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Sample records for ledge test gait

  1. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  2. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  3. Spatio-temporal gait disorder and gait fatigue index in a six-minute walk test in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Jimenez, Jose; Latorre-Roman, Pedro; Santos-Campos, Maria; Orantes-Gonzalez, Eva; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M

    2016-03-01

    Gait disorders in fibromyalgia patients affect several gait parameters and different muscle recruitment patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the gait differences observed during a six-minute walk test between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Forty-eight women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were evaluated. Fibromyalgia patients met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia selected of an ambulatory care. Both patients and controls had a negative history of musculoskeletal disease, neurological disorders, and gait abnormalities. The 15 controls were healthy women matched to the patients in age, height and body weight. Spatio-temporal gait variables and the rate of perceived exertion during the six-minute walk test (all subjects) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (fibromyalgia subjects) were evaluated. All walking sets on the GaitRITE were collected and the gait variables were selected at three stages during the six-minute walk test: two sets at the beginning, two sets at 3 min and two sets at the end of the test. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used for the fibromyalgia patients. Fibromyalgia patients showed a significant decrease in all spatio-temporal gait variables at each of the three stages and had a lower walk distance covered in the six-minute walk test and higher rate of perceived exertion. No correlations were found between the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and gait variables. The fibromyalgia and control subjects showed lower gait fatigue indices between the middle and last stages. Gait analysis during a six-minute walk test is a good tool to assess the fatigue and physical symptoms of patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Experimental research of gaits based on young plantar pressure test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyun; Tan, Shili; Yu, Hongliu; Shen, Lixing; Zhuang, Jianhai; Wang, Jinwu

    2014-10-01

    The present paper is to study the center line of the plantar pressure of normal young people, and to find the relation between center line of the plantar pressure and gait stability and balance. The paper gives the testing principle and calculating methods for geometric center of plantar pressure distribution and the center of pressure due to the techniques of footprint frame. The calculating formulas in both x direction and y direction are also deduced in the paper. In the experiments carried out in our laboratory, the gait parameters of 131 young subjects walking as usual speed were acquired, and 14 young subjects of the total were specially analyzed. We then provided reference data for the walking gait database of young people, including time parameters, space parameters and plantar pressure parameters. We also obtained the line of geometry center and pressure center under the foot. We found that the differences existed in normal people's geometric center line and the pressure center line. The center of pressure trajectory revealed foot movement stability. The length and lateral changes of the center line of the plantar pressure could be applied to analysis of the plantar pressure of all kinds of people. The results in this paper are useful in clinical foot disease diagnosis and evaluation of surgical effect.

  5. Is gait variability reliable in older adults and Parkinson's disease? Towards an optimal testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of gait variability in research and clinical studies, testing protocols designed to optimise its reliability have not been established. This study evaluates the impact of testing protocol and pathology on the reliability of gait variability. To (i) estimate the reliability of gait variability during continuous and intermittent walking protocols in older adults and people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (ii) determine optimal number of steps for acceptable levels of reliability of gait variability and (iii) provide sample size estimates for use in clinical trials. Gait variability was measured twice, one week apart, in 27 older adults and 25 PD participants. Participants walked at their preferred pace during: (i) a continuous 2 min walk and (ii) 3 intermittent walks over a 12 m walkway. Gait variability was calculated as the within-person standard deviation for step velocity, length and width, and step, stance and swing duration. Reliability of gait variability ranged from poor to excellent (intra class correlations .041-.860; relative limits of agreement 34-89%). Gait variability was more reliable during continuous walks. Control and PD participants demonstrated similar reliability. Increasing the number of steps improved reliability, with most improvement seen across the first 30 steps. In this study, we identified testing protocols that improve the reliability of measuring gait variability. We recommend using a continuous walking protocol and to collect no fewer than 30 steps. Early PD does not appear to impact negatively on the reliability of gait variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Viability of gait speed test in hospitalized elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Prata Martinez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The gait speed test (GST is a physical test that can predict falls and aid in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies evaluating its reproducibility in hospitalized elderly patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and reproducibility of the six-meter GST (6GST in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods: This repeated measures study involved hospitalized elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age who underwent the 6GST by the fifth day of hospitalization, were able to walk without assistance, and presented no signs of dyspnea or pain that would prevent them from performing the test. The 6GST was performed three times in sequence, with a rest period between each test, in a level corridor. Gait speed was measured in meters/second. Reproducibility was assessed by comparing the means, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and Bland-Altman plots. Results: We evaluated 110 elderly patients in a total of 330 tests. All participants completed all of the tests. The comparisons between the speeds obtained during the three tests showed high ICCs and a low mean bias (Bland-Altman plots. The correlation and accuracy were greatest when the mean maximum speed was compared with that obtained in the third test (1.26 ± 0.44 m/s vs. 1.22 ± 0.44 m/s; ICC = 0.99; p = 0.001; mean bias = 0.04; and limits of agreement = −0.27 to 0.15. Conclusions: The 6GST was proven to be safe and to have good reproducibility in this sample of hospitalized elderly patients. The third measurement seems to correspond to the maximum speed, since the first two measurements underestimated the actual performance.

  7. Burgers vector content of an interfacial ledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, R.; Loubradou, M.; Pénisson, J. M.

    1992-07-01

    A new way of investigating the elastic field around a ledge of a faceted interface is proposed for crystalline materials. The length and/or angular misfits along two adjacent facets are accommodated by slightly deforming the atomic structural units with an appropriate distribution of translation dislocations. The Burgers vector content of the ledge is not defined as usual from a circuit crossing the interface twice, a method which proves to be sometimes misleading. An example treats, at the atomic scale, an unusual ledge of the interface TiAl/Ti3Al.

  8. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Wisconsin Gait Scale in hemiparetic post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A proper assessment of gait pattern is a significant aspect in planning the process of teaching gait in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. The Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS is an observational tool for assessing post-stroke patients’ gait. The aim of the study was to assess test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the WGS and examine correlations between gait assessment made with the WGS and gait speed, Brunnström scale, Ashworth’s scale and the Barthel Index.

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the adolescent and parent versions of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Rehn, Mattias; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) and its parent version (GAIT-P), in a representative community sample of adolescents and parents in Västmanland, Sweden. Self-rated and parent-rated gaming addictive symptoms identified by GAIT and GAIT-P were analyzed for frequency of endorsement, internal consistency, concordance, factor structure, prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), concurrence with the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents, 7-item version (GAS) and the parent version of GAS (GAS-P), and for sex differences. The 12-month prevalence of IGD was found to be 1.3% with GAIT and 2.4% with GAIT-P. Results also indicate promising psychometric results within this population, with high internal consistency, and high concurrent validity with GAS and GAS-P. Concordance between adolescents and parents ratings was high, although moderate in girls. Although exploratory factor analysis indicated poor model fit, it also indicated unidimensionality and high factor loadings in all analyses. GAIT and GAIT-P are suitable for continued use in measuring gaming addiction in adolescents, and, with the additional two items, they now cover all nine IGD criteria. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Comparison of Falling Risk of Elderly by Speed Gait Test Under Dual Tasks Conditions

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    Zahra Fathi Rezaie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare elderly fallers and non fallers by balance test under dual tasks conditions. Methods & Materials: This study was a analyse-comparative study. Subjects were chosen from three parks of Tehran. Subjects were 20 older adults with no history of falls (aged 72.60±5 years and 21 older adults with a history of 2 or more falls in the last one year (aged 74.50±6 Years. All subjects performed speed gait test under 3 conditions (speed gait, speed gait with numbers counter randomly [speed gait cognitive], and speed gait while carrying a full cup of water [speed gait manual]. Data was analysed from multivariate analysis with SPSS 17. Results: The results showed significant difference between elderly fallers and non fallers in fall risk composed dependent variable (P=0.0005, as the non fallers had greater score than elderly fallers. Conclusion: Consequently, we can apply the Gait Speed test under both dual task conditions (Cognitive and Motor for identification of risk of falling in elderly adults with and without of falling history.

  11. Single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-07-01

    To compare single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance between athletes after concussion with controls on observer-timed, spatio-temporal, and center-of-mass (COM) balance control measurements. Ten participants (19.0±5.5years) were prospectively identified and completed a tandem gait test protocol within 72h of concussion and again 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post-injury. Seven uninjured controls (20.0±4.5years) completed the same protocol in similar time increments. Tandem gait test trials were performed with (dual-task) and without (single-task) concurrently performing a cognitive test as whole-body motion analysis was performed. Outcome variables included test completion time, average tandem gait velocity, cadence, and whole-body COM frontal plane displacement. Concussion participants took significantly longer to complete the dual-task tandem gait test than controls throughout the first 2 weeks post-injury (mean time=16.4 [95% CI: 13.4-19.4] vs. 10.1 [95% CI: 6.4-13.7] seconds; p=0.03). Single-task tandem gait times were significantly lower 72h post-injury (p=0.04). Dual-task cadence was significantly lower for concussion participants than controls (89.5 [95% CI: 68.6-110.4] vs. 127.0 [95% CI: 97.4-156.6] steps/minute; p=0.04). Moderately-high to high correlations between tandem gait test time and whole-body COM medial-lateral displacement were detected at each time point during dual-task gait (r s =0.70-0.93; p=0.03-0.001). Adding a cognitive task during the tandem gait test resulted in longer detectable deficits post-concussion compared to the traditional single-task tandem gait test. As a clinical tool to assess dynamic motor function, tandem gait may assist with return to sport decisions after concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Viability of gait speed test in hospitalized elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bruno Prata; Batista, Anne Karine Menezes Santos; Ramos, Isis Resende; Dantas, Júlio Cesar; Gomes, Isabela Barboza; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Camelier, Fernanda Rosa Warken; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção

    2016-01-01

    The gait speed test (GST) is a physical test that can predict falls and aid in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies evaluating its reproducibility in hospitalized elderly patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and reproducibility of the six-meter GST (6GST) in hospitalized elderly patients. This repeated measures study involved hospitalized elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age) who underwent the 6GST by the fifth day of hospitalization, were able to walk without assistance, and presented no signs of dyspnea or pain that would prevent them from performing the test. The 6GST was performed three times in sequence, with a rest period between each test, in a level corridor. Gait speed was measured in meters/second. Reproducibility was assessed by comparing the means, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. We evaluated 110 elderly patients in a total of 330 tests. All participants completed all of the tests. The comparisons between the speeds obtained during the three tests showed high ICCs and a low mean bias (Bland-Altman plots). The correlation and accuracy were greatest when the mean maximum speed was compared with that obtained in the third test (1.26 ± 0.44 m/s vs. 1.22 ± 0.44 m/s; ICC = 0.99; p = 0.001; mean bias = 0.04; and limits of agreement = -0.27 to 0.15). The 6GST was proven to be safe and to have good reproducibility in this sample of hospitalized elderly patients. The third measurement seems to correspond to the maximum speed, since the first two measurements underestimated the actual performance. O teste de velocidade de marcha (TVM) é um teste físico que pode predizer quedas e auxiliar no diagnóstico de sarcopenia em idosos da comunidade. Entretanto, pelo que sabemos, não há estudos que avaliaram sua reprodutibilidade em idosos hospitalizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a segurança e a reprodutibilidade do TVM de seis

  13. Automated on-line L-edge measurement of SNM concentration for near-real-time accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Marks, T. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Hsue, S.T.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The L-edge densitometer developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been modified, tested, and demonstrated for on-line assay of special nuclear material concentration in flowing solution streams. The demonstration was part of a larger demonstration of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting during a continuous, week-long, cold operation of the Allied General Nuclear Services facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The L-edge data were automatically analyzed and the results were transmitted to the materials accounting computer once every 5.5 min for the duration of the cold run. This report compares the results of the L-edge analyses with the delayed results obtained from destructive analysis of samples withdrawn from the same process line. Comparisons are also made with the results obtained in near real time from an automated process control instrument installed in series with the L-edge densitometer. The performance of the L-edge instrument was reliable throughout the continous operation. The assay precision was consistent with that predicted by the counting statistics of the measurement. The results of the L-edge assays show good agreement with those of the destructive assays. A gradually varying discrepancy (of a few percent) between the L-edge and the process control results remains unexplained. 9 figures

  14. Automated on-line L-edge measurement of SNM concentration for near-real-time accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Marks, T. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1982-09-01

    An L-edge densitometer has been modified, tested, and demonstrated for on-line assay of special nuclear material concentration in flowing solution streams. The demonstration was part of a larger demonstration of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting during a continuous, week-long, cold operation of the Barnwell facility. The L-edge data were automatically analyzed and the results were transmitted to the materials accounting computer once every 5.5 min for the duration of the cold run. This report compares the results of the L-edge analyses with the delayed results obtained from destructive analysis of samples withdrawn from the same process line. Comparisons are also made with the results obtained in near real time from an automated process control instrument installed in series with the L-edge densitometer. The performance of the L-edge instrument was reliable throughout the continuous operation. The assay precision was consistent with that predicted by the counting statistics of the measurement. The results of the L-edge assays show good agreement with those of the destructive assays. A gradually varying discrepancy (of a few percent) between the L-edge and the process control results remains unexplained

  15. Gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus: characteristics and effects of the CSF tap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Krause Martinez de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH, described by Hakim and Adams in 1965, is characterized by gait apraxia, urinary incontinence, and dementia. It is associated with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and ventricular dilation that cannot be attributed to cerebral atrophy. Objectives: To evaluate gait characteristics in patients with idiopathic NPH and investigate the effect of the CSF tap test (CSF-TT on gait. Methods: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with probable idiopathic NPH were submitted to the CSF-TT. The procedure aimed to achieve changes in gait parameters. Results: Fifteen gait parameters were assessed before and after the CSF-TT. Five showed a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05: walking speed (p < 0.001, cadence (p < 0.001, step length (p < 0.001, en bloc turning (p = 0.001, and step height (p = 0.004. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that gait speed was the most responsive parameter to the CSF-TT, followed by cadence, step length, en bloc turning, and step height.

  16. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79. For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I while walking only (single task, (II walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT (dual task, and (III walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT (dual task. Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7% and right (by 7% foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%, reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11% and right (by 8% extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%. Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task.

  17. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard D.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait.

  18. 4-Meter Gait Speed Test in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: INTERRATER RELIABILITY USING A STOPWATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisca, Gianna Waldrich; Fava, Lucas Rodrigues; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Machado, Felipe Vilaça Cavallari; Pitta, Fabio; Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida

    2017-12-14

    4-meter gait speed (4MGS) is increasingly used to assess functional performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the current literature lacks information regarding some technical standards for this test. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare and to evaluate the interrater reliability between a stopwatch and video recording used as timing systems for the 4MGS in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as to verify the interrater reliability between 2 observers measuring the 4MGS time using a manual stopwatch. Fifty-one patients performed the 4MGS using 4 different protocols (random order): walking at the usual and maximum speed in a 4-meter course and walking at the same 2 speeds on an 8-m course using a 2-m acceleration zone, a 4-meter timing area, and a 2-m deceleration zone. Gait speed was measured simultaneously using a stopwatch and a video recording. In a subanalysis (n = 24), 2 independent observers timed the 4MGS using a stopwatch. There was no significant difference in comparison between the 2 timing methods (P > .05 for all), and the reliability between video recording and stopwatch was excellent in all 4MGS studied protocols (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.91). Moreover, when comparing gait speed measured by 2 observers using a stopwatch, no significant difference was found among all proposed protocols (P > .05 for all), and there was also excellent reliability between the 2 independent observers (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.94). The stopwatch, a low-cost and feasible tool, is reliable as a timing device for the 4MGS in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. Prediction of the ledge thickness inside a high-temperature metallurgical reactor using a virtual sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBreux, Marc; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A non-intrusive inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the time-varying thickness of the phase-change ledge on the inner surface of the walls of a high-temperature metallurgical reactor is presented. An extended Kalman filter with augmented state is coupled with a nonlinear state-space model of the reactor in order to estimate on-line the position of the phase front. The data are collected by a heat flux sensor located inside or outside of the reactor wall. This non-intrusive method can be seen as a virtual sensor which is defined as the combination of an estimation algorithm with measurements for the estimation of 'hard to measure' on-line process variables. The inverse prediction of the ledge thickness with the virtual sensor is thoroughly tested for typical operating conditions that prevail inside an industrial facility. Due to the fact that the melting/solidification process inside the reactor is highly nonlinear, results show that the accuracy of the state-space identification and the virtual sensor estimation is far superior when a nonlinear state-space model and the extended Kalman filter are employed, as opposed to a linear state-space model and the classic Kalman filter. In the former, it is shown that the discrepancy between the exact and the estimated ledge thickness remains smaller than 10% at all times.

  20. Association between the gait pattern characteristics of older people and their two-step test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Toru

    2018-04-27

    The Two-Step test is one of three official tests authorized by the Japanese Orthopedic Association to evaluate the risk of locomotive syndrome (a condition of reduced mobility caused by an impairment of the locomotive organs). It has been reported that the Two-Step test score has a good correlation with one's walking ability; however, its association with the gait pattern of older people during normal walking is still unknown. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the associations between the gait patterns of older people observed during normal walking and their Two-Step test scores. We analyzed the whole waveforms obtained from the lower-extremity joint angles and joint moments of 26 older people in various stages of locomotive syndrome using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA was conducted using a 260 × 2424 input matrix constructed from the participants' time-normalized pelvic and right-lower-limb-joint angles along three axes (ten trials of 26 participants, 101 time points, 4 angles, 3 axes, and 2 variable types per trial). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the scores of the principal component vectors (PCVs) and the scores of the Two-Step test revealed that only one PCV (PCV 2) among the 61 obtained relevant PCVs is significantly related to the score of the Two-Step test. We therefore concluded that the joint angles and joint moments related to PCV 2-ankle plantar-flexion, ankle plantar-flexor moments during the late stance phase, ranges of motion and moments on the hip, knee, and ankle joints in the sagittal plane during the entire stance phase-are the motions associated with the Two-Step test.

  1. Detection of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Concussion: Dual-Task Gait Balance Control Versus Computerized Neurocognitive Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2018-02-16

    To examine the acute (within 72h of injury) and long-term (2mo postinjury) independent associations between objective dual-task gait balance and neurocognitive measurements among adolescents and young adults with a concussion and matched controls. Longitudinal case-control. Motion analysis laboratory. A total of 95 participants completed the study: 51 who sustained a concussion (mean age, 17.5±3.3y; 71% men) and 44 controls (mean age, 17.7±2.9y; 72% men). Participants who sustained a concussion underwent a dual-task gait analysis and computerized neurocognitive testing within 72 hours of injury and again 2 months later. Uninjured controls also completed the same test protocol in similar time increments. Not applicable. We compared dual-task gait balance control and computerized neurocognitive test performance between groups using independent samples t tests. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were then constructed for each testing time to determine the association between group membership (concussion vs control), dual-task gait balance control, and neurocognitive function. Medial-lateral center-of-mass displacement during dual-task gait was independently associated with group membership at the initial test (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.432; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.269-4.661) and 2-month follow-up test (aOR, 1.817; 95% CI, 1.014-3.256) tests. Visual memory composite scores were significantly associated with group membership at the initial hour postinjury time point (aOR, .953; 95% CI, .833-.998). However, the combination of computerized neurocognitive test variables did not predict dual-task gait balance control for participants with concussion, and no single neurocognitive variable was associated with dual-task gait balance control at either testing time. Dual-task assessments concurrently evaluating gait and cognitive performance may allow for the detection of persistent deficits beyond those detected by computerized neurocognitive deficits

  2. Clinimetric properties of the Tinetti Mobility Test, Four Square Step Test, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and spatiotemporal gait measures in individuals with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Anne D; Fritz, Nora E; Kostyk, Sandra K; Young, Gregory S; Kegelmeyer, Deb A

    2014-09-01

    Individuals with Huntington's disease (HD) experience balance and gait problems that lead to falls. Clinicians currently have very little information about the reliability and validity of outcome measures to determine the efficacy of interventions that aim to reduce balance and gait impairments in HD. This study examined the reliability and concurrent validity of spatiotemporal gait measures, the Tinetti Mobility Test (TMT), Four Square Step Test (FSST), and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale in individuals with HD. Participants with HD [n = 20; mean age ± SD=50.9 ± 13.7; 7 male] were tested on spatiotemporal gait measures and the TMT, FSST, and ABC Scale before and after a six week period to determine test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) values. Linear relationships between gait and clinical measures were estimated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Spatiotemporal gait measures, the TMT total and the FSST showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC > 0.75). MDC values were 0.30 m/s and 0.17 m/s for velocity in forward and backward walking respectively, four points for the TMT, and 3s for the FSST. The TMT and FSST were highly correlated with most spatiotemporal measures. The ABC Scale demonstrated lower reliability and less concurrent validity than other measures. The high test-retest reliability over a six week period and concurrent validity between the TMT, FSST, and spatiotemporal gait measures suggest that the TMT and FSST may be useful outcome measures for future intervention studies in ambulatory individuals with HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Are the Timed Up and Go Test and Functional Reach Test Useful Predictors of Temporal and Spatial Gait Parameters in Elderly People?

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    Sadowska Dorota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aim was to analyse the relationships between the results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG test and the Functional Reach Test (FRT, and the temporal and spatial gait parameters determined with the GAITRite system.

  4. Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n = 7), experiential adolescent raters (n = 10), and parent raters (n = 10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Associations between quantitative mobility measures derived from components of conventional mobility testing and Parkinsonian gait in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron S Buchman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide objective measures which characterize mobility in older adults assessed in the community setting and to examine the extent to which these measures are associated with parkinsonian gait. METHODS: During conventional mobility testing in the community-setting, 351 ambulatory non-demented Memory and Aging Project participants wore a belt with a whole body sensor that recorded both acceleration and angular velocity in 3 directions. We used measures derived from these recordings to quantify 5 subtasks including a walking, b transition from sit to stand, c transition from stand to sit, d turning and e standing posture. Parkinsonian gait and other mild parkinsonian signs were assessed with a modified version of the original Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS. RESULTS: In a series of separate regression models which adjusted for age and sex, all 5 mobility subtask measures were associated with parkinsonian gait and accounted for 2% to 32% of its variance. When all 5 subtask measures were considered in a single model, backward elimination showed that measures of walking sit to stand and turning showed independent associations with parkinsonian gait and together accounted for more than 35% of its variance. Cross-validation using data from a 2(nd group of 258 older adults showed similar results. In similar analyses, only walking was associated with bradykinesia and sway with tremor. INTERPRETATION: Quantitative mobility subtask measures vary in their associations with parkinsonian gait scores and other parkinsonian signs in older adults. Quantifying the different facets of mobility has the potential to facilitate the clinical characterization and understanding the biologic basis for impaired mobility in older adults.

  6. Associations between Quantitative Mobility Measures Derived from Components of Conventional Mobility Testing and Parkinsonian Gait in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Weiss, Aner; VanderHorst, Veronique; Mirelman, Anat; Dawe, Robert; Barnes, Lisa L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide objective measures which characterize mobility in older adults assessed in the community setting and to examine the extent to which these measures are associated with parkinsonian gait. Methods During conventional mobility testing in the community-setting, 351 ambulatory non-demented Memory and Aging Project participants wore a belt with a whole body sensor that recorded both acceleration and angular velocity in 3 directions. We used measures derived from these recordings to quantify 5 subtasks including a) walking, b) transition from sit to stand, c) transition from stand to sit, d) turning and e) standing posture. Parkinsonian gait and other mild parkinsonian signs were assessed with a modified version of the original Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS). Results In a series of separate regression models which adjusted for age and sex, all 5 mobility subtask measures were associated with parkinsonian gait and accounted for 2% to 32% of its variance. When all 5 subtask measures were considered in a single model, backward elimination showed that measures of walking sit to stand and turning showed independent associations with parkinsonian gait and together accounted for more than 35% of its variance. Cross-validation using data from a 2nd group of 258 older adults showed similar results. In similar analyses, only walking was associated with bradykinesia and sway with tremor. Interpretation Quantitative mobility subtask measures vary in their associations with parkinsonian gait scores and other parkinsonian signs in older adults. Quantifying the different facets of mobility has the potential to facilitate the clinical characterization and understanding the biologic basis for impaired mobility in older adults. PMID:24465997

  7. Comparing the Effects of Dual-Task Gait Testing in New and Established Ambulators With Lower Extremity Amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frengopoulos, Courtney; Payne, Michael W C; Holmes, Jeffrey D; Viana, Ricardo; Hunter, Susan W

    2018-04-05

    Gait is a complex process that involves coordinating motor and sensory systems through higher-order cognitive processes. Walking with a prosthesis after lower extremity amputation challenges these processes. However, the factors that influence the cognitive-motor interaction in gait among lower extremity amputees has not been evaluated. To assess the interaction of cognition and mobility, individuals must be evaluated using the dual-task paradigm. To investigate the effect of etiology and time with prosthesis on dual-task performance in those with lower extremity amputations. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient and inpatient amputee clinics at an academic rehabilitation hospital. Sixty-four individuals (aged 58.20±12.27 years; 74.5% male) were stratified into 3 groups; 1 group of new prosthetic ambulators with transtibial amputations (NewPA) and 2 groups of established ambulators: transtibial amputations of vascular etiology (TTA-vas), transtibial amputations of nonvascular etiology (TTA-nonvas). Not applicable. Time to complete the L Test measured functional mobility under single and dual-task conditions. A serial arithmetic task (subtraction by 3s) was paired with the L Test to create the dual-task test condition. Single-task performance on the cognitive arithmetic task was also recorded. Dual-task costs (DTCs) were calculated for performance on the cognitive and gait tasks. Analysis of variance determined differences between groups. A performance-resource operating characteristic (POC) graph was used to graphically display DTCs. Gait performance was worse under dual-task conditions for all groups. Gait was significantly slower under dual-task conditions for the TTA-vas (P Dual-task conditions also had a negative impact on cognitive task performance for the TTA-nonvas (P = .02) and NewPA groups (P dual-task conditions and has a positive DTCcog as a result (P = .04). However, no between-group differences were seen for DTCcog. The POC graph demonstrated that many

  8. Gait and Balance Measures Can Identify Change From a Cerebrospinal Fluid Tap Test in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ryan; Marquez, Jodie; Osmotherly, Peter

    2018-04-25

    To identify in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) undergoing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT) for consideration of a ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunt: (1) gait and balance measures, which identify symptom change; (2) differences present between pre- and post-CSF TT scores between patients classified as responders and nonresponder; (3) ability of patients with iNPH to accurately quantify change in their gait and balance symptoms from a CSF TT. Prospective observational study. Post-CSF TT assessment was completed 2-4 hours post. Tertiary referral neurological and neurosurgical hospital. Patients (N=74) with iNPH receiving a 30 mL CSF TT for consideration of a VP shunt. Patients underwent a battery of gait and balance measures pre- and post-CSF TT and indicated their perceived change on a global rating of change (GRC). Patients deemed to improve and offered VP shunt insertion by a neurologist or neurosurgeon were labeled responders. Performance oriented mobility assessment (Tinetti), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), timed Up and Go (TUG), 10-meter walk test (10MWT), GRC. Forty patients were classified responders, 34 nonresponders. Significant differences were identified for responders: Tinetti (3.88 points), TUG (3.98 seconds), 10MWT (0.08 m/sec), and BBS (5.29 points). Significant differences were found for nonresponders for the Tinetti (0.91 points) and BBS (2.06 points). Change scores for responders and nonresponders were significantly different for all tests between responders and nonresponders. GRC scores for gait (+2 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) and balance (+2.5 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) were both significantly different. The Tinetti, BBS, and TUG can identify change in patients undergoing a CSF TT for iNPH. Patients appear to be able to accurately identify if change has occurred. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated gait analysis in the open-field test for laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Toon; Silva, Mitchell; D'Hooge, Rudi; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Berckmans, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    In this article, an automated and accurate mouse observation method, based on a conventional test for motor function evaluation, is outlined. The proposed measurement technique was integrated in a regular open-field test, where the trajectory and locomotion of a free-moving mouse were measured simultaneously. The system setup consisted of a transparent cage and a camera placed below it with its lens pointing upward, allowing for images to be captured from underneath the cage while the mouse was walking on the transparent cage floor. Thus, additional information was obtained about the position of the limbs of the mice for gait reconstruction. In a first step, the camera was calibrated as soon as it was fixed in place. A linear calibration factor, relating distances in image coordinates to real-world dimensions, was determined. In a second step, the mouse was located and its body contour segmented from the image by subtracting a previously taken "background" image of the empty cage from the camera image. In a third step, the movement of the mouse was analyzed and its speed estimated from its location in the past few images. If the speed was above a 1-sec threshold, the mouse was recognized to be running, and the image was further processed for footprint recognition. In a fourth step, color filtering was applied within the recovered mouse region to measure the position of the mouse's paws, which were visible in the image as small pink spots. Paws that were detected at the same location in a number of subsequent images were kept as footprints-that is, paws in contact with the cage floor. The footprints were classified by their position relative to the mouse's outline as corresponding to the front left or right paw or the hind left or right paw. Finally, eight parameters were calculated from the footprint pattern to describe the locomotion of the mouse: right/left overlap, front/hind base, right/left front limb stride, and right/left hind limb stride. As an application

  10. 76 FR 63852 - Proposed Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ..., University of Wisconsin Press, 1965, page 281). The western portion of the proposed boundary line extends... grapevine growth (``General Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pages... River National Wildlife Refuges. Finally, the petition adds that Horicon Ledge Park, Ledge View County...

  11. Improved Leg Tracking Considering Gait Phase and Spline-Based Interpolation during Turning Motion in Walk Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanori Yorozu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Falling is a common problem in the growing elderly population, and fall-risk assessment systems are needed for community-based fall prevention programs. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG is the clinical test most often used to evaluate elderly individual ambulatory ability in many clinical institutions or local communities. This study presents an improved leg tracking method using a laser range sensor (LRS for a gait measurement system to evaluate the motor function in walk tests, such as the TUG. The system tracks both legs and measures the trajectory of both legs. However, both legs might be close to each other, and one leg might be hidden from the sensor. This is especially the case during the turning motion in the TUG, where the time that a leg is hidden from the LRS is longer than that during straight walking and the moving direction rapidly changes. These situations are likely to lead to false tracking and deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the leg positions. To solve these problems, a novel data association considering gait phase and a Catmull–Rom spline-based interpolation during the occlusion are proposed. From the experimental results with young people, we confirm   that the proposed methods can reduce the chances of false tracking. In addition, we verify the measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory compared to a three-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON.

  12. Associations between physical performance and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: gait speed and the timed "up & go" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Cochrane, Barbara B; Engel, Joyce M; Teri, Linda

    2011-08-01

    Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=-0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=-0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed "Up & Go" Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, Pfunction performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. Physical performance speed was associated with executive function after adjusting for age, sex, and age-related factors in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Further research is needed to determine

  13. Assessment of isometric muscle strength and rate of torque development with hand-held dynamometry: Test-retest reliability and relationship with gait velocity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Tan, Dawn; Williams, Gavin; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bower, Kelly J; Clark, Ross A

    2018-04-27

    Isometric rate of torque development examines how quickly force can be exerted and may resemble everyday task demands more closely than isometric strength. Rate of torque development may provide further insight into the relationship between muscle function and gait following stroke. Aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability of hand-held dynamometry to measure isometric rate of torque development following stroke, to examine associations between strength and rate of torque development, and to compare the relationships of strength and rate of torque development to gait velocity. Sixty-three post-stroke adults participated (60 years, 34 male). Gait velocity was assessed using the fast-paced 10 m walk test. Isometric strength and rate of torque development of seven lower-limb muscle groups were assessed with hand-held dynamometry. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for reliability and Spearman's rho correlations were calculated for associations. Regression analyses using partial F-tests were used to compare strength and rate of torque development in their relationship with gait velocity. Good to excellent reliability was shown for strength and rate of torque development (0.82-0.97). Strong associations were found between strength and rate of torque development (0.71-0.94). Despite high correlations between strength and rate of torque development, rate of torque development failed to provide significant value to regression models that already contained strength. Assessment of isometric rate of torque development with hand-held dynamometry is reliable following stroke, however isometric strength demonstrated greater relationships with gait velocity. Further research should examine the relationship between dynamic measures of muscle strength/torque and gait after stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  15. Manganese L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of manganese catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum and mixed valence manganese complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grush, M.M.; Chen, J.; George, S.J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-10

    The first Mn L-edge absorption spectra of a Mn metalloprotein are presented in this paper. Both reduced and superoxidized Mn catalase have been examined by fluorescence-detected soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and their Mn L-edge spectra are dramatically different. The spectrum of reduced Mn(II)Mn(II) catalase has been interpreted by ligand field atomic multiplet calculations and by comparison to model compound spectra. The analysis finds a 10 Dq value of nearly 1.1 eV, consistent with coordination by predominately nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands. For interpretation of mixed valence Mn spectra, an empirical simulation procedure based on the addition of homovalent model compound spectra has been developed and was tested on a variety of Mn complexes and superoxidized Mn catalase. This routine was also used to determine the oxidation state composition of the Mn in [Ba{sub 8}Na{sub 2}ClMn{sub 16}(OH){sub 8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}L{sub 8}] .53 H{sub 2}O (L=1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N`N`-tetraacetic acid). 27 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Test-retest reliability of spatial and temporal gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy as measured by an electronic walkway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsdahl, Anne Brit; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Strand, Liv Inger

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of seven selected temporal and spatial gait parameters and asymmetry measures in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with CP between 3 and 13 years of age walked at three different speeds across an electronic walkway of 5.2m. The tests were repeated after approximately 25 min. The scores were normalized to a walking speed of 1.1m/s to avoid the confounding effect of gait speed on speed dependent gait parameters. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(1,1) and ICC(3,1)) with 95% confidence intervals, within-subject standard deviation (S(w)) and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were calculated. The relative reliability of cadence, step length, stride length and single stance time was high to excellent (ICC(1,1) between 0.73 and 0.95), while it was poor for step width (ICC(1,1)=0.27 and 0.35). The relative reliability for two calculated asymmetry measures were high for the step length index (ICC(1,1)=0.82) and moderate for the single stance time index (ICC(1,1)=0.49). The absolute reliability values for all gait parameters are reported. Five of seven gait parameters measured by an electronic walkway and normalized to a common walking speed, appear to be highly repeatable in a short-term time span in children with CP who were able to walk without assistive walking devices, provided sufficient cognitive function.

  17. Human-robot interaction tests on a novel robot for gait assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Nevio Luigi; Sergi, Fabrizio; Carpino, Giorgio; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents tests on a treadmill-based non-anthropomorphic wearable robot assisting hip and knee flexion/extension movements using compliant actuation. Validation experiments were performed on the actuators and on the robot, with specific focus on the evaluation of intrinsic backdrivability and of assistance capability. Tests on a young healthy subject were conducted. In the case of robot completely unpowered, maximum backdriving torques were found to be in the order of 10 Nm due to the robot design features (reduced swinging masses; low intrinsic mechanical impedance and high-efficiency reduction gears for the actuators). Assistance tests demonstrated that the robot can deliver torques attracting the subject towards a predicted kinematic status.

  18. Rapid inversion: running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mongeau

    Full Text Available Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.

  19. Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; McRae, Brian; Jusufi, Ardian; Birkmeyer, Paul; Hoover, Aaron M.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot. PMID:22701594

  20. EMG normalization method based on grade 3 of manual muscle testing: Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks and application to gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Rose-Dulcina, Kevin; Pittet, Vincent; Dayer, Romain; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Armand, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), is not adapted to pathological populations because patients are often unable to perform an MVIC. The normalization method inspired by the isometric grade 3 of manual muscle testing (isoMMT3), which is the ability of a muscle to maintain a position against gravity, could be an interesting alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within- and between-day reliability of the isoMMT3 EMG normalizing method during gait compared with the conventional MVIC method. Lower limb muscles EMG (gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus) were recorded bilaterally in nine healthy participants (five males, aged 29.7±6.2years, BMI 22.7±3.3kgm -2 ) giving a total of 18 independent legs. Three repeated measurements of the isoMMT3 and MVIC exercises were performed with an EMG recording. EMG amplitude of the muscles during gait was normalized by these two methods. This protocol was repeated one week later. Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks were similar for isoMMT3 and MVIC methods. Within- and between-day reliability of gait EMG normalized by isoMMT3 was higher than with MVIC normalization. These results indicate that EMG normalization using isoMMT3 is a reliable method with no special equipment needed and will support CGA interpretation. The next step will be to evaluate this method in pathological populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance analysis for gait in camera networks

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Goffredo; Imed Bouchrika; John Carter; Mark Nixon

    2008-01-01

    This paper deploys gait analysis for subject identification in multi-camera surveillance scenarios. We present a new method for viewpoint independent markerless gait analysis that does not require camera calibration and works with a wide range of directions of walking. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for gait identification in real surveillance scenarios where people and their behaviour need to be tracked across a set of cameras. Tests on 300 synthetic and real...

  2. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present.

  3. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  4. Development of a novel virtual reality gait intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Anna E; Foreman, Matthew H; Engsberg, Jack R

    2017-02-01

    Improving gait speed and kinematics can be a time consuming and tiresome process. We hypothesize that incorporating virtual reality videogame play into variable improvement goals will improve levels of enjoyment and motivation and lead to improved gait performance. To develop a feasible, engaging, VR gait intervention for improving gait variables. Completing this investigation involved four steps: 1) identify gait variables that could be manipulated to improve gait speed and kinematics using the Microsoft Kinect and free software, 2) identify free internet videogames that could successfully manipulate the chosen gait variables, 3) experimentally evaluate the ability of the videogames and software to manipulate the gait variables, and 4) evaluate the enjoyment and motivation from a small sample of persons without disability. The Kinect sensor was able to detect stride length, cadence, and joint angles. FAAST software was able to identify predetermined gait variable thresholds and use the thresholds to play free online videogames. Videogames that involved continuous pressing of a keyboard key were found to be most appropriate for manipulating the gait variables. Five participants without disability evaluated the effectiveness for modifying the gait variables and enjoyment and motivation during play. Participants were able to modify gait variables to permit successful videogame play. Motivation and enjoyment were high. A clinically feasible and engaging virtual intervention for improving gait speed and kinematics has been developed and initially tested. It may provide an engaging avenue for achieving thousands of repetitions necessary for neural plastic changes and improved gait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive and motor dual task gait training improve dual task gait performance after stroke - A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ci; Yang, Yea-Ru; Tsai, Yun-An; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2017-06-22

    This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Three test conditions to evaluate the training effects were single walking, walking while performing cognitive task (serial subtraction), and walking while performing motor task (tray-carrying). Parameters included gait speed, dual task cost of gait speed (DTC-speed), cadence, stride time, and stride length. After CDTT, cognitive-motor dual task gait performance (stride length and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.021; p = 0.015). After MDTT, motor dual task gait performance (gait speed, stride length, and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.008; p = 0.008; p = 0.008 respectively). It seems that CDTT improved cognitive dual task gait performance and MDTT improved motor dual task gait performance although such improvements did not reach significant group difference. Therefore, different types of dual task gait training can be adopted to enhance different dual task gait performance in stroke.

  6. TEM characterization of invariant line interfaces and structural ledges in a Mo-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, S.Q.; Dahmen, U.; Maloy, S.A.; Heuer, A.H.

    1995-06-01

    Two distinct lath morphologies of Mo 5 Si 3 precipitates observed in MoSi 2 differ in their cross-sectional shape and lattice orientation. Type I laths exhibit a rectangular cross section, with interfaces parallel to low-index planes, while Type II laths are parallelogram-shaped, with their major interface at 13 degree to the Type I precipitate. The corresponding orientation relationships differ by a 1.8 degree rotation around the lath axis. In this study, the difference between the two characteristic morphologies and orientation relationships is shown to be the formation of an invariant line strain for Type II precipitates. On an atomic scale, both interfaces have a terrace and ledge structure but differ in the stacking sequence of interfacial ledges associated with partial dislocations. The structural unit model and the invariant line model predict identical interface geometries which agree closely with the observations

  7. Volition-adaptive control for gait training using wearable exoskeleton: preliminary tests with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Vijaykumar; López-Larraz, Eduardo; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Aranda, Joan; Montesano, Luis; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Pons, Jose L

    2018-01-03

    Gait training for individuals with neurological disorders is challenging in providing the suitable assistance and more adaptive behaviour towards user needs. The user specific adaptation can be defined based on the user interaction with the orthosis and by monitoring the user intentions. In this paper, an adaptive control model, commanded by the user intention, is evaluated using a lower limb exoskeleton with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals (SCI). A user intention based adaptive control model has been developed and evaluated with 4 incomplete SCI individuals across 3 sessions of training per individual. The adaptive control model modifies the joint impedance properties of the exoskeleton as a function of the human-orthosis interaction torques and the joint trajectory evolution along the gait sequence, in real time. The volitional input of the user is identified by monitoring the neural signals, pertaining to the user's motor activity. These volitional inputs are used as a trigger to initiate the gait movement, allowing the user to control the initialization of the exoskeleton movement, independently. A Finite-state machine based control model is used in this set-up which helps in combining the volitional orders with the gait adaptation. The exoskeleton demonstrated an adaptive assistance depending on the patients' performance without guiding them to follow an imposed trajectory. The exoskeleton initiated the trajectory based on the user intention command received from the brain machine interface, demonstrating it as a reliable trigger. The exoskeleton maintained the equilibrium by providing suitable assistance throughout the experiments. A progressive change in the maximum flexion of the knee joint was observed at the end of each session which shows improvement in the patient performance. Results of the adaptive impedance were evaluated by comparing with the application of a constant impedance value. Participants reported that the movement of the

  8. A novel and simple test of gait adaptability predicts gold standard measures of functional mobility in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, K L; Pelton, T A; van der Veen, S; Alharbi, S; Hollands, M A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is evidence that stroke survivors have reduced gait adaptability, the underlying mechanisms and the relationship to functional recovery are largely unknown. We explored the relationships between walking adaptability and clinical measures of balance, motor recovery and functional ability in stroke survivors. Stroke survivors (n=42) stepped to targets, on a 6m walkway, placed to elicit step lengthening, shortening and narrowing on paretic and non-paretic sides. The number of targets missed during six walks and target stepping speed was recorded. Fugl-Meyer (FM), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), self-selected walking speed (SWWS) and single support (SS) and step length (SL) symmetry (using GaitRite when not walking to targets) were also assessed. Stepwise multiple-linear regression was used to model the relationships between: total targets missed, number missed with paretic and non-paretic legs, target stepping speed, and each clinical measure. Regression revealed a significant model for each outcome variable that included only one independent variable. Targets missed by the paretic limb, was a significant predictor of FM (F(1,40)=6.54, p=0.014,). Speed of target stepping was a significant predictor of each of BBS (F(1,40)=26.36, padaptability is a clinically meaningful target for measurement and treatment of functionally adaptive walking ability in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. GaitKeeper: A System for Measuring Canine Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassim Ladha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs’ gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias. This means reliable, early detection of canine gait abnormalities is challenging, which may have detrimental implications for dogs’ welfare. In this paper, we draw from approaches and technologies used in human movement science and describe a system for objectively measuring temporal gait characteristics in dogs (step-time, swing-time, stance-time. Asymmetries and variabilities in these characteristics are of known clinical significance when assessing lameness but presently may only be assessed on coarse scales or under highly instrumented environments. The system consists an inertial measurement unit, containing a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope coupled with a standardized walking course. The measurement unit is attached to each leg of the dog under assessment before it is walked around the course. The data by the measurement unit is then processed to identify steps and subsequently, micro-gait characteristics. This method has been tested on a cohort of 19 healthy dogs of various breeds ranging in height from 34.2 cm to 84.9 cm. We report the system as capable of making precise step delineations with detections of initial and final contact times of foot-to-floor to a mean precision of 0.011 s and 0.048 s, respectively. Results are based on analysis of 12,678 foot falls and we report a sensitivity, positive predictive value and F-score of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. To investigate the effect of gait on system performance

  10. Measuring Gait Quality in Parkinson’s Disease through Real-Time Gait Phase Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mileti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring gait quality in daily activities through wearable sensors has the potential to improve medical assessment in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. In this study, four gait partitioning methods, two based on thresholds and two based on a machine learning approach, considering the four-phase model, were compared. The methods were tested on 26 PD patients, both in OFF and ON levodopa conditions, and 11 healthy subjects, during walking tasks. All subjects were equipped with inertial sensors placed on feet. Force resistive sensors were used to assess reference time sequence of gait phases. Goodness Index (G was evaluated to assess accuracy in gait phases estimation. A novel synthetic index called Gait Phase Quality Index (GPQI was proposed for gait quality assessment. Results revealed optimum performance (G < 0.25 for three tested methods and good performance (0.25 < G < 0.70 for one threshold method. The GPQI resulted significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy subjects, showing a moderate correlation with clinical scales score. Furthermore, in patients with severe gait impairment, GPQI was found higher in OFF than in ON state. Our results unveil the possibility of monitoring gait quality in PD through real-time gait partitioning based on wearable sensors.

  11. Flexible Piezoelectric Sensor-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.

  12. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  13. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    . Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. A classifier is defined based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. The overall recognition rate is 88.2% on a large and diverse test set. The recognition rate is better than...

  14. Characterization of heterogeneous nickel sites in CO dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum by nickel L-edge x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, C.Y. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Kumar, M.; Ragsdale, S.W. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful spectroscopic technique for determining the electronic state of transition metals. For first row transition metals, the L-edge represents a transition from 2p core levels to 3d valence levels. Coulomb and exchange interactions between the core hole and 3d valence electrons make the L-edge sensitive to the number and configuration of 3d electrons, hence to the metal spin state and oxidation state. The authors have used L-edge XAS to characterize the Ni sites in the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) enzyme from Clostridium thermoaceticum. This CODH catalyzes both CO oxidation and acetyl-CoA synthesis at two Ni and Fe containing centers, C and A, respectively. Since the enzyme exhibits complex EPR signals that never integrate to one spin per Ni, there is evidence for heterogeneity in the types of Ni present. The Ni L-edge protein spectra were recorded at ALS beamline 9.3.2. The photon energy resolutions used for protein samples and for Ni model compound spectra were 350 and 270 meV respectively. During data collection the sample chamber was maintained at less than 5{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr using a helium cryopump. Model compound spectra were measured using total electron yield detection, while protein spectra were recorded using fluorescence detection with a windowless 13-element germanium detector, and were calibrated using the total electron yield spectrum of NiF{sub 2} or NiO. Each protein spectrum presented represents the sum of approximately 40 15-minute scans. The authors have found that by using L-edge XAS they are able to distinguish between different spin and oxidation states of Ni compounds. They have used this result to characterize the Ni containing CODH protein in various states. The L-edge spectra are consistent with other results showing that when CODH is reacted with CO, the metal centers undergo reduction.

  15. Ledge-flow-controlled catalyst interface dynamics during Si nanowire growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, S; Sharma, R; Wirth, CT

    2008-01-01

    understanding of the role of commonly used catalysts and specifically of their interface dynamics1, 2. Although catalytic chemical vapour deposition of nanowires below the eutectic temperature has been demonstrated in many semiconductor–catalyst systems3, 4, 5, 6, growth from solid catalysts is still disputed...... as a comparative benchmark. The dominant coherent Pd silicide/Si growth interface subsequently advances by lateral propagation of ledges, driven by catalytic dissociation of disilane and coupled Pd and Si diffusion. Our results establish an atomistic framework for nanowire assembly from solid catalysts, relevant...

  16. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  18. Association of Dual-Task Gait With Incident Dementia in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Gait and Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel M; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; Speechley, Mark; Borrie, Michael J; Hachinski, Vladimir C; Wells, Jennie; Riccio, Patricia M; Schapira, Marcelo; Sejdic, Ervin; Camicioli, Richard M; Bartha, Robert; McIlroy, William E; Muir-Hunter, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI. To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI. The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI. Participants were followed up for 6 years, with biannual visits including neurologic, cognitive, and gait assessments. Data were collected from July 2007 to March 2016. Incident all-cause dementia was the main outcome measure, and single- and dual-task gait velocity and dual-task gait costs were the independent variables. A neuropsychological test battery was used to assess cognition. Gait velocity was recorded under single-task and 3 separate dual-task conditions using an electronic walkway. Dual-task gait cost was defined as the percentage change between single- and dual-task gait velocities: ([single-task gait velocity - dual-task gait velocity]/ single-task gait velocity) × 100. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between risk of progression to dementia and the independent variables, adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, and cognition. Among 112 study participants with MCI, mean (SD) age was 76.6 (6.9) years, 55 were women (49.1%), and 27 progressed to dementia (24.1%), with an incidence rate of 121 per 1000 person-years. Slow single-task gait velocity (gait cost while counting backward (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.57-9.15; P = .003) and naming animals (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.04-5.59; P = .04) were associated with dementia progression (incidence rate, 155 per 1000 person-years). The models remained robust after adjusting by baseline cognition except for dual-task gait cost when dichotomized. Dual

  19. Gait and Cognition in Parkinson’s Disease: Cognitive Impairment Is Inadequately Reflected by Gait Performance during Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Gaßner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive and gait deficits are common symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Motor-cognitive dual tasks (DTs are used to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. However, it is unclear if DT gait performance is indicative for cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive deficits are reflected by DT costs of spatiotemporal gait parameters.MethodsCognitive function, single task (ST and DT gait performance were investigated in 67 PD patients. Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA followed by a standardized, sensor-based gait test and the identical gait test while subtracting serial 3’s. Cognitive impairment was defined by a MoCA score <26. DT costs in gait parameters [(DT − ST/ST × 100] were calculated as a measure of DT effect on gait. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between MoCA performance and gait parameters. In a linear regression model, DT gait costs and clinical confounders (age, gender, disease duration, motor impairment, medication, and depression were correlated to cognitive performance. In a subgroup analysis, we compared matched groups of cognitively impaired and unimpaired PD patients regarding differences in ST, DT, and DT gait costs.ResultsCorrelation analysis revealed weak correlations between MoCA score and DT costs of gait parameters (r/rSp ≤ 0.3. DT costs of stride length, swing time variability, and maximum toe clearance (|r/rSp| > 0.2 were included in a regression analysis. The parameters only explain 8% of the cognitive variance. In combination with clinical confounders, regression analysis showed that these gait parameters explained 30% of MoCA performance. Group comparison revealed strong DT effects within both groups (large effect sizes, but significant between-group effects in DT gait costs were not observed.ConclusionThese findings suggest that DT gait performance is not indicative

  20. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...

  1. A Validated Smartphone-Based Assessment of Gait and Gait Variability in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ellis

    Full Text Available A well-established connection exists between increased gait variability and greater fall likelihood in Parkinson's disease (PD; however, a portable, validated means of quantifying gait variability (and testing the efficacy of any intervention remains lacking. Furthermore, although rhythmic auditory cueing continues to receive attention as a promising gait therapy for PD, its widespread delivery remains bottlenecked. The present paper describes a smartphone-based mobile application ("SmartMOVE" to address both needs.The accuracy of smartphone-based gait analysis (utilizing the smartphone's built-in tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope to calculate successive step times and step lengths was validated against two heel contact-based measurement devices: heel-mounted footswitch sensors (to capture step times and an instrumented pressure sensor mat (to capture step lengths. 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls walked along a 26-m path during self-paced and metronome-cued conditions, with all three devices recording simultaneously.Four outcome measures of gait and gait variability were calculated. Mixed-factorial analysis of variance revealed several instances in which between-group differences (e.g., increased gait variability in PD patients relative to healthy controls yielded medium-to-large effect sizes (eta-squared values, and cueing-mediated changes (e.g., decreased gait variability when PD patients walked with auditory cues yielded small-to-medium effect sizes-while at the same time, device-related measurement error yielded small-to-negligible effect sizes.These findings highlight specific opportunities for smartphone-based gait analysis to serve as an alternative to conventional gait analysis methods (e.g., footswitch systems or sensor-embedded walkways, particularly when those methods are cost-prohibitive, cumbersome, or inconvenient.

  2. A combined DFT and restricted open-shell configuration interaction method including spin-orbit coupling: Application to transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemelt, Michael; Maganas, Dimitrios; Neese, Frank [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); DeBeer, Serena [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-28

    A novel restricted-open-shell configuration interaction with singles (ROCIS) approach for the calculation of transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra is introduced. In this method, one first calculates the ground state and a number of excited states of the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. By construction, the total spin is a good quantum number in each of these states. For a ground state with total spin S excited states with spin S Prime = S, S - 1, and S + 1 are constructed. Using Wigner-Eckart algebra, all magnetic sublevels with M{sub S}= S, Horizontal-Ellipsis , -S for each multiplet of spin S are obtained. The spin-orbit operator is represented by a mean-field approximation to the full Breit-Pauli spin-orbit operator and is diagonalized over this N-particle basis. This is equivalent to a quasi-degenerate treatment of the spin-orbit interaction to all orders. Importantly, the excitation space spans all of the molecular multiplets that arise from the atomic Russell-Saunders terms. Hence, the method represents a rigorous first-principles approach to the complicated low-symmetry molecular multiplet problem met in L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to gain computational efficiency, as well as additional accuracy, the excitation space is restricted to single excitations and the configuration interaction matrix is slightly parameterized in order to account for dynamic correlation effects in an average way. To this end, it is advantageous to employ Kohn-Sham rather than Hartree-Fock orbitals thus defining the density functional theory/ROCIS method. However, the method can also be used in an entirely non-empirical fashion. Only three global empirical parameters are introduced and have been determined here for future application of the method to any system containing any transition metal. The three parameters were carefully calibrated using the L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra of a test set of coordination complexes containing first row

  3. Human Gait Recognition Based on Multiview Gait Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxi Huang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing gait recognition methods rely on a single view, usually the side view, of the walking person. This paper investigates the case in which several views are available for gait recognition. It is shown that each view has unequal discrimination power and, therefore, should have unequal contribution in the recognition process. In order to exploit the availability of multiple views, several methods for the combination of the results that are obtained from the individual views are tested and evaluated. A novel approach for the combination of the results from several views is also proposed based on the relative importance of each view. The proposed approach generates superior results, compared to those obtained by using individual views or by using multiple views that are combined using other combination methods.

  4. Gait performance of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) may exhibit balance disorders, which can compromise the gait performance of this population. Compare the gait performance of normal hearing (NH) children and those with SNHL, considering the sex and age range of the sample, and analyze gait performance according to degrees of hearing loss and etiological factors in the latter group. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed 96 students, 48 NH and 48 with SNHL, aged between 7 and 18 years. The Brazilian version of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) was used to analyze gait and the Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. The group with SNHL obtained lower average gait performance compared to NH subjects (p=0.000). This was also observed when the children were grouped by sex female and male (p=0.000). The same difference occurred when the children were stratified by age group: 7-18 years (p=0.000). The group with severe and profound hearing loss exhibited worse gait performance than those with mild and moderate loss (p=0.048) and children with prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performance. The children with SNHL showed worse gait performance compared to NH of the same sex and age group. Those with severe and profound hearing loss and prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. NEW DATA ON AGE AND NATURE OF CARBONIZATION WITHIN SOUTHERN FLANK OF THE BAIKAL LEDGE OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON BASEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Danilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baikal ledge rock formations in the Siberian craton structure are included in the Akitkan mobile belt which is considered as the Late Paleoproterozoic independent island arc system moved up to the ancient basement during the terrains amalgamation 1.91–2.00 Ga ago (Fig. 1 [Rosen, 2003; Gladkochub et al., 2009; Didenko et al., 2013].

  6. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the ot...

  7. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.

  8. Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Gery

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback

  9. Neuromorphic walking gait control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Hepp, Klaus; Douglas, Rodney J

    2006-03-01

    We present a neuromorphic pattern generator for controlling the walking gaits of four-legged robots which is inspired by central pattern generators found in the nervous system and which is implemented as a very large scale integrated (VLSI) chip. The chip contains oscillator circuits that mimic the output of motor neurons in a strongly simplified way. We show that four coupled oscillators can produce rhythmic patterns with phase relationships that are appropriate to generate all four-legged animal walking gaits. These phase relationships together with frequency and duty cycle of the oscillators determine the walking behavior of a robot driven by the chip, and they depend on a small set of stationary bias voltages. We give analytic expressions for these dependencies. This chip reduces the complex, dynamic inter-leg control problem associated with walking gait generation to the problem of setting a few stationary parameters. It provides a compact and low power solution for walking gait control in robots.

  10. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  11. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutian Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  12. Real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index for gait training of toe-walking children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Weiyan; Fan, Xiaoya; Chen, Wei; Li, Shuyu; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether and how real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index (DFPI) could be used to correct toe-walking gait in spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus. Thirteen spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus were asked to wear a monitoring device to record their ambulation during daily gait, conventional training gait, and feedback training gait. Parameters based on their DFPI and stride duration were compared among the three test conditions. The results with feedback training were significantly better for all DFPI parameters in comparison to patients' daily gait and showed significant improvements in DFPI for toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to conventional training methods. Moreover, stride duration under two training gaits was longer than patient's daily gait, but there was no significant difference between the two training gaits. Although the stride duration for the two training gaits was similar, gait training with real-time feedback of DFPI did produce noticeably superior results by increasing heel-loading impulse of toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to convention training methods. However, its effectiveness was still impacted by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Implications for Rehabilitation The DFPI-based gait training feedback system introduced in this study was shown to be more effective at toe-walking gait rehabilitation training over conventional training methods. The feedback system accomplished superior improvement in correcting toe-walking gait, but its effectiveness in an increasing heel-loading impulse in normal gait was still limited by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Stride duration of normal gait and toe-walking gait was similar under conventional and feedback gait training.

  13. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...

  14. TBI Assessment of Readiness Using a Gait Evaluation Test (TARGET): Development of a Portable mTBI Screening Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    determine the validity and reliability of an Android device-based mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury) screening test app for assessing motor function. The...individuals and those with clinically confirmed mTBI in both a civilian and military population. 15. SUBJECT TERMS- 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...8 5. Changes/ Problems 9 6. Products 11 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 14 8. Special Reporting Requirements 16 9. Appendices

  15. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Du-Xin; Wu, Xinyu; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Can; Xu, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS) and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP) on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton. PMID:27690023

  16. A Wearable Gait Phase Detection System Based on Force Myography Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianta Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Quantitative evaluation of gait parameters can provide useful information for constructing individuals’ gait profile, diagnosing gait abnormalities, and better planning of rehabilitation schemes to restore normal gait pattern. Objective determination of gait phases in a gait cycle is a key requirement in gait analysis applications; (2 Methods: In this study, the feasibility of using a force myography-based technique for a wearable gait phase detection system is explored. In this regard, a force myography band is developed and tested with nine participants walking on a treadmill. The collected force myography data are first examined sample-by-sample and classified into four phases using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The gait phase events are then detected from these classified samples using a set of supervisory rules; (3 Results: The results show that the force myography band can correctly detect more than 99.9% of gait phases with zero insertions and only four deletions over 12,965 gait phase segments. The average temporal error of gait phase detection is 55.2 ms, which translates into 2.1% error with respect to the corresponding labelled stride duration; (4 Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of force myography techniques as viable solutions in developing wearable gait phase detection systems.

  17. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du-Xin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton.

  18. Combined gait disorder: a diagnostic challenge –a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gait disorders are a major cause of functional impairment and morbidity, especially in the elderly population. Prevalence of gait disorders is higher in persons over 60: is estimated to be around 15% at 60 years of age and more than 50% in people > 80 years. Most gait disorders are multifactorial and have both neurologic and non-neurologic components. Neurological gait abnormalities result from focal or diffuse lesions occurring in the neural pathways linking the cortical motor centers to the peripheral neuromuscular systems. Nonneurological gait abnormalities include gait limitations caused by musculoskeletal, cardiac, or respiratory diseases. Assessment of a gait abnormality should include history, clinical presentation and additional diagnostic tests. Finding the ethiology of a gait disorder could be a challenge for the practitioners in many cases, requiring interdisciplinary cooperation.

  19. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  20. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz BenAbdelkader

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  1. Gait disorders in the elderly and dual task gait analysis: a new approach for identifying motor phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Touzard, Claude; Montestruc, François; Delafond, Arnaud; Goeb, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    Gait disorders and gait analysis under single and dual-task conditions are topics of great interest, but very few studies have looked for the relevance of gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly people on the basis of a clinical approach. An observational study including 103 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 7.2, women 56%) suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment was conducted. Gait analysis under dual-task conditions was carried out for all patients. Brain MRI was performed in the absence of contra-indications. Three main gait variables were measured: walking speed, stride frequency, and stride regularity. For each gait variable, the dual task cost was computed and a quartile analysis was obtained. Nonparametric tests were used for all the comparisons (Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher or Chi 2 tests). Four clinical subgroups were identified: gait instability (45%), recurrent falls (29%), memory impairment (18%), and cautious gait (8%). The biomechanical severity of these subgroups was ordered according to walking speed and stride regularity under both conditions, from least to most serious as follows: memory impairment, gait instability, recurrent falls, cautious gait (p < 0.01 for walking speed, p = 0.05 for stride regularity). According to the established diagnoses of gait disorders, 5 main pathological subgroups were identified (musculoskeletal diseases (n = 11), vestibular diseases (n = 6), mild cognitive impairment (n = 24), central nervous system pathologies, (n = 51), and without diagnosis (n = 8)). The dual task cost for walking speed, stride frequency and stride regularity were different among these subgroups (p < 0.01). The subgroups mild cognitive impairment and central nervous system pathologies both showed together a higher dual task cost for each variable compared to the other subgroups combined (p = 0.01). The quartile analysis of dual task cost for stride frequency and stride regularity

  2. Gait characteristics in women's safety shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kanako; Abe, Kaoru

    2017-11-01

    Although workers in Japan are required to wear safety footwear, there is concern about occupational accidents that occur when wearing safety shoes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of wearing hardsoled safety shoes on both spatiotemporal gait characteristics and the muscle activity in the lower extremities. Seventeen young women participated in this study. A 5-m gait trial and a surface electromyography trial were conducted while the women walked in either safety shoes or sports shoes. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze the differences in gait characteristics when walking in the two different pairs of shoes. Walking in safety shoes was associated with a significant increase in vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior activity. This increased muscle activity in the lower extremities is likely compensating for the lower flexibility of the safety shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gait adjustments in obstacle crossing, gait initiation and gait termination after a recent lower limb amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Aline H.; van Keeken, Helco G.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Hof, At L.; Otten, Bert; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Postema, Klaas

    Objective: To describe the adjustments in gait characteristics of obstacle crossing, gait initiation and gait termination that occur in subjects with a recent lower limb amputation during the rehabilitation process. Design: Prospective and descriptive study. Subjects: Fourteen subjects with a recent

  4. DMRT3 is associated with gait type in Mangalarga Marchador horses, but does not control gait ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, L; Staiger, E A; Brooks, S A

    2015-04-01

    The Mangalarga Marchador (MM) is a Brazilian horse breed known for a uniquely smooth gait. A recent publication described a mutation in the DMRT3 gene that the authors claim controls the ability to perform lateral patterned gaits (Andersson et al. 2012). We tested 81 MM samples for the DMRT3 mutation using extracted DNA from hair bulbs using a novel RFLP. Horses were phenotypically categorized by their gait type (batida or picada), as recorded by the Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador Breeders Association (ABCCMM). Statistical analysis using the plink toolset (Purcell, 2007) revealed significant association between gait type and the DMRT3 mutation (P = 2.3e-22). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that selective pressure for gait type is altering allele frequencies in this breed (P = 1.00e-5). These results indicate that this polymorphism may be useful for genotype-assisted selection for gait type within this breed. As both batida and picada MM horses can perform lateral gaits, the DMRT3 mutation is not the only locus responsible for the lateral gait pattern. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: Implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Oliver; Dillinger, Steffen; Marschall, Franz

    2016-07-01

    In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions three times each: barefoot, wearing sneakers, wearing combat boots, after muscular fatigue, and wearing a full-face motorcycle helmet restricting vision. The joint angles of foot, knee, and hip were recorded in the sagittal plane. The coupling of movements was represented by time-adjusted cyclograms, and the inter- and intra-individual differences were captured by calculating the similarity between different gait patterns. Gait pattern variability was often greater between the defined test situations than between the individual test subjects. The results have been interpreted considering neurophysiological regulation mechanisms. Footwear, masking, and fatigue were interpreted as disturbance parameters, each being a cause for gait pattern variability and complicating the inference of identity of persons in video recordings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75 and an abnormal gait group (n = 25. Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV in stride length, two with base of support (BOS deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was

  7. Does robot-assisted gait training ameliorate gait abnormalities in multiple sclerosis? A pilot randomized-control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straudi, S; Benedetti, M G; Venturini, E; Manca, M; Foti, C; Basaglia, N

    2013-01-01

    Gait disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to a progressive reduction of function and quality of life. Test the effects of robot-assisted gait rehabilitation in MS subjects through a pilot randomized-controlled study. We enrolled MS subjects with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores within 4.5-6.5. The experimental group received 12 robot-assisted gait training sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received the same amount of conventional physiotherapy. Outcomes measures were both biomechanical assessment of gait, including kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters, and clinical test of walking endurance (six-minute walk test) and mobility (Up and Go Test). 16 subjects (n = 8 experimental group, n = 8 control group) were included in the final analysis. At baseline the two groups were similar in all variables, except for step length. Data showed walking endurance, as well as spatio-temporal gait parameters improvements after robot-assisted gait training. Pelvic antiversion and reduced hip extension during terminal stance ameliorated after aforementioned intervention. Robot-assisted gait training seems to be effective in increasing walking competency in MS subjects. Moreover, it could be helpful in restoring the kinematic of the hip and pelvis.

  8. Functional improvement after carotid endarterectomy: demonstrated by gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported

  9. Preditores espaço-temporais do andar para testes de capacidade funcional em pacientes com doença de Parkinson Gait spatial and temporal predictors for functional capacity tests in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MDR Sánchez-Arias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar quais parâmetros espaço-temporais são preditores do andar de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson idiopática para os testes de resistência aeróbia e agilidade, propostos pela bateria de testes da American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados seis homens e seis mulheres com comprometimento e estágio da doença em níveis leve e moderado, que realizaram os testes de agilidade e resistência aeróbia, conforme o protocolo da AAHPERD, e andaram 8m sobre uma passarela. Uma câmera digital registrou uma passada central. Marcadores foram fixados no quinto metatarso e na face lateral do calcâneo do membro inferior direito e no primeiro metatarso e na face medial do calcâneo do membro inferior esquerdo. As variáveis dependentes selecionadas foram: tempo nos testes de agilidade e resistência e as variáveis cinemáticas (comprimento da passada - CP, cadência - CAD, duração da passada - DP, duração da fase de duplo suporte - DDS, duração do suporte simples - SS, duração da fase de balanço - DB e velocidade da passada - VP. RESULTADOS: Para agilidade, o teste de Pearson apontou correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis CP (r=-0,70; pOBJECTIVE: To determine which spatial and temporal parameters are predictors of the gait pattern of individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, for the aerobic endurance and agility tests included in the battery of tests of the AAHPERD protocol. METHODS: Six men and six women with mild and moderate impairment and disease stage were selected. They performed agility and aerobic endurance test in accordance with the AAHPERD protocol, and walked 8 m on a walkway. A digital video camera recorded one central stride. Markers were attached to the fifth metatarsal and lateral face of the calcaneus of the right leg and to the first metatarsal and medial face of the calcaneus of the left leg. The

  10. The effects of smartphone multitasking on gait and dynamic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeon Hyeong; Lee, Myoung Hee

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to analyze the influence of smartphone multitasking on gait and dynamic balance. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male and 20 female university students. There were 4 types of gait tasks: General Gait (walking without a task), Task Gait 1 (walking while writing a message), Task Gait 2 (walking while writing a message and listening to music), Task Gait 3 (walking while writing a message and having a conversation). To exclude the learning effect, the order of tasks was randomized. The Zebris FDM-T treadmill system (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany) was used to measure left and right step length and width, and a 10 m walking test (10MWT) was conducted for gait velocity. In addition, a Timed Up and Go test (TUG) was used to measure dynamic balance. All the tasks were performed 3 times, and the mean of the measured values was analyzed. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in step length and width. There were statistically significant differences in the 10MWT and TUG tests. [Conclusion] Using a smartphone while walking decreases a person's dynamic balance and walking ability. It is considered that accident rates are higher when using a smartphone.

  11. Effect of Cue Timing and Modality on Gait Initiation in Parkinson Disease With Freezing of Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chiahao; Amundsen Huffmaster, Sommer L; Tuite, Paul J; Vachon, Jacqueline M; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2017-07-01

    To examine the effects of cue timing, across 3 sensory modalities, on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during gait initiation in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Observational study. Biomechanics research laboratory. Individuals with idiopathic PD (N=25; 11 with freezing of gait [FOG]) were studied in the off-medication state (12-h overnight withdrawal). Gait initiation was tested without cueing (self-initiated) and with 3 cue timing protocols: fixed delay (3s), random delay (4-12s), and countdown (3-2-1-go, 1-s intervals) across 3 sensory modalities (acoustic, visual, and vibrotactile). The incidence and spatiotemporal characteristics of APAs during gait initiation were analyzed, including vertical ground reaction forces and center of pressure. All cue timings and modalities increased the incidence and amplitude of APAs compared with self-initiated stepping. Acoustic and visual cues, but not vibrotactile stimulation, improved the timing of APAs. Fixed delay or countdown timing protocols were more effective at decreasing APA durations than random delay cues. Cue-evoked improvements in APA timing, but not amplitude, correlated with the level of impairment during self-initiated gait. Cues did not improve the late push-off phase in the FOG group. External cueing improves gait initiation in PD regardless of cue timing, modality, or clinical phenotype (with and without FOG). Acoustic or visual cueing with predictive timing provided the greatest improvements in gait initiation; therefore, these protocols may provide the best outcomes when applied by caregivers or devices. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  13. Exoskeleton-assisted gait training to improve gait in individuals with spinal cord injury: a pilot randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Afzal, Taimoor; Berliner, Jeffrey; Francisco, Gerard E

    2018-01-01

    Robotic wearable exoskeletons have been utilized as a gait training device in persons with spinal cord injury. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of offering exoskeleton-assisted gait training (EGT) on gait in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in preparation for a phase III RCT. The objective was to assess treatment reliability and potential efficacy of EGT and conventional physical therapy (CPT). Forty-four individuals were screened, and 13 were eligible to participate in the study. Nine participants consented and were randomly assigned to receive either EGT or CPT with focus on gait. Subjects received EGT or CPT, five sessions a week (1 h/session daily) for 3 weeks. American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and gait characteristics including stride and step length, cadence and stance, and swing phase durations were assessed at the pre- and immediate post- training. Mean difference estimates with 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze the differences. After training, improvement was observed in the 6MWT for the EGT group. The CPT group showed significant improvement in the TUG test. Both the EGT and the CPT groups showed significant increase in the right step length. EGT group also showed improvement in the stride length. EGT could be applied to individuals with iSCI to facilitate gait recovery. The subjects were able to tolerate the treatment; however, exoskeleton size range may be a limiting factor in recruiting larger cohort of patients. Future studies with larger sample size are needed to investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of exoskeleton-assisted gait training as single gait training and combined with other gait training strategies. Clinicaltrials.org, NCT03011099, retrospectively registered on January 3, 2017.

  14. Evaluating the Contributions of Dynamic Flow to Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A. Lebold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although visual cues can improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD, their underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Previous research suggests that cues contribute optical flow that is essential to elicit gait improvement. The present study manipulated how optic flow was provided, and how this might influence freezing of gait (FOG in PD. Therefore, three groups; 15 PD FOG, 16 PD non-FOG, and 16 healthy controls were tested in 3 narrow doorway conditions; baseline (Narrow, ground lines (Ground, and laser (Laser. Step length indicated that the PD FOG group was only able to improve with ground lines, while the laser increased gait variability and double support time. These results suggest that optic flow in itself is not enough to elicit gait improvement in PD. When PD patients use visual cues, gait becomes less automatically controlled and hence preplanned conscious control may be an important factor contributing to gait improvement.

  15. Effects of progressive backward body weight suppoted treadmill training on gait ability in chronic stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hun; Lee, Kyoung Bo; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Suk Min

    2017-10-23

    A stroke patient with hemiplegic gait is generally described as being slow and asymmetric. Body weight-supported treadmill training and backward gait training are recent additions to therapeutic gait trainings that may help improve gait in stroke patient with hemiplegic gait. Therefore, we examined the effect of progressive backward body weight-supported treadmill training on gait in chronic stroke patients with hemiplegic gait. Thirty subjects were divided to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group consisted of 15 patients and underwent progressive backward body weight-supported treadmill training. The control group consisted of 15 patients and underwent general treadmill gait training five times per week, for a total of four weeks. The OptoGait was used to analyze gait kinematics, and the dynamic gait index (DGI) and results of the 6-minute walk test were used as the clinical evaluation indicators. A follow-up test was carried out four weeks later to examine persistence of exercise effects. The experimental group showed statistically significant results in all dependent variables week four compared to the control group. However, until the eighth week, only the dependent variables, of affected step length (ASL), stride length (SL), and DGI differed significantly between the two groups. This study verified that progressive bodyweight-supported treadmill training had a positive influence on the temporospatial characteristics of gait and clinical gait evaluation index in chronic stroke patients.

  16. The effect of gait training with shoe inserts on the improvement of pain and gait in sacroiliac joint patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byung-Yun; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients.

  17. Can we improve gait skills in chronic hemiplegics? A randomised control trial with gait trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, D; Laíns, J; Pereira, A; Nunes, R; Caldas, J; Amaral, C; Pires, S; Costa, A; Alves, P; Moreira, M; Garrido, N; Loureiro, L

    2007-12-01

    Partial body weight support (PBWS) is an accepted treatment for hemiplegic patients. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of gait trainer with conventional treatment on the gait management after stroke. Forty chronic post-stroke hemiplegics were part of a prospective research. Inclusion criteria were: first ever stroke in a chronic stage with stabilised motor deficits; age >18 and gait trainer, for the same period of time and frequency. Assessment tools: Motricity Index (MI); Toulouse Motor Scale (TMS); modified Ashworth Spasticity Scale (mASS); Berg Balance Scale (BBS); Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI); Fugl-Meyer Stroke Scale (F-MSS); Functional Ambulation Category (FAC); Barthel Index (BI); 10 meters, time up and go (TUG), 6 minutes, and step tests. EG and CG did the assessments before treatment (T(0)), right after treatment (T(1)), and on follow-up, 3 months later (T(2)). CG and EG were homogenous in all the variables at T(0). CG and EG showed improvement in almost all the assessment scales after treatment, although only some with relevant differences. EG showed statistically relevant improvement on T(1) and on T(2) in several of the assessment tools, whereas CG only showed statistically significant improvement after T(1) and only in some of the assessment tools. Both groups of chronic hemiplegic patients improved after either PBWS with gait trainer or Bobath treatment. Only subjects undergoing PBWS with gait trainer maintained functional gain after 3 months.

  18. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  19. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    modules to train individuals to distinguish gait deviations (trunk motion and lower-limb motion). Each of these modules help trainers improve their...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0870 TITLE: Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Karim Abdel-Malek CONTRACTING...study is to produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities

  20. Can biomechanical variables predict improvement in crouch gait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jennifer L.; Delp, Scott L.; Schwartz, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Many patients respond positively to treatments for crouch gait, yet surgical outcomes are inconsistent and unpredictable. In this study, we developed a multivariable regression model to determine if biomechanical variables and other subject characteristics measured during a physical exam and gait analysis can predict which subjects with crouch gait will demonstrate improved knee kinematics on a follow-up gait analysis. We formulated the model and tested its performance by retrospectively analyzing 353 limbs of subjects who walked with crouch gait. The regression model was able to predict which subjects would demonstrate ‘improved’ and ‘unimproved’ knee kinematics with over 70% accuracy, and was able to explain approximately 49% of the variance in subjects’ change in knee flexion between gait analyses. We found that improvement in stance phase knee flexion was positively associated with three variables that were drawn from knowledge about the biomechanical contributors to crouch gait: i) adequate hamstrings lengths and velocities, possibly achieved via hamstrings lengthening surgery, ii) normal tibial torsion, possibly achieved via tibial derotation osteotomy, and iii) sufficient muscle strength. PMID:21616666

  1. Balzac and human gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2015-05-01

    People have been interested in movement analysis in general, and gait analysis in particular, since ancient times. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Leonardo da Vinci and Honoré de Balzac all used observation to analyse the gait of human beings. The purpose of this study is to compare Honoré de Balzac's writings with a scientific analysis of human gait. Honoré de Balzac's Theory of walking and other works by that author referring to gait. Honoré de Balzac had an interest in gait analysis, as demonstrated by his descriptions of characters which often include references to their way of walking. He also wrote a treatise entitled Theory of walking (Théorie de la demarche) in which he employed his keen observation skills to define gait using a literary style. He stated that the walking process is divided into phases and listed the factors that influence gait, such as personality, mood, height, weight, profession and social class, and also provided a description of the correct way of walking. Balzac considered gait analysis to be very important and this is reflected in both his character descriptions and Theory of walking, his analytical observation of gait. In our own technology-dominated times, this serves as a reminder of the importance of observation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual task interference on postural sway, postural transitions and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fortaleza, Ana Claudia; Mancini, Martina; Carlson-Kuhta, Patty; King, Laurie A; Nutt, John G; Chagas, Eliane Ferrari; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Horak, Fay B

    2017-07-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-. Thirty FoG- and 24 FoG+ performed an Instrumented Stand and Walk test in OFF medication state, with and without a secondary cognitive task (serial subtraction by 3s). Measures of postural sway, gait initiation, turning, and walking were extracted using body-worn inertial sensors. FoG+ showed significantly larger dual task cost than FoG- for several gait metrics, but not during postural sway or postural transitions. During walking, FoG+ exhibited a larger dual task cost than FoG- resulting in shorter stride length and slower stride velocity. During standing, FoG+ showed a larger postural sway compared to FoG- and during gait initiation, FoG+, but not FoG-, showed a longer first step duration during the dual-task condition compared to single-task condition (interaction effect, p=0.04). During turning, both groups showed a slower turn peak speed in the dual-task condition compared to single task condition. These findings partly support our hypothesis that dual task cost on walking is greater in FoG+ than FoG-. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Tic-induced gait dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasano, A.; Ruzicka, E.; Bloem, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many neurological disorders impair gait, but only a few of them are episodic or paroxysmal, the most important ones being freezing of gait and paroxysmal dyskinesias. METHODS: We describe 4 patients with tic disorders (3 with Tourette syndrome, and 1 with a tic disorder secondary to

  4. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as record...

  5. Overground robot assisted gait trainer for the treatment of drug-resistant freezing of gait in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilleri, Manuela; Weis, Luca; Zabeo, Letizia; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Biundo, Roberta; Facchini, Silvia; Rossi, Simonetta; Masiero, Stefano; Antonini, Angelo

    2015-08-15

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a frequent and disabling feature of Parkinson disease (PD). Gait rehabilitation assisted by electromechanical devices, such as training on treadmill associated with sensory cues or assisted by gait orthosis have been shown to improve FOG. Overground robot assisted gait training (RGT) has been recently tested in patients with PD with improvement of several gait parameters. We here evaluated the effectiveness of RGT on FOG severity and gait abnormalities in PD patients. Eighteen patients with FOG resistant to dopaminergic medications were treated with 15 sessions of RGT and underwent an extensive clinical evaluation before and after treatment. The main outcome measures were FOG questionnaire (FOGQ) global score and specific tasks for gait assessment, namely 10 meter walking test (10 MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and 360° narrow turns (360 NT). Balance was also evaluated through Fear of Falling Efficacy Scale (FFES), assessing self perceived stability and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), for objective examination. After treatment, FOGQ score was significantly reduced (P=0.023). We also found a significant reduction of time needed to complete TUG, 10 MWT, and 360 NT (P=0.009, 0.004 and 0.04, respectively). By contrast the number of steps and the number of freezing episodes recorded at each gait task did not change. FFES and BBS scores also improved, with positive repercussions on performance on daily activity and quality of life. Our results indicate that RGT is a useful strategy for the treatment of drug refractory FOG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A mechanized gait trainer for restoration of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D

    2000-01-01

    The newly developed gait trainer allows wheel-chair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstressing therapists. The device simulates the phases of gait, supports the subjects according to their abilities, and controls the center of mass (CoM) in the vertical and horizontal directions. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation for a normal subject were similar when using the mechanized trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists were required to support treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact free, and less spastic. The vertical displacement of the CoM was bi-phasic instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. Two cases of non-ambulatory patients, who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, are reported.

  7. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  8. Sex differences in quadrupedal walking gaits of Uner Tan syndrome cases, healthy humans and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2017-03-01

    Uner Tan syndrome (UTS) cases with habitual quadrupedal locomotion (QL), impaired intelligence, and dysarthric or no speech predominantly use lateral sequence (LS) gait like nonprimates rather than the predominantly diagonal sequence (DS) gait of nonhuman primates. However, these studies neglected possible sex-related differences in these gait types. (1) To assess the possible sex-related gait types in UTS cases, healthy infants and adults with requested QL, and the nonhuman primates. (2) To test the hypothesis that sex differences may exist in quadrupedal walking gaits in UTS cases, healthy humans, and nonhuman primates. The UTS cases were filmed, the other study groups were taken from public open 'youtube' videos, which were used to assess the walking gait types as DS and LS. The right and left hind-limb phase values were calculated separately for males and females to allow a possible sex difference in walking gaits to be determined. Females predominantly used DS gait, contrary to males with predominantly LS gait. Consistent with the working hypothesis, the results suggested a biological sex-related trend in preferred walking gaits exists in all of the human and nonhuman primates using QL.

  9. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    test hypotheses they developed about how people walk. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to define Human Locomotor Control W911NF-14-R-0009...An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination...Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Report Title Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination across

  10. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment.

  11. A method to standardize gait and balance variables for gait velocity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Many gait and balance variables depend on gait velocity, which seriously hinders the interpretation of gait and balance data derived from walks at different velocities. However, as far as we know there is no widely accepted method to correct for effects of gait velocity on other gait and balance

  12. Relative association of processing speed, short-term memory and sustained attention with task on gait speed: a study of community-dwelling people 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killane, Isabelle; Donoghue, Orna A; Savva, George M; Cronin, Hilary; Kenny, Rose Anne; Reilly, Richard B

    2014-11-01

    For single gait tasks, associations have been reported between gait speed and cognitive domains. However, few studies have evaluated if this association is altered in dual gait tasks given gait speed changes with complexity and nature of task. We evaluated relative contributions of specific elements of cognitive function (including sustained attention and processing speed) to dual task gait speed in a nationally representative population of community-dwelling adults over 50 years. Gait speed was obtained using the GaitRite walkway during three gait tasks: single, cognitive (alternate letters), and motor (carrying a filled glass). Linear regression models, adjusted for covariates, were constructed to predict the relative contributions of seven neuropsychological tests to gait speed differences and to investigate gait task effects. The mean age and gait speed of the population (n = 4,431, 55% women) was 62.4 years (SD = 8.2) and 135.85 cm/s (SD = 20.20, single task), respectively. Poorer processing speed, short-term memory, and sustained attention were major cognitive contributors to slower gait speed for all gait tasks. Both dual gait tasks were robust to covariate adjustment and had a significant additional executive function element not found for the single gait task. For community-dwelling older adults processing speed, short-term memory and sustained attention were independently associated with gait speed for all gait tasks. Dual gait tasks were found to highlight specific executive function elements. This result forms a baseline value for dual task gait speed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Artificial Walking Technologies to Improve Gait in Cerebral Palsy: Multichannel Neuromuscular Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Butler, Erin E

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP. NMES may also be applied to specific lumbar-sacral sensory roots to reduce spasticity. Development of tablet computer-based multichannel NMES can leverage lightweight, wearable wireless stimulators, advanced control design, and surface electrodes to activate lower-limb muscles. Musculoskeletal models have been used to characterize muscle contributions to unimpaired gait and identify high muscle demands, which can help guide multichannel NMES-assisted gait protocols. In addition, patient-specific NMES-assisted gait protocols based on 3D gait analysis can facilitate the appropriate activation of lower-limb muscles to achieve a more functional gait: stance-phase hip and knee extension and swing-phase sequence of hip and knee flexion followed by rapid knee extension. NMES-assisted gait treatment can be conducted as either clinic-based or home-based programs. Rigorous testing of multichannel NMES-assisted gait training protocols will determine optimal treatment dosage for future clinical trials. Evidence-based outcome evaluation using 3D kinematics or temporal-spatial gait parameters will help determine immediate neuroprosthetic effects and longer term neurotherapeutic effects of step-initiated, multichannel NMES-assisted gait in children with spastic CP. Multichannel NMES is a promising assistive technology to help children with spastic CP achieve a more upright, functional gait. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and

  14. Design of a gait training device for control of pelvic obliquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Severini, Giacomo; Cajigas, Iahn; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Bonato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of a novel device for the control of pelvic obliquity during gait. The device, called the Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer, consists of a single actuator system designed to target secondary gait deviations, such as hip-hiking, affecting the movement of the pelvis. Secondary gait deviations affecting the pelvis are generated in response to primary gait deviations (e.g. limited knee flexion during the swing phase) in stroke survivors and contribute to the overall asymmetrical gait pattern often observed in these patients. The proposed device generates a force field able to affect the obliquity of the pelvis (i.e. the rotation of the pelvis around the anteroposterior axis) by using an impedance controlled single linear actuator acting on a hip orthosis. Tests showed that the RGR Trainer is able to induce changes in pelvic obliquity trajectories (hip-hiking) in healthy subjects. These results suggest that the RGR Trainer is suitable to test the hypothesis that has motivated our efforts toward developing the system, namely that addressing both primary and secondary gait deviations during robotic-assisted gait training may help promote a physiologically-sound gait behavior more effectively than when only primary deviations are addressed.

  15. Theory of superplastic flow in two-phase materials: roles of interphase-boundary dislocations, ledges, and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new theory is developed to explain superplastic flow in two-phase materials. It is postulated that boundary-dislocations, piled up in dislocation-Interphase-Boundaries (IPBs) climb away into disordered regions of the IPB. Sliding then occurs at an IPB as dislocations glide toward the head of the pile up to replace those which have climbed into disordered regions of the boundary. An energy barrier which would otherwise render sliding virtually impossible on dislocation-IPBs can, it is shown, be largely eliminated if the dislocations glide in pairs. The disorder (actually an antiphase domain boundary) which is created by the passage of the leading dislocation is then repaired by passage of its successor. The threshold stress for superplastic flow is provisionally identified with the stress which pins IPB dislocations to boundary ledges. The activation energy is theoretically that for IPB diffusion. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical equation for superplastic flow and the results of published experiments

  16. Single-Task and Dual-Task Gait Among Collegiate Athletes of Different Sport Classifications: Implications for Concussion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Oldham, Jessie R; DiFabio, Melissa; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hall, Eric E; Ketcham, Caroline J; Meehan, William P; Buckley, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether preexisting gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (ie, walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and noncontact athletes. A group of collegiate athletes (n = 265) were tested before their season at 3 institutions (mean age= 19.1 ± 1.1 years). All participants stood still (single-task standing) and walked while simultaneously completing a cognitive test (dual-task gait), and completed walking trials without the cognitive test (single-task gait). Spatial-temporal gait parameters were compared between collision/contact and noncontact athletes using MANCOVAs; cognitive task performance was compared using ANCOVAs. No significant single-task or dual-task gait differences were found between collision/contact and noncontact athletes. Noncontact athletes demonstrated higher cognitive task accuracy during single-task standing (P = .001) and dual-task gait conditions (P = .02) than collision/contact athletes. These data demonstrate the utility of a dual-task gait assessment outside of a laboratory and suggest that preinjury cognitive task performance during dual-tasks may differ between athletes of different sport classifications.

  17. Gait, mobility, and falls in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Yves Josef

    2012-01-01

    My doctoral thesis contributes to the understanding of gait, mobility, and falls in older people. All presented projects investigated the most prominent and sensitive markers for fall-related gait changes, that is gait velocity and gait variability. Based on the measurement of these spatio-temporal gait parameters, particularly when using a change-sensitive dual task paradigm, it is possible to make conclusions regarding walking, balance, activities of daily living, and falls in o...

  18. Capability of 2 gait measures for detecting response to gait training in stroke survivors: Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool and the Tinetti Gait Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, Janice; Daly, Janis J; Roenigk, Kristen L; Butler, Kristi; Burdsall, Richard; Holcomb, John P

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the performance of 2 observational gait measures, the Tinetti Gait Scale (TGS) and the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.), in identifying improvement in gait in response to gait training. In secondary analysis from a larger study of multimodal gait training for stroke survivors, we measured gait at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment according to G.A.I.T. and TGS, assessing their capability to capture recovery of coordinated gait components. Large medical center. Cohort of stroke survivors (N=44) greater than 6 months after stroke. All subjects received 48 sessions of a multimodal gait-training protocol. Treatment consisted of 1.5 hours per session, 4 sessions per week for 12 weeks, receiving these 3 treatment aspects: (1) coordination exercise, (2) body weight-supported treadmill training, and (3) overground gait training, with 46% of subjects receiving functional electrical stimulation. All subjects were evaluated with the G.A.I.T. and TGS before and after completing the 48-session intervention. An additional evaluation was performed at midtreatment (after session 24). For the total subject sample, there were significant pre-/post-, pre-/mid-, and mid-/posttreatment gains for both the G.A.I.T. and the TGS. According to the G.A.I.T., 40 subjects (91%) showed improved scores, 2 (4%) no change, and 2 (4%) a worsening score. According to the TGS, only 26 subjects (59%) showed improved scores, 16 (36%) no change, and 1 (2%) a worsening score. For 1 treatment group of chronic stroke survivors, the TGS failed to identify a significant treatment response to gait training, whereas the G.A.I.T. measure was successful. The G.A.I.T. is more sensitive than the TGS for individual patients and group treatment response in identifying recovery of volitional control of gait components in response to gait training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Luc H; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-10-01

    To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Clinical experimental study. University Medical Centre. Nineteen stroke patients (12 males; mean age 55 years (standard deviation (SD) 10 years); mean time post onset 3.6 months (SD 1.4 months)) with a spastic paresis of the lower extremity. Functional mobility was assessed with the timed up and go test, walking speed and gait characteristics were measured with clinical gait analysis and performed with and without a verbal dual task. Patient satisfaction was determined with a questionnaire. Walking with the high orthopaedic shoe resulted in improved functional mobility (22%; pshoes. The dual task interfered with functional mobility during walking. The interference was equally big for normal shoes as for the orthopaedic shoe. Patients evaluated walking with the high orthopaedic shoe as an improvement (psafety, walking distance and walking speed. In the early recovery phase after stroke, when regaining walking ability, a temporary high orthopaedic shoe can improve hemiplegic gait, even with dual task interference. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4–0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18...

  1. Pathways linking regional hyperintensities in the brain and slower gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Aizenstein, Howard; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore; Yaffe, Kristine; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne; Rosano, Caterina

    2014-10-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are involved in the evolution of impaired mobility and executive functions. Executive functions and mobility are also associated. Thus, WMHs may impair mobility directly, by disrupting mobility-related circuits, or indirectly, by disrupting circuits responsible for executive functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying impaired mobility in late life will increase our capacity to develop effective interventions. To identify regional WMHs most related to slower gait and to examine whether these regional WMHs directly impact mobility, or indirectly by executive functions. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-one WMH variables (i.e., total WMH volume and WMHs in 20 tracts), gait speed, global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; 3MS), and executive functions and processing speed (Digit-Symbol Substitution Test; DSST) were assessed. An L1-L2 regularized regression (i.e., Elastic Net model) identified the WMH variables most related to slower gait. Multivariable linear regression models quantified the association between these WMH variables and gait speed. Formal tests of mediation were also conducted. Community-based sample. Two hundred fifty-three adults (mean age: 83years, 58% women, 41% black). Gait speed. In older adults with an average gait speed of 0.91m/sec, total WMH volume, WMHs located in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATRR) and frontal corpuscallosum (CCF) were most associated with slower gait. There was a >10% slower gait for each standard deviation of WMH in CCF, ATRR or total brain (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.11 [p=0.046], -0.15 [p=0.007] and -0.14 [p=0.010], respectively). These associations were substantially and significantly attenuated after adjustment for DSST. This effect was stronger for WMH in CCF than for ATRR or total WMH (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.07 [p=0.190], -0.12 [p=0.024] and -0.10 [p=0.049], respectively). Adjustment for 3MS did not change these

  2. A mechanized gait trainer for restoring gait in nonambulatory subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A

    2000-09-01

    To construct an advanced mechanized gait trainer to enable patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement without overstraining therapists. DEVICE: Prototype gait trainer that simulates the phases of gait (by generating a ratio of 40% to 60% between swing and stance phases), supports the subjects according to their ability (lifts the foot during swing phase), and controls the center of mass in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two nonambulatory, hemiparetic patients who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man, both of whom had a first-time ischemic stroke. Four weeks of training, five times a week, each session 20 minutes long. Functional ambulation category (FAC, levels 0-5) to assess gait ability and ground level walking velocity. Rivermead motor assessment score (RMAS, 0-13) to assess gross motor function. Patient 1: At the end of treatment, she was able to walk independently on level ground with use of a walking stick. Her walking velocity had improved from .29m/sec to .59m/sec. Her RMAS score increased from 4 to 10, meaning she could walk at least 40 meters outside, pick up objects from floor, and climb stairs independently. Patient 2: At end of 4-week training, he could walk independently on even surfaces (FAC level 4), using an ankle-foot orthosis and a walking stick. His walking velocity improved from .14m/sec to .63m/sec. His RMAS increased from 3 to 10. The gait trainer enabled severely affected patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement. Future studies may elucidate its value in gait rehabilitation of nonambulatory subjects.

  3. Gait and Cognition: A Complementary Approach to Understanding Brain Function and the Risk of Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Verghese, Joe; Beauchet, Olivier; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, clinicians and researchers have performed gait assessments and cognitive assessments separately when evaluating older adults. Increasing evidence from clinical practice, epidemiological studies, and clinical trials shows that gait and cognition are inter-related in older adults. Quantifiable alterations in gait among older adults are associated with falls, dementia, and disability. At the same time, emerging evidence indicates that early disturbances in cognitive processes such as attention, executive function, and working memory are associated with slower gait and gait instability during single and dual-task testing, and that these cognitive disturbances assist in the prediction of future mobility loss, falls, and progression to dementia. This paper reviews the importance of the gait-cognition inter-relationship in aging and presents evidence that gait assessments can provide a window into the understanding of cognitive function and dysfunctions, and fall risk in older people in clinical practice. To this end, the benefits of dual-task gait assessments (e.g., walking while performing an attention-demanding task) as a marker of fall risk are summarized. Further, we also present a potential complementary approach for reducing the risk of falls by improving certain aspects of cognition through both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Untangling the relationship between early gait disturbances and early cognitive changes may be helpful for identifying older adults at higher risk of experiencing mobility decline, falls and the progression to dementia. PMID:23110433

  4. An Ambulatory Method of Identifying Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Gait Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of inertial sensors to characterize pathological gait has traditionally been based on the calculation of temporal and spatial gait variables from inertial sensor data. This approach has proved successful in the identification of gait deviations in populations where substantial differences from normal gait patterns exist; such as in Parkinsonian gait. However, it is not currently clear if this approach could identify more subtle gait deviations, such as those associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates whether additional analysis of inertial sensor data, based on quantification of gyroscope features of interest, would provide further discriminant capability in this regard. The tested cohort consisted of a group of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R females and a group of non-injured female controls, each performed ten walking trials. Gait performance was measured simultaneously using inertial sensors and an optoelectronic marker based system. The ACL-R group displayed kinematic and kinetic deviations from the control group, but no temporal or spatial deviations. This study demonstrates that quantification of gyroscope features can successfully identify changes associated with ACL-R gait, which was not possible using spatial or temporal variables. This finding may also have a role in other clinical applications where small gait deviations exist.

  5. On Gait Analysis Estimation Errors Using Force Sensors on a Smart Rollator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Joaquin; Urdiales, Cristina; Martinez, Antonio B; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-11-10

    Gait analysis can provide valuable information on a person's condition and rehabilitation progress. Gait is typically captured using external equipment and/or wearable sensors. These tests are largely constrained to specific controlled environments. In addition, gait analysis often requires experts for calibration, operation and/or to place sensors on volunteers. Alternatively, mobility support devices like rollators can be equipped with onboard sensors to monitor gait parameters, while users perform their Activities of Daily Living. Gait analysis in rollators may use odometry and force sensors in the handlebars. However, force based estimation of gait parameters is less accurate than traditional methods, especially when rollators are not properly used. This paper presents an evaluation of force based gait analysis using a smart rollator on different groups of users to determine when this methodology is applicable. In a second stage, the rollator is used in combination with two lab-based gait analysis systems to assess the rollator estimation error. Our results show that: (i) there is an inverse relation between the variance in the force difference between handlebars and support on the handlebars-related to the user condition-and the estimation error; and (ii) this error is lower than 10% when the variation in the force difference is above 7 N. This lower limit was exceeded by the 95.83% of our challenged volunteers. In conclusion, rollators are useful for gait characterization as long as users really need the device for ambulation.

  6. New Lower-Limb Gait Asymmetry Indices Based on a Depth Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Auvinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. Methods: To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerless depth camera (Microsoft Kinect™ output. This asymmetry index directly uses depth images provided by the Kinect™ without requiring joint localization. It is based on the longitudinal spatial difference between lower-limb movements during the gait cycle. To evaluate the relevance of this index, fifteen healthy subjects were tested on a treadmill walking normally and then via an artificially-induced gait asymmetry with a thick sole placed under one shoe. The gait movement was simultaneously recorded using a Kinect™ placed in front of the subject and a motion capture system. Results: The proposed longitudinal index distinguished asymmetrical gait (p < 0.001, while other symmetry indices based on spatiotemporal gait parameters failed using such Kinect™ skeleton measurements. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between this index measured by Kinect™ and the ground truth of this index measured by motion capture is 0.968. Conclusion: This gait asymmetry index measured with a Kinect™ is low cost, easy to use and is a promising development for clinical gait analysis.

  7. New lower-limb gait asymmetry indices based on a depth camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Edouard; Multon, Franck; Meunier, Jean

    2015-02-24

    Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerless depth camera (Microsoft Kinect™) output. This asymmetry index directly uses depth images provided by the Kinect™ without requiring joint localization. It is based on the longitudinal spatial difference between lower-limb movements during the gait cycle. To evaluate the relevance of this index, fifteen healthy subjects were tested on a treadmill walking normally and then via an artificially-induced gait asymmetry with a thick sole placed under one shoe. The gait movement was simultaneously recorded using a Kinect™ placed in front of the subject and a motion capture system. The proposed longitudinal index distinguished asymmetrical gait (p indices based on spatiotemporal gait parameters failed using such Kinect™ skeleton measurements. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between this index measured by Kinect™ and the ground truth of this index measured by motion capture is 0.968. This gait asymmetry index measured with a Kinect™ is low cost, easy to use and is a promising development for clinical gait analysis.

  8. On Gait Analysis Estimation Errors Using Force Sensors on a Smart Rollator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Ballesteros

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis can provide valuable information on a person’s condition and rehabilitation progress. Gait is typically captured using external equipment and/or wearable sensors. These tests are largely constrained to specific controlled environments. In addition, gait analysis often requires experts for calibration, operation and/or to place sensors on volunteers. Alternatively, mobility support devices like rollators can be equipped with onboard sensors to monitor gait parameters, while users perform their Activities of Daily Living. Gait analysis in rollators may use odometry and force sensors in the handlebars. However, force based estimation of gait parameters is less accurate than traditional methods, especially when rollators are not properly used. This paper presents an evaluation of force based gait analysis using a smart rollator on different groups of users to determine when this methodology is applicable. In a second stage, the rollator is used in combination with two lab-based gait analysis systems to assess the rollator estimation error. Our results show that: (i there is an inverse relation between the variance in the force difference between handlebars and support on the handlebars—related to the user condition—and the estimation error; and (ii this error is lower than 10% when the variation in the force difference is above 7 N. This lower limit was exceeded by the 95.83% of our challenged volunteers. In conclusion, rollators are useful for gait characterization as long as users really need the device for ambulation.

  9. Reliability of three-dimensional gait analysis in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Ailish

    2010-10-01

    Gait impairment is one of the primary symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Detailed assessment is possible using three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA), however the reliability of 3DGA for this population has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of temporal-spatial, kinematic and kinetic parameters in a CSM population.

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Gait Changes among Firefighters after a Live Burn Training Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Colburn

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: A 14-MET criterion failed to distinguish gait or balance characteristics in this group. However, less fit firefighters did require more time to complete the balance test (p = 0.003. Aerobic fitness alone does not predict gait changes among firefighters following a live burn evolution but does appear to influence functional balance.

  11. Clinical Gait Evaluation of Patients with Lumbar Spine Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Yan, Song-Hua; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lester, D Kevin; Zeng, Ji-Zhou; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Kuan

    2018-02-01

    The third generation Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA3, MiniSun, CA) has been developed for clinical gait evaluation, and this study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of IDEEA3 for the gait measurement of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited to compare gait cycle, cadence, step length, velocity, and number of steps between a motion analysis system and a high-speed video camera. Twenty hospitalized LSS patients were recruited for the comparison of the five parameters between the IDEEA3 and GoPro camera. Paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots were used for the data analysis. The ratios of GoPro camera results to motion analysis system results, and the ratios of IDEEA3 results to GoPro camera results were all around 1.00. All P-values of paired t-tests for gait cycle, cadence, step length, and velocity were greater than 0.05, while all the ICC and CCC results were above 0.950 with P GoPro camera are highly consistent with the measurements with the motion analysis system. The measurements for IDEEA3 are consistent with those for the GoPro camera. IDEEA3 can be effectively used in the gait measurement of LSS patients. © 2018 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Effects of Acupuncture on Gait of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Maria Begoña; Santos, Maria João; Machado, Jorge; Gonçalves, Arminda Manuela; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2017-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis is considered a complex and heterogeneous disease. Approximately 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis indicate impaired gait as one of the major limitations in their daily life. Acupuncture studies found a reduction of spasticity and improvement of fatigue and imbalance in patients with multiple sclerosis, but there is a lack of studies regarding gait. We designed a study of acupuncture treatment, according to the Heidelberg model of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), to investigate if acupuncture can be a useful therapeutic strategy in patients with gait impairment in multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting type. The sample consisted of 20 individuals with diagnosis of multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting type. Gait impairment was evaluated by the 25-foot walk test. The results showed differences in time to walk 25 feet following true acupuncture. In contrast, there was no difference in time to walk 25 feet following sham acupuncture. When using true acupuncture, 95% of cases showed an improvement in 25-foot walk test, compared with 45% when sham acupuncture was done. Our study protocol provides evidence that acupuncture treatment can be an attractive option for patients with multiple sclerosis, with gait impairment.

  13. Gait Implications of Visual Field Damage from Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Swenor, Bonnielin K; Friedman, David S; West, Sheila K; Gitlin, Laura N; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate fall-relevant gait features in older glaucoma patients. The GAITRite Electronic Walkway was used to define fall-related gait parameters in 239 patients with suspected or manifest glaucoma under normal usual-pace walking conditions and while carrying a cup or tray. Multiple linear regression models assessed the association between gait parameters and integrated visual field (IVF) sensitivity after controlling for age, race, sex, medications, and comorbid illness. Under normal walking conditions, worse IVF sensitivity was associated with a wider base of support (β = 0.60 cm/5 dB IVF sensitivity decrement, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-1.09, P = 0.016). Worse IVF sensitivity was not associated with slower gait speed, shorter step or stride length, or greater left-right drift under normal walking conditions ( P > 0.05 for all), but was during cup and/or tray carrying conditions ( P < 0.05 for all). Worse IVF sensitivity was positively associated with greater stride-to-stride variability in step length, stride length, and stride velocity ( P < 0.005 for all). Inferior and superior IVF sensitivity demonstrated associations with each of the above gait parameters as well, though these associations were consistently similar to, or weaker than, the associations noted for overall IVF sensitivity. Glaucoma severity was associated with several gait parameters predictive of higher fall risk in prior studies, particularly measures of stride-to-stride variability. Gait may be useful in identifying glaucoma patients at higher risk of falls, and in designing and testing interventions to prevent falls in this high-risk group. These findings could serve to inform the development of the interventions for falls prevention in glaucoma patients.

  14. Extrinsic Base Surface Passivation in High Speed 'Type-II' GaAsSb/InP DHBTs Using an InGaAsP Ledge Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Gang, Liu; Zhi, Jin; Yong-Bo, Su; Xian-Tai, Wang; Hu-Dong, Chang; Lei, Zhou; Xin-Yu, Liu; De-Xin, Wu

    2010-01-01

    Type-II GaAsSb/InP DHBTs with selectively-etched InGaAsP ledge structures are fabricated and characterized for the first time. The novel InGaAsP/GaAsSb/InP DHBTs with a 20 nm lattice-matched GaAsSb base and a 75 nm InP collector have a dc current gain improvement by a factor of 2 and a cutoff frequency f T of 190 GHz. The InGaAsP ledge design provides a simple but effective approach to suppress the extrinsic base surface recombination and enable GaAsSb/InP DHBTs to further increase the operating frequencies and integration levels for millimeter wave applications

  15. Influence of the core-hole effect on optical properties of magnesium oxide (MgO) near the Mg L-edge region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mangalika; Modi, Mohammed H; Ghosh, Haranath; Yadav, P K; Gupta, R K

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the core-hole effect on optical properties of magnesium oxide (MgO) is established through experimental determination of optical constants and first-principles density functional theory studies. Optical constants (δ and β) of MgO thin film are measured in the spectral region 40-300 eV using reflectance spectroscopy techniques at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source. The obtained optical constants show strong core exciton features near the Mg L-edge region, causing significant mismatch with Henke's tabulated values. On comparing the experimentally obtained optical constants with Henke's tabulated values, an edge shift of ∼3.0 eV is also observed. Distinct evidence of effects of core exciton on optical constants (δ and β) in the near Mg L-edge absorption spectra are confirmed through first-principles simulations.

  16. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)

  17. L-edge sum rule analysis on 3d transition metal sites: from d10 to d0 and towards application to extremely dilute metallo-enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxin; Friedrich, Stephan; Li, Lei; Mao, Ziliang; Ge, Pinghua; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Patil, Daulat S

    2018-03-28

    According to L-edge sum rules, the number of 3d vacancies at a transition metal site is directly proportional to the integrated intensity of the L-edge X-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) for the corresponding metal complex. In this study, the numbers of 3d holes are characterized quantitatively or semi-quantitatively for a series of manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) complexes, including the electron configurations 3d 10 → 3d 0 . In addition, extremely dilute (edge jump region; and (2) by adding an inert tracer to the sample that provides a prominent spectral feature to replace the weak edge jump for intensity normalization. In this publication, we present for the first time: (1) L-edge sum rule analysis for a series of Mn and Ni complexes that include electron configurations from an open shell 3d 0 to a closed shell 3d 10 ; (2) a systematic analysis on the uncertainties, especially on that from the edge jump, which was missing in all previous reports; (3) a clearly-resolved edge jump between pre-L 3 and post-L 2 regions from an extremely dilute sample; (4) an evaluation of an alternative normalization standard for L-edge sum rule analysis. XAS from two copper (Cu) proteins measured using a conventional semiconductor X-ray detector are also repeated as bridges between Ni complexes and dilute Ni enzymes. The differences between measuring 1% Cu enzymes and measuring edge sum rule analysis to virtually any 3d metal complex and any dilute biological samples that contain 3d metals.

  18. Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-06-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system. We collected data on 39 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested over two days while walking on a standard treadmill, split-belt treadmill, or overground, with IMUs placed in two locations: both feet and both ankles. The spatiotemporal measurements taken with the IMU system were validated against data from an instrumented treadmill, or using standard clinical procedures. Repeatability and minimally detectable change (MDC) of the system was calculated between days. IMUs displayed high to moderate validity when measuring most of the gait metrics tested. Additionally, these measurements appear to be repeatable when used on the treadmill and overground. The foot configuration of the IMUs appeared to better measure gait parameters; however, both the foot and ankle configurations demonstrated good repeatability. In conclusion, the IMU system in this study appears to be both accurate and repeatable for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in peripheral arterial disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment has been advocated as a first line therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) patients suffering from intermittent claudication. Previous studies document the ability of pharmacological treatment to increase walking distances. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in PAD patients has not been objectively evaluated as is common with other gait abnormalities. Methods Sixteen patients were prescribed an FDA approved drug (Pentoxifylline or Cilostazol) for the treatment of symptomatic PAD. Patients underwent baseline gait testing prior to medication use which consisted of acquisition of ground reaction forces and kinematics while walking in a pain free state. After three months of treatment, patients underwent repeat gait testing. Results Patients with symptomatic PAD had significant gait abnormalities at baseline during pain free walking as compared to healthy controls. However, pharmacological treatment did not produce any identifiable alterations on the biomechanics of gait of the PAD patients as revealed by the statistical comparisons performed between pre and post-treatment and between post-treatment and the healthy controls. Conclusions Pharmacological treatment did not result in statistically significant improvements in the gait biomechanics of patients with symptomatic PAD. Future studies will need to further explore different cohorts of patients that have shown to improve significantly their claudication distances and/or their muscle fiber morphology with the use of pharmacological treatment and determine if this is associated with an improvement in gait biomechanics. Using these methods we may distinguish the patients who benefit from pharmacotherapy and those who do not. PMID:20529284

  20. Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Lertratanakul, A.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Peterson, A. L.; Kaliton, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder marked by loss of motoneurons. We hypothesized that subjects with ALS would have an altered gait rhythm, with an increase in both the magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and perturbations in the fluctuation dynamics. To test for this locomotor instability, we quantitatively compared the gait rhythm of subjects with ALS with that of normal controls and with that of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), pathologies of the basal ganglia. Subjects walked for 5 min at their usual pace wearing an ankle-worn recorder that enabled determination of the duration of each stride and of stride-to-stride fluctuations. We found that the gait of patients with ALS is less steady and more temporally disorganized compared with that of healthy controls. In addition, advanced ALS, HD, and PD were associated with certain common, as well as apparently distinct, features of altered stride dynamics. Thus stride-to-stride control of gait rhythm is apparently compromised with ALS. Moreover, a matrix of markers based on gait dynamics may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  1. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  2. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Stefanie M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, Iver, E-mail: Iver.lauermann@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: Emad.Aziz@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  3. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-01-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  4. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-02-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  5. Gait pattern recognition in cerebral palsy patients using neural network modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, J.; Gibbs, S.; Abboud, R.; Anand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gait data obtained from modern 3D gait analysis is a challenging and time consuming task. The aim of this study was to create neural network models which can recognise the gait patterns from pre- and post-treatment and the normal ones. Neural network is a method which works on the principle of learning from experience and then uses the obtained knowledge to predict the unknown. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with cerebral palsy were recruited as subjects whose gait was analysed in pre- and post-treatment. A group of twenty-six normal subjects also participated in this study as control group. All subjects gait was analysed using Vicon Nexus to obtain the gait parameters and kinetic and kinematic parameters of hip, knee and ankle joints in three planes of both limbs. The gait data was used as input to create neural network models. A total of approximately 300 trials were split into 70% and 30% to train and test the models, respectively. Different models were built using different parameters. The gait was categorised as three patterns, i.e., normal, pre- and post-treatments. Result: The results showed that the models using all parameters or using the joint angles and moments could predict the gait patterns with approximately 95% accuracy. Some of the models e.g., the models using joint power and moments, had lower rate in recognition of gait patterns with approximately 70-90% successful ratio. Conclusion: Neural network model can be used in clinical practice to recognise the gait pattern for cerebral palsy patients. (author)

  6. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  7. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  8. View-Invariant Gait Recognition Through Genetic Template Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Ebenezer R. H. P.; Elias, Susan; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Easwarakumar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Template-based model-free approach provides by far the most successful solution to the gait recognition problem in literature. Recent work discusses how isolating the head and leg portion of the template increase the performance of a gait recognition system making it robust against covariates like clothing and carrying conditions. However, most involve a manual definition of the boundaries. The method we propose, the genetic template segmentation (GTS), employs the genetic algorithm to automate the boundary selection process. This method was tested on the GEI, GEnI and AEI templates. GEI seems to exhibit the best result when segmented with our approach. Experimental results depict that our approach significantly outperforms the existing implementations of view-invariant gait recognition.

  9. Gait training of patients after stroke using an electromechanical gait trainer combined with simultaneous functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Raymond K Y; Ng, Maple F W; Li, Leonard S W; So, Elaine F M

    2006-09-01

    This case report describes the implementation of gait training intervention that used an electromechanical gait trainer with simultaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES) for 2 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two individuals with post-stroke hemiplegia of less than 6 weeks' duration participated in a 4-week gait training program as an adjunct to physical therapy received at a hospital. After the 4-week intervention, both patients were discharged from the hospital, and they returned after 6 months for a follow-up evaluation. By the end of the 4-week intervention, both patients had shown improvements in scores on the Barthel Index, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Categories Scale, 5-m timed walking test, and Motricity Index. In the 6-month follow-up evaluation, both patients continued to have improvements in all outcome measures. This case report shows that, following the use of an electromechanical gait trainer simultaneously with FES, patients after acute stroke had improvements in gait performance, functional activities, balance, and motor control in the long term.

  10. A longitudinal study on dual-tasking effects on gait: cognitive change predicts gait variance in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K MacAulay

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the "non-decliners" displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory. Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the "decliners", the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait

  11. Gait characteristics after gait-oriented rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Titianova, Ekaterina B; Mateev, Plamen; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani; Tarkka, Ina M

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effects of rehabilitation in thirty-seven ambulatory patients with chronic stroke during three weeks in-patient rehabilitation period. In the intervention group, each patient received 75 min physiotherapy daily every workday including 20 minutes in the electromechanical gait trainer with body-weight support (BWS). In the control group, each patient participated in 45 min conventional physiotherapy daily. Motor ability was assessed with the first five items of the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS1-5) and ten meters walking speed. Spatio-temporal gait characteristics were recorded with an electrical walkway. The MMAS1-5 (pgait characteristics improved only in the intervention group, as seen in increased Functional Ambulation Profile score (p=0.023), velocity (p=0.023), the step lengths (affected side, p=0.011, non-affected side p=0.040), the stride lengths (p=0.018, p=0.006) and decreased step-time differential (p=0.043). Furthermore, all gait characteristics and other motor abilities remained in the discharge level at the six months in the intervention group. It appears that BWS training gives a long-lasting benefit in gait qualities even in chronic stroke patients.

  12. History of cannabis use is associated with altered gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Todd, Gabrielle; Wilcox, Robert A; Vogel, Adam P; White, Jason M; Thewlis, Dominic

    2017-09-01

    Despite evidence that cannabinoid receptors are located in movement-related brain regions (e.g., basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum), and that chronic cannabis use is associated with structural and functional brain changes, little is known about the long-term effect of cannabis use on human movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate balance and walking gait in adults with a history of cannabis use. We hypothesised that cannabis use is associated with subtle changes in gait and balance that are insufficient in magnitude for detection in a clinical setting. Cannabis users (n=22, 24±6years) and non-drug using controls (n=22, 25±8years) completed screening tests, a gait and balance test (with a motion capture system and in-built force platforms), and a clinical neurological examination of movement. Compared to controls, cannabis users exhibited significantly greater peak angular velocity of the knee (396±30 versus 426±50°/second, P=0.039), greater peak elbow flexion (53±12 versus 57±7°, P=0.038) and elbow range of motion (33±13 versus 36±10°, P=0.044), and reduced shoulder flexion (41±19 versus 26±16°, P=0.007) during walking gait. However, balance and neurological parameters did not significantly differ between the groups. The results suggest that history of cannabis use is associated with long-lasting changes in open-chain elements of walking gait, but the magnitude of change is not clinically detectable. Further research is required to investigate if the subtle gait changes observed in this population become more apparent with aging and increased cannabis use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical gait evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Liu, Yancheng; Yan, Songhua; Cao, Guanglei; Wang, Shasha; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2017-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common osteoarthritis in lower limbs, and gait measurement is important to evaluate walking function of KOA patients before and after treatment. The third generation Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA3) is a portable gait analysis system to evaluate gaits. This study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of IDEEA3 for gait measurement of KOA patients. Meanwhile, gait differences between KOA patients and healthy subjects are examined. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for measurement comparison of gait cycle (GC), cadence, step length, velocity and step counts between a motion analysis system and a high-speed camera (GoPro Hero3). Twenty-three KOA patients were recruited for measurement comparison of former five parameters between GoPro Hero3 and IDEEA3. Paired t-test, Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used for data analysis. All p-values of paired t-tests for GC, cadence, step length and velocity were greater than 0.05 while all CCC and ICC results were above 0.95. The measurements of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts by motion analysis system are highly consistent with the measurements by GoPro Hero3. The measurements of former parameters by GoPro Hero3 are not statistically different from the measurements by IDEEA3. IDEEA3 can be effectively used for the measurement of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts in KOA patients. The KOA patients walk with longer GC, lower cadence, shorter step length and slower speed compared with healthy subjects in natural speed with flat shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Balance and Gait Impairment: Sensor-Based Assessment for Patients With Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Grace; Skubic, Marjorie A

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with peripheral neuropathy (PN) frequently experience balance and gait impairments that can lead to poor physical function, falls, and injury. Nurses are aware that patients with cancer experience balance and gait impairments but are unsure of optimal assessment and management strategies. This article reviews options for balance and gait assessment for patients diagnosed with cancer experiencing PN, describes advantages and limitations of the various options, and highlights innovative, clinically feasible technologies to improve clinical assessment and management. The literature was reviewed to identify and assess the gold standard quantitative measures for assessing balance and gait. Gold standard quantitative measures are burdensome for patients and not often used in clinical practice. Sensor-based technologies improve balance and gait assessment options by calculating precise impairment measures during performance of simple clinical tests at the point of care.

  15. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  16. Cognition and gait show a selective pattern of association dominated by phenotype in incident Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eLord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reports outlining the association between gait and cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD are limited because of methodological issues and a bias towards studying advanced disease. This study examines the association between gait and cognition in 121 early PD who were characterized according to motor phenotype, and 184 healthy older adults. Quantitative gait was captured using a 7m GAITrite walkway whilst walking for two minutes under single task conditions and described by five domains (pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry and postural control. Cognitive outcomes were summarized by six domains (attention, working memory, visual memory, executive function, visuospatial function and global cognition. Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression were used to determine independent associations for all participants and for PD tremor-dominant (TD and postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD phenotypes, controlling for age, sex, and premorbid intelligence using the National Adult Reading Test (NART. Cognitive and gait outcomes were significantly worse for PD. Gait, but not cognitive outcomes, were selectively worse for the PIGD phenotype. Significant associations emerged for two gait domains for controls (pace and postural control and four gait domains for PD (pace, rhythm, variability, and postural control.The strongest correlation was for pace and attention for PD and controls. Associations were not significant for participants with the TD phenotype. In early PD the cognitive correlates of gait are predominantly with fronto-executive functions, and are determined by the PIGD PD phenotype. These associations provide a basis for understanding the complex role of cognition in Parkinsonian gait.

  17. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L.; Lipton, Richard B.; Verghese, Joe

    2015-01-01

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  18. Symmetry Analysis of Gait between Left and Right Limb Using Cross-Fuzzy Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of gait symmetry problem by using cross-fuzzy entropy (C-FuzzyEn, which is a recently proposed cross entropy that has many merits as compared to the frequently used cross sample entropy (C-SampleEn. First, we used several simulation signals to test its performance regarding the relative consistency and dependence on data length. Second, the gait time series of the left and right stride interval were used to calculate the C-FuzzyEn values for gait symmetry analysis. Besides the statistical analysis, we also realized a support vector machine (SVM classifier to perform the classification of normal and abnormal gaits. The gait dataset consists of 15 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and 16 control (CO subjects. The results show that the C-FuzzyEn values of the PD patients’ gait are significantly higher than that of the CO subjects with a p value of less than 10-5, and the best classification performance evaluated by a leave-one-out (LOO cross-validation method is an accuracy of 96.77%. Such encouraging results imply that the C-FuzzyEn-based gait symmetry measure appears as a suitable tool for analyzing abnormal gaits.

  19. Control of impact loading during distracted running before and after gait retraining in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; An, Winko W; Au, Ivan P H; Zhang, Janet H; Chan, Zoe Y S; MacPhail, Aislinn J

    2018-07-01

    Gait retraining using visual biofeedback has been reported to reduce impact loading in runners. However, most of the previous studies did not adequately examine the level of motor learning after training, as the modified gait pattern was not tested in a dual-task condition. Hence, this study sought to compare the landing peak positive acceleration (PPA) and vertical loading rates during distracted running before and after gait retraining. Sixteen recreational runners underwent a two-week visual biofeedback gait retraining program for impact loading reduction, with feedback on the PPA measured at heel. In the evaluation of PPA and vertical loading rates before and after the retraining, the participants performed a cognitive and verbal counting task while running. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between feedback and training on PPA (F = 4.642; P = 0.048) but not vertical loading rates (F > 1.953; P > 0.067). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significantly lower PPA and vertical loading rates after gait retraining (P  0.68). Visual feedback after gait retraining reduced PPA and vertical loading rates during distracted running (P  0.36). Gait retraining is effective in lowering impact loading even when the runners are distracted. In dual-task situation, visual biofeedback provided beneficial influence on kinetics control after gait retraining.

  20. Modification of hemiplegic compensatory gait pattern by symmetry-based motion controller of HAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroaki; Kadone, Hideki; Sakurai, Takeru; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    As one of several characteristics of hemiplegic patients after stroke, compensatory gait caused by affected limb is often seen. The purpose of this research is to apply a symmetry-based controller of a wearable type lower limb robot, Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) to hemiplegic patients with compensatory gait, and to investigate improvement of gait symmetry. The controller is designed respectively for swing phase and support phase according to characteristics of hemiplegic gait pattern. The controller during swing phase stores the motion of the unaffected limb and then provides motion support on the affected limb during the subsequent swing using the stored pattern to realize symmetric gait based on spontaneous limb swing. Moreover, the controller during support phase provides motion to extend hip and knee joints to support wearer's body. Clinical tests were conducted in order to assess the modification of gait symmetry. Our case study involved participation of one chronic stroke patient who performs abnormally-compensatory gait for both of the affected and unaffected limbs. As a result, the patient's gait symmetry was improved by providing motion support during the swing phase on the affected side and motion constraint during the support phase on the unaffected side. The study showed promising basis for the effectiveness of the controller for the future clinical study.

  1. Three-Dimensional Trunk and Lower Limbs Characteristics during Gait in Patients with Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirek, Elzbieta; Filip, Magdalena; Chwała, Wiesław; Banaszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Rudzinska-Bar, Monika; Szymura, Jadwiga; Pasiut, Szymon; Szczudlik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A number of studies on gait disturbances have been conducted, however, no clear pattern of gait disorders was described. The aim of the study was to characterize the gait pattern in HD patients by conducting analysis of mean angular movement changes the lower limb joints and trunk (kinematics parameters). Methods: The study group consisted of 30 patients with HD (17 women and 13 men). The reference data include the results of 30 healthy subjects (17 women and 13 men). Registration of gait with the Vicon 250 system was performed using passive markers attached to specific anthropometric points directly on the skin, based on the Golem biomechanical model (Oxford Metrics Ltd.). The research group and the control group were tested once. Results: Statistically significant ( p patients were observed in: insufficient plantar flexion during Loading Response and Pre-swing phases; insufficient flexion of the knee joint during Initial Swing and Mid Swing phases; excessive flexion of the hip in Terminal Stance and Pre-swing phases and over-normative forward inclination of the trunk in all gait phases. It should be noted that the group of patients with HD obtained, for all the mean angular movement changes higher standard deviation. Conclusion: A characteristic gait disorder common to all patients with HD occurring throughout the whole duration of the gait cycle is a pathological anterior tilt of the trunk. The results will significantly contribute to programming physiotherapy for people with HD, aimed at stabilizing the trunk in a position of extension during gait.

  2. Effectiveness of gait training using an electromechanical gait trainer, with and without functional electric stimulation, in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Raymond K; Ng, Maple F; Li, Leonard S

    2006-10-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of conventional gait training (CGT), gait training using an electromechanical gait trainer (EGT), and gait training using an electromechanical gait trainer with functional electric stimulation (EGT-FES) in people with subacute stroke. Nonblinded randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation hospital for adults. Fifty patients were recruited within 6 weeks after stroke onset; 46 of these completed the 4-week training period. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 gait intervention groups: CGT, EGT, or EGT-FES. The experimental intervention was a 20-minute session per day, 5 days a week (weekdays) for 4 weeks. In addition, all participants received their 40-minute sessions of regular physical therapy every weekday as part of their treatment by the hospital. Five-meter walking speed test, Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS), Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC), Motricity Index leg subscale, FIM instrument score, and Barthel Index. The EGT and EGT-FES groups had statistically significantly more improvement than the CGT group in the 5-m walking speed test (CGT vs EGT, P=.011; CGT vs EGT-FES, P=.001), Motricity Index (CGT vs EGT-FES, P=.011), EMS (CGT vs EGT, P=.006; CGT vs EGT-FES, P=.009), and FAC (CGT vs EGT, P=.005; CGT vs EGT-FES, P=.002) after the 4 weeks of training. No statistically significant differences were found between the EGT and EGT-FES groups in all outcome measures. In this sample with subacute stroke, participants who trained on the electromechanical gait trainer with body-weight support, with or without FES, had a faster gait, better mobility, and improvement in functional ambulation than participants who underwent conventional gait training. Future studies with assessor blinding and larger sample sizes are warranted.

  3. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  4. Effects of walkbot gait training on kinematics, kinetics, and clinical gait function in paraplegia and quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jongseok; Shin, Yongil; Park, Ji-Ho; Cha, Young Joo; You, Joshua Sung H

    2018-04-07

    The robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) system has gained recognition as an innovative, effective paradigm to improve functional ambulation and activities of daily living in spinal cord injury and stroke. However, the effects of the Walkbot robotic-assisted gait training system with a specialized hip-knee-ankle actuator have never been examined in the paraplegia and quadriplegia population. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of Walkbot training on clinical for hips and knee stiffness in individuals with paraplegia or quadriplegia. Nine adults with subacute or chronic paraplegia resulting from spinal cord injury or quadriplegia resulting from cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and/or hypoxia underwent progressive conventional gait retraining combined with the Walkbot RAGT for 5 days/week over an average of 43 sessions for 8 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured with the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Kinetic and kinematic data were collected via a built-in Walkbot program. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed significant positive intervention effects on K-MBI, maximal hip flexion and extension, maximal knee flexion, active torque in the knee joint, resistive torque, and stiffness in the hip joint (P quadriplegia who had reached a plateau in motor recovery after conventional therapy.

  5. Improved gait after repetitive locomotor training in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, Nicola; Bonetti, Paola; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Cosentino, Alessandro; Waldner, Andreas; Hesse, Stefan; Werner, Cordula; Bisoffi, Giulia; Geroin, Christian; Munari, Daniele

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive locomotor training with an electromechanical gait trainer in children with cerebral palsy. In this randomized controlled trial, 18 ambulatory children with diplegic or tetraplegic cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group received 30 mins of repetitive locomotor training with an applied technology (Gait Trainer GT I) plus 10 mins of passive joint mobilization and stretching exercises. The control group received 40 mins of conventional physiotherapy. Each subject underwent a total of 10 treatment sessions over a 2-wk period. Performance on the 10-m walk test, 6-min walk test, WeeFIM scale, and gait analysis was evaluated by a blinded rater before and after treatment and at 1-mo follow-up. The experimental group showed significant posttreatment improvement on the 10-m walk test, 6-min walk test, hip kinematics, gait speed, and step length, all of which were maintained at the 1-mo follow-up assessment. No significant changes in performance parameters were observed in the control group. Repetitive locomotor training with an electromechanical gait trainer may improve gait velocity, endurance, spatiotemporal, and kinematic gait parameters in patients with cerebral palsy.

  6. Gait characteristics under different walking conditions: Association with the presence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie De Cock

    Full Text Available Gait characteristics measured at usual pace may allow profiling in patients with cognitive problems. The influence of age, gender, leg length, modified speed or dual tasking is unclear.Cross-sectional analysis was performed on a data registry containing demographic, physical and spatial-temporal gait parameters recorded in five walking conditions with a GAITRite® electronic carpet in community-dwelling older persons with memory complaints. Four cognitive stages were studied: cognitively healthy individuals, mild cognitive impaired patients, mild dementia patients and advanced dementia patients.The association between spatial-temporal gait characteristics and cognitive stages was the most prominent: in the entire study population using gait speed, steps per meter (translation for mean step length, swing time variability, normalised gait speed (corrected for leg length and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in the 50-to-70 years old participants applying step width at fast pace and steps per meter at usual pace; in the 70-to-80 years old persons using gait speed and normalised gait speed at usual pace, fast pace, animal walk and counting walk or steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in over-80 years old participants using gait speed, normalised gait speed, steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at fast pace and animal dual-task walking. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender predicted in two compiled models the presence of dementia or cognitive impairment with acceptable accuracy in persons with memory complaints.Gait parameters in multiple walking conditions adjusted for age, gender and leg length showed a significant association with cognitive impairment. This study suggested that multifactorial gait analysis could be more informative than using gait analysis with only one test or one variable. Using this type of gait analysis in clinical practice

  7. An electromechanical gait trainer for restoration of gait in hemiparetic stroke patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Werner, C; Uhlenbrock, D; von Frankenberg, S; Bardeleben, A; Brandl-Hesse, B

    2001-01-01

    Modern concepts of gait rehabilitation after stroke favor a task-specific repetitive approach. In practice, the required physical effort of the therapists limits the realization of this approach. Therefore, a mechanized gait trainer enabling nonambulatory patients to have the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists was constructed. This preliminary study investigated whether an additional 4-week daily therapy on the gait trainer could improve gait ability in 14 chronic wheelchair-bound hemiparetic subjects. The 4 weeks of physiotherapy and gait-trainer therapy resulted in a relevant improvement of gait ability in all subjects. Velocity, cadence, and stride length improved significantly (p gait trainer seems feasible as an adjunctive tool in gait rehabilitation after stroke; further studies are needed.

  8. Inertial Gait Phase Detection for control of a drop foot stimulator: Inertial sensing for gait phase detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotiadis, D.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    An Inertial Gait Phase Detection system was developed to replace heel switches and footswitches currently being used for the triggering of drop foot stimulators. A series of four algorithms utilising accelerometers and gyroscopes individually and in combination were tested and initial results are

  9. Imaging gait analysis: An fMRI dual task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Céline N; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Reinhardt, Julia; Stippich, Christoph; Kressig, Reto W; Blatow, Maria

    2017-08-01

    In geriatric clinical diagnostics, gait analysis with cognitive-motor dual tasking is used to predict fall risk and cognitive decline. To date, the neural correlates of cognitive-motor dual tasking processes are not fully understood. To investigate these underlying neural mechanisms, we designed an fMRI paradigm to reproduce the gait analysis. We tested the fMRI paradigm's feasibility in a substudy with fifteen young adults and assessed 31 healthy older adults in the main study. First, gait speed and variability were quantified using the GAITRite © electronic walkway. Then, participants lying in the MRI-scanner were stepping on pedals of an MRI-compatible stepping device used to imitate gait during functional imaging. In each session, participants performed cognitive and motor single tasks as well as cognitive-motor dual tasks. Behavioral results showed that the parameters of both gait analyses, GAITRite © and fMRI, were significantly positively correlated. FMRI results revealed significantly reduced brain activation during dual task compared to single task conditions. Functional ROI analysis showed that activation in the superior parietal lobe (SPL) decreased less from single to dual task condition than activation in primary motor cortex and in supplementary motor areas. Moreover, SPL activation was increased during dual tasks in subjects exhibiting lower stepping speed and lower executive control. We were able to simulate walking during functional imaging with valid results that reproduce those from the GAITRite © gait analysis. On the neural level, SPL seems to play a crucial role in cognitive-motor dual tasking and to be linked to divided attention processes, particularly when motor activity is involved.

  10. Towards a Passive Low-Cost In-Home Gait Assessment System for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James M.; Abbott, Carmen; Rantz, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a webcam-based system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed, step time and step length from a three-dimensional voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated webcam views. The gait parameters are validated with a GAITRite mat and a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 44 tests, and again with GAITRite for 8 older adults in senior housing. An excellent agreement with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.99 and repeatability coefficients between 0.7% and 6.6% was found for walking speed, step time and step length given the limitation of frame rate and voxel resolution. The system was further tested with 10 seniors in a scripted scenario representing everyday activities in an unstructured environment. The system results demonstrate the capability of being used as a daily gait assessment tool for fall risk assessment and other medical applications. Furthermore, we found that residents displayed different gait patterns during their clinical GAITRite tests compared to the realistic scenario, namely a mean increase of 21% in walking speed, a mean decrease of 12% in step time, and a mean increase of 6% in step length. These findings provide support for continuous gait assessment in the home for capturing habitual gait. PMID:24235111

  11. Poor Gait Performance and Prediction of Dementia: Results From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Callisaya, Michele L; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Kressig, Reto W; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Blumen, Helena M; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    Poor gait performance predicts risk of developing dementia. No structured critical evaluation has been conducted to study this association yet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association of poor gait performance with incidence of dementia. An English and French Medline search was conducted in June 2015, with no limit of date, using the medical subject headings terms "Gait" OR "Gait Disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait Apraxia" OR "Gait Ataxia" AND "Dementia" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia" OR "Dementia, Multi-Infarct" OR "Dementia, Vascular" OR "Alzheimer Disease" OR "Lewy Body Disease" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia With Motor Neuron Disease" (Supplementary Concept). Poor gait performance was defined by standardized tests of walking, and dementia was diagnosed according to international consensus criteria. Four etiologies of dementia were identified: any dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and non-AD (ie, pooling VaD, mixed dementias, and other dementias). Fixed effects meta-analyses were performed on the estimates in order to generate summary values. Of the 796 identified abstracts, 12 (1.5%) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Poor gait performance predicted dementia [pooled hazard ratio (HR) combined with relative risk and odds ratio = 1.53 with P analysis provides evidence that poor gait performance predicts dementia. This association depends on the type of dementia; poor gait performance is a stronger predictor of non-AD dementias than AD. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treadmill sideways gait training with visual blocking for patients with brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tea-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the effect of sideways treadmill training with and without visual blocking on the balance and gait function of patients with brain lesions. [Subjects] Twenty-four stroke and traumatic brain injury subjects participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: an experimental group (12 subjects) and a control group (12 subjects). [Methods] Each group executed a treadmill training session for 20 minutes, three times a week, for 6 weeks. The sideways gait training on the treadmill was performed with visual blocking by the experimental group and with normal vision by the control group. A Biodex Gait Trainer 2 was used to assess the gait function. It was used to measure walking speed, walking distance, step length, and stance time on each foot. The Five-Times-Sit-To-Stand test (FTSST) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were used as balance measures. [Results] The sideways gait training with visual blocking group showed significantly improved walking speed, walking distance, step length, and stance time on each foot after training; FTSST and TUG times also significantly improved after training in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed significant increases in stance time on each foot. [Conclusion] Sideways gait training on a treadmill with visual blocking performed by patients with brain lesions significantly improved their balance and gait function.

  13. Musical motor feedback (MMF) in walking hemiparetic stroke patients: randomized trials of gait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Michael; Mauritz, Karl-Heinz

    2003-11-01

    To demonstrate the effect of rhythmical auditory stimulation in a musical context for gait therapy in hemiparetic stroke patients, when the stimulation is played back measure by measure initiated by the patient's heel-strikes (musical motor feedback). Does this type of musical feedback improve walking more than a less specific gait therapy? The randomized controlled trial considered 23 registered stroke patients. Two groups were created by randomization: the control group received 15 sessions of conventional gait therapy and the test group received 15 therapy sessions with musical motor feedback. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Median post-stroke interval was 44 days and the patients were able to walk without technical aids with a speed of approximately 0.71 m/s. Gait velocity, step duration, gait symmetry, stride length and foot rollover path length (heel-on-toe-off distance). The test group showed more mean improvement than the control group: stride length increased by 18% versus 0%, symmetry deviation decreased by 58% versus 20%, walking speed increased by 27% versus 4% and rollover path length increased by 28% versus 11%. Musical motor feedback improves the stroke patient's walk in selected parameters more than conventional gait therapy. A fixed memory in the patient's mind about the song and its timing may stimulate the improvement of gait even without the presence of an external pacemaker.

  14. A pilot study of randomized clinical controlled trial of gait training in subacute stroke patients with partial body-weight support electromechanical gait trainer and functional electrical stimulation: six-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maple F W; Tong, Raymond K Y; Li, Leonard S W

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of gait training using an electromechanical gait trainer with or without functional electrical stimulation for people with subacute stroke. This was a nonblinded randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up. Fifty-four subjects were recruited within 6 weeks after stroke onset and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 gait intervention groups: conventional overground gait training treatment (CT, n=21), electromechanical gait trainer (GT, n=17) and, electromechanical gait trainer with functional electrical stimulation (GT-FES, n=16). All subjects were to undergo an assigned intervention program comprising a 20-minute session every weekday for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Functional Independence Measure, Barthel Index, Motricity Index leg subscale, Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS), Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC), and 5-meter walking speed test. Assessments were made at baseline, at the end of the 4-week intervention program, and 6 months after the program ended. By intention-to-treat and multivariate analysis, statistically significant differences showed up in EMS (Wilks' lambda=0.743, P=0.005), FAC (Wilks' lambda=0.744, P=0.005) and gait speed (Wilks' lambda=0.658, Pgait training that used an electromechanical gait trainer compared with conventional overground gait training. The training effect was sustained through to the 6-month follow-up after the intervention.

  15. Effect of aquatic dual-task training on balance and gait in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aquatic dual-task training on balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients were divided into the experimental (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. Both groups underwent neurodevelopmental treatment. The experimental group additionally underwent aquatic dual-task training for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks. Balance was measured using the Berg balance scale, Five Times Sit-to Stand Test, and Functional Reach Test. Gait was measured using the 10-Meter Walk Test, Timed Up and Go Test, and Functional Gait Assessment. [Results] For intragroup comparison, the experimental group showed a significant change after the experiment in all balance and gait assessment tests. For intergroup comparison, the experimental group showed relatively more significant change after the experiment in all balance and gait assessment tests. [Conclusion] Our results showed that aquatic dual-task training has a positive effect on balance and gait in stroke patients.

  16. Preliminary Results for a Monocular Marker-Free Gait Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Courtney

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a novel monocular marker-free gait measurement system. The system was designed for physical and occupational therapists to monitor the progress of patients through therapy. It is based on a novel human motion capturemethod derived from model-based tracking. Testing is performed on two monocular, sagittal-view, sample gait videos – one with both the environment and the subject’s appearance and movement restricted and one in a natural environment with unrestrictedclothing and motion. Results of the modelling, tracking and analysis stages are presented along with standard gait graphs and parameters.

  17. Towards a Passive Low-Cost In-Home Gait Assessment System for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James M.; Abbott, Carmen; Rantz, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a webcam-based system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed, step time and step length from a three-dimensional voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated webcam views. The gait parameters are validated with a GAITRite mat and a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 44 tests, and again with GAITRite for 8 older adults in senior housing. A...

  18. Modulation of the Left Prefrontal Cortex with High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Facilitates Gait in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer M. Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disease. Gait abnormalities are common and disabling in patients with MS with limited treatment options available. Emerging evidence suggests a role of prefrontal attention networks in modulating gait. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is known to enhance cortical excitability in stimulated cortex and its correlates. We investigated the effect of high-frequency left prefrontal rTMS on gait parameters in a 51-year-old Caucasian male with chronic relapsing/remitting MS with residual disabling attention and gait symptoms. Patient received 6 Hz, rTMS at 90% motor threshold using figure of eight coil centered on F3 location (using 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG lead localization system. GAITRite gait analysis system was used to collect objective gait measures before and after one session and in another occasion three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Two-tailed within subject repeated measure t-test showed significant enhancement in ambulation time, gait velocity, and cadence after three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Modulating left prefrontal cortex excitability using rTMS resulted in significant change in gait parameters after three sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the effect of rTMS applied to the prefrontal cortex on gait in MS patients.

  19. Analysis of spastic gait in cervical myelopathy: Linking compression ratio to spatiotemporal and pedobarographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taro; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Endo, Kenji; Ikegami, Ryo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2018-01-01

    Gait dysfunction associated with spasticity and hyperreflexia is a primary symptom in patients with compression of cervical spinal cord. The objective of this study was to link maximum compression ratio (CR) to spatiotemporal/pedobarographic parameters. Quantitative gait analysis was performed by using a pedobarograph in 75 elderly males with a wide range of cervical compression severity. CR values were characterized on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical significances in gait analysis parameters (speed, cadence, stride length, step with, and toe-out angle) were evaluated among different CR groups by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test using Bonferroni correction. The Spearman test was performed to verify correlations between CR and gait parameters. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant decline in gait speed and stride length and significant increase in toe-out angle with progression of cervical compression myelopathy. The post-hoc Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in these parameters between the control group (0.45test revealed that CR was significantly correlated with speed, cadence, stride length, and toe-out angle. Gait speed, stride length, and toe-out angle can serve as useful indexes for evaluating progressive gait abnormality in cervical myelopathy. Our findings suggest that CR≤0.25 is associated with significantly poorer gait performance. Nevertheless, future prospective studies are needed to determine a potential benefit from decompressive surgery in such severe compression patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Clinical Gait Analysis parameters in patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, Giacomo; Manca, Mario; Ferraresi, Giovanni; Caniatti, Luisa Maria; Cosma, Michela; Baldasso, Francesco; Straudi, Sofia; Morelli, Monica; Basaglia, Nino

    2017-06-01

    Clinical Gait Analysis is commonly used to evaluate specific gait characteristics of patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis. The aim of this report is to present a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the changes in Clinical Gait Analysis parameters in patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis. In this study a sample of 51 patients with different levels of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale 2-6.5) was analyzed. We extracted a set of 52 parameters from the Clinical Gait Analysis of each patient and used statistical analysis and linear regression to assess differences among several groups of subjects stratified according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale and 6-Minutes Walking Test. The impact of assistive devices (e.g. canes and crutches) on the kinematics was also assessed in a subsample of patients. Subjects showed decreased range of motion at hip, knee and ankle that translated in increased pelvic tilt and hiking. Comparison between the two stratifications showed that gait speed during 6-Minutes Walking Test is better at discriminating patients' kinematics with respect to Expanded Disability Status Scale. Assistive devices were shown not to significantly impact gait kinematics and the Clinical Gait Analysis parameters analyzed. We were able to characterize disability-related trends in gait kinematics. The results presented in this report provide a small atlas of the changes in gait characteristics associated with different disability levels in the Multiple Sclerosis population. This information could be used to effectively track the progression of MS and the effect of different therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  2. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  3. An online gait generator for quadruped walking using motor primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents implementation of an online gait generator on a quadruped robot. Firstly, the design of a quadruped robot is presented. The robot contains four leg modules each of which is constructed by a 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF five-bar parallel linkage mechanism. Together with other two rotational DOF, the leg module is able to perform 4-DOF movement. The parallel mechanism of the robot allows all the servos attached on the body frame, so that the leg mass is decreased and motor load can be balanced. Secondly, an online gait generator based on dynamic movement primitives for the walking control is presented. Dynamic movement primitives provide an approach to generate periodic trajectories and they can be modulated in real time, which makes the online adjustment of walking gaits possible. This gait controller is tested by the quadruped robot in regulating walking speed, switching between forward\\backward movements and steering. The controller is easy to apply, expand and is quite effective on phase coordination and online trajectory modulation. Results of simulated experiments are presented.

  4. A flexible wearable sensor for knee flexion assessment during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Enrica; Bo, Yen Nee; McGregor, Alison H

    2018-05-01

    Gait analysis plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with movement disorders but it is usually performed within a laboratory. Recently interest has shifted towards the possibility of conducting gait assessments in everyday environments thus facilitating long-term monitoring. This is possible by using wearable technologies rather than laboratory based equipment. This study aims to validate a novel wearable sensor system's ability to measure peak knee sagittal angles during gait. The proposed system comprises a flexible conductive polymer unit interfaced with a wireless acquisition node attached over the knee on a pair of leggings. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated to two gait assessments on separate occasions. Data was simultaneously collected from the novel sensor and a gold standard 10 camera motion capture system. The relationship between sensor signal and reference knee flexion angles was defined for each subject to allow the transformation of sensor voltage outputs to angular measures (degrees). The knee peak flexion angle from the sensor and reference system were compared by means of root mean square error (RMSE), absolute error, Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess test-retest reliability. Comparisons of knee peak flexion angles calculated from the sensor and gold standard yielded an absolute error of 0.35(±2.9°) and RMSE of 1.2(±0.4)°. Good agreement was found between the two systems with the majority of data lying within the limits of agreement. The sensor demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICCs>0.8). These results show the ability of the sensor to monitor knee peak sagittal angles with small margins of error and in agreement with the gold standard system. The sensor has potential to be used in clinical settings as a discreet, unobtrusive wearable device allowing for long-term gait analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inter-Trial Gait Variability Reduction Using Continous Curve Registration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadeghi, H

    2001-01-01

    Timing in peak gait values shifts slightly between gait trials. When gait data are averaged, some of the standard deviation can be associated to this inter-trial variability unless normalization is carried out beforehand...

  6. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, H.P.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson’s disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between

  7. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, I.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between

  8. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  9. How much exercise does the enhanced gait-oriented physiotherapy provide for chronic stroke patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani; Tarkka, Ina M

    2004-04-01

    Physical exercise therapy in sensorimotor rehabilitation of stroke patients includes active and repetitive exercise and task-specific training. The time spent in active practice is fundamental. The purpose of this study was to analyse what was the actual amount of exercise and content of the performed exercise of the three-week gait-oriented physiotherapy program for chronic stroke patients in an in-patient setting. Twenty ambulatory post-stroke patients participated in an in-patient rehabilitation period during which a special effort was made to enhance gait training and the amount of therapy and its contents were recorded in structured form. Baseline and postintervention gait ability assessments were made, but the analysis concentrated on participation records in different forms of therapy. Patients received 19 hours of instructed physiotherapy in three weeks and together with self-initiated training they practised for 28 hours. The practice time in the upright position was 62% of the total duration of the instructed physiotherapy and 35% was performed while sitting. This amount of exercise resulted in improvement of the gait tests. In order to improve gait in the chronic state of disease, a sufficient amount of gait rehabilitation practice can be obtained with a combination of electromechanical gait trainer exercises, physiotherapy, instructed exercise groups and self-initiated training.

  10. Local dynamic stability and variability of gait are associated with fall history in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Marcel J P; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Furrer, Regula; Dekker, Joost; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-07-01

    Gait parameters that can be measured with simple instrumentation may hold promise for identifying individuals at risk of falling. Increased variability of gait is associated with increased risk of falling, but research on additional parameters indicates that local dynamic stability (LDS) of gait may also be a predictor of fall risk. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between gait variability, LDS of gait and fall history in a large sample of elderly subjects. Subjects were recruited and tested at a large national fair. One hundred and thirty four elderly, aged 50-75, who were able to walk without aids on a treadmill, agreed to participate. After subjects walked on a treadmill, LDS (higher values indicate more instability) and variability parameters were calculated from accelerometer signals (trunk worn). Fall history was obtained by self-report of falls in the past 12 months. Gait variability and short-term LDS were, individually and combined, positively associated with fall history. In conclusion, both increased gait variability and increased short-term LDS are possible risk factors for falling in the elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gait recognition based on integral outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guan; Fang, Lv

    2017-02-01

    Biometric identification technology replaces traditional security technology, which has become a trend, and gait recognition also has become a hot spot of research because its feature is difficult to imitate and theft. This paper presents a gait recognition system based on integral outline of human body. The system has three important aspects: the preprocessing of gait image, feature extraction and classification. Finally, using a method of polling to evaluate the performance of the system, and summarizing the problems existing in the gait recognition and the direction of development in the future.

  12. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  13. A cable-driven locomotor training system for restoration of gait in human SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Hornby, T George; Landry, Jill M; Roth, Heidi; Schmit, Brian D

    2011-02-01

    A novel cable-driven robotic locomotor training system was developed to provide compliant assistance/resistance forces to the legs during treadmill training in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Eleven subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to participate in two experiments to test the feasibility of the robotic gait training system. Specifically, 10 subjects participated in one experimental session to test the characteristics of the robotic gait training system and one subject participated in repeated testing sessions over 8 weeks with the robotic device to test improvements in locomotor function. Limb kinematics were recorded in one experiment to evaluate the system characteristics of the cable-driven locomotor trainer and the overground gait speed and 6 min walking distance were evaluated at pre, 4 and 8 weeks post treadmill training of a single subject as well. The results indicated that the cable driven robotic gait training system improved the kinematic performance of the leg during treadmill walking and had no significant impact on the variability of lower leg trajectory, suggesting a high backdrivability of the cable system. In addition, results from a patient with incomplete SCI indicated that prolonged robotic gait training using the cable robot improved overground gait speed. Results from this study suggested that a cable driven robotic gait training system is effective in improving leg kinematic performance, yet allows variability of gait kinematics. Thus, it seems feasible to improve the locomotor function in human SCI using this cable driven robotic system, warranting testing with a larger group of patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of real-time gait biofeedback on paretic propulsion and gait biomechanics in individuals post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthe, Katlin; Schenck, Christopher; Eicholtz, Steven; Zajac-Cox, Laura; Wolf, Steven; Kesar, Trisha M

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Gait training interventions that target paretic propulsion induce improvements in walking speed and function in individuals post-stroke. Previously, we demonstrated that able-bodied individuals increase propulsion unilaterally when provided real-time biofeedback targeting anterior ground reaction forces (AGRF). The purpose of this study was to, for the first time, investigate short-term effects of real-time AGRF gait biofeedback training on post-stroke gait. Methods Nine individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis (6 females, age = 54 ± 12.4 years 39.2 ± 24.4 months post-stroke) completed three 6-minute training bouts on an instrumented treadmill. During training, visual and auditory biofeedback were provided to increase paretic AGRF during terminal stance. Gait biomechanics were evaluated before training, and during retention tests conducted 2, 15, and 30 minutes post-training. Primary dependent variables were paretic and non-paretic peak AGRF; secondary variables included paretic and non-paretic peak trailing limb angle, plantarflexor moment, and step length. In addition to evaluating the effects of biofeedback training on these dependent variables, we compared effects of a 6-minute biofeedback training bout to a non-biofeedback control condition. Results Compared to pre-training, significantly greater paretic peak AGRFs were generated during the 2, 15, and 30-minute retention tests conducted after the 18-minute biofeedback training session. Biofeedback training induced no significant effects on the non-paretic leg. Comparison of a 6-minute biofeedback training bout with a speed-matched control bout without biofeedback demonstrated a main effect for training type, with greater peak AGRF generation during biofeedback. Discussion Our results suggest that AGRF biofeedback may be a feasible and promising gait training strategy to target propulsive deficits in individuals post-stroke.

  15. Multitarget transcranial direct current stimulation for freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Moria; Herman, Talia; Harrison, Rachel; Zhou, Junhong; Giladi, Nir; Ruffini, Giulio; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2018-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex may ameliorate freezing of gait. However, the effects of multitarget simultaneous stimulation of motor and cognitive networks are mostly unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multitarget transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on freezing of gait and related outcomes. Twenty patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait received 20 minutes of transcranial direct current stimulation on 3 separate visits. Transcranial direct current stimulation targeted the primary motor cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex simultaneously, primary motor cortex only, or sham stimulation (order randomized and double-blinded assessments). Participants completed a freezing of gait-provoking test, the Timed Up and Go, and the Stroop test before and after each transcranial direct current stimulation session. Performance on the freezing of gait-provoking test (P = 0.010), Timed Up and Go (P = 0.006), and the Stroop test (P = 0.016) improved after simultaneous stimulation of the primary motor cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not after primary motor cortex only or sham stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation designed to simultaneously target motor and cognitive regions apparently induces immediate aftereffects in the brain that translate into reduced freezing of gait and improvements in executive function and mobility. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Gait performance and foot pressure distribution during wearable robot-assisted gait in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Byung-Ok; Lee, Jusuk; Kim, Jeonghun; Ryu, Gyu-Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-11-28

    A robotic exoskeleton device is an intelligent system designed to improve gait performance and quality of life for the wearer. Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robot-assisted gait devices were developed to enhance gait function and activities of daily living in elderly adults and patients with gait disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the Gait-enhancing Mechatronic System (GEMS), a new wearable robotic hip-assist device developed by Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd., Korea, on gait performance and foot pressure distribution in elderly adults. Thirty elderly adults who had no neurological or musculoskeletal abnormalities affecting gait participated in this study. A three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system, surface electromyography and the F-Scan system were used to collect data on spatiotemporal gait parameters, muscle activity and foot pressure distribution under three conditions: free gait without robot assistance (FG), robot-assisted gait with zero torque (RAG-Z) and robot-assisted gait (RAG). We found increased gait speed, cadence, stride length and single support time in the RAG condition. Reduced rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscle activity throughout the terminal stance phase and reduced effort of the medial gastrocnemius muscle throughout the pre-swing phase were also observed in the RAG condition. In addition, walking with the assistance of GEMS resulted in a significant increase in foot pressure distribution, specifically in maximum force and peak pressure of the total foot, medial masks, anterior masks and posterior masks. The results of the present study reveal that GEMS may present an alternative way of restoring age-related changes in gait such as gait instability with muscle weakness, reduced step force and lower foot pressure in elderly adults. In addition, GEMS improved gait performance by improving push-off power and walking speed and reducing muscle activity in the lower

  17. Gait of dairy cows on floors with different slipperiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Magnusson, M; Bergsten, C

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the slip resistance of different types of solid flooring in cattle housing using a range of technical tests and gait analysis. Dynamic and static coefficient of friction, skid resistance, and abrasiveness were tested on concrete flooring with a smooth finish, a grooved pattern, or a tamped pattern, acid-resistant mastic asphalt, soft rubber mats, and a worn slatted concrete floor. Coefficients of friction and skid resistance were tested under clean and slurry-soiled conditions. Linear kinematic variables were assessed in 40 cows with trackway measurements after the cows passed over the floors in a straight walk. All gait variables were assessed as deviations from those obtained on the slatted concrete floor, which was used as a baseline. The coefficient of friction tests divided the floors into 3 categories: concrete flooring, which had a low coefficient of friction (0.29-0.41); mastic asphalt flooring, which had medium values (0.38-0.45); and rubber mats, which had high values (0.49-0.57). The highest abrasion (g/10 m) was on the asphalt flooring (4.48), and the concrete flooring with a tamped pattern had significantly higher abrasiveness (2.77) than the other concrete floors (1.26-1.60). Lowest values on the skid-resistance tests (dry/wet) were for smooth concrete (79/35) and mastic asphalt (65/47), especially with a slurry layer on the surface. Gait analysis mainly differentiated floors with higher friction and abrasion by longer strides and better tracking. Step asymmetry was lower on floors with high skid-resistance values. The most secure cow gait, in almost every aspect, was observed on soft rubber mats. Relationships between gait variables and physical floor characteristics ranged from average to weak (partial correlations 0.54-0.16). Thus, none of the physical characteristics alone was informative enough to characterize slip resistance. With reference to gait analysis, the abrasiveness of the hard surfaces was more informative than the

  18. Gait Is Associated with Cognitive Flexibility: A Dual-Tasking Study in Healthy Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Hobert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze which gait parameters are primarily influenced by cognitive flexibility, and whether such an effect depends on the walking condition used.Design: Cross-sectional analysis.Setting: Tübingen evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders.Participants: A total of 661 non-demented individuals (49–80 years.Measurements: A gait assessment with four conditions was performed: a 20 m walk at convenient speed (C, at fast speed (F, at fast speed while checking boxes (FB, and while subtracting serial 7s (FS. Seven gait parameters from a wearable sensor-unit (McRoberts, Netherlands were compared with delta Trail-Making-Test (dTMT values, which is a measure of cognitive flexibility. Walking strategies of good and poor dTMT performers were compared by evaluating the patterns of gait parameters across conditions.Results: Five parameters correlated significantly with the dTMT in the FS condition, two parameters in the F and FB condition, and none in the C condition. Overall correlations were relatively weak. Gait speed was the gait parameter that most strongly correlated with the dTMT (r2 = 7.4%. In good, but not poor, dTMT performers differences between FB and FS were significantly different in variability-associated gait parameters.Conclusion: Older individuals need cognitive flexibility to perform difficult walking conditions. This association is best seen in gait speed. New and particularly relevant for recognition and training of deficits is that older individuals with poor cognitive flexibility have obviously fewer resources to adapt to challenging walking conditions. Our findings partially explain gait deficits in older adults with poor cognitive flexibility.

  19. Three-Dimensional Trunk and Lower Limbs Characteristics during Gait in Patients with Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Mirek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A number of studies on gait disturbances have been conducted, however, no clear pattern of gait disorders was described. The aim of the study was to characterize the gait pattern in HD patients by conducting analysis of mean angular movement changes the lower limb joints and trunk (kinematics parameters.Methods: The study group consisted of 30 patients with HD (17 women and 13 men. The reference data include the results of 30 healthy subjects (17 women and 13 men. Registration of gait with the Vicon 250 system was performed using passive markers attached to specific anthropometric points directly on the skin, based on the Golem biomechanical model (Oxford Metrics Ltd.. The research group and the control group were tested once.Results: Statistically significant (p < 0.05 angular changes in gait cycle for HD patients were observed in: insufficient plantar flexion during Loading Response and Pre-swing phases; insufficient flexion of the knee joint during Initial Swing and Mid Swing phases; excessive flexion of the hip in Terminal Stance and Pre-swing phases and over-normative forward inclination of the trunk in all gait phases. It should be noted that the group of patients with HD obtained, for all the mean angular movement changes higher standard deviation.Conclusion: A characteristic gait disorder common to all patients with HD occurring throughout the whole duration of the gait cycle is a pathological anterior tilt of the trunk. The results will significantly contribute to programming physiotherapy for people with HD, aimed at stabilizing the trunk in a position of extension during gait.

  20. A Full-Body Layered Deformable Model for Automatic Model-Based Gait Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiping; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a full-body layered deformable model (LDM) inspired by manually labeled silhouettes for automatic model-based gait recognition from part-level gait dynamics in monocular video sequences. The LDM is defined for the fronto-parallel gait with 22 parameters describing the human body part shapes (widths and lengths) and dynamics (positions and orientations). There are four layers in the LDM and the limbs are deformable. Algorithms for LDM-based human body pose recovery are then developed to estimate the LDM parameters from both manually labeled and automatically extracted silhouettes, where the automatic silhouette extraction is through a coarse-to-fine localization and extraction procedure. The estimated LDM parameters are used for model-based gait recognition by employing the dynamic time warping for matching and adopting the combination scheme in AdaBoost.M2. While the existing model-based gait recognition approaches focus primarily on the lower limbs, the estimated LDM parameters enable us to study full-body model-based gait recognition by utilizing the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head as well. In the experiments, the LDM-based gait recognition is tested on gait sequences with differences in shoe-type, surface, carrying condition and time. The results demonstrate that the recognition performance benefits from not only the lower limb dynamics, but also the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head. In addition, the LDM can serve as an analysis tool for studying factors affecting the gait under various conditions.

  1. Balance and Gait Represent Independent Domains of Mobility in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Fay B.; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Salarian, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background The Instrumented Stand and Walk (ISAW) test, which includes 30 seconds of stance, step initiation, gait, and turning, results in many objective balance and gait metrics from body-worn inertial sensors. However, it is not clear which metrics provide independent information about mobility. Objective It was hypothesized that balance and gait represent several independent domains of mobility and that not all domains would be abnormal in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) or would change with levodopa therapy. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods A factor analysis approach was used to identify independent measures of mobility extracted from the ISAW in 100 participants with PD and 21 control participants. First, a covariance analysis showed that postural sway measures were independent of gait measures. Then, the factor analysis revealed 6 independent factors (mobility domains: sway area, sway frequency, arm swing asymmetry, trunk motion during gait, gait speed, and cadence) that accounted for 87% of the variance of performance across participants. Results Sway area, gait speed, and trunk motion differed between the PD group in the off-levodopa state and the control group, but sway frequency (but not sway area) differed between the PD group in the off-levodopa state and the control group. Four of the 6 factors changed significantly with levodopa (off to on): sway area, sway frequency, trunk motion during gait, and cadence. When participants were on levodopa, the sway area increased compared with off levodopa, becoming more abnormal, whereas the other 3 significant metrics moved toward, but did not reach, the healthy control values. Limitations Exploratory factor analysis was limited to the PD population. Conclusions The different sensitivity various balance and gait domains to PD and to levodopa also support neural control of at least 6 independent mobility domains, each of which warrants clinical assessment for impairments in mobility. PMID

  2. Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Biologically Based Assay of Lower Extremity Impairment and Gait Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Heather T.; Dunning, Kari; Belagaje, Samir; Kissela, Brett M.; Ying, Jun; Laine, Jarmo; Page, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. (a) To determine associations among motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, MEP latency, lower extremity (LE) impairment, and gait velocity and (b) determine the association between the presence of a detectable MEP signal with LE impairment and with gait velocity. Method. 35 subjects with chronic, stable LE hemiparesis were undergone TMS, the LE section of the Fugl-Meyer Impairment Scale (LE FM), and 10-meter walk test. We recorded presence, amplitude, and latency of MEPs in the a...

  3. First signs of elderly gait for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Wiszomirska, Ida; Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wychowański, Michał; Wit, Andrzej

    2017-06-27

    The aims of this study have been twofold: to attempt to reduce the number of spatiotemporal parameters used for describing gait through the factor analysis and component analysis; and to explore the critical age of decline for other gait parameters for healthy women. A total of 106 women (aged ≥ 40 years old (N = 76) and ≤ 31 years old (N = 30)) were evaluated using a pressure-sensitive mat (Zebris Medical System, Tübingen, Germany) for collecting spatiotemporal gait parameters. The factor analysis identified 2 factors - labelled Time and Rhythm - that accounted for 72% of the variation in significant free-gait parameters; the principal component analysis identified 4 of these parameters that permit full clinical evaluation of gait quality. No difference was found between the groups in terms of the values of parameters reflecting the temporal nature of gait (Rhythm), namely step time, stride time and cadence, whereas significant differences were found for total double support phase (p gait, we selected 3 parameters: total double support, stride time and velocity. We concluded that the women taking part in the experiment manifested significant signs of senile gait after the age of 60 years old, with the first symptoms thereof already manifesting themselves after 50 years of age. We show that among 26 spatiotemporal parameters that may be used for characterizing gait, at least a half of them may be omitted in the assessment of gait correctness; a finding that may be useful in clinical practice. The finding that the onset of senile gait occurs in the case of women after the age of 60 years old, in turn, may be useful in evaluating the ability for performing types of physical work that mainly require ambulation. Med Pr 2017;68(4):441-448. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Gait variability and motor control in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle; Simonsen, Erik B; Petersen, Nicolas C; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2015-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that impairs walking ability and function. We compared the temporal gait variability and motor control in people with knee OA with healthy controls. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that the temporal gait variability would reflect a more stereotypic pattern in people with knee OA compared with healthy age-matched subjects. To assess the gait variability the temporal structure of the ankle and knee joint kinematics was quantified by the largest Lyapunov exponent and the stride time fluctuations were quantified by sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H-reflex amplitude was significantly higher in the knee OA group around heel strike when compared with the controls. The mean group difference in the H-reflex in the initial part of the stance phase (control-knee OA) was -6.6% Mmax (95% CI: -10.4 to -2.7, p=0.041). The present OA group reported relatively small impact of their disease. These results suggest that the OA group in general sustained a normal gait pattern with natural variability but with suggestions of facilitated SO H-reflex in the swing to stance phase transition. We speculate that the difference in SO H-reflex modulation reflects that the OA group increased the excitability of the soleus stretch reflex as a preparatory mechanism to avoid sudden collapse of the knee joint which is not uncommon in knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Balance and gait in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Talcott, Joel B; Toennessen, Finn Egil

    2003-05-01

    Tests of postural stability have provided some evidence of a link between deficits in gross motor skills and developmental dyslexia. The ordinal-level scales used previously, however, have limited measurement sensitivity, and no studies have investigated motor performance during walking in participants with dyslexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate if continuous-scaled measures of standing balance and gait could discriminate between groups of impaired and normal readers when investigators were blind to group membership during testing. Children with dyslexia ( n=22) and controls ( n=18), aged 10-12 years, performed walking tests at four different speeds (slow-preferred-fast-very fast) on an even and an uneven surface, and tests of unperturbed and perturbed body sway during standing. Body movements were registered by a triaxial accelerometer over the lower trunk, and measures of reaction time, body sway, walking speed, step length and cadence were calculated. Results were controlled for gender differences. Tests of standing balance with eyes closed did not discriminate between groups. All unperturbed standing tests with eyes open showed significant group differences ( Pwalking speed during very fast walking on both flat and uneven surface was > or =0.2 m/s ( Pwalking speed ( Pwalking speed as well as cadence at a normalised speed discriminated better between groups when subjects were walking on an uneven surface compared to a flat floor. Continuous-scaled walking tests performed in field settings may be suitable for motor skill assessment as a component of a screening tool for developmental dyslexia.

  6. Gait characteristics, balance performance and falls in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P; Murphy, A; Opheim, A; McGinley, J

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between spatiotemporal gait parameters, balance performance and falls history was investigated in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants completed a single assessment of gait using an instrumented walkway at preferred and fast speeds, balance testing (Balance Evaluation Systems Test; BESTest), and reported falls history. Seventeen ambulatory adults with CP, mean age 37 years, participated. Gait speed was typically slow at both preferred and fast speeds (mean 0.97 and 1.21m/s, respectively), with short stride length and high cadence relative to speed. There was a significant, large positive relationship between preferred gait speed and BESTest total score (ρ=0.573; pfalls taking shorter strides. Faster gait speed was associated with better performance on tests of anticipatory and postural response components of the BESTest, suggesting potential therapeutic training targets to address either gait speed or balance performance. Future exploration of the implications of slow walking speed and reduced stride length on falls and community engagement, and the potential prognostic value of stride length on identifying falls risk is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Shotgun approaches to gait analysis : insights & limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Ronald G.; Wezenberg, Daphne; IJmker, Trienke; Houdijk, Han; Beek, Peter J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying features for gait classification is a formidable problem. The number of candidate measures is legion. This calls for proper, objective criteria when ranking their relevance. Methods: Following a shotgun approach we determined a plenitude of kinematic and physiological gait

  8. [Subjective Gait Stability in the Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Theresa; Lampe, Jasmin; Michalk, Katrin; Röder, Lotte; Munsch, Karoline; Marquardt, Jonas

    2017-07-10

    It can be assumed that the feeling of gait stability or gait instability in the elderly may be independent of a possible fear of falling or a history of falling when walking. Up to now, there has been a lack of spatiotemporal gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. The aim of the study is to analyse the distribution of various gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. In a cross-sectional study, the gait parameters stride time, step time, stride length, step length, double support, single support, and walking speed were measured using a Vicon three-dimensional motion capture system (Plug-In Gait Lower-Body Marker Set) in 31 healthy people aged 65 years and older (mean age 72 ± 3.54 years) who subjectively feel secure when walking. There was a homogeneous distribution in the gait parameters examined, with no abnormalities. The mean values have a low variance with narrow confidence intervals. This study provides evidence that people who subjectively feel secure when walking demonstrate similarly objective gait parameters..

  9. Gait analysis by high school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.; van Dongen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of

  10. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by′t′ test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to

  11. Spinal cord stimulation therapy for gait dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samotus, Olivia; Parrent, Andrew; Jog, Mandar

    2018-02-14

    Benefits of dopaminergic therapy and deep brain stimulation are limited and unpredictable for axial symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Dorsal spinal cord stimulation may be a new therapeutic approach. The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of spinal cord stimulation on gait including freezing of gait in advanced PD patients. Five male PD participants with significant gait disturbances and freezing of gait underwent midthoracic spinal cord stimulation. Spinal cord stimulation combinations (200-500 μs/30-130 Hz) at suprathreshold intensity were tested over a 1- to 4-month period, and the effects of spinal cord stimulation were studied 6 months after spinal cord stimulation surgery. Protokinetics Walkway measured gait parameters. Z scores per gait variable established each participant's best spinal cord stimulation setting. Timed sit-to-stand and automated freezing-of-gait detection using foot pressures were analyzed. Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q), UPDRS motor items, and activities-specific balance confidence scale were completed at each study visit. Spinal cord stimulation setting combinations of 300-400 μs/30-130 Hz provided gait improvements. Although on-medication/on-stimulation at 6 months, mean step length, stride velocity, and sit-to-stand improved by 38.8%, 42.3%, and 50.3%, respectively, mean UPDRS, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, and activities-specific balance confidence scale scores improved by 33.5%, 26.8%, and 71.4%, respectively. The mean number of freezing-of-gait episodes reduced significantly from 16 presurgery to 0 at 6 months while patients were on levodopa and off stimulation. By using objective measures to detect dynamic gait characteristics, the therapeutic potential of spinal cord stimulation was optimized to each participant's characteristics. This pilot study demonstrated the safety and significant therapeutic outcome of spinal cord stimulation in advanced PD patients, and thus a larger and longer

  12. Gait Characteristics, Symptoms, and Function in Persons With Hip Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzen, I.; Fernandes, L.; Kallerud, H.

    2015-01-01

    did not undergo THR were made using independent t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. Comparisons of baseline measures and 6- to 7-year follow-up for the nonoperated individuals were conducted with paired-samples t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P......, 58.9 years) with radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis participated. Outcome measures included 3-D gait analysis; self-reported pain; stiffness, and function; hip range of motion; and the six-minute walk test. Baseline comparisons between individuals who later underwent THR and those who...

  13. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  14. A Manipulation of Visual Feedback during Gait Training in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quincy J. Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues are known to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD; however, the contribution of optic flow continues to be disputed. This study manipulated transverse line cues during two gait training interventions (6 weeks. PD subjects (N=42 were assigned to one of three groups: treadmill (TG, overground (OG, or control group (CG. Participants walked across lines placed on either treadmills or 16-meter carpets, respectively. The treadmill (TG offered a reduced dynamic flow from the environment, while lines presented on the ground (OG emphasized optic flow related to the participant's own displacement. Both interventions significantly improved (and maintained through retention period step length, thus improving walking velocity. Only the OG improved in the TUG test, while only the TG showed hints of improving (and maintaining motor symptoms. Since gait improvements were found in both training groups, we conclude that by reducing optic flow, gait benefits associated with visual cueing training can still be achieved.

  15. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  16. Effects of circular gait training on balance, balance confidence in patients with stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Kyu; Kim, Sung-Jin; Yoon, Tak Yong; Lee, Suk-Min

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of circular gait training on balance and balance confidence in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen patients with stroke were randomly divided into either the circular gait training (CGT) group (n=8) or the straight gait training (SGT) group (n=7). Both groups had conventional therapy that adhered to the neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) approach, for 30 min. In addition, the CGT group performed circular gait training, and the SGT group practiced straight gait training for 30 min. Each intervention was applied for 1 h, 5 days a week, for 2 weeks. Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale were used to test balance and balance confidence. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant increases in balance and balance confidence. Significant improvements in the balance of the CGT group compared with the SGT group were observed at post-assessment. [Conclusion] This study showed that circular gait training significantly improves balance in patients with stroke.

  17. [Effects of cognitive state on balance disturbances and gait disorders in institutionalised elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pelegrina, Ana; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Torres, Janet; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Ageing has been linked to a high prevalence of cognitive impairment, which, in turn, has been related to balance disturbances and gait disorders. The aim of this study was to identify whether there are differences between subjects with and without cognitive impairment regarding the quality of gait and balance. An observational study was conducted on institutionalised people older than 65 years (n=82). Gait and balance was evaluated after the assessment of cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Single and dual tests were used including, the 6-minute walking, stride length, and gait speed. Timed Up and Go tests were also used to evaluate balance. The participants were divided into three groups: 28 subjects in the group without cognitive impairment (MMSE≥27), 29 subjects with mild (27Gait assessment showed significant between-groups differences in all the variables (P<.05). The variables assessing balance also showed significantly worse values in those groups with cognitive impairment. The severity of cognitive impairment is related to impaired balance and gait, thus the clinical monitoring of these variables in population at risk is needed. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Gait outcome following outpatient physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept in people post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Sheila; Ashburn, Ann; Baxter, David

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the gait cycle of patients with hemiplegia before and after a period of outpatient physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept. Nine patients, at least 6 weeks post stroke and recently discharged from a stroke unit, were measured before and after a period of outpatient physiotherapy (mean duration = 17.4 weeks). Therapy was documented using a treatment checklist for each patient. The primary outcome measures were a number of gait variables related to the therapists' treatment hypothesis, recorded during the gait cycle using the CODA motion analysis system. Other secondary outcome measures were the Motor Assessment Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, subtests of the Sodring Motor Evaluation Scale, the Step test, a 10-m walk test, the Barthel Index and the London Handicap Score. Recovery of more normal gait patterns in the gait cycle (using motion analysis) did not occur. Significant changes in temporal parameters (loading response, single support time) for both legs, in one kinematic (dorsiflexion during stance) and one kinetic variable on the unaffected side (hip flexor moment), and most of the clinical measures of impairment, activity and participation (with the exception of the Modified Ashworth Scale and the 10-m walk) were noted. Study findings did not support the hypothesis that the Bobath approach restored more normal movement patterns to the gait cycle. Further research is required to investigate the treatment techniques that are effective at improving walking ability in people after stroke.

  19. The relationship between anterior pelvic tilt and gait, balance in patient with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Kim, Seong-Gil; Shin, Young-Jun; Choi, Eun-Hong; Choe, Yu-Won

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study is to find out the association between anterior pelvic tilt and gait and balance in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen chronic stroke patients were included in this study. A palpation meter was employed to measure the anterior inclination of the pelvis. A GAITRite system automates measuring temporal and spatial gait parameters. A 10-Meter Walk test was used to measure gait speed. The Timed Up and Go test was used to measure the dynamic balance ability and gait ability of the participants. A BioRescue was used to assess balance by measuring the moving distance and area of the center of pressure. [Results] There were significant negative correlations between pelvic anterior tilt and velocity, step length, and stride. There were significant positive correlations between velocity and cadence, step length, and stride length. There were significant negative correlations between velocity and cycle time, H-H base, TUG, and 10MWT. There was significant negative correlation between cadence and cycle time and H-H base. [Conclusion] This study showed a negative correlation between pelvic anterior tilt and gait function including gait speed and step length.

  20. Positive outcomes following gait therapy intervention for hip osteoarthritis: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Herman, Amir; Levin, Daniel; Rozen, Nimrod; Peled, Eli; Wolf, Alon

    2017-10-01

    Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulation of lower-limb joints was shown to beneficially impact gait and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis patients, but has not been tested in hip osteoarthritis patients. We examined a customized gait treatment program using a biomechanical device shown in previous investigations to be capable of manipulating hip biomechanics via foot center of pressure (COP) modulation. The objective of this study was to assess the treatment program for hip osteoarthritis patients, enrolled in a 1-year prospective investigation, by means of objective gait and spatiotemporal parameters, and subjective quality of life measures. Gait analysis and completion of questionnaires were performed at the start of the treatment (baseline), and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Outcome parameters were evaluated over time using linear mixed effects models, and association between improvement in quality of life measures and change in objective outcomes was tested using mixed effect linear regression models. Quality of life measures improved compared to baseline, accompanied by increased gait speed and cadence. Sagittal-plane hip joint kinetics, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters changed throughout the study compared to baseline, in a manner suggesting improvement of gait. The most substantial improvement occurred within 3 months after treatment initiation, after which improvement approximately plateaued, but was sustained at 12 months. Speed and cadence, as well as several sagittal-plane gait parameters, were significant predictors of improvement in quality of life. Evidence suggests that a biomechanical gait therapy program improves subjective and objective outcomes measures and is a valid treatment option for hip osteoarthritis. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2222-2232, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Continuous positive airway pressure improves gait control in severe obstructive sleep apnoea: A prospective study.

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    Sébastien Baillieul

    Full Text Available Severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA can lead to neurocognitive alterations, including gait impairments. The beneficial effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP on improving excessive daytime sleepiness and daily functioning have been documented. However, a demonstration of CPAP treatment efficacy on gait control is still lacking. This study aims to test the hypothesis that CPAP improves gait control in severe OSA patients.In this prospective controlled study, twelve severe OSA patients (age = 57.2±8.9 years, body mass index = 27.4±3.1 kg·m-2, apnoea-hypopnoea index = 46.3±11.7 events·h-1 and 10 healthy matched subjects were included. Overground gait parameters were recorded at spontaneous speed and stride time variability, a clinical marker of gait control, was calculated. To assess the role of executive functions in gait and postural control, a dual-task paradigm was applied using a Stroop test as secondary cognitive task. All assessments were performed before and after 8 weeks of CPAP treatment.Before CPAP treatment, OSA patients had significantly larger stride time variability (3.1±1.1% vs 2.1±0.5% and lower cognitive performances under dual task compared to controls. After CPAP treatment, stride time variability was significantly improved and no longer different compared to controls. Cognitive performance under dual task also improved after CPAP treatment.Eight weeks of CPAP treatment improves gait control of severe OSA patients, suggesting morphological and functional cerebral improvements. Our data provide a rationale for further mechanistic studies and the use of gait as a biomarker of OSA brain consequences.

  2. Gender may have an influence on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen scores and gait parameters in elite junior athletes - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, N; Szakács, V; Bartha, C; Szilágyi, B; Galamb, K; Magyar, M O; Hortobágyi, T; Kiss, R M; Tihanyi, J; Négyesi, J

    2017-09-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters. Methods Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line. Results Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender. Conclusion There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.

  3. Changes in executive functions and self-efficacy are independently associated with improved usual gait speed in older women

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    Hsu Chun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved usual gait speed predicts substantial reduction in mortality. A better understanding of the modifiable factors that are independently associated with improved gait speed would ensure that intervention strategies are developed based on a valid theoretical framework. Thus, we examined the independent association of change in executive functions and change in falls-related self-efficacy with improved gait speed among community-dwelling senior women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 135 senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Usual gait speed was assessed using a 4-meter walk. Three executive processes were assessed by standard neuropsychological tests: 1 set shifting; 2 working memory; and 3 selective attention and response inhibition. A linear regression model was constructed to determine the independent association of change in executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy with change in gait speed. Results Improved selective attention and conflict resolution, and falls-related self-efficacy, were independently associated with improved gait speed after accounting for age, global cognition, baseline gait speed, and change in quadriceps strength. The total variance explained was 24%. Conclusions Interventions that target executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy, in addition to physical functions, to improve gait speed may be more efficacious than those that do not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881

  4. Physical Inactivity Predicts Slow Gait Speed in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joshua Z; Moon, Yeseon P; Kulick, Erin R; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-01-01

    Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test. Physical inactivity was defined as reporting no leisure-time physical activity. Multi-variable logistic and quantile regression was performed to examine the associations between physical inactivity and future gait speed adjusted for confounders. Among 711 participants with MRI and gait speed measures (62% women, 71% Hispanic, mean age 74.1 ± 8.4), the mean gait speed was 1.02 ± 0.26 m/s. Physical inactivity was associated with a greater odds of gait speed in the lowest quartile (Physical inactivity is associated with slower gait speed independently of osteoarthritis, grip strength, and subclinical ischemic brain injury. Modifying sedentary behavior poses a target for interventions aimed at reducing decline in mobility. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Comparison of the Classifier Oriented Gait Score and the Gait Profile Score based on imitated gait impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-06-01

    Common summary measures of gait quality such as the Gait Profile Score (GPS) are based on the principle of measuring a distance from the mean pattern of a healthy reference group in a gait pattern vector space. The recently introduced Classifier Oriented Gait Score (COGS) is a pathology specific score that measures this distance in a unique direction, which is indicated by a linear classifier. This approach has potentially improved the discriminatory power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns but does not incorporate a profile of interpretable sub-scores like the GPS. The main aims of this study were to extend the COGS by decomposing it into interpretable sub-scores as realized in the GPS and to compare the discriminative power of the GPS and COGS. Two types of gait impairments were imitated to enable a high level of control of the gait patterns. Imitated impairments were realized by restricting knee extension and inducing leg length discrepancy. The results showed increased discriminatory power of the COGS for differentiating diverse levels of impairment. Comparison of the GPS and COGS sub-scores and their ability to indicate changes in specific variables supports the validity of both scores. The COGS is an overall measure of gait quality with increased power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns and might be well suited for tracing the effect of a therapeutic treatment over time. The newly introduced sub-scores improved the interpretability of the COGS, which is helpful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?

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    Stefano Rossi

    Full Text Available We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here.

  7. Segmentation of Gait Sequences in Sensor-Based Movement Analysis: A Comparison of Methods in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Nooshin Haji Ghassemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust gait segmentation is the basis for mobile gait analysis. A range of methods have been applied and evaluated for gait segmentation of healthy and pathological gait bouts. However, a unified evaluation of gait segmentation methods in Parkinson’s disease (PD is missing. In this paper, we compare four prevalent gait segmentation methods in order to reveal their strengths and drawbacks in gait processing. We considered peak detection from event-based methods, two variations of dynamic time warping from template matching methods, and hierarchical hidden Markov models (hHMMs from machine learning methods. To evaluate the methods, we included two supervised and instrumented gait tests that are widely used in the examination of Parkinsonian gait. In the first experiment, a sequence of strides from instructed straight walks was measured from 10 PD patients. In the second experiment, a more heterogeneous assessment paradigm was used from an additional 34 PD patients, including straight walks and turning strides as well as non-stride movements. The goal of the latter experiment was to evaluate the methods in challenging situations including turning strides and non-stride movements. Results showed no significant difference between the methods for the first scenario, in which all methods achieved an almost 100% accuracy in terms of F-score. Hence, we concluded that in the case of a predefined and homogeneous sequence of strides, all methods can be applied equally. However, in the second experiment the difference between methods became evident, with the hHMM obtaining a 96% F-score and significantly outperforming the other methods. The hHMM also proved promising in distinguishing between strides and non-stride movements, which is critical for clinical gait analysis. Our results indicate that both the instrumented test procedure and the required stride segmentation algorithm have to be selected adequately in order to support and complement classical

  8. Specific smartphone usage and cognitive performance affect gait characteristics during free-living and treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Bumann, Anke; Mühlhauser, Yvonne; Schmitt, Mareike; Wess, Katja; Engeroff, Tobias; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2018-04-06

    Mobile phone tasks like texting, typing, and dialling during walking are known to impact gait characteristics. Beyond that, the effects of performing smartphone-typical actions like researching and taking self-portraits (selfie) on gait have not been investigated yet. We aimed to investigate the effects of smartphone usage on relevant gait characteristics and to reveal potential association of basic cognitive and walking plus smartphone dual-task abilities. Our cross-sectional, cross-over study on physically active, healthy participants was performed on two days, interrupted by a 24-h washout in between. Assessments were: 1) Cognitive testing battery consisting of the trail making test (TMT A and B) and the Stroop test 2) Treadmill walking under five smartphone usage conditions: no use (control condition), reading, dialling, internet searching and taking a selfie in randomized order. Kinematic and kinetic gait characteristics were assessed to estimate conditions influence. In our sample of 36 adults (24.6 ± 1 years, 23 female, 13 male), ANCOVAs followed by post-hoc t-tests revealed that smartphone usage impaired all tested gait characteristics: gait speed (decrease, all conditions): F = 54.7, p smartphone usage was systematically associated with the TMT B time regarding cadence and double stride length for reading (r = -0.37), dialling (r = -0.35) and taking a selfie (r = -0.34). Smartphone usage substantially impacts walking characteristics in most situations. Changes of gait patterns indicate higher cognitive loads and lower awareness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. LSTM for diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases using gait data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Aite; Qi, Lin; Li, Jie; Dong, Junyu; Yu, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) usually cause gait disorders and postural disorders, which provides an important basis for NDs diagnosis. By observing and analyzing these clinical manifestations, medical specialists finally give diagnostic results to the patient, which is inefficient and can be easily affected by doctors' subjectivity. In this paper, we propose a two-layer Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model to learn the gait patterns exhibited in the three NDs. The model was trained and tested using temporal data that was recorded by force-sensitive resistors including time series, such as stride interval and swing interval. Our proposed method outperforms other methods in literature in accordance with accuracy of the predicted diagnostic result. Our approach aims at providing the quantitative assessment so that to indicate the diagnosis and treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases in clinic

  10. Design and development of a prototype platform for gait analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, T. E.; Marti, M. A.; Jagani, J.; Garcia, V.; Iliff, G. J.; Phoenix, A.; Woolard, A. G.; Malladi, V. V. N. S.; Bales, D. B.; Tarazaga, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    The field of event classification and localization in building environments using accelerometers has grown significantly due to its implications for energy, security, and emergency protocols. Virginia Tech's Goodwin Hall (VT-GH) provides a robust testbed for such work, but a reduced scale testbed could provide significant benefits by allowing algorithm development to occur in a simplified environment. Environments such as VT-GH have high human traffic that contributes external noise disrupting test signals. This paper presents a design solution through the development of an isolated platform for data collection, portable demonstrations, and the development of localization and classification algorithms. The platform's success was quantified by the resulting transmissibility of external excitation sources, demonstrating the capabilities of the platform to isolate external disturbances while preserving gait information. This platform demonstrates the collection of high-quality gait information in otherwise noisy environments for data collection or demonstration purposes.

  11. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  12. K- and L-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) Determination of Differential Orbital Covalency (DOC) of Transition Metal Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael L; Mara, Michael W; Yan, James J; Hodgson, Keith O; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I

    2017-08-15

    Continual advancements in the development of synchrotron radiation sources have resulted in X-ray based spectroscopic techniques capable of probing the electronic and structural properties of numerous systems. This review gives an overview of the application of metal K-edge and L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), as well as K resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), to the study of electronic structure in transition metal sites with emphasis on experimentally quantifying 3d orbital covalency. The specific sensitivities of K-edge XAS, L-edge XAS, and RIXS are discussed emphasizing the complementary nature of the methods. L-edge XAS and RIXS are sensitive to mixing between 3d orbitals and ligand valence orbitals, and to the differential orbital covalency (DOC), that is, the difference in the covalencies for different symmetry sets of the d orbitals. Both L-edge XAS and RIXS are highly sensitive to and enable separation of and donor bonding and back bonding contributions to bonding. Applying ligand field multiplet simulations, including charge transfer via valence bond configuration interactions, DOC can be obtained for direct comparison with density functional theory calculations and to understand chemical trends. The application of RIXS as a probe of frontier molecular orbitals in a heme enzyme demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of metal sites in highly covalent coordination sites in bioinorganic chemistry.

  13. Gait variability: methods, modeling and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausdorff Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of gait variability, the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking, offers a complementary way of quantifying locomotion and its changes with aging and disease as well as a means of monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Previous work has suggested that measures of gait variability may be more closely related to falls, a serious consequence of many gait disorders, than are measures based on the mean values of other walking parameters. The Current JNER series presents nine reports on the results of recent investigations into gait variability. One novel method for collecting unconstrained, ambulatory data is reviewed, and a primer on analysis methods is presented along with a heuristic approach to summarizing variability measures. In addition, the first studies of gait variability in animal models of neurodegenerative disease are described, as is a mathematical model of human walking that characterizes certain complex (multifractal features of the motor control's pattern generator. Another investigation demonstrates that, whereas both healthy older controls and patients with a higher-level gait disorder walk more slowly in reduced lighting, only the latter's stride variability increases. Studies of the effects of dual tasks suggest that the regulation of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in stride width and stride time may be influenced by attention loading and may require cognitive input. Finally, a report of gait variability in over 500 subjects, probably the largest study of this kind, suggests how step width variability may relate to fall risk. Together, these studies provide new insights into the factors that regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking and pave the way for expanded research into the control of gait and the practical application of measures of gait variability in the clinical setting.

  14. Assistive devices alter gait patterns in Parkinson disease: advantages of the four-wheeled walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelmeyer, Deb A; Parthasarathy, Sowmya; Kostyk, Sandra K; White, Susan E; Kloos, Anne D

    2013-05-01

    Gait abnormalities are a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and contribute to fall risk. Therapy and exercise are often encouraged to increase mobility and decrease falls. As disease symptoms progress, assistive devices are often prescribed. There are no guidelines for choosing appropriate ambulatory devices. This unique study systematically examined the impact of a broad range of assistive devices on gait measures during walking in both a straight path and around obstacles in individuals with PD. Quantitative gait measures, including velocity, stride length, percent swing and double support time, and coefficients of variation were assessed in 27 individuals with PD with or without one of six different devices including canes, standard and wheeled walkers (two, four or U-Step). Data were collected using the GAITRite and on a figure-of-eight course. All devices, with the exception of four-wheeled and U-Step walkers significantly decreased gait velocity. The four-wheeled walker resulted in less variability in gait measures and had less impact on spontaneous unassisted gait patterns. The U-Step walker exhibited the highest variability across all parameters followed by the two-wheeled and standard walkers. Higher variability has been correlated with increased falls. Though subjects performed better on a figure-of-eight course using either the four-wheeled or the U-Step walker, the four-wheeled walker resulted in the most consistent improvement in overall gait variables. Laser light use on a U-Step walker did not improve gait measures or safety in figure-of-eight compared to other devices. Of the devices tested, the four-wheeled-walker offered the most consistent advantages for improving mobility and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comprehensive Study on Cross-View Gait Based Human Identification with Deep CNNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zifeng; Huang, Yongzhen; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaogang; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies an approach to gait based human identification via similarity learning by deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). With a pretty small group of labeled multi-view human walking videos, we can train deep networks to recognize the most discriminative changes of gait patterns which suggest the change of human identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work based on deep CNNs for gait recognition in the literature. Here, we provide an extensive empirical evaluation in terms of various scenarios, namely, cross-view and cross-walking-condition, with different preprocessing approaches and network architectures. The method is first evaluated on the challenging CASIA-B dataset in terms of cross-view gait recognition. Experimental results show that it outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin. In particular, our method shows advantages when the cross-view angle is large, i.e., no less than 36 degree. And the average recognition rate can reach 94 percent, much better than the previous best result (less than 65 percent). The method is further evaluated on the OU-ISIR gait dataset to test its generalization ability to larger data. OU-ISIR is currently the largest dataset available in the literature for gait recognition, with 4,007 subjects. On this dataset, the average accuracy of our method under identical view conditions is above 98 percent, and the one for cross-view scenarios is above 91 percent. Finally, the method also performs the best on the USF gait dataset, whose gait sequences are imaged in a real outdoor scene. These results show great potential of this method for practical applications.

  16. Self-perceived gait stability modulates the effect of daily life gait quality on prospective falls in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults.

  17. Gait Rather Than Cognition Predicts Decline in Specific Cognitive Domains in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rosie; Lord, Sue; Lawson, Rachael A; Coleman, Shirley; Galna, Brook; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Yarnall, Alison J; Burn, David J; Rochester, Lynn

    2017-11-09

    Dementia is significant in Parkinson's disease (PD) with personal and socioeconomic impact. Early identification of risk is of upmost importance to optimize management. Gait precedes and predicts cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. We aimed to evaluate gait characteristics as predictors of cognitive decline in newly diagnosed PD. One hundred and nineteen participants recruited at diagnosis were assessed at baseline, 18 and 36 months. Baseline gait was characterized by variables that mapped to five domains: pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry, and postural control. Cognitive assessment included attention, fluctuating attention, executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function. Mixed-effects models tested independent gait predictors of cognitive decline. Gait characteristics of pace, variability, and postural control predicted decline in fluctuating attention and visual memory, whereas baseline neuropsychological assessment performance did not predict decline. This provides novel evidence for gait as a clinical biomarker for PD cognitive decline in early disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  18. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Shmuel; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Lipson, Ronit; Wolf, Alon; Laufer, Yocheved

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years) with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis) demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (P hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone. PMID:23097635

  19. Analysis of Big Data in Gait Biomechanics: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Petri, Giovanni; Ibáñez-Marcelo, Esther; Osis, Sean T; Ferber, Reed

    2018-01-01

    The increasing amount of data in biomechanics research has greatly increased the importance of developing advanced multivariate analysis and machine learning techniques, which are better able to handle "big data". Consequently, advances in data science methods will expand the knowledge for testing new hypotheses about biomechanical risk factors associated with walking and running gait-related musculoskeletal injury. This paper begins with a brief introduction to an automated three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical gait data collection system: 3D GAIT, followed by how the studies in the field of gait biomechanics fit the quantities in the 5 V's definition of big data: volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Next, we provide a review of recent research and development in multivariate and machine learning methods-based gait analysis that can be applied to big data analytics. These modern biomechanical gait analysis methods include several main modules such as initial input features, dimensionality reduction (feature selection and extraction), and learning algorithms (classification and clustering). Finally, a promising big data exploration tool called "topological data analysis" and directions for future research are outlined and discussed.

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Gait between Children with Autism and Typically Developing Matched Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet S. Dufek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports suggest children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD ambulate differently than peers with typical development (TD. Little empirical evidence supports these reports. Children with ASD exhibit delayed motor skills, and it is important to determine whether or not motor movement deficits exist during walking. The purpose of the study was to perform a comprehensive lower-extremity gait analysis between children (aged 5–12 years with ASD and age- and gender-matched-samples with TD. Gait parameters were normalized to 101 data points and the gait cycle was divided into seven sub-phases. The Model Statistic procedure was used to test for statistical significance between matched-pairs throughout the entire gait cycle for each parameter. When collapsed across all participants, children with ASD exhibited large numbers of significant differences (p < 0.05 throughout the gait cycle in hip, knee, and ankle joint positions as well as vertical and anterior/posterior ground reaction forces. Children with ASD exhibited unique differences throughout the gait cycle, which supports current literature on the heterogeneity of the disorder. The present work supports recent findings that motor movement differences may be a core symptom of ASD. Thus, individuals may benefit from therapeutic movement interventions that follow precision medicine guidelines by accounting for individual characteristics, given the unique movement differences observed.

  1. The effect of modified trampoline training on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joohee; Shin, Seonhae; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This research was conducted to investigate the effects of modified trampoline training on the balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four stroke patients participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the trampoline group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). [Methods] Both groups participated in conventional physical therapy for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. The trampoline group also took part in trampoline training for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. We evaluated balance (Berg balance scale, timed up and go test), gait (dynamic gait index), and falls efficacy (falls efficacy scale-K) to confirm the effects of the intervention. [Results] Both the trampoline and the control group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and falls efficacy compared to before the intervention, and the improvements were significantly greater in the trampoline group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Modified trampoline training resulted in significantly improved balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients compared to the control group. These results suggest that modified trampoline training is feasible and effective at improving balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy after stroke.

  2. Gait variability measurements in lumbar spinal stenosis patients: part B. Preoperative versus postoperative gait variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, N C; Christakis, D G; Tzagarakis, G N; Chlouverakis, G I; Kampanis, N A; Stergiopoulos, K N; Katonis, P G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the gait variability of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients and to evaluate its postoperative progression. The hypothesis was that LSS patients' preoperative gait variability in the frequency domain was higher than the corresponding postoperative. A tri-axial accelerometer sensor was used for the gait measurement and a spectral differential entropy algorithm was used to measure the gait variability. Twelve subjects with LSS were measured before and after surgery. Preoperative measurements were performed 2 days before surgery. Postoperative measurements were performed 6 and 12 months after surgery. Preoperative gait variability was higher than the corresponding postoperative. Also, in most cases, gait variability appeared to decrease throughout the year

  3. Relationships of Stroke Patients’ Gait Parameters with Fear of Falling

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations...

  4. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  5. Ligand field and interference effects in L-edge X-ray Raman scattering of MnF{sub 2} and CoF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, J.; Herrera P, G. M.; Olalde V, P. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Ederer, D. L.; Schuler, T. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present experimental results for x-ray absorption and resonant emission at the L-edge of the transition metal in MnF{sub 2} and CoF{sub 2}. The emission data are corrected for self-absorption. The data are compared with calculations in both the free-ion approximation and with the effect of the ligand field of D{sub 4h} symmetry included. The results of the calculations take into account interference terms in the Kramers-Heisenberg expression. We obtain very good agreement between experiment and theory for both x-ray absorption and resonant emission in the two compounds. The inclusion of the ligand field is important to achieve such agreement. However, the results of the calculation that does not take into account the interference terms are in better agreement with experiment, indicating that the model used probably overestimates the importance of interference effects. (Author)

  6. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p < 0.0001), gait endurance from 196 meters in 6 minutes to 401 meters in 6 minutes (p < 0.0001), and activation time from 20.5 seconds to 10.6 seconds on average (p < 0.0001). In 2 patients with nerve injury, surgical repositioning of the electrode cuff became necessary. One patient showed a delayed wound healing, and in another patient the system had to be removed because of a wound infection. Marked improvement in mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device.

  7. Relationships between trunk performance, gait and postural control in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jane E; Stetts, Deborah M; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2016-06-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system. Compared to healthy individuals, persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) have increased postural sway in quiet stance, decreased gait speed and increased fall incidence. Trunk performance has been implicated in postural control, gait dysfunction, and fall prevention in older adults. However, the relationship of trunk performance to postural control and gait has not been adequately studied in PwMS. To compare trunk muscle structure and performance in PwMS to healthy age and gendered-matched controls (HC); to determine the effects of isometric trunk endurance testing on postural control in both populations; and to determine the relationship of trunk performance with postural control, gait and step activity in PwMS. Fifteen PwMS and HC completed ultrasound imaging of trunk muscles, 10 m walk test, isometric trunk endurance tests, and postural sway test. Participants wore a step activity monitor for 7 days. PwMS had worse isometric trunk endurance compared to HC. PwMS trunk flexion endurance negatively correlated to several postural control measures and positively correlated to gait speed and step activity. Clinicians should consider evaluation and interventions directed at impaired trunk endurance in PwMS.

  8. Bipedal gait model for precise gait recognition and optimal triggering in foot drop stimulator: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Faraz; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Hu, Aiguo Patrick

    2018-03-10

    Electrical stimulators are often prescribed to correct foot drop walking. However, commercial foot drop stimulators trigger inappropriately under certain non-gait scenarios. Past researches addressed this limitation by defining stimulation control based on automaton of a gait cycle executed by foot drop of affected limb/foot only. Since gait is a collaborative activity of both feet, this research highlights the role of normal foot for robust gait detection and stimulation triggering. A novel bipedal gait model is proposed where gait cycle is realized as an automaton based on concurrent gait sub-phases (states) from each foot. The input for state transition is fused information from feet-worn pressure and inertial sensors. Thereafter, a bipedal gait model-based stimulation control algorithm is developed. As a feasibility study, bipedal gait model and stimulation control are evaluated in real-time simulation manner on normal and simulated foot drop gait measurements from 16 able-bodied participants with three speed variations, under inappropriate triggering scenarios and with foot drop rehabilitation exercises. Also, the stimulation control employed in commercial foot drop stimulators and single foot gait-based foot drop stimulators are compared alongside. Gait detection accuracy (98.9%) and precise triggering under all investigations prove bipedal gait model reliability. This infers that gait detection leveraging bipedal periodicity is a promising strategy to rectify prevalent stimulation triggering deficiencies in commercial foot drop stimulators. Graphical abstract Bipedal information-based gait recognition and stimulation triggering.

  9. Restoration of gait for spinal cord injury patients using HAL with intention estimator for preferable swing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel gait intention estimator for an exoskeleton-wearer who needs gait support owing to walking impairment. The gait intention estimator not only detects the intention related to the start of the swing leg based on the behavior of the center of ground reaction force (CoGRF), but also infers the swing speed depending on the walking velocity. The preliminary experiments categorized into two stages were performed on a mannequin equipped with the exoskeleton robot [Hybrid Assistive Limb: (HAL)] including the proposed estimator. The first experiment verified that the gait support system allowed the mannequin to walk properly and safely. In the second experiment, we confirmed the differences in gait characteristics attributed to the presence or absence of the proposed swing speed profile. As a feasibility study, we evaluated the walking capability of a severe spinal cord injury patient supported by the system during a 10-m walk test. The results showed that the system enabled the patient to accomplish a symmetrical walk from both spatial and temporal standpoints while adjusting the speed of the swing leg. Furthermore, the critical differences of gait between our system and a knee-ankle-foot orthosis were obtained from the CoGRF distribution and the walking time. Through the tests, we demonstrated the effectiveness and practical feasibility of the gait support algorithms.

  10. Multilevel orthopedic surgery for crouch gait in cerebral palsy: An evaluation using functional mobility and energy cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiren Ganjwala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence for the effectiveness of orthopaedic surgery to correct crouch gait in cerebral diplegic is insufficient. The crouch gait is defined as walking with knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion through out the stance phase. Severe crouch gait in patients with spastic diplegia causes excessive loading of the patellofemoral joint and may result in anterior knee pain, gait deterioration, and progressive loss of function. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of surgery on the mobility and energy consumption at one year or more with the help of validated scales and scores. Materials and Methods: 18 consecutive patients with mean age of 14.6 years with cerebral diplegia with crouched gait were operated for multilevel orthopaedic surgery. Decisions for surgery were made with the observations on gait analysis and physical examination. The surgical intervention consisted of lengthening of short muscle-tendon units, shortening of long muscles and correction of osseous deformities. The paired samples t test was used to compare values of physical examination findings, walking speed and physiological cost index. Two paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare functional walking scales. Results: After surgery, improvements in functional mobility, walking speed and physiological cost index were found. No patient was able to walk 500 meters before surgery while all were able to walk after surgery. The improvements that were noted at one year were maintained at two years. Conclusions: Multilevel orthopedic surgery for older children and adolescents with crouch gait is effective for improving function and independence.

  11. Longitudinal relationships among posturography and gait measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Newsome, Scott D; Eloyan, Ani; Marasigan, Rhul Evans R; Calabresi, Peter A; Zackowski, Kathleen M

    2015-05-19

    Gait and balance dysfunction frequently occurs early in the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course. Hence, we sought to determine the longitudinal relationships among quantitative measures of gait and balance in individuals with MS. Fifty-seven ambulatory individuals with MS (28 relapsing-remitting, 29 progressive) were evaluated using posturography, quantitative sensorimotor and gait measures, and overall MS disability with the Expanded Disability Status Scale at each session. Our cohort's age was 45.8 ± 10.4 years (mean ± SD), follow-up time 32.8 ± 15.4 months, median Expanded Disability Status Scale score 3.5, and 56% were women. Poorer performance on balance measures was related to slower walking velocity. Two posturography measures, the anterior-posterior sway and sway during static eyes open, feet apart conditions, were significant contributors to walk velocity over time (approximate R(2) = 0.95), such that poorer performance on the posturography measures was related to slower walking velocity. Similarly, the anterior-posterior sway and sway during static eyes closed, feet together conditions were also significant contributors to the Timed 25-Foot Walk performance over time (approximate R(2) = 0.83). This longitudinal cohort study establishes a strong relationship between clinical gait measures and posturography. The data show that increases in static posturography and reductions in dynamic posturography are associated with a decline in walk velocity and Timed 25-Foot Walk performance over time. Furthermore, longitudinal balance measures predict future walking performance. Quantitative walking and balance measures are important additions to clinical testing to explore longitudinal change and understand fall risk in this progressive disease population. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Detecting Gait Asymmetry with Wearable Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    by overuse. Common overuse injuries include stress fractures , tendinitis, bursitis, fasciitis, and medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) [11...magnitude feature values for subject 1 are shown in (a), before and after repetitive stress injury. Magnitude and pattern features are plotted in...Dudziñski, A. Lees, M. Lake, and M. Wychowañski, “Adjustments in gait symmetry with walking speed in trans-femoral and trans- tibial amputees,” Gait

  13. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...

  14. Balance and gait performance after maximal and submaximal endurance exercise in seniors: is there a higher fall-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Roth, Ralf; Fricker, Livia; Cordes, Mareike; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Faude, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Impaired balance and gait performance increase fall-risk in seniors. Acute effects of different exercise bouts on gait and balance were not yet addressed. Therefore, 19 healthy seniors (10 women, 9 men, age: 64.6 ± 3.2 years) were examined on 3 days. After exhaustive treadmill testing, participants randomly completed a 2-km treadmill walking test (76 ± 8 % VO(2max)) and a resting control condition. Standing balance performance (SBALP) was assessed by single limb-eyes opened (SLEO) and double limb-eyes closed (DLEC) stance. Gait parameters were collected at comfortable walking velocity. A condition × time interaction of center of pressure path length (COP(path)) was observed for both balance tasks (p fall-risk in seniors. Balance changes upon 2-km testing might be of minor relevance. Gait is not affected during single task walking at given velocities.

  15. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449

  16. Gait Disorders In Patients After Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakušonoka Ruta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the gait of patients after polytrauma is important, as it indicates the ability of patients to the previous activities and work. The aim of our study was to evaluate the gait of patients with lower limb injuries in the medium-term after polytrauma. Three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis was performed in 26 polytrauma patients (16 women and 10 men; mean age 38.6 years, 14 to 41 months after the trauma. Spatio-temporal parameters, motions in pelvis and lower extremities joints in sagittal plane and vertical load ground reaction force were analysed. Gait parameters in polytrauma patients were compared with a healthy control group. Polytrauma patients in the injured side had decreased step length, cadence, hip extension, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force, and increased stance time and pelvic anterior tilt; in the uninjured side they had decreased step length, cadence, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force and increased stance time (p < 0.05. The use of the three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis in the evaluation of polytrauma patients with lower limb injuries consequences makes it possible to identify the gait disorders not only in the injured, but also in the uninjured side.

  17. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments.

  18. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  19. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  20. Gait parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that results in sensorimotor alterations. These changes affect balance and walking and predispose affected patients to falls. The aim of this review was to identify studies in the recent literature that assess gait parameters and aspects involved in walking. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases were searched using the following combination of keywords: diabetic neuropathies x gait; diabetes mellitus x gait, and diabetic foot x gait. After the application of selection criteria, 15 articles were retrieved, summarized, discussed, and are included in this review. Diabetic neuropathy was found to lead to deficits in step amplitude, gait velocity and gait cadence on flat surfaces, without sudden changes in direction or stops, and to balance and coordination deficits on inclined and uneven terrain. Diabetic neuropathies also increase plantar pressure rates and lead to difficulties in the terminal stance phase and pre-swing phase due to changes in triceps surae activation. Thus, the next initial contact occurs in an inadequate manner, with the forefoot and without absorption of shocks.

  1. Clinically assessed mediolateral knee motion: impact on gait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Creaby, Mark W; Simic, Milena

    2011-01-01

    Mediolateral knee movement can be assessed visually with clinical tests. A knee-medial-to-foot position is associated with an increased risk of knee injuries and pathologies. However, the implications of such findings on daily tasks are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigat...... if a knee-medial-to-foot position assessed during a clinical test was associated with altered hip and knee joint kinematics and knee joint kinetics during gait compared with those with a knee-over-foot position....

  2. Exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation of children: Conceptual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Jorge L; Santana, Jesus F; Salinas, Sergio A

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of an exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation of children. This system has electronics, mechanicals and software sections, which are implemented and tested using a mannequin of a child. The prototype uses servomotors to move robotic joints that are attached to simulated patient's legs. The design has 4 DOF (degrees of freedom) two for hip joints and other two for knee joints, in the sagittal plane. A microcontroller measures sensor signals, controls motors and exchanges data with a computer. The user interacts with a graphical interface to configure, control and monitor the exoskeleton activities. The laboratory tests show soften movements in joint angle tracking.

  3. Factors related to gait and balance deficits in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Momani M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Murad Al-Momani,1 Fidaa Al-Momani,2 Ahmad H Alghadir,3 Sami Alharethy,1 Sami A Gabr3,4 1Department of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical, mental, and cognitive disabilities on gait and balance deficits among nursing home residents with different diseases in Jordan and also to find the risk of fall associated with or without these diseases.Methods: A sample of 221 nursing home residents aged 18–100 years in Jordan was recruited for this study. All participants were assessed using the Arabic versions of the Tinetti assessment battery (TAB for gait and balance, mini–mental state examination, and disability of arm, shoulder, and hand assessment test.Results: A total of 221 nursing home residents were included in this study. Different chronic diseases were medically reported in this study. Psychiatric disorders (45.7% were shown to be the most prevalent disease seen among the participants, followed by hypertension and diabetes mellitus affecting 33.5% and 23.5% of the participants, respectively. However, the least prevalent diseases were stroke (17.2%, joint inflammation (17.2%, and arthritis (9.0%. Based on TAB scores, the participants were classified into three groups: high risk of falls (≤18; n=116, moderate risk of falls (19–23; n=25, and low risk of falls (≥24; n=80. The correlation between physical activity and mental health problems with risks of falls was reported in all participants. The data showed that participants with over 50% upper extremity

  4. LOPES: Selective control of gait functions during the gait rehabilitation of CVA patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, R.; Veneman, J.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2005-01-01

    LOPES aims for an active role of the patient by selective and partial support of gait functions during robotic treadmill training sessions. Virtual model control (VMC) was applied to the robot as an intuitive method for translating current treadmill gait rehabilitation therapy programs into robotic

  5. Is Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease a Result of Multiple Gait Impairments? Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Several gait impairments have been associated with freezing of gait (FOG) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These include deteriorations in rhythm control, gait symmetry, bilateral coordination of gait, dynamic postural control and step scaling. We suggest that these seemingly independent gait features may have mutual interactions which, during certain circumstances, jointly drive the predisposed locomotion system into a FOG episode. This new theoretical framework is illustrated by the evaluation of the potential relationships between the so-called “sequence effect”, that is, impairments in step scaling, and gait asymmetry just prior to FOG. We further discuss what factors influence gait control to maintain functional gait. “Triggers”, for example, such as attention shifts or trajectory transitions, may precede FOG. We propose distinct categories of interventions and describe examples of existing work that support this idea: (a) interventions which aim to maintain a good level of locomotion control especially with respect to aspects related to FOG; (b) those that aim at avoiding FOG “triggers”; and (c) those that merely aim to escape from FOG once it occurs. The proposed theoretical framework sets the stage for testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms that lead to FOG and may also lead to new treatment ideas. PMID:22288021

  6. Evidence of end-effector based gait machines in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Schattat, N; Mehrholz, J; Werner, C

    2013-01-01

    A task-specific repetitive approach in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion is well accepted nowadays. To ease the therapists' and patients' physical effort, the past two decades have seen the introduction of gait machines to intensify the amount of gait practice. Two principles have emerged, an exoskeleton- and an endeffector-based approach. Both systems share the harness and the body weight support. With the end-effector-based devices, the patients' feet are positioned on two foot plates, whose movements simulate stance and swing phase. This article provides an overview on the end-effector based machine's effectiveness regarding the restoration of gait. For the electromechanical gait trainer GT I, a meta analysis identified nine controlled trials (RCT) in stroke subjects (n = 568) and were analyzed to detect differences between end-effector-based locomotion + physiotherapy and physiotherapy alone. Patients practising with the machine effected in a superior gait ability (210 out of 319 patients, 65.8% vs. 96 out of 249 patients, 38.6%, respectively, Z = 2.29, p = 0.020), due to a larger training intensity. Only single RCTs have been reported for other devices and etiologies. The introduction of end-effector based gait machines has opened a new succesful chapter in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

  7. Speeding up or slowing down?: Gait adaptations to preserve gait stability in response to balance perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, L.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Steenbrink, F.; van der Wurff, P.; Beek, P.J.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    It has frequently been proposed that lowering walking speed is a strategy to enhance gait stability and to decrease the probability of falling. However, previous studies have not been able to establish a clear relation between walking speed and gait stability. We investigated whether people do

  8. Quantitative gait analysis under dual-task in older people with mild cognitive impairment: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutmanis Iris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability of quantitative gait assessment while dual-tasking (walking while doing a secondary task such as talking in people with cognitive impairment is unknown. Dual-tasking gait assessment is becoming highly important for mobility research with older adults since better reflects their performance in the basic activities of daily living. Our purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of assessing quantitative gait variables using an electronic walkway in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI under single and dual-task conditions. Methods The gait performance of 11 elderly individuals with MCI was evaluated using an electronic walkway (GAITRite® System in two sessions, one week apart. Six gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, stride length, step time, stride time, and double support time were assessed under two conditions: single-task (sG: usual walking and dual-task (dG: counting backwards from 100 while walking. Test-retest reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Gait variability was measured using coefficient of variation (CoV. Results Eleven participants (average age = 76.6 years, SD = 7.3 were assessed. They were high functioning (Clinical Dementia Rating Score = 0.5 with a mean Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE score of 28 (SD = 1.56, and a mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score of 22.8 (SD = 1.23. Under dual-task conditions, mean gait velocity (GV decreased significantly (sGV = 119.11 ± 20.20 cm/s; dGV = 110.88 ± 19.76 cm/s; p = 0.005. Additionally, under dual-task conditions, higher gait variability was found on stride time, step time, and double support time. Test-retest reliability was high (ICC>0.85 for the six parameters evaluated under both conditions. Conclusion In older people with MCI, variability of time-related gait parameters increased with dual-tasking suggesting cognitive control of gait performance. Assessment of quantitative gait

  9. Intra-rater repeatability of gait parameters in healthy adults during self-paced treadmill-based virtual reality walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Mohammad; Al Balushi, Hilal; Mashabi, Abdulrhman

    2017-12-01

    Self-paced treadmill walking is becoming increasingly popular for the gait assessment and re-education, in both research and clinical settings. Its day-to-day repeatability is yet to be established. This study scrutinised the test-retest repeatability of key gait parameters, obtained from the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) system. Twenty-three male able-bodied adults (age: 34.56 ± 5.12 years) completed two separate gait assessments on the GRAIL system, separated by 5 ± 3 days. Key gait kinematic, kinetic, and spatial-temporal parameters were analysed. The Intraclass-Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Standard Error Measurement (SEM), Minimum Detectable Change (MDC), and the 95% limits of agreements were calculated to evaluate the repeatability of these gait parameters. Day-to-day agreements were excellent (ICCs > 0.87) for spatial-temporal parameters with low MDC and SEM values, gait performance over time.

  10. An innovative training program based on virtual reality and treadmill: effects on gait of persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzi, Agnese; Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; Cereatti, Andrea; Della Croce, Ugo; Mirelman, Anat

    2017-07-01

    In this single blind randomized controlled trial, we examined the effect of a virtual reality-based training on gait of people with multiple sclerosis. Twenty-five individuals with multiple sclerosis with mild to moderate disability were randomly assigned to either the control group (n = 11) or the experimental group (n = 14). The subjects in the control group received treadmill training. Subjects in the experimental group received virtual reality based treadmill training. Clinical measures and gait parameters were evaluated. Subjects in both the groups significantly improved the walking endurance and speed, cadence and stride length, lower limb joint ranges of motion and powers, during single and dual task gait. Moreover, subjects in the experimental group also improved balance, as indicated by the results of the clinical motor tests (p virtual reality to improve gait measures in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Implication of rehabilitation Gait deficits are common in multiple sclerosis (85%) and worsen during dual task activities. Intensive and progressive treadmill training, with and without virtual reality, is effective on dual task gait in persons with multiple sclerosis. Virtual reality-based treadmill training requiring obstacle negotiation increases the range of motion and the power generated at the hip, consequently allowing longer stride length and, consequently, higher gait speed.

  11. Unstable gait due to spasticity of the rectus femoris: gait analysis and motor nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Leboeuf, F; Rémy-Néris, O; Perrouin-Verbe, B

    2012-12-01

    We present the case of a 54 year-old man presenting with a right Brown-Séquard plus syndrome (BSPS) after a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. After being operated on with selective tibial neurotomy and triceps surae lengthening because of a right spastic equinus foot, he developed a gait disorder at high speed. The patient complained about an instability of the right knee. Observational gait analysis exhibited an oscillating, flexion/extension motion of the right knee during stance, which was confirmed by gait analysis. Dynamic electromyographic recordings exhibited a clonus of the right rectus femoris (RF) during stance. The spastic activity of the RF and the abnormal knee motion totally reversed after a motor nerve block of the RF, as well as after botulinum toxin type A injection into the RF. We emphasize that complex, spastic gait disorders can benefit from a comprehensive assessment including gait analysis and nerve blocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Human gait recognition by pyramid of HOG feature on silhouette images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Park, Jeanrok; Man, Hong

    2013-03-01

    As a uncommon biometric modality, human gait recognition has a great advantage of identify people at a distance without high resolution images. It has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in the fields of computer vision and remote sensing. In this paper, we propose a human gait recognition framework that consists of a reliable background subtraction method followed by the pyramid of Histogram of Gradient (pHOG) feature extraction on the silhouette image, and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classifier. Through background subtraction, the silhouette of human gait in each frame is extracted and normalized from the raw video sequence. After removing the shadow and noise in each region of interest (ROI), pHOG feature is computed on the silhouettes images. Then the pHOG features of each gait class will be used to train a corresponding HMM. In the test stage, pHOG feature will be extracted from each test sequence and used to calculate the posterior probability toward each trained HMM model. Experimental results on the CASIA Gait Dataset B1 demonstrate that with our proposed method can achieve very competitive recognition rate.

  13. Use of wand markers on the pelvis in three dimensional gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Martin; Curtis, Derek; Bencke, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    During clinical gait analysis, surface markers are placed over the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) of the pelvis. However, this can be problematic in overweight or obese subjects, where excessive adipose tissue can obscure the markers and prevent accurate tracking. A novel solution to this ......During clinical gait analysis, surface markers are placed over the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) of the pelvis. However, this can be problematic in overweight or obese subjects, where excessive adipose tissue can obscure the markers and prevent accurate tracking. A novel solution...... to this problem has previously been proposed and tested on a limited sample of healthy, adult subjects. This involves use of wand markers on the pelvis, to virtually recreate the ASIS markers. The method was tested here on 20 typical subjects presenting for clinical gait analysis (adults and children, including...

  14. Disorders of balance and gait in essential tremor are associated with midline tremor and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Martina; Ulmanová, Olga; Sprdlík, Otakar; Sieger, Tomáš; Nováková, Jana; Jech, Robert; Růžička, Evžen

    2013-02-01

    Disorders of balance and gait have been observed in patients with essential tremor (ET), but their association with tremor severity remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate postural instability and gait changes in ET patients and to investigate their relationship to tremor characteristics with regard to cerebellar dysfunction as a possible common pathogenetic mechanism in ET. Thirty ET patients (8F, mean (SD) age 55.8 (17.8), range 19-81 years) and 25 normal controls (7F, 53.0 (17.7), 19-81) were tested with the scales of Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB), and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). Posturography and gait were assessed using a Footscan® system. Tremor was evaluated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) and accelerometry in five upper limb positions. A mean (SD) TRS sum score of 27.0 (13.2) corresponded to mild to moderate tremor severity in most patients. In comparison with controls, ET subjects exhibited lower tandem gait velocity (0.21 vs. 0.26 m/s, P = 0.028), more missteps (0.57 vs. 0.12, P = 0.039), and increased postural sway in tandem stance (sway area 301.1 vs. 202.9 mm(2), P = 0.045). In normal gait, step width increased with the midline tremor subscore of TRS (Pearson r = 0.60, P = 0.046). Moreover, significant correlations were found between age and quantitative measures of normal and tandem gait in ET patients but not in controls. ABC, FAB, and ICARS scores did not significantly differ between patients and controls. In conclusion, gait and balance alterations in ET patients occur even without subjective complaints. Their relationship with midline tremor and dependence on age suggest a connection with cerebellar dysfunction.

  15. Task-specific ankle robotics gait training after stroke: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Larry W; Roy, Anindo; Hafer-Macko, Charlene; Krebs, Hermano I; Macko, Richard F

    2016-06-02

    An unsettled question in the use of robotics for post-stroke gait rehabilitation is whether task-specific locomotor training is more effective than targeting individual joint impairments to improve walking function. The paretic ankle is implicated in gait instability and fall risk, but is difficult to therapeutically isolate and refractory to recovery. We hypothesize that in chronic stroke, treadmill-integrated ankle robotics training is more effective to improve gait function than robotics focused on paretic ankle impairments. Participants with chronic hemiparetic gait were randomized to either six weeks of treadmill-integrated ankle robotics (n = 14) or dose-matched seated ankle robotics (n = 12) videogame training. Selected gait measures were collected at baseline, post-training, and six-week retention. Friedman, and Wilcoxon Sign Rank and Fisher's exact tests evaluated within and between group differences across time, respectively. Six weeks post-training, treadmill robotics proved more effective than seated robotics to increase walking velocity, paretic single support, paretic push-off impulse, and active dorsiflexion range of motion. Treadmill robotics durably improved gait dorsiflexion swing angle leading 6/7 initially requiring ankle braces to self-discarded them, while their unassisted paretic heel-first contacts increased from 44 % to 99.6 %, versus no change in assistive device usage (0/9) following seated robotics. Treadmill-integrated, but not seated ankle robotics training, durably improves gait biomechanics, reversing foot drop, restoring walking propulsion, and establishing safer foot landing in chronic stroke that may reduce reliance on assistive devices. These findings support a task-specific approach integrating adaptive ankle robotics with locomotor training to optimize mobility recovery. NCT01337960. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01337960?term=NCT01337960&rank=1.

  16. Stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region for gait recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluri, Felix; Malzahn, Uwe; Homola, György A; Schuhmann, Michael K; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Volkmann, Jens

    2017-11-01

    One-third of all stroke survivors are unable to walk, even after intensive physiotherapy. Thus, other concepts to restore walking are needed. Because electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is known to elicit gait movements, this area might be a promising target for restorative neurostimulation in stroke patients with gait disability. The present study aims to delineate the effect of high-frequency stimulation of the MLR (MLR-HFS) on gait impairment in a rodent stroke model. Male Wistar rats underwent photothrombotic stroke of the right sensorimotor cortex and chronic implantation of a stimulating electrode into the right MLR. Gait was assessed using clinical scoring of the beam-walking test and video-kinematic analysis (CatWalk) at baseline and on days 3 and 4 after experimental stroke with and without MLR-HFS. Kinematic analysis revealed significant changes in several dynamic and static gait parameters resulting in overall reduced gait velocity. All rats exhibited major coordination deficits during the beam-walking challenge and were unable to cross the beam. Simultaneous to the onset of MLR-HFS, a significantly higher walking speed and improvements in several dynamic gait parameters were detected by the CatWalk system. Rats regained the ability to cross the beam unassisted, showing a reduced number of paw slips and misses. MLR-HFS can improve disordered locomotor function in a rodent stroke model. It may act by shielding brainstem and spinal locomotor centers from abnormal cortical input after stroke, thus allowing for compensatory and independent action of these circuits. Ann Neurol 2017;82:828-840. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  17. Donepezil improves gait performance in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease: a phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W; Oteng-Amoako, Afua; Gopaul, Karen; Islam, Anam; Borrie, Michael; Wells, Jennie; Speechley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Gait deficits are prevalent in people with dementia and increase their fall risk and future disability. Few treatments exist for gait impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but preliminary studies have shown that cognitive enhancers may improve gait in this population. To determine the efficacy of donepezil, a cognitive enhancer that improves cholinergic activity, on gait in older adults newly diagnosed with AD. Phase II clinical trial in 43 seniors with mild AD who received donepezil. Participants had not previously received treatment with cognitive enhancers. Primary outcome variables were gait velocity (GV) and stride time variability (STV) under single and dual-task conditions measured using an electronic walkway. Secondary outcomes included attention and executive function. After four months of treatment, participants with mild AD improved their GV from 108.4 ± 18.6 to 113.3 ± 19.5 cm/s, p = 0.010; dual-task GV from 80.6 ± 23.0 to 85.3 ± 22.3 cm/s, p = 0.028. Changes in STV were in the expected direction although not statistically significant. Participants also showed improvements in Trail Making Tests A (p = 0.030), B (p = 0.001), and B-A (p = 0.042). Donepezil improved gait in participants with mild AD. The enhancement of dual-task gait suggests the positive changes achieved in executive function as a possible causal mechanism. This study yielded a clinically significant estimate of effect size; as well, the findings are relevant to the feasibility and ethics considerations for the design of a Phase III clinical trial.

  18. Aging effect on step adjustments and stability control in visually perturbed gait initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruopeng; Cui, Chuyi; Shea, John B

    2017-10-01

    Gait adaptability is essential for fall avoidance during locomotion. It requires the ability to rapidly inhibit original motor planning, select and execute alternative motor commands, while also maintaining the stability of locomotion. This study investigated the aging effect on gait adaptability and dynamic stability control during a visually perturbed gait initiation task. A novel approach was used such that the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation were used to trigger the unpredictable relocation of a foot-size stepping target. Participants (10 young adults and 10 older adults) completed visually perturbed gait initiation in three adjustment timing conditions (early, intermediate, late; all extracted from the stereotypical APA pattern) and two adjustment direction conditions (medial, lateral). Stepping accuracy, foot rotation at landing, and Margin of Dynamic Stability (MDS) were analyzed and compared across test conditions and groups using a linear mixed model. Stepping accuracy decreased as a function of adjustment timing as well as stepping direction, with older subjects exhibited a significantly greater undershoot in foot placement to late lateral stepping. Late adjustment also elicited a reaching-like movement (i.e. foot rotation prior to landing in order to step on the target), regardless of stepping direction. MDS measures in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior direction revealed both young and older adults exhibited reduced stability in the adjustment step and subsequent steps. However, young adults returned to stable gait faster than older adults. These findings could be useful for future study of screening deficits in gait adaptability and preventing falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Gait speed and the appearance of neurocognitive disorders in older adults: Results of a Peruvian cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, José F; Nieto-Gutierrez, Wendy; Tellez, Walter A; Ventocilla-Gonzales, Iris; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro

    The prevention and management of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) among older adults can be improved by early identification of risk factors such as walking speed. The objective of the study is to assess the association between gait speed and NCD onset in a population of Peruvian older adults. Cohort conducted in older adults who attended the geriatrics service of Naval Medical Center (Callao, Peru). During the baseline assessment, participants' gait speed was recorded. Subsequently, participants were followed-up annually for 5 years, with a mean of 21 months. NCD onset was defined as the occurrence of a score ≤24 points on the Mini Mental State Examination (screening test) during follow-up. The hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox regression. The study included 657 participants, with a mean age of 73.4±9.2 (SD) years, of whom 47.0% were male, 47.8% had a gait speed <0.8 m/s, and 20.1% developed NCD during the follow up. It was found that older adults who had gait speed <0.8 m/s at baseline were more likely to develop NCD than those who had a gait speed ≥0.8 m/s (adjusted HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.34-1.47). A longitudinal association was found between decreased gait speed and NCD onset, suggesting that gait speed could be useful to identify patients at risk of NCD onset. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Balance and Gait Training With Augmented Feedback Improves Balance Confidence in People With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xia; Mak, Margaret K Y

    2014-07-01

    Background Fear of falling has been identified as an important and independent fall-risk predictor in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there are inconsistent findings on the effects of balance and gait training on balance confidence. Objective To explore whether balance and gait training with augmented feedback can enhance balance confidence in PD patients immediately after treatment and at 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Methods A total of 51 PD patients were randomly assigned to a balance and gait training (BAL) group or to an active control (CON) group. The BAL group received balance and gait training with augmented feedback, whereas CON participants received lower-limb strength training for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, limits-of-stability test, single-leg-stance test, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics. All tests were administered before intervention (Pre), immediately after training (Post), and at 3 months (Post3m) and 12 months (Post12m) after treatment completion. Results The ABC score improved marginally at Post and significantly at Post3m and Post12m only in the BAL group (P point excursion at Post, but only the BAL group maintained the improvement at Post3m. The BAL group maintained significantly longer time-to-loss-of-balance during the single-leg stance test than the CON group at Post3m and Post12m (P balance confidence and balance and gait performance in patients with PD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. What does best evidence tell us about robotic gait rehabilitation in stroke patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Maria Federica; Melegari, Corrado; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Bramanti, Alessia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Studies about electromechanical-assisted devices proved the validity and effectiveness of these tools in gait rehabilitation, especially if used in association with conventional physiotherapy in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different robotic devices in improving post-stroke gait abnormalities. A computerized literature research of articles was conducted in the databases MEDLINE, PEDro, COCHRANE, besides a search for the same items in the Library System of the University of Parma (Italy). We selected 13 randomized controlled trials, and the results were divided into sub-acute stroke patients and chronic stroke patients. We selected studies including at least one of the following test: 10-Meter Walking Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, Timed-Up-and-Go, 5-Meter Walk Test, and Functional Ambulation Categories. Stroke patients who received physiotherapy treatment in combination with robotic devices, such as Lokomat or Gait Trainer, were more likely to reach better results, compared to patients who receive conventional gait training alone. Moreover, electromechanical-assisted gait training in association with Functional Electrical Stimulations produced more benefits than the only robotic treatment (-0.80 [-1.14; -0.46], p > .05). The evaluation of the results confirm that the use of robotics can positively affect the outcome of a gait rehabilitation in patients with stroke. The effects of different devices seems to be similar on the most commonly outcome evaluated by this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conflicting results of robot-assisted versus usual gait training during postacute rehabilitation of stroke patients: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveggia, Giovanni; Borboni, Alberto; Mulé, Chiara; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Robot gait training has the potential to increase the effectiveness of walking therapy. Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. We evaluated the effectiveness of a robot training compared with a usual gait training physiotherapy during a standardized rehabilitation protocol in inpatient participants with poststroke hemiparesis. This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial in a postacute physical and rehabilitation medicine hospital. Twenty-eight patients, 39.3% women (72±6 years), with hemiparesis (Bobath approach were assigned randomly to an experimental or a control intervention of robot gait training to improve walking (five sessions a week for 5 weeks). Outcome measures included the 6-min walk test, the 10 m walk test, Functional Independence Measure, SF-36 physical functioning and the Tinetti scale. Outcomes were collected at baseline, immediately following the intervention period and 3 months following the end of the intervention. The experimental group showed a significant increase in functional independence and gait speed (10 m walk test) at the end of the treatment and follow-up, higher than the minimal detectable change. The control group showed a significant increase in the gait endurance (6-min walk test) at the follow-up, higher than the minimal detectable change. Both treatments were effective in the improvement of gait performances, although the statistical analysis of functional independence showed a significant improvement in the experimental group, indicating possible advantages during generic activities of daily living compared with overground treatment. PMID:26512928

  3. Physiotherapy Effects in Gait Speed in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Klejda; Kola, Irena; Dhamaj, Fregen; Shpata, Vjollca; Zallari, Kiri

    2018-03-15

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease, known as the most common cause of difficulty walking in older adults and subsequently is associated with slow walking. Also one of the main symptoms is a degenerative and mechanics type of pain. Pain is very noticeable while walking in rugged terrain, during ascent and descent of stairs, when changing from sitting to standing position as well as staying in one position for a long time. Many studies have shown that the strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle can affect gait, by improving or weakening it. Kinesio Tape is a physiotherapeutic technique, which reduces pain and increases muscular strength by irritating the skin receptors. The aims of this study was first to verify if the application of Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle increases gait speed in patients with knee osteoarthritis and secondly if applying Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle reduces pain while walking. Seventy-four patients with primary knee osteoarthritis, aged 50 - 73 years, participated in this study. Firstly we observed the change of gait speed, while walking for 10 meters at normal speed for each patient, before, one day and three days after the application of Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle, with the help of the 10 - meter walk test. Secondly, we observed the change of pain, while walking for 10 meters at normal speed for each patient, before, one day and three days after the application, with the help of Numerical Pain Rating Scale - NRS. Our results indicated that there was a significant increase in gait speed while walking for 10 meters one day and also three days after application of Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle. Also, there was a significant reduction of pain level 1 and 3 days after application of Kinesio Tape, compared to the level of pain before its application. Our results indicated that there was a significant decrease in pain and increase of gait speed while walking for 10 meters

  4. Modeling and simulation of normal and hemiparetic gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengas, Lely A.; Camargo, Esperanza; Sanchez, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Gait is the collective term for the two types of bipedal locomotion, walking and running. This paper is focused on walking. The analysis of human gait is of interest to many different disciplines, including biomechanics, human-movement science, rehabilitation and medicine in general. Here we present a new model that is capable of reproducing the properties of walking, normal and pathological. The aim of this paper is to establish the biomechanical principles that underlie human walking by using Lagrange method. The constraint forces of Rayleigh dissipation function, through which to consider the effect on the tissues in the gait, are included. Depending on the value of the factor present in the Rayleigh dissipation function, both normal and pathological gait can be simulated. First of all, we apply it in the normal gait and then in the permanent hemiparetic gait. Anthropometric data of adult person are used by simulation, and it is possible to use anthropometric data for children but is necessary to consider existing table of anthropometric data. Validation of these models includes simulations of passive dynamic gait that walk on level ground. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective of gait analysis, focusing on the kinematics and kinetics of gait. There have been studies and simulations to show normal human gait, but few of them have focused on abnormal, especially hemiparetic gait. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with gait measurements show that the model can reproduce the significant characteristics of normal gait.

  5. Real-Time Classification of Patients with Balance Disorders vs. Normal Subjects Using a Low-Cost Small Wireless Wearable Gait Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Teja Nukala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable wireless sensors can be an economical, convenient and effective way to provide diagnostic and clinical information for various health-related issues. In this work, our custom designed low-cost wireless gait analysis sensor that contains a basic inertial measurement unit (IMU was used to collect the gait data for four patients diagnosed with balance disorders and additionally three normal subjects, each performing the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI tests while wearing the custom wireless gait analysis sensor (WGAS. The small WGAS includes a tri-axial accelerometer integrated circuit (IC, two gyroscopes ICs and a Texas Instruments (TI MSP430 microcontroller and is worn by each subject at the T4 position during the DGI tests. The raw gait data are wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS to a near-by PC for real-time gait data collection and analysis. In order to perform successful classification of patients vs. normal subjects, we used several different classification algorithms, such as the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, support vector machine (SVM, k-nearest neighbors (KNN and binary decision trees (BDT, based on features extracted from the raw gait data of the gyroscopes and accelerometers. When the range was used as the input feature, the overall classification accuracy obtained is 100% with BP-ANN, 98% with SVM, 96% with KNN and 94% using BDT. Similar high classification accuracy results were also achieved when the standard deviation or other values were used as input features to these classifiers. These results show that gait data collected from our very low-cost wearable wireless gait sensor can effectively differentiate patients with balance disorders from normal subjects in real time using various classifiers, the success of which may eventually lead to accurate and objective diagnosis of abnormal human gaits and their underlying etiologies in the future, as more patient data are being collected.

  6. Continuous free-crab gaits for hexapod robots on a natural terrain with forbidden zones: An application to humanitarian demining

    OpenAIRE

    Estremera, Joaquín; Cobano, José A.; González de Santos, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous robots are leaving the laboratories to master new outdoor applications, and walking robots in particular have already shown their potential advantages in these environments, especially on a natural terrain. Gait generation is the key to success in the negotiation of natural terrain with legged robots; however, most of the algorithms devised for hexapods have been tested under laboratory conditions. This paper presents the development of crab and turning gaits for hexapod robots on ...

  7. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Henning; Werner, Cordula; Bernhardt, Rolf; Hesse, Stefan; Krüger, Jörg

    2007-02-09

    Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator) or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I). For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS) revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles of motor relearning promoting a task-specific repetitive

  8. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Rolf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. Results With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I. For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Conclusion Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles

  9. Gait Recognition Based on Outermost Contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gait recognition aims to identify people by the way they walk. In this paper, a simple but e ective gait recognition method based on Outermost Contour is proposed. For each gait image sequence, an adaptive silhouette extraction algorithm is firstly used to segment the frames of the sequence and a series of postprocessing is applied to obtain the normalized silhouette images with less noise. Then a novel feature extraction method based on Outermost Contour is performed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the distance signals derived from the Outermost Contours of silhouette images. Then Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA is used to optimize the separability of gait features belonging to di erent classes. Nearest Neighbor (NN classifier and Nearest Neighbor classifier with respect to class Exemplars (ENN are used to classify the final feature vectors produced by MDA. In order to verify the e ectiveness and robustness of our feature extraction algorithm, we also use two other classifiers: Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM for recognition. Experimental results on a gait database of 100 people show that the accuracy of using MDA, BPNN and SVM can achieve 97.67%, 94.33% and 94.67%, respectively.

  10. Gait Characteristics in Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior; Menascu, Shay

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. A presentation of multiple sclerosis before age18 years has traditionally been thought to be rare. However, during the past decade, more cases have been reported. We examined gait characteristics in 24 adolescents with multiple sclerosis (12 girls, 12 boys). Mean disease duration was 20.4 (S.D. = 24.9) months and mean age was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.1) years. The mean expanded disability status scale score was 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) indicating minimal disability. Outcomes were compared with gait and the gait variability index value of healthy age-matched adolescents. Adolescents with multiple sclerosis walked slower with a wider base of support compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Moreover, the gait variability index was lower in the multiple sclerosis group compared with the values in the healthy adolescents: 85.4 (S.D. = 8.1) versus 96.5 (S.D. = 7.4). We present gait parameters of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. From a clinical standpoint, our data could improve management of walking dysfunction in this relatively young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  12. Development and decline of upright gait stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eIosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Upright gait is a peculiar characteristic of humans that requires the ability to manage upper body dynamic balance while walking, despite the perturbations that are generated by movements of the lower limbs. Most of the studies on upright gait stability have compared young adults and the elderly to determine the effects of aging. In other studies the comparison was between healthy subjects and patients to examine specific pathologies. Fewer researches have also investigated the development of upright gait stability in children.This review discusses these studies in order to provide an overview of this relevant aspect of human locomotion. A clear trend from development to decline of upright gait stability has been depicted across the entire lifespan, from toddlers at first steps to elderly. In old individuals, even if healthy, the deterioration of skeletal muscle, combined with sensorial and cognitive performance, reduces the ability to maintain an upright trunk during walking, increasing the instability and the risk of falls. Further, the pathological causes of altered development or of a sudden loss of gait stability, as well as the environmental influence are investigated. The last part of this review is focused on the control of upper body accelerations during walking, a particularly interesting topic for the recent development of low-cost wearable accelerometers.

  13. Relationships of stroke patients' gait parameters with fear of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations between gait parameters and fear of falling scores were calculated. There was a moderate degree of correlation between fear of falling scores and the step cycle item of gait parameters. [Conclusions] According to our results, the step cycle gait parameter may be related to increased fall anxiety.

  14. Skeletal and Clinical Effects of Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    robotic exoskeletons to enable gait in individuals with a complete spinal cord injury, the health benefits of exoskeleton -assisted gait have not been...for the use of robotic exoskeletons to enable gait in individuals with a complete spinal cord injury, clinical teams are not provided with...appropriate tools to estimate or predict potential health benefits (e.g. bone health) associated with exoskeleton -assisted gait. What was the impact on other

  15. Reliable sagittal plane kinematic gait assessments are feasible using low-cost webcam technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Robert J; Washabaugh, Edward P; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) motion capture systems are commonly used for gait analysis because they provide reliable and accurate measurements. However, the downside of this approach is that it is expensive and requires technical expertise; thus making it less feasible in the clinic. To address this limitation, we recently developed and validated (using a high-precision walking robot) a low-cost, two-dimensional (2-D) real-time motion tracking approach using a simple webcam and LabVIEW Vision Assistant. The purpose of this study was to establish the repeatability and minimal detectable change values of hip and knee sagittal plane gait kinematics recorded using this system. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two kinematic assessments while walking on a treadmill at a range of gait velocities. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC) values were calculated for commonly used hip and knee kinematic parameters to demonstrate the reliability of the system. Additionally, Bland-Altman plots were generated to examine the agreement between the measurements recorded on two different days. The system demonstrated good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.75) for all the gait parameters tested on this study. The MDC values were typically low (gait assessments using webcam technology can be reliably used for clinical and research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of a Smart Sensing Shoe for Gait Phase Detection in Level Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Carbonaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis and more specifically ambulatory monitoring of temporal and spatial gait parameters may open relevant fields of applications in activity tracking, sports and also in the assessment and treatment of specific diseases. Wearable technology can boost this scenario by spreading the adoption of monitoring systems to a wide set of healthy users or patients. In this context, we assessed a recently developed commercial smart shoe—the FootMoov—for automatic gait phase detection in level walking. FootMoov has built-in force sensors and a triaxial accelerometer and is able to transmit the sensor data to the smartphone through a wireless connection. We developed a dedicated gait phase detection algorithm relying both on force and inertial information. We tested the smart shoe on ten healthy subjects in free level walking conditions and in a laboratory setting in comparison with an optical motion capture system. Results confirmed a reliable detection of the gait phases. The maximum error committed, on the order of 44.7 ms, is comparable with previous studies. Our results confirmed the possibility to exploit consumer wearable devices to extract relevant parameters to improve the subject health or to better manage his/her progressions.

  17. Gait Phases Recognition from Accelerations and Ground Reaction Forces: Application of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rafajlović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the applicability of accelerometer as the sensor for assessment of the walking. We present here the comparison of gait phases detected from the data recorded by force sensing resistors mounted in the shoe insoles, non-processed acceleration and processed acceleration perpendicular to the direction of the foot. The gait phases in all three cases were detected by means of a neural network. The output from the neural network was the gait phase, while the inputs were data from the sensors. The results show that the errors were in the ranges: 30 ms (2.7% – force sensors; 150 ms (13.6% – nonprocessed acceleration, and 120 ms (11% – processed acceleration data. This result suggests that it is possible to use the accelerometer as the gait phase detector, however, with the knowledge that the gait phases are time shifted for about 100 ms with respect the neural network predicted times.

  18. [Gait, balance and independence rehabilitation program in elderly adults in a primary care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cuervo, Gisela; López-Roldán, Verónica Miriam; Escobar-Rodríguez, David Alvaro; Conde-Embarcadero, Margarita; Trejo-León, Gerardo; González-Carmona, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the effect of a supervised rehabilitation program to improve gait, balance and independence in elderly patients attending a family medicine unit. we conducted a quasi-experimental study over a period of four weeks in a group of 72 patients older than 65 years. a supervised program regarding the risk factors for falling, and balance, gait, coordination and oculovestibular system, the modalities to be done two or three times a week in the primary care unit or at home. An analysis of both tests was performed by "up and go," Tinetti scale and the Katz index. "intention to treat" and "by protocol." mean age was 72 ± 5 years, 67.8% were female and 81.9% of the patients completed the program. A significant clinical improvement with statistical level were evident for gait and balance (p = 0.001), independence showed only clinical improvement (p = 0.083). The efficacy for periodicity (two or three times/week) and performance place showed same clinical improvement and statistical level for gait and balance (p = 0.001 to 0.003) and independence showed only clinical improvement (p = 0.317 to 0.991). an integral rehabilitation program improved gait, balance and clinical independence significantly. The supervised program is applicable and can be reproduced at primary care unit or home for geriatric care and preventive actions.

  19. Effects of physiotherapy treatment on knee osteoarthritis gait data using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Mezghani, Neila; Turcot, Katia; Hagemeister, Nicola; Boivin, Karine; de Guise, Jacques A

    2011-03-01

    Interpreting gait data is challenging due to intersubject variability observed in the gait pattern of both normal and pathological populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of using principal component analysis for grouping knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients' gait data in more homogeneous groups when studying the effect of a physiotherapy treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait of 29 participants diagnosed with knee OA before and after they received 12 weeks of physiotherapy treatment. Principal component analysis was applied to extract groups of knee flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle and moment data. The treatment's effect on parameters of interest was assessed using paired t-tests performed before and after grouping the knee kinematic data. Increased quadriceps and hamstring strength was observed following treatment (Pphysiotherapy on gait mechanics of knee osteoarthritis patients may be masked or underestimated if kinematic data are not separated into more homogeneous groups when performing pre- and post-treatment comparisons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of gait in female patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, S; Moerenhout, K; Crevoisier, X

    2015-07-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot problems in females. Studies have looked at gait alterations due to hallux valgus deformity, assessing temporal, kinematic or plantar pressure parameters individually. The present study, however, aims to assess all listed parameters at once and to isolate the most clinically relevant gait parameters for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity with the intent of improving post-operative patient prognosis and rehabilitation. The study included 26 feet with moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity and 30 feet with no sign of hallux valgus in female participants. Initially, weight bearing radiographs and foot and ankle clinical scores were assessed. Gait assessment was then performed utilizing pressure insoles (PEDAR) and inertial sensors (Physilog) and the two groups were compared using a non-parametric statistical hypothesis test (Wilcoxon rank sum, Phallux valgus group compared to controls and 9 gait parameters (effect size between 1.03 and 1.76) were successfully isolated to best describe the altered gait in hallux valgus deformity (r(2)=0.71) as well as showed good correlation with clinical scores. Our results, and nine listed parameters, could serve as benchmark for characterization of hallux valgus and objective evaluation of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, E.; Millecamps, A.; Teoli, J.; Rothfuss, M. A.; Franconi, N. G.; Perera, S.; Jones, A. K.; Brach, J. S.; Mickle, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18 to 35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardivascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults. PMID:26390946

  2. Balance and gait improved in patients with MS after physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedal, Tori; Lygren, Hildegunn; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Gjelsvik, Bente; Gjelsvik, Olav; Strand, Liv Inger; Inger, Liv

    2006-06-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) tend to have movement difficulties, and the effect of physiotherapy for this group of patients has been subjected to limited systematic research. In the present study physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept, applied to MS patients with balance and gait problems, was evaluated. The ability of different functional tests to demonstrate change was evaluated. A single-subject experimental study design with ABAA phases was used, and two patients with relapsing-remitting MS in stable phase were treated. Tests were performed 12 times, three at each phase: A (at baseline); B (during treatment); A (immediately after treatment); and A (after two months). The key feature of treatment was facilitation of postural activity and selective control of movement. Several performance and self report measures and interviews were used. After intervention, improved balance was shown by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) in both patients, and improved quality of gait was indicated by the Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA). The patients also reported improved balance and gait function in the interviews and scored their condition as 'much improved'. Gait parameters, recorded by an electronic walkway, changed, but differently in the two patients. Among the physical performance tests the BBS and the RVGA demonstrated the highest change, while no or minimal change was demonstrated by the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE). The findings indicate that balance and gait can be improved after physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept, but this should be further evaluated in larger controlled trials of patients with MS.

  3. Assessment of paclitaxel induced sensory polyneuropathy with "Catwalk" automated gait analysis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Huehnchen

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain as a symptom of sensory nerve damage is a frequent side effect of chemotherapy. The most common behavioral observation in animal models of chemotherapy induced polyneuropathy is the development of mechanical allodynia, which is quantified with von Frey filaments. The data from one study, however, cannot be easily compared with other studies owing to influences of environmental factors, inter-rater variability and differences in test paradigms. To overcome these limitations, automated quantitative gait analysis was proposed as an alternative, but its usefulness for assessing animals suffering from polyneuropathy has remained unclear. In the present study, we used a novel mouse model of paclitaxel induced polyneuropathy to compare results from electrophysiology and the von Frey method to gait alterations measured with the Catwalk test. To mimic recently improved clinical treatment strategies of gynecological malignancies, we established a mouse model of dose-dense paclitaxel therapy on the common C57Bl/6 background. In this model paclitaxel treated animals developed mechanical allodynia as well as reduced caudal sensory nerve action potential amplitudes indicative of a sensory polyneuropathy. Gait analysis with the Catwalk method detected distinct alterations of gait parameters in animals suffering from sensory neuropathy, revealing a minimized contact of the hind paws with the floor. Treatment of mechanical allodynia with gabapentin improved altered dynamic gait parameters. This study establishes a novel mouse model for investigating the side effects of dose-dense paclitaxel therapy and underlines the usefulness of automated gait analysis as an additional easy-to-use objective test for evaluating painful sensory polyneuropathy.

  4. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study investig......Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....

  5. Kinematics gait disorder in men with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Jimenez, Jose M; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the kinematics disorder of gait in men with fibromyalgia. We studied 12 male with fibromyalgia and 14 healthy men. Each participant of the study walked five trials along a 18.6-m walkway. Fibromyalgia patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Significant differences between fibromyalgia and control groups were found in velocity, stride length, and cadence. Gait parameters of men affected by fibromyalgia were impaired when compared to those of healthy group due to bradykinesia. According to previous studies to assess gait variables in female patients, the male with fibromyalgia also showed lower values of velocity, cadence, and stride length than healthy group but not reported significant differences in swing, stance, single, or double support phase.

  6. Gait disorders in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Bileckot, Richard; Alix, Anne-Sophie; Chaleil, Denis; Barrey, Eric

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare gait in patients with fibromyalgia and in matched controls. Measurements must be obtained in patients with fibromyalgia, as the evaluation scales for this disorder are semi-quantitative. We used a patented gait analysis system (Locometrix Centaure Metrix, France) developed by the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Relaxed walking was evaluated in 14 women (mean age 50+/-5 years; mean height 162+/-5 cm; and mean body weight 68+/-13 kg) meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia and in 14 controls matched on sex, age, height, and body weight. Gait during stable walking was severely altered in the patients. Walking speed was significantly diminished (Pfibromyalgia.

  7. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  8. DeepGait: A Learning Deep Convolutional Representation for View-Invariant Gait Recognition Using Joint Bayesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated by using a pre-trained “very deep” network “D-Net” (VGG-D without any fine-tuning. For non-view setting, DeepGait outperforms hand-crafted representations (e.g., Gait Energy Image, Frequency-Domain Feature and Gait Flow Image, etc.. Furthermore, for cross-view setting, 256-dimensional DeepGait after PCA significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the OU-ISR large population (OULP dataset. The OULP dataset, which includes 4007 subjects, makes our result reliable in a statistically reliable way.

  9. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraoka Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the start tone, the condition of initiating gait with the non-preferred leg indicated by the start tone, and the condition of initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. These findings fail to support the view that the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The lateral displacement of the center of pressure in the period in which shifting the center of pressure to the initial swing phase before initiating gait with the left leg indicated by the external cue was significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the right leg indicated by the external cue, and significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. Weight shift to the initial swing side during APA during gait initiation was found to be asymmetrical when choosing the leg in response to an external cue

  10. Quantification of human motion: gait analysis-benefits and limitations to its application to clinical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sheldon R

    2004-12-01

    The technology supporting the analysis of human motion has advanced dramatically. Past decades of locomotion research have provided us with significant knowledge about the accuracy of tests performed, the understanding of the process of human locomotion, and how clinical testing can be used to evaluate medical disorders and affect their treatment. Gait analysis is now recognized as clinically useful and financially reimbursable for some medical conditions. Yet, the routine clinical use of gait analysis has seen very limited growth. The issue of its clinical value is related to many factors, including the applicability of existing technology to addressing clinical problems; the limited use of such tests to address a wide variety of medical disorders; the manner in which gait laboratories are organized, tests are performed, and reports generated; and the clinical understanding and expectations of laboratory results. Clinical use is most hampered by the length of time and costs required for performing a study and interpreting it. A "gait" report is lengthy, its data are not well understood, and it includes a clinical interpretation, all of which do not occur with other clinical tests. Current biotechnology research is seeking to address these problems by creating techniques to capture data rapidly, accurately, and efficiently, and to interpret such data by an assortment of modeling, statistical, wave interpretation, and artificial intelligence methodologies. The success of such efforts rests on both our technical abilities and communication between engineers and clinicians.

  11. Powered robotic exoskeletons in post-stroke rehabilitation of gait: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dennis R; Eng, Janice J

    2016-06-08

    Powered robotic exoskeletons are a potential intervention for gait rehabilitation in stroke to enable repetitive walking practice to maximize neural recovery. As this is a relatively new technology for stroke, a scoping review can help guide current research and propose recommendations for advancing the research development. The aim of this scoping review was to map the current literature surrounding the use of robotic exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation in adults post-stroke. Five databases (Pubmed, OVID MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) were searched for articles from inception to October 2015. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Articles were included if they utilized a robotic exoskeleton as a gait training intervention for adult stroke survivors and reported walking outcome measures. Of 441 records identified, 11 studies, all published within the last five years, involving 216 participants met the inclusion criteria. The study designs ranged from pre-post clinical studies (n = 7) to controlled trials (n = 4); five of the studies utilized a robotic exoskeleton device unilaterally, while six used a bilateral design. Participants ranged from sub-acute (6 months) stroke. Training periods ranged from single-session to 8-week interventions. Main walking outcome measures were gait speed, Timed Up and Go, 6-min Walk Test, and the Functional Ambulation Category. Meaningful improvement with exoskeleton-based gait training was more apparent in sub-acute stroke compared to chronic stroke. Two of the four controlled trials showed no greater improvement in any walking outcomes compared to a control group in chronic stroke. In conclusion, clinical trials demonstrate that powered robotic exoskeletons can be used safely as a gait training intervention for stroke. Preliminary findings suggest that exoskeletal gait training is equivalent to traditional therapy for chronic stroke

  12. Control Architecture of a 10 DOF Lower Limbs Exoskeleton for Gait Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Koceska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the control architecture of a 10 DOF (Degrees of Freedom lower limbs exoskeleton for the gait rehabilitation of patients with gait dysfunction. The system has 4 double-acting rod pneumatic actuators (two for each leg that control the hip and knee joints. The motion of each cylinder's piston is controlled by two proportional pressure valves, connected to both cylinder chambers. The control strategy has been specifically designed in order to ensure a proper trajectory control for guiding patient's legs along a fixed reference gait pattern. An adaptive fuzzy controller which is capable of compensating for the influence of the dry friction was successfully designed, implemented and tested on an embedded real-time PC/104. In order to verify the proposed control architecture, laboratory experiments without a patient were carried out and the results are reported here and discussed.

  13. Curve aligning approach for gait authentication based on a wearable accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hu; Yuao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Gait authentication based on a wearable accelerometer is a novel biometric which can be used for identity identification, medical rehabilitation and early detection of neurological disorders. The method for matching gait patterns tells heavily on authentication performances. In this paper, curve aligning is introduced as a new method for matching gait patterns and it is compared with correlation and dynamic time warping (DTW). A support vector machine (SVM) is proposed to fuse pattern-matching methods in a decision level. Accelerations collected from ankles of 22 walking subjects are processed for authentications in our experiments. The fusion of curve aligning with backward–forward accelerations and DTW with vertical accelerations promotes authentication performances substantially and consistently. This fusion algorithm is tested repeatedly. Its mean and standard deviation of equal error rates are 0.794% and 0.696%, respectively, whereas among all presented non-fusion algorithms, the best one shows an EER of 3.03%. (paper)

  14. Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Biologically Based Assay of Lower Extremity Impairment and Gait Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather T. Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (a To determine associations among motor evoked potential (MEP amplitude, MEP latency, lower extremity (LE impairment, and gait velocity and (b determine the association between the presence of a detectable MEP signal with LE impairment and with gait velocity. Method. 35 subjects with chronic, stable LE hemiparesis were undergone TMS, the LE section of the Fugl-Meyer Impairment Scale (LE FM, and 10-meter walk test. We recorded presence, amplitude, and latency of MEPs in the affected tibialis anterior (TA and soleus (SO. Results. MEP presence was associated with higher LEFM scores in both the TA and SO. MEP latency was larger in subjects with lower LEFM and difficulty walking. Conclusion. MEP latency appears to be an indicator of LE impairment and gait. Significance. Our results support the precept of using TMS, particularly MEP latency, as an adjunctive LE outcome measurement and prognostic technique.

  15. Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Biologically Based Assay of Lower Extremity Impairment and Gait Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heather T; Dunning, Kari; Belagaje, Samir; Kissela, Brett M; Ying, Jun; Laine, Jarmo; Page, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives . (a) To determine associations among motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, MEP latency, lower extremity (LE) impairment, and gait velocity and (b) determine the association between the presence of a detectable MEP signal with LE impairment and with gait velocity. Method . 35 subjects with chronic, stable LE hemiparesis were undergone TMS, the LE section of the Fugl-Meyer Impairment Scale (LE FM), and 10-meter walk test. We recorded presence, amplitude, and latency of MEPs in the affected tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO). Results . MEP presence was associated with higher LEFM scores in both the TA and SO. MEP latency was larger in subjects with lower LEFM and difficulty walking. Conclusion . MEP latency appears to be an indicator of LE impairment and gait. Significance . Our results support the precept of using TMS, particularly MEP latency, as an adjunctive LE outcome measurement and prognostic technique.

  16. Technical note: Use of accelerometers to describe gait patterns in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passillé, A. M. de; Jensen, Margit Bak; Chapinal, N.

    2010-01-01

    Developments in accelerometer technology offer new opportunities for automatic monitoring of animal behavior. Until now, commercially available accelerometers have been used to measure walking in adult cows but have failed to identify walking in calves. We described the pattern of acceleration...... associated with various gaits in calves and tested whether measures of acceleration could be used to count steps and distinguish among gait types. A triaxial accelerometer (sampling at 33 readings/s with maximum measurement at +/-3.2 g) was attached to 1 hind leg of 7 dairy calves, and each calf was walked...

  17. Gait energy expenditure in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Mariana Angélica de; Ferreira, Marília Ester; Baptista, Cyntia Rogean de Jesus Alves de; Sverzut, Ana Claudia Mattiello

    2014-01-01

    This case study aimed to verify the model of Rose et al.1 as a feasible to assess energy expenditure in gait of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Three DMD patients aged 6, 7 and 8 years old participated of this study. It was obtained weight, height, leg length measurement (LLM), resting and gait heart rate (HR) held on as 55-meter oval circuit performed during a two-minute test at each speed. Energy expenditure was calculated using the HR. It was performed a descriptive analys...

  18. Gait Analysis by Multi Video Sequence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Juhl, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The project presented in this article aims to develop software so that close-range photogrammetry with sufficient accuracy can be used to point out the most frequent foot mal positions and monitor the effect of the traditional treatment. The project is carried out as a cooperation between...... and the calcaneus angle during gait. In the introductory phase of the project the task has been to select, purchase and draw up hardware, select and purchase software concerning video streaming and to develop special software concerning automated registration of the position of the foot during gait by Multi Video...

  19. Periodic gaits for the CMU Ambler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Suren N.; Mahalingam, Swaminathan

    1992-02-01

    The configuration of the Carnegie-Mellon University Ambler, a six-legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. In this article, gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion has been developed that ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.

  20. Person identification by gait analysis and photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Vedel, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance images from a bank robbery were analyzed and compared with images of a suspect. Based on general bodily features, gait and anthropometric measurements, we were able to conclude that one of the perpetrators showed strong resemblance to the suspect. Both exhibited a gait characterized...... by hyperextension of the leg joints, and bodily measurements did not differ by more than 6 mm on average. The latter was quantified by photogrammetry: i.e., measuring by using images of the perpetrator as captured by surveillance cameras. Using the computer software Photomodeler Pro, synchronous images from...

  1. Interaction of obstructive sleep apnoea and cognitive impairment with slow gait speed in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Shin, Chol

    2017-07-01

    to investigate whether slow gait speed is associated with cognitive impairment and further whether the association is modified by obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). in total, 2,222 adults aged 49-80 years, free from dementia, stroke and head injury were asked to walk a 4-m course at fast and usual gait speeds. The time taken to walk was measured. All participants completed the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination, which was validated in the Korean language, to assess cognitive function. Additionally, the participants completed a polysomnography test to ascertain OSA (defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥15). Multivariable linear regression models were utilised to test the associations. time taken to walk 4 m showed significant inverse associations with cognitive scores (P value = 0.001 at fast gait speed and P = 0.002 at usual gait speed). Furthermore, a significant interaction according to OSA on the association between time to walk and cognitive impairment was found (P value for interaction = 0.003 at fast gait speed and P value for interaction = 0.007 at usual gait speed). we found that the inverse association between the time taken to walk 4 m and a cognitive score became significantly stronger, if an individual had OSA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Effects of 12-week supervised treadmill training on spatio-temporal gait parameters in patients with claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik, Anita; Kuklewicz, Stanisław; Rosłoniec, Ewelina; Zając, Marcin; Spannbauer, Anna; Nowobilski, Roman; Mika, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate selected temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication after completion of 12-week supervised treadmill walking training. The study included 36 patients (26 males and 10 females) aged: mean 64 (SD 7.7) with intermittent claudication. All patients were tested on treadmill (Gait Trainer, Biodex). Before the programme and after its completion, the following gait biomechanical parameters were tested: step length (cm), step cycle (cycle/s), leg support time (%), coefficient of step variation (%) as well as pain-free walking time (PFWT) and maximal walking time (MWT) were measured. Training was conducted in accordance with the current TASC II guidelines. After 12 weeks of training, patients showed significant change in gait biomechanics consisting in decreased frequency of step cycle (p gait was more regular, which was expressed via statistically significant decrease of coefficient of variation (p 0.05). Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication. Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of pain-free walking time and maximum walking time in patients with intermittent claudication.

  3. Measurement instruments to assess posture, gait, and balance in Parkinson's disease: Critique and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Marinus, J.; Almeida, Q.; Dibble, L.; Nieuwboer, A.; Post, B.; Ruzicka, E.; Goetz, C.; Stebbins, G.; Martinez-Martin, P.; Schrag, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disorders of posture, gait, and balance in Parkinson's disease (PD) are common and debilitating. This MDS-commissioned task force assessed clinimetric properties of existing rating scales, questionnaires, and timed tests that assess these features in PD. METHODS: A literature review was

  4. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M.; Mulder, Mascha C. Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L.; van der Woude, Luc H.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Design: Clinical experimental

  5. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Lucas; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. DESIGN: Clinical experimental

  6. Robotic Pectoral Fin Thrust Vectoring Using Weighted Gait Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Palmisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method was devised to vector propulsion of a robotic pectoral fin by means of actively controlling fin surface curvature. Separate flapping fin gaits were designed to maximize thrust for each of three different thrust vectors: forward, reverse, and lift. By using weighted combinations of these three pre-determined main gaits, new intermediate hybrid gaits for any desired propulsion vector can be created with smooth transitioning between these gaits. This weighted gait combination (WGC method is applicable to other difficult-to-model actuators. Both 3D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental results are presented.

  7. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    OpenAIRE

    Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP ...

  8. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with Pfalls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was Pfalls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (Pfalls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may help detect individuals at risk of falling.

  9. Real time biometric surveillance with gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini

    2018-04-01

    Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.

  10. The Practicalities of Assessing Freezing of Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, C.; Mallia, E.; Debu, B.; Bloem, B.R.; Ferraye, M.U.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a mysterious, complex and debilitating phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Adequate assessment is a pre-requisite for managing FOG, as well as for assigning participants in FOG research. The episodic nature of FOG, as well as its multiple clinical expressions

  11. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  13. Proprioceptive perturbations of stability during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysens, J.; Beerepoot, V.P.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Through recent studies, the role of proprioceptors in reactions to perturbations during gait has been finally somewhat better understood. The input from spindle afferents has been investigated with tendon taps, vibration and other forms of muscle stretches, including some resembling natural

  14. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved signifi...

  15. Feasibility of external rhythmic cueing with the Google Glass for improving gait in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Nonnekes, Jorik; Storcken, Erik J M; Janssen, Sabine; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van Vugt, Jeroen P P; Heida, Tjitske; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2016-06-01

    New mobile technologies like smartglasses can deliver external cues that may improve gait in people with Parkinson's disease in their natural environment. However, the potential of these devices must first be assessed in controlled experiments. Therefore, we evaluated rhythmic visual and auditory cueing in a laboratory setting with a custom-made application for the Google Glass. Twelve participants (mean age = 66.8; mean disease duration = 13.6 years) were tested at end of dose. We compared several key gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, stride length, and stride length variability) and freezing of gait for three types of external cues (metronome, flashing light, and optic flow) and a control condition (no-cue). For all cueing conditions, the subjects completed several walking tasks of varying complexity. Seven inertial sensors attached to the feet, legs and pelvis captured motion data for gait analysis. Two experienced raters scored the presence and severity of freezing of gait using video recordings. User experience was evaluated through a semi-open interview. During cueing, a more stable gait pattern emerged, particularly on complicated walking courses; however, freezing of gait did not significantly decrease. The metronome was more effective than rhythmic visual cues and most preferred by the participants. Participants were overall positive about the usability of the Google Glass and willing to use it at home. Thus, smartglasses like the Google Glass could be used to provide personalized mobile cueing to support gait; however, in its current form, auditory cues seemed more effective than rhythmic visual cues.

  16. A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait.

  17. Neural substrates of levodopa-responsive gait disorders and freezing in advanced Parkinson's disease: a kinesthetic imagery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Audrey; Thobois, Stéphane; Fraix, Valérie; Redouté, Jérôme; Le Bars, Didier; Lavenne, Franck; Derost, Philippe; Durif, Franck; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Krack, Paul; Pollak, Pierre; Debû, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    Gait disturbances, including freezing of gait, are frequent and disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease. They often respond poorly to dopaminergic treatments. Although recent studies have shed some light on their neural correlates, their modulation by dopaminergic treatment remains quite unknown. Specifically, the influence of levodopa on the networks involved in motor imagery (MI) of parkinsonian gait has not been directly studied, comparing the off and on medication states in the same patients. We therefore conducted an [H2 (15) 0] Positron emission tomography study in eight advanced parkinsonian patients (mean disease duration: 12.3 ± 3.8 years) presenting with levodopa-responsive gait disorders and FoG, and eight age-matched healthy subjects. All participants performed three tasks (MI of gait, visual imagery and a control task). Patients were tested off, after an overnight withdrawal of all antiparkinsonian treatment, and on medication, during consecutive mornings. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between subjects and sessions. Results showed that imagined gait elicited activations within motor and frontal associative areas, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum in controls. Off medication, patients mainly activated premotor-parietal and pontomesencephalic regions. Levodopa increased activation in motor regions, putamen, thalamus, and cerebellum, and reduced premotor-parietal and brainstem involvement. Areas activated when patients are off medication may represent compensatory mechanisms. The recruitment of these accessory circuits has also been reported for upper-limb movements in Parkinson's disease, suggesting a partly overlapping pathophysiology between imagined levodopa-responsive gait disorders and appendicular signs. Our results also highlight a possible cerebellar contribution in the pathophysiology of parkinsonian gait disorders through kinesthetic imagery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Correlation between static radiographic measurements and intersegmental angular measurements during gait using a multisegment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Kyoung Min; Farber, Daniel C; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic examination is a widely used evaluation method in the orthopedic clinic. However, conventional radiography alone does not reflect the dynamic changes between foot and ankle segments during gait. Multiple 3-dimensional multisegment foot models (3D MFMs) have been introduced to evaluate intersegmental motion of the foot. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between static radiographic indices and intersegmental foot motion indices. One hundred twenty-five females were tested. Static radiographs of full-leg and anteroposterior (AP) and lateral foot views were performed. For hindfoot evaluation, we measured the AP tibiotalar angle (TiTA), talar tilt (TT), calcaneal pitch, lateral tibiocalcaneal angle, and lateral talcocalcaneal angle. For the midfoot segment, naviculocuboid overlap and talonavicular coverage angle were calculated. AP and lateral talo-first metatarsal angles and metatarsal stacking angle (MSA) were measured to assess the forefoot. Hallux valgus angle (HVA) and hallux interphalangeal angle were measured. In gait analysis by 3D MFM, intersegmental angle (ISA) measurements of each segment (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, arch) were recorded. ISAs at midstance phase were most highly correlated with radiography. Significant correlations were observed between ISA measurements using MFM and static radiographic measurements in the same segment. In the hindfoot, coronal plane ISA was correlated with AP TiTA (P foot motion indices at midstance phase during gait measured by 3D MFM gait analysis were correlated with the conventional radiographic indices. The observed correlation between MFM measurements at midstance phase during gait and static radiographic measurements supports the fundamental basis for the use of MFM in analysis of dynamic motion of foot segment during gait. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The Parkinsonian Gait Spatiotemporal Parameters Quantified by a Single Inertial Sensor before and after Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the change in gait spatiotemporal parameters in subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD before and after Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation (AMPS treatment. Thirty-five subjects with PD and 35 healthy age-matched subjects took part in this study. A dedicated medical device (Gondola was used to administer the AMPS. All patients with PD were treated in off levodopa phase and their gait performances were evaluated by an inertial measurement system before and after the intervention. The one-way ANOVA for repeated measures was performed to assess the differences between pre- and post-AMPS and the one-way ANOVA to assess the differences between PD patients and the control group. Spearman’s correlations assessed the associations between patients with PD clinical status (H&Y and the percentage of improvement of the gait variables after AMPS (α<0.05 for all tests. The PD group had an improvement of 14.85% in the stride length; 14.77% in the gait velocity; and 29.91% in the gait propulsion. The correlation results showed that the higher the H&Y classification, the higher the stride length percentage of improvement. The treatment based on AMPS intervention seems to induce a better performance in the gait pattern of PD patients, mainly in intermediate and advanced stages of the condition.

  20. Partial Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Impact on Gait and Clinical Manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Mohan; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Gupta, Anupam

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of conventional gait training (CGT) and partial weight-supported treadmill training (PWSTT) on gait and clinical manifestation. Prospective experimental research design. Hospital. Patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) (N=60; mean age, 58.15±8.7y) on stable dosage of dopaminomimetic drugs were randomly assigned into the 3 following groups (20 patients in each group): (1) nonexercising PD group, (2) CGT group, and (3) PWSTT group. The interventions included in the study were CGT and PWSTT. The sessions of the CGT and PWSTT groups were given in patient's self-reported best on status after regular medications. The interventions were given for 30min/d, 4d/wk, for 4 weeks (16 sessions). Clinical severity was measured by the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and its subscores. Gait was measured by 2 minutes of treadmill walking and the 10-m walk test. Outcome measures were evaluated in their best on status at baseline and after the second and fourth weeks. Four weeks of CGT and PWSTT gait training showed significant improvements of UPDRS scores, its subscores, and gait performance measures. Moreover, the effects of PWSTT were significantly better than CGT on most measures. PWSTT is a promising intervention tool to improve the clinical and gait outcome measures in patients with PD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gait analysis in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Precilios, Helmer; Cattani, Laila; Fabris De Souza, Shirley; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2013-09-13

    Anorexia (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are two common eating disorders, which appear to share some reduced motor capacities, such as a reduced balance. The presence and the extent of other motor disorders have not been investigated in a comprehensive way. The aim of this study was to quantify gait pattern in AN and BN individuals in order to ascertain possible differences from the normality range and provide novel data for developing some evidence-based rehabilitation strategies. Nineteen AN patients (age 30.16+9.73) and 20 BN patients (age 26.8+8.41) were assessed with quantitative 3D computerized Gait Analysis. Results were compared with a group of healthy controls (CG; 30.7+5.6). AN and BN patients were characterized by different gait strategies compared to CG. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated shorter step length, with AN showing the shortest values. AN walked slower than BN and CG. As for kinematics, AN and BN showed a nonphysiologic pattern at pelvis and hip level on the sagittal and frontal plane, with BN yielding the most abnormal values. Both AN and BN patients were characterized by high ankle plantar flexion capacity at toe-off when compared to CG. As for ankle kinetics, both AN and BN showed physiologic patterns. Stiffness at hip level was close to CG in both pathologic groups; at the ankle level, stiffness was significantly decreased in both groups, with AN displaying lower values. Both AN and BN were characterized by an altered gait pattern compared to CG. Biomechanical differences were evident mainly at pelvis and hip level. Loss of lean mass may lead to musculoskeletal adaptation, ultimately causing alterations in the gait pattern.

  2. Assessing gait adaptability in people with a unilateral amputation on an instrumented treadmill with a projected visual context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdijk, Han; van Ooijen, Mariëlle W; Kraal, Jos J; Wiggerts, Henri O; Polomski, Wojtek; Janssen, Thomas W J; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2012-11-01

    Gait adaptability, including the ability to avoid obstacles and to take visually guided steps, is essential for safe movement through a cluttered world. This aspect of walking ability is important for regaining independent mobility but is difficult to assess in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of an instrumented treadmill with obstacles and stepping targets projected on the belt's surface for assessing prosthetic gait adaptability. This was an observational study. A control group of people who were able bodied (n=12) and groups of people with transtibial (n=12) and transfemoral (n=12) amputations participated. Participants walked at a self-selected speed on an instrumented treadmill with projected visual obstacles and stepping targets. Gait adaptability was evaluated in terms of anticipatory and reactive obstacle avoidance performance (for obstacles presented 4 steps and 1 step ahead, respectively) and accuracy of stepping on regular and irregular patterns of stepping targets. In addition, several clinical tests were administered, including timed walking tests and reports of incidence of falls and fear of falling. Obstacle avoidance performance and stepping accuracy were significantly lower in the groups with amputations than in the control group. Anticipatory obstacle avoidance performance was moderately correlated with timed walking test scores. Reactive obstacle avoidance performance and stepping accuracy performance were not related to timed walking tests. Gait adaptability scores did not differ in groups stratified by incidence of falls or fear of falling. Because gait adaptability was affected by walking speed, differences in self-selected walking speed may have diminished differences in gait adaptability between groups. Gait adaptability can be validly assessed by use of an instrumented treadmill with a projected visual context. When walking speed is taken into account, this assessment provides unique

  3. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  4. Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA): a method to characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of rat gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Pettengill, Travis R.; Turner, Sara M. F.; Streeter, Kristi A.; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J.; Fuller, David D.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    While rodent gait analysis can quantify the behavioral consequences of disease, significant methodological differences exist between analysis platforms and little validation has been performed to understand or mitigate these sources of variance. By providing the algorithms used to quantify gait, open-source gait analysis software can be validated and used to explore methodological differences. Our group is introducing, for the first time, a fully-automated, open-source method for the characterization of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns, termed Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA). This study describes how AGATHA identifies gait events, validates AGATHA relative to manual digitization methods, and utilizes AGATHA to detect gait compensations in orthopaedic and spinal cord injury models. To validate AGATHA against manual digitization, results from videos of rodent gait, recorded at 1000 frames per second (fps), were compared. To assess one common source of variance (the effects of video frame rate), these 1000 fps videos were re-sampled to mimic several lower fps and compared again. While spatial variables were indistinguishable between AGATHA and manual digitization, low video frame rates resulted in temporal errors for both methods. At frame rates over 125 fps, AGATHA achieved a comparable accuracy and precision to manual digitization for all gait variables. Moreover, AGATHA detected unique gait changes in each injury model. These data demonstrate AGATHA is an accurate and precise platform for the analysis of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns. PMID:27554674

  5. Balance and gait in older electroconvulsive therapy recipients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plakiotis C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chris Plakiotis,1,2 Fay Barson,2 Bharathi Vengadasalam,3 Terry P Haines,4 Daniel W O'Connor1,2 1School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2MonashHealth, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Allied Health Research Unit, Monash University and MonashHealth, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is commonly used to treat depression in older adults. Despite its efficacy in this regard, an associated increase in the risk of falls in this population is a downside of treatment. ECT research has focused on the incidence of falls, but its effect on balance and gait – intrinsic factors in instability and falls – has not been studied. Our aim was to examine changes in balance and gait among older adults before and after a single ECT session and explore the effect of patient-related and treatment factors on any changes found. Methods: Participants were 21 older adults requiring ECT for depression in public psychiatric services. Patients with clinically overt mobility problems (impairing test participation or increasing the risk of falls were excluded. Balance and gait testing 1 hour pre-ECT and 1, 2 and 3 hours post-ECT included: (1 steady standing test; (2 perturbation of standing balance by self-initiated movements; (3 perturbation of standing balance by an external perturbation; and (4 timed up and go test. Results: No deterioration in test performance was found, using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Conclusion: Balance and gait did not deteriorate immediately after ECT. Exclusion of participants with clinically overt mobility problems and falls being better attributable to factors unrelated to balance and gait (such as post-ECT confusion may account for our findings. This research does not repudiate the occurrence of ECT-related falls but calls into question the utility of introducing routine balance and gait

  6. Effects of unilateral real-time biofeedback on propulsive forces during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Christopher; Kesar, Trisha M

    2017-06-06

    In individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis, reduced push-off force generation in the paretic leg negatively impacts walking function. Gait training interventions that increase paretic push-off can improve walking function in individuals with neurologic impairment. During normal locomotion, push-off forces are modulated with variations in gait speed and slope. However, it is unknown whether able-bodied individuals can selectively modulate push-off forces from one leg in response to biofeedback. Here, in a group of young, neurologically-unimpaired individuals, we determined the effects of a real-time visual and auditory biofeedback gait training paradigm aimed at unilaterally increasing anteriorly-directed ground reaction force (AGRF) in the targeted leg. Ground reaction force data during were collected from 7 able-bodied individuals as they walked at a self-selected pace on a dual-belt treadmill instrumented with force platforms. During 11-min of gait training, study participants were provided real-time AGRF biofeedback encouraging a 20-30% increase in peak AGRF generated by their right (targeted) leg compared to their baseline (pre-training) AGRF. AGRF data were collected before, during, and after the biofeedback training period, as well as during two retention tests performed without biofeedback and after standing breaks. Compared to AGRFs generated during the pre-training gait trials, participants demonstrated a significantly greater AGRF in the targeted leg during and immediately after training, indicating that biofeedback training was successful at inducing increased AGRF production in the targeted leg. Additionally, participants continued to demonstrate greater AGRF production in the targeted leg after two standing breaks, showing short-term recall of the gait pattern learned during the biofeedback training. No significant effects of training were observed on the AGRF in the non-targeted limb, showing the specificity of the effects of biofeedback toward the

  7. Combining physical training with transcranial direct current stimulation to improve gait in Parkinson's disease: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, D; Dominguez, R O; Allum, J H; Islam, A F; Bronstein, A M

    2014-11-01

    To improve gait and balance in patients with Parkinson's disease by combining anodal transcranial direct current stimulation with physical training. In a double-blind design, one group (physical training; n = 8) underwent gait and balance training during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS; real/sham). Real stimulation consisted of 15 minutes of 2 mA transcranial direct current stimulation over primary motor and premotor cortex. For sham, the current was switched off after 30 seconds. Patients received the opposite stimulation (sham/real) with physical training one week later; the second group (No physical training; n = 8) received stimulation (real/sham) but no training, and also repeated a sequential transcranial direct current stimulation session one week later (sham/real). Hospital Srio Libanes, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Sixteen community-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease. Transcranial direct current stimulation with and without concomitant physical training. Gait velocity (primary gait outcome), stride length, timed 6-minute walk test, Timed Up and Go Test (secondary outcomes), and performance on the pull test (primary balance outcome). Transcranial direct current stimulation with physical training increased gait velocity (mean = 29.5%, SD = 13; p transcranial direct current stimulation alone. There was no isolated benefit of transcranial direct current stimulation alone. Although physical training improved gait velocity (mean = 15.5%, SD = 12.3; p = 0.03), these effects were comparatively less than with combined tDCS + physical therapy (p stimulation-related improvements were seen in patients with more advanced disease. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation during physical training improves gait and balance in patients with Parkinson's disease. Power calculations revealed that 14 patients per treatment arm (α = 0.05; power = 0.8) are required for a definitive trial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The effects of variable practice on locomotor adaptation to a novel asymmetric gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, Jacob W; Hahn, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of specific practice on motor learning of predictive balance control during novel bipedal gait. This information could provide an insight into how the direction and magnitude of predictive errors during acquisition of a novel gait task influence transfer of balance control, as well as yield a practice protocol for the restoration of balance for those with locomotor impairments. This study examined the effect of a variable practice paradigm on transfer of a novel asymmetric gait pattern in able-bodied individuals. Using a split-belt treadmill, one limb was driven at a constant velocity (constant limb) and the other underwent specific changes in velocity (variable limb) during practice according to one of three prescribed practice paradigms: serial, where the variable limb velocity increased linearly; random blocked, where variable limb underwent random belt velocity changes every 20 strides; and random practice, where the variable limb underwent random step-to-step changes in velocity. Random practice showed the highest balance control variability during acquisition compared to serial and random blocked practice which demonstrated the best transfer of balance control on one transfer test. Both random and random blocked practices showed significantly less balance control variability during a second transfer test compared to serial practice. These results indicate that random blocked practice may be best for generalizability of balance control while learning a novel gait, perhaps, indicating that individuals who underwent this practice paradigm were able to find the most optimal balance control solution during practice.

  9. Temporo-spatial gait parameters during street crossing conditions: a comparison between younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Edgar R; Lim, Hyun-Hwa; Brunt, Denis; Hallal, Camilla Z; Kinsey, Laura; Errington, Lisa; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Most traffic accidents involving pedestrians happen during street crossing. Safe street crossing by older adults requires complex planning and imposes high cognitive demands. Understanding how street crossing situations affect younger and older adults' gait is important to create evidence-based policies, education and training. The objective of this study was to develop and test a method to evaluate temporo-spatial gait parameters of younger and older adults during simulated street crossing situations. Twenty-two younger (25±2 years old) and 22 older adults (73±6 years old) who lived independently in the community completed 3 walking trials at preferred gait speed and during simulated street crossing with regular and with reduced time. There were significant differences between groups (pstreet crossing walking speed was higher than their preferred speed (pstreet crossing resulted in significant and progressive gait changes. The methods developed and tested can be used to (1) evaluate if people are at risk of falls and accidents during street crossing situations, (2) to compare among different groups, and (3) to help establish appropriate times for older pedestrians to cross streets safely. The current time to cross streets is too short even for healthy older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of valgus heel position on foot loading in a child's gait

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    Eliška Martinásková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flat foot is a typical clinical sign in childhood, expressed as valgus positioning of the heel during vertical foot loading. This may lead to medial deviation of the foot axis and cause overloading of some foot areas. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of valgus position of the heel (both bilateral and unilateral on foot loading during gait. METHODS: An experimental group consisting of children with bilateral heel valgus deformity (16 children, age 5.3 ± 1.3 years and children with unilateral heel valgus deformity (14 children, age 5.6 ± 1.6 years. The control group comprised of 14 children (age 4.5 ± 1.2 years. For measuring foot loading during gait, the Footscan (RSScan International, Olen, Belgium pressure plate was used. Each subject went through 8 trials of gait measurement. From each trial, 8 foot areas were evaluated. Data processing with mean values for each subject was performed by non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, Spearman correlation in the STATISTICA programme (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, USA. RESULTS: Pressure peak and pressure impulse in the first metatarsal was greater for the bilateral valgus group (p CONCLUSION: The results show that valgus positioning of the heel influences foot loading in children during gait. The findings of this study suggest the necessity of a complex solution to the problem of preventing further progression of pathological changes.

  11. Ultrasound monitoring of inter-knee distances during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel T H; Wrigley, Tim V; Palaniswami, M

    2009-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is an extremely common, debilitating disease associated with pain and loss of function. There is considerable interest in monitoring lower limb alignment due to its close association with joint overload leading to disease progression. The effects of gait modifications that can lower joint loading are of particular interest. Here we describe an ultrasound-based system for monitoring an important aspect of dynamic lower limb alignment, the inter-knee distance during walking. Monitoring this gait parameter should facilitate studies in reducing knee loading, a primary risk factor of knee osteoarthritis progression. The portable device is composed of an ultrasound sensor connected to an Intel iMote2 equipped with Bluetooth wireless capability. Static tests and calibration results show that the sensor possesses an effective beam envelope of 120 degrees, with maximum distance errors of 10% at the envelope edges. Dynamic walking trials reveal close correlation of inter-knee distance trends between that measured by an optical system (Optotrak Certus NDI) and the sensor device. The maximum average root mean square error was found to be 1.46 cm. Future work will focus on improving the accuracy of the device.

  12. Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1 to give consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2 to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities.Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium participated in this initiative. First, they identified items of standardized information following the usual procedure of formulation of consensus findings. Second, they merged databases including spatiotemporal gait assessments with GAITRite® system and clinical information from the “Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline” (GOOD initiative and the Generation 100 (Gen 100 study. Only healthy—free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities (i.e., ≤ 3 therapeutics taken daily—participants aged 65 and older were selected. Age, sex, body mass index, mean values, and coefficients of variation (CoV of gait parameters were used for the analyses.Results: Standardized systematic assessment of three categories of items, which were demographics and clinical information, and gait characteristics (clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls, were selected for the proposed guidelines. Two complementary sets of items were distinguished: a minimal data set and a full data set. In addition, a total of 954 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 4.8 years, 45.8% women were recruited to establish the reference values. Performance of spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded

  13. Does robot-assisted gait rehabilitation improve balance in stroke patients? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Beckwée, David; Meeusen, Romain; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the improvements in balance after robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) in stroke patients. Two databases were searched: PubMed and Web of Knowledge. The most important key words are "stroke," "RAGT," "balance," "Lokomat," and "gait trainer." Studies were included if stroke patients were involved in RAGT protocols, and balance was determined as an outcome measurement. The articles were checked for methodological quality by 2 reviewers (Cohen's κ = 0.72). Nine studies were included (7 true experimental and 2 pre-experimental studies; methodological quality score, 56%-81%). In total, 229 subacute or chronic stroke patients (70.5% male) were involved in RAGT (3 to 5 times per week, 3 to 10 weeks, 12 to 25 sessions). In 5 studies, the gait trainer was used; in 2, the Lokomat was used; in 1 study, a single-joint wearable knee orthosis was used; and in 1 study, the AutoAmbulator was used. Eight studies compared RAGT with other gait rehabilitation methods. Significant improvements (no to large effect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.01 to 3.01) in balance scores measured with the Berg Balance Scale, the Tinetti test, postural sway tests, and the Timed Up and Go test were found after RAGT. No significant differences in balance between the intervention and control groups were reported. RAGT can lead to improvements in balance in stroke patients; however, it is not clear whether the improvements are greater compared with those associated with other gait rehabilitation methods. Because a limited number of studies are available, more specific research (eg, randomized controlled trials with larger, specific populations) is necessary to draw stronger conclusions.

  14. Gait speed as a measure of functional status in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpman C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Craig Karpman, Roberto Benzo Mindful Breathing Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a disease associated with dyspnea, fatigue, and exercise intolerance. The degree of functional debility and level of exercise capacity greatly influences quality of life and mortality in patients with COPD, and the measures of exercise capacity are to be an integral part of patient assessment but often not feasible in routine daily practice, resulting in likely suboptimal care. There is a need for simple ways to identify functional decline in the clinical setting in order to guide resources to preventive interventions or proper care, including palliative care. Gait speed, or measuring how long it takes for a patient to walk a short distance, takes very little time and space, and can serve as a candidate measure of physical function in COPD. Gait speed has been shown to be an indicator of disability, health care utilization, and survival in older adults. It is a simple, reliable, and feasible measure to perform in the clinic and has been promoted as the next vital sign, providing insight into patients' functional capacity. Gait speed is mainly determined by exercise capacity but reflects global well-being as it captures many of the multisystemic effects of disease severity in COPD rather than pulmonary impairment alone. It is an excellent screening measure for exercise capacity and frailty; in COPD, the usual gait speed (4-m course with rolling start has been very accurate in identifying clinically relevant benchmarks of the 6-minute walk test, poor (<350 m and very poor (<200 m 6-minute walk test distances. A specific cut-off point of 0.8 m⋅s-1 had a positive predictive value of 69% and negative predictive value of 98% in predicting very poor exercise capacity. The increasing evidence on gait speed is promising as a simple test that can inform the

  15. Effects of Novel Guidance Tubing Gait on Electromyographic Neuromuscular Imbalance and Joint Angular Kinematics During Locomotion in Hemiparetic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong J; You, Joshua Sung H

    2017-12-01

    To compare the immediate effects of conventional treadmill gait and guidance tubing gait (GTG) on electromyographic neuromuscular imbalance and knee joint kinematics in hemiparetic gait. Case-control study. University medical center. Participants (N=33; 19 men, 14 women) were patients with hemiparetic stroke (n=18 [experimental]; mean age ± SD, 39.2±16.8y) and healthy controls (n=15; mean age ± SD, 26.3±2.6y). The GTG was provided for approximately 30 minutes and involved application of an assistive guidance force using the tubing, specifically to improve knee joint stabilization during midstance and increase knee joint flexion during midswing phase. Clinical tests included the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination, Modified Ashworth Scale, Berg Balance Scale, manual muscle test, and knee joint range of motion and sensory tests. Knee joint muscle electromyographic and kinematic analyses were determined at pretest and posttest. After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly greater improvements in balanced quadriceps and hamstring electromyographic coactivation and knee joint kinematics relative to the control group (P=.005). The GTG intervention decreased overactive hamstring activity (P=.018) and reciprocally increased quadriceps activity (Pjoint kinematic analysis showed significant changes in the hemiparetic stroke group (P=.004). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the tubing gait condition to restore knee joint muscle imbalance and kinematics in individuals with hemiparetic stroke who present with an abnormal hyperextension knee gait. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effectiveness of body weight-supported gait training and floor walking in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Tarkka, Ina M; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani

    2005-08-01

    To compare body weight-supported exercise on a gait trainer with walking exercise overground. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation hospital. Forty-five ambulatory patients with chronic stroke. Patients were randomized to 3 groups: (1) gait trainer exercise with functional electric stimulation (GTstim), (2) gait trainer exercise without stimulation (GT), and (3) walking overground (WALK). All patients practiced gait for 15 sessions during 3 weeks (each session, 20 min), and they received additional physiotherapy 55 minutes daily. Ten-meter walk test (10MWT), six-minute walk test (6MWT), lower-limb spasticity and muscle force, postural sway tests, Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), and FIM instrument scores were recorded before, during, and after the rehabilitation and at 6 months follow-up. The mean walking distance using the gait trainer was 6900+/-1200 m in the GTstim group and 6500+/-1700 m in GT group. In the WALK group, the distance was 4800+/-2800 m, which was less than the walking distance obtained in the GTstim group (P=.027). The body-weight support was individually reduced from 30% to 9% of the body weight over the course of the program. In the pooled 45 patients, the 10MWT (Pgait after the intensive rehabilitation program. Patients' motor performance remained improved at the follow-up.

  17. The Influence of Video Game Training with and without Subpatelar Bandage in Mobility and Gait Speed on Elderly Female Fallers

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    Isabela Feitosa de Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of balance training with Nintendo Wii technology, with and without the use of additional sensory information (subpatellar bandage, in the functional mobility and gait speed of elderly female fallers. Methods. Twenty elderly women were divided into two groups: group I: trained with the use of the Nintendo Wii; group II: trained using the Nintendo Wii and the addition of sensory information (subpatellar bandage. The functional mobility was assessed with the Timed up and Go test (TUG and gait speed with the 10 m test. The tests were carried out with and without the use of the subpatellar bandage. The training was carried out within sessions of 30 minutes, twice a week, using three different games (Penguin Slide, Table Tilt, and Tightrope. Results. There was an increase in the gait speed and a decrease in the TUG time in both groups, independently of the sensory condition used (p<0.05. In the short term, the subpatellar bandage improved the TUG time (p<0.05 and the gait speed (p<0.01. Conclusion. The training for postural balance with virtual reality was effective for improving functional mobility and gait speed of elderly female fallers. The subpatellar bandage did not maximize the effect of training.

  18. The Influence of Video Game Training with and without Subpatelar Bandage in Mobility and Gait Speed on Elderly Female Fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabela Feitosa; Leme, Gianluca Loyolla Montanari; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of balance training with Nintendo Wii technology, with and without the use of additional sensory information (subpatellar bandage), in the functional mobility and gait speed of elderly female fallers. Twenty elderly women were divided into two groups: group I: trained with the use of the Nintendo Wii; group II: trained using the Nintendo Wii and the addition of sensory information (subpatellar bandage). The functional mobility was assessed with the Timed up and Go test (TUG) and gait speed with the 10 m test. The tests were carried out with and without the use of the subpatellar bandage. The training was carried out within sessions of 30 minutes, twice a week, using three different games ( Penguin Slide , Table Tilt , and Tightrope ). There was an increase in the gait speed and a decrease in the TUG time in both groups, independently of the sensory condition used ( p < 0.05). In the short term, the subpatellar bandage improved the TUG time ( p < 0.05) and the gait speed ( p < 0.01). The training for postural balance with virtual reality was effective for improving functional mobility and gait speed of elderly female fallers. The subpatellar bandage did not maximize the effect of training.

  19. Hardware Development and Locomotion Control Strategy for an Over-Ground Gait Trainer: NaTUre-Gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trieu Phat; Low, Kin Huat; Qu, Xingda; Lim, Hup Boon; Hoon, Kay Hiang

    2014-01-01

    Therapist-assisted body weight supported (TABWS) gait rehabilitation was introduced two decades ago. The benefit of TABWS in functional recovery of walking in spinal cord injury and stroke patients has been demonstrated and reported. However, shortage of therapists, labor-intensiveness, and short duration of training are some limitations of this approach. To overcome these deficiencies, robotic-assisted gait rehabilitation systems have been suggested. These systems have gained attentions from researchers and clinical practitioner in recent years. To achieve the same objective, an over-ground gait rehabilitation system, NaTUre-gaits, was developed at the Nanyang Technological University. The design was based on a clinical approach to provide four main features, which are pelvic motion, body weight support, over-ground walking experience, and lower limb assistance. These features can be achieved by three main modules of NaTUre-gaits: 1) pelvic assistance mechanism, mobile platform, and robotic orthosis. Predefined gait patterns are required for a robotic assisted system to follow. In this paper, the gait pattern planning for NaTUre-gaits was accomplished by an individual-specific gait pattern prediction model. The model generates gait patterns that resemble natural gait patterns of the targeted subjects. The features of NaTUre-gaits have been demonstrated by walking trials with several subjects. The trials have been evaluated by therapists and doctors. The results show that 10-m walking trial with a reduction in manpower. The task-specific repetitive training approach and natural walking gait patterns were also successfully achieved.

  20. Treatment of Gait Ignition Failure with Ropinirole

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    Alexis N. Cohen-Oram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gait ignition failure (GIF is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient’s GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists.

  1. Neglected Alkaptonuric Patient Presenting with Steppage Gait

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    Babak Mirzashahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though intervertebral disc degeneration can be found in the natural course of alkaptonuria, detection of the disease by black disc color change in a patient without any other presentation of alkaptonuria is an exceptionally rare condition. We have reported a very rare case of alkaptonuria presented with low back pain and steppage gait in a 51-year-old male with a complaint of chronic low-back pain and steppage gait who was operated on for prolapsed lumbar disc herniation. Intraoperatively his lumbar disk was discovered to be black. The alkaptonuria diagnosis was considered after histopathological examination of the black disc material and elevated urinary concentration of homogentisic acid confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this presentation has not been reported previously in literature.

  2. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Læssøe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12...... months post-operatively following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture are different compared with a healthy reference population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post......-operatively measured with a 6-metre-long pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. RESULTS: 49 patients were included with a mean age of 43.1 years (18...

  3. Plantar pressure during gait in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background: During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Methods: Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpa...

  4. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved significantly in the CGT and GTBWS groups. Walking speed also improved significantly in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the GTBWS in company with CGT may be, in part, an effective method of gait training for restoring gait ability in patients after a stroke.

  5. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength mediate the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-01-01

    Reduced ability to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be an important reason why older adults have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to identify cognitive, psychological and physical mediators of the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older adults. Fifty healthy older adults (mean±SD: 74±7years) were categorised as high or low fall risk, based on past falls and their performance in the Physiological Profile Assessment. High and low-risk groups were then compared in the gait adaptability test, i.e. an assessment of the ability to adapt gait in response to obstacles and stepping targets under single and dual task conditions. Quadriceps strength, concern about falling and executive function were also measured. The older adults who made errors on the gait adaptability test were 4.76 (95%CI=1.08-20.91) times more likely to be at high risk of falling. Furthermore, each standard deviation reduction in gait speed while approaching the targets/obstacle increased the odds of being at high risk of falling approximately three fold: single task - OR=3.10,95%CI=1.43-6.73; dual task - 3.42,95%CI=1.56-7.52. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength substantially mediated the relationship between the gait adaptability measures and fall risk status. Impaired gait adaptability is associated with high risk of falls in older adults. Reduced executive function, increased concern about falling and weaker quadriceps strength contribute significantly to this relationship. Training gait adaptability directly, as well as addressing the above mediators through cognitive, behavioural and physical training may maximise fall prevention efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Moving from laboratory to real life conditions: Influence on the assessment of variability and stability of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Paola; Storm, Fabio; Buckley, Chris; Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita; Mazzà, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The availability of wearable sensors allows shifting gait analysis from the traditional laboratory settings, to daily life conditions. However, limited knowledge is available about whether alterations associated to different testing environment (e.g. indoor or outdoor) and walking protocols (e.g. free or controlled), result from actual differences in the motor behaviour of the tested subjects or from the sensitivity to these changes of the indexes adopted for the assessment. In this context, it was hypothesized that testing environment and walking protocols would not modify motor control stability in the gait of young healthy adults, who have a mature and structured gait pattern, but rather the variability of their motor pattern. To test this hypothesis, data from trunk and shank inertial sensors were collected from 19 young healthy participants during four walking tasks in different environments (indoor and outdoor) and in both controlled (i.e. following a predefined straight path) and free conditions. Results confirmed what hypothesized: variability indexes (Standard deviation, Coefficient of variation and Poincaré plots) were significantly influenced by both environment and walking conditions. Stability indexes (Harmonic ratio, Short term Lyapunov exponents, Recurrence quantification analysis and Sample entropy), on the contrary, did not highlight any change in the motor control. In conclusion, this study highlighted an influence of environment and testing condition on the assessment of specific characteristics of gait (i.e. variability and stability). In particular, for young healthy adults, both environment and testing conditions affect gait variability indexes, whereas neither affect gait stability indexes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  8. Gait Correlation Analysis Based Human Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait identification aims to identify people by a sequence of walking images. Comparing with fingerprint or iris based identification, the most important advantage of gait identification is that it can be done at a distance. In this paper, silhouette correlation analysis based human identification approach is proposed. By background subtracting algorithm, the moving silhouette figure can be extracted from the walking images sequence. Every pixel in the silhouette has three dimensions: horizontal axis (x, vertical axis (y, and temporal axis (t. By moving every pixel in the silhouette image along these three dimensions, we can get a new silhouette. The correlation result between the original silhouette and the new one can be used as the raw feature of human gait. Discrete Fourier transform is used to extract features from this correlation result. Then, these features are normalized to minimize the affection of noise. Primary component analysis method is used to reduce the features’ dimensions. Experiment based on CASIA database shows that this method has an encouraging recognition performance.

  9. Evaluating alternative gait strategies using evolutionary robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, William I; Dennis, Louise A; W -J, Wang; Crompton, Robin H

    2004-05-01

    Evolutionary robotics is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with the automatic generation of autonomous robots. Usually the form of the robot is predefined and various computational techniques are used to control the machine's behaviour. One aspect is the spontaneous generation of walking in legged robots and this can be used to investigate the mechanical requirements for efficient walking in bipeds. This paper demonstrates a bipedal simulator that spontaneously generates walking and running gaits. The model can be customized to represent a range of hominoid morphologies and used to predict performance parameters such as preferred speed and metabolic energy cost. Because it does not require any motion capture data it is particularly suitable for investigating locomotion in fossil animals. The predictions for modern humans are highly accurate in terms of energy cost for a given speed and thus the values predicted for other bipeds are likely to be good estimates. To illustrate this the cost of transport is calculated for Australopithecus afarensis. The model allows the degree of maximum extension at the knee to be varied causing the model to adopt walking gaits varying from chimpanzee-like to human-like. The energy costs associated with these gait choices can thus be calculated and this information used to evaluate possible locomotor strategies in early hominids.

  10. Office management of gait disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Robert

    2011-07-01

    To provide family physicians with an approach to office management of gait disorders in the elderly. Ovid MEDLINE was searched from 1950 to July 2010 using subject headings for gait or neurologic gait disorders combined with physical examination. Articles specific to family practice or family physicians were selected. Relevant review articles and original research were used when appropriate and applicable to the elderly. Gait and balance disorders in the elderly are difficult to recognize and diagnose in the family practice setting because they initially present with subtle undifferentiated manifestations, and because causes are usually multifactorial, with multiple diseases developing simultaneously. To further complicate the issue, these manifestations can be camouflaged in elderly patients by the physiologic changes associated with normal aging. A classification of gait disorders based on sensorimotor levels can be useful in the approach to management of this problem. Gait disorders in patients presenting to family physicians in the primary care setting are often related to joint and skeletal problems (lowest-level disturbances), as opposed to patients referred to neurology specialty clinics with sensory ataxia, myelopathy, multiple strokes, and parkinsonism (lowest-, middle-, and highest-level disturbances). The difficulty in diagnosing gait disorders stems from the challenge of addressing early undifferentiated disease caused by multiple disease processes involving all sensorimotor levels. Patients might present with a nonspecific "cautious" gait that is simply an adaptation of the body to disease limitations. This cautious gait has a mildly flexed posture with reduced arm swing and a broadening of the base of support. This article reviews the focused history (including medication review), practical physical examination, investigations, and treatments that are key to office management of gait disorders. Family physicians will find it helpful to classify gait

  11. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.

    2018-01-01

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510

  12. The Role of Proprioception in the Sagittal Setting of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments During Gait Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Marcelo P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Previous studies have studied the role of proprioception on the setting of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA during gait initiation. However, these studies did not investigate the role of proprioception in the sagittal APA setting. We aimed to investigate the role of proprioception manipulation to induce APA sagittal adaptations on gait initiation. Methods. Fourteen healthy adults performed gait initiation without, and with, vibration applied before movement onset, and during movement. In addition, the effects of two different vibration frequencies (80 and 120Hz were tested. Vibration was applied bilaterally on the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris and trapezius superior. The first step characteristics, ground reaction forces and CoP behaviour were assessed. Results. Vibration improved gait initiation performance regardless of the moment it was applied. CoP velocity during the initial phase of APA was increased by vibration only when it was applied before movement. When vibration was applied to disturb the movement, no effects on the CoP behaviour were observed. Manipulation of vibration frequency had no effects. Conclusions. Rather than proprioception manipulation, the results suggest that post-vibratory effects and attentional mechanisms were responsible for our results. Taken together, the results show that sagittal APA setting is robust to proprioception manipulation.

  13. Video Analysis of Human Gait and Posture to Determine Neurological Disorders

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    Ivan Lee

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of digital image processing techniques to the detection of neurological disorder. Visual information extracted from the postures and movements of a human gait cycle can be used by an experienced neurologist to determine the mental health of the person. However, the current visual assessment of diagnosing neurological disorder is based very much on subjective observation, and hence the accuracy of diagnosis heavily relies on experience. Other diagnostic techniques employed involve the use of imaging systems which can only be operated under highly constructed environment. A prototype has been developed in this work that is able to capture the subject's gait on video in a relatively simple setup, and from which to process the selected frames of the gait in a computer. Based on the static visual features such as swing distances and joint angles of human limbs, the system identifies patients with Parkinsonism from the test subjects. To our knowledge, it is the first time swing distances are utilized and identified as an effective means for characterizing human gait. The experimental results have shown a promising potential in medical application to assist the clinicians in diagnosing Parkinsonism.

  14. Gender differences in gait kinematics in runners with iliotibial band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinyomark, A; Osis, S; Hettinga, B A; Leigh, R; Ferber, R

    2015-12-01

    Atypical running gait biomechanics are considered a primary factor in the etiology of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). However, a general consensus on the underpinning kinematic differences between runners with and without ITBS is yet to be reached. This lack of consensus may be due in part to three issues: gender differences in gait mechanics, the preselection of discrete biomechanical variables, and/or relatively small sample sizes. Therefore, this study was designed to address two purposes: (a) examining differences in gait kinematics for male and female runners experiencing ITBS at the time of testing and (b) assessing differences in gait kinematics between healthy gender- and age-matched runners as compared with their ITBS counterparts using waveform analysis. Ninety-six runners participated in this study: 48 ITBS and 48 healthy runners. The results show that female ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater hip external rotation compared with male ITBS and female healthy runners. On the contrary, male ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater ankle internal rotation compared with healthy males. These results suggest that care should be taken to account for gender when investigating the biomechanical etiology of ITBS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Improving Sensitivity to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment: Cognitive Load Dual-Task Gait Speed Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca K; Wagner, Mark T; Szeles, Dana; Milano, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints. Sixty-one patients with a mean age of 68 years underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical interview, and gait speed (simple- and dual-task conditions) assessments. Thirty-four of the 61 patients met criteria for MCI. Repeated measure analyses of covariance revealed that greater age and MCI both significantly associated with slower gait speed, pscognitive dual task within a clinically representative population. Cognitive load dual-task gait assessment may provide a cost efficient and sensitive measure to detect older adults at high risk of a dementia disorder. (JINS, 2017, 23, 493-501).

  16. Improved ankle push-off power following cheilectomy for hallux rigidus: a prospective gait analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheryl M; Coleman, Scott C; Bacon, Stacy A; Polo, Fabian E; Brodsky, James W

    2012-06-01

    There is limited objective scientific information on the functional effects of cheilectomy. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that cheilectomy for hallux rigidus improves gait by increasing ankle push-off power. Seventeen patients with symptomatic Stage 1 or Stage 2 hallux rigidus were studied. Pre- and postoperative first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) range of motion and AOFAS hallux scores were recorded. A gait analysis was performed within 4 weeks prior to surgery and repeated at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Gait analysis was done using a three-dimensional motion capture system and a force platform embedded in a 10-m walkway. Gait velocity sagittal plane ankle range of motion and peak sagittal plane ankle push-off power were analyzed. Following cheilectomy, significant increases were noted for first MTP range of motion and AOFAS hallux score. First MTP motion improved an average of 16.7 degrees, from means of 33.9 degrees preoperatively to 50.6 degrees postoperatively (ppush-off power from 1.71±0.92 W/kg to 2.05±0.75 W/kg (ppush-off power.

  17. Kinematics and kinetics of gait on stilts: identification of risk factors associated with construction stilt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Sharon S; Pan, Christopher S; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated kinematics and kinetic strategies and identified risk factors associated with gait on stilts. A six-camera motion-analysis system and two force platforms were used to test 20 construction workers for straight walking or turning, with or without carrying tools while wearing safety shoes or stilts at different heights. The results indicated that gait on stilts is characterised by increases in stride length, step width and the percentage of double support period, decreases in cadence, minimum foot clearance and a weaker heel-strike and push-off. Stilts place greater joint loadings on lower extremities to compensate for the added weight and limitation in joint mobility. Smaller foot clearances found for gait on stilts constitute an increased risk for tripping over obstacles. Workers may need to avoid prolonged use of stilts to alleviate stresses on the joints. This study was conducted to determine to what extent stilts alter the gait strategies and to explain the compensatory movements. Prior to this study, there has been little substantive research to evaluate the stresses and potential injuries associated with stilts.

  18. Influence of moderate training on gait and work capacity of fibromyalgia patients: a preliminary field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiidus, Peter M; Pierrynowski, Michael; Dawson, Kimberley A

    2002-12-01

    This field study examined the influence of moderate intensity training on gait patterns and work capacity of individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS). FS is a chronic condition of unknown etiology, characterized by muscle tenderness, pain and stiffness and often accompanied by depression and fatigue which seems to occur primarily in middle aged females. There is no known cure for FS but treatment often includes a prescription of mild exercise. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mild exercise on work capacity and gait patterns in FS patients. Participants were 14 females (age 47.0 ± 7.6 y) who participated in a 10 wk community based aerobic, strength and stretching program designed for FS individuals. Subjects were evaluated pre- and post-program and at a 2 month follow up. Work capacity was estimated by a sub-maximal PWC 170 cycle ergometer test and a Borg perceived exertion scale. Gait was assessed using OptoTrack three dimensional kinematics with 16 channel analogue data acquisition system. Trunk flexibility was also assessed. No significant change in estimated work capacity or flexibility was seen between pre- post- and follow up times. Nevertheless, a significant increase in self selected walking speed (p gait pattern that was sustained in the follow up testing was noted. We had previously also reported a significant improvement in muscle pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms in this population consequent to the training program. It was concluded that mild exercise training that does not influence work capacity or trunk flexibility can nevertheless positively influence gait mechanics and fibromyalgia symptoms in female FS patients.

  19. Effect of three cueing devices for people with Parkinson's disease with gait initiation difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Paula J; Evans, Brenda J; Janssen, Jessie; Selfe, James; Churchill, Andrew; Richards, Jim

    2016-02-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) remains one of the most common debilitating aspects of Parkinson's disease and has been linked to injuries, falls and reduced quality of life. Although commercially available portable cueing devices exist claiming to assist with overcoming freezing; their immediate effectiveness in overcoming gait initiation failure is currently unknown. This study investigated the effects of three different types of cueing device in people with Parkinson's disease who experience freezing. Twenty participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who experienced freezing during gait but who were able to walk short distances indoors independently were recruited. At least three attempts at gait initiation were recorded using a 10 camera Qualisys motion analysis system and four force platforms. Test conditions were; Laser Cane, sound metronome, vibrating metronome, walking stick and no intervention. During testing 12 of the 20 participants had freezing episodes, from these participants 100 freezing and 91 non-freezing trials were recorded. Clear differences in the movement patterns were seen between freezing and non-freezing episodes. The Laser Cane was most effective cueing device at improving the forwards/backwards and side to side movement and had the least number of freezing episodes. The walking stick also showed significant improvements compared to the other conditions. The vibration metronome appeared to disrupt movement compared to the sound metronome at the same beat frequency. This study identified differences in the movement patterns between freezing episodes and non-freezing episodes, and identified immediate improvements during gait initiation when using the Laser Cane over the other interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. INFLUENCE OF MODERATE TRAINING ON GAIT AND WORK CAPACITY OF FIBROMYALGIA PATIENTS: A PRELIMINARY FIELD STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pierrynowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This field study examined the influence of moderate intensity training on gait patterns and work capacity of individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS. FS is a chronic condition of unknown etiology, characterized by muscle tenderness, pain and stiffness and often accompanied by depression and fatigue which seems to occur primarily in middle aged females. There is no known cure for FS but treatment often includes a prescription of mild exercise. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mild exercise on work capacity and gait patterns in FS patients. Participants were 14 females (age 47.0± 7.6 y who participated in a 10 wk community based aerobic, strength and stretching program designed for FS individuals. Subjects were evaluated pre- and post-program and at a 2 month follow up. Work capacity was estimated by a sub-maximal PWC 170 cycle ergometer test and a Borg perceived exertion scale. Gait was assessed using OptoTrack three dimensional kinematics with 16 channel analogue data acquisition system. Trunk flexibility was also assessed. No significant change in estimated work capacity or flexibility was seen between pre- post- and follow up times. Nevertheless, a significant increase in self selected walking speed (p < 0.05 and a trend toward a more normal gait pattern that was sustained in the follow up testing was noted. We had previously also reported a significant improvement in muscle pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms in this population consequent to the training program. It was concluded that mild exercise training that does not influence work capacity or trunk flexibility can nevertheless positively influence gait mechanics and fibromyalgia symptoms in female FS patients

  1. Differential effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation and neurodevelopmental treatment/Bobath on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi E; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait patterns in comparison with changes after neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT/Bobath) in adults with cerebral palsy. A repeated-measures analysis between the pretreatment and posttreatment tests and a comparison study between groups. Human gait analysis laboratory. Twenty-eight cerebral palsy patients with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to either neurodevelopmental treatment (n = 13) or rhythmic auditory stimulation (n = 15). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment was performed three sessions per week for three weeks. Temporal and kinematic data were analysed before and after the intervention. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard, while neurodevelopmental treatment was implemented following the traditional method. Temporal data, kinematic parameters and gait deviation index as a measure of overall gait pathology were assessed. Temporal gait measures revealed that rhythmic auditory stimulation significantly increased cadence, walking velocity, stride length, and step length (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation showed aggravated maximal internal rotation in the transverse plane (P rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment elicited differential effects on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy.

  2. Acute and Chronic Effect of Acoustic and Visual Cues on Gait Training in Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Icco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this randomized controlled study we analyse and compare the acute and chronic effects of visual and acoustic cues on gait performance in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. We enrolled 46 patients with idiopathic PD who were assigned to 3 different modalities of gait training: (1 use of acoustic cues, (2 use of visual cues, or (3 overground training without cues. All patients were tested with kinematic analysis of gait at baseline (T0, at the end of the 4-week rehabilitation programme (T1, and 3 months later (T2. Regarding the acute effect, acoustic cues increased stride length and stride duration, while visual cues reduced the number of strides and normalized the stride/stance distribution but also reduced gait speed. As regards the chronic effect of cues, we recorded an improvement in some gait parameters in all 3 groups of patients: all 3 types of training improved gait speed; visual cues also normalized the stance/swing ratio, acoustic cues reduced the number of strides and increased stride length, and overground training improved stride length. The changes were not retained at T2 in any of the experimental groups. Our findings support and characterize the usefulness of cueing strategies in the rehabilitation of gait in PD.

  3. Vision-based gait impairment analysis for aided diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Javier; Herrero-Ezquerro, María Trinidad; Mollineda, Ramón A

    2018-02-12

    Gait is a firsthand reflection of health condition. This belief has inspired recent research efforts to automate the analysis of pathological gait, in order to assist physicians in decision-making. However, most of these efforts rely on gait descriptions which are difficult to understand by humans, or on sensing technologies hardly available in ambulatory services. This paper proposes a number of semantic and normalized gait features computed from a single video acquired by a low-cost sensor. Far from being conventional spatio-temporal descriptors, features are aimed at quantifying gait impairment, such as gait asymmetry from several perspectives or falling risk. They were designed to be invariant to frame rate and image size, allowing cross-platform comparisons. Experiments were formulated in terms of two databases. A well-known general-purpose gait dataset is used to establish normal references for features, while a new database, introduced in this work, provides samples under eight different walking styles: one normal and seven impaired patterns. A number of statistical studies were carried out to prove the sensitivity of features at measuring the expected pathologies, providing enough evidence about their accuracy. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract reflecting main contributions of the manuscript: at the top, a robust, semantic and easy-to-interpret feature set to describe impaired gait patterns; at the bottom, a new dataset consisting of video-recordings of a number of volunteers simulating different patterns of pathological gait, where features were statistically assessed.

  4. Hybrid gait training with an overground robot for people with incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J del-Ama

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor training has proved to provide beneficial effect in terms of mobility in incomplete paraplegic patients. Neuroprosthetic technology can contribute to increase the efficacy of a training paradigm in the promotion of a locomotor pattern. Robotic exoskeletons can be used to manage the unavoidable loss of performance of artificially-driven muscles. Hybrid exoskeletons blend complementary robotic and neuro-prosthetic technologies. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hybrid gait training in three case studies with persons with incomplete spinal cord injury in terms of locomotion performance during assisted gait, patient-robot adaptations, impact on ambulation and assessment of lower limb muscle strength and spasticity. Participants with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (SCI received interventions with a hybrid bilateral exoskeleton for 4 days. Assessment of gait function revealed that patients improved the 6 minutes and 10 meters walking tests after the intervention, and further improvements were observed one week after the intervention. Muscle examination revealed improvements in knee and hip sagittal muscle balance scores and decreased score in ankle extensor balance. It is concluded that improvements in biomechanical function of the knee joint after the tested overground hybrid gait trainer are coherent with improvements in gait performance.

  5. Hybrid gait training with an overground robot for people with incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ama, Antonio J; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Pons, José L; Moreno, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor training has proved to provide beneficial effect in terms of mobility in incomplete paraplegic patients. Neuroprosthetic technology can contribute to increase the efficacy of a training paradigm in the promotion of a locomotor pattern. Robotic exoskeletons can be used to manage the unavoidable loss of performance of artificially driven muscles. Hybrid exoskeletons blend complementary robotic and neuro-prosthetic technologies. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hybrid gait training in three case studies with persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in terms of locomotion performance during assisted gait, patient-robot adaptations, impact on ambulation and assessment of lower limb muscle strength and spasticity. Participants with iSCI received interventions with a hybrid bilateral exoskeleton for 4 days. Assessment of gait function revealed that patients improved the 6 min and 10 m walking tests after the intervention, and further improvements were observed 1 week after the intervention. Muscle examination revealed improvements in knee and hip sagittal muscle balance scores and decreased score in ankle extensor balance. It is concluded that improvements in biomechanical function of the knee joint after the tested overground hybrid gait trainer are coherent with improvements in gait performance.

  6. The effects of gait training with body weight support (BWS) with no body weight support (no-BWS) in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Asad; Shafi, Hina; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the clinical outcomes for patients with stroke after gait training with body weight support (BWS) and with no body weight support (no-BWS).Experimental group was trained to walk by a BWS system with overhead harness (BWS group), and Control group was trained with full weight bearing walk on their lower extremities. Treatment session comprised of six weeks training. Treatment outcomes were assessed on the basis of Timed 10 Meter Walk Test, Timed Get Up and Go Test and Dynamic Gait Index. There was a significant (PTraining of gait in stroke patients while a percentage of their body weight supported by a harness, resulted in better walking abilities than the Training of gait while full weight was placed on patient's lower extremities.

  7. Self-perceived gait stability modulates the effect of daily life gait quality on prospective falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M

    2018-05-01

    Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults. In this prospective cohort study, we used one-week daily-life trunk acceleration data of 272 adults over 65 years of age. Sample entropy (SE) of the 3D acceleration signals was calculated to quantify daily life gait quality. To quantify perceived gait stability, the level of concern about falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale international (FES-I) questionnaire and step length, estimated from the accelerometer data. A fall calendar was used to record fall incidence during a six-month follow up period. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between falling and SE, step length or FES-I score, and their interactions. High (i.e., poor) SE in vertical direction was significantly associated with falling. FES-I scores significantly modulated this association, whereas step length did not. Subgroup analyses based on FES-I scores showed that high SE in the vertical direction was a risk factor for falls only in older adults who had a high (i.e. poor) FES-I score. In conclusion, perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falls in older adults such that an association between gait quality and falling is only present when perceived gait stability is poor. The results of the present study indicate that the effectiveness of interventions for fall prevention, aimed at improving gait quality, may be affected by a modulating effect of perceived gait stability. Results indicate that interventions to reduce falls in older adults might sort most effectiveness in populations with both a poor physiological and psychological status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between premature plantarflexor muscle activity, muscle strength, and equinus gait in patients with various pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Katrin; Romkes, Jacqueline; Brunner, Reinald

    2013-09-01

    This study provides an overview on the association between premature plantarflexor muscle activity (PPF), muscle strength, and equinus gait in patients with various pathologies. The purpose was to evaluate whether muscular weakness and biomechanical alterations are aetiological factors for PPF during walking, independent of the underlying pathology. In a retrospective design, 716 patients from our clinical database with 46 different pathologies (orthopaedic and neurologic) were evaluated. Gait analysis data of the patients included kinematics, kinetics, electromyographic activity (EMG) data, and manual muscle strength testing. All patients were clustered three times. First, patients were grouped according to their primary pathology. Second, all patients were again clustered, this time according to their impaired joints. Third, groups of patients with normal EMG or PPF, and equinus or normal foot contact were formed to evaluate the association between PPF and equinus gait. The patient groups derived by the first two cluster methods were further subdivided into patients with normal or reduced muscle strength. Additionally, the phi correlation coefficient was calculated between PPF and equinus gait. Independent of the clustering, PPF was present in all patient groups. Weak patients revealed PPF more frequently. The correlations of PPF and equinus gait were lower than expected, due to patients with normal EMG during loading response and equinus. These patients, however, showed higher gastrocnemius activity prior to foot strike together with lower peak tibialis anterior muscle activity in loading response. Patients with PPF and a normal foot contact possibly apply the plantarflexion-knee extension couple during loading response. While increased gastrocnemius activity around foot strike seems essential for equinus gait, premature gastrocnemius activity does not necessarily produce an equinus gait. We conclude that premature gastrocnemius activity is strongly associated

  9. Different instructions during the ten-meter walking test determined significant increases in maximum gait speed in individuals with chronic hemiparesis Diferentes instruções durante teste de velocidade de marcha determinam aumento significativo na velocidade máxima de indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Nascimento

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different instructions for the assessment of maximum walking speed during the ten-meter walking test with chronic stroke subjects. METHODS: Participants were instructed to walk under four experimental conditions: (1 comfortable speed, (2 maximum speed (simple verbal command, (3 maximum speed (modified verbal command-"catch a bus" and (4 maximum speed (verbal command + demonstration. Participants walked three times in each condition and the mean time to cover the intermediate 10 meters of a 14-meter corridor was registered to calculate the gait speed (m/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, followed by planned contrasts, were employed to investigate differences between the conditions (α=5%. Means, standard deviations and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. RESULTS: The mean values for the four conditions were: (1 0.74m/s; (2 0.85 m/s; (3 0.93 m/s; (4 0.92 m/s, respectively, with significant differences between the conditions (F=40.9; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes instruções para avaliação da velocidade de marcha máxima de indivíduos hemiparéticos durante o teste de caminhada de 10 metros. MÉTODOS: Os indivíduos deambularam em quatro condições experimentais: (1 velocidade habitual, (2 velocidade máxima (comando verbal simples, (3 velocidade máxima (comando verbal modificado: pegar ônibus, (4 velocidade máxima (comando verbal + demonstração. Solicitou-se a cada participante que deambulasse três vezes em cada condição, e a média do tempo necessário para percorrer os 10 metros intermediários de um corredor de 14 metros foi utilizada para cálculo da velocidade (m/s. A ANOVA de medidas repetidas, com contrastes pré-planejados, foi utilizada para comparação dos dados (α=5%, sendo apresentados valores de média, desvio-padrão e intervalos de confiança (IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: As médias de velocidade para as quatro condições foram: (1 0,74m/s; (2 0,85m/s; (3 0,93m/s; (4

  10. Cross-view gait recognition using joint Bayesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Sun, Shouqian; Chen, Xiaoyu; Min, Xin

    2017-07-01

    Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people by walking. To further improve the recognition performance under cross-view condition, we propose Joint Bayesian to model the view variance. We evaluated our prosed method with the largest population (OULP) dataset which makes our result reliable in a statically way. As a result, we confirmed our proposed method significantly outperformed state-of-the-art approaches for both identification and verification tasks. Finally, sensitivity analysis on the number of training subjects was conducted, we find Joint Bayesian could achieve competitive results even with a small subset of training subjects (100 subjects). For further comparison, experimental results, learning models, and test codes are available.

  11. Development of gait segmentation methods for wearable foot pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, S; De Rossi, S M M; Donati, M; Reberšek, P; Novak, D; Vitiello, N; Lenzi, T; Podobnik, J; Munih, M; Carrozza, M C

    2012-01-01

    We present an automated segmentation method based on the analysis of plantar pressure signals recorded from two synchronized wireless foot insoles. Given the strict limits on computational power and power consumption typical of wearable electronic components, our aim is to investigate the capability of a Hidden Markov Model machine-learning method, to detect gait phases with different levels of complexity in the processing of the wearable pressure sensors signals. Therefore three different datasets are developed: raw voltage values, calibrated sensor signals and a calibrated estimation of total ground reaction force and position of the plantar center of pressure. The method is tested on a pool of 5 healthy subjects, through a leave-one-out cross validation. The results show high classification performances achieved using estimated biomechanical variables, being on average the 96%. Calibrated signals