection (AE) motor neurons re-innervated the body wall, at a rate of approximately 3. 8 -8. 4 μm/h. The patterns of re-innerva-tion by pairs of neurons on each side of a ganglion were bilaterally symmetric. The repairs are synchronous for the sensory and motor neurons which are of different functions but in a same ganglion. The gap junctions are widely spread in leech between neurons and glia cells, as well as among the neurons and glia cells themselves. Therefore, it is proposed that the nervous system repair is regulated by a low-resistance pathway. In the xenotransplantation experiments, neurons recognized target tissues before the immuno-recognition and rejection.

  3. Comparison of the effects of cumene hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Zorica; Jovanovic, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in neuronal cell damage, but the exact mechanisms responsible for neuronal injury and death remain uncertain. In the present study, we examined the effects of oxidative stress on spontaneous spike activity and depolarizing outward potassium current by exposing the Retzius neurons of the leech to cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the oxidants commonly used to examine oxidative mechanisms mediating cell death. We observed that relatively low concentrations of CHP (0.25, 1, and 1.5 mM) led to a marked prolongation of spontaneous repetitive activity. The prolonged action potentials showed an initial, spike-like depolarization followed by a plateau phase. In contrast, H(2)O(2) at the same and much higher concentrations (0.25 to 5 mM) did not significantly change the duration of spontaneous spike potentials of leech Retzius nerve cells (LRNCs). In the voltage clamp experiments, calcium-activated outward potassium currents, needed for the repolarization of the action potential, were suppressed with CHP, but not with H(2)O(2). The present findings indicate that CHP is a more potent oxidant and neurotoxin than H(2)O(2) and that the effect of CHP on the electrophysiological properties of LRNCs may be due to the inhibition of the potassium channels.

  4. RELIABILITY OF BARR, LEECH, AND BLETHYN SCORE IN USING OF PLAIN RADIOGRAPHY IN DETERMINING FECAL IMPACTION IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT CONSTIPATION

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    Afshin REZAZADEH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Several scoring was developed for evaluation of children with fecal retention using plain radiograph. There are controversies about specificity and sensitivity of these scoring system. Objectives - The aim of this study was to evaluate Barr, Blethyn, and Leech score in evaluation of fecal load in plain radiograph. Methods - This case control study was conducted on children aged 2-14 years old with abdominal pain who visited Abuzar children's Hospital of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted in fall season. Children with history of previous abdominal surgery, any systemic illness including sickle cell anemia were excluded. Children with constipation were placed in case group. Subjects without constipation were placed in control group. Subjects without exclusion criteria were examined by physician who is blind to aim of the study. Careful history and physical examination was done. Demographic features, history of gastrointestinal problem, duration of abdominal pain, defecation habit, stool consistency (loose, hard, and results of physical examination were recorded. Rome III criteria was used for definition of constipation. Abdominal x-ray was ordered for each patients. Abdominal radiography was reviewed by radiologist. Barr, Leach, and Blethyn scores were calculated for each case. Results - In this study 102 children with functional constipation and 102 children without constipation as a control were included. Mean ±SD for case and control group was 68.39±34.88 and 69.46±32.60 (P=0.82.Leech score (mean ±SD was 11.05±2.177 and 5.67±3.228 for case and control group respectively (P<0.0001. Barr score (mean ±SD was 14.86±3.54 and 7.16±5.59 for case and control group respectively (P=<0.0001. Blethyn (mean ±SD score was 1.97±0.667 and 1.04±0.900 for case and control group respectively (P=0.000. Sensitivity and specificity of Barr score was 83% and 79% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of

  5. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Garçon-Bocquet, Annelise; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Nagnan-le Meillour, Patricia; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2012-02-22

    In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

  6. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal

  7. Expression and characterization of the N-terminal half of antistasin, an anticoagulant protein derived from the leech Haementeria officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, L O; Tung, J S; Dunwiddie, C; Alves, K; Lenny, A B; Przysiecki, C; Lehman, D; Nutt, E; Cuca, G C; Law, S W

    1991-02-01

    Antistasin, a 15-kDa anticoagulant protein isolated from the salivary glands of the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of factor Xa in the blood coagulation cascade. Antistasin possesses a twofold internal homology between the N- and C-terminal halves of the molecule, suggesting a gene duplication event in the evolution of the antistasin gene. This structural feature also suggests that either or both halves of the protein may possess biological activity if expressed as separate domains. Because the N-terminal domain contains a factor Xa P1-reactive site, we chose to express this domain in an insect cell baculovirus expression system. Characterization of this recombinant half antistasin molecule reveals that the N-terminal domain inhibits factor Xa in vitro, with a K(i) of 1.7 nM.

  8. La sanguijuela, un gusano en la historia de la salud The leeches, a worm in the history of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Manrique Sáez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de sanguijuelas ha sido una terapia que ha venido usándose desde las antiguas civilizaciones hasta principios del siglo XX como tratamiento indispensable para diversas dolencias, cayendo en desuso como consecuencia del gran avance científico y considerándose un tratamiento sin valor, atrasado y decadente. El presente articulo pretende dar a conocer la terapia con sanguijuelas, su auge desde la antigüedad, su decadencia y el nuevo renacer actual en el postoperatorio de la microcirugía plástica reconstructiva para prevenir el éxtasis venoso, así como en traumatología en el tratamiento de las artrosis. Dicha terapia se está aplicando en numerosos países, incluyendo España en donde su uso es una realidad en Hospitales y servicios muy concretos.The use of leeches is a medical therapy which has been used since ancient civilizations until the first decades of the XXth century. It is an irreplaceable remedy to treat many types of illness, however, it fell into disuse due to the increasing confidence in scientific development and because it became considered old-fashioned, obsolete and valueless. The present paper tries to release the therapy with leeches, its peak in the ancient times, its later disuse and the recent reappearance in the post-operative of plastic microsurgical reconstruction in order to prevent the poisoning ecstasy and also in the degenerative osteoarthritis treatment. This therapy is being applied to numerous countries, Spain included, where it is being used at hospitals in particular medical services.

  9. The neurotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and copper in Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga

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    Zorica D. Jovanovic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in cellular damage. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that membrane transport proteins are susceptible to ROS. In the present study, oxidative stress was induced in Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga by bath application of 1 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 0.02 mM of copper (Cu for 20 min. The H2O2/Cu(II produced considerable changes in the electrical properties of the Retzius nerve cells. Intracellular recording of the resting membrane potential revealed that the neuronal membrane was depolarized in the presence of H2O2/Cu(II. We found that the amplitude of action potentials decreased, while the duration augmented in a progressive way along the drug exposure time. The combined application of H2O2 and Cu(II caused an initial excitation followed by depression of the spontaneous electrical activity. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed a second effect of the oxidant, a powerful inhibition of the outward potassium channels responsible for the repolarization of action potentials. The neurotoxic effect of H2O2/Cu(II on the spontaneous spike electrogenesis and outward K+ current of Retzius nerve cells was reduced in the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethylthiourea and dimethyl sulfoxide, but not mannitol. This study provides evidence for the oxidative modification of outward potassium channels in Retzius nerve cells. The oxidative mechanism of the H2O2/Cu(II system action on the electrical properties of Retzius neurons proposed in this study might have a wider significance, referring not only to leeches but also to mammalian neurons.

  10. Identification of Iron and Heme Utilization Genes in Aeromonas and their Role in the Colonization of the Leech Digestive Tract

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    Michele eMaltz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or genes for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mTn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to acquire iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant with an antibiotic resistance cassette, yielding a hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A.veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a role as a possible virulence factor in other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed the heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. In addition, aeromonads posses a suite of genes involved in iron acquisition. These data further confirm symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar mechanisms for interacting with

  11. Field evaluation of deet, Repel Care, and three plant based essential oil repellents against mosquitoes, black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chansang, Uruyakorn; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Boonruad, Thidarat; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Bansidhi, Jaree; Mulla, Mir S

    2006-06-01

    Diethyl methyl benzamide, or deet, a commercial plant-based repellent (Repel Care), and essential ils from 3 species of plants (finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes), steam distillated and formulated as insect repellents, were evaluated in the field on human volunteers against hematophagous mosquitoes, black flies, and land leeches in Thailand. Field trials were conducted against wild mosquitoes in Bang Bua Thong District, Nonthaburi Province, and in the Thap Lan National Park Headquarters, Nadee District, Pranchinburi Province; anthroophilic black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at the Forestry Fire Control Station in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chomthong district, Chiang Mai Province; and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in the Khao Yai National Park, Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province. The 3 experimental plant-based essential oil formulations as well as Repel Care and deet provided complete protection from mosquito landing and biting for up to 9 h (duration of the experiment). Similar results were obtained with the 5 products against black flies, providing 100% protection for 9 h but 96-82% protection after 10 and 11 h posttreatment. The 5 repellent products also provided 100% protection against land leeches for at least 8 h. Thi is the 1st report of repellency of plant-based repellents against black flies and land leeches in Thailand. The identification and availability of inexpensive sources of plant-based oils, i.e., finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes providing long-lasting repellency against blood-sucking organisms are promising leads into commercial production of relatively safe and effective repellents.

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica) in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimannan Sivachandran; Kasi Marimuthu; Manickam Ravichandran; Jesu Arockiaraj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica.Methods:Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin) were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratiamarcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol.Conclusions:Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica. Methods: Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratia marcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol. Conclusions: Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  14. Cell proliferation in a peripheral target is required for the induction of central neurogenesis in the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T S; Bothe, G; Harley, A R; Macagno, E R

    1998-03-01

    Several days after the completion of the early phase of cell proliferation that generates most of the leech central nervous system, the pair of "sex ganglia" in the two reproductive segments of the midbody undergo a second period of neurogenesis that gives rise to several hundred peripherally induced central (PIC) neurons. This proliferative phase, which begins on embryonic day 17 (E17), is induced by the interaction of a few specific neurons in the sex ganglia with a peripheral target, the male genitalia, during a critical period that extends from E13 to E16. The central nervous system (CNS) determines the critical period, since the male genitalia have the capacity to induce PIC neurons beginning on E10 and continuing throughout embryogenesis. Here we first show, by injecting hydroxyurea into staged embryos to ablate dividing cells, that PIC neuron precursors begin to divide at a low rate before E17, during the critical period. Then, through a series of homochronic and heterochronic male organ transplantations combined with hydroxyurea treatment of hosts and/or donors, we show that cell proliferation is required in the target itself for it to be competent to induce PIC neurons. These observations demonstrate that a nerve connection can couple cell proliferation in a peripheral target to cell proliferation in the CNS, providing a novel means for size adjustment of a central neuronal population relative to a peripheral target.

  15. Enhancing the secretory yields of leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor in Escherichia coli: influence of trigger factor and signal recognition particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, Juan-Miguel; Nannenga, Brent L; Dornfeld, Kevin T; Betton, Jean-Michel; Baneyx, François

    2010-11-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) dependent secretion pathway is as an attractive alternative to Sec-dependent export for the production of disulfide-bonded and/or fast-folding recombinant proteins in the Escherichia coli periplasm. SRP, which shares a ribosomal attachment site with the molecular chaperone trigger factor (TF), recognizes highly hydrophobic signal sequence as they emerge from the ribosome and delivers ribosome nascent chain complexes to FtsY for subsequent cotranslational translocation of target proteins across the SecYEG pore. However, like in the case of Sec-dependent export, secretory yields can be limited by the accumulation of precursor proteins in the cytoplasm. Using leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor (LCI) fused to the SRP-dependent DsbA signal sequence as a model system, we show that a null mutation in the gene encoding TF (Deltatig) or SRP co-expression reduce pre-LCI accumulation by half, and that quantitative export can be achieved by combining the two strategies. Interestingly, enhanced precursor processing did not alter periplasmic LCI levels but increased the amount of protein excreted in the growth medium. All mature LCI was nearly fully active and an 80% increase in productivity was achieved in Deltatig cells alone due to their faster growth. Our results show that competition between SRP and TF can interfere with efficient export of recombinant proteins targeted to the SRP pathway and establish TF-deficient strains and SRP co-expression as a simple solution to improve yields.

  16. Ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis and sperm in the African medicinal leech Hirudo troctina Johnson, 1816 (Annelida, Hirudinida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Raja; Tekaya, Saïda; Urbisz, Anna Z; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the process of spermatogenesis in the leech Hirudo troctina Johnson, 1816 using light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy. At the onset of spermatogenesis in testes, the pear-shaped spermatogonia divide mitotically without full cytokinesis and as a result isogenic groups are formed (clusters, clones) with 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 spermatogonia and, finally, 256 primary spermatocytes occur. The final meiotic divisions of spermatocytes give rise to clones with 1024 spermatids. There are hundreds of developing germ-line clones in each testis. In each clone, the male germ cells divide in full synchrony and they are in the same phase of spermatogenesis. During complex spermiogenesis each spermatid becomes a filiform spermatozoon with a helicoid nucleus, which is characterized by the presence of a long acrosome with two regions - anterior and posterior, which are followed by a helicoid nucleus, a midpiece with only one mitochondrion and a long flagellum. Our results were compared to those on other clitellate annelids that have been studied to date, especially to sperm formation in Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1785. Only minor differences were found in the length and the diameter of different organelles and the number of spermatids in germ-line clones.

  17. Asymmetrization of first cleavage by transient disassembly of one spindle pole aster in the leech Helobdella robusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoyun; Weisblat, David A

    2006-04-01

    Unequal first cleavage is characteristic of a diverse group of protostome animals. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, unequal first cleavage is achieved through the interaction of an apparently symmetric mitotic spindle apparatus with a clearly polarized cell cortex. In the clitellate annelid Tubifex tubifex, by contrast, the spindle is monastral and contains only one gamma-tubulin-reactive centrosome; this monastral spindle is inherently asymmetric throughout mitosis. Here, we have used immunostaining for beta- and gamma-tubulin to follow spindle dynamics during the unequal first cleavage in another clitellate annelid, the leech Helobdella robusta. We find that the mitotic spindle is diastral and symmetric through early metaphase, then becomes asymmetric following the transient down-regulation of one centrosome, as judged by gamma-tubulin immunofluorescence. Low levels of drugs that affect microtubule dynamics can symmetrize the first cleavage without affecting the gamma-tubulin dynamics. Our results provide a striking example of the evolvability of cellular mechanisms underlying an unambiguously homologous developmental process.

  18. Infection, specificity and host manipulation of Australapatemon sp. (Trematoda, Strigeidae) in two sympatric species of leeches (Hirudinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Faltýnková, Anna; Choo, Jocelyn Mah; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2017-09-01

    Factors that drive parasite specificity and differences in infection dynamics among alternative host species are important for ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions, but still often poorly known in natural systems. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal dynamics of infection, host susceptibility and parasite-induced changes in host phenotype in a rarely explored host-parasite system, the Australapatemon sp. trematode infecting two sympatric species of freshwater leeches, Erpobdella octoculata and Helobdella stagnalis. We show significant variation in infection abundance between the host species in both space and time. Using experimental infections, we also show that most of this variation likely comes from interspecific differences in exposure rather than susceptibility. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hiding behaviour of E. octoculata, but not that of H. stagnalis, was impaired by the infection irrespective of the parasite abundance. This may increase susceptibility of E. octoculata to predation by the final avian host. We conclude that differences in patterns of infection and in behavioural alterations among alternative sympatric host species may arise in narrow spatial scales, which emphasises the importance of local infection and transmission dynamics for parasite life cycles.

  19. NMR structural characterization and computational predictions of the major intermediate in oxidative folding of leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arolas, Joan L; D'Silva, Loyola; Popowicz, Grzegorz M; Aviles, Francesc X; Holak, Tad A; Ventura, Salvador

    2005-08-01

    The III-A intermediate constitutes the major rate-determining step in the oxidative folding of leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor (LCI). In this work, III-A has been directly purified from the folding reaction and structurally characterized by NMR spectroscopy. This species, containing three native disulfides, displays a highly native-like structure; however, it lacks some secondary structure elements, making it more flexible than native LCI. III-A represents a structurally determined example of a disulfide-insecure intermediate; direct oxidation of this species to the fully native protein seems to be restricted by the burial of its two free cysteine residues inside a native-like structure. We also show that theoretical approaches based on topological constraints predict with good accuracy the presence of this folding intermediate. Overall, the derived results suggest that, as it occurs with non-disulfide bonded proteins, native-like interactions between segments of secondary structure rather than the crosslinking of disulfide bonds direct the folding of LCI.

  20. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate Age, Late-Type Binary NO UMa

    CERN Document Server

    Schlieder, Joshua E; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrere, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M; Crepp, Justin R; Eisner, Josh A; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. Our H, K$_s$, and L'-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.09". The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ~7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0$\\pm$0.5 primary and K6.5$\\pm$0.5 secondary are 0.83$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$ and 0.64$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87$\\pm$0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ~500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa bi...

  1. The Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 (AIF-1 homologous in Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech is involved in immune response during wound healing and graft rejection processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Schorn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1 is a 17 kDa cytokine-inducible calcium-binding protein that in Vertebrates plays an important role in allografts immune response. Since its expression is mainly limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage, it was recently suggested that it could play a key role during inflammatory responses, allograft rejection, as well as in the activation of macrophages. To clarify this point we have focused our research on the possible role of AIF-1 during the inflammatory response after injury in the leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida, Hirudinea. This invertebrate is an excellent animal model since the responses evoked during inflammation and tissue repair are clear and easily detectable and have a striking similarity with vertebrate responses. Moreover the analysis of an EST library from H. medicinalis CNS, revealed the presence of a gene, named Hmaif-1/alias Hmiba1, showing a high homology with vertebrate aif-1. Our data show that the related protein, named HmAIF-1, is constitutively expressed in unlesioned leeches and that dramatically increases 48 h after wounds and tissue transplants. Immunohistochemistry experiments, using a specific anti HmAIF-1 polyclonal antibody, shows that this factor is present in spread, CD68+ /CD45+ macrophage-like cells. A few days after experimental wounding of the body wall, the amount of these immunopositive cells increases at the lesion site. In conclusion here we propose that in leech HmAIF-1 factor is involved in inflammation events like its vertebrate counterparts.

  2. Transcription and protein synthesis inhibitors influence long-term effects of acetyl-l-carnitine on non-associative learning in the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Giovanna; Scuri, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is the principal acetyl ester of L-carnitine and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism. ALC affects several targets in the nervous system. Along this line of investigation, we analyzed the long-term effects of ALC on elementary nonassociative learning in the swimming induction model of the leech Hirudo medicinalis, in which nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin produces a more rapid swim response to a test stimulus (sensitization). In this simplified model a single ALC administration blocked the sensitizing effects of nociceptive stimulation in swim induction showing increasingly long lasting effects. Herein, we have analyzed the long-term effects of ALC on sensitization and dishabituation. Leeches were treated with inhibitors of either transcription or protein synthesis 30 min after the administration of ALC and, subsequently, subjected to noxious stimuli: the animals exhibited a sensitized swimming response 6 days after ALC treatment but not after 2 hours indicating that the long-term suppressive effects of ALC on sensitization/dishabituation needed mRNA and protein synthesis.

  3. Study on fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection%水蛭冻干粉针剂指纹图谱评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长根; 罗世书; 谢艳华

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection for quality control. METHODS: According to the evaluating system 2004A issued by State food and drug administration (SFDA) and appendix of Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China I, we filtered the Conditions as chromatographic column, mobile phase, determination wavelength, testing solution preparing and test the fingerprint of 10 patches of Leech Lyophilized Injection. RESULTS: ① The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was set up using Kromasil KR100-5C18(250 mm x 4.6 mm,5μm) column with mobile phase of water-methanol-tetra hydrofuran( 100:0. l:0. 05) ,and determination wavelength was 249 nm. In the recorded chromatogram of the test preparation, Relative Standard Deviation ( RSD) of the relative retention time and the relative peak areas of all peaks compared with hypoxanthine peak were measured. The similarity of 10 patches of Leech Lyophilized Injection was appraised by the similarity evaluation system. ②In this chromatogram condition,5 peaks were identified as the characteristic fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection. ③The retention time for hypoxanthine in Leech Lyophilized Injection were consistent with each other. RSD(%) of the relative retention time and the relative peak areas of all peaks compared with hypoxanthine peak fit the requirements of fingerprint. The chromatography showed good similarity up to 92% in 10 patches of I>eech Lyophilized Injection. CONCLUSION: The HPLC method of testing fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection is exact,simple and accurate,and can be used for quality control of Leech Lyophilized Injection.%目的:建立注射用水蛭冻十粉针剂指纹图谱,为其质量控制提供依据.方法:按照国家食品药品监督管理局(SFDA)颁布的"中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统2004A版"评价指南和<中国药典)2005年版一部附录HPLC法,筛选有效和稳定的色谱柱、流动相、检测波长、供试品

  4. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Characterization of the Coldest Directly Imaged Exoplanet, GJ 504 b, and Evidence for Superstellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Apai, Dániel; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin R.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Freedman, Richard; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Lupu, Roxana; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R.; Marley, Mark; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Stone, Jordan; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Visscher, Channon; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ˜500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (˜1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (˜130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: Teff = 544 ± 10 K, g GJ 504 b has a superstellar metallicity. Since planet formation can create objects with nonstellar metallicities, while binary star formation cannot, this result suggests that GJ 504 b formed like a planet, not like a binary companion. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrophisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of

  5. THE LEECH EXOPLANET IMAGING SURVEY: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COLDEST DIRECTLY IMAGED EXOPLANET, GJ 504 b, AND EVIDENCE FOR SUPERSTELLAR METALLICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Apai, Dániel; Close, Laird; Eisner, Josh [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave. Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St. Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zimmerman, Neil T.; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Skrutskie, Michael F. [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Esposito, Simone [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125, Florence (Italy); Crepp, Justin R. [Notre Dame University, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); De Rosa, Robert J. [Arizona State University, 781 South Terrace Rd, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Desidera, Silvano [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Padova Astronomical Observatory, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2016-02-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ∼500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (∼1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (∼130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: T{sub eff} = 544 ± 10 K, g < 600 m s{sup −2}, [M/H] = 0.60 ± 0.12, cloud opacity parameter of f{sub sed} = 2–5, R = 0.96 ± 0.07 R{sub Jup}, and log(L) = −6.13 ± 0.03 L{sub ⊙}, implying a hot start mass of 3–30 M{sub jup} for a conservative age range of 0.1–6.5 Gyr. Of particular interest, our model fits suggest that GJ 504 b has a superstellar metallicity. Since planet formation can create objects with nonstellar metallicities, while binary star formation cannot, this result suggests that GJ 504 b formed like a planet, not like a binary companion.

  6. 黄芪水蛭对实验性脑缺血大鼠的改善作用研究%Effect of Astragalus membranaceus and leech on experimental cerebral ischemia of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟菊迎; 刘钊; 李晶哲; 马琰岩; 高尔宁; 杨鸿

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察黄芪、水蛭对大鼠局灶性脑缺血引起的脑梗死的保护作用。方法大鼠按体质量均匀分为假手术对照组、模型对照组、黄芪、水蛭(9∶1,7∶1,5∶1)剂量组,预给药4d后采用线栓阻断大脑中动脉血供造成大鼠局灶性脑缺血模型(MCAO),观察黄芪、水蛭对脑缺血大鼠脑梗死比例以及凝血酶原时间(PT )的影响。结果与模型对照组比较,黄芪、水蛭组可不同程度降低局灶性脑缺血大鼠脑梗死面积(P <0.01,P <0.05),并能明显延长PT时间。结论黄芪、水蛭可明显降低大鼠脑缺血梗死率。%Objective To observe the neuroprotection effect of Astragalus membranaceus and leech on cere‐bral infarction caused by acute cerebral ischemia in rats .Methods Cerebral ischemia and infarction in rats were in‐duced by middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) .The effects of Astragalus membranaceus and leech were evalu‐ated in the three models .The different doses of Astragalus membranaceus and leech were administrated before modeling(9∶1 ,7∶1 ,5∶1).Astragalus membranaceus and leech was given for 4 days before modeling.Results Each dose group of Astragalus membranaceus and leech could significantly reduce infarction ratio of cerebral ische‐mia( P< 0 .05 ,P <0 .01)and significantly prolong prothrombin time in rats .Conclusion Astragalus membrana‐ceus and leech has good pharmacological effects on cerebral ischemia in rats.

  7. Intracellular pH of giant salivary gland cells of the leech Haementeria ghilianii: regulation and effects on secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, W A; Munsch, T; Berry, M S

    1994-04-01

    1. Intracellular pH (pHi) and membrane potential (Em) of giant salivary gland cells of the leech, Haementeria ghilianii, were measured with double-barrelled, neutral-carrier, pH-sensitive microelectrodes. 2. Em was -51 +/- 11.2 mV and pHi was 6.98 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- S.D., N = 41) in Hepes-buffered saline (nominally HCO3(-)-free; extracellular pH, pHe = 7.4). pHi was independent of Em. 3. Amiloride (2 mmol l-1) had no effect on resting pHi or on pHi recovery from an acid load (induced by the NH4+ pre-pulse technique). Removal of external Na+ produced a progressive acidification which was blocked by amiloride, and the drug also slowed the recovery of pHi on reintroduction of Na+. The results indicate the presence of an electroneutral Na+/H+ exchanger whose access to amiloride is competitively blocked by Na+. 4. In certain smaller cells of the gland, which probably form a separate population, removal of external Na+ did not affect pHi, and recovery from an acid load was blocked by amiloride. There may, therefore, be two types of Na+/H+ exchanger, differing in reversibility and sensitivity to amiloride. 5. Recovery of pHi from NH4(+)-induced acid loading was not affected by bicarbonate-buffered saline (2% CO2; 11 mmol l-1 HCO3-) or by addition of the anion-exchange blocker SITS (10(-4) mol l-1). This suggests that there is no significant contribution of a HCO3(-)-dependent transport mechanism to pHi regulation in the gland cells. 6. Removal of external Cl- slowly reduced pHi and there was a transient increase (overshoot) in pHi when Cl- was reintroduced. These effects of Cl- are probably explained by changes in the Na+ gradient. Intracellular Na+ and Cl- activities were measured with ion-selective microelectrodes. 7. Acidification with NH4+ was difficult, probably because of the cells' poor permeability to this ion. Attempts to introduce NH4+ via the Na+ pump or Na+/Cl- transporter were not successful. The H+/K+ ionophore nigericin (1 microgram ml-1), however, produced

  8. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Histiocyte of Seven Leech Species by SDS-PAGE%七种水蛭组织细胞可溶性蛋白SDS-PAGE电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪波; 张彬; 龚元; 于翔; 吕军仪

    2011-01-01

    The histiocyte soluble proteins of seven leeches in China were analyzed through SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the seven leech species shared most of the soluble proteins components of histiocyte; while a few differences existed. Hirudo nipponia Whitman had the largest number of protein bands of 28. There were more protein bands of blood-sucking leeches than that of non-bloodsucking leeches. No significant difference was detected among the histiocyte soluble proteins components of H. numillensis Lesson from three different areas. It was proved that SDS-PAGE could be used for classification and identification of leeches of different varieties, geographic distribution and food habit at the molecular level, and it accumulated data base of biologicalproperty.%采用垂直平板十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法(SDS-PAGE)对我国7种常见水蛭的组织细胞可溶性蛋白成分进行电泳图谱特性分析.结果表明,7种水蛭组织细胞中可溶性蛋白的SDS-PAGE图谱中多数条带相同,但也存在差异.其中日本医蛭(Hirudo nipponia Whitman)蛋白条带最多,达28个,并且吸血蛭类的蛋白条数要明显大于非吸血蛭类,而3种不同地理分布的菲牛蛭(Hirudinaria manillensis Lesson)间表达蛋白图谱无明显差异.该研究为在分子水平分析我国水蛭不同种类、同种不同地理分布及不同食性间的差异积累了新的生物学数据,对其分类和药材鉴别提供了参考依据.

  9. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  10. Effects of Leech Hirudo on Tumor Angiogenesis and Its Mechanisms%水蛭抑制肿瘤血管生成的作用及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小菊; 卢宏达; 陈卫群; 雷章; 胡杨; 孔庆志

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨水蛭能否通过改善肿瘤细胞缺氧微环境来抑制肿瘤血管生成及其相关机制.方法 以氯化钴模拟化学缺氧,采用MTT法观察水蛭含药血清对EA.hy926细胞的增殖抑制作用;采用RTPCR法检测缺氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)mRNA、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF) mRNA的表达;Western blot法检测HIF-1α蛋白水平;Matrigel基质胶模拟体外小管形成实验检测小管生成情况.结果 在缺氧条件下,水蛭含药血清能抑制EA.hy926细胞的增殖,且呈时间和剂量依耐性.水蛭含药血清在低氧时可显著抑制HIF-1α mRNA、VEGF mRNA的表达和HIF-1α蛋白水平,与阴性对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);水蛭高剂量组和阳性对照组HIF 1α mRNA表达及其蛋白表达水平相当(P>0.05),而VEGF mRNA在高剂量水蛭作用后的表达更少(P<0.05).小管形成实验中,水蛭含药血清作用后小管数目与阴性对照组相比明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与阳性对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 水蛭能通过改善肿瘤缺氧微环境抑制肿瘤血管生成来发挥抗肿瘤作用,其机制可能是通过降低HIF-1α蛋白水平和mRNA的表达,以及降低由HIF-1α所介导的靶基因VEGF mRNA的表达来实现的.%Objective To investigate whether Leech hirudo could inhibit tumor angiogenesis by improving the hypoxia microenvironment and its related anti-angiogenesis mechanisms. Methods Cobalt Chloride was added in the medium to simulate the chemical hypoxia environment. We used MTT method to observe the EA. Hy926 cells proliferation. The mRNA expressions of hypoxia inducible factor la(HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) were examined by real-time PCR,and the protein level of HIF-la was detected by Western blot. The tube formation assay was employed to detect EA. Hy926 cells angiogenesis in vitro. Results The Leech hirudo medicated-serum inhibited EA. Hy926 cells proliferation

  11. Patterns and distribution of presynaptic and postsynaptic elements within serial electron microscopic reconstructions of neuronal arbors from the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Jason E; Bushong, Eric A; Ellisman, Mark H; Kristan, William B

    2016-12-15

    Microscale connectomics involves the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution serial electron micrographs from which neuronal arbors can be reconstructed and synapses can be detected. In addition to connectivity information, these data sets are also rich with structural information, including vesicle types, number of postsynaptic partners at a given presynaptic site, and spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs. This study uses serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (EM) to collect two volumes of serial EM data from ganglia of the medicinal leech. For the first volume, we sampled a small fraction of the neuropil belonging to an adult ganglion. From this data set we measured the proportion of arbors that contained vesicles and the types of vesicles contained and developed criteria to identify synapses and to measure the number of apparent postsynaptic partners in apposition to presynaptic boutons. For the second data set, we sampled an entire juvenile ganglion, which included the somata and arbors of all the neurons. We used this data set to placd our findings from mature tissue in the context of fully reconstructed arbors and to explore the spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs on these arbors. We observed that some neurons segregated their arbors into input only and mixed input/output zones, that other neurons contained exclusively mixed input/output zones, and that still others contained only input zones. These results provide the groundwork for future behavioral studies. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3677-3695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Description of a new leech species of Helobdella (Clitellata: Glossiphoniidae) from Mexico with a review of Mexican congeners and a taxonomic key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Montiel, Ricardo; Phillips, Anna J; De Leon, Gerardo Perez-Ponce; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2014-12-19

    To date, six species of the leech genus Helobdella have been recorded from Mexico: Helobdella atli, Helobdella elongata, Helobdella octatestisaca, Helobdella socimulcensis, Helobdella virginiae and Helobdella temiscoensis n. sp. This new species is characterized by a lanceolate body, the presence of a nuchal scute, uniform brown pigment on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, the absence of papillae, well-separated eyespots, six pairs of testisacs and five pairs of crop caeca, the last of which forms posterior caeca. In addition, we provide new geographic records for Helobdella species from Mexico resulting from our own collections, vouchers deposited at the Colección Nacional de Helmintos from the Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Mexico and vouchers at the Invertebrate Zoology Collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (USNM) Washington D.C., USA. We present a comprehensive review of Mexican Helobdella species, including the new species, with notes on the characteristic morphology and geographic distribution of each species with 91 new records from 20 states. In addition, we provide a taxonomic key for the identification of the Mexican species.

  13. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Characterization of the Coldest Directly Imaged Exoplanet, GJ 504 b, and Evidence for Super-Stellar Metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew J; Zimmerman, Neil T; Skrutskie, Michael F; Leisenring, Jarron; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Apai, Dániel; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin R; De Rosa, Robert J; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Freedman, Richard; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Lupu, Roxana; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R; Marley, Mark; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Stone, Jordan; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Visscher, Channon; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly-imaged exoplanets were all L-type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. (2013) announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ~500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (~1000 K) and our own Solar System's Jupiter (~130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 microns), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 microns) as part of the LEECH exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry to a grid of custom model atmospheres, we w...

  14. Mechanistic Investigation on the Effect of Leech to the Urinary Albumin of Diabetes Nephrosis Rat%水蛭对糖尿病肾病大鼠尿白蛋白影响的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 邓晓明; 王淑玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过研究水蛭对糖尿病大鼠尿微量白蛋白及血清Ⅳ型胶原蛋白表达的影响,来探讨水蛭对糖尿病肾病大鼠肾脏早期病变的防治作用及可能机理.方法:清洁级SD雄性大鼠40只随机分成A(正常)组、B(模型)组、C(水蛭)组、D(替米沙坦)组.所有组别灌胃8周后处死.观察血糖(BG)、血肌酐(Scr)、血尿素氮(BUN)、24h尿微量白蛋白(24h Alb)、肾脏指数(KI),双抗体加心酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法测定血清Ⅳ型胶原蛋白(IV-C)的表达.结果 A组、C组、D组与B组比较,24h Alb的表达显著减少(P<0.01),血清Ⅳ-C的表达减少(P<0.01),结论:水蛭可显著减轻糖尿病肾病大鼠早期蛋白尿,可能与下调Ⅳ-C的表达有关.%Objective: Studying the effect and the mechanism of leech on early kidney disease of diabetic nephropathy rat through researching leech on urinary album and express of serum Ⅳ-C in diabetic rat. Methods; 40clean level SD male rats were randomly divided into ( normal control) group A, (model) group B, (Leech treatment) group C, ( Micardis treatment) group D. All group were sacrificed after lavage eight weeks. A series of data were evaluated such as the ratio of kidney weight to body weight, blood glucose, renal function, 24h urinary album, the express of IV - C by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results; group A, group C and group D compared with group B, 24h urinary album decreased (P<0. 01) , blood serum Ⅳ - C expressed decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion; Leech can decrease urinary album on diabetic nephropathy rat, whose mechanism may be associated partly with a down-regulation of levels and express of Ⅳ-C.

  15. The marine leech Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, parasitic on the angel shark Squatina spp. and sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae, Carchariidae in Southern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto J. M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the marine leech, Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, is reported on the southern coast of Brazil, based on seven lots with 47 specimens, between 71 and 182 mm in total length, collected on the dorsal region of angel sharks, Squatina argentina (Marini, 1930; S. guggenheim Marini, 1936; S. punctata Marini, 1936 (Chondrichthyes, Squatinidae; and on the head of a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Carchariidae. This is the first record of S. loricata in the western Atlantic and of its parasitic association with S. argentina, S. guggenheim, S. punctata, and C. taurus.

  16. Role for calcium signaling and arachidonic acid metabolites in the activity-dependent increase of AHP amplitude in leech T sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuri, Rossana; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Brunelli, Marcello

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have revealed a new form of activity-dependent modulation of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in tactile (T) neurons of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The firing of T cells is characterized by an AHP, which is mainly due to the activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase. Low-frequency repetitive stimulation of T neurons leads to a robust increment of the AHP amplitude, which is correlated with a synaptic depression between T neuron and follower cells. In the present study, we explored the molecular cascades underlying the AHP increase. We tested the hypothesis that this activity-dependent phenomenon was triggered by calcium influx during neural activity by applying blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. We report that AHP increase requires calcium influx that, in turn, induces release of calcium from intracellular stores so sustaining the enhancement of AHP. An elevation of the intracellular calcium can activate the cytosolic isoforms of the phosholipase A2 (PLA2). Therefore we analyzed the role of PLA2 in the increase of the AHP, and we provide evidence that not only PLA2 but also the recruitment of arachidonic acid metabolites generated by the 5-lipoxygenase pathway are necessary for the induction of AHP increase. These data indicate that a sophisticated cascade of intracellular signals links the repetitive discharge of T neurons to the activation of molecular pathways, which finally may alter the activity of critical enzymes such as the Na+/K+ ATPase, that sustains the generation of the AHP and its increase during repetitive stimulation. These results also suggest the potential importance of the poorly studied 5-lipoxygenase pathway in forms of neuronal plasticity.

  17. Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael C; Bomar, Lindsey; Maltz, Michele; Graf, Joerg

    2015-03-01

    Three anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana, using mucin as the primary carbon and energy source. These strains, designated M3(T), M4 and M6, were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Cells were elongated bacilli approximately 2.4 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. Growth only occurred anaerobically under mesophilic and neutral pH conditions. All three strains could utilize multiple simple and complex sugars as carbon sources, with glucose fermented to acid by-products. The DNA G+C contents of strains M3(T), M4 and M6 were 44.9, 44.8 and 44.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3(T) was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains shared >99 % similarity with each other and represent a new lineage within the family Rikenellaceae of the order Bacteroidales, phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related bacteria to strain M3(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were Rikenella microfusus DSM 15922(T) (87.3 % similarity) and Alistipes finegoldii AHN 2437(T) (87.4 %). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains M3(T), M4 and M6 are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Rikenellaceae, for which the name Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mucinivorans hirudinis is M3(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2553(T) = DSM 27344(T)).

  18. 一种可越过凸凹障碍的仿医蛭管内微型机器人%Research on a New Kind of Micro Peristaltic Robot in Pipeline Simulating a Medicinal Leech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方湖; 马培荪

    2000-01-01

    基于医蛭的内部结构和运动机理,提出了一种新型的、可越过管内凸凹障碍的仿医蛭管内 蠕动微型机器人,解决了管内微型机器人的通过性问题.该微型机器人由两个爬行部件、一个收缩 部件和控制系统组成,具有可沿任意方向转弯和可通过锥形、直线型及弧形管接头的能力.%Based on the structure and the locomotion principle of a medicinal leech, a new kind of micro peristaltic robot in pipeline simulating a medicinal leech was presented, which is suitable for going across protruding or concave impediment. The presentation of the micro robot mainly solves the problem for a micro robot in pipeline to go across impediments. The robot is made up of two crawling parts, an extending and contracting part and a control system. The micro robot has many advantages, such as moving in all directions and crossing a cone or linear or arc connection of a pipeline.

  19. Estimating the experimental value of the electromagnetic fine structure constant {alpha}-bar {sub 0}=1/137.036 using the Leech lattice in conjunction with the monster group and Spher's kissing number in 24 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [King Abdul Aziz City of Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-04-15

    We start with various observations regarding the kissing number in the 24-dimensional Leech lattice N{sub {tau}}{sup (24)}=196560 as well as the j-function coefficient b=196884 and the minimal dimension in which the monster group can act D{sub m}=196883. Subsequently based on the previous results and earlier numerical experiments, we use a quibic potential to derive a quadratic equationx{sup 2}+12820x-(N{sub {tau}}{sup (24)}/10)=0where 128=spin 7=(2){sup 7}, 10=D{sup (10)} and N{sub {tau}}{sup (24)}=196560 are the spin representation, the super string dimension and the Leech kissing number, respectively. It is found that the only positive solution of this equation isx{sub 1}=137.036={alpha}-bar {sub 0}which is the accurate experimental value of inverse of the electromagnetic fine structure constant. This remarkable result is interpreted in terms of the connection between the Moonshine conjecture and string theory as well as the E-infinity relation between the kissing number in 10 dimensions K{sub {tau}}{sup (10)}=336 and the degrees of freedom of Klein's modular space dim {gamma}(7)=336.

  20. Testing the spatial and temporal framework of speciation in an ancient lake species flock: the leech genus Dina (Hirudinea: Erpobdellidae in Lake Ohrid

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    T. Wilke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be the oldest ancient lake in Europe with a suggested Plio-Pleistocene age. Its exact geological age, however, remains unknown. Therefore, molecular clock data of Lake Ohrid biota may serve as an independent constraint of available geological data, and may thus also help to refine age estimates. Such evolutionary data may also help unravel potential biotic and abiotic factors that promote speciation events. Here, mitochondrial sequencing data of one of the largest groups of endemic taxa in Lake Ohrid, the leech genus Dina, is used to test whether it represents an ancient lake species flock, to study the role of horizontal and vertical barriers in Lake Ohrid for evolutionary events, to estimate the onset of intralacustrine diversification in this group based on molecular clock analyses, and to compare this data with data from other endemic species for providing an approximate time frame for the origin of Lake Ohrid. Based on the criteria speciosity, monophyly and endemicity, it can be concluded that Lake Ohrid Dina, indeed, represents an ancient lake species flock. Lineage sorting of its species, however, does not seem to be complete. Analyses of population structures of Dina spp. in the Ohrid watershed indicate a horizontal zonation of haplotypes from spring and lake populations, corroborating the role of lake-side springs, particularly the southern feeder springs, for evolutionary processes in endemic Ohrid taxa. Vertical differentiation of lake taxa, however, appears to be limited, though differences between populations from the littoral and the profundal are apparent. Molecular clock analyses indicate that the most recent common ancestor of extant species of this flock is approximately 1.99±0.83 Ma old, whereas the split of the Lake Ohrid Dina flock from a potential sister taxon outside the lake is estimated at 8.30±3.60 Ma. Comparisons with other groups of endemic Ohrid species

  1. 中药水蛭品种考证及资源可持续利用发展探讨%Species study on Chinese medicine leech and discussion on its resource sustainable utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; 张瑞贤; 李健; 梁飞; 钱忠直

    2013-01-01

    该文通过系统地本草文献梳理与研究指出,传统中医使用的水蛭是生于水中,个头较小且能吸食人及牛马血的水蛭.具有这些特性的水蛭的品种有日本医蛭Hirudo nipponia Whitman、丽医蛭H.pulchra Song、南京牛蛭Poecilobdella nanjingensis sp.Nov.、菲牛蛭P.manillensis (Lesson)以及湖北牛蛭P.hubeiensis Yang 5个品种,与2010年版《中国药典》水蛭项下所规定的动物品种来源不完全一致.建议《中国药典》修改并补充水蛭的品种来源,保留原有日本医蛭H.nipponica Whitman,增补菲牛蛭P.manillensis (Lesson),暂时保留宽体金线蛭Whitmania pigra Whitman、尖细金线蛭W.acranulata Whitman,并进一步加强丽医蛭H.pulchra Song、南京牛蛭P.nanjingensis sp.Nov.以及湖北牛蛭P.hubeiensis Yang的化学成分和药理作用以及资源分布的研究,以待作为药用品种补充.%Through systemically sorting and studying literature of Chinese medicine,this article pointed out that leech used by the traditional Chinese medicine in ancient time has the features of small,living in water,able to suck blood of animal and people.The species of leeches having these features were Hirudo nipponia Whitman,H.pulchra Song,Poecilobdella nanjingensis sp.Nov.,P.manillensis (Lesson) and P.hubeiensis Yang,which were not fully coincidence with the species recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition.We suggests that species of leech in Chinese Pharmacopeia be revised:H.nipponica Whitman should be kept,P.manillensis (Lesson) should bc added in,Whitmania pigra Whitman and W.acranulata Whitma should be temporarily reserved,and H.pulchra Song,P.nanjingensis sp.Nov.,and P.hubeiensis Yang should be considered.

  2. The Analysis of Obama's Victory Speech in 2012 by Leech's Politeness Principle%礼貌原则视角下的2012年奥巴马胜选演讲词分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓星; 江寒冰

    2013-01-01

      本文追溯了Leech礼貌原则的历史渊源。并根据Leech礼貌原则的六大准则,即策略原则,慷慨原则,赞誉原则,谦逊原则,一致原则,同情原则,分析了2012年奥巴马胜选演讲中出现的礼貌用词,指出在演讲中礼貌用语使用的必要性。%This paper introduces the history of Leech's politeness principles and analyzes the polite words presented in Obama's victory speech using the politeness principle, points out the necessity of the use of polite words in the speech.

  3. Marine leech Ozobranchus margoi parasitizing loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Sanguessugas Ozobranchus margoi parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane Rodenbusch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the finding of several Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida: Hirudinea parasitizing a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta that was found in the municipality of Tavares, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Since this parasite is considered to be a vector of chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV-5, the leeches collected were tested for the presence of this virus. All the specimens were negative on PCR analysis. Although O. margoi is considered to be a common sea turtle parasite, this is the first official record describing collection of this parasite from a loggerhead turtle in southern Brazil, within the country's subtropical zone. This finding draws attention to the presence of this parasite and to the risk of leech-borne infectious diseases among turtles found along the coast of southern Brazil.Este artigo relata a descoberta de vários exemplares de Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida Hirudínea parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta encontrada no município de Tavares, Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Uma vez que esse parasito é considerado vetor do chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV 5, as sanguessugas foram testadas para a presença deste vírus. Todas as amostras foram negativas pela análise de PCR. Embora o O. margoi seja considerado um parasito comum de tartarugas marinhas, este é o primeiro registro oficial que descreve a coleta deste parasita em uma tartaruga cabeçuda no sul do Brasil, dentro da zona subtropical do país. Este achado chama a atenção para a presença deste parasita e para o risco de sanguessugas transmitirem doenças infecciosas em tartarugas no litoral sul do Brasil.

  4. Distribution and harmfulness of leech-caused human disease in the mainland of China%中国大陆人体水蛭病的地区分布与危害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德福; 陈漪澜; 肖宁; 高丽霞; 李定越; 李佳圆; 田洪春; 陈闯; 陈建平; 廖玮

    2009-01-01

    目的 总结中国大陆近50年水蛭病在人群中的地区分布与危害、水蛭在人体的寄生部位及多种不同的治疗方法. 方法 收集、分析国内50年来不同地区的水蛭病资料,对所获资料进行归类分析. 结果 共收集到1 003例病例资料,分析结果显示中国大陆水蛭病分布在15个省、自治区;患者年龄为1.5岁至73岁不等;以农民、幼女、学生为主,其次为伐木工、采集工;发病季节以夏季为主,秋季次之;患者病程为1~365 d以上不等;虫体寄生部位以鼻腔、阴道、咽喉部较为常见,眼部、上颌窦、肠腔、膀胱、外阴、胃、皮下极为罕见;患者临床表现为失血、贫血、恐惧、紧张、头昏、头痛、腹痛、腹泻、恶心、呕吐、鼻塞、呼吸受阻、血痰、咯血等,部份患者失血量在200~300 ml之间,重者达600 ml. 结论 水蛭病主要发生于国内某些地区,特别是西南的广西、贵州、四川、云南及中南的湖北,沿海的福建、广东等省(自治区)边远山区的农村,对人体的危害尤其对成年劳动者与幼女的危害较大.%Objective To summarize and analyze the distribution and harmfulness of leech-cansed dis-ease among populations, parasitized locations of leeches in human body and different treatment measures against this disease in mainland of China in the last 50 years. Methods To collect the information from varieties of medical books, journals, bulletins, monograph and journals for parasitological subjects, as well as leech-caused disease data reported from different regions. Results Information of 1 003 cases were collected and the data revealed that leech-caused diseases were found in 15 provinces or autonomous regions yet, and the patients' a-ges ranged from 1.5 to 73. Most of these victims were farmers, little girls and students, and next were lumber-men. The high incident season of the disease was summer followed by autumn. Disease course lasted from 1 day to 365

  5. 水蛭渗滤液对凝血酶诱导的人视网膜色素上皮细胞周期的影响%The effects of leech percolate on cell dividing cycle of human retinal pigment epithelium cells induced by thrombin.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑燕林; 左玉霞; 马素红

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of leech percolate on cell division cycle of culturedhuman retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE)cells induced by thrombin.Exploring mechanism of leech percolateon preventing and curing PVR.Methods (1)Human retinal pigment epithelium(hRPE)cells were cultured invitro with digest culture method. (2)The selected concentrations of leech percolate (128mg/ml,64mg/ml,32mg/ml,16mg/ml and 8mg/ml)were based on the previous experiments.With or without 0.5NIHU/mlthrombin, hRPE cells were treated with leech percolate by various concentrations for 24hrs, and the effects ofcell division cycle of leech percolate were studied with Flow Cytometer (FCM). (3)With or without0.5NIHU/ml thrombin, hRPE cells were treated with 64mg/ml leech percolate at different times(6hr, 12hr,24hrand 48hr), and the effects of cell division cycle of leech percolate were treated with FCM.Results (1)Therewas a general tendency that leech percolate of the selected concentrations arrested hRPE cells on G0/G1 phaseand 64mg/mi leech percolate inhibited 77.9% hRPE cells on G0/G1 phase and made hRPE cells on S phaseless especially. (2)During the period of 6hrs and 48hrs the longer the treat time of 64mg/ml leech percolate, themore the RPE cells arrested on G0/G1 phase.Conclusion The results approve leech percolate can inhibitproliferation of human RPE cells cultured in vitro.Its mechanism may be that leech percolate could act on celldivision cycle and arrest RPE cells on G0/G1 phase to make proliferation power of hRPE cells lower.%目的 研究水蛭渗滤液对凝血酶诱导的人视网膜色素上皮细胞周期的影响,从而探讨中药水蛭用于防治PVR的作用机制.方法 (1)采用消化培养法,对人视网膜色素上皮细胞进行体外传代培养. (2)在前期实验基础上选择128mg/ml、64mg/ml、32mg/ml、16mg/ml、8mg/ml浓度的水蛭渗滤液,用流式细胞仪测定细胞周期,观察水蛭渗滤液单独或与0.5NIHU/ml凝血酶共同作用

  6. RP-HPLC测定水蛭中3种蝶啶类活性成分的含量%Content Determination of Three Pteridine Active Ingredients in Leech by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑云枫; 程建明; 彭国平

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立RP-HPLC测定水蛭药材中3种蝶啶类活性成分含量的方法.方法 采用Kromsail C18色谱柱,以甲醇:0.05%三氟乙酸水(20:80)为流动相,检测波长为354 nm,流速为1.0mL/min,柱温30℃.结果 在以上色谱条件下3种成分可以完全分离.水蛭甲素:Y=12.181 4X+0.075 3,r=0.999 6;(36.0~0.90) μg/mL,水蛭乙素:Y=12.024X-2.124 5,r=0.999 5;(40.4~1.01)μg/mL,水蛭丙素:Y=12.814 5X-3.686 l,r=0.999 8;(42.8~1.07) μg/mL.结论 该方法简单、快速,专属性好,可用于水蛭药材的质量控制方法之一.%OBJECTIVE To establish RP-HPLC determination of the content of three pteridine active ingredients in leech. METHODS Kromsail Cu chromatographic column was used with methanol to 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (20 '? 80) as mobile phase, detecting wave length of 354 nm, flow speed of 1.0 mL/min and column temperature of 30 "C. RESULTS Three active ingredients were separated on the conditions mentioned above. Hirudin A: Y=12.181 4X+0.075 3,r=0. 9996; (36.0~0.90)fig/mL. Hirudin B:Y = 12.024 X - 2.124 5, r=0.9995; (40. 4~1. 01)ng/mL. Hirudin C: Y = 12.814 5X-3.686 1, r=0.999 8; (42.8~1.07)f±g/mL. CONCLUSION The method proves to be easy and fast with good specificity, which can be used to control quality of leeches.

  7. [Use of the most recent reagent (CuFL) for stimulation of NO synthesis by the medicinal leech salivary cell secretion in the cultures of human endothelium cells (HUVEC) and in rat cardiomiocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskova, I P; Alekseeva, A Iu; Kostiuk, S V; Neverova, M E; Smirnova, T D; Veĭko, N N

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal leech salivary cell secretion (SCS) may stimulate NO-production in cultures of human endothelium cells (HUVEC) and rat cardiomiocytes (RCM). This effect was detected using a NO specific reagent, - the complex Cu2+ with a fluorescein derivative (Cu-Fl). NO had also been detected in the cells by fluorescent electronic microscopy and determined quantitatively in the cells and in culture fluid by the fluorescence method. SCS stimulated NO synthesis in HUVEC cells (but not in RCM) is accompanied by NO release into intercellular space. Localization of NO synthesis centers is presented and it is shown that the increase in NO levels during the SCS action on HUVEC and RCM is associated with the increase in the activity of eNOS/nNOS, but not iNOS. In endothelial cells SCS activates nitrosylation processes, assessed by the increase of nitrite-ions in the culture medium. It is therefore important to use Cu-Fl, other than Griss-reagent, during the first hour of analysis of NO synthesis. The NO-depended mechanism of SCS action on endothelial cells might be a factor in providing of its positive action in hirudotheraphy.

  8. Registros de sanguijuelas de Costa Rica y clave para la identificación de las especies con redescripción de Cylicobdella costaricae Records of leeches from Costa Rica and taxonomic key for species identification with a redescription of Cylicobdella costaricae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En contraste con los enormes esfuerzos realizados por caracterizar la fauna y flora de Costa Rica, con excepción de algunos registros aislados, muy poco se sabe sobre las sanguijuelas (Annelida: Clitellata en este país. En este trabajo, presentamos la redescripción de una especie terrestre muy poco conocida: Cylicobdella costaricae, caracterizando su morfología externa e interna; esta última se mantenía completamente desconocida hasta la fecha. Adicionalmente, presentamos la primera lista de especies de sanguijuelas para Costa Rica con un total de 12 taxones registrados en las 7 provincias del país. Se incluye una breve descripción de su morfología, fotografías y localidades para cada taxón. Los registros que presentamos son el resultado del estudio de los ejemplares depositados en el Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica así como de recolectas recientes. Finalmente, incluimos una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies de sanguijuelas de Costa Rica.In contrast to the enormous efforts made to characterize the fauna and flora from Costa Rica, except for a few isolated records, very little is known about leeches (Annelida: Clitellata in the country. In this paper, we present the redescription of a poorly known terrestrial leech: Cylicobdella costaricae, characterizing its external and internal morphology, the latter, completely unknown to date. In addition, we report the first list of leech species for Costa Rica, including in total 12 taxa with records from the 7 provinces of the country. We provide a brief description of the leech morphology, pictures and localities for each taxon. The information shown here is the result of the study of both, specimens deposited at the Museo de Zoología of the Universidad de Costa Rica and the new collections. Finally, we provide a taxonomic key for species identification.

  9. A new leech species of Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae from San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina Una especie nueva de sanguijuela del género Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae de San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina S. Gullo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A new freshwater leech species Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. is described. This description is based on the examination of 12 specimens collected in Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'W, during December 2002. Leeches were found attached to submerged plants. They were relaxed with gradual addition of 70% ethanol, fixed in 10% formalin, stored in 70% ethanol and stained with borax carmine. Examination of external morphology, dissections and microphotographs were accomplished with a Leica Wild M3Z stereo microscope aided with an Olympus C-4000 digital camera. H. fantasmae n. sp. differs from other species of the genus by the presence of 1 pair of eyes on somite III, crop without gastric chambers, digitiform caeca and postcaeca., short sperm ducts reaching the back of somite XV, atrium pyriform, short ovisacs reaching somite XIII. This is the first record of leeches from an ephemeral wetland in North Patagonia. This finding expands current knowledge of the biodiversity of Hirudinea in South America, increasing the number of known Helobdella spp. from the Río Negro province (North Patagonia to 10 species.Se describe una especie de sanguijuela dulceacuícola Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. Esta descripción se basa en el examen de 12 ejemplares recolectados en la Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'O durante diciembre de 2002. Los individuos se hallaron asociados a la vegetación sumergida. Fueron relajados con la adición gradual de etanol 70%, fijados en formalina al 10%, preservados en etanol 70% y teñidos con carmín borácico. El examen de la morfología externa, disecciones y microfotografías fueron realizados con la ayuda de un estereomicroscopio Leica Wild M3Z con cámara digital Olympus C-4000. H. fantasmae n. sp. difiere de otras especies del género por los siguientes caracteres: un par de ojos en el somito III, estómago recto sin cámaras, ciegos laterales ni postciegos, espermiductos cortos que descienden hasta el

  10. of Geoffrey Leech's Semantics: the Study of Meaning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not, in any serious sense, know the meaning of any expression 1n either of them. Take, by way of ... the study of mean1ng as an integrated component of the total theory of how language ..... ter of making it explicit by means of a formal notation.

  11. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research.

  12. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Han; Ren, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Jing; Ding, Li-Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Liu, Song-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese) is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research.

  13. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Han Dong; Ji-Xiang Ren; Jing-Jing Wang; Li-Shuai Ding; Jian-Jun Zhao; Song-Yan Liu; Hui-Min Gao

    2016-01-01

    Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese) is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Sh...

  14. ANATOMY, LIFE HISTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARASITIC LEECH OLIGOBDELLA BIANNULATA (MOORE, 1900) (EUHIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligobdella biannulata (Moore, 1900) is a rare, endemic species originally described from a mountain stream near Blowing Rock, North Carolina. Specimens of this species were collected seasonally from fall 1999 to winter 2001 with four new county records in North Carolina (Avery,...

  15. Rediscovery of the Empress, Sasakia funebris Leech (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae: Apaturini after 88 years in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The sighting of an Empress, Sasakia funebris, is reported from upper Debang Valley District, Arunachal Pradesh. This is the first record of this butterfly after almost nine decades in India. Observations on the habitat and habits of the species are given.

  16. ANATOMY, LIFE HISTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARASITIC LEECH OLIGOBDELLA BIANNULATA (MOORE, 1900) (EUHIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligobdella biannulata (Moore, 1900) is a rare, endemic species originally described from a mountain stream near Blowing Rock, North Carolina. Specimens of this species were collected seasonally from fall 1999 to winter 2001 with four new county records in North Carolina (Avery,...

  17. Land Leeches of the g.Haemadipsa (Haemadipsoidea:Haemadipsidae). II. Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Sangsues Terrestres). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 10:640-675, 1917 10. DEQUAL, L. Nuovi Irudinei esotici del Museo Zoologico di Torino. Boll Mus Zool Anat Comp...A. Forest pests man should avoid. Philipp J For 3:191-201, 1940 DEQUAL, L. Nuovi Irudinei esotici del Museo Zoologico di Torino. BtI)i Mus Zool Anat

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sasakia funebris (Leech) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and comparison with other Apaturinae insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju Ping; Cao, Tian Wen; Xuan, Shan Bin; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Ma, En bo

    2013-09-10

    Sasakia funebris, a member of the lepidopteran family, Nymphalidae (superfamily Papilionoidea) is a rare species and is found only in some areas of South China. In this study, the 15,233 bp long complete mitochondrial genome of S. funebris was determined, and harbors the gene arrangement identical to all other sequenced lepidopteran insects. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 81.2%. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with typical ATN codons, except for COI which begins with the CGA codon. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The S. funebris A+T-rich region of 370 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, and two tandem repeats consisting of 18 bp repeat units and 14 bp repeat units. The phylogenetic analyses of Apaturinae based on mitogenome sequences showed: (S. funebris+Sasakia charonda)+(Apatura metis+Apatura ilia). This result is consistent with the morphological classification.

  19. A study on nutrition of medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana Carena, 1820: Cannibalism?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma ile tıbbi sülük Hirudo verbana’nın yapay koşullarda beslenme esnası ve sonrası davranışlarının araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Sülükler taze sığır kanı ile beslenmişlerdir ve toplu tartım yöntemiyle beslenme sonrasında %97.74 oranında ağırlık artışı olmuştur. Yeteri kadar beslenememiş bazı sülüklerin, hareket kabiliyetlerini kısmen kaybetmiş olan bazı tok sülüklere saldırdıkları, kanibalistik eğilim sergiledikleri, ancak kanibalizmin net olarak şekillenmediği görülmüştür. Bazı sülüklerin beslenmeden 66. gün sonrasında dahi tükettikleri kanın bir kısmını kustukları görülmüştür. Kusulan kanın bazı bireylerin uyarımına neden olduğu, ancak kanın bulunduğu bölgeye gelen sülüklerin kısa süreli bir incelemenin ardından kana ilgisiz davrandıkları ve bölgeden uzaklaştıkları gözlenmiştir. Yetiştiricilik şartlarında periyodik besleme gruplarının oluşturulması, tüm sülüklerin uyarılarak beslenmeye hazır hale gelmeleri ve beslenme sonrasında tok ile yeterince beslenmemiş bireylerin ayrı ortamlara alınmaları ile tıbbi sülük H. verbana’da potansiyel kanibalizm eğiliminden kaynaklı problemlerin önüne geçilebileceği düşünülmektedir

  20. Predatory leeches (Hirudinida) may contribute to amphibian declines in the Lassen, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead Jonathan; Karen Pope

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have documented precipitous declines in Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae) populations in the southern portion of the species' range, in the Lassen region of California. Reasons for the declines, however, have not been elucidated. In addition to common, widespread causes, an understanding of local community interactions may be necessary...

  1. Leech Therapy- A Holistic Approach of Treatment in Unani (Greeko-Arab) Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Azad Hussain; Ahmad, Tanzeel; Anwar, Mohd.; Habib, Shahida; Sofi, Gh; Imam, Hashmat

    2011-01-01

    The Unani System of Medicine also known as Greeko-Arab medicine, founded by Hippocrates is based on the concept of equilibrium and balance of natural body humours (blood, bile, black bile and phlegm). The imbalance in the quality and quantity of these humours leads to diseases whereas restoration of this balance maintains health of a person. The treatment methodology of diseases is based on four therapeutic modalities viz. Regimental therapy, Dieto-therapy, Pharmacotherapy and surgery. Irsale...

  2. The Iberian Leech: Napoleon’s Counterinsurgency Operations in the Peninsula, 1807-1810

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    virtue of her Moorish blood. “Africa begins at the Pyrenees ,” is more than an apt phrase. It expresses succinctly the exotic, half-oriental quality...poured their blood and energy into the dead-end funnel that is Spain. The towering Pyrenees have sealed that funnel off from the rest of Europe more...Napoleon only required an excuse for entering Spain. Fortunately, for Napoleon, he had help in the Spanish government itself. This came in the form of the

  3. A new and alien species of ``oyster leech'' (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Stylochidae) from the brackish North Sea Canal, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluys, Ronald; Faubel, Anno; Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Velde, Gerard Van Der

    2005-11-01

    A new species of polyclad flatworm, Imogine necopinata Sluys, sp. nov., is described from a brackish habitat in The Netherlands. Taxonomic affinities with Asian species and the ecology of the animals suggest that the species is an introduced, exotic component of the Dutch fauna. The new species belongs to a group of worms with species that are known to predate on oysters.

  4. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate-Age, Late-Type Binary NO UMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M.; Crepp, Justin R.; Eisner, Josh A.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M.; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, Ks-, and L‧-band observations resolve the system at angular separations Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  5. Cultural Resources Investigation of the Reservoir Shorelines: Gull Lake, Leech Lake, Pine River, and Lake Pokegama. Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    rice lake in Minnesota, Canadian Journal of Botany , 47: 1671-1679. Mason, Philip P., ed. 1958 Schoolcraft Expedition to Lake Itasca. Michigan State...The Pedersen Site (21 LN 2), taught Macalester College and Hamline University combined Field School. 1973- Taught internship students from Macalester...Anthropology with a strong emphasis in Archaeology. -, r’Minor: Botany /Ecology. Bachelor of Arts 1971. Moorhead State University. Major: History

  6. THE LEECH EXOPLANET IMAGING SURVEY: ORBIT AND COMPONENT MASSES OF THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE, LATE-TYPE BINARY NO UMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip; Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Close, Laird M.; Eisner, Josh A. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Esposito, Simone [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556 (United States); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: joshua.e.schlieder@nasa.gov [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, K{sub s}-, and L′-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.″09. The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ∼7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0 ± 0.5 primary and K6.5 ± 0.5 secondary are 0.83 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙} and 0.64 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙}, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87 ± 0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ∼500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group, and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits.

  7. [Infections Associated with Treatment with Hirudo medicinalis - Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, K; Gümbel, D; Seifert, J; Daeschlein, G; Napp, M; Ekkernkamp, A

    2015-06-01

    Medicinal leeches are well-established for promoting venous drainage in transplants/flaps and analgesia in osteoarthritis. Although medicinal leeches are bred and kept under controlled conditions, they are colonised by a genuine species-specific bacterial flora. Therapeutic application of leeches implies skin penetration carrying an a priori risk of infection. We report 2 cases with different indications for medicinal leech therapy. In both cases wound infection occurred in close temporal and spatial correlation or with evidence of a leech-associated germ that could be treated successfully. An unclarified complication rate warrants strict indications for the application of medicinal leeches. Preventive measures are currently tested.

  8. 78 FR 53581 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Oregon Spotted Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... worm-leeches (Arhynchobdellida) (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 14). Leeches and other invertebrates..., woody accumulations within the creek, and holes in creek banks when inactive during periods of prolonged...

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Antithrombin Peptides from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and Characterization of Antithrombin Peptides from the Saliva of Malaysian Leeches. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To isolate and characterize the antithrombin compounds of Malaysian leeches' saliva ...

  10. Computational model of touch sensory cells (T Cells) of the leech: role of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in activity-dependent conduction failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Enrico; Brunelli, Marcello; Byrne, John H; Av-Ron, Evyatar; Cai, Yidao; Baxter, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    Bursts of spikes in T cells produce an AHP, which results from activation of a Na+/K+ pump and a Ca2+-dependent K+ current. Activity-dependent increases in the AHP are believed to induce conduction block of spikes in several regions of the neuron, which in turn, may decrease presynaptic invasion of spikes and thereby decrease transmitter release. To explore this possibility, we used the neurosimulator SNNAP to develop a multi-compartmental model of the T cell. The model incorporated empirical data that describe the geometry of the cell and activity-dependent changes of the AHP. Simulations indicated that at some branching points, activity-dependent increases of the AHP reduced the number of spikes transmitted from the minor receptive fields to the soma and beyond. More importantly, simulations also suggest that the AHP could modulate, under some circumstances, transmission from the soma to the synaptic terminals, suggesting that the AHP can regulate spike conduction within the presynaptic arborizations of the cell and could in principle contribute to the synaptic depression that is correlated with increases in the AHP.

  11. Simulation of two field tests on the leeching of metalaxyl with the pestla model. Simulatie van twee veldexperimenten naar de uitspoeling van metalaxyl met het model pestla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balm, A.C.; van der Linden, A.M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Model calculations with the simulation model PESTLA (PESTicide Leaching and Accumulation) have been performed for the application of metalaxyl on strawberry fields. For these calculations specific field and climate data on the one hand and general information on metalaxyl on the other hand were used as input to the model. The results of the calculations are compared with measured data on the concentration of metalaxyl in the soil profile and in the ground water. These measured data have been obtained from Ligtermoet Chemie B.V. Residues in the soil profile and amounts leaching to ground water were in the range calculated by the model. In one field (field with a higher clay content) metalaxyl appeared in the groundwater sooner than calculated. Possibly this can be attributed to preferential flow of soil moisture through cracks.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08500-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nogaster chromoso... 37 0.43 S13904( S13904 )antistasin - Mexican leech 37 0.73 B28806( B28806 )antistasin B - Mexican... leech 36 0.95 A28806( A28806 )antistasin A - Mexican leech 36 0.95 AM9... 3.6 Y12539_1( Y12539 |pid:none) Branchiostoma floridae mRNA for putati... 33 6.2 JS0209( JS0209 ) antistasin precursor - Mexican

  13. A new leech species of Semiscolex (Arhynchobdellida: Semiscolecidae from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico Especie nueva de sanguijuela del género Semiscolex (Arhynchobdellida: Semiscolecidae del lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiscolex lamothei sp. nov. from Catemaco lake, Veracruz, México, is described based on the examination of 18 specimens. The new species differs from other species of the genus by the presence of 1/2 + 5 + 1/2 annuli between gonopores. The new species has morphological features previously not described for any other member of the genus, such as well-developed ejaculatory bulbs and postcaeca in the posterior part of the crop. This is the first record of the genus and the family in the northern hemisphere of the Americas.Se describe Semiscolex lamothei sp. nov. del lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, México con base en 18 ejemplares. Se diferencia del resto de las especies del género por presentar 1/2 + 5 + 1/2 anillos entre los gonoporos. Esta nueva especie del género Semiscolex presenta características morfológicas no descritas en otros miembros del grupo, como bulbos eyaculadores bien desarrollados y postciegos en la región terminal del buche. Es el primer registro del género y de la familia en el hemisferio norte del continente americano.

  14. Studies on anticoagulant actions and mechanism of non-heating leech extract%水蛭免加热提取物抗凝血作用及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小莲; 刘俊田; 李西宽; 苟伟; 刘传镐; 邓昌沪

    2003-01-01

    目的:观察水蛭免加热提取物对动物凝血系统、凝血因子活性及纤溶系统的影响,并与水蛭煎煮浓缩物进行比较.方法:动物灌胃给药,凝固法测大鼠PT、APTT,PT法测血浆凝血因子Ⅱ、Ⅴ、Ⅶ、Ⅹ的活性,APTT法测因子Ⅷ的活性,测ELT观察药物对家兔纤溶活性的影响.结果:水蛭免加热提取物能延长大鼠PT、APTT,抑制凝血因子Ⅱ、Ⅶ、Ⅹ的活性,对凝血因子Ⅴ和Ⅷ活性无明显影响;对兔血ELT无明显影响,在延长大鼠PT、降低大鼠凝血因子Ⅷ、Ⅹ活性等方面优于传统的煎煮提取物.结论:水蛭免加热提取物通过抑制凝血因子Ⅱ、Ⅶ、Ⅹ活性而抑制内、外源性凝血途径,对大鼠PT、凝血因子Ⅶ、Ⅹ活性的影响优于传统的煎煮提取物.

  15. Voelt de medicinale bloedzuiger Hirudo medicinalis zich wel zo lekker in Nederland (Hirudinea)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, R.P.W.H.; Velde, van der G.

    2000-01-01

    Does the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis feel well in the Netherlands (Hirudinea)? This paper provides information on the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 particularly in The Netherlands. Although this species was common in The Netherlands in the 18th century, nowadays it is very

  16. Environ: E00510 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00510 Leech Hirudo Crude drug Hirudin Hirudo nipponia [TAX:42736], Whitmania pigra [TAX:486152], Whitma...nia acranulata, Whitmania [TAX:307843] Hirudidae Hirudo nipponia, Whitmania pigra, Whitmania acranulata Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Annelids E00510 Leech ...

  17. Naragh Suburb, Center of Iran; A Natural Habitat of Hirudo medicinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani R.1 PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims A very common species of leeches has been named as Hirudo medicinalis. Regarding to the application of leeches in medicine and their fast extinction, this study was performed in aquatic habitats of Kashan aimed to determine the distribution of leeches and to provide information about their regional and habitat characteristics. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was conducted during 2008 to 2010 in three periods and 90 samples from 30 sites were collected, totally. 30 lentic and lotic aquatic habitats located in different regions of Naragh were recognized and selected. Leeches were collected initially in 10% ethanol followed by washing and removing mucus and then maintained in 70% ethanol. The identification keys were used for recognizing the species of leeches. Findings According to the identification key of the leech species, 15 samples from the total samples of 30 locations were Hirudo medicinalis. Total Hirudo medicinalis samples were collected just from Naragh River. These species of leeches were relatively large with 7-10cm and their colors were olive green, brown and greenish brown with a red stripe on the sides. Conclusion Naragh River is one of the habitats of Hirudo medicinalis.

  18. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF JALAUKAVACHARAN (HIRUDOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Dilip Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is one of the few examples of the use of invertebrates in the treatment of human disease. Leech therapy also known as Hirudotherapy (mentioned as Jalaukavacharan in Ayurveda played an important role because it was used for medicinal "blood-letting" and "purification" - a practice believed to cure a variety of ailments from gout to headaches. The use of leeches began to become less widespread towards the end of the 19th century. But leech therapy has now again emerged as widely useful therapy in large number of diseases and is attracting the eyes of researchers all over the world. In Ayurveda, Jalaukavacharana has been mentioned as one of the processes of Raktamokshana. Ayurveda scholars have devoted full chapters in their texts depicting identification, collection, preservation, method of application, indications etc. of leeches which proves its popularity in medical field since ancient times. Besides its wide indications, its easy applicability without producing any adverse effects is also another reason why leech therapy has been practiced by Ayurvedic physicians since ancient times. In present era, role of leeches in microsurgery in setting of venous congestion associated with soft tissue replantations and free flap-based reconstructive surgery has been well accepted on various scientific grounds. In 21st century, studies have been done to prove its role in arthritis. But there are many more areas from headache to hypertension, where leeches are evident to give successful results. The need is to explore these areas and perform studies to make them globally accepted. Researchers in Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU are involved in various clinical as well as experimental studies to make the well evident clinical efficient therapy mentioned in Ayurveda scientifically accepted all over the world. These reasons, gave us the curiosity to explore the historical uses of leech therapy in view to establish its

  19. Morpho-functional features of Hirudo verbana after girudotherapeutic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Sirtsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real scientific period hirudotherapy is one of the leading methods of the traditional medicine. The body of the medicinal leech produced unique natural complex of biologically active substances (BAS, which arrive independently in the human or animal body during bite. Therefore leech is the ideal instrument in a soling for a big amount of the endoecological problems. Medicinal leeches – a blood-sucking ectoparasites. They have a relative specialization: a well-developed nervous system, sensory organs, muscles. The characteristics of the digestive system deep specialization are the structure of the jaws, the presence of salivary glands with a secret containing BAS, folds in the crop and others. The endosymbiotic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is present in gastrointestinal tract of the leech. It plays a major role in the digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It is involved in the maintenance of liquid state of the ingested blood. These adaptive mechanisms show physiological conditioning of the medicinal leeches lifestyle as free-living ectoparasites. Not all medicinal leeches overcome immunological and bacterial during feeding of the blood of native mammals, which in additional antigenic load. Some leeches can not cope with digesting food and die. The researches about the death of leeches are absent in the present scientific literature. There are no information about morphological changes in the organs of H. verbana after girudotherapeutic procedure. Purpose: The study of the morphofunctional peculiarities of internal organs and tissues in medicinal leech (H. verbana after feeding of native human blood. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out with mature specimens of the H. verbana in the age of 7 months, divided into 2 groups of 15 animals in each: 1 control group — hungry leeches, which were fed 3 months ago, 2 fed intact leeches after human blood feeding. Histological sections were made with anterior, middle

  20. Egg predators of an endemic Italian salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report new aquatic predators feeding on Northern spectacled salamander eggs, Salamandrina perspicillata, an endemic Italian species. Eggs were preyed upon by the leech, Trocheta bykowskii, and the trichopteran larvae of Potamophylax cingulatus and Halesus appenninus.

  1. Studies on the Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of the Seed Extract of Tephrosia Purpurea (LINN Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Saxena

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were conducted to find out the insecticidal and repellent properties of petroleum ether extract of the seeds of Tephrosia purpurea. In laboratory trials contact toxicity of the extract was assessed against land leeches, houseflies, mosquitoes, rice weevil and flour beetle. In field trials, the repellency of the extract was assessed against land leeches, mosquitoes and simulium flies. In laboratory trials, the dosage required for 100 per cent mortality was 0.0005 gm/cm/sup 2/ for land leeches, 0.0157 gm/cm/sup 2/ for flour beetle. In field trials, the extract was found to be repellent against land leeches for 5 hours, mosquitoes for 4 hours and simulium flies for 5 hours.

  2. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  3. Leech's Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日

    2011-01-01

    Leech thinks that people sometimes disobey Grice's Cooperative Principle in order to express themselves politely in interaction.Therefore he postulates the Politeness Principle and believes that it should be obeyed in communication.This paper analyzes his

  4. Mollusca, Hirudinea, and Amphibia biogeography and paleobiology in Tule Valley and adjacent regions of Bonneville Basin, western USA [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mollusk, leeches (Hirudinea), and amphibian distribution are described for Tule Valley and adjacent Snake Valley and Fish Springs Flat, Tule Valley aquatic resources...

  5. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  6. A scientific appraisal on hirudotherapy- an evolution in life style disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Nayak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hirudotherapy is a treatment with using of medicinal leech. This kind of therapy is known from the time of extreme antiquity and is still alive nowadays.Aims: At the present era when the world is suffering from a number of disorders occurring due to faulty Life style, Hirudotherapy is an evolutionary mode of treatment. Scientifically it has been proved that Substances in Leech saliva can lower the blood sugar levels and improve pancreatic functions, so can use in diabetes and its complications. Scientific research of Hirudo Medicinalis by number of powerful enzymes extracted from leeches salivary gland secretions among them DESTABILASE which in nature can be found only in leeches. This also explains the Atherogenic Effect provided by the leeches, for they lower the level of Cholesterol and Triglycerides in blood.Conclusion:  As Leech Therapy is being used frequently in a number of disorders, the evidence based concept is the need of the hour. The present paper portrays the scientific substantiation of Hirudotherapy.

  7. Caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana aerobia en sanguijuelas (Hirudinea), Haementeria sp. (Glossiphoniidae) y Oxytychus ornatus (Macrobdellidae) de El Bagre, Antioquia = Characterization of the aerobic bacterial community in leeches Haementeria sp (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) y Oxytychus ornatus (Hirudinea: Macrobdellidae) de El Bagre, Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    López Isaza, Laura Patricia; Velásquez Trujillo, Luz Elena; Gómez Carmona, Catalina; Ramírez Pérez, Auxilio

    2012-01-01

    Se ha incrementado el uso terapéutico de las sanguijuelas y se ha demostrado que ellas pueden inocular bacterias causantes de infecciones en el 20% de los pacientes. El hallazgo en Antioquia de dos especies de sanguijuelas promisorias para hirudoterapia motivó este estudio para identificar las bacterias en la superficie, la probóscide y el intestino de estos anélidos y evaluar su sensibilidad a antibióticos. Las sanguijuelas estudiadas se identificaron como Haementeria sp., y Oxytychus ornatu...

  8. Caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana aerobia en sanguijuelas (Hirudinea, Haementeria sp. (Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia = Characterization of the aerobic bacterial community in leeches Haementeria sp (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Hirudinea: Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Isaza, Laura Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha incrementado el uso terapéutico de las sanguijuelas y se ha demostrado que ellas pueden inocular bacterias causantes de infecciones en el 20% de los pacientes. El hallazgo en Antioquia de dos especies de sanguijuelas promisorias para hirudoterapia motivó este estudio para identificar las bacterias en la superficie, la probóscide y el intestino de estos anélidos y evaluar su sensibilidad a antibióticos. Las sanguijuelas estudiadas se identificaron como Haementeria sp., y Oxytychus ornatus. Muestras de la superficie, boca e intestino de ambos anélidos se inocularon en agar sangre, agar sangre con ampicilina y agar eosina azul de metileno. La identificación de las bacterias y su sensibilidad a antibióticos se evaluaron por el método automatizado Vitek (Biomerieux®. Se hicieron en total 26 aislamientos pertenecientes a 12 especies de nueve géneros. Enterobacter cloacae fue la especie más frecuente en ambos anélidos. Las bacterias fueron sensibles a los antibióticos comúnmente empleados en las infecciones causadas por este tipo de microorganismos. Se sugiere hacer profilaxis con antibióticos en los pacientes que reciban terapia con los anélidos investigados e implementar los protocolos estandarizados para el lavado de los animales antes de su uso y para el aseo de los acuarios en donde se los mantenga.

  9. 6种水蛭的COⅠ、12S rRNA和16S rRNA基因及分子进化分析%Molecular evolution analysis of COⅠ, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene in six species of leech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云玲; 聂晶; 肖凌

    2013-01-01

    水蛭是一种常见的传统中药,为了解常见蛭类细胞色素氧化酶亚基Ⅰ(COⅠ)、12S rRNA和16S rRNA基因特征和水蛭分子系统进化关系.对常用的入药品种日本医蛭(Hirudo nipponia)、宽体金线蛭(Whitmania pigra)、尖细金线蛭(Whitmania acranulate)和相近物种菲牛蛭(Poecilobdella manillensis)、光润金线蛭(Whitmania laevis)及八目石蛭(Erpobdella octoculata)的COⅠ、12S rRNA和16S rRNA基因进行扩增、测序,利用Mega 5.0分析基因特征、颠换率、分化年代,利用PAUP* 4.10b和MrBayes 3.1.2构建分子系统树.结果表明6种水蛭的COⅠ、12S rRNA和16S rRNA基因全长分别为1534~1536 bp、709~744 bp、1129~1173 bp,GC含量分别为32.35%~34.79%、24.42%~28.49%、24.82%~27.02%,总体颠换率为0.002%~0.760%,分化年代为3.55×106a~9.85×106a;每种水蛭为单系群的支持值均≥82.说明COⅠ、12S rRNA和16S rRNA基因具有种间特异性,可用于6种水蛭的分类鉴别.

  10. Placobdella lamothei n. sp. (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae, a new leech parasite of freshwater turtles from Estado de México, Mexico Placobdella lamothei n. sp. (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae, sanguijuela nueva parásita de tortugas de agua dulce del Estado de México, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Placobdella lamothei n. sp. is described based on 10 specimens collected in Tonatico, Estado de México, Mexico. The new species resembles other species of the genus in the disposition of eyespots and mycetomes connected to the oesophagus and yet can be distinguished primarily on the basis of body pigmentation pattern. This species represents the second of the genus endemic to Mexico. We also discuss previous records of Placobdella spp. in Mexico and clarify some apparently incorrect determinations.Se describe Placobdella lamothei n. sp. con base en el estudio de 10 ejemplares recolectados en Tonatico, Estado de México, México. La nueva especie se parece al resto de las especies del género en la disposición de las manchas oculares y en la presencia de micetomas que se conectan al esófago y se puede distinguir de ellas principalmente por los patrones de pigmentación del cuerpo. Esta especie endémica representa el segundo registro del género en México. Se discute sobre registros previos de Placobdella spp. en México y se hacen aclaraciones sobre registros aparentemente erróneos.

  11. Ras activation in Hirudo medicinalis angiogenic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Valvassori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In some leeches like Hirudo medicinalis, any kind of stimulation (surgical wound or growth factor injection provokes the botryoidal tissue response. This peculiar tissue, localized in the loose connective tissue between gut and body wall, is formed by granular botryoidal cells and flattened endothelial-like cells. Under stimulation, the botryoidal tissue changes its shape to form new capillaries. In mammals, the molecular regulation of the angiogenic phenotype requires coordinated input from a number of signalling molecules: among them the GTPase Ras is one of the major actor. In our current study, we determine whether Ras activation alone would be sufficient to drive vessels formation from leech botryoidal tissue. Our findings indicate that assembly and disassembly of actin filaments regulated by Ras protein is involved in morphological modification of botryoidal tissue cells during leech angiogenic process.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16540-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.4 T32497( T32497 )hypothetical protein C08G9.2 - Caenorhabditis eleg... 38 1.4 JS0209( JS0209 ) antistasin precursor - Mexican...none) Human DNA sequence from clone XXb... 36 5.4 A28806( A28806 )antistasin A - Mexican leech 35 7.0 AK1223...555 |pid:none) Caenorhabditis briggsae notch-like... 35 7.0 B28806( B28806 )antistasin B - Mexican... from MA... 35 9.1 S13904( S13904 )antistasin - Mexican leech 35 9.1 >(Q54QX2) RecName: Full=Probable spore

  13. High Speed Imaging using Nanoprobe Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    6774 2006. 13 B. Gotsmann, U. Dürig, J. Frommer , and C. J. Hawker, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 1499 2006. 14 S. Bakbak, P. J. Leech, B. E. Carson, S...2006. [36] B. Gotsmann, U. Dürig, J. Frommer , and C. J. Hawker, “Exploiting chemical switching in a Diels-Alder polymer for nanoscale probe litho

  14. Sound:An Echo to Sense%英语语音意象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓红

    2002-01-01

    The author tries to prove Alexander's view:"Sound must seem an echo to sense."with the theory of G.N. Leech and prosodic theory of Paul Rueesll.Sound symbolizes sense;rhyme relates to reason,and meter dramatizes meaning.

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no indication of sex-reversal, the steenbras remaining ... The steenbras is apparently a good osmoregulator in its natural environment, for its .... variation of salinity due to the sea, and where the composition of the dissolved salts is ..... This leech is known to be parasitic on amphibians, although it may use fresh-.

  16. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Polly M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although widely used in medicine, the application of three-dimensional (3D imaging to parasitology appears limited to date. In this study, developmental stages of a marine fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina curvata (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina, were investigated in their leech vector, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; this involved 3D visualisation of brightfield and confocal microscopy images of histological sections through infected leech salivary gland cells. Findings 3D assessment demonstrated the morphology of the haemogregarine stages, their spatial layout, and their relationship with enlarged host cells showing reduced cellular content. Haemogregarine meronts, located marginally within leech salivary gland cells, had small tail-like connections to the host cell limiting membrane; this parasite-host cell interface was not visible in two-dimensional (2D light micrographs and no records of a similar connection in apicomplexan development have been traced. Conclusions This is likely the first account of the use of 3D visualisation to study developmental stages of an apicomplexan parasite in its invertebrate vector. Elucidation of the extent of development of the haemogregarine within the leech salivary cells, together with the unusual connections between meronts and the host cell membrane, illustrates the future potential of 3D visualisation in parasite-vector biology.

  17. Tickle with a feather

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until the arrival of a medical man apply leeches to the temple and take ... following advice on the treatment of hysterics, occurring mainly in .... Or, as a last resort, try to remember a ... Boston Society of Natural History suggested this easy one:.

  18. Feasibility Study of Shoreline Protection and Lake Level Regulation for Lake Ontario. Reconnaissance Report. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    midges) Isopoda, (aquatic sow bug ), Hirudinea (leeches), and Gastropoda (snails) (IJC 1969; Casy, Fisher, Kleveno, 1973). A-2-79 A 0 , 1-a vC C V, a C...also a nondocumented sighting of orange- milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa) (Corps 1975) in this area. It is probable that other protected plants may be

  19. 77 FR 2082 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3) and 43 CFR 10.11(d). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control... Rose Kluth of the Leech Lake Heritage Sites Program, and transferred to the Minnesota Office of the...

  20. Theory of Deviation and Its Application in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yanqiu

    2008-01-01

    Deviation is an important concept in stylistics.Besides Shklovskij and Mukarovsky,who made a theoreti cal generalization of deviational phenomena,Leech is the one who studies deviation systematically and catego rizes it into groups.To apply the theory of deviation to College English teaching is an effective way to culti rate students' interest in and aesthetic ability of English texts.

  1. Giant Glial Cell: New Insight Through Mechanism-Based Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Ryazanova, L. S.; Brazhe, Nadezda;

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a detailed mechanism-based model of a tripartite synapse consisting of P- and R-neurons together with a giant glial cell in the ganglia of the medical leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which is a useful object for experimental studies in situ. We describe the two main pathways of th...

  2. X-ray structure of antistasin at 1.9 angstrom resolution and its modelled complex with blood coagulation factor Xa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapatto, R; Krengel, U; Schreuder, HA; Arkema, A; deBoer, B; Kalk, KH; Hol, WGJ; Grootenhuis, PDJ; Mulders, JWM; Dijkema, R; Theunissen, HJM; Dijkstra, BW

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of antistasin, a potent inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa, from the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis was determined at 1.9 Angstrom resolution by X-ray crystallography, The structure reveals a novel protein fold composed of two homologous domains, each res

  3. Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

  4. DESCRIPTIONS OF LAST INSTAR LARVAE OF THREE ENNOMINAE (LEPIDOPTERA : GEOMETRIDAE) SPECIES FROM KOREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-huaPiao; Chan-youngLee; Zhi-gangFang

    2004-01-01

    Morphological features of mature larvae of Petelia rivulosa (Butler), Exangerona prattiaria (Leech) and Culcula panterinaria (Bremer & Grey) of Ennominae are described and illustrated. All specimens examined are deposited in the Insect Collection of Department of Forest Resources Protection, Kangwon National University, Korea.

  5. A Tentative Analysis on Politeness Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹聪骢

    2015-01-01

    Different people hold different views about politeness in communication. To be polite, Leech thinks you should folow Politeness Principle(PP) while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' Face Wants. This paper attempts to shed light on some of the important application of PP in cultures.

  6. Engineering Environmentally-Stable Proteases to Specifically Neutralize Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    the S4 sub-site, the preference for F relative to A is about 3- fold. (19, 21). A small P4 amino acid, such as alanine , points into the enzyme, but...6582-6598. (10) McPhalen, C. A., Schnebli, H. P., and James, M. N. (1985) Crystal and molecular structure of the inhibitor eglin from leeches in

  7. The Search for Quality by Management in Service-Related Industry Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-05

    active on-her high school George Leech, formerly the head of two icholarships were awarded. forensics team and in drama the student testing center at...of the major ingre- dients in satis*1ng the needs of both groups. It Is an essential ingredient of everyone’s job, and when Implemented properly

  8. Detecting Age in Online Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    a smaller vocabulary and they preferred using emoticons more than older users [11]. 4. Analysis of Perverted Justice Chat Logs Nick Pender used a...1, 1996. [8] P. Rayson, G. Leech and M. Hodges , "Social differentiation in the use of English vocabulary: some analyses of the conversational

  9. De Nederlandse bloedzuigers Hirudinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresscher, T.G.N.; Higler, L.W.G.

    1982-01-01

    This publication is a revision of one of the older KNNV publications on the Dutch leeches from 1960. A survey is given of the Dutch Hirudinea and a few species, marked with an asterisk, occurring in the vicinity of the Netherlands. Data are given on taxonomy, biology, ecology, habitat and distributi

  10. Ultrastructure of Sporozoites of Schellackia golvani (Eimeriorina: Lankesterellidae) in the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    D. G. YOUNG§ *Department of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Washington. DC...European Journal of Cell Biology 47: 81-87. mininia I Apicomplexa ) in its anuran host and leech vector. SINDEN R. E. & MOORE 1. 1974. Fine structure of

  11. Starreveld scoring method in diagnosing childhood constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokke, F.T.; Sittig, J.S.; de Bruijn, A.; Wiersma, T.; van Rijn, R.R.; Limpen, J.L.; Houwen, R.H.; Fischer, K.; Benninga, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Four scoring methods exist to assess severity of fecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in constipated patients (Barr-, Starreveld-, Blethyn- and Leech). So far, the Starreveld score was used only in adult patients. To determine accuracy and intra- and inter-observer agreement of the Starrevel

  12. Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

  13. Pragmatic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

  14. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  15. Linguistics Deviations in Kipling's Selected Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Widjayanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Kipling's way of handling poetic language on his five selected poem (Fuzzy Wuzzy, Gunga Din, Mandalay, The White Burden Man, and If, which regarded as purposively samples from forty of the available familiar poems collection and relies on three main language levels: realization, form, and semantics Leech breaks down.

  16. Children’s Perceptions of Polite Directives:A Case Study of Fathers’ Usage of Different Syntactic Directive Structures on Children of Different Ages(Proposal)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赛

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction.The present study is aimed to investigate two aspects of children’s perceptions of polite directives.Firstly,whether an age-related increase will facilitate children’s ability to perceive directives?Secondly,whether different syntactic directive structures will influence children’s ability to perceive directives?2.Literature review.Geoffrey Leech(1983)proposed

  17. Politeness Principle and its Application to English Teaching%礼貌原则在英语课堂上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤娟

    2013-01-01

    Politeness Principle proposed by Leech plays a great role in hu-man beings’daily communication. It is also a need in English class which involves the communication between teacher and students. With the basis of Politeness Principle, this paper points out application of Politeness Principle to English class teaching.

  18. Artificial Breeding Techniques of Whitmania pigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Nan; Xu; Ziliang

    2014-01-01

    The artificial breeding technology for juvenile of Whitmania pigra was introduced in the paper,including selection of sites and water quality,construction of spawning pool,hatching pool and escape proof facilities,key technology of leech selection,feeding,cocoon hatching,juvenile feeding and management.

  19. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers ({kappa} values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: {kappa} 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  20. Cell dialysis by sharp electrodes can cause nonphysiological changes in neuron properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Scott L; Thuma, Jeffrey B; Guschlbauer, Christoph; Schmidt, Joachim; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    We recorded from lobster and leech neurons with two sharp electrodes filled with solutions often used with these preparations (lobster: 0.6 M K2SO4 or 2.5 M KAc; leech: 4 M KAc), with solutions approximately matching neuron cytoplasm ion concentrations, and with 6.5 M KAc (lobster, leech) and 0.6 M KAc (lobster). We measured membrane potential, input resistance, and transient and sustained depolarization-activated outward current amplitudes in leech and these neuron properties and hyperpolarization-activated current time constant in lobster, every 10 min for 60 min after electrode penetration. Neuron properties varied with electrode fill. For fills with molarities ≥2.5 M, neuron properties also varied strongly with time after electrode penetration. Depending on the property being examined, these variations could be large. In leech, cell size also increased with noncytoplasmic fills. The changes in neuron properties could be due to the ions being injected from the electrodes during current injection. We tested this possibility in lobster with the 2.5 M KAc electrode fill by making measurements only 10 and 60 min after penetration. Neuron properties still changed, although the changes were less extreme. Making measurements every 2 min showed that the time-dependent variations in neuron properties occurred in concert with each other. Neuron property changes with high molarity electrode-fill solutions were great enough to decrease neuron firing strongly. An experiment with (14)C-glucose electrode fill confirmed earlier work showing substantial leak from sharp electrodes. Sharp electrode work should thus be performed with cytoplasm-matched electrode fills.

  1. Genetic variation in Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis, three endemic and endangered species in China using SSR and TRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Cheng, Bo-Xing; Lu, Yu-Xi; Gou, Ling; Wang, Jia; Shen, Wen-Biao; Yan, Shi-Meng; Wu, Man-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Leeches are not only important medicinal animals worldwide but also are endangered. We aimed to (i) explore the level of genetic diversity within/among populations of three leeches, (ii) assess genetic differentiation among these three leeches, and (iii) discuss an appropriate strategy for conserving leech germplasm. A total of 315 individuals of Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis from 21 populations were collected in China and Vietnam. The genetic structure and genetic diversity among and within the 21 populations were evaluated using target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen pairs of TRAP primers generated a total of 398 fragments, of which 396 (99.50%) were polymorphic; fourteen pairs of SSR primers generated a total of 60 fragments, of which 59 (98.33%) were polymorphic. Shannon's index (I) and Nei's gene diversity index (H) for the three leeches were high at the species level (I=0.4980 and H=0.3323 for TRAPs, I=0.4487 and H=0.2969 for SSRs in W. pigra; I=0.4147/0.3769, H=0.2788/0.2566 for H. nipponica; and I=0.4616/0.4717, H=0.3099/0.3203 for P. manillensis). However, low genetic diversity was determined at the population level; the average genetic diversity measures within populations were H=0.1767/0.1376, I=0.2589/0.2043 for W. pigra, H=0.2149/0.2021, I=0.3184/0.3000 for H. nipponica and H=0.2850/0.2724, I=0.4152/0.3967 for P. manillensis. We conclude that there was limited gene exchange within/among populations and species, as the gene flow number (Nm) was 0.5493/0.5807. However, for all three species, the genetic diversity was different at the population level. Gene differentiation (Gst) and Nm were 0.4682 /0.5364 and 0.5678/0.4321 for W. pigra, 0.2294/0.2127 and 1.6797/1.8512 for H. nipponica and 0.1214/0.1496 and 3.6202/2.8412 for P. manillensis. STRUCTURE analysis, Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic means (UPGMA) cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis

  2. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  3. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A.; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  4. Shared strategies for behavioral switching: understanding how locomotor patterns are turned on and off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Mesce

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Animals frequently switch from one behavior to another, often to meet the demands of their changing environment or internal state. What factors control these behavioral switches and the selection of what to do or what not to do? To address these issues, we will focus on the locomotor behaviors of two distantly related ‘worms’, the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana (clade Lophotrochozoa and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (clade Ecdysozoa. Although the neural architecture and body morphology of these organisms are quite distinct, they appear to switch between different forms of locomotion by using similar strategies of decision-making. For example, information that distinguishes between liquid and more solid environments dictates whether an animal swims or crawls. In the leech, dopamine biases locomotor neural networks so that crawling is turned on and swimming is turned off. In C. elegans, dopamine may also promote crawling, a form of locomotion that has gained new attention.

  5. Biological clockwork underlying adaptive rhythmic movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya; Chen, Jun; Friesen, W. Otto

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complexity of neuronal circuits, precise mathematical descriptions of brain functions remain an elusive ambition. A more modest focus of many neuroscientists, central pattern generators, are more tractable neuronal circuits specialized to generate rhythmic movements, including locomotion. The relative simplicity and well-defined motor functions of these circuits provide an opportunity for uncovering fundamental principles of neuronal information processing. Here we present the culmination of mathematical analysis that captures the adaptive behaviors emerging from interactions between a central pattern generator, the body, and the physical environment during locomotion. The biologically realistic model describes the undulatory motions of swimming leeches with quantitative accuracy and, without further parameter tuning, predicts the sweeping changes in oscillation patterns of leeches undulating in air or swimming in high-viscosity fluid. The study demonstrates that central pattern generators are capable of adapting oscillations to the environment through sensory feedback, but without guidance from the brain. PMID:24395788

  6. Analysis on Humor of Situation Comedy My Own Swordsman by Politeness Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏

    2013-01-01

    Humor, as a linguistic phenomenon, appeals more and more attention from linguist, psychologist, sociologist, and the scholars of other disciplines. This paper, takes the humorous language of My Own Swordsman as research material, which contain⁃ing the depiction of trivial daily life, the meaning of life. Then, the author analyzed these data and discussed its features of humor from Pragmatic view by Leech and Levinson’s politeness principle.

  7. A Corpus-based Study on Keywords in The Glass Menagerie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-mei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Corpus-based approach has been an important method. Based on the analysis about some Papers on corpus and corpus-based approach in literary texts, this thesis takes the work of American famous writer Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie as the research object. Guided by the stylistic theoretical framework put forward by Leech and Short, the study con⁃ducts text analysis with Wordsmith and Antconc3.3.1 for studying the keywords of the novel.

  8. Combined Wave and Surge Overtopping of Levees: Flow Hydrodynamics and Articulated Concrete Mat Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    technical report describes small-scale physical model tests simulating combined wave and storm surge overtopping of a typical levee cross sec- tion of...journal article . The 2 percent run-up elevation should be estimated using the run-up formulas of de Waal and van der Meer (1992) or Hughes (2004). If van...to place the mats over some type of filter layer ( geotextile or stone filter) that prevents the levee or embankment soil from leeching out between

  9. On the Influence of Culture on Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jin-ping; ZHAI Jian-hong

    2005-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants" Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to adequately provide an educated answer to this heartfelt question, this paper attempts to shed light on some of the important differences on politeness between Chinese and western culture.

  10. Semantic Analysis of Fast Food Advertisement Slogans

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Enda Christiani Nora

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to find out the types of meaning,and explain the ways of fast food advertisement slogans. This research is conducted by using descriptive qualitative design. The data are analyze by using The seven types of meaning is conducted by using Semantics (the study of meaning) theory by G. Leech (1983). The data are divided into Seven Types of meaning,they are; Conceptual meaning, Connotative meaning, Social meaning, Affective meaning, Reflected meaning, C...

  11. Study on Chinese and American Compliments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 刘宝昌

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Americans have different cultural background. They value different principles in expressing compliments and respond to them. Chinese tend to be self-denial to show modesty. Americans have a tendency of self-praising to demonstrate their confidence. Based on Leech's politeness principle, the paper analyzes typical instances. In conclusion, as language learner, we should aware it and prepare to be bicultural instead of bilingual. As a Chinese, we should keep our own culture identity instead of Americanized.

  12. A Corpus-based Study on the Use of Contractions by EFL Learners in Argumentative Essays

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pınar Babanoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Contraction forms in English are mostly occur in speech and informal writing and they are generally avoided in formal writing types such as academic prose, business reports and journal articles, therefore, most teachers discourage their use in academic essays (Biber, Johansonn, Leech, Conrad and Finegan 1999). Contractions in English have two types; negative contractions (isn’t, haven’t, doesn’t) and verb contractions (I’m, they’ve, that’s). This corpus based study attempts to investigate con...

  13. Larval stages of Neoplagioporus elongatus (Goto and Ozaki, 1930) (Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae), with notes on potential second intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ayaka; Urabe, Misako

    2017-04-01

    The morphology of sporocysts and cercariae of Neoplagioporus elongatus (Goto and Ozaki, 1930) is described for the first time. A cotylomicrocercous cercaria obtained from the sorbeoconch snail Semisulcospira nakasekoae was confirmed to be the cercaria of N. elongatus, based on the degree of sequence identity of the COI gene to that of adult worms. Freshwater annelids (oligochaetes and leeches) and some aquatic insects (odonates) were demonstrated experimentally to be potential second intermediate hosts.

  14. Treatment of Ischemic Apoplexy Based on the Theory of "Lingering Illness Affecting Collaterals"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Lingmei; Sun Yan; Duan Shumin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ischemic apoplexy, also called ischemic cerebrovascular disease (including cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism and transient cerebral ischemic attack), belongs to the TCM category of "wind-stroke syndrome". The increasingly high incidence of the disease has imposed serious influence on life quality of people. Based on the theory of "lingering illness affecting collaterals", we have treated the disease by acupuncture and oral administration of leech capsule and centipede capsule,with good therapeutic results reported as follows.

  15. Timing and Scope of Genomic Expansion within Annelida: Evidence from Homeoboxes in the Genome of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarycz, Allison S; Nossa, Carlos W; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F

    2015-12-10

    Annelida represents a large and morphologically diverse group of bilaterian organisms. The recently published polychaete and leech genome sequences revealed an equally dynamic range of diversity at the genomic level. The availability of more annelid genomes will allow for the identification of evolutionary genomic events that helped shape the annelid lineage and better understand the diversity within the group. We sequenced and assembled the genome of the common earthworm, Eisenia fetida. As a first pass at understanding the diversity within the group, we classified 363 earthworm homeoboxes and compared them with those of the leech Helobdella robusta and the polychaete Capitella teleta. We inferred many gene expansions occurring in the lineage connecting the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Capitella and Eisenia to the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA. Likewise, the lineage leading from the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to the leech H. robusta has experienced substantial gains and losses. However, the lineage leading from Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to E. fetida is characterized by extraordinary levels of homeobox gain. The evolutionary dynamics observed in the homeoboxes of these lineages are very likely to be generalizable to all genes. These genome expansions and losses have likely contributed to the remarkable biology exhibited in this group. These results provide a new perspective from which to understand the diversity within these lineages, show the utility of sub-draft genome assemblies for understanding genomic evolution, and provide a critical resource from which the biology of these animals can be studied.

  16. Role of sex in externally motivated self-touching gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Laura; McBrayer, Dan; Prince, Bob

    2002-08-01

    Self-touching gestures can be externally induced by the verbal presentation of anxiety-inducing stimuli and the active discussion of a passage. The frequency of these self-touching gestures appears to be affected by the individual interacting with the topic, the type of discourse (listening or discussing), the type of stimulus (canaries or leeches), and the interaction between the types of discourse and stimulus. This study assessed these variables as well as the sex of the participant and the order of presentation of stimulus type, neither of which were statistically significant. Participants were read two passages, one about a topic (leeches) expected to produce anxiety and the other about a topic (canaries) not expected to do so, and asked to answer questions about the passages. The number of self-touches was counted by an observer in another room. Each participant had both types of discourse (listening and discussing) and both types of stimulus (canaries and leeches). There was no significant difference between the number of self-touches by participants with either the male or female reader. Discussion as a method of discourse was associated with a significantly greater number of self-touches than listening. The interaction between discourse type and stimulus type was also significant. The combination of the anxiety-producing stimulus and the active discourse (discussion) produced the highest average number of self-touches.

  17. Compensatory plasticity restores locomotion after chronic removal of descending projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Cynthia M; Reilly, Melissa G; Stewart, Christopher; Schlegel, Chantel; Morley, Emma; Puhl, Joshua G; Nagel, Christian; Crisp, Kevin M; Mesce, Karen A

    2015-06-01

    Homeostatic plasticity is an important attribute of neurons and their networks, enabling functional recovery after perturbation. Furthermore, the directed nature of this plasticity may hold a key to the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury. Here we studied the recovery of crawling in the leech Hirudo verbana after descending cephalic fibers were surgically separated from crawl central pattern generators shown previously to be regulated by dopamine. We observed that immediately after nerve cord transection leeches were unable to crawl, but remarkably, after a day to weeks, animals began to show elements of crawling and intersegmental coordination. Over a similar time course, excessive swimming due to the loss of descending inhibition returned to control levels. Additionally, removal of the brain did not prevent crawl recovery, indicating that connectivity of severed descending neurons was not essential. After crawl recovery, a subset of animals received a second transection immediately below the anterior-most ganglion remaining. Similar to their initial transection, a loss of crawling with subsequent recovery was observed. These data, in recovered individuals, support the idea that compensatory plasticity directly below the site of injury is essential for the initiation and coordination of crawling. We maintain that the leech provides a valuable model to understand the neural mechanisms underlying locomotor recovery after injury because of its experimental accessibility, segmental organization, and dependence on higher-order control involved in the initiation, modulation, and coordination of locomotor behavior.

  18. Differentially expressed genes in Hirudo medicinalis ganglia after acetyl-L-carnitine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federighi

    Full Text Available Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supra-physiological concentration, is neuroprotective. It is involved in membrane stabilization and in enhancement of mitochondrial functions. It is a molecule of considerable interest for its clinical application in various neural disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and painful neuropathies. ALC is known to improve the cognitive capability of aged animals chronically treated with the drug and, recently, it has been reported that it impairs forms of non-associative learning in the leech. In the present study the effects of ALC on gene expression have been analyzed in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The suppression subtractive hybridisation methodology was used for the generation of subtracted cDNA libraries and the subsequent identification of differentially expressed transcripts in the leech nervous system after ALC treatment. The method detects differentially but also little expressed transcripts of genes whose sequence or identity is still unknown. We report that a single administration of ALC is able to modulate positively the expression of genes coding for functions that reveal a lasting effect of ALC on the invertebrate, and confirm the neuroprotective and neuromodulative role of the substance. In addition an important finding is the modulation of genes of vegetal origin. This might be considered an instance of ectosymbiotic mutualism.

  19. Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroise, Matthieu; Levi, Timothée; Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise; Saïghi, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    This investigation of the leech heartbeat neural network system led to the development of a low resources, real-time, biomimetic digital hardware for use in hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide the rhythmic bursts of spikes that form the basis for all muscle contraction orders (heartbeat) and locomotion (walking, running, etc.). The leech neural network system was previously investigated and this CPG formalized in the Hodgkin-Huxley neural model (HH), the most complex devised to date. However, the resources required for a neural model are proportional to its complexity. In response to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation of a network of 240 CPGs in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), using a simple model (Izhikevich) and proposes a new synapse model: activity-dependent depression synapse. The network implementation architecture operates on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, requires few resources, and has the same bursting activity behavior as the complex model. The implementation of this CPG was initially validated by comparing it with a simulation of the complex model. Its activity was then matched with pharmacological data from the rat spinal cord activity. This digital system opens the way for future hybrid experiments and represents an important step toward hybridization of biological tissue and artificial neural networks. This CPG network is also likely to be useful for mimicking the locomotion activity of various animals and developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development.

  20. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  1. In vivo isolation and characterization of stem cells with diverse phenotypes using growth factor impregnated biomatrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Grimaldi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stimulation to differentiate into specific cell types for somatic stem cells is largely due to a series of internal and external signals coming from the microenvironment that surrounds the stem cell. Even though intensive research has been made, the basic mechanisms of plasticity and/or the molecules regulating stem cells proliferation and differentiation are not completely determined. Potential answers concerning the problems could be derived from the studies of stem cells in culture. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We combine a new procedure (using the matrigel biopolymer supplemented with a selected cytokine/growth factor with classic techniques such as light, confocal and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and cell culture, to perform an analysis on stem cells involved in the leech (Hirudo medicinalis repair tissues. The leech has a relative anatomical simplicity and is a reliable model for studying a variety of basic events, such as tissue repair, which has a striking similarity with vertebrate responses. Our data demonstrate that the injection of an appropriate combination of the matrigel biopolymer supplemented with a selected cytokine/growth factor in the leech Hirudo medicinalis is a remarkably effective tool for isolating a specific cell population in vivo. A comparative analysis of biopolymer in vivo sorted stem cells indicates that VEGF recruited cells of a hematopoietic/endothelial phenotype whereas MCP-1/CCL2 isolated cells that were of an early myeloid lineage. CONCLUSION: Our paper describes, for the first time, a method allowing not only the isolation of a specific cell population in relation to the cytokine utilized but also the possibility to culture a precise cell type whose isolation is otherwise quite difficult. This approach could be broadly applied to isolate stem cells of diverse origins based on the recruitment stimuli employed.

  2. Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators into FPGA for hybrid experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eAmbroise

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the neural network system in the leech heartbeat and develops a real-time biomimetic digital hardware using few-resource implementation for hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the most simple central pattern generators (CPG. In biology, CPG provide for rhythmic bursts of spikes and is the basis for all muscles contractions orders (heartbeat and locomotion (walking, running….. The leech neural network system was already investigated and this CPG has been already formalized with Hodgkin-Huxley neural model (HH that is the most complex neuron model. However, the resources needed for a neural model is proportional to its complexity. To answer to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation into FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array of a network of 240 CPGs using a simple model (Izhikevich model and by proposing a new synapse model: activity dependent depression synapse. The architecture of the network implementation allows working on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, needs few resources and has the same bursting activity behavior than complex model. To validate our implementation of this CPG, we compare it firstly with a simulation of the complex model. Then we match its activity with the pharmacological data of the activity of the rat’s spinal cord. This digital system allows future hybrid experiments and will be a great step towards hybridation between biological tissue and artificial neural network. This network of CPG could be also useful for mimic the activity of a different animal locomotion or developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development.

  3. New Canards Bursting and Canards Periodic-Chaotic Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOOER Chi-Feng; XU Jian-Xue; ZHANG Xin-Hua

    2009-01-01

    A trajectory following the repelling branch of an equilibrium or a periodic orbit is called a canards solution. Using a continuation method, we find a new type of canards bursting which manifests itself in an alternation between the oscillation phase following attracting the limit cycle branch and resting phase following a repelling fixed point branch in a reduced leech neuron model. Via periodic-chaotic alternating of infinite times, the number of windings within a canards bursting can approach infinity at a Gavrilov-Shilnikov homoclinic tangency bifurcation of a simple saddle limit cycle.

  4. Genetic Regulatory Networks in Embryogenesis and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The article introduces a series of papers that were originally presented at a workshop titled Genetic Regulatory Network in Embryogenesis and Evaluation. Contents include the following: evolution of cleavage programs in relationship to axial specification and body plan evolution, changes in cell lineage specification elucidate evolutionary relations in spiralia, axial patterning in the leech: developmental mechanisms and evolutionary implications, hox genes in arthropod development and evolution, heterochronic genes in development and evolution, a common theme for LIM homeobox gene function across phylogeny, and mechanisms of specification in ascidian embryos.

  5. Priority of the Politeness Principle over the Cooperative Principle in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Li-na

    2015-01-01

    The Cooperative Principle that Grice proposes explains how conversational implicature is generated but it does not tell us why people are often inclined to convey what they want to say indirectly and implicitly by violating the maxims of the Coop⁃erative Principle. Leech introduces the Politeness Principle to provide a reasonable explanation for this question, that is, for polite⁃ness. From the perspective of the purpose of communication, this article tries to argue that the Politeness Principle has the greater binding force in conversation and it should be given priority over the Cooperative Principle.

  6. ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AFFECTS THE ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS IN HIRUDO MEDICINALIS GANGLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Traina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Was previously discovered that in the leech Hirudo medicinalis, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC affects forms of non-associative learning, such as sensitization and dishabituation, due to nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin in the swim induction behavioural paradigm, likely through modulating the activity of the mechanosensory tactile (T neurons, which initiate swimming. Since was found that ALC impaired sensitization and dishabituation, both of which are mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, the present study analyzed how ALC may interfere with the sensitizing response. Was already found that ALC reduced the activity of nociceptive (N neurons, which modulate T cell activity through serotonergic mediation.

  7. Clifford Algebras and Their Decomposition into Conjugate Fermionic Heisenberg Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Khalfan, Amish; Kurt, Levent; Kato La, V.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss a construction scheme for Clifford numbers of arbitrary dimension. The scheme is based upon performing direct products of the Pauli spin and identity matrices. Conjugate fermionic algebras can then be formed by considering linear combinations of the Clifford numbers and the Hermitian conjugates of such combinations. Fermionic algebras are important in investigating systems that follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. We will further comment on the applications of Clifford algebras to Fueter analyticity, twistors, color algebras, M-theory and Leech lattice as well as unification of ancient and modern geometries through them.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00572-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 22274( T22274 )hypothetical protein F46B3.9 - Caenorhabditis eleg... 44 0.016 JS0209( JS0209 ) antistasin precursor - Mexican...cursor... 41 0.080 X52105_1( X52105 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum SP60 gene for... 41 0.080 S13904( S13904 )antistasin - Mexica...28806( A28806 )antistasin A - Mexican leech 40 0.23 CP000251_2584( CP000251 |pid:none) Anaeromyxobacter deha... AF375477 |pid:none) Danio rerio granulin-A precursor, ... 38 0.89 B28806( B28806 )antistasin B - Mexican le

  9. Taxonomic Studies on Three Caeneressa Species (Lepidoptera: Syntominae from India with Special Reference to Their External Genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caeneressa diaphana muirheadi (Felder and Caeneressa brithyris (Druce have been recorded for the first time from India. Further, a new combination viz. Caeneressa melaena (Walker comb. nov., has also been proposed on the basis of external genitalic features. With these records, genus Caeneressa will be represented by five species from India, Caeneressa diaphana (Kollar, Caeneressa diaphana muirheadi (Felder, Caeneressa brithyris (Druce, Caeneressa melaena (Hampson and Caeneressa swinhoei (Leech. The studied material was collected from North-Eastern states of India. Caeneressa brithyris (Druce was collected near riverside at low altitude whereas the other two species were collected at high altitude.

  10. Deviation in “Vis and Rāmin” by Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Forouzandeh

    2016-09-01

     Finally, from among all the norm deviations proposed by Leech, temporal, style, written, lexical and, particularly, semantic norm deviations are the ones that can be considered norm deviations to compose poems. It should be said that there were no evidence to indicate the existence of written and style norm deviations in Vis and Ramin. Totally, by analyzing the verses order of occurrence of norm deviations in Vis and Ramin is as follow: syntactic, phonetic, semantic, lexical, temporal and dialectic norm deviations. It is worth mentioning that the poet has observed the elements of conductivity and aesthetic in applying norm deviations.

  11. Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures%Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元红

    2012-01-01

    Politeness is universal but culturally specific.h shows different characteristics in different cultures.From the angle of cultural differences, this paper reviews Chinese and Western"Politeness Principles"put forward by Gu Yueguo(顾曰国)and Leech,intends to compare on some of the important differences on politeness between Chinese and western cultures. Understanding the differences can avoid the pragmatic failures and achieve success in cross- cultural communication.h can also help English learners to develop and improve their pragmatic competence.

  12. Neuroelectronic device based on nanocoax arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Lundberg, Jaclyn N.; Varela, Juan A.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Christianson, John P.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    We report on development of a nanocoax-based neuroelectronic array. The device has been used in real time to noninvasively couple to a ganglion sac located along the main nerve cord of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. This allowed for extracellular recording of synaptic activity in the form of spontaneous synapse firing in pre- and post-synaptic somata, with the next target being recording of local field potentials from rat hippocampal cells. We also discuss an alteration of the architecture to facilitate optical integration of the nanoarray, toward utilizing the so-modified device to elicit / inhibit action potentials in optogenetically-modified cells.

  13. Bats, Blood-Feeders and Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies such as biodiversity and diet studies. To reveal the diversity in environmental samples such as soil, water, and faeces, this approach principally employs PCR amplification of environmental DNA...... minimising the occurrence of errors. Centered around metabarcoding dietary studies of bat droppings and leech gut contents, this continuous exploration and refinement is reflected in both the work and structure of this thesis. After a thesis introduction and two chapters on environmental DNA and biodiversity...

  14. Bats, Blood-Feeders and Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies such as biodiversity and diet studies. To reveal the diversity in environmental samples such as soil, water, and faeces, this approach principally employs PCR amplification of environmental DNA...... minimising the occurrence of errors. Centered around metabarcoding dietary studies of bat droppings and leech gut contents, this continuous exploration and refinement is reflected in both the work and structure of this thesis. After a thesis introduction and two chapters on environmental DNA and biodiversity...

  15. Pragmatic Distance and Appropriateness of Utterance Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽丽

    2014-01-01

    The Politeness Principle proposed by Leech complements Grice ’ Cooperative Principle to a cer-tain extent in explaining the indirectness of language .However , the nature of politeness is its relativity . Determined by various factors such as social and cultural ones , the appropriateness of politeness at utter-ance level is affected by the appropriateness of the pragmatic distance between the participants .Different from the interpersonal relationships , pragmatic distance is calculated and determined in the process of communication varying with the variation of the communicative factors .Pragmatic distance is dynamic and can be maintained and altered by participants by using certain linguistic expressions to achieve the appro -priateness of politeness in communication .

  16. Population dynamics of Piscicola Geometra (Hirudinea:Rhynchobdellida) on Oreochromis Niloticus (Cichlidae) cultured in a rainforest fish pond, South Eastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The distribution, abundance and intensity of the annelidworm, Piscicola geometra(leeches) infecting Oreochromis niloticuscultured in a rainforest fish pond, South Eastern Nigeria wasstudied over a 12 months period. Three hundred fish were examinedof which 48.3% were infected. Infection occurred throughout theyear, with a peak in February. Female fish had a significantlyhigher intensity of infection(P<0.05) than males. There was aclear seasonal periodicity in the degree of infection and thedistribution of the parasite exhibited an aggregated or contagiousmodel of dispersion. There was a significant positive correlationbetween the size of the fish and worm burden.

  17. Redescription of Placobdella Multistriata ( Johansson, 1909 (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Oosthuizen

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of a large number of specimens of Placobdella multistriata (Johansson, 1909 revealed the unsatisfactory nature of the information currently available on this leech. The reason is evidently the fact that previous workers had very limited and poorly prepared material at their disposal. In some instances, this even resulted in the description of non-existent species-taxa. In view of this unsound state of affairs, a redescription of P. multistriata is provided and evidence adduced for the amalgamation of Placobdella pulchra Moore, 1939, P. auroguttata Moore, 1939 and P. unita Moore, 1958 with P. multistriata.

  18. Unusual foreign body in the larynx: a bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Ethem; Yaman, Handan; Dost, Burhan; Köse, Gökçe Akman; Yaman, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body lodgement in the larynx is a rare situation. Our review of the literature revealed no living foreign body in larynx except for laryngeal leeches and anisakiasis. In this article, we report a patient with unusual laryngeal foreign body lodgement: a bee which presented with sudden odynophagia and stinging sensation in throat. The bee was detected on the laryngeal mucosa in indirect laryngoscopic examination and removed immediately under general anesthesia in apneic period. In this case report, we describe the importance of detailed anamnesis and laryngeal examination even if the patient has no severe symptoms.

  19. On Figures of speech, Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永丽; 朱丽萍

    2008-01-01

    To accomplish the communication efficiently and successfully, the people usually follow some certain principle in conversation. Grice named this principle as the cooperative principle. The politeness principle that Leech has developed can explain some phenomenon from a different perspective that the cooperative principle cannot. Nowadays, the use of the figures of speech is becoming more and more often. What we should pay attention to is the fact that the use of the figures of speech violates the cooperative principle, while following the politeness principle to a certain extent. And this paper aims to discuss the relationship among them, to provide some information for the readers.

  20. Bioactive proteins and peptides isolated from Chinese medicines with pharmaceutical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Some protein pharmaceuticals from Chinese medicine have been developed to treat cardiovascular diseases, genetic diseases, and cancer. Bioactive proteins with various pharmacological properties have been successfully isolated from animals such as Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech), Eisenia fetida (earthworm), and Mesobuthus martensii (Chinese scorpion), and from herbal medicines derived from species such as Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma, Momordica cochinchinensis, Viscum album, Poria cocos, Senna obtusifolia, Panax notoginseng, Smilax glabra, Ginkgo biloba, Dioscorea batatas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. This article reviews the isolation methods, molecular characteristics, bioactivities, pharmacological properties, and potential uses of bioactive proteins originating from these Chinese medicines. PMID:25067942

  1. HmCRIP, a cysteine-rich intestinal protein, is expressed by an identified regenerating nerve cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emes, R D; Wang, W-Z; Lanary, K; Blackshaw, S E

    2003-01-02

    A Hirudo medicinalis cDNA isolated from regenerating CNS tissue at 24 h post-axotomy was identified as a leech homologue of the mammalian cysteine-rich intestinal proteins (CRIPs) and named HmCRIP. HmCRIP is up-regulated within 6 h of axotomy, peaking at 24 h. This is the first demonstration of a CRIP homologue in regenerating CNS and in a serotonergic neurone. In rodents CRIP is an important factor in the regulation of the inflammatory immune response through control of Th1/Th2 differentiation. The role of HmCRIP in the regeneration competent environment of the annelid central nervous system is discussed.

  2. Minnesota Tribal Coalition - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Triplett

    2006-12-19

    The project helped tribal leaders, staff and community members on the Grand Portage, Leech Lake, and White Earth Reservations better understand their community's energy usage, assess local resources that might be utilized to reduce energy consumption and begin to formulate appropriate development strategies. The principal guiding interest was to assess energy usage and the potential for wind resource development on each of the three reservations. Key tribal staff became familiar with wind energy technology and assessment methodologies that will be of continued use as each tribe moves forward with development projects. The findings were that wind resources are available at each reservation with varying degrees of potential for development. At White Earth moderate to excellent resources are present at White Earth village and along the U.S. 59 corridor sufficient to be tapped to serve several scattered tribal complexes. At Grand Portage a former community television repeater tower site provides a viable elevated location for a wind turbine to serve the tribal community settlement. At Leech Lake, while most constrained by tree cover, a site adjacent to a casino holds promise for the newer taller wind turbines now coming to market at ever-increasing taller rotor heights. The project developed considerable data of importance regarding the potential for wind development on and near each reservation.

  3. Control of traveling-wave oscillations and bifurcation behavior in central pattern generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Alexandra S.; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Understanding synchronous and traveling-wave oscillations, particularly as they relate to transitions between different types of behavior, is a central problem in modeling biological systems. Here, we address this problem in the context of central pattern generators (CPGs). We use contraction theory to establish the global stability of a traveling-wave or synchronous oscillation, determined by the type of coupling. This opens the door to better design of coupling architectures to create the desired type of stable oscillations. We then use coupling that is both amplitude and phase dependent to create either globally stable synchronous or traveling-wave solutions. Using the CPG motor neuron network of a leech as an example, we show that while both traveling and synchronous oscillations can be achieved by several types of coupling, the transition between different types of behavior is dictated by a specific coupling architecture. In particular, it is only the “repulsive” but not the commonly used phase or rotational coupling that can explain the transition to high-frequency synchronous oscillations that have been observed in the heartbeat pattern generator of a leech. This shows that the overall dynamics of a CPG can be highly sensitive to the type of coupling used, even for coupling architectures that are widely believed to produce the same qualitative behavior.

  4. KESANTUNAN BERBAHASA SURAT-SURAT NABI MUHAMMAD KEPADA PARA RAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaidillah Ubaidillah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was intended to look at the speech acts and politeness forms used by Prophet Muhammad. Moreover, it was also aimed to know the secret use of politeness on various speech acts in the lettersto the kings. The letters analyzed in this discussion were the letters containing a call to embrace Islam to the three kings of great kingdoms outside the Arabian Peninsula, Abyssinia al-Najasy (Ethiopia, Emperor Heraclius (Roman, and Kisra (Persia. The language analysis methodof Eunar Haugen was used in this research. Searle (1969 speech acts and Leech (1983politeness was used as thetheory. The result showed that the letters mostly used a form of indirect speech acts with imperatives. In any form of speech used contained politeness maxims formulated by Leech used without recourse. The use of different linguistic politeness makes different influence on the king recipients. Once it is united to convince the recipients, it will make them sure to accept Islam.DOI: 10.15408/a.v3i2.3622

  5. A Study of the Guangxi’s Gamble Habit and the Dramatic Performance Accompanied by Gambling in Modern Times%近代广西赌博之风与唱赌戏之习论略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石艺

    2016-01-01

    清末民初广西就赌抽饷的政策导致广西赌博与唱赌戏之风大盛。兴盛的唱赌戏之风虽提供了较多的演剧机会,有助于广西地方戏曲的发展,但赌博的合法性改变了以往赌戏中“赌”依附于“戏”的关系,使“戏”依附于“赌”,从而给广西地方戏曲的发展带来较大的破坏。%The gamble and the dramatic performance accompanied by gambling prevailed in Guangxi dur-ing the late Qing and early Min because of the policy of getting the pay for the soldiers from gamble.The flourishing of this kind of dramatic performance provided much more acting chances which contribute to the development of Guangxi local types of drama.But on the other hand, the legalization of the gamble changed the relationship be-tween gamble and the drama, from gamble leeching on to drama to drama leeching on to gamble, which destroyed the development of Guangxi local types of drama to a great extent.

  6. Moonshine paths for 3A and 6A nodes of the extended E8-diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Griess, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    We continue the program to make a moonshine path between a node of the extended $E_8$-diagram and the Monster. Our theory is a concrete model expressing some of the mysterious connections identified by John McKay, George Glauberman and Simon Norton. In this article, we treat the 3A and 6A-nodes. We determine the orbits of triples $(x,y,z)$ in the Monster where $z\\in 2B$, $x, y \\in 2A \\cap C(z)$ and $xy\\in 3A \\cup 6A$. Such $x, y$ correspond to a rootless $EE_8$-pair in the Leech lattice. For the 3A and 6A cases, we shall say something about the "half Weyl groups", which are proposed in the Glauberman-Norton theory. Most work in this article is with lattices, due to their connection with dihedral subgroups of the Monster. These lattices are $M+N$, where $M, N$ is the relevant pair of $EE_8$-sublattices, and their annihilators in the Leech lattice. The isometry groups of these four lattices are analyzed.

  7. Clinical Observation on 30 Cases of Transient Cerebral Ischemia Attack Treated with Acupuncture and Medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Lingmei; Zhang Jun; Cai Wei; Sun Yah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To probe the curative effect of acupuncture and medication on transient cerebral ischemia attack. Method: 30 patients with transient cerebral ischemia attack in the treatment group were acupunctured at Fengchi (GB 20), Wangu (GB 12) and Tianzhu (BL 10) and given orally leech capsules and centipede capsules. 30 patients with transient cerebral ischemia attack in the control group were given intravenous drip of compound Danshen injection and orally aspirin. At the end of two treatment courses, the curative effects were evaluated and the changes in blood rheology and in 3 indexes of blood coagulation were observed before and after treatment in the 2 groups. Results: The total effective rate in the treatment group was 86.7% with obvious difference as compared to the control group (P<0.05).There were remarkable differences in blood rheology and 3 indexes of blood coagulation before and after treatment in the treatment group (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were remarkable differences after treatment between the 2 groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB 20), Wangu (GB 12) and Tianzhu (BL 10) and medication with leech capsules and centipede capsules are effective methods in treating transient cerebral ischemia attack.

  8. Biodiversity and ecology of Hirudinea (Annelida) from the Natural Reserve of Isla Martín García, Río de la Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César; Martín, S M; Gullo, B S; Liberto, R

    2009-11-01

    The Island of Martin Garcia lies at the confluence of the Uruguay and Paraná Rivers (upper Río de la Plata). This island is an outcrop of the crystalline basement. Due to basalt exploitation the island exhibits several ponds covered by carpets of free-floating macrophytes. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Eleven leech species were found, Helobdella striata, H. diploides, H. adiastola and H. hyalina were new records. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed three main species groups. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) explained 97.2% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. H. triserialis shows the widest range of tolerance, H. hyalina shows positive relationships to conductivity; H. diploides shows a high correlation with dissolved oxygen, H. striata, H. lineata, and S. similis are negatively correlated with water temperature, and H. simplex is positively correlated with pH. Relationships between the species richness (S) and the sampling sites were negatively correlated with water temperature and positively correlated with dissolved oxygen. Leech biodiversity from the water bodies of Martín García Island, shows a great diversity of species and a wide plasticity regarding the characteristics of the environmental factors considered.

  9. Emergent Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapline, George

    It has been shown that a nonlinear Schrödinger equation in 2+1 dimensions equipped with an SU(N) Chern-Simons gauge field can provide an exact description of certain self-dual Einstein spaces in the limit N-=∞. Ricci flat Einstein spaces can then be viewed as arising from a quantum pairing of the classical self-dual and anti-self-dual solutions. In this chapter, we will outline how this theory of empty space-time might be generalized to include matter and vacuum energy by transplanting the nonlinear Schrödinger equation used to construct Einstein spaces to the 25+1-dimensional Lorentzian Leech lattice. If the distinguished 2 spatial dimensions underlying the construction of Einstein spaces are identified with a hexagonal lattice section of the Leech lattice, the wave-function becomes an 11 × 11 matrix that can represent fermion and boson degrees of freedom (DOF) associated with 2-form and Yang-Mills gauge symmetries. The resulting theory of gravity and matter in 3+1 dimensions is not supersymmetric, which provides an entry for a vacuum energy. Indeed, in the case of a Lemaitre cosmological model, the emergent space-time will naturally have a vacuum energy on the order of the observed cosmological constant.

  10. Phenotypically plastic responses of green frog embryos to conflicting predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, D H; Wirsing, A J; Murray, D L

    2007-05-01

    Predators have been shown to alter the timing of switch points between life history stages, but few studies have addressed switch point plasticity in prey exposed simultaneously to conflicting predation pressure. We tested hatching responses of green frog (Rana clamitans) embryos subject to perceived predation risk from chemical cues released by two stage-specific predators, predicting that these predators would elicit: (1) directional hatching responses when presented independently, and (2) intermediate phenotypic responses when presented simultaneously. R. clamitans embryos in outdoor exclosures were exposed to cues from an egg predator (freshwater leeches; Nephelopsis obscura), a larval predator (dragonfly nymphs, Aeschna canadensis), and both predators in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, and changes in hatchling size, hatchling developmental stage, and hatching time were compared to those for control embryos. Leeches alone induced embryos to hatch at a smaller size and an earlier developmental stage than controls, while dragonfly nymphs elicited a delay in egg hatching time that was associated with larger size and later developmental stage at hatching. Embryos failed to respond to simultaneous exposure to both predators, implying that responses to each occurred concurrently and were therefore dampened. Our results indicate that prey under threat from conflicting predators may manifest intermediate defensive phenotypes. Such intermediate responses may result in elevated rates of prey mortality with possible consequences at the population level.

  11. Study of Dahuangzhechong Pills on Anti-arterial Thrombosis with the Orthogonal Design%大黄(廑)虫丸抗动脉血栓的正交实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏星; 王战义; 李佶阳; 万玲; 贺福元; 段晓鹏; 钟广伟; 江垚; 王东生

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To screen the main component of Dahuangzhechong pill's anti-arterial thrombosis with the orthogonal design and refine Dahuangzhechong pills. Methods;In accordance with the orthogonal design table( L16215) ,divided herbs into 16 groups and made the appropriate liquid. The liquid was gave to SD rats by intragastric administration, the model group, normal control group received the same volume of physiological saline. Isolated rats' carotid artery after intragastric administration a week,modeled according to ferric chloride inducement the carotid artery thrombosis method, then collected blood, detected content of platelet, thromboxane B2 (TXB2)and 6-keto-prostaglandin Fla(6-keto-PGFla) ,sheared and measured dry weight of the modeling artery,then placed arteries in 10% formalin fixation,observed morphological changes in vascular tissue by HE staining. Results; Pathological examination revealed; each experimental group had thrombosis, softening, dissolution, absorption, and intimal injury, but the severity of thrombosis were dife-rent. Orthogonal analysis showed; 1,influence on dry weight of thrombus;rhubarb,ground beetle,leeches,peach seed,dry paint,except dry paint P<0. 05,the others P<0. 01. 2,influence on plasma6- keto-PGF1α level;peach seed,dry paint,ground beetle,gadfly,grubs, leeches,rhubarb,except rhubarb P<0. 05,the others P<0. 01. 3 .influence on plasma TXB2;ground beetle,peach seed,dried paint, rhubarb, leeches, except leech P<0. 05 , the others P<0. 01. 4, influence on platelet count; peach seed, dry paint, rhubarb, ground beetle , gadfly, leeches, except gadfly, leeches P<0. 05, the others P<0. 01. Conclusion; Anti-artery thrombosis of Dahuangzhechong Pill is most closely related with rhubarb,ground beetle,leeches,peach seed,dry paint and gadfly.%目的:采用正交设计筛选大黄(廑)虫丸抗动脉血栓形成的主要成分,精制大黄(磨)虫丸.方法:将单味药材按照正交设计表( L16215)依次配伍,分为16组

  12. An discussion on Graphological Deviation in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖潇

    2016-01-01

    In stylistic analysis,when we identifying the stylistic features in literary works,deviation serves as an important sign.According to Leech,there are eight types of deviation in poetry:lexical deviation,grammatical deviation,phonological deviation,graphological deviation,semantic deviation,dialectal deviation,deviation of register,deviation of historical period. Realism marks as an significant development in the history of fiction,for its success in achieving an exposure of the truth of people’s real life and fierce social problems.And foregrounded feature is inevitable part that constitute his language style.We will focus on Oliver Twist,for it is presented with unique writing style,which worthy our investigation.

  13. Our Mathematical Universe: I. How the Monster Group Dictates All of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 4th family b’ quark would confirm that our physical Universe is mathematical and is discrete at the Planck scale. I explain how the Fischer-Greiss Monster Group dic- tates the Standard Model of leptons and quarks in discrete 4-D internal symmetry space and, combined with discrete 4-D spacetime, uniquely produces the finite group Weyl E 8 x Weyl E 8 = “Weyl” SO(9,1. The Monster’s j-invariant function determines mass ratios of the particles in finite binary rotational subgroups of the Standard Model gauge group, dictates M ̈ obius transformations that lead to the conservation laws, and connects interactions to triality, the Leech lattice, and Golay-24 information coding.

  14. Rescate con sanguijuelas de un injerto libre lateral del muslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Morán

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de éxito total de los injertos libres microvascularizados se sitúa actualmente por encima del 95% en la mayoría de los Servicios. Los intentos de rescate en distintas series son exitosos en un 28-87,5% de los casos. La insuficiencia venosa es responsable de la mayor parte de los fracasos iniciales. Presentamos un caso clínico en el que se detectó trombosis venosa del injerto que finalmente fue rescatado con el empleo coadyuvante de sanguijuelas.The overall success rates using free flaps is nowadays over 95% in the majority of services. Salvage attempts successfully rescue from 28-87,5% of the cases in different series. Venous insufficienency is responsible for most initial flap failures We report a case in which a venous trombosis of the free flap was detected and it was finally successfully rescued with leeches.

  15. L'-band AGPM vector vortex coronagraph's first light on LBTI/LMIRCam

    CERN Document Server

    Defrère, D; Hinz, P; Kuhn, J; Mawet, D; Mennesson, B; Skemer, A; Wallace, J Kent; Bailey, V; Downey, E; Delacroix, C; Durney, O; Forsberg, P; Gomez, C; Habraken, S; Hoffmann, W F; Karlsson, M; Kenworthy, M; Leisenring, J; Montoya, M; Pueyo, L; Skrutskie, M; Surdej, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the first observations obtained with the L'-band AGPM vortex coronagraph recently installed on LBTI/LMIRCam. The AGPM (Annular Groove Phase Mask) is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings. It is designed to improve the sensitivity and dynamic range of high-resolution imaging at very small inner working angles, down to 0.09 arcseconds in the case of LBTI/LMIRCam in the L' band. During the first hours on sky, we observed the young A5V star HR\\,8799 with the goal to demonstrate the AGPM performance and assess its relevance for the ongoing LBTI planet survey (LEECH). Preliminary analyses of the data reveal the four known planets clearly at high SNR and provide unprecedented sensitivity limits in the inner planetary system (down to the diffraction limit of 0.09 arcseconds).

  16. The cruelty and failings of therapies for neurological diseases in French literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, excerpts from famous or little-known works of French literature are used to illustrate how eighteenth- and nineteenth-century physicians tried to treat neuropsychiatric illnesses. Although the causes were unknown to them, they did not hesitate to inflict suffering on their patients, who were often in an appalling condition to begin with. Novelists such as Gustave Flaubert, Alphonse Daudet, the Goncourt brothers, Georges Siménon, and Céline applied their writing talents to describing the use of leeches, bloodletting, vibratory treatments, suspension of the body, multiple painful injections, and brutal electrotherapy. These writers reveal how physicians used their imaginations not only boundlessly but also without pity, to treat their patients. Each literary work is presented with the medical justifications of the time, for example, the explanations of Cruveilhier, Charcot, Brown-Sequard, Sollier, Vincent, and Roussy.

  17. Adenosine triphosphate in cholinergic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H; Denston, C R

    1976-07-30

    Synaptic vesicles have been isolated from the electirc organ of the bony fish Electrophorus electricus using sucrose step gradients and zonal centrifugation. Although the acetylcholine (ACh) content of the Electrophorus electric organ is only 2% of that of Torpedo, ACh and ATP can readily be measured in the peak fractions using the leech microassay and the firefly luciferin luciferase assay respectively. The protein content of the vesicle fraction in experiments with Electrophorus was much higher than with Torpedo, but a possible contamination of this fraction with mitochondrial or cytoplasmic particles could be excluded. The ACh to ATP ratio of 10.8 is close to that found for cholinergic vesicles isolated from Torpedo and also to that of other amine storing granules.

  18. Effects of sewage on benthic invertebrates in the lake of Zurich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubini-Ferlin, V.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981-83 sublittoral macroinvertebrates were collected by means of SCUBA diving from artificial substrates submerged near the outfalls from eight sewage treatment plants in Lake Zurich. Pollution around the outfall resulted on the one hand in a reduction of pollution intolerant benthic invertebrates, on the other hand in a considerable increase in the relative abundance of pollution tolerant taxa such as leeches, flatworms and crustaceans. Changes in the faunal composition were related to nutrient enrichment and changes in the nature of the substratum due to sedimentation of sewage sludge. Species diversity (Simpson index) showed low values near the outfall from some plants, high values near the outfall from others. Low species diversity did not always mark the sites where greatest pollution has been observed.

  19. Respiratory adaptations to oxygen lack in three species of Glossiphoniidae (Hirudinea) in Lake Esrom, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohle, B. D.; Hamburger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The weight-specific respiration rate (µl O2 mg-1 AFDW h-1) of three species of leech from Lake Esrom, Denmark, Glossiphonia concolor, G. complanata and Helobdella stagnalis was measured in a closed stirred chamber with a micro electrode. At declining oxygen concentration (mg O2 l-1) all three...... species expressed moderate ability to regulate respiration, in G. concolor and G. complanata down to 2 mg O2 l-1, in H. stagnalis down to 0.75 mg O2 l-1. Survival in anoxia was measured in closed bottles. The time to 50% survival (LD50) was 30 days in G. concolor at 20 °C and 30 and 4 days in H. stagnalis...

  20. Dynamical Processes in Ageing, Gene Regulation and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss

    project we constructed a mathematical model and showed that if DNA damage is primarily caused by geno-toxic agents, it would be advantageous for cells to have a fragile DNA repair mechanism. The second part of my Ph.D. thesis covers gene regulation. In the first project we show how RNA polymerase can...... be used as a transcription factor. This requires that promoter regions overlap, which 15% of promoters in E.coli do. In the second project I analyse a negative auto regulated transcription motif coupled to a positive auto regulation transcription motif. I find that a general feature of this motif...... players develop favourite communication partners. We observed how this dynamic caused a communication network to form. By quantifying the information flow in this network, we were able to shown how that the network functions as an anti-exploration mechanism against "information leeches"....

  1. Pragmatic Failures in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    Pragmatics was only invented in 1973 and its first major theory,Speech Act Theory,did not take shape until the 50s. G.Leech argues that“we cannot really understand the nature of language itself unless we understand pragmatics:how language is used in communication.” Therefore,the most important element in pragmatics is the context.According to Thomas,pragmatic failure can be divided into two levels:pragmalinguistic failure and socio-pragmatic failure.Therefore,communicative competence must include pragmalinguistic competence and sociopragmatic competence,if inter-cultural pragmatic problems are to be avoided.The paper aims to analyze the causes of pragmatic failures and solutions to this problem will be presented.

  2. Foregrounding Theory and Fiction Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2014-01-01

    Foregrounding is a concept that originally introduced from pictorial art. The function of foregrounding is to attract the audiences' attention so as to achieve certain expected artistic effects with the rest persons or things backgrounded.For a long time, foregrounding theory has been widely applied to linguistics, stylistics, literary creation and research whereas rarely being employed to translation activities. Not until late 19th century did Ye Zinan proposed that this theory could be applied to translation practice. He only put forward the relevant assumption on foregrounding theory. Based on English linguist Geoffrey Leech's deviation theory and Ye Zinan's assumption on the application of foregrounding theory to translation practice, this paper aims to draw translators' attention to foregrounding factors concealed in literary works, especially in novels, and to provide some basic means for them to render these foregrounding features into the relevant foregrounding expressions in the target language.

  3. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Schoenoplectus litter in a constructed wetland in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.M.; Thullen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Culm processing characteristics were associated with differences in invertebrate density in a study of invertebrates and senesced culm packs in a constructed treatment wetland. Invertebrate abundance differed by location within the wetland and there were differences between the two study years that appeared to be related to water quality and condition of culm material. Open areas in the wetland appeared to be critical in providing dissolved oxygen (DO) and food (plankton) to the important invertebrate culm processor, Glyptotendipes. As culm packs aged, invertebrate assemblages became less diverse and eventually supported mostly tubificid worms and leeches. It appears from this study that wetland design is vital to processing of plant material and that designs that encourage production and maintenance of high DO's will encourage microbial and invertebrate processing of material.

  4. Global stability of synchronous and out-of-phase oscillations in central pattern generators

    CERN Document Server

    Landsman, A S

    2010-01-01

    Coupled arrays of Andronov-Hopf oscillators are investigated. These arrays can be diffusively or repulsively coupled, and can serve as central pattern generator models in animal locomotion and robotics. It is shown that repulsive coupling generates out-of-phase oscillations, while diffusive coupling generates synchronous oscillations. Specifically, symmetric solutions and their corresponding amplitudes are derived, and contraction analysis is used to prove global stability and convergence of oscillations to either symmetric out-of-phase or synchronous states, depending on the coupling constant. Next, the two mechanisms are used jointly by coupling multiple arrays. The resulting dynamics is analyzed, in a model inspired by the CPG-motorneuron network that controls the heartbeat of a medicinal leech.

  5. Politeness: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Джеффри Лич

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness

  6. Politeness Principle ond its Use to Sove Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is of special importance in social communication and is gaming more and more significance in the study of pragmatics over the recent years. This paper starts from the very element of the Politeness Principle, proposed by G, Leech in 1983, and it mainly concentrates on the six maxims of the Politeness Principle. Then, it studies the communicative effect of the six maxims in real situation respectively. And from the problem in Politeness Principle, it draws forth to the face theory, put forward by R. Brown and S. Levinson an 1987 With the analysis of various kinds of Face Threatening Act. FTA for short, it comes to the question: how to save face in the aid of speech strategies of Politeness Principle. With careful observation of conversations in life and plenty of reading in regard of Politeness Principle, I conclude some practical speech strategies as face saving acts.

  7. Ex-vivo detection of neural events using THz BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abdennour; Croix, Dominique; Salzet, Michel; Bocquet, Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    Background: Electromagnetic frequencies up to a few terahertz (THz) can yield real-time and noninvasive measurements on biological matter. Unfortunately, strong absorption in aqueous solutions and low spatial resolution return difficult free-space investigations. A new approach based on integrated THz circuits was used. The authors designed and fabricated a BioMEMS (Biological MicroElectro-Mechanical System) compatible with microfluidic circulation and electromagnetic propagation. It is dedicated to the ex vivo detection of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, which is involved in neurodegenerative phenomena. Material/Methods: The biological model was a leech's central nervous system. After its injury, the production of NO was observed and measured in the far-THz spectral domain. The nerve cord was put inside a BioMEMS realized in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sealed on a glass wafer. Glass is a good material for supporting high-frequency integrated waveguides such as coplanar waveguides (CPWs). Measurements w...

  8. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, W.

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell ({beta}TC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  9. A subtractive cDNA library from an identified regenerating neuron is enriched in sequences up-regulated during nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, S; Fedorov, A; Collins, R; Blackshaw, S E; Davies, J A

    1997-01-01

    We have constructed a subtractive cDNA library from regenerating Retzius cells of the leech, Hirudo medicinalis. It is highly enriched in sequences up-regulated during nerve regeneration. Sequence analysis of selected recombinants has identified both novel sequences and sequences homologous to molecules characterised in other species. Homologies include alpha-tubulin, a calmodulin-like protein, CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), protein 4.1 and synapsin. These types of proteins are exactly those predicted to be associated with axonal growth and their identification confirms the quality of the library. Most interesting, however, is the isolation of 5 previously uncharacterised cDNAs which appear to be up-regulated during regeneration. Their analysis is likely to provide new information on the molecular mechanisms of neuronal regeneration.

  10. A review of Luxiaria Walker and its allied genus Calletaera Warren (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Xue, Dayong; Han, Hongxiang

    2014-08-21

    The genus Luxiaria Walker and its allied genus Calletaera Warren in China, including 16 species in all, are reviewed. Five new species are described: C. obvia sp. nov., C. acuticornuta sp. nov., C. rotundicornuta sp. nov., C. dentata sp. nov., C. trigonoprocessus sp. nov. The species L. acutaria (Snellen, 1877) and L. tephrosaria (Moore, 1868) are newly recorded for China. Two new combinations are established: C. obliquata (Moore, 1888) comb. nov. and C. consimilaria (Leech, 1897) comb. nov. Four new synonyms are established: Eutoea Walker, 1860 (= Bithiodes Warren, 1894 syn. nov.); Calletaera Warren, 1895 (=Bithiodes Warren, 1899 syn. nov.), based on the fixation of nominal type Acidalia inexactata Walker, 1861, for the genus name Bithiodes Warren, 1894; L. emphatica Prout, 1925 (= L. costinota Inoue, 1978 syn. nov.); C. subexpressa (Walker, 1861) (= C. digrammata Wehrli, 1925 syn. nov.). Diagnoses for all Chinese species are provided. Illustrations of external features and genitalia are presented. 

  11. A SYSTEMATIC LIST OF LYCAENIDAE IN REPRESENTATIVE REGIONS OF HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE%黑龙江省重点地区灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴海英; 王丽君; 张丽坤

    1999-01-01

    1984~1998年间,对黑龙江省重点地区的灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)昆虫进行调查,已鉴定出36种,隶属于3亚科24属.其中有黑龙江省新分布种类7种:栅黄灰蝶Japonica saepestriata(Hewitson)、华灰蝶Wagimoe sulgeri(Oberthür)、毛眼灰蝶Zizina otis(Fabricius)、钮灰碟Acytolepis puspa (Horsfield)、大紫琉璃灰蝶Celastrina oreas(Leech)、茄纹红珠灰蝶Lycaeides cleobis(Bremer)和维纳斯眼灰蝶Polymmatus venus(Staudinger).文中记述各种学名、别名、采集地及日期.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Paracymoriza distinctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; You, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Paracymoriza distinctalis (Leech, 1889) has been determined in this article. The mitochondrial genome of P. distinctalis was 15,354 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and an A + T-rich region. All PCGs start with ATN codon, except for COI, which begins with CGA. Eleven PCGs stop with typical stop codon TAA. But ND5 and COII use incomplete stop codon T. All the 22 tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN) lacking the dihydrouridine (DHU) stem. There were several conserved motifs in the intergenic region between tRNA(Ser)(UCN) and ND1 and the A + T-rich region of P. distinctalis.

  13. New Records of Seven Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eupithecia Curtis is the largest taxon in Lepidoptera (more than 1,500 species worldwide and the adults of the genus are characterized by small in size, cryptically colored grayish and brownish forewing, and indistinct basal, ante- and postmedial transverse lines mostly with a definite discal spot on the forewing. Forty-four species have been reported so far in Korea. Herein, we present the first report on seven species of Eupithecia: Eupithecia rufescens Butler (1878, Eupithecia costiconvexa Inoue (1979, Eupithecia daemionata Dietze (1904, Eupithecia persuastrix Mironov (1990, Eupithecia actaeata Walderdorff (1869, Eupithecia suboxydata Staudinger (1897 and Eupithecia costimacularia Leech (1897. Diagnosis, descriptions and figures of the available species are provided.

  14. Pragmatic Failures in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    Pragmatics was only invented in 1973 and its first major theory,Speech Act Theory,did not take shape until the 50s.G.Leech argues that"we cannot really understand the nature of language itself unless we understand pragmatics:how language is used in communication."Therefore,the most important element in pragmatics is the context.According to Thomas,pragmatic failure can be divided into two levels:pragmalinguistic failure and socio-pragmatic failure.Therefore,communicative competence must include pragmalinguistic competence and sociopragmatic competence,if inter-cultural pragmatic problems are to be avoided.The paper aims to analyze the causes of pragmatic failures and solutions to this problem will be presented.

  15. Isolation and Communication A Stylistic Analysis of Thought Presentation in Mrs. Dalloway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf is well-acclaimed for its almost non-intrusive portrayal of characters’ state of mind. Many studies approach it from biographical, socio-historical, philosophical, and other non-linguistic perspectives, and most linguistic investigations deal with illustrative examples of a single linguistic device in this novel. Few are concerned with the presence of particular linguistic patterns that explain how the intricate flow of thought is successfully depicted. This paper offers a detailed elaboration on the criteria for categorizing thought presentation in Leech& Short’s model and distinguishes cases of ambiguity. A case study of Mrs. Dalloway’s flower purchase scene illustrates how different types of thought presentation along with different reporting clauses are used to convey the variation in the character’s mental state and the negotiation between her inner voice and the outside world.

  16. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell (βTC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  17. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  18. Optically monitoring voltage in neurons by photo-induced electron transfer through molecular wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evan W; Lin, John Y; Frady, E Paxon; Steinbach, Paul A; Kristan, William B; Tsien, Roger Y

    2012-02-07

    Fluorescence imaging is an attractive method for monitoring neuronal activity. A key challenge for optically monitoring voltage is development of sensors that can give large and fast responses to changes in transmembrane potential. We now present fluorescent sensors that detect voltage changes in neurons by modulation of photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) from an electron donor through a synthetic molecular wire to a fluorophore. These dyes give bigger responses to voltage than electrochromic dyes, yet have much faster kinetics and much less added capacitance than existing sensors based on hydrophobic anions or voltage-sensitive ion channels. These features enable single-trial detection of synaptic and action potentials in cultured hippocampal neurons and intact leech ganglia. Voltage-dependent PeT should be amenable to much further optimization, but the existing probes are already valuable indicators of neuronal activity.

  19. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  20. Traditional healers in the Qazvin region of the Islamic Republic of Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefzadeh, S; Sameefar, F

    2001-05-01

    We identified and categorized by method of therapy 15 traditional healers in the Qazvin region. Problem-solving and treatment procedures were observed and recorded by actual patients or by observers simulating a medical condition. The treatment practices of the 15 healers (8 men and 7 women) included herbal remedies (four), bone-setting (five), traditional methods for the treatment of sore throat (two), massage therapy using plant oils (one), cupping (two), and leech therapy (one). Despite an adequate number of physicians practising in the region, traditional healers continue to be consulted. We recommend that the efficacy of their treatments be further studied and that they be encouraged to contribute positively to the broader health objectives of Iranian society.

  1. Neuronal Control of Swimming Behavior: Comparison of Vertebrate and Invertebrate Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Olivia J.; Hackett, John T.; Buchanan, James T.; Friesen, W. Otto

    2010-01-01

    Swimming movements in the leech and lamprey are highly analogous, and lack homology. Thus, similarities in mechanisms must arise from convergent evolution rather than from common ancestry. Despite over forty years of parallel investigations into this annelid and primitive vertebrate, a close comparison of the approaches and results of this research is lacking. The present review evaluates the neural mechanisms underlying swimming in these two animals and describes the many similarities that provide intriguing examples of convergent evolution. Specifically, we discuss swim initiation, maintenance and termination, isolated nervous system preparations, neural-circuitry, central oscillators, intersegmental coupling, phase lags, cycle periods and sensory feedback. Comparative studies between species highlight mechanisms that optimize behavior and allow us a broader understanding of nervous system function. PMID:21093529

  2. Blood meal analysis of tabanid fly after it biting the rare Sumatran rhinoceros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan; Zainal Zahari Zainuddin; Wahap Marni; Abdul Hamid Ahmad; Laurentius N Ambu; Junaidi Payne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a noninvasive large mammalian genetic sampling method using blood meal obtained from a tabanid fly. Methods: Blood meal was recovered from the abdomen of an engorged tabanid fly (Haematopota sp.) which was captured immediately after biting a Sumatran rhino in captivity. The blood was applied on to a Whatman FTA®blood card. Subsequent laboratory work was conducted to extract, amplify and sequence the DNA from the sample. Validation was done by sampling the hair follicles and blood samples from the rhinoceros and subjecting it to the same laboratory process. Results: BLAST search and constructed phylogenetic trees confirmed the blood meal samples were indeed from the rhino. Conclusions: This method could be used in the field application to noninvasively collect genetic samples. Collection of tabanids and other haematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes and ticks) and other blood-sucking parasites (e.g. leeches and worms) could also provide information on vector-borne diseases.

  3. The Application of Politeness Principle in English Class Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓

    2011-01-01

    Politeness embodies human civilization,acting as one behavioral criterion of moral significance to maintain the harmonious personal relationships.Politeness Principle,an essential research topic in pragmatics,is greatly meaningful in people's daily communication.It is also needed in English class which involves the communication between teacher and students.With a theory basis of Politeness Principle put forward by Leech,this paper explains the content of Politeness Principle and probes into the application of Politeness Principle in English class teaching,citing the application of Tact Maxim,Approbation Maxim,Modesty Maxim and Agreement Maxim as examples to suggest that pleasant class atmosphere,good relationships between teacher and students,enthusiasm,politeness awareness and communicative competence can be obtained when the teacher observes Politeness Principle.

  4. An integumentary mucin (FIM-B.1) from Xenopus laevis homologous with von Willebrand factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, J C; Gertzen, E M; Hoffmann, W

    1990-07-03

    We present a new protein from X. laevis skin termed "frog integumentary mucin B.1" (FIM-B.1) with a general structure similar to FIM-A.1 (formerly "spasmolysin"). The central region consisting of tandem repeats of 11 amino acid residues is probably a target for extensive O-glycosylation, whereas the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain shows pronounced homology with the C1-C2 domains and the C-terminal end of von Willebrand factor. Furthermore, we describe homology with antistasin, an anticoagulant peptide from a leech. We also discuss some implications concerning the evolutionary origin of von Willebrand factor. In situ hybridization studies revealed the expression of FIM-B.1 exclusively in mucous glands of the skin. This is comparable with FIM-A.1 but is in contrast to all other physiologically active peptides, which are synthesized in granular glands.

  5. KAJIAN PERILAKU PRAGMATIS TERHADAP TINDAK TUTUR SANTRI TERHADAP KYAI DI PONDOK PESANTREN DI WILAYAH KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riris Tiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main study is speech of moslem students assessed by using pragmatics approach that is politenes principle. Indicator in every maxim of politenes principle is used as santri having (sermon in front of others santri. The goal of the research is to describe about the implementation of politenes principle maxims and to determine the politenes of santri’s speech delivering their sermon to others santri. The result of data analysis found the applications of tive maxims in Leech politenes principle on santri’s speech of the sermon. Its also found the determinant factor of politenes namely linguistics factors and nonlinguistics factors. Linguistics factors was found diction application and style of santri’s speech. Meanwhile, nonlinguistics factors was found that senior santri’s were more in applicating politenes maxim rather than junior santri’s. In addition, the use foreign language such as Arabic.

  6. Fauna parasitária de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Characidae cultivado em tanque-rede no estado do Amapá, Amazônia oriental Parasitic fauna of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum(Characidae farmed in cages in the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Freitas Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi estudar a parasitofauna e a relação hospedeiro- parasito em tambaqui Colossoma macropomum cultivados em tanques-rede no Rio Matapi, município de Santana, estado do Amapá, região da Amazônia oriental, Brasil. Foram examinados 60 tambaquis, dos quais 96,7% estavam parasitados por protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora e Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideas Mymarotheciun boegeri e Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae e sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. Os maiores níveis de parasitismo foram causados por protozoários I. multifiliis e P. pillulare e os menores por sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. Porém, os índices de infestação não tiveram efeitos na saúde dos peixes hospedeiros, uma vez que o fator de condição relativo (Kn não foi estatisticamente (pThe purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parasitic fauna and the host-parasite relationship in Colossoma macropomum farmed in cages of Matapi River, municipally of Santana, State of Amapá, in eastern Amazon, Brazil. Of 60 specimens of tambaqui examined, 96.7% were parasitized by protozoans Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideans Mymarotheciun boegeri and Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae, and leeches Glossiphoniidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. The higher infestation levels were caused by protozoans I. multifiliis and P. pillulare, while the lower infestation levels were caused by leeches. No effects of parasitic infestation rates on fish health were observed. The relative condition factor (Kn was not correlated with the intensity of parasites found. This was the first record of I. multifiliis and P. pillulare in C. macropomum farmed in cages in the Brazilian Amazon.

  7. Treatment by bloodletting in the past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Therapeutic bloodletting has been practiced at least 3000 years as one of the most frequent methods of treatment in general, whose value was not questioned until the 19th century, when it was gradually abandoned in Western medicine, while it is still practiced in Arabic and traditional Chinese medicine. Content. In modern medicine bloodletting is practiced for very few indications. Its concept was modeled on the process of menstrual bleeding, for which it was believed to “purge women of bad humours.” Thus, bloodletting was based more on the belief that it helps in the reestablishment of proper balance of body “humours” than on the opinion that it serves to remove excessive amount of blood as well as to remove toxic “pneumas” that accumulate in human body. It was indicated for almost all known diseases, even in the presence of severe anemia. Bloodletting was carried out by scarification with cupping, by phlebotomies (venesections, rarely by arteriotomies, using specific instruments called lancets, as well as leeches. In different periods of history bloodletting was practiced by priests, doctors, barbers, and even by amateurs. In most cases, between one half of liter and two liters of blood used to be removed. Bloodletting was harmful to vast majority of patients and in some of them it is believed that it was either fatal or that it strongly contributed to such outcome. In the 20th century in the “Western” medicine bloodletting was still practiced in the treatment of hypertension and in severe cardiac insufficiency and pulmonary edema, but these indications were later abandoned. Conclusion. Bloodletting is still indicated for a few indications such as polycythemia, haemochromatosis, and porphyria cutanea tarda, while leeches are still used in plastic surgery, replantation and other reconstructive surgery, and very rarely for other specific indications.

  8. Identified central neurons convey a mitogenic signal from a peripheral target to the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T S; Bothe, G; Berliner, A J; Macagno, E R

    1996-08-01

    Regulation of central neurogenesis by a peripheral target has been previously demonstrated in the ventral nerve cord of the leech Hirudo medicinalis (Baptista, C. A., Gershon, T. R. and Macagno, E. R. (1990). Nature 346, 855-858) Specifically, innervation of the male genitalia by the fifth and sixth segmental ganglia (the sex ganglia) was shown to trigger the birth of several hundred central neurons (PIC neurons) in these ganglia. As reported here, removal of the target early during induction shows that PIC neurons can be independently induced in each side of a ganglion, indicating that the inductive signal is both highly localized and conveyed to each hemiganglion independently. Further, since recent observations (Becker, T., Berliner, A. J., Nitabach, M. N., Gan, W.-B. and Macagno, E. R. (1995). Development, 121, 359-369) had indicated that efferent projections are probably involved in this phenomenon, we individually ablated all possible candidates, which led to the identification of two central neurons that appear to play significant roles in conveying the inductive signal to the CNS. Ablation of a single ML neuron reduced cell proliferation in its own hemiganglion by nearly 50%, on the average. In contrast, proliferation on the opposite side of the ganglion increased by about 25%, suggesting the possibility of a compensatory response by the remaining contralateral ML neuron. Simultaneous ablation of both ML neurons in a sex ganglion caused similar reductions in cell proliferation in each hemiganglion. Deletion of a single AL neuron produced a weaker (7%) but nonetheless reproducible reduction. Ablation of the other nine central neurons that might have been involved in PIC neuron induction had no detectable effect. Both ML and AL neurons exhibit ipsilateral peripheral projections, and both arborize mostly in the hemiganglion where they reside. Thus, we conclude that peripheral regulation of central neurogenesis is mediated in the leech by inductive signals

  9. Pop-cola acids and tooth erosion: an in vitro, in vivo, electron-microscopic, and clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjian, Amirfirooz; Ferrari, Claudia C F; Anouf, Antoni; Touyz, Louis Z G

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Manufactured Colas are consumed universally as soft drinks. Evidence about the acid contents of Cola-beverages and its effects on teeth is rare. Aim. To assess (i) cola acidity and buffering capacity in vitro, (ii) tooth erosion after swishing with colas in vivo (iii) scanning electron microscopic effects on teeth of colas, and tooth-brush abrasion, and (iv) report a clinical case of erosion from cola consumption. Materials and Methods. (i) We measured six commercially available pop "Cola beverages", pH, and buffering capacities using a pH-Mettler Automatic Titrator, with weak solution of Sodium Hydroxide (ii) two cohorts, one with teeth, the second without teeth rinsed with aliquots of Cola for 60 seconds. Swished cola samples tested for calcium and phosphorus contents using standardized chemical analytical methods (iii) enamel, dentine, and the enamel-cemental junction from unerupted extracted wisdom teeth were examined with a scanning electron microscope after exposure to colas, and tested for tooth-brush abrasion; (iv) a clinical case of pop cola erosion presentation, are all described. Results. Comparisons among pop colas tested in vitro reveal high acidity with very low pH. Buffering capacities in millilitres of 0.5 M NaOH needed to increase one pH unit, to pH 5.5 and pH 7 are reported. Rinsing in vivo with pop cola causes leeching of calcium from teeth; SEM shows dental erosion, and pop-cola consumption induces advanced dental erosion and facilitates abrasion. Conclusions. (i) Pop-Cola acid activity is below the critical pH 5.5 for tooth dissolution, with high buffering capacities countering neutralization effects of saliva; (ii) calcium is leeched out of teeth after rinsing with pop colas; (iii) SEM evidence explains why chronic exposure to acid pop colas causes dental frangibles; (iv) a clinical case of pop-cola erosion confirms this.

  10. Caulerpenyne, a toxin from the seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia, depresses afterhyperpolarization in invertebrate neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzachiodi, R; Scuri, R; Roberto, M; Brunelli, M

    2001-01-01

    The massive invasion of the Mediterranean Sea by the tropical seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh has stimulated several investigations in order to test the environmental risk from an ecotoxicological point of view. The studies carried out on various experimental models have shown that caulerpenyne, the major metabolite synthesized by the seaweed, affects several cellular and molecular targets. In addition, neurological disorders have been reported in patients who accidentally ate C. taxifolia, but no evidence about the potential effects of the seaweed and of its metabolites on nerve cells were up to now available. Herein we describe that caulerpenyne modifies the electrical properties of touch mechanosensory cells of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The physiological firing of these cells causes an afterhyperpolarization that is mainly due to the activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase and to a lesser extent to a calcium-dependent potassium current. Caulerpenyne depressed this afterhyperpolarization; the effect was dose-dependent and partially reversible. Experiments have been carried out in order to understand the mechanism through which caulerpenyne reduced the afterhyperpolarization. The action of the biotoxin has been tested in the presence of pharmacological blockers of calcium-dependent potassium channels such as cadmium and apamin. In these experimental conditions, caulerpenyne still reduced the residual afterhyperpolarization, suggesting a direct effect of the toxin on the Na+/K+-ATPase. In order to test this hypothesis, we have performed experiments where the Na+/K+-ATPase was activated by the intracellular injection of sodium and where also its basal activity was modified as well. From the data collected we suggest that caulerpenyne inhibits both the basal and the sodium-induced activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase in leech touch neurons.

  11. Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2015-02-01

    By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can

  12. Phylogeny and revision of Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida from Mexico based on nuclear and mithochondrial gene sequences. Filogenia y revisión de los Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida de México, con base en secuencias de ADN nuclear y mitocondrial

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    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships of the suborder Erpobdelliformes, a group of non-sanguivorous leeches, were investigated with the use of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial 12S rDNA and nuclear 18S rDNA. The resulting hypothesis indicates that Erpobdellidae and Salifidae are monophyletic and each other closest relatives. We detect, for first time in leeches, intra-specific variation of similar amount than inter-specific variation. We formally resurrect the name Erpobdella mexicana, proposed by Dugès for Mexican specimens, and recommend the use of the name Erpobdella ochoterenai rather than Erpobdella microstoma for Mexican specimens. We record an invasive species of the family Salifidae: Barbronia arcana in Mexico, representing the first record of the species outside Australia, first record of the family in Mexico and third in the New World.Se estudian las relaciones filogenéticas del suborden Erpobdelliformes, un grupo de sanguijuelas no hematófagas de vertebrados, con base en secuencias de la subunidad I del citocromo c oxidasa del ADN mitocondrial, 12S ADNr del ADN mitocondrial y 18S ADNr del ADN nuclear. La hipótesis resultante señala que las familias Salifidae y Erpobdellidae son monofiléticas y hermanas entre sí. Se detecta por primera vez en sanguijuelas variación interespecífica de magnitud similar a la variación interespecífica. Formalmente se reslece el nombre empleado por Dugès: Erpobdella mexicana para las formas mexicanas, así como se argumenta sobre el uso del nombre Erpobdella ochoterenai en lugar de Erpobdella microstoma para las formas mexicanas. Se registra a una especie invasora de la familia Salifidae en México: Barbronia arcana, el cual constituye el primer registro de la especie fuera de Australia, primer registro de la familia en México y tercero en el continente americano.

  13. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

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    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  14. Progressive Extensional Exhumation of the Ultrahigh-Pressure Tso Morari Terrain, NW Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K.; Clark, R.; Monteleone, B.; Sachan, H.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Ahmad, T.

    2011-12-01

    The core of the Tso Morari dome in the Ladakh region of NW India (roughly 33 °10'N; 78°10'E) is one of only two known ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrains in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. The quartzofeldspathic Puga Orthogneiss from the structurally deepest portions of the terrain does not contain UHP mineralogy but surrounds dismembered lenses of mafic eclogite with accessory coesite, confirming that at least the eclogite lenses experienced UHP metamorphic conditions (Mukherjee et al., 2003, International Geology Review; Sachan et al., 2004, European Journal of Mineralogy). U-Pb zircon dates from the Puga orthogneiss (53.3 ± 0.7 Ma: Leech et al., 2007, International Geology Review) provide what appear to be the most precise available constraints on the age of UHP metamorphism at Tso Morari provided we presume that the UHP assemblages in the eclogite lenses developed at the same time as the 53.3 ± 0.7 Ma metamorphic zircon in the orthogneiss. However, other components of the zircon population studied by Leech and co-workers, as well as the results obtained using other thermochronometers and geochronometers (de Sigoyer et al., 2004, Tectonics), demonstrate that a series of lower pressure metamorphic events also affected the Tso Morari terrain between ca. 53 Ma and ca. 45 Ma, implying rapid decompression at elevated temperatures (ca. 800 - 350°C). Our 1:50000-scale geologic mapping at Tso Morari provides evidence that this exhumation was largely accommodated by two previously unrecognized low-angle ductile detachments that separate the terrain into three tectonostratigraphic units with distinctive metamorphic histories. The structurally lowest shear zone (Karla detachment) separates the Puga Orthogneiss from overlying lower amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the Zoboshisha Unit, which contains no UHP assemblages. Structurally higher and demonstrably younger detachments separate the Zoboshisha Unit and the Puga Orthogneiss from greenschist to

  15. Atividade predatória de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre formas imaturas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório Predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on immature forms of Aedes ftuviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut Anna Gertrud Bohlmann Cônsoli

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade predatória, em laboratório, de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre ovos, larvas e pupas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, bem como a influência da presença desses hirudíneos sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas das duas espécies de mosquitos. Experimentos adicionais foram feitos testando a influência da profundidade da água e da sua salinidade sobre a capacidade predatória dos hirudíneos. Nas condições do experimento, foi observada predação de larvas e pupas, porém não de ovos das duas espécies de dípteros. Número estatisticamente menor de desovas foi depositado por fêmeas de Cx. quinquefasciatus em recipientes que continham hirudíneos, não ocorrendo o mesmo com fêmeas de Ae. fluviatilis. As diferentes profundidades de água testadas não interferiram na atividade predatória de H. t. lineata e somente em concentrações acima de 3% de NaCl essa atividade mostrou-se bastante diminuída.Experiments were conducted to determine the predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory, The influence of the leeches on selection, of ovipositing sites by the females of both species of mosquitoes, as well as the role of salinity and water depth in relation to predation were investigated. Larvae and pupae of both species of mosquitoes were efficiently predated, but eggs were not touched. A significantly lower number of eggmasses of Cx. quinquefasciatus were deposited on water containing leeches, but the same did not occur with Ae. fluviatilis. The different depths of water investigated did not interfere with predation and only at concentrations above 3% NaCl was predation considerably diminished.

  16. Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: interactions between activation, tension and body curvature waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Friesen, W. Otto; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Undulatory animal locomotion arises from three closely related propagating waves that sweep rostrocaudally along the body: activation of segmental muscles by motoneurons (MNs), strain of the body wall, and muscle tension induced by activation and strain. Neuromechanical models that predict the relative propagation speeds of neural/muscle activation, muscle tension and body curvature can reveal crucial underlying control features of the central nervous system and the power-generating mechanisms of the muscle. We provide an analytical explanation of the relative speeds of these three waves based on a model of neuromuscular activation and a model of the body–fluid interactions for leech anguilliform-like swimming. First, we deduced the motoneuron spike frequencies that activate the muscle and the resulting muscle tension during swimming in intact leeches from muscle bending moments. Muscle bending moments were derived from our video-recorded kinematic motion data by our body–fluid interaction model. The phase relationships of neural activation and muscle tension in the strain cycle were then calculated. Our study predicts that the MN activation and body curvature waves have roughly the same speed (the ratio of curvature to MN activation speed ≈0.84), whereas the tension wave travels about twice as fast. The high speed of the tension wave resulting from slow MN activation is explained by the multiplicative effects of MN activation and muscle strain on tension development. That is, the product of two slower waves (activation and strain) with appropriate amplitude, bias and phase can generate a tension wave with twice the propagation speed of the factors. Our study predicts that (1) the bending moment required for swimming is achieved by minimal MN spike frequency, rather than by minimal muscle tension; (2) MN activity is greater in the mid-body than in the head and tail regions; (3) inhibitory MNs not only accelerate the muscle relaxation but also reduce

  17. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

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    Ivo M. B. Francischetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyomma sp., tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp., bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp., sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp., leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp. and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.. This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Aspirin Resistance: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Ai-ju Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin resistance (AR is a prevalent phenomenon and leads to significant clinical consequences, but the current evidence for effective interventional strategy is insufficient. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for AR. A systematical literature search was conducted in 6 databases until December 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CHM for AR. As a result, sixteen RCTs with a total of 1011 subjects were identified, suggesting that the interests of the medical profession and the public in the use of CHM for AR have grown considerably in the recent years. Tongxinluo capsule and Danshen-based prescriptions were the most frequently used herbal prescriptions, while danshen root, milkvetch root, Leech, and Rosewood were the most frequently used single herbs. Despite the apparent reported positive findings, it is premature to determine the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of AR due to poor methodological quality and insufficient safety data. However, CHMs appeared to be well tolerated in all included studies. Thus, CHM as a promising candidate is worthy of improvement and development for further clinical AR trials. Large sample-size and well-designed rigorous RCTs are needed.

  19. Management of venous thrombosis in fibular free osseomusculocutaneous flaps used for mandibular reconstruction: clinical techniques and treatment considerations

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    Draenert Florian G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mandibular reconstruction by means of fibula transplants is the standard therapy for severe bone loss after subtotal mandibulectomy. Venous failure still represents the most common complication in free flap surgery. We present the injection of heparine into the arterial pedicle as modification of the revising both anastomoses in these cases and illustrate the application with a clinical case example. Methods Methods consist of immediate revision surgery with clot removal, heparin perfusion by direct injection in the arterial vessel of the pedicle, subsequent high dose low-molecular weight heparin therapy, and leeches. After 6 hours postoperatively, images of early flap recovery show first sings of recovery by fading livid skin color. Results The application of this technique in a patient with venous thrombosis resulted in the complete recovery of the flap 60 hours postoperatively. Other cases achieved similar success without additional lysis Therapy or revision of the arterial anastomosis. Conclusion Rescue of fibular flaps is possible even in patients with massive thrombosis if surgical revision is done quickly.

  20. 3D string theory and Umbral moonshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachru, Shamit; Paquette, Natalie M.; Volpato, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The simplest string theory compactifications to 3D with 16 supercharges—the heterotic string on T 7, and type II strings on K3 × T3 —are related by U-duality, and share a moduli space of vacua parametrized by O(8, 24;{{ Z}}) ~\\backslash ~O(8, 24)~ /~ (O(8) × O(24)) . One can think of this as the moduli space of even, self-dual 32-dimensional lattices with signature (8,24). At 24 special points in moduli space, the lattice splits as Γ8, 0 \\oplus Γ0, 24 . Γ0, 24 can be the Leech lattice or any of 23 Niemeier lattices, while Γ8, 0 is the E 8 root lattice. We show that starting from this observation, one can find a precise connection between the Umbral groups and type IIA string theory on K3. This may provide a natural physical starting point for understanding Mathieu and Umbral moonshine. The maximal unbroken subgroups of Umbral groups in 6D (or any other limit) are those obtained by starting at the associated Niemeier point and moving in moduli space while preserving the largest possible subgroup of the Umbral group. To illustrate the action of these symmetries on BPS states, we discuss the computation of certain protected four-derivative terms in the effective field theory, and recover facts about the spectrum and symmetry representations of 1/2-BPS states.

  1. Nuclear, Virescent Mutants of Zea mays L. with High Levels of Chlorophyll (a/b) Light-Harvesting Complex during Thylakoid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacco, M L; Chang, M T; Neuffer, M G

    1985-04-01

    We have found nuclear, recessive mutants in Zea mays L. where assembly of the major chlorophyll (a/b) light-harvesting complex (LHC) was not delayed relative to most other thylakoid protein complexes during thylakoid biogenesis. This contrasts with the normal development of maize chloroplasts (NR Baker, R Leech 1977 Plant Physiol 60: 640-644). All four mutants examined were allelic and virescent, and displayed visibly higher yields of leaf Chl fluorescence during greening. Fully greened mutants had normal leaf Chl fluorescence yield and normal levels of LHC, and grew to maturity under field conditions. Therefore, delayed LHC assembly is not an obligate feature of thylakoid differentiation.Assigning the molecular basis for the mutation should provide information concerning reguation of LHC assembly. Several possibilities are discussed. The pleiotropic mutant phenotype is not attributable to defects in thylakoid glycerolipid synthesis. Thylakoids isolated from greening mutant leaf sections had elevated glycerolipid/Chl ratios. In addition, both the molar distribution and acyl composition of four major glycerolipids were normal for developing mutant thylakoids.

  2. Nuclear, Virescent Mutants of Zea mays L. with High Levels of Chlorophyll (a/b) Light-Harvesting Complex during Thylakoid Assembly 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacco, Mary L.; Chang, M. T.; Neuffer, M. Gerald

    1985-01-01

    We have found nuclear, recessive mutants in Zea mays L. where assembly of the major chlorophyll (a/b) light-harvesting complex (LHC) was not delayed relative to most other thylakoid protein complexes during thylakoid biogenesis. This contrasts with the normal development of maize chloroplasts (NR Baker, R Leech 1977 Plant Physiol 60: 640-644). All four mutants examined were allelic and virescent, and displayed visibly higher yields of leaf Chl fluorescence during greening. Fully greened mutants had normal leaf Chl fluorescence yield and normal levels of LHC, and grew to maturity under field conditions. Therefore, delayed LHC assembly is not an obligate feature of thylakoid differentiation. Assigning the molecular basis for the mutation should provide information concerning reguation of LHC assembly. Several possibilities are discussed. The pleiotropic mutant phenotype is not attributable to defects in thylakoid glycerolipid synthesis. Thylakoids isolated from greening mutant leaf sections had elevated glycerolipid/Chl ratios. In addition, both the molar distribution and acyl composition of four major glycerolipids were normal for developing mutant thylakoids. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664140

  3. Pore opening dynamics in the exocytosis of serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Cercos, Montserrat G.; Martinez-Valencia, Alejandro; Salinas Hernandez, Israel; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo; de-Miguel, Francisco F.

    2015-03-01

    The current view of the exocytosis of transmitter molecules is that it starts with the formation of a fusion pore that connects the intravesicular and the extracellular spaces, and is completed by the release of the rest of the transmitter contained in the vesicle upon the full fusion and collapse of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. However, under certain circumstances, a rapid closure of the pore before the full vesicle fusion produces only a partial release of the transmitter. Here we show that whole release of the transmitter occurs through fusion pores that remain opened for tens of milliseconds without vesicle collapse. This was demonstrated through amperometric measurements of serotonin release from electrodense vesicles in the axon of leech Retzius neurons and mathematical modelling. By modeling transmitter release with a diffusion equation subjected to boundary conditions that are defined by the experiment, we showed that those pores with a fast half rise time constant remained opened and allowed the full quantum release without vesicle collapse, whereas pores with a slow rise time constant closed rapidly, thus producing partial release. We conclude that a full transmitter release may occur through the fusion pore in the absence of vesicle collapse. This work was founded by a DGAPA-UNAM grants IN200914 and IN118410 CONACYT GRANT 130031, and CONACyT doctoral fellowships.

  4. Optimization of methodology for the assessing of bioaccumulation factors of periphyton metals applying the X-ray fluorescence technique; Optimizacion de la metodologia para la evaluacion de los factores de bioacumulacion de metales en perifiton aplicando la tecnica de fluorescencia de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merced Ch, D.

    2015-07-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted at Mexico, has a high pollutant load and low biodiversity, this aquatic plants and species zoo perifiton presented adaptations to environmental conditions that exist due to dumping of wastewater are developed. In this paper bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb metal on Hydrocotyle ranunculoides zoo perifiton associated with the upper reaches of the Lerma River applying the technique of fluorescence X-rays were evaluated in the form of Total Reflection. The BAF were higher compared to the soluble fraction to the total fraction this because the metal in the soluble phase are in solution and are therefore more available to join aquatic organisms, moreover respect to the BAF sediment were ≤ 1.5 indicate that these organisms have little affinity for incorporating metals from the sediment. Considering the sum of the FBA of all metals in each agency notes that the leech was the biggest bio accumulated metals (42468) followed by the worm to (27958), the arthropod with (10757) and finally the snail with (8421). Overall for this study agencies according to the BAF reported to bio accumulate metals are the following behavior Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Mn > Pb. (Author)

  5. 礼貌原则在高职英语口语教学中的语用研究%A pragmatic study of politeness principle in oral teaching of vocational colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘榴

    2016-01-01

    Politeness,as a common phenomenon in the field of pragmatics,is generally achieved by speech acts. Politeness principle is usually regarded as essential and plays a key role in daily communication among people especially in cross-cultural communication. By explaining Leech’s politeness principle and its maxims from a pragmatic perspective,this paper proposes some suggestions for oral English teaching in classrooms of vocational colleges in an attempt to improve learners’pragmatic abil-ity.%礼貌通常经由言语行为得以实现,是一种常见的语用现象。而礼貌原则作为一条重要的语用原则,在人们日常交际尤其是跨文化交际中起着关键作用。Leech 的礼貌原则及其准则从语用学视角做了阐释,着重探讨了礼貌言语行为在高职英语口语课堂的教学模式,以期提高学习者的语用能力。

  6. 威廉·戈尔丁小说《蝇王》的文体学解读%Stylistic Interpretation of Willaim Golding’s Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贞

    2011-01-01

    《蝇王》是当代英国作家威廉·戈尔丁的成名作和代表作。小说情节简单,但内涵丰富。这与小说所传达的深刻的人性"恶"道德主题密不可分。运用英国著名文体学家利奇和肖特《小说文体论》中的相关理论,从视角变换﹑句尾焦点和篇章线性等文体特征出发,探讨《蝇王》传达并深化小说主题的方法。%Lord of the Flies is acknowledged as Willaim Golding’s representative work.Simple as it is,this novel has rich connotations,which is closely related to the moral theme of human evilness.This paper,in accordance with Style in Fiction by Geoffrey N.Leech and Michael H.Short,interprets Lord of the Flies.Great emphases are laid on such prominent stylistic features as shifts of points of view,the principle of end-focus and the linearity of the text,more important,on the ways of such stylistic features to convey the salient theme of this novel — the darkness of human nature.

  7. 3D String Theory and Umbral Moonshine

    CERN Document Server

    Kachru, Shamit; Volpato, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The simplest string theory compactifications to 3D with 16 supercharges -- the heterotic string on $T^7$, and type II strings on $K3 \\times T^3$ -- are related by U-duality, and share a moduli space of vacua parametrized by $O(8,24; \\mathbb{Z}) \\backslash O(8,24) / (O(8) \\times O(24))$. One can think of this as the moduli space of even, self-dual 32-dimensional lattices with signature (8,24). At 24 special points in moduli space, the lattice splits as $\\Gamma^{8,0} \\oplus \\Gamma^{0,24}$. $\\Gamma^{0,24}$ can be the Leech lattice or any of 23 Niemeier lattices, while $\\Gamma^{8,0}$ is the $E_8$ root lattice. We show that starting from this observation, one can find a precise connection between the Umbral groups and type IIA string theory on $K3$. This provides a natural physical starting point for understanding Mathieu and Umbral moonshine. The maximal unbroken subgroups of Umbral groups in 6D (or any other limit) are those obtained by starting at the associated Niemeier point and moving in moduli space while p...

  8. Significance of water quality to fish propagation, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, and recreation use for 24 lakes and reservoirs in Valley and Phillips Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four reservoirs were sampled for water quality to determine their suitability for fish propagation, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, and recreation. Reservoir-surface areas ranged from 0.2 to 146 hectares and depths ranged from 0.01 to 6.0 meters. Of the reservoirs studied, six generally had water quality that would not be detrimental to fish propagation. Most of the reservoirs were enriched with nutrients and supported large concentrations of phytoplankton and dense growth of aquatic plants. In late winter and late summer, enrichment of shallow reservoirs often resulted in dissolved-oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, which is detrimental to fish. Three reservoirs lacked aquatic plants for water fowl habitat. Four reservoirs had small dissolved-oxygen concentration in the bottom water that might be critical to the protection of waterfowl if botulism were to occur. Specific conductance of water samples from three reservoirs was sufficiently close to the criterion of 4,800 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees celsius to be regarded as potentially hazardous to livestock. However, most of the reservoirs generally would not be conducive to recreational swimming. Visibility was limited in most of the reservoirs. In addition, leech populations and growth of submersed aquatic plants in most of the reservoirs would be a nuisance to swimmers. (USGS)

  9. Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Merkel, Kevin; Kutzner, Nadine; Kühl, Hjalmar; Boesch, Christophe; Kappeler, Peter M; Metzger, Sonja; Schubert, Grit; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2013-02-01

    Large-scale monitoring schemes are essential in assessing global mammalian biodiversity, and in this framework, leeches have recently been promoted as an indirect source of DNA from terrestrial mammal species. Carrion feeding flies are ubiquitous and can be expected to feed on many vertebrate carcasses. Hence, we tested whether fly-derived DNA analysis may also serve as a novel tool for mammalian diversity surveys. We screened DNA extracted from 201 carrion flies collected in tropical habitats of Côte d'Ivoire and Madagascar for mammal DNA using multiple PCR systems and retrieved DNA sequences from a diverse set of species (22 in Côte d'Ivoire, four in Madagascar) exploiting distinct forest strata and displaying a broad range of body sizes. Deep sequencing of amplicons generated from pools of flies performed equally well as individual sequencing approaches. We conclude that the analysis of fly-derived DNA can be implemented in a very rapid and cost-effective manner and will give a relatively unbiased picture of local mammal diversity. Carrion flies therefore represent an extraordinary and thus far unexploited resource of mammal DNA, which will probably prove useful for future inventories of wild mammal communities.

  10. Discovery of anticoagulant drugs: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, Ma Luisa; Calvo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Lecumberri, Ramón; Rocha, Eduardo; Pozo-Hernández, Carmen; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio

    2012-06-01

    The history of the traditional anticoagulants is marked by both perseverance and serendipity. The anticoagulant effect of heparin was discovered by McLean in 1915, while he was searching for a procoagulant in dog liver. Link identified dicumarol from spoiled sweet clover hay in 1939 as the causal agent of the sweet clover disease, a hemorrhagic disorder in cattle. Hirudin extracts from the medicinal leech were first used for parenteral anticoagulation in the clinic in 1909, but their use was limited due to adverse effects and difficulties in achieving highly purified extracts. Heparins and coumarins (i.e.: warfarin, phenprocoumon, acenocoumarol) have been the mainstay of anticoagulant therapy for more than 60 years. Over the past decades, the drug discovery paradigm has shifted toward rational design following a target-based approach, in which specific proteins, or "targets", are chosen on current understandings of pathophysiology, small molecules that inhibit the target's activity may be identified by high-throughput screening and, in selected cases, these new molecules can be developed further as drugs. Despite the application of rational design, serendipity has still played a significant role in some of the new discoveries. This review will focus on the discovery of the main anticoagulant drugs in current clinical use, like unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins, fondaparinux, coumarins (i.e.: warfarin, acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon), parenteral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) (i.e.: argatroban, recombinant hirudins, bivalirudin), oral DTIs (i.e.: dabigatran) and oral direct factor Xa inhibitors (i.e.: rivaroxaban, apixaban).

  11. A Corpus-based Stylistic Analysis of Body-Soul and Heaviness-Lightness Metaphors in Kundera's Novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Shakir Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an attempt to conduct a corpus-based stylistic analysis of  two conceptual metaphors in The Unbearable Lightness of Being, which is a novel written by Milan Kundera. Soul-body and lightness-heaviness metaphors are foregrounded as being central themes all through the novel. The way such metaphors are used in the novel indicates an insightful employment of metaphor as a cognitive tool which empowers language users with a capacity of conceptualizing different experiences. The researcher adopts conceptual metaphor theory to produce a sort of conceptual analysis incorporating Leech's semantic componential analysis within the overall analytic procedure. Different techniques are figured out in relation to the creative ways of manipulating the cognitive level of language, such as conceptual switching, conceptual extension, and conceptual fusion. These creative techniques are carefully used in the novel under investigation with different ranges of metaphorical creativity. Conceptual switching might be simple but very active in deviating from the conventional conceptual system. Conceptual extension marks certain minute elaborations conventional metaphors undergo extending the limits of cognitive conceptualization. As for conceptual fusion, it proves to be interestingly powerful in producing certain aggregations of metaphorical mappings. Keywords: Conceptual Metaphor Theory, Metaphorical Creativity, Metaphorical Mappings, Corpus Stylistics

  12. An Optically Stabilized Fast-Switching Light Emitting Diode as a Light Source for Functional Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience research increasingly relies on optical methods for evoking neuronal activity as well as for measuring it, making bright and stable light sources critical building blocks of modern experimental setups. This paper presents a method to control the brightness of a high-power light emitting diode (LED) light source to an unprecedented level of stability. By continuously monitoring the actual light output of the LED with a photodiode and feeding the result back to the LED's driver by way of a proportional-integral controller, drift was reduced to as little as 0.007% per hour over a 12-h period, and short-term fluctuations to 0.005% root-mean-square over 10 seconds. The LED can be switched on and off completely within 100 s, a feature that is crucial when visual stimuli and light for optical recording need to be interleaved to obtain artifact-free recordings. The utility of the system is demonstrated by recording visual responses in the central nervous system of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana using voltage-sensitive dyes. PMID:22238663

  13. Analysis of Misunderstanding Caused by Different Interpretations of Speech Act Labels in Tintin and Asterix Comic Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Attamimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of misunderstanding occurred in a conversation which is caused by different interpretation of speech act labels between the speaker and the hearer. Misunderstanding occurred in these comic series causes various emotional effects to the hearer involved in the conversation. The hearer might feel happy, impressed, embarrassed, or even proud of what the speaker conveys through his/ her utterance. It depends on the face wants used and intended between the participants in the conversation. According to Goffman in Brown and Levinson (1987, “face is something that is emotionally invested, and that can be lost, maintained, or enhanced, and must be constantly attended to in interaction” (p. 60. There are two kinds of face wants. The positive purpose is called face saving act, while the negative one is called face threatening act. The data in this paper are taken from Tintin and Asterix comic series. The theories used cover pragmatics area, especially taxonomy of speech act theory (Yule, 1996; Mey, 2001; Leech, 1991 and theory of the notion of face by Erving Goffman (as cited in Yule, 1996; Thomas, 1995. Therefore, this paper will try to convey how the misinterpretation of speech act labels affects the participants in the conversation.

  14. 几种药用动物的恒温生态混养技术研究%An Attempt to Breed Medicinal Animals Together Under Same Ecological Condition with Constant Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志阳; 安华

    2000-01-01

    目的:为药用动物恒温生态混养的可行性提供依据。方法:采用自建恒温生态混养棚对5种药用动物在恒温生态混养环境中的生活习性、生长发育等情况进行观察。结果:供试动物种群间食性结合好,冬眠状态消失,全年均可正常生长并繁殖幼体。结论:利用药用动物的恒温生态混养技术进行规模养殖,是广大养殖户提高经济效益、降低养殖成本的有效途径。%The feasibility to breed gecko, scorpion, centipede,leech and ground beetle together in abreeding shed of our own design with constant temperature was tried for a period of 2 years. Resultsshowed that the animals lead their normal dietetic and living habit satisfactorily, without hibernation andreproduce their offsprings the whole year round. It could be concluded that such breeding scheme is worth-while to advocate for the benefit of those who are engaged in the business of medicinal animal breeding.

  15. Bioinspired Non-iridescent Structural Color from Polymer Blend Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapaneni, Asritha; Shawkey, Matthew; Karim, Alamgir

    Colors exhibited in biological species are either due to natural pigments, sub-micron structural variation or both. Structural colors thus exhibited can be iridescent (ID) or non-iridescent (NID) in nature. NID colors originate due to interference and coherent scattering of light with quasi-ordered micro- and nano- structures. Specifically, in Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) these nanostructures develop as a result of phase separation of β-keratin from cytoplasm present in cells. We replicate these structures via spinodal blend phase separation of PS-PMMA thin films. Colors of films vary from ultraviolet to blue. Scattering of UV-visible light from selectively leeched phase separated blends are studied in terms of varying domain spacing (200nm to 2 μm) of film. We control these parameters by tuning annealing time and temperature. Angle-resolved spectroscopy studies suggest that the films are weakly iridescent and scattering from phase-separated films is more diffused when compared to well-mixed films. This study offers solutions to several color-based application in paints and coatings industry.

  16. Barcoding, types and the Hirudo files: using information content to critically evaluate the identity of DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Sebastian; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Siddall, Mark E; Erséus, Christer

    2010-12-01

    Species identifications based on DNA barcoding rely on the correct identity of previously barcoded specimens, but little attention has been given to whether deposited barcodes include correspondence to the species' name-bearing type. The information content associated with COX1 sequences in the two most commonly used repositories of barcodes, GenBank and the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), is often insufficient for subsequent evaluation of the robustness of the identification procedure. We argue that DNA barcoding and taxonomy alike will benefit from more information content in the annotations of barcoded specimens as this will allow for validation and re-evaluation of the initial specimen identification. The aim should be to closely connect specimens from which reference barcodes are generated with the holotype through straight-forward taxonomy, and geographical and genetic correlations. Annotated information should also include voucher specimens and collector/identifier information. We examine two case studies based on empirical data, in which barcoding and taxonomy benefit from increased information content. On the basis of data from the first case study, we designate a barcoded neotype of the European medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, on morphological and geographical grounds.

  17. SOME SLAVONIC SOURCES OF THE INTERPOLATIONS IN THE OLD RUSSIAN VERSION OF FLAVIUS IOSEPHUS’ «THE JEWISH WAR»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pichkhadze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Slavonic sources of three interpolations in the Old Russian version of Flavius Iosephus’ The Jewish War. The text of the first interpolation (about The Adoration of the Magi is preserved in the Interpolated redaction of The Tale of Aphroditianus in a more authentic form; it may be a modified version of the apocryph about the Magi (known for instance from the Velikiye Chet’yi-Minei which is close in content but not in wording to the interpolation of The Jewish War and The Tale of Aphroditianus. In the second interpolation the apostles are named kaližnici‘shoemakers’ in accordance with some Slavonic sources in wich St. Paulis referred to as usmošvec ‘currier; shoemaker’. The third interpolation mentions piyavicy solomon’skiya ‘the leeches of Solomon’ (allusion to Proverbs XXX 15–16 – this utterance derives presumably from the translation of 13 Orationes of St. Gregory of Nazianzus made in the 10th century in Bulgaria. In the light of these facts, together with the borrowings from different Slavonic sources in other interpolations within the Old Russian version of The Jewish War which have been identified earlier, the use of Slavonic sources may be considered a common feature of the interpolations of the Old Russian version.

  18. 水蛭素剂型研究进展%Research progress of hirudin dosage forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛全高

    2015-01-01

    Hirudin is the active ingredient of leeches,which has good anticoagulant and antithrombotic function.But because of its short half-life and bleeding risk in clinics, its application effect is not ideal, so some researches in new dosage forms of hirudin have been made.This article reviewed the ways of drug delivery and dosage forms of hirudin based on its pharmacological effects and clinical application,so as to provide a reference for further research and clinical application.%水蛭素是水蛭的活性成分,具有良好的抗凝血和抗血栓作用。但由于临床应用中存在半衰期短、出血危险等不足,实际应用效果并不理想,因此一些水蛭素新剂型的研究也在不断进行。现结合水蛭素的不同药理作用和临床应用对其给药途径及给药剂型进行综述,以期为水蛭素以后的研究和应用提供参考依据。

  19. Occurrence of Hirudinea species in a post urban reach of a Patagonian mountain stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laura Miserendino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal (May 2005 to February 2006 and habitat distribution (pools and riffles of Hirudinea species was analyzed at a post urban reach from Esquel stream (Chubut province, Patagonia, Argentina. Site was located 5.7 km downstream a Waste Treatment Plant. Mean values of nutrients: ammonia, nitrates and soluble reactive phosphate, as well water conductivity, turbidity and total suspended solids indicated physical and organic pollution. Leeches assemblage was composed by the glossiphonids: Helobdella scutifera Blanchard, 1900, H. michaelseni (Blanchard, 1900, H. simplex (Moore, 1911, Helobdella sp., H. hyalina Ringuelet, 1942, H. obscura Ringuelet, 1942 and the semiscolecid Patagoniobdella variabilis (Blanchard, 1900. From these H. hyalina and H. obscura are new records for Chubut province. Helobdella hyalina (810 ind.m-2 and H. simplex (465 ind. m-2 clearly dominated the assemblage at the reach. Only H. simplex displayed a spatial preference being significantly more abundant in pools than in riffle habitats (p<0.001. Species recruitment occurred mostly at September, December and March when juveniles were very abundant. Although several species of Helobdella were able to live in the disturbed section of the stream, only H. simplex and H. hyalina sustained large populations at the site and can be considered as tolerant to organic enrichment. This information is valuable to future studies on stream condition assessment in mountainous areas in Patagonia, and in other areas in which these species are present.

  20. The Reflection of the Javanese Cultural Concepts in the Politeness of Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarno Sukarno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every language may have some entities which may not be owned by another language. The uniqueness of a language is strongly influenced by the culture of its native speakers. Therefore, languages vary cross-culturally. I strongly believe that the way the Javanese people (one of the Indonesian ethnic groups express politeness is also influenced by the Javanese culture. This article tries to examine the reflection of some concepts of Javanese cultures such as: tata krama, andhap-asor, and tanggap ing sasmita (the language styles, humbling oneself while exalting others, and being able to catch the hidden meaning. The approaches used in this study are based on politeness theory, e.g. Brown and Levinson (1987, Leech (1983, Grice (1975, 1981, and Lakoff (1973, 1990. Finally, this study proves that the forms and the politeness strategies used in Javanese are really bound by the Javanese concepts. As a result, it is almost impossible to conduct politeness in Javanese without comprehending and applying those cultural concepts.

  1. Common mechanics of mode switching in locomotion of limbless and legged animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Shigeru; Kunita, Itsuki; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Ishiguro, Akio; Kobayashi, Ryo; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-06

    Crawling using muscular waves is observed in many species, including planaria, leeches, nemertea, aplysia, snails, chitons, earthworms and maggots. Contraction or extension waves propagate along the antero-posterior axis of the body as the crawler pushes the ground substratum backward. However, the observation that locomotory waves can be directed forward or backward has attracted much attention over the past hundred years. Legged organisms such as centipedes and millipedes exhibit parallel phenomena; leg tips form density waves that propagate backward or forward. Mechanical considerations reveal that leg-density waves play a similar role to locomotory waves in limbless species, and that locomotory waves are used by a mechanism common to both legged and limbless species to achieve crawling. Here, we report that both mode switching of the wave direction and friction control were achieved when backward motion was induced in the laboratory. We show that the many variations of switching in different animals can essentially be classified in two types according to mechanical considerations. We propose that during their evolution, limbless crawlers first moved in a manner similar to walking before legs were obtained. Therefore, legged crawlers might have learned the mechanical mode of movement involved in walking long before obtaining legs.

  2. The evolution and comparative neurobiology of endocannabinoid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2012-12-05

    CB(1)- and CB(2)-type cannabinoid receptors mediate effects of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide in mammals. In canonical endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity, 2-AG is generated postsynaptically by diacylglycerol lipase alpha and acts via presynaptic CB(1)-type cannabinoid receptors to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Electrophysiological studies on lampreys indicate that this retrograde signalling mechanism occurs throughout the vertebrates, whereas system-level studies point to conserved roles for endocannabinoid signalling in neural mechanisms of learning and control of locomotor activity and feeding. CB(1)/CB(2)-type receptors originated in a common ancestor of extant chordates, and in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis a CB(1)/CB(2)-type receptor is targeted to axons, indicative of an ancient role for cannabinoid receptors as axonal regulators of neuronal signalling. Although CB(1)/CB(2)-type receptors are unique to chordates, enzymes involved in biosynthesis/inactivation of endocannabinoids occur throughout the animal kingdom. Accordingly, non-CB(1)/CB(2)-mediated mechanisms of endocannabinoid signalling have been postulated. For example, there is evidence that 2-AG mediates retrograde signalling at synapses in the nervous system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis by activating presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid-type ion channels. Thus, postsynaptic synthesis of 2-AG or anandamide may be a phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, and a variety of proteins may have evolved as presynaptic (or postsynaptic) receptors for endocannabinoids.

  3. The toxicogenomic multiverse: convergent recruitment of proteins into animal venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Bryan G; Roelants, Kim; Champagne, Donald E; Scheib, Holger; Tyndall, Joel D A; King, Glenn F; Nevalainen, Timo J; Norman, Janette A; Lewis, Richard J; Norton, Raymond S; Renjifo, Camila; de la Vega, Ricardo C Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Throughout evolution, numerous proteins have been convergently recruited into the venoms of various animals, including centipedes, cephalopods, cone snails, fish, insects (several independent venom systems), platypus, scorpions, shrews, spiders, toxicoferan reptiles (lizards and snakes), and sea anemones. The protein scaffolds utilized convergently have included AVIT/colipase/prokineticin, CAP, chitinase, cystatin, defensins, hyaluronidase, Kunitz, lectin, lipocalin, natriuretic peptide, peptidase S1, phospholipase A(2), sphingomyelinase D, and SPRY. Many of these same venom protein types have also been convergently recruited for use in the hematophagous gland secretions of invertebrates (e.g., fleas, leeches, kissing bugs, mosquitoes, and ticks) and vertebrates (e.g., vampire bats). Here, we discuss a number of overarching structural, functional, and evolutionary generalities of the protein families from which these toxins have been frequently recruited and propose a revised and expanded working definition for venom. Given the large number of striking similarities between the protein compositions of conventional venoms and hematophagous secretions, we argue that the latter should also fall under the same definition.

  4. On the Pragmatist Translation of the Ads Of Coca-Cola and Pepsi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃洁

    2012-01-01

    Advertising language is an important research material of social change, it is picked up conveniently. There is no distortion and glossing over history, it is the most simple and most visual material. For English advertising, it reflects values, aesthetic tastes, lifestyle, cultural traditions in the U.S., Britain and other countries. With their own unique ways of recording social change, English advertising is quietly playing an important role in the social life and the psychology of social culture. As a practical style, the advertising language has its unique characteristics in vocabulary, syntax, rhetoric and other aspects. Leech opened the first systematic study of advertising language. He studied the various features of advertising language from literature perspective. With the emergence of the theories of pragmatics, some Chinese scholars, like Zhao Jing, Huang guowen, also set out to explore the advertising language from different aspects. But few of them devoted themselves to the English advertising of American beverage. This paper sets out to explore the issues from a pragmatics perspective. Based on the characteristics of advertising language of American Coca-Cola and Pepsi, the paper analyzes the inevitable language impact on social functioning and the concept of values between English advertising and the interaction of modem simple life, revealing the failure of English advertising language in cross-cultural exchanges and social pragmatic information.

  5. Development of Hepatozoon caimani (Carini, 1909 Pessôa, De Biasi & De Souza, 1972 in the Caiman Caiman c. crocodilus, the frog Rana catesbeiana and the mosquito Culex fatigans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporogony of Hepatozoon caimani has been studied, by light microscopy, in the mosquito Culex fatigans fed on specimens of the caiman Caiman c. crocodilus showing gametocytes in their peripheral blood. Sporonts iniciate development in the space between the epithelium of the insect gut and the elastic membrane covering the haemocoele surface of the stomach. Sporulating oocysts are clustered on the gut, still invested by the gut surface membrane. Fully mature oocysts were first seen 21 days after the blood-meal. No sporogonic stages were found in some unidentified leeches fed on an infected caiman, up to 30 days following the blood-meal. When mosquitoes containing mature oocysts were fed to frogs (Leptodactylus fuscus and Rana catesbeiana, cysts containing cystozoites developed in the internal organs, principally the liver. Feeding these frogs to farm-bred caimans resulted in the appearance of gametocytes in their peripheral blood at some time between 59 and 79 days later, and the development of tissue cysts in the liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Transmission of the parasite was also obtained by feeding young caimans with infected mosquitoes and it is suggested that both methods occur in nature. The finding of similar cysts containing cystozoites in the semi-aquatic lizard Neusticurus bicarinatus, experimentally fed with infected C. fatigans, suggests that other secondary hosts may be involved.

  6. Endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression in a nociceptive synapse requires coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic transcription and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sharleen; Burrell, Brian D

    2013-03-06

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) play an important role in long-term regulation of synaptic signaling in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the role of transcription- and translation-dependent processes in presynaptic versus postsynaptic neurons was examined during eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity in the CNS of the leech. Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of non-nociceptive afferents elicits eCB-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) heterosynaptically in nociceptive synapses that lasts at least 2 h. Bath application of emetine, a protein synthesis inhibitor, blocked eCB-LTD after afferent LFS or exogenous eCB application, indicating that this depression was translation dependent. Bath application of actinomycin D, an irreversible RNA synthesis inhibitor, or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-d-ribofurandoside (DRB), a reversible RNA synthesis inhibitor, also prevented eCB-LTD. Selective injection of DRB or emetine into the presynaptic or postsynaptic neuron before LFS indicated that eCB-LTD required transcription and translation in the postsynaptic neuron but only translation in the presynaptic cell. Depression observed immediately after LFS was also blocked when these transcription- and translation-dependent processes were inhibited. It is proposed that induction of eCB-LTD in this nociceptive synapse requires the coordination of presynaptic protein synthesis and postsynaptic mRNA and protein synthesis. These findings provide significant insights into both eCB-based synaptic plasticity and understanding how activity in non-nociceptive afferents modulates nociceptive pathways.

  7. 礼貌原则在第一夫人访华演讲中的运用--以米歇尔·奥巴马访华演讲为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔汶静

    2015-01-01

    在访华演讲中,遵循礼貌原则使得外交目的有效顺利的达成。该论文以Leech礼貌原则为视角,尝试从礼貌原则的六项准则分析米歇尔•奥巴马在访华演讲中的礼貌现象,进一步理解和说明如何在交际中遵循和运用礼貌原则,从而更加有效的达成交际目的。%In the political speeches, following by the Politeness theories will contribute to making an effective agreement in the political communication. This paper, depending on the politeness principles put forward by Leech, analyzes the politeness phenomenon in the extracts of the public speeches delivered by the first lady of America in China, which help to explain how to fol ow and use the politeness principle properly, so as to reach the communication purposes in our daily life.

  8. A Study of Refusal Speech Act in Chinese Dating Programs ——Take "If You Are The One" As an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the development of China dating programs, "If You Are The One" in Jiang Su satellite TV is the heated program drawing much attention from the public. There are some papers focusing on the dialogue in the program from the perspective of linguistic features or pragmatic function, but there are few papers on the refusal speech act in such programs. Based on the classified oral language data in the program, this paper studies the refusal speech act when male or female guest was asked to build a love relationship with someone. Under the guidance of the face theory (Brown & Levinson, Politeness principle (Leech, we analysize the pragmatical difference of different refusal speech act. In addition, from the perspective of gender difference the study analyzes different refusal speech act patterns conducted by male and female guests in dating program and we find that men behave generally more direct while women are more euphemistic and polite in refusal speech act.Keywords: Refusal Speech Act, Direct and indirect, Politeness principle, Gender differences, "If You Are The One"

  9. Biomimetic affinity purification and identification of a new anticoagulant protein from Hirudo nipponia%日本医蛭中一种新抗凝血蛋白质的仿生亲和纯化及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贵艳丽; 董德贤; 李荣秀

    2008-01-01

    目的 从日本医蛭中快速提取和纯化生物活性蛋白质.方法 利用仿生亲和介质库进行配体筛选和1步纯化.结果 从日本医蛭中纯化出了1种具有抗凝血活性的新型低丰度蛋白质,命名为NLP-1 (New Leech Protein-1).通过进一步分析,其相对分子质量为13800,蛋白回收率可达到69.2%,其在血浆中含量为0.02mg/mL时即可产生明显的抗凝血现象.利用MALDI-TOF-TOF分析,在蛋白质数据库中未找到相似蛋白质或多肤.结论 从日本医蛭中纯化出的NLP-1蛋白质是1种新型的抗凝血物质,具有很高的开发研究价值.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Hirudo nipponia (Annelida, Hirudinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunling; Nie, Jing; Hou, Junjie; Xiao, Ling; Lv, Pan

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (14,414 bp) of the blood-feeding leech Hirudo nipponia, which was an important natural medicinal resource, was sequenced and characterized. The genome encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. The content of A + T was 72.60% for H. nipponia (31.69% A, 40.91% T, 15.45% G and 11.95% C). All protein-coding genes started with ATN except for nad3 and nad5, which used GTG as start codon. Eight protein-coding genes stopped with termination codon TAA. Five protein-coding genes used incomplete stop codon TA or T. The A + T-rich region was located between tRNA-Arg and tRNA-His with a length of 83 bp. This is the first report about completely sequenced mitochondrial genome from the family Hirudinidae. The complete mitochondrial genomes of H. nipponia would be useful for the exploration of Hirudinea polygenetic relationships.

  11. Responses to conflicting stimuli in a simple stimulus-response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljon, Pieter Laurens; Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2015-02-11

    The "local bend response" of the medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana) is a stimulus-response pathway that enables the animal to bend away from a pressure stimulus applied anywhere along its body. The neuronal circuitry that supports this behavior has been well described, and its responses to individual stimuli are understood in quantitative detail. We probed the local bend system with pairs of electrical stimuli to sensory neurons that could not logically be interpreted as a single touch to the body wall and used multiple suction electrodes to record simultaneously the responses in large numbers of motor neurons. In all cases, responses lasted much longer than the stimuli that triggered them, implying the presence of some form of positive feedback loop to sustain the response. When stimuli were delivered simultaneously, the resulting motor neuron output could be described as an evenly weighted linear combination of the responses to the constituent stimuli. However, when stimuli were delivered sequentially, the second stimulus had greater impact on the motor neuron output, implying that the positive feedback in the system is not strong enough to render it immune to further input.

  12. An optically stabilized fast-switching light emitting diode as a light source for functional neuroimaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Wagenaar

    Full Text Available Neuroscience research increasingly relies on optical methods for evoking neuronal activity as well as for measuring it, making bright and stable light sources critical building blocks of modern experimental setups. This paper presents a method to control the brightness of a high-power light emitting diode (LED light source to an unprecedented level of stability. By continuously monitoring the actual light output of the LED with a photodiode and feeding the result back to the LED's driver by way of a proportional-integral controller, drift was reduced to as little as 0.007% per hour over a 12-h period, and short-term fluctuations to 0.005% root-mean-square over 10 seconds. The LED can be switched on and off completely within 100 μs, a feature that is crucial when visual stimuli and light for optical recording need to be interleaved to obtain artifact-free recordings. The utility of the system is demonstrated by recording visual responses in the central nervous system of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana using voltage-sensitive dyes.

  13. Microsurgeon Hirudo medicinalis as a Natural Bioshuttle for Spontaneous Mass Vaccination against Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Khani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent report on existence of a stem region of hemagglutinin has arisen new hopes for vaccination of influenza A as it consist of a conserve fusion peptide shared across several influenza subtypes and can be targeted by human immune system. Methods: Given that traditional vaccination based on live attenuated viruses often fails to surpass such viral infection, a great deal of attention has been devoted to develop a safe yet efficient system for vaccination influenza A. We believe that a natural bioshuttle can be recruited for spontaneous mass vaccination. Results: Thus, here, we hypothesize that a bioengineered transgenic Hirudo medicinalis can be considered as an alive bioshuttle for in-situ vaccination against influenza A virus. By introducing the designated gene(s encoding the target fragment (i.e., stem region of hemagglutinin, this microsurgeon can act as a rapid microproducer of viral proteins for in-house mass vaccination through imparting the necessary proteins such as those, naturally presented in leech's saliva. Conclusion: This peculiar bioshuttle can be easily exploited as a medical modality choice at home resulting in greater patient compliance.

  14. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Girardello

    Full Text Available The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+ are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18, and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health.

  15. 长须夜蛾亚科中国1新记录种及东北地区5新记录种的记述(鳞翅目:夜蛾科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明文; 韩辉林

    2013-01-01

    整理采自东北地区的夜蛾科标本时,发现1中国新记录种:拟弓须亥夜蛾(Hydrillodes pacificus Owa-da,1982);5个东北地区新记录种:钩白肾夜蛾(Edessena hamada(Felder&Rogenhofer,1874))、双带胸须夜蛾(Ci-dariplura bilineata(Wileman&South,1919))、邻努夜蛾(Paracolax contigua(Leech,1900))、白斑极夜蛾(Idia curui-palpis(Butler,1879))和褐圆夜蛾(Gynaephila maculifera Staudinger,1892)。对所有种的外部形态和外生殖器特征做了详细描述,并给出了所有种类的成虫和外生殖器照片,以及分布数据。

  16. New Record Species of Subfamily Herminiinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), One in China and Five in Northeast China%长须夜蛾亚科中国1新记录种及东北地区5新记录种的记述(鳞翅目:夜蛾科)1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      整理采自东北地区的夜蛾科标本时,发现1中国新记录种:拟弓须亥夜蛾(Hydrillodes pacificus Owa-da,1982);5个东北地区新记录种:钩白肾夜蛾(Edessena hamada (Felder & Rogenhofer,1874))、双带胸须夜蛾(Ci-dariplura bilineata ( Wileman &South,1919))、邻努夜蛾(Paracolax contigua (Leech,1900))、白斑极夜蛾(Idia curui-palpis (Butler,1879))和褐圆夜蛾(Gynaephila maculifera Staudinger,1892)。对所有种的外部形态和外生殖器特征做了详细描述,并给出了所有种类的成虫和外生殖器照片,以及分布数据。%We reported a new record species from China Hy drillodes pacificus Owada, 1982, and five new records from Northeast China, Edessena hamada (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874), Cidariplura bilineata (Wileman & South, 1919), Paracola xcontigua (Leech, 1900), Idia curuipalpis (Butler, 1879), Gynaephila maculifera Staudinger, 1892.We described the external morphological features and genitalia characteristics of the adults, photos of adults and genitalia, and the distribu-tional data.

  17. Summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials in electrically-coupled neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Y; Mendez, B; Trueta, C; De-Miguel, F F

    2009-09-29

    Dendritic electrical coupling increases the number of effective synaptic inputs onto neurones by allowing the direct spread of synaptic potentials from one neurone to another. Here we studied the summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) produced locally and arriving from the coupled neurone (transjunctional) in pairs of electrically-coupled Retzius neurones of the leech. We combined paired recordings of EPSPs, the production of artificial excitatory postsynaptic potentials (APSPs) in neurone pairs with different coupling coefficients and simulations of EPSPs produced in the coupled dendrites. Summation of the EPSPs produced in the dendrites was always linear, suggesting that synchronous EPSPs are produced at two or more different pairs of coupled dendrites and not in both sides of any one gap junction. The different spatio-temporal relationships explored between pairs of EPSPs or APSPs produced three main effects. (1) Synchronous pairs of EPSPs or APSPs exhibited an elongation of their decay phase compared to single EPSPs. (2) Asymmetries in the amplitudes between the pair of EPSPs added a "hump" to the smallest EPSP. (3) Modelling the inputs near the electrical synapse or anticipating the production of the transjunctional APSP increased the amplitude of the compound EPSP. The magnitude of all these changes depended on the coupling coefficient of the neurones. We also show that the hump improves the passive conduction of EPSPs by adding low frequency components. The diverse effects of summation of local and alien EPSPs shown here endow electrically-coupled neurones with a wider repertoire of adjustable integrative possibilities.

  18. Does α-Amino-β-methylaminopropionic Acid (BMAA Play a Role in Neurodegeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Neilan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of α-amino-β-methylaminopropionic acid (BMAA with elevated incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson’s disease complex (ALS/PDC was first identified on the island of Guam. BMAA has been shown to be produced across the cyanobacterial order and its detection has been reported in a variety of aquatic and terrestrial environments worldwide, suggesting that it is ubiquitous. Various in vivo studies on rats, mice, chicks and monkeys have shown that it can cause neurodegenerative symptoms such as ataxia and convulsions. Zebrafish research has also shown disruption to neural development after BMAA exposure. In vitro studies on mice, rats and leeches have shown that BMAA acts predominantly on motor neurons. Observed increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Ca2+ influx, coupled with disruption to mitochondrial activity and general neuronal death, indicate that the main mode of activity is via excitotoxic mechanisms. The current review pertaining to the neurotoxicity of BMAA clearly demonstrates its ability to adversely affect neural tissues, and implicates it as a potentially significant compound in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disease. When considering the potential adverse health effects upon exposure to this compound, further research to better understand the modes of toxicity of BMAA and the environmental exposure limits is essential.

  19. Serotonin release from the neuronal cell body and its long-lasting effects on the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Leon-Pinzon, Carolina; Noguez, Paula; Mendez, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin, a modulator of multiple functions in the nervous system, is released predominantly extrasynaptically from neuronal cell bodies, axons and dendrites. This paper describes how serotonin is released from cell bodies of Retzius neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of the leech, and how it affects neighbouring glia and neurons. The large Retzius neurons contain serotonin packed in electrodense vesicles. Electrical stimulation with 10 impulses at 1 Hz fails to evoke exocytosis from the cell body, but the same number of impulses at 20 Hz promotes exocytosis via a multistep process. Calcium entry into the neuron triggers calcium-induced calcium release, which activates the transport of vesicle clusters to the plasma membrane. Exocytosis occurs there for several minutes. Serotonin that has been released activates autoreceptors that induce an inositol trisphosphate-dependent calcium increase, which produces further exocytosis. This positive feedback loop subsides when the last vesicles in the cluster fuse and calcium returns to basal levels. Serotonin released from the cell body is taken up by glia and released elsewhere in the CNS. Synchronous bursts of neuronal electrical activity appear minutes later and continue for hours. In this way, a brief train of impulses is translated into a long-term modulation in the nervous system. PMID:26009775

  20. Cryptobia neghmei sp. n. (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida in two species of flounder, Paralichthys spp. (Pisces: Paralichthydae off Chile Cryptobia neghmei sp. n (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida en dos especies de lenguados Paralichthys spp. (Pisces: Paralichthydae de la costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASUL A. KHAN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptobia neghmei sp.n. is described from the blood of two species of flounder, Paralichthys microps and P. adspersus, inhabiting the Chilean coast in the southern Pacific Ocean. Flagellates were elongate, slender, with two flagella and a conspicuous undulating membrane. It was distinguished from previously described species on the basis of its unusual shape and dimensions. All of 97 flounder were infected upon examination. Developmental stages of kinetoplastid protozoans, perhaps C. neghmei sp. n., were observed in some leeches Glyptonotobdella sp. that were found attached to flounder, which probably represent a mode for transmission among piscine hostsSe describe a Cryptobia neghmei sp.n., un protozoo sanguíneo de dos especies de lenguados, Paralichthys microps y P. adspersus, habitantes de la costa de Chile en el sur-este del océano Pacífico. Los protozoos flagelados son de forma elongada, delgados con dos flagelos y una membrana ondulante conspicua. Esta especie se distingue de aquellas descritas previamente en base a su forma y dimensiones inusuales. Los 97 lenguados revisados estaban infectados. Se observaron otros estados de desarrollo de protozoos kinetoplástidos en la sanguijuela Glyptonotobdella sp. que parasitaba a los lenguados y que probablemente sea el vector del protozoo

  1. Homoclinic Spike adding in a neuronal model in the presence of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Neiman, Alexander; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2008-03-01

    We study the influence of noise on a spike adding transitions within the bursting activity in a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of the leech heart interneuron. Spike adding in this model occur via homoclinic bifurcation of a saddle periodic orbit. Although narrow chaotic regions are observed near bifurcation transition, overall bursting dynamics is regular and is characterized by a constant number of spikes per burst. Experimental studies, however, show variability of bursting patterns whereby number of spikes per burst varies randomly. Thus, introduction of external synaptic noise is a necessary step to account for variability of burst durations observed experimentally. We show that near every such transition the neuron is highly sensitive to random perturbations that lead to and enhance broadly the regions of chaotic dynamics of the cell. For each spike adding transition there is a critical noise level beyond which the dynamics of the neuron becomes chaotic throughout the entire region of the given transition. Noise-induced chaotic dynamics is characterized in terms of the Lyapunov exponents and the Shannon entropy and reflects variability of firing patterns with various numbers of spikes per burst, traversing wide range of the neuron's parameters

  2. Interactions of neurons with topographic nano cues affect branching morphology mimicking neuron-neuron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Koby; Kollmar, Davida; Chejanovsky, Nathan; Sharoni, Amos; Shefi, Orit

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of topographic nano-cues on neuronal growth-morphology using invertebrate neurons in culture. We use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nano-scale heights of 10-150 nm. We plate leech neurons atop the patterned-substrates and compare their growth pattern to neurons plated atop non-patterned substrates. The model system allows us the analysis of single neurite-single ridge interactions. The use of high resolution electron microscopy reveals small filopodia processes that attach to the line-pattern ridges. These fine processes, that cannot be detected in light microscopy, add anchoring sites onto the side of the ridges, thus additional physical support. These interactions of the neuronal process dominantly affect the neuronal growth direction. We analyze the response of the entire neuronal branching tree to the patterned substrates and find significant effect on the growth patterns compared to non-patterned substrates. Moreover, interactions with the nano-cues trigger a growth strategy similarly to interactions with other neuronal cells, as reflected in their morphometric parameters. The number of branches and the number of neurites originating from the soma decrease following the interaction demonstrating a tendency to a more simplified neuronal branching tree. The effect of the nano-cues on the neuronal function deserves further investigation and will strengthen our understanding of the interplay between function and form.

  3. Improved PeT molecules for optically sensing voltage in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Clifford R; Frady, E Paxon; Smith, Richard S; Morey, Benjamin; Canzi, Gabriele; Palida, Sakina F; Araneda, Ricardo C; Kristan, William B; Kubiak, Clifford P; Miller, Evan W; Tsien, Roger Y

    2015-02-11

    VoltageFluor (VF) dyes have the potential to measure voltage optically in excitable membranes with a combination of high spatial and temporal resolution essential to better characterize the voltage dynamics of large groups of excitable cells. VF dyes sense voltage with high speed and sensitivity using photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) through a conjugated molecular wire. We show that tuning the driving force for PeT (ΔGPeT + w) through systematic chemical substitution modulates voltage sensitivity, estimate (ΔGPeT + w) values from experimentally measured redox potentials, and validate the voltage sensitivities in patch-clamped HEK cells for 10 new VF dyes. VF2.1(OMe).H, with a 48% ΔF/F per 100 mV, shows approximately 2-fold improvement over previous dyes in HEK cells, dissociated rat cortical neurons, and medicinal leech ganglia. Additionally, VF2.1(OMe).H faithfully reports pharmacological effects and circuit activity in mouse olfactory bulb slices, thus opening a wide range of previously inaccessible applications for voltage-sensitive dyes.

  4. Monitoring Integrated Activity of Individual Neurons Using FRET-Based Voltage-Sensitive Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggman, Kevin L; Kristan, William B; González, Jesús E; Kleinfeld, David; Tsien, Roger Y

    2015-01-01

    Pairs of membrane-associated molecules exhibiting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) provide a sensitive technique to measure changes in a cell's membrane potential. One of the FRET pair binds to one surface of the membrane and the other is a mobile ion that dissolves in the lipid bilayer. The voltage-related signal can be measured as a change in the fluorescence of either the donor or acceptor molecules, but measuring their ratio provides the largest and most noise-free signal. This technology has been used in a variety of ways; three are documented in this chapter: (1) high throughput drug screening, (2) monitoring the activity of many neurons simultaneously during a behavior, and (3) finding synaptic targets of a stimulated neuron. In addition, we provide protocols for using the dyes on both cultured neurons and leech ganglia. We also give an updated description of the mathematical basis for measuring the coherence between electrical and optical signals. Future improvements of this technique include faster and more sensitive dyes that bleach more slowly, and the expression of one of the FRET pair genetically.

  5. Centrally patterned rhythmic activity integrated by a peripheral circuit linking multiple oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellies, John; Kueh, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The central pattern generator for heartbeat in the medicinal leech, Hirudo generates rhythmic activity conveyed by heart excitor motor neurons in segments 3-18 to coordinate the bilateral tubular hearts and side vessels. We focus on behavior and the influence of previously un-described peripheral nerve circuitry. Extracellular recordings from the valve junction (VJ) where afferent vessels join the heart tube were combined with optical recording of contractions. Action potential bursts at VJs occurred in advance of heart tube and afferent vessel contractions. Transections of nerves were performed to reduce the output of the central pattern generator reaching the heart tube. Muscle contractions persisted but with a less regular rhythm despite normal central pattern generator rhythmicity. With no connections between the central pattern generator and heart tube, a much slower rhythm became manifest. Heart excitor neuron recordings showed that peripheral activity might contribute to the disruption of centrally entrained contractions. In the model presented, peripheral activity would normally modify the activity actually reaching the muscle. We also propose that the fundamental efferent unit is not a single heart excitor neuron, but rather is a functionally defined unit of about three adjacent motor neurons and the peripheral assembly of coupled peripheral oscillators.

  6. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, A J; Lovely, C J; Pittman, J M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0 cm to 463.0 cm total length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3% of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6% of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  7. The Insect Chemoreceptor Superfamily Is Ancient in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hugh M

    2015-11-01

    The insect chemoreceptor superfamily consists of 2 gene families, the highly diverse gustatory receptors (GRs) found in all arthropods with sequenced genomes and the odorant receptors that evolved from a GR lineage and have been found only in insects to date. Here, I describe relatives of the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, specifically the basal GR family, in diverse other animals, showing that the superfamily dates back at least to early animal evolution. GR-Like (GRL) genes are present in the genomes of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, an anemone Nematostella vectensis, a coral Acropora digitifera, a polychaete Capitella teleta, a leech Helobdella robusta, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (and many other nematodes), 3 molluscs (a limpet Lottia gigantea, an oyster Crassostrea gigas, and the sea hare Aplysia californica), the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and the sea acorn Saccoglossus kowalevskii. While some of these animals contain multiple divergent GRL lineages, GRLs have been lost entirely from other animal lineages such as vertebrates. GRLs are absent from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, and 2 available chaonoflagellate genomes, so it remains unclear whether this superfamily originated before or during animal evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evolution of regeneration and fission in annelids: insights from engrailed- and orthodenticle-class gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bely, A E; Wray, G A

    2001-07-01

    The recent explosion of information on the role of regulatory genes in embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study how these genes participate in post-embryonic developmental processes. We present a detailed comparison of regulatory gene expression during regeneration and asexual reproduction (by fission) in the segmented worm Pristina leidyi (Annelida: Oligochaeta). We isolated three genes from Pristina, one homolog of engrailed and two homologs of orthodenticle, and characterized their expression in different developmental contexts. In situ hybridization studies on worms undergoing normal growth, regeneration and fission demonstrate that in all three processes, Pl-en is expressed primarily in the developing nervous system, and Pl-Otx1 and Pl-Otx2 are expressed primarily in the anterior body wall, foregut and developing nervous system. Our data reveal extensive similarities between expression during regeneration and fission, consistent with the idea that similar developmental processes underlie these two types of development. Thus, we argue that in these annelids fission may have evolved by recruitment of regenerative processes. Furthermore, by comparing our data to existing data from leech embryos, we find evidence that embryonic processes are re-deployed during regeneration and fission.

  9. The cases of observance and violation of politeness maxims by communicants in the ego-state of natural Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гульнара Фанзиловна Гизатова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of human communication is of great importance in linguistics and psychology. In order to achieve smooth and conflict-free interaction it is necessary not only to respect the rules of politeness, but also to take into account the position of the speaker and the addressee. This explains the need to study many psychological factors in communication. This paper studies the ego-state of Natural Child in speech communication. Investigating the behavior of communicants in the ego-state of Natural Child, we rely on the theory of transactional analysis (E. Bern 1961 . According to this theory, the behavior of the speaker and the addressee in the ego-states of Natural Child varies from curious, inspiring, dreamy, and natural to the selfish, spiteful, shameless and impatient. The material for investigation is the dialogs from British and American fiction of XIX-XXI centuries. The dialogs contain the speaker and addressee’s replicas, meeting the essential requirements of the Principle of Politeness (G. Leech 1983 and the theory of transactional analysis. In our work we have applied hypothetical-deductive method, and methods of definitional and contextual analysis. The anylisis of our material demonstrates that communicants in the ego-state of Natural Child observe the maxims of generosity, tact and agreement, and violate the maxims of approbation, modesty and tact. Thus, the implementation of politeness maxims by communicants in ego-state of Natural Child depends entirely on their behavior.

  10. Prevalence and parasitemia of Haemogregarina sp. in Podocnemis expansa (Testudines: Podocnemididae from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Amanda Maria Picelli

    Full Text Available Seventy-five turtles Podocnemis expansa in the Brazilian Amazon were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and hemoparasites. Samplings were performed in three study areas in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Twenty-five specimens were sampled per study area (a commercial breeding facility, an indigenous subsistence breeding facility and a wild population of the Javaés River. Hemoparasites of the genus Haemogregarina were found in 66% (50/75 of the turtle specimens, and the infections were restricted to the commercial breeding facility and to the wild population of the Javaés River. The mean level of parasitemia was 54/2,000 erythrocytes (2%. There was no correlation between the body condition index of the chelonians and the level of parasitemia, with no significant difference between genders. No leeches were observed during the physical exams in any of the study areas, but the specimens from the commercial breeding facility were in poor physical condition with shell deformities and the presence of a relatively high amount of skin ulcerations, most likely caused by fungi and bacteria. This was the first study to record the occurrence of hemogregarines on a population scale in P. expansa and helps to increase knowledge about hemoparasites in chelonians in Brazil.

  11. The Role of the Students in the CLIL Classroom A New Perspective to Identify Types of Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González Gándara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A good deal of authors have spotted the crucial factors to get into account in order to classify tasks for their study. Although the role of the student in the task has been studied before, it has not been considered as a key factor in some of the most influential models. I propose a new perspective to describe it. It consists in a combination of the participation of the students in the input of tasks and their participation in the output. A case study has been carried out to address the statistical effects of the factor proposed in two variables: the amount of As-units (Foster, Tonkyn, & Wigglesworth, 2000 in the L2 produced in the classroom, and among them, the amount of initiating moves (Leech & Weisser, 2003. Transcripts of the audio and video recordings taken during eight CLIL Science lessons taught to an intact class of ten students of grades 1 and 2 were analysed. The results showed that the role of the students in the input had a significant effect on the variables measured. The teacher produced more As-units in general and initiating moves in particular, while the students produced less As-units while still producing more initiating moves.

  12. Expression, Purification and Activity Assay of Two New Recombinant Antagonists of Fibrinogen Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene sequence of Decorsin which is extracted from a kind of North American leeches was synthesized. Two recombinant proteins, Annexin V plus Decorsin (AnnV-D39 and Annexin V plus the carboxyl terminal 27 amino acid residues of Decorsin(AnnV-D27, were constructed. And a 10 amino acids linker peptide of GGGGSGGGGS was inserted between Annexin V and Decorsin in AnnV-D39. Using pET-28(a+ as an expressing vector, both two recombinant proteins were expressed in E. Coli BL21(DE3 with high efficiency as inclusion bodies. The expression products were purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sepharose CL-4B chromatography under denaturing condition. Platelet Aggregation Assay (PAA shows that AnnV-D39 has good anti-platelet aggregation activity. However, AnnV-D27 shows no such activities in any PAA test. AnnV-D39 shows good anti-platelet aggregation activity as a new antagonist of fibrinogen receptor, while Annv-D27 needs re-modification

  13. A Stylistic Analysis of The Catcher in the Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱烨

    2014-01-01

    J. D. Salinger was a remarkable writer in contemporary America. The Catcher in the Rye is his only novel, published in 1951. This novel attracts much attention from the critics and readers worldwide. It becomes one of the representative works of American literature of the 20th century.Stylistics is a cross-discipline, which combines linguistics and literature together. Literary stylistics tends to focus on the analysis of literary text. According to Leech, there are four categories of stylistic features: lexical, grammatical, figures of speech and context. Since the purpose of stylistic analysis is to highlight the stylistic effects, different cate-gories are used to find out how choice of words involves various types of meaning. Though, many literary reviews have contribut-ed to the understanding of The Catcher in the Rye, most of them are concerned with its theme and the social value. Few scholars study the novel from the perspective of literary stylistics. Therefore, this thesis attempts to analyze the stylistic features of the nov-el’s language, disclosing how the protagonist's language expresses meaning and thought.

  14. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health.

  15. Application of two pragmatic principles in College English teaching and learning%语用学两原则与大学英语听力教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳文

    2006-01-01

    语用原则问题近些年来正成为跨文化交际领域一个热门的研究课题已是不争的事实.从格赖斯(Grice,1967;Cole&Mogan,1975)的合作原则到利奇(Leech,1983)的礼貌原则(principle of politeness),从斯波伯和威尔逊(Sperber&Wilson,1986)的关联原则到国内学者钱冠连的目的-意图原则(goal-intention principle),可谓仁者见仁,智者见智.一方面,笔者意识到语用原则的确认对于语用学研究的未来发展走向关系重大;另一方面,笔者在多年的大学英语教学实践中发现,上述语用学原则,特别是合作原则和礼貌原则对于大学英语听力教学具有极大的指导意义.

  16. Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: body-fluid interaction in undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Friesen, W O; Iwasaki, T

    2011-02-15

    Swimming of fish and other animals results from interactions of rhythmic body movements with the surrounding fluid. This paper develops a model for the body-fluid interaction in undulatory swimming of leeches, where the body is represented by a chain of rigid links and the hydrodynamic force model is based on resistive and reactive force theories. The drag and added-mass coefficients for the fluid force model were determined from experimental data of kinematic variables during intact swimming, measured through video recording and image processing. Parameter optimizations to minimize errors in simulated model behaviors revealed that the resistive force is dominant, and a simple static function of relative velocity captures the essence of hydrodynamic forces acting on the body. The model thus developed, together with the experimental kinematic data, allows us to investigate temporal and spatial (along the body) distributions of muscle actuation, body curvature, hydrodynamic thrust and drag, muscle power supply and energy dissipation into the fluid. We have found that: (1) thrust is generated continuously along the body with increasing magnitude toward the tail, (2) drag is nearly constant along the body, (3) muscle actuation waves travel two or three times faster than the body curvature waves and (4) energy for swimming is supplied primarily by the mid-body muscles, transmitted through the body in the form of elastic energy, and dissipated into the water near the tail.

  17. Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Friesen, W. O.; Iwasaki, T.

    2011-01-01

    Swimming of fish and other animals results from interactions of rhythmic body movements with the surrounding fluid. This paper develops a model for the body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming of leeches, where the body is represented by a chain of rigid links and the hydrodynamic force model is based on resistive and reactive force theories. The drag and added-mass coefficients for the fluid force model were determined from experimental data of kinematic variables during intact swimming, measured through video recording and image processing. Parameter optimizations to minimize errors in simulated model behaviors revealed that the resistive force is dominant, and a simple static function of relative velocity captures the essence of hydrodynamic forces acting on the body. The model thus developed, together with the experimental kinematic data, allows us to investigate temporal and spatial (along the body) distributions of muscle actuation, body curvature, hydrodynamic thrust and drag, muscle power supply and energy dissipation into the fluid. We have found that: (1) thrust is generated continuously along the body with increasing magnitude toward the tail, (2) drag is nearly constant along the body, (3) muscle actuation waves travel two or three times faster than the body curvature waves and (4) energy for swimming is supplied primarily by the mid-body muscles, transmitted through the body in the form of elastic energy, and dissipated into the water near the tail. PMID:21270304

  18. Morphology and life cycle of Apatemon hypseleotris species novum from Australia including metacercariae viability and excystment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm-Eldin, M; Davies, R W

    2002-07-01

    Experimental infection of pigeon squabs and rats with encysted metacercariae from the Western Carp gudgeon (Hypseleotris klunzingeri) showed them to be infected with a new strigeid trematode, Apatemon hypseleotris. Growth and development of A. hypseleotris in pigeons were significantly higher than in rats. Eggs appeared in pigeon faeces within 7-14 days; miracidia hatched within 15-21 days and in the snail Lymnaea tomentosa released within 21 days. Cercariae experimentally encysted in the leeches Helobdella papillornata (86.7%) and Alboglossiphonia australiensis (73.3%). In fish, encystation occurred in the abdominal cavity (100%) and muscles (40%) of Hypseleotris klunzingeri, in the abdominal cavity (80%) and head (30%) of Gambusia affinis and in the abdominal cavity (62.5%) of Oncorhynchus mykiss but no encystation occurred in Moenkhausia pittieri. Freezing (-7 degrees C for 3-7 days or -21 degrees C for 8-12 hours), chilling (6 degrees C for 12 days), boiling (3 minutes) or salting for 3-5 days of encysted metacercariae did not significantly reduce infectivity. In vitro excystation of metacercariae was achieved using pepsin followed by trypsin and/or bile salts.

  19. Relatedness of content and sentence formation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bekeš

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Leech (1983: 63-70 distinguishes two kinds of pragmatics, interpersonal prag­ matics and textual pragmatics.  Our article is concerned with textual pragmatics,  spe­ cifically with the textual motivations behind a format such as a sentence in Japanese. Studying spontaneous spoken discourse, Chafe (1980 proposed two units of spoken discourse on the basis of phonetical and intonational criteria, i.e. the "idea unit" and the "intonation sentence". He finds justification for both units in cognitive processes as follows. Idea units, most often verbalized as clauses, are the linguistic expression of cognitive units that Chafe calls "foci of consciousness". A focus of consciousness is a chunk of information small enough to be processed and verbalized in one step. Next, an intonation sentence, consisting usually of several idea units (or sometimes just one is the verbal expression of a larger cognitive unit, the "center of interest", a chunk of information too large to be verbalized in one step. Concerning the center of interest, Chafe puts forward the following hypothesis.

  20. Regeneration and asexual reproduction share common molecular changes: upregulation of a neural glycoepitope during morphallaxis in Lumbriculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Veronica G; Menger, Gus J; Zoran, Mark J

    2005-05-01

    Neural morphallaxis is a regenerative process characterized by wide-spread anatomical and physiological changes in an adult nervous system. During segmental regeneration of the annelid worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, neural morphallaxis involved a reorganization of sensory, interneuronal, and motor systems as posterior fragments gained a more anterior body position. A monoclonal antibody, Lan 3-2, which labels a neural glyco-domain in the leech, was reactive in Lumbriculus. In the worm, this antibody labeled neural structures, particularly axonal tracts and giant fiber pathways of the central nervous system. A 60kDa protein, possessing a lumbriculid mannose-rich glycoepitope, was upregulated during neural morphallaxis, peaking in its expression at 3 weeks post-amputation. Peak upregulation of the Lan 3-2 epitope, or the protein possessing it, corresponded to the time of major neurobehavioral plasticity during regeneration. Analyses of asexually reproducing animals also revealed induction of the Lan 3-2 epitope. In this developmental context, Lan 3-2 epitope upregulation was also confined to segments expressing both changes in positional identity and neurobehavioral plasticity, but these molecular and behavioral changes occurred prior to body fragmentation. These results suggest that the lumbriculid Lan 3-2 glycoepitope and proteins that bear them have been co-opted for neural morphallactic programs, induced both in anticipation of reproductive fragmentation and in compensation for injury-induced fragmentation.

  1. Diet of Chinese skink, Eumeces chinensis: is prey size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Yong

    2006-06-01

    The diet of the skink, Eumeces chinensis (Lacertilia: Scincidae), in Xiamen (Amoy), China was examined using stomach analysis during April and May, and its selection of prey size was tested by feeding trials. Insects (primarily Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera), gastropods and arachnids constituted most of the E. chinensis diet, but earthworms, leeches, crustaceans and fish were also consumed. In the field, male skinks ate more prey items that were 11-20 mm in length than other size classes. When presented with a choice of different-sized prey in the laboratory, male E. chinensis exhibited a strong preference for prey items 11-20 mm in length over other size classes. The relationship between prey size and handling time was exponential, indicating that there is an upper limit to the ability of E. chinensis to process prey. Mean energy intake for handling different-sized prey showed that selection of midsizeclass prey items would provide male E. chinensis with the most energy-efficient prey option. These results indicate that prey size selection in E. chinensis favors maximization of rates of energy intake, which is in agreement with optimal foraging theory.

  2. OVERVIEWS OF THE TREATMENT AND CONTROL OF COMMON FISH DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other animals, fish can also suffer from different diseases. All fish carry pathogens and parasites. Disease is a prime agent affecting fish mortality, especially when fish are young. Pathogens which can cause fish diseases comprise: viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, protozoan infections, water mould infection, etc. Fish are also exposed from different environmental pollutants, including drugs and chemicals. The most common fish diseases, particularly in freshwater aquaria, include columnaris, gill disease, ick (ich, dropsy, tail and fin-rot, fungal infections, white spot disease, pop-eye, cloudy eye, swim bladder disease, lice and nematode worms infestation, water quality induced diseases, constipation, anorexia, chilodonella, ergasilus, tuberculosis, glugea, henneguya, hexamita, hole-in-the-head disease, injuries, leeches in aquaria, lymphocystis, marine velvet, and neon-tetra disease, etc. Antibiotics are frequently used to control fish diseases caused by bacteria, but there is an increasing risk of developing antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The non-specific immune functions such as bacteriolytic activity and leukocyte function of fish have been improved by some herbs. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral, fungal and other diseases.

  3. Structure and function of invertebrate Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2010-04-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. The proteinase inhibitors function as modulators for controlling the extent of deleterious proteinase activity. The Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) in family I1 are among the well-known families of proteinase inhibitors, widely found in mammals, avian and a variety of invertebrates. Like those classical KPIs, the invertebrate KPIs can be single or multiple domain proteins containing one or more Kazal inhibitory domains linked together by peptide spacers of variable length. All invertebrate Kazal domains of about 40-60 amino acids in length share a common structure which is dictated by six conserved cysteine residues forming three intra-domain disulfide cross-links despite the variability of amino acid sequences between the half-cystines. Invertebrate KPIs are strong inhibitors as shown by their extremely high association constant of 10(7)-10(13)M(-1). The inhibitory specificity of a Kazal domain varies widely with a different reactive P(1) amino acid. Different invertebrate KPI domains may arise from gene duplication but several KPI proteins can also be derived from alternative splicing. The invertebrate KPIs function as anticoagulants in blood-sucking animals such as leech, mosquitoes and ticks. Several KPIs are likely involved in protecting host from microbial proteinases while some from the parasitic protozoa help protecting the parasites from the host digestive proteinase enzymes. Silk moths produce KPIs to protect their cocoon from predators and microbial destruction.

  4. 《道德经》中交际准则与礼貌原则的对比%Comparison Between the Politeness Principle and Communicative Maxims Presented in Classic the Way and Virtue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The Politeness Principle (PP) proposed by Leech embodies some communicative maxims in linguistics in the West, while Classic the Way and Virtue, a classical masterpiece of Taoism represents some Chinese communicative tenets in the Orient as well.It is proved that these two principles are similar and relevant .From a linguistic point of view, by a compari-son of the principles of communication (both verbal and non -verbal) in the West and the East , the similarities between the two major types of philosophical concepts can be found out .%  利奇提出的礼貌原则体现了一些西方语言学中的交际准则。中国道家著名经典《道德经》也体现了东方中国的一些交际准则。研究表明,两种交际准则具有一定的相似性和相关性。试从语言学的视角对比东西方两种交际准则,了解这两种准则的相似之处,进而从一个新的视角对《道德经》进行解读。

  5. ‘Schamoteren met de grote woorden’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Lemmens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘Juggling with big words’: Register variation in Hugo Claus’s De verwondering (1962 The prose of Hugo Claus has been the subject of broad scholarly interest, regarding – amongst other things – intertextuality and allegories. The presence of various, contrasting language registers has been briefly touched upon, but has – mainly because of the lack of an appropriate research method – never been studied in greater detail. This preliminary article analyses some excerpts of De verwondering (1962, the first novel in which Claus experiments with register variation, based on the stylistic methodology developed by Leech and Short (2007. The analyses demonstrate that this methodology is highly applicable to analyse not just ‘the style’ of a text, but also to ‘zoom in’ on various registers. In doing so, numerous aspects that help constitute (but at the same time undermine a certain interpretation come more profoundly to the fore, showing that the study of register variation is promising, especially regarding novels in which different varieties of the same language appear.

  6. Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Aerts, Andrea

    2012-01-07

    Current genomic perspectives on animal diversity neglect two prominent phyla, the molluscs and annelids, that together account for nearly one-third of known marine species and are important both ecologically and as experimental systems in classical embryology1, 2, 3. Here we describe the draft genomes of the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea), a marine polychaete (Capitella teleta) and a freshwater leech (Helobdella robusta), and compare them with other animal genomes to investigate the origin and diversification of bilaterians from a genomic perspective. We find that the genome organization, gene structure and functional content of these species are more similar to those of some invertebrate deuterostome genomes (for example, amphioxus and sea urchin) than those of other protostomes that have been sequenced to date (flies, nematodes and flatworms). The conservation of these genomic features enables us to expand the inventory of genes present in the last common bilaterian ancestor, establish the tripartite diversification of bilaterians using multiple genomic characteristics and identify ancient conserved long- and short-range genetic linkages across metazoans. Superimposed on this broadly conserved pan-bilaterian background we find examples of lineage-specific genome evolution, including varying rates of rearrangement, intron gain and loss, expansions and contractions of gene families, and the evolution of clade-specific genes that produce the unique content of each genome.

  7. Status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdus Samad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore district. The peak season of seed production was found April to May. Management of biosecurity has been practiced to prevent disease outbreaks and exert quite satisfactory. It was observed; hatchery owners cleaned their hatchery units regularly and maintained hygiene (76.66%, water quality (56.66%, disinfected equipments (76.00%, stocked disease free broods (76.00% and quarantine (56.66%. Prevalence of diseases were- lernaeasis (34.10%, argulosis (23.86%, leeches (11.36%, dactylogyrosis (7.95%, gyrodactylosis (10.23% and others (12.50% in brood fish and fry. In broods, average prevalence was 16.67% with 9.25% mortality. Besides average prevalence was 10-15% with 10% mortality in fry. The epizootiological pattern showed the highest frequency of parasitic diseases during winter because of loss of appetites. The study demonstrated that sumithion was used by (93.32%, magic (46.33%, depterax (56.67%, lime with KMnO4 (80.00%, lime with salt (66.67% and lime- salt- KMnO4 (50.00% by hatchery owners respectively for treatments. Lack of assistance, proper knowledge and suitable therapeutics with its proper use were the major problems in the hatcheries.

  8. Disease associated with integumentary and cloacal parasites in tadpoles of northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Camann, Michael A; Foley, Janet E; Reiss, John O

    2007-10-31

    A total of 6830 northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora tadpoles were examined under a dissecting microscope for oral disc, integumentary, and cloacal abnormalities in 13 ponds in and near Redwood National Park in northern California. Of these, 163 tadpoles were collected for histopathological investigation, including 115 randomly collected individuals, 38 collected with oral disc abnormalities, and 10 collected due to severe morbidity of unknown etiology. The tadpoles were infected with 8 parasites, including Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the amphibian chytrid), trematodes, leeches, and protozoa. Chytridiomycosis was detected at an overall prevalence of 6.4%, but prevalence was higher in tadpoles with oral disc lesions than in those with normal oral discs (43.5% versus 6.1%). Interestingly, infection was associated with some environmental and co-infection risk factors. Individual tadpoles possessed 0 to 5 species of parasites in varying intensities. Apiosoma sp. was the most prevalent (66%) and widespread. Tadpoles infected with B. dendrobatidis had a lower diversity of oral parasites than those uninfected. During the field portion of the study, a large number (approximately 500) of moribund and dead tadpoles was seen occurring at multiple locations within and surrounding Redwood National Park. Ten animals were collected for histological examination and a diverse protozoal infection was discovered, including some known pathogens of fish. This study is the first reporting parasitism and disease in natural populations of northern red-legged frogs.

  9. Literary Film Adaptation for Screen Production: the Analysis of Style Adaptation in the Film Naked Lunch from a Quantitative and Descriptive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of film adaptations, particularly those coming from literature, has been growing at a rapid rate during the last years due to the amount of adaptations coming from both mainstream and independent film industries. The focus of these studies though is generally addressed to best sellers where the literary style is clearly adaptable to the screen; however, there are cases where the adaptive process has resulted in an entirely different outcome. Naked Lunch, written by William Burroughs and adapted to screen by David Cronenberg, represents a bold change if compared with other novels turned into films. The purpose of this article is to descriptively analyse the literary style in order to understand how it has been represented and adapted into Cronenberg’s film. The analysis will be performed helped with computer-based tools to support statements, using the novel itself as corpus and adding theoretical ideas from Leech and Short’s perspectives. The results suggest that the author’s corrosive, sexually-fuelled claustrophobic style has been translated following three patterns in terms of adaptation theory, although Burroughs, in the hands of Cronenberg, becomes an almost new classification of adaptation, not only adding literary features to the film, but also distinguishable core moments of the writer’s life to the final product. The analysis conducted encourages the study of other uncommon adaptations from literary authors in order to understand the adaptive process followed by filmmakers.

  10. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Leslie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0cmto 463.0cmtotal length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3 % of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6 % of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  11. The evolution and comparative neurobiology of endocannabinoid signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, Maurice R.

    2012-01-01

    CB1- and CB2-type cannabinoid receptors mediate effects of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide in mammals. In canonical endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity, 2-AG is generated postsynaptically by diacylglycerol lipase alpha and acts via presynaptic CB1-type cannabinoid receptors to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Electrophysiological studies on lampreys indicate that this retrograde signalling mechanism occurs throughout the vertebrates, whereas system-level studies point to conserved roles for endocannabinoid signalling in neural mechanisms of learning and control of locomotor activity and feeding. CB1/CB2-type receptors originated in a common ancestor of extant chordates, and in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis a CB1/CB2-type receptor is targeted to axons, indicative of an ancient role for cannabinoid receptors as axonal regulators of neuronal signalling. Although CB1/CB2-type receptors are unique to chordates, enzymes involved in biosynthesis/inactivation of endocannabinoids occur throughout the animal kingdom. Accordingly, non-CB1/CB2-mediated mechanisms of endocannabinoid signalling have been postulated. For example, there is evidence that 2-AG mediates retrograde signalling at synapses in the nervous system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis by activating presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid-type ion channels. Thus, postsynaptic synthesis of 2-AG or anandamide may be a phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, and a variety of proteins may have evolved as presynaptic (or postsynaptic) receptors for endocannabinoids. PMID:23108540

  12. Management of complications and compromised free flaps following major head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucur, Cuneyt; Durmus, Kasim; Uysal, Ismail O; Old, Matthew; Agrawal, Amit; Arshad, Hassan; Teknos, Theodoros N; Ozer, Enver

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular free flaps are preferred for most major head and neck reconstruction surgeries because of better functional outcomes, improved esthetics, and generally higher success rates. Numerous studies have investigated measures to prevent flap loss, but few have evaluated the optimal treatment for free flap complications. This study aimed to determine the complication rate after free flap reconstructions and discusses our management strategies. Medical records of 260 consecutive patients who underwent free flap reconstructions for head and neck defects between July 2006 and June 2010 were retrospectively reviewed for patient and surgical characteristics and postoperative complications. The results revealed that microvascular free flaps were extremely reliable, with a 3.5 % incidence of flap failure. There were 78 surgical site complications. The most common complication was neck wound infection, followed by dehiscence, vascular congestion, abscess, flap necrosis, hematoma, osteoradionecrosis, and brisk bleeding. Twenty patients with poor wound healing received hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which was ineffective in three patients who eventually experienced complete flap loss. Eleven patients with vascular congestion underwent medicinal leech therapy, which was effective. Among the 78 patients with complications, 44 required repeat surgery, which was performed for postoperative brisk bleeding in three. Eventually, ten patients experienced partial flap loss and nine experienced complete flap loss, with the latter requiring subsequent pectoralis major flap reconstruction. Microvascular free flap reconstruction represents an essential and reliable technique for head and neck defects and allows surgeons to perform radical resection with satisfactory functional results and acceptable complication rates.

  13. OUTLINE OF RESEARCHES ON RAKTAMOKSHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish HS.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Raktamokshana in other words, Bloodletting is a kind of Para surgery directed for the treatment of specifically Raktaja roga (blood born diseases along with other many surgical diseases. Many research works are being carried out across the world on various disorders. The aim of this study was to know the trend and pattern of the academic research works carried out at different Ayurvedic institutions across India on the Bloodletting and to provide the guidelines for further research works in the area of Bloodletting. Title of the paper are procured from ‘Researches in Ayurveda’- A classified directory of PG and PhD research works carried out at various institutions throughout India, compiled by Prof. M. S. Baghel. In India, 143 research works have been carried out. Around 38 various disorders are studied adopting bloodletting as treatment modality. This paper is just an outline of various research works being carried out across India. The information gathered by the title of research work is presented here. Majority of research works were on Vicharchika (Eczema (30 works followed by Vrana (8 works. In 20 research works the title doesn’t figure out on which disease the work was performed. Among the modality tested, 75 research works were reported on Leech application, followed by 28 works on (Sira Vedhana venesection, similar number works were with no mention of the mode of bloodletting studied.

  14. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others.

  15. Life history and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Bivalvia:Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Mair, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The reproduction, demography, and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Lea, 1834) were studied in the Clinch and Powell rivers, Tennessee. Viable populations of the dromedary pearlymussel now occur only in the Clinch and Powell rivers; the species has been extirpated from the remaining portions of its range in the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages. Females are long-term winter brooders, and they are gravid from October to June. Glochidia are contained in conglutinates that are red to white and resemble freshwater leeches or flatworms. Conglutinates are 20 to 40 mm long and are released through the excurrent aperture. Estimates of fecundity based on 7 gravid females collected from the Clinch River were 55,110 to 253,050 glochidia/mussel. The ages of 66 valves of D. dromas were determined by thin-sectioning and ranged from 3 to 25 y. Annual growth averaged 5 mm/y until age 10 and decreased to ???1.2 mm/ y thereafter. Nineteen fish species were tested for suitability as hosts for glochidia. Ten were confirmed as hosts through induced infestations of glochidia: black sculpin (Cottus baileyi), greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides), fantail darter (Etheostoma flabellare), snubnose darter (Etheostoma simoterum), tangerine darter (Percina aurantiaca), blotchside logperch (Percina burtoni), logperch (Percina caprodes), channel darter (Percina copelandi), gilt darter (Percina evides), and Roanoke darter (Percina roanoka). Juveniles produced from these hosts were cultured in dishes held in nonrecirculating aquaculture systems containing fine sediment (<105 ??m) and were fed the green alga Nannochloropsis oculata every 2 d. Survival of 2810 newly metamorphosed juveniles was 836 (29.7%) after 1 to 2 wk.

  16. Exploiting potency of negative pressure in wound dressing using limited access dressing and suction-assisted dressing

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    Pramod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of negative pressure dressing and moist wound healing are well established in the treatment of both acute and chronic wounds with certain advantages and disadvantages in both the techniques. Both these techniques prevents wound colonization, but the negative pressure dressing method has proved to have a greater potency to remove secretions, prevent wound invasion and eradication established infection. In both these techniques there is no accessibility to wound environment. Limited access dressing (LAD is a moist wound dressing with negative pressure. It provides limited access to the wound through two small ports for both dressers and pathogens. The LAD design has notable advantages like wound isolation that reduces chance of wound colonization and safe disposal of infected materials (important factor to reduce hospital-acquired infections, while avoiding some major disadvantages such as opacity of dressing materials, inaccessible offensive smelling wound environment, and relatively high treatment costs. In LAD a definite intermittent negative pressure regimen is followed. The intermittent negative pressure (cycle of 30 minutes suction and 3 1 / 2 hours rest is effective. Overall, the LAD is a safe and effective alternative to conventional dressing methods. LAD is an excellent research tool for wound healing as frequent/continuous record of wound healing is possible without disturbing the wound healing process. LAD is an effective dressing for limb salvage in cases of acute and chronic complex wounds. Leech effect prevents wound related systematic response syndrome and sepsis. Suction-assisted dressing (SAD is a combination of semiocclusive dressing with negative pressure. It works by removal of fluids by intermittent (like LAD negative pressure and preventing bacterial invasion. SAD is especially advantageous where soakage is less, there is no dead tissue covering the wound (e.g., following skin grafting, superficial skin wounds (e

  17. A novel trypsin Kazal-type inhibitor from Aedes aegypti with thrombin coagulant inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Renata M O; Soares, Tatiane S; Morais-Zani, Karen; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M; Maciel, Ceres; Capurro, Margareth L; Torquato, Ricardo J S; Tanaka, Aparecida S

    2010-08-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors play several important roles in invertebrates, such as anticoagulant, vasodilator and antimicrobial activities. Putative Kazal-type inhibitors were described in several insect transcriptomes. In this paper we characterized for the first time a Kazal unique domain trypsin inhibitor from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Previously, analyses of sialotranscriptome of A. aegypti showed the potential presence of a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, in female salivary glands, carcass and also in whole male, which we named AaTI (A. aegypti trypsin inhibitor). AaTI sequence showed amino acid sequence similarity with insect thrombin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitor from Litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes and tryptase inhibitor from leech Hirudo medicinalis (LDTI). In this work we expressed, purified and characterized the recombinant AaTI (rAaTI). Molecular weight of purified rAaTI was 7 kDa rAaTI presented dissociation constant (K(i)) of 0.15 and 3.8 nM toward trypsin and plasmin, respectively, and it weakly inhibited thrombin amidolytic activity. The rAaTI was also able to prolong prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. AaTI transcription was confirmed in A. aegypti female salivary gland and gut 3 h and 24 h after blood feeding, suggesting that this molecule can act as anticoagulant during the feeding and digestive processes. Its transcription in larvae and pupae suggested that AaTI may also play other functions during the mosquito's development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Acidification of experimental wetlands: Effects on wetland productivity and survival of juvenile black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Chu, D.S.; Bunck, C.M.; Mingo, T.M.; Schaffner, W.W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Six man-made wetlands (0.02 ha each) and pen-reared broods of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to assess the effects of reduced pH on the quality of fish- free, palustrine habitat for brood rearing. Acid treatment was assigned randomly among newly constructed wetlands during April through June 1984-85, to simulate depressed pH from snowmelt and spring rain. Sampling of chlorophyll epiphytic growth, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates confirmed reduced productivity of acidified (pH 5.0) versus control (pH 6.8) wetlands. Primary productivity was particularly reduced in acidified wetlands in early spring as indicated by high water transparency and low chlorophyll a concentrations. Chlrophyll a concentrations showed treatment (p = 0.01) and date (p = 0.05) effects, but no interaction, and dry weight of epiphytic growth was lower (p = 0.03) in acidified versus control wetlands. Numbers of zooplankton were similar in experimental wetlands, although controls generally exceeded acidified wetlands in abundance; only a single treatment effect for cladocerans (p = 0.1) was detected. Sweep net samples yielded greater numbers (p = 0.03), taxa (p = 0.01) and biomass (p = 0.07) of macroinvertebrates in control wetlands with gastropods, pelecypods and leeches notably reduced by acidification. Placement of 18 broods (female with four 10-day-old ducklings) for 10-day trials on experimental wetlands revealed limited growth, altered behaviour and marked reduction in survival of ducklings on acidified wetlands. An inadequate number of invertebrates is indicated as the cause for poor duckling productivity on acidified wetlands

  19. On the Basis of Synaptic Integration Constancy during Growth of a Neuronal Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-La-Rosa Tovar, Adriana; Mishra, Prashant K.; De-Miguel, Francisco F.

    2016-01-01

    We studied how a neuronal circuit composed of two neuron types connected by chemical and electrical synapses maintains constant its integrative capacities as neurons grow. For this we combined electrophysiological experiments with mathematical modeling in pairs of electrically-coupled Retzius neurons from postnatal to adult leeches. The electrically-coupled dendrites of both Retzius neurons receive a common chemical input, which produces excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) with varying amplitudes. Each EPSP spreads to the soma, but also crosses the electrical synapse to arrive at the soma of the coupled neuron. The leak of synaptic current across the electrical synapse reduces the amplitude of the EPSPs in proportion to the coupling ratio. In addition, summation of EPSPs generated in both neurons generates the baseline action potentials of these serotonergic neurons. To study how integration is adjusted as neurons grow, we first studied the characteristics of the chemical and electrical connections onto the coupled dendrites of neuron pairs with soma diameters ranging from 21 to 75 μm. Then by feeding a mathematical model with the neuronal voltage responses to pseudorandom noise currents we obtained the values of the coupling ratio, the membrane resistance of the soma (rm) and dendrites (rdend), the space constant (λ) and the characteristic dendritic length (L = l/λ). We found that the EPSPs recorded from the somata were similar regardless on the neuron size. However, the amplitude of the EPSPs and the firing frequency of the neurons were inversely proportional to the coupling ratio of the neuron pair, which also was independent from the neuronal size. This data indicated that the integrative constancy relied on the passive membrane properties. We show that the growth of Retzius neurons was compensated by increasing the membrane resistance of the dendrites and therefore the λ value. By solely increasing the dendrite resistance this circuit maintains

  20. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. PMID:22414427

  1. The evolution of filamin-a protein domain repeat perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression patterns indicate that BMP2/4 and Chordin, not BMP5-8 and Gremlin, mediate dorsal-ventral patterning in the mollusk Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sujian; Huan, Pin; Liu, Baozhong

    2016-12-16

    Though several bilaterian animals use a conserved BMP2/4-Chordin antagonism to pattern the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis, the only lophotrochozoan species in which early DV patterning has been studied to date, the leech Helobdella robusta, appears to employ BMP5-8 and Gremlin. These findings call into question the conservation of a common DV patterning mechanism among bilaterian animals. To explore whether the unusual DV patterning mechanism in H. robusta is also used in other lophotrochozoan species, we investigated the expression of orthologous genes in the early embryo of a bivalve mollusk, Crassostrea gigas. Searching of the genome and phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. gigas possesses single orthologs of BMP2/4, Chordin, and BMP5-8 and no Gremlin homolog. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed mRNA localization of BMP2/4 and Chordin on the opposite sides of embryos, suggesting the potential involvement of a BMP2/4-Chordin antagonism in DV patterning in this species. Furthermore, universal BMP5-8 expression and the absence of a Gremlin homolog in the C. gigas genome called into question any major contribution by BMP5-8 and Gremlin to early DV patterning in this species. Additionally, we identified seven genes showing asymmetric expression along the DV axis, providing further insight into DV patterning in C. gigas. We present the first report of a Chordin gene in a lophotrochozoan species and of the opposite expression of BMP2/4 (dorsal) and Chordin (ventral) along the D/V axis of a lophotrochozoan embryo. The findings of this study further the knowledge of axis formation in lophotrochozoan species and provide insight into the evolution of the animal DV patterning mechanism.

  3. [Historical study of seven cases of delirium tremens in Spain in the first half of the XIX century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde López, V J; Plaza Nieto, J F; Macias Fernández, J A; Losmozos Sánchez, J A

    1995-01-01

    The authors in the introduction provide an schematic historical scope of reference about the spaniard and european psychiatry from the XVIIIe to the XIXe century. They described the first seven clinical cases of Delirium found by them and published by spaniard physicians in the first half of the XIXe century. They revised mainly the clinical sintomatology, course and evolution, and went into deep detail in the hygienic-dietetical and pharmacological therapeutics used in this period, specially several galenic preparations of opium, tartarus emeticus, cremor, etc. Serapio Escolar y Morales (1808-1874) described the first clinical case of Delirium Tremens in 1839 in a 28 year old man, raising the differential diagnosis between intermittent fever, epilepsy and meningitis, and proposed a useless antiflogistic treatment (bleeding, leeches, poultice) and opium. The second case was described by an anonymous author (J.M.S.Z.) in 1845 in a 42 year old man. Francisco Castellvi y Pallares (1812-1879), in 1845, published another case in a 34 year old male, with an adequate description of the natural history of the disease, healing in 19 days with high doses of watery opium extract. The fourth clinical case was described by R.C.B. in 1846 in a 60 year old man with "alcoholic chorea", "ataxis fever" being the only one with a mortal outcome, treated also with opiates which he did not agree with. The fifth and sixth cases were published by Uliberry in 1847 in two males, 38 and 36 years old respectively. The seventh and last case was described in 1848 by F. Paula Barea, having to highlight the nosological, nosographical and evolutive perspectives in 3 clinical periods and a fourth of convalescence, the treatment differences and the etiopathogenical considerations. Included are 9 tables, 2 graphics and 29 bibliographical references.

  4. Corrupção e reforma institucional no Brasil, 1988-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Praça

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Como instituições políticas fomentam a corrupção? Como a publicização de escândalos de corrupção afeta a reforma dessas instituições? Este artigo toma o processo orçamentário brasileiro desde 1988 como um estudo de caso para ilustrar essas duas questões. Neste período, dois escândalos de corrupção envolvendo o processo orçamentário foram expostos: os "anões do orçamento" de 1988 a 1993 e os "sanguessugas" em 2006. O caso dos "anões" é um ótimo exemplo de como a centralização institucional, aliada à informalidade, resulta em corrupção. O caso dos "sanguessugas", por sua vez, ilustra como atores corruptos podem prosperar em um cenário institucional parcialmente descentralizado. Ambos os escândalos resultaram em reformas institucionais parciais e, até certo ponto, eficazes.How do institutions foster corruption? How does the unveiling of corruption scandals affect institutional reform? This essay takes the Brazilian budget process from 1988 onwards as a case study in an attempt to answer both these questions. In this period, two corruption scandals in the budget process were uncovered: the "budget dwarves" in 1993-1994 and "budget leeches" in 2006. The first scandal is a classic example of how institutional centralization, coupled with informality, results in corruption; the second scandal illustrates how corrupt actors work within a partially decentralized institutional scenario. Both scandals resulted in partial, and somewhat effective, institutional reforms.

  5. Functional mapping of cannabinoid receptor homologs in mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, John M; Glass, Michelle

    2003-07-17

    Over the past decade, several putative homologs of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) have been identified by homology screening. Homology screening utilizes sequence alignment search engines to recognize homologs. We investigated these putative CBR homologs further by 'functional mapping' of their deduced amino acid sequences. The entire pharmacophore of a CBR has not yet been elucidated, but point-mutation studies have identified over 20 amino acid residues that impart CBR specificity for ligand recognition and/or signal transduction. Twenty point-mutation studies were used to construct a CBR functionality matrix. Sixteen putative CBR homologs were then mapped over the matrix. Several putative homologs did not hold up to this analysis: human GPR3, GPR6, GPR12, and Caenorhabditis elegans C02H7.2 expressed a series of crippling substitutions in the matrix, strongly suggesting they do not encode functional CBRs. Mapping the contested leech (Hirudo medicinalis) CBR sequence suggests that it encodes a functional CB1; it expresses fewer substitutions than the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) CB1 sequence. Mapping a putative CB2 ortholog in the puffer fish (Fugu rubripes T012234) suggests it may encode a CBR other than CB2. These findings are consistent with the lack of experimental data proving these putative CBRs have affinity for cannabinoid ligands. Matrix analysis also reveals that SR144528, a 'CB2-specific' synthetic antagonist, has affinity for non-mammalian CB1 receptors, and that L3.45 appears to be CB2-specific, its cognate in CB1 receptors is F3.45. In conclusion, functional mapping, utilizing point-mutation studies, may improve the specificity of homology screening performed by sequence alignment search engines.

  6. Attenuation in the dubbing and subtitling of The Green Mile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the doctoral thesis entitled “Critique of translation for film dubbing and subtitling from the perspective of discourse analysis. A study applied to "The Green Mile”, written by Ph.D. student Gabriela Saturnina Alanís Uresti, directed by Ph.D. Lidia Rodríguez. It is a qualitative and descriptive study where we contrasted The Green Mile - a 1999 Hollywood film, original in American English - with its translated versions: dubbed and subtitled into Spanish of Mexico. We start from the presupposition that in film translation, some references such as the ones related to sexual behaviors and offensive language are attenuated in order to be strategically polite. Specifically, we analyzed two mechanisms of attenuation: lexical selection whereby a euphemism is used, and discursive modalization. These mechanisms constitute strategies of linguistic, pragmatic and semiotic nature as they appear in original (OV, dubbed (DV and subtitled (SV versions; both in acoustic and visual channels. Therefore, we examine these occurrences on verbal, para-verbal, and non-verbal codes. The theoretical basis includes studies of attenuation, politeness, euphemisms, and linguistic taboos. This paper is based on methodological proposals by Gutiérrez (2008, Nájar (2009, Brown y Levinson (1987, Goffman (1967, Leech (1983, Fraser (1980 Haverkate (1994, Bravo (2001, Albelda (2010, (2005, Albelda y Briz (2010, Briz (2002a; 2002b, Allan y Burridge (2006, Chamizo (2008, Foucault (1987, Seiciuc (2010, Dubois (1969, Dubois et al (1973, and Rodríguez (2004.

  7. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  8. Erythropoietin promotes survival and regeneration of insect neurons in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, D; Ehrenreich, H; Heinrich, R

    2011-08-11

    In addition to its function as a regulator of hematopoiesis, the cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) initiates adaptive cellular responses to both moderate environmental challenges and tissue damaging insults in various non-hematopoietic mammalian tissues. Epo's neuroprotective and neuroregenerative functions mediated through janus kinases (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) transduction pathways and regulation of Epo and Epo receptor expression in the nervous system by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) have been documented in a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies and homologs of the human Epo gene are present in fish, amphibians and mammals. The present study reproduces the hallmarks of Epo-mediated mammalian neuroprotection in the grasshopper nervous system. Recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) increases the survival of dissociated grasshopper brain neurons under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and promotes the regeneration of neurites in vitro. In addition, reestablishment of sound source localization after unilateral tympanic nerve crush injury was accelerated and more complete after application of rhEpo, demonstrating in vivo support of auditory receptor cell axon regeneration. Immunoblots of central nervous tissue extracts from mouse, grasshopper, crayfish and leech labeled protein bands of ∼38 kDa, fitting to the molecular weight of Epo reported in earlier studies. These results indicate that a ligand/receptor system that shares structural and functional similarities with mammalian Epo and Epo receptor exerts neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects in insects. With both upstream (HIF system) and downstream (JAK/STAT pathway) elements of the mammalian Epo system being present in insects and other invertebrates, Epo-like signaling involved in tissue protection appears to be an ancient beneficial function shared by vertebrates and invertebrates.

  9. Differences in chloride gradients allow for three distinct types of synaptic modulation by endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Burrell, Brian D

    2016-08-01

    Endocannabinoids can elicit persistent depression of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, reducing or enhancing (disinhibiting) neural circuit output, respectively. In this study, we examined whether differences in Cl(-) gradients can regulate which synapses undergo endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic depression vs. disinhibition using the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana Exogenous application of endocannabinoids or capsaicin elicits potentiation of pressure (P) cell synapses and depression of both polymodal (Npoly) and mechanical (Nmech) nociceptive synapses. In P synapses, blocking Cl(-) export prevented endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation, consistent with a disinhibition process that has been indicated by previous experiments. In Nmech neurons, which are depolarized by GABA due to an elevated Cl(-) equilibrium potentials (ECl), endocannabinoid-mediated depression was prevented by blocking Cl(-) import, indicating that this decrease in synaptic signaling was due to depression of excitatory GABAergic input (disexcitation). Npoly neurons are also depolarized by GABA, but endocannabinoids elicit depression in these synapses directly and were only weakly affected by disruption of Cl(-) import. Consequently, the primary role of elevated ECl may be to protect Npoly synapses from disinhibition. All forms of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity required activation of transient potential receptor vanilloid (TRPV) channels. Endocannabinoid/TRPV-dependent synaptic plasticity could also be elicited by distinct patterns of afferent stimulation with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated depression of Npoly synapses and high-frequency stimulus (HFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation of P synapses and depression of Nmech synapses. These findings demonstrate a critical role of differences in Cl(-) gradients between neurons in determining the sign, potentiation vs. depression, of

  10. A novel bone cement impregnated with silver–tiopronin nanoparticles: its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopovich P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polina Prokopovich,1,2 Ralph Leech,3 Claire J Carmalt,3 Ivan P Parkin,3 Stefano Perni41School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 2Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 3Materials Chemistry Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, University College London, London, UK; 4School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UKAbstract: Post-operatory infections in orthopedic surgeries pose a significant risk. The common approach of using antibiotics, both parenterally or embedded in bone cement (when this is employed during surgery faces the challenge of the rising population of pathogens exhibiting resistance properties against one or more of these compounds; therefore, novel approaches need to be developed. Silver nanoparticles appear to be an exciting prospect because of their antimicrobial activity and safety at the levels used in medical applications. In this paper, a novel type of silver nanoparticles capped with tiopronin is presented. Two ratios of reagents during synthesis were tested and the effect on the nanoparticles investigated through TEM, TGA, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Once encapsulated in bone cement, only the nanoparticles with the highest amount of inorganic fraction conferred antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA at concentrations as low as 0.1% w/w. No other characteristics of the bone cement, such as cytotoxicity or mechanical properties, were affected by the presence of the nanoparticles. Our work presents a new type of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates that they can be embedded in bone cement to prevent infections once the synthetic conditions are tailored for such applications.Keywords: bone cement, antimicrobial, silver nanoparticles, tiopronin, MRSA

  11. NeuronGrowth, a software for automatic quantification of neurite and filopodial dynamics from time-lapse sequences of digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Zian; Martinez-Perez, M Elena; De-Miguel, Francisco F

    2011-10-01

    We developed NeuronGrowth, a software for the automatic quantification of extension and retraction of neurites and filopodia, from time-lapse sequences of two-dimensional digital micrographs. NeuronGrowth requires a semiautomatic characterization of individual neurites in a reference frame, which is then used for automatic tracking and measurement of every neurite over the whole image sequence. Modules for sequence alignment, background subtraction, flat field correction, light normalization, and cropping have been integrated to improve the quality of the analysis. Moreover, NeuronGrowth incorporates a deconvolution filter that corrects the shadow-cast effect of differential interference contrast (DIC) images. NeuronGrowth was tested by analyzing the formation of outgrowth patterns by individual leech neurons cultured under two different conditions. Phase contrast images were obtained from neurons plated on CNS homogenates and DIC images were obtained from similar neurons plated on ganglion capsules as substrates. Filopodia were measured from fluorescent growth-cones of chick dorsal root ganglion cells. Quantitative data of neurite extension and retraction obtained by three different users applying NeuronGrowth and two other manually operated software packages were similar. However, NeuronGrowth required less user participation and had a better time performance when compared with the other software packages. NeuronGrowth may be used in general to quantify the dynamics of tubular structures such as blood vessels. NeuronGrowth is a free plug-in for the free software ImageJ and can be downloaded along with a user manual, a troubleshooting section and other information required for its use from http://www.ifc.unam.mx or http://www.ifc.unam.mx/ffm/index.html.

  12. Exocytosis of serotonin from the neuronal soma is sustained by a serotonin and calcium-dependent feedback loop

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    Carolina eLeon-Pinzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The soma of many neurons releases large amounts of transmitter molecules through an exocytosis process that continues for hundreds of seconds after the end of the triggering stimulus. Transmitters released in this way modulate the activity of neurons, glia and blood vessels over vast volumes of the nervous system. Here we studied how somatic exocytosis is maintained for such long periods in the absence of electrical stimulation and transmembrane Ca2+ entry. Somatic exocytosis of serotonin from dense core vesicles could be triggered by a train of 10 action potentials at 20 Hz in Retzius neurons of the leech. However, the same number of action potentials produced at 1 Hz failed to evoke any exocytosis. The 20-Hz train evoked exocytosis through a sequence of intracellular Ca2+ transients, with each transient having a different origin, timing and intracellular distribution. Upon electrical stimulation, transmembrane Ca2+ entry through L-type channels activated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. A resulting fast Ca2+ transient evoked an early exocytosis of serotonin from sparse vesicles resting close to the plasma membrane. This Ca2+ transient also triggered the transport of distant clusters of vesicles towards the plasma membrane. Upon exocytosis, the released serotonin activated autoreceptors coupled to phospholipase C, which in turn produced an intracellular Ca2+ increase in the submembrane shell. This localized Ca2+ increase evoked new exocytosis as the vesicles in the clusters arrived gradually at the plasma membrane. In this way, the extracellular serotonin elevated the intracellular Ca2+ and this Ca2+ evoked more exocytosis. The resulting positive feedback loop maintained exocytosis for the following hundreds of seconds until the last vesicles in the clusters fused. Since somatic exocytosis displays similar kinetics in neurons releasing different types of transmitters, the data presented here contributes to understand the cellular basis of paracrine

  13. “Structural Dissatisfaction”: Academics on Safari in the Novels of Jennifer Egan

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    Martin Paul Eve

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Egan’s acclaimed 2010 novel, 'A Visit from the Goon Squad', is a text populated by a disproportionately high number of, often unfulfilled, postgraduate researchers: “I’m in the PhD program at Berkeley”, proclaims Mindy; “Joe, who hailed from Kenya [...] was getting his PhD in robotics at Columbia”; “Bix, who’s black, is spending his nights in the electrical-engineering lab where he’s doing his PhD research”; while only Rebecca “was an academic star”. Indeed, in this text, academia seems a place of misery, of “harried academic slaving”, and, ultimately, of “immaturity and disastrous choices”. Over the course of this article I will demonstrate that, in fact, Egan’s critique of the university is an immanent meta-critique. While the history of the campus novel is often premised on hermetically sealing the campus (the genre usually functions through an explicit focus on a delineated campus space or, at least, predominantly upon the social milieu of the academy, Egan’s novels seem to play on bursting the very notions of inside and outside that facilitate this genre, blurring the boundaries between fiction and critique; the leeching of the university into everyday life. She also, simultaneously, however, critiques the structures of labour upon which much of the academy is founded. While I will move towards Egan’s latest novel, 'A Visit From the Goon Squad', throughout this article I will make reference to her entire novelistic canon, demonstrating that the treatment of academics throughout cannot be viewed as merely incidental, even if the appearances of such characters are sporadic and diffuse.

  14. Dopamine: A parallel pathway for modulation of locomotor networks

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    Simon eSharples

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord contains networks of neurons that can produce locomotor patterns. To readily respond to environmental conditions, these networks must be flexible yet at the same time robust. Neuromodulators play a key role in contributing to network flexibility in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate networks. For example, neuromodulators contribute to altering intrinsic properties and synaptic weights that, in extreme cases, can lead to neurons switching between networks. Here we focus on the role of dopamine in the control of stepping networks in the spinal cord. We first review the role of dopamine in modulating rhythmic activity in the stomatogastric ganglion and the leech, since work from these preparations provides a foundation to understand its role in vertebrate systems. We then move to a discussion of dopamine’s role in modulation of swimming in aquatic species such as the larval xenopus, lamprey and zebrafish. The control of terrestrial walking in vertebrates by dopamine is less studied and we review current evidence in mammals with a focus on rodent species. We discuss data suggesting that the source of dopamine within the spinal cord is mainly from the A11 area of the diencephalon, and then turn to a discussion of dopamine’s role in modulating walking patterns from both in vivo and in vitro preparations. Similar to the descending serotonergic system, the dopaminergic system may serve as a potential target to promote recovery of locomotor function following spinal cord injury; evidence suggests that dopaminergic agonists can promote recovery of function following spinal cord injury (SCI. We discuss pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches that could be deployed in SCI and their potential tractability. Throughout the review we draw parallels with both noradrenergic and serotonergic modulatory effects on spinal cord networks. In all likelihood, a complementary monoaminergic enhancement strategy should be deployed following

  15. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Mingsheng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.

  16. Multipartite entanglement arising from dense Euclidean lattices in dimensions 4-24

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    Planat, Michel

    2012-02-01

    The group of automorphisms of Euclidean (embedded in {R}^n ) dense lattices such as the root lattices D4 and E8, the Barnes-Wall lattice BW16, the unimodular lattice D12+ and the Leech lattice Λ24 may be generated by entangled quantum gates of the corresponding dimension. These (real) gates/lattices are useful for quantum error correction: for instance, the two- and four-qubit real Clifford groups are the automorphism groups of the lattices D4 and BW16, respectively, and the three-qubit real Clifford group is maximal in the Weyl group W(E8). Technically, the automorphism group Aut(Λ) of the lattice Λ is the set of orthogonal matrices B such that, following the conjugation action by the generating matrix of the lattice, the output matrix is unimodular (of determinant ±1, with integer entries). When the degree n is equal to the number of basis elements of Λ, Aut(Λ) also acts on basis vectors and is generated with matrices B such that the sum of squared entries in a row is 1, i.e. B may be seen as a quantum gate. For the dense lattices listed above, maximal multipartite entanglement arises. In particular, one finds a balanced tripartite entanglement in E8 (the two- and three-tangles have the same magnitude 1/4) and a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type entanglement in BW16. In this paper, we also investigate the entangled gates from D12+ and Λ24, by seeing them as systems coupling a qutrit to two- and three-qubits, respectively. In addition to quantum computing, the work may be related to particle physics in the spirit of Planat et al (2011 Rep. Math. Phys. 66 39-51).

  17. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

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    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  18. Six types of multistability in a neuronal model based on slow calcium current.

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    Tatiana Malashchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multistability of oscillatory and silent regimes is a ubiquitous phenomenon exhibited by excitable systems such as neurons and cardiac cells. Multistability can play functional roles in short-term memory and maintaining posture. It seems to pose an evolutionary advantage for neurons which are part of multifunctional Central Pattern Generators to possess multistability. The mechanisms supporting multistability of bursting regimes are not well understood or classified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is focused on determining the bio-physical mechanisms underlying different types of co-existence of the oscillatory and silent regimes observed in a neuronal model. We develop a low-dimensional model typifying the dynamics of a single leech heart interneuron. We carry out a bifurcation analysis of the model and show that it possesses six different types of multistability of dynamical regimes. These types are the co-existence of 1 bursting and silence, 2 tonic spiking and silence, 3 tonic spiking and subthreshold oscillations, 4 bursting and subthreshold oscillations, 5 bursting, subthreshold oscillations and silence, and 6 bursting and tonic spiking. These first five types of multistability occur due to the presence of a separating regime that is either a saddle periodic orbit or a saddle equilibrium. We found that the parameter range wherein multistability is observed is limited by the parameter values at which the separating regimes emerge and terminate. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a neuronal model which exhibits a rich variety of different types of multistability. We described a novel mechanism supporting the bistability of bursting and silence. This neuronal model provides a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of networks with neurons possessing different types of multistability.

  19. ON THE BASIS OF SYNAPTIC INTEGRATION CONSTANCY DURING GROWTH OF A NEURONAL CIRCUIT

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    Adriana De la Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied how a neuronal circuit composed of two neuron types connected by chemical and electrical synapses maintains constant its integrative capacities as neurons grow. For this we combined electrophysiological experiments with mathematical modeling in pairs of electrically-coupled Retzius neurons from postnatal to adult leeches. The electrically-coupled dendrites of both Retzius neurons receive a common chemical input, which produces EPSPs with varying amplitudes. Each EPSP spreads to the soma, but also crosses the electrical synapse to arrive at the soma of the coupled neuron. The leak of synaptic current across the electrical synapse reduces the amplitude of the EPSPs in proportion to the coupling ratio. In addition, summation of EPSPs generated in both neurons generates the baseline action potentials of these serotonergic neurons. To study how integration is adjusted as neurons grow we first studied the characteristics of the chemical and electrical connections onto the coupled dendrites of neuron pairs with soma diameters ranging from 21 to 75 µm. Then by feeding a mathematical model with the neuronal voltage responses to pseudorandom noise currents we obtained the values of the coupling ratio, the membrane resistance of the soma (rm and dendrites (rdend, the space constant (λ and the characteristic dendritic length (L=l/λ . We found that the EPSPs recorded from the somata were similar regardless on the neuron size. However, the amplitude of the EPSPs and the firing frequency of the neurons were inversely proportional to the coupling ratio of the neuron pair, which also was independent form the neuronal size. This data indicated that the integrative constancy relied on the passive membrane properties. We show that the growth of Retzius neurons was compensated by increasing the membrane resistance of the dendrites and therefore the λ value. By solely increasing the dendrite resistance this circuit maintains constant its integrative

  20. Adverse event reporting in nonpharmacologic, noninterventional pain clinical trials: ACTTION systematic review.

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    Hunsinger, Matthew; Smith, Shannon M; Rothstein, Daniel; McKeown, Andrew; Parkhurst, Melissa; Hertz, Sharon; Katz, Nathaniel P; Lin, Allison H; McDermott, Michael P; Rappaport, Bob A; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Assessment of treatment safety is 1 of the primary goals of clinical trials. Organizations and working groups have created reporting guidelines for adverse events (AEs). Previous research examining AE reporting for pharmacologic clinical trials of analgesics in major pain journals found many reporting inadequacies, suggesting that analgesic trials are not adhering to existing AE reporting guidelines. The present systematic review documented AE reporting in 3 main pain journals for nonpharmacologic, noninterventional (NP/NI) trials examining pain treatments. To broaden our pool of nonpharmacologic trials, we also included trials examining acupuncture, leech therapy, and noninvasive stimulation techniques (eg, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation). We documented AE reporting at 2 levels of specificity using coding manuals based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) harms reporting standards and Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) AE reporting checklist. We identified a number of inadequacies in AE reporting across the 3 journals. For example, using the ACTTION coding manual, we found that less than one-half of the trials reported specific AE assessment methods; approximately one-third of the trials reported withdrawals due to AEs for each study arm; and about one-fourth of the trials reported all specific AEs. We also examined differences in AE reporting across several trial characteristics, finding that AE reporting was generally more detailed in trials with patients versus those using healthy volunteers undergoing experimentally evoked pain. These results suggest that investigators conducting and reporting NP/NI clinical trials are not adequately describing the assessment and occurrence of AEs.

  1. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

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    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  2. Molluscan neurons in culture: shedding light on synapse formation and plasticity.

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    Schmold, Nichole; Syed, Naweed I

    2012-08-01

    From genes to behaviour, the simple model system approach has played many pivotal roles in deciphering nervous system function in both invertebrates and vertebrates. However, with the advent of sophisticated imaging and recording techniques enabling the direct investigation of single vertebrate neurons, the utility of simple invertebrate organisms as model systems has been put to question. To address this subject meaningfully and comprehensively, we first review the contributions made by invertebrates in the field of neuroscience over the years, paving the way for similar breakthroughs in higher animals. In particular, we focus on molluscan (Lymnaea, Aplysia, and Helisoma) and leech (Hirudo) models and the pivotal roles they have played in elucidating mechanisms of synapse formation and plasticity. While the ultimate goal in neuroscience is to understand the workings of the human brain in both its normal and diseased states, the sheer complexity of most vertebrate models still makes it difficult to define the underlying principles of nervous system function. Investigators have thus turned to invertebrate models, which are unique with respect to their simple nervous systems that are endowed with a finite number of large, individually identifiable neurons of known function. We start off by discussing in vivo and semi-intact preparations, regarding their amenability to simple circuit analysis. Despite the 'simplicity' of invertebrate nervous systems however, it is still difficult to study individual synaptic connections in detail. We therefore emphasize in the next section, the utility of studying identified invertebrate neurons in vitro, to directly examine the development, specificity, and plasticity of synaptic connections in a well-defined environment, at a resolution that it is still unapproachable in the intact brain. We conclude with a discussion of the future of invertebrates in neuroscience in elucidating mechanisms of neurological disease and developing

  3. Politeness: Is There an East-West Divide?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoffrey Leech

    2005-01-01

    The theory of politeness of Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) has remained the most seminal and influential starting point for cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contrastive pragmatics. Yet is has also provoked countervailing arguments from Ide (1989, 1993), Matsumoto (1989), Gu (1990), Mao (1994) and others, pointing out a Western bias in Brown and Levinson's theory, particularly in their individualistic and egalitarian motivations, as opposed to the more group-centred hierarchy-based ethos of Eastern societies. This leads to the question in thetitle of this article: Is there an East-West divide in politeness?The following argument will be presented. There is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness phenomena in communication: a common principle of politeness (Leech, 1983,2002) and a Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP), which is evident in common linguistic behaviour patterns in the performance of polite speech acts such as requests, offers, compliments, apologies,thanks, and responses to these. The GSP says simply: In order to be polite, a speaker communicates meanings which (a) place a high value on what relates to the other person (typically the addressee),(MAJOR CONSTRAINT) and (b) place a low value on what relates to the speaker. (MINOR CONSTRAINT). It is clear from many observations that constraint (a) is more powerful than constraint (b). The following hypothesis will be put forward, and supported by very limited evidence: that the GSP provides a very general explanation for communicative politeness phenomena in Eastern languages such as Chinese,Japanese and Korean, as well as in Western languages such as English. This is not to deny the importance of quantitative and qualitative differences in the settings of social parameters and linguistic parameters of politeness in such languages. A framework such as the GSP provides the parameters of variation within which such differences can be studied.Hence this article argues in favour of the

  4. Freshwater fish trypanosomes: definition of two types, host control by antibodies and lack of antigenic variation.

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    Overath, P; Haag, J; Mameza, M G; Lischke, A

    1999-12-01

    Haemoflagellates of the genus Trypanosoma are prevalent in freshwater fishes and are transmitted by leeches as vectors. As demonstrated by sequence comparisons of nuclear small subunit rRNA genes, trypanosomes isolated from several fish species at different localities can be divided into at least 2 closely related types, designated Type A and Type B. A clone derived from a Type A isolate from carp (Cyprinus carpio) was used to study the anti-parasite immune response in specified pathogen-free outbred carp. Infection leads to an initial rise in parasitaemia in the blood followed by a sharp decline in all fish (acute phase). Thereafter, in some carp, parasites become undetectable both in the blood and in internal organs while, in others, low numbers can be found in the blood for up to 1 year (chronic phase). Fish that have controlled an acute infection with the clone are not only protected against an homologous challenge infection, but also against the infection with parasite lines derived from carp in the chronic phase of infection. Passive immunization experiments with IgM purified from serum of recovered carp indicate that the infection is controlled by antibodies. The anti-parasite antibody level in recovered carp remains high for many months although the parasitaemia is controlled at very low levels and the half life of IgM, t1/2 = 22.5 days, is comparatively short. The effective control of trypanosomes in laboratory infections is in contrast to the high prevalence in natural and farmed freshwater fish populations.

  5. Biophysics of active vesicle transport, an intermediate step that couples excitation and exocytosis of serotonin in the neuronal soma.

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    Francisco F De-Miguel

    Full Text Available Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0, calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process/ΔG(ATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a

  6. Lessons Learned in Developing Research Opportunities for Native American Undergraduate Students: The GEMscholars Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurn-Birkhimer, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Kroeger, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Interventions for the well-documented national deficiency of underrepresented students in higher education have focused primarily on the undergraduate student population with significantly less attention given to issues of diversity within graduate programs. As a result, we have made little progress in transforming faculty composition to better reflect the nation's diversity resulting in relatively few minority mentors joining faculty ranks and schools falling short of the broader representation to create an enriched, diverse academic environment. The GEMscholars (Geology, Environmental Science and Meteorology scholars) Program began in the summer of 2006 with the goal of increasing the number of Native American students pursuing graduate degrees in the geosciences. We drew on research from Native American student education models to address three key themes of (a) mentoring, (b) culturally relevant valuations of geosciences and possible career paths, and (c) connections to community and family. A collaboration between Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN and three institutions in northern Minnesota; Bemidji State University, Red Lake Nation College and Leech Lake Tribal College, is structured to develop research opportunities and a support network for Native American undergraduate students (called GEMscholars) to participate in summer geoscience research projects in their home communities. Research opportunities were specifically chosen to have cultural relevance and yield locally important findings. The GEMscholars work on projects that directly link to their local ecosystems and permit them to engage in long term monitoring and cohesive interaction among each successive year's participants. For example, the GEMscholars have established and now maintain permanent field monitoring plots to assess the impacts of invasive European earthworm activity on forest ecosystem health. The culmination of the summer project is the GEMscholars Symposium at Purdue University

  7. [Structure, distribution, classification, and function of C1q protein family: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing-Wei

    2013-09-01

    The C1q protein family consists of many proteins containing a Clq domain, which exists widely within organisms from bacteria to mammals. The domain organization of these proteins mainly includes a leading signal peptide, a collagen-like region, and a globular Clq domain. According to their structural characteristics, the C1q protein family can be divided into three subgroups: C1q, C1q-like and ghC1q. C1q, as the first subcomponent of classical pathway in the complement system, has the ability to bind immune complexes and triggers activation of the classical complement pathway. In addition, it can be a pattern recognition receptor with the unique ability to sense an amazing variety of ligands. C1q-like protein contains a collagen-like region and a globular Clq domain which is similar to Clq molecule. It involves in leech central nervous system repair. However, in vertebrates, its function converts from a lectin to an immunoglobulin binding molecule and it involves in the activation of complement system. The structure of ghC1q protein is composed of a globular Clq domain and a short N-terminal sequence. This protein contains secreted globular head C1q proteins and cellular globular head C1q proteins. The sghClq protein plays an important role in the innate immune system of invertebrates. The sghC1q proteins that belong to vertebrates may serve as a new class of transneuronal regulators of synapse development and synaptic plasticity in various brain regions. The earliest cghC1q gene can be traced back to bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Its stereotypical gC1q jelly roll topology substantiates that the gC1q domain has an ancient evolutionary history and a highly conserved structure. This review focuses on the structure, distribution, classification, and function of C1q family proteins, providing valuable clues for the future research in this field.

  8. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura

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    Bleidorn Christoph

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelida comprises an ancient and ecologically important animal phylum with over 16,500 described species and members are the dominant macrofauna of the deep sea. Traditionally, two major groups are distinguished: Clitellata (including earthworms, leeches and "Polychaeta" (mostly marine worms. Recent analyses of molecular data suggest that Annelida may include other taxa once considered separate phyla (i.e., Echiura, and Sipuncula and that Clitellata are derived annelids, thus rendering "Polychaeta" paraphyletic; however, this contradicts classification schemes of annelids developed from recent analyses of morphological characters. Given that deep-level evolutionary relationships of Annelida are poorly understood, we have analyzed comprehensive datasets based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes, and have applied rigorous testing of alternative hypotheses so that we can move towards the robust reconstruction of annelid history needed to interpret animal body plan evolution. Results Sipuncula, Echiura, Siboglinidae, and Clitellata are all nested within polychaete annelids according to phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, EF1α; 4552 nucleotide positions analyzed for 81 taxa, and 11 nuclear and mitochondrial genes for 10 taxa (additional: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, ATP8, COX1-3, CYTB, NAD6; 11,454 nucleotide positions analyzed. For the first time, these findings are substantiated using approximately unbiased tests and non-scaled bootstrap probability tests that compare alternative hypotheses. For echiurans, the polychaete group Capitellidae is corroborated as the sister taxon; while the exact placement of Sipuncula within Annelida is still uncertain, our analyses suggest an affiliation with terebellimorphs. Siboglinids are in a clade with other sabellimorphs, and clitellates fall within a polychaete clade with aeolosomatids as their possible sister group. None of our analyses support the major polychaete

  9. Biophysics of active vesicle transport, an intermediate step that couples excitation and exocytosis of serotonin in the neuronal soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Miguel, Francisco F; Santamaría-Holek, Iván; Noguez, Paula; Bustos, Carlos; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Rubí, J Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1) velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0), calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process)/ΔG(ATP), depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a quantitative method

  10. 赵云芳从瘀论治糖尿病经验%Zhao Yunfang's Experience in Treating Diabetes from Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧海洋

    2014-01-01

    赵云芳教授认为对于糖尿病的治疗,活血化瘀法应贯穿糖尿病治疗的始终,同时应审因论与辨证治相结合,使血瘀消散,恢复血液循环系统的功能。常用治法包括:①滋阴清热、活血化瘀法,可选用天花粉、黄连、生地黄、葛根、麦冬、牛膝、丹参、赤芍等。②益气养阴、活血化瘀法,可选用人参、黄芪、生地、元参、山药、葛根、丹参、桃仁、红花等。③益气温阳、活血化瘀法,可选用附子、桂枝、人参、黄芪、干姜、水蛭、地龙、僵蚕等。%Professor Zhao Yunfang believes that promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method should be run through the treatment of diabetes,should also be seeking the origin and syndrome differentiation and treatment,which make the blood stasis dissipa-ting,and restore the function of blood circulating system. Common treatments include:①nourishing yin and clearing heat,promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method,choosing trichosanthin,rhizoma coptidis,radix rehmanniae,radix puerariae,ophio-pogon root,achyranthes,radix salviae miltiorrhizae,radix paeoniae rubra,etc. .②Supplementing qi and nourishing yin,promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method in the choice of ginseng,astragalus,radix rehmanniae,radix scrophulariae,yam,salvia miltiorrhiza,radix puerariae,peach kernel,safflower,etc. .③Invigorating qi and warming yang,promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method can choose monkshood,cassia twig,ginseng,astragalus,dried ginger,leech,earthworm,silkworm and others.

  11. ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF BASTI THERAPY (MEDICATED ENEMA IN THE PATIENTS OF PSORIASIS (EK KUSTHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    treatment. Since the assessment criteria was Quantitative, paired 't' test was applied. In the current study the treatment was found significantly effective in treating psoriasis. So, we can conclude that leech therapy is effective in the treatment of psoriasis.

  12. Determination of Virginiamycin M1 in Chinese herbs like scorpion by HPLC-MS/MS%HPLC-MS/MS法测定全蝎等动物类中药中维吉尼霉素M1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 俞灵; 陈静; 郑荣; 王柯; 季申

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a HPLC - MS/MS method for determination of Virginiamycin M, in Chinese Herbs made by animal such as scorpion. Methods: After being extracted by acidified 40% methanol and purified by HLB SPE column, Virginiamycin M1 was analyzed by HPLC - triple quadrupole MS. Results: There is a good linear relationship within the range of 1 ng · ml-1 ~250 ng · ml-1 for Virginiamycin M1. The regression equation is Y =3.94 ×104 X+4.07 ×103, r = 0.9996. The recovery was between 90.9% ~98.1%. The LOD in Scorpion were 0.9 μg ·kg-1. While the recovery of herbs like centipede, black snake, sea horse and leech was in the range of 85% ~95%. Conclusion:The method is sensitive, rapid, accurate and specific enough to determine Virginiamycin Ml in Scorpion.%目的:建立全蝎等动物类中药中维吉尼霉素M1的HPLC-MS/MS测定方法.方法:样品经酸化的40%甲醇提取、提取液再经过三氯甲烷萃取净化后,用高效液相色谱-三重四级杆串联质谱进行分析测定.结果:维吉尼霉素在1 ng·ml-1~250 ng·ml-1范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,线形方程为Y=3.94×104X +4.07 × 103,r =0.9996,回收率在90.9-98.1%之间.在全蝎中最低检测限分别为0.7 μg·kg-1,蜈蚣、乌稍蛇、海马和水蛭等动物类药材的回收率也均在85%-95%之间.结论:本法灵敏、快速、准确、专属性强,可用于全蝎等动物类中药中维吉尼霉素M1的测定.

  13. 重组白细胞抑制因子和水蛭肽嵌合蛋白异构体鉴定%Identification of Recombinant Leukocyte Inhibitory Factor and Hirulog Chimeric Protein Isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巍; 范开

    2012-01-01

    This paper established the recombinant leukocyte inhibition factor and leech peptide chimeric protein isoforms identification verification method,by using the appropriate quality control detection method,RP-HPLC method through the test,isoelectric focusing,a reduced SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis,non-denaturing PAGE method,activity analysis,anion exchange HPLC analysis of isomers of qualitative and quantitative control.Using the established RP-HPLC method,PAGE method non degeneration,activity analysis examination could not identify isomers,and isoelectric focusing,a reduced SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis to identify isomers,qualitative analysis.Anion exchange HPLC analyzed isomers' percentage quantitatively.Isoelectric focusing,a reduced SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and anion exchange HPLC analysis can be used as recombinant leukocyte inhibition factor and Hirudin Peptide chimeric protein products of isomer in routine test.%提出了重组白细胞抑制因子和水蛭肽嵌合蛋白异构体鉴定检定方法。采用适宜的质控检测方法,通过试验RP-HPLC法、等电聚焦、非还原型SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳法、非变性PAGE法、活性分析、阴离子交换HPLC分析法对异构体进行定性和定量控制。结果表明:用建立的RP-HPLC法、非变性PAGE法、活性分析法不能鉴别异构体;等电聚焦、非还原型SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳法能鉴别异构体,可定性分析;阴离子交换HPLC分析法能对异构体百分含量进行定量分析。由此表明,等电聚焦、非还原型SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳和阴离子交换HPLC分析法可作为重组白细胞抑制因子和水蛭肽嵌合蛋白产品中异构体的常规检定。

  14. Influence of therapeutic radiation on polycaprolactone and polyurethane biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Shelley L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Whittington, Abby R., E-mail: awhit@mse.vt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ABSTRACT: Biomedical polymers are exposed in vivo to ionizing radiation as implants, coatings and bystander materials. High levels of ionizing radiation (e.g. X-ray and gamma) have been reported to cause degradation and/or cross-linking in many polymers. This pilot study sought to determine causes of failure, by investigating how therapeutic radiation affects two different porous polymeric scaffolds: polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyurethane (PU). PCL is a bioresorbable material used in biomedical devices (e.g., dentistry, internal fixation devices and targeted drug delivery capsules). PU is commonly used in medical applications (e.g., coatings for pacemakers, tissue expanders, catheter tubing and wound dressings). PU was specifically fabricated to be a non-degradable polymer in this study. Porous scaffolds, fabricated using solvent casting and/or salt leeching techniques, were placed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH = 7.4) and exposed to typical cancer radiotherapy. A total dose of 50 Gy was broken into 25 doses over an eleven-week period. Collected PBS was tested for polymer leachants and degradation products using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), results revealed no analyzable leachants from either polymer. Scaffolds were characterized using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). No gross visual changes were observed in either polymer, however PU exhibited microstructure changes after irradiation. Increased number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight in PCL and PU were observed after irradiation, indicating crosslinking. PU displayed an increase in intrinsic viscosity that further confirms increased crosslinking. PCL and PU showed decreases in crystallinity after irradiation, and PU crystallinity shifted from long-range-order hard segments to short-range-order hard segments after

  15. D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stillman Jonathon H

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(--lactate and D(+-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the main isozymes of this gene family in chordates, but little is known about the evolution of L-Ldh in invertebrates. While most invertebrates preferentially oxidize L-lactic acid, several species of mollusks, a few arthropods and polychaetes were found to have exclusively D-LDH enzymatic activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that L-LDH and D-LDH are mutually exclusive. However, recent characterization of putative mammalian D-LDH with significant similarity to yeast proteins showing D-LDH activity suggests that at least mammals have the two naturally occurring forms of LDH specific to L- and D-lactate. This study describes the phylogenetic relationships of invertebrate L-LDH and D-LDH with special emphasis on crustaceans, and discusses gene duplication events during the evolution of L-Ldh. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of L-LDH in vertebrates are consistent with the general view that the main isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C evolved through a series of gene duplications after the vertebrates diverged from tunicates. We report several gene duplication events in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex, and the leech, Helobdella robusta. Several amino acid sequences with strong similarity to putative mammalian D-LDH and to yeast DLD1 with D-LDH activity were found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Conclusion The presence of both L-Ldh and D-Ldh genes in several chordates and invertebrates suggests that the two enzymatic forms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Although, the evolution of L-Ldh has been punctuated by

  16. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  17. FORMAL ORAL INDONESIAN REGISTER USED IN OPEN EXAMINATION A SYNTHATICAL-PRAGMATIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sartini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the formal oral Indonesian register ‘Bahasa Indonesia ragam lisan formal’ (hereinafter referred to as BIRLF used in open examinations from syntactical-pragmatic perspective. In general, this study aims at analyzing the grammatical-pragmatic elements of the formal oral register used in open examinations; in particular, it aims at analyzing the forms of speech acts and the forms of politeness used in the open examinations held at the University of Airlangga ‘Universitas Airlangga’ (Unair and the State University of Surabaya ‘Universitas Negeri Surabaya’ (Unesa. The theories used were the structural theory and the theory of pragmatics. The structural theory was used to analyze the grammatical structures of the sentences used in the dialogues taking place in the open examinations. The theory of pragmatics used in this study refers to the theory of politeness proposed by Lakoff (1972, Leech (1983, Brown and Levinson (1987, and the theory of speech act developed by Austin (1962 and Searle (1975. The data analysis showed that, based on the direction of extension in which the verb was the center, and the extending components, eleven types of imperative sentences were found. The extension took place to the left, to the right and to the left and to the right from the verb simultaneously. The extending components included words, phrases, clauses and combinations of phrases and clauses. The interrogative sentences used were both the close interrogative sentences and the open interrogative ones. The declarative sentences used were the complex coordinative and subordinative ones. Deletion, pronominalization,, and repetition characterized the two types of sentences. To identify politeness, the layers of the components constructing the sentences were analyzed. The imperative politeness was expressed grammatically and lexically. Grammatically, the grammatical politeness was shown by passivizing the verb, shifting moods, and

  18. 面向城市水资源监测的WSN拓扑控制算法%The WSN Hierarchical Topology Control Algorithm for Urban Water Resources Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐华; 马岚; 刘军

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of traditional water resources monitoring systems ’ monitoring cycle being long,degree of automation being low, a water resources monitoring system for the urban areas based on WSN is proposed in this paper.The LEECH algorithm of the existing WSN hierarchi-cal topology control algorithm’s cluster head nodes in the network are randomly distribution,so it is easy for imbalanced communication distance be-tween cluster member nodes and cluster heads, cluster head node and network gateway nodes. This study is an effort to solve this problem. Through the Matlab software,the performance of the algorithm is simulated,and the results show that the improved algorithm LEACH E can better balance node energy consumption.On the basis of stable network connectivity,the survival time of the network monitoring,compared with LEACH algorithm,is enhanced by about 26%, thereby saving the operation costs of the monitoring net-work.%针对传统的水资源监测系统监测周期长、自动化程度低的问题,提出了一种基于 WSN 的城市水资源监测系统。对已有的 WSN 层次拓扑控制的LEACH 算法,由于簇头节点在网络内的分布是随机的,容易造成簇成员节点与簇头间、簇头节点与网关节点间的通信距离不平衡,故对此不足进行了改进。通过 Matlab 仿真软件对算法性能进行仿真,结果表明该改进算法 LEACH E 能够更好地均衡节点的能量消耗,在保证网络连通性的前提下,监测网络的生存时间比 LEACH 算法提升了约26%,从而节约了监测网络的运行成本。

  19. Cleavage pattern and fate map of the mesentoblast, 4d, in the gastropod Crepidula: a hallmark of spiralian development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Deirdre C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals with a spiral cleavage program, such as mollusks and annelids, make up the majority of the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The great diversity of larval and adult body plans in this group emerges from this highly conserved developmental program. The 4d micromere is one of the most conserved aspects of spiralian development. Unlike the preceding pattern of spiral divisions, cleavages within the 4d teloblastic sublineages are bilateral, representing a critical transition towards constructing the bilaterian body plan. These cells give rise to the visceral mesoderm in virtually all spiralians examined and in many species they also contribute to the endodermal intestine. Hence, the 4d lineage is an ideal one for studying the evolution and diversification of the bipotential endomesodermal germ layer in protostomes at the level of individual cells. Little is known of how division patterns are controlled or how mesodermal and endodermal sublineages diverge in spiralians. Detailed modern fate maps for 4d exist in only a few species of clitellate annelids, specifically in glossiphoniid leeches and the sludge worm Tubifex. We investigated the 4d lineage in the gastropod Crepidula fornicata, an established model system for spiralian biology, and in a closely related direct-developing species, C. convexa. Results High-resolution cell lineage tracing techniques were used to study the 4d lineage of C. fornicata and C. convexa. We present a new nomenclature to name the progeny of 4d, and report the fate map for the sublineages up through the birth of the first five pairs of teloblast daughter cells (when 28 cells are present in the 4d sublineage, and describe each clone’s behavior during gastrulation and later stages as these undergo differentiation. We identify the precise origin of the intestine, two cells of the larval kidney complex, the larval retractor muscles and the presumptive germ cells, among others. Other tissues that arise

  20. Summary of biological and contaminant investigations related to stream water quality and environmental setting in the Upper Colorado River basin, 1938-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, an inventory of the biological and contaminant investigations for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was conducted. To enhance the sampling design for the biological component of the program, previous studies about the ecology of aquatic organisms and contaminants were compiled from computerized literature searches of biological data bases and by contacting other Federal, State, and local agencies. Biological and contaminant investigations that have been conducted throughout the basin since 1938 were categorized according to four general categories of biological investigations and two categories of contaminant investigations: algal communities, macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, habitat characterization, contaminants in organism tissue, and contaminants in bed sediment. The studies were identified by their locations in two physiographic provinces, the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, and by the predominant land use in the area of the investigation. Studies on algal communities and contaminants in organism tissue and in bed sediment are limited throughout the basin. Studies on macroinvertebrate and fish communities and habitat characterization are the most abundant in the study unit. Natural and human factors can affect biological communities and their composition. Natural factors that affect background water-quality conditions are physiography, climate, geology, and soils. Algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish that are present in the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces vary with altitude and physical environment. Green algae and diatoms are predominant in the higher altitude streams, and blue-green, golden-brown, and green algae are predominant in the lower altitude streams. Caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies are the dominant macroinvertebrates in the higher altitudes, whereas aquatic worms, leeches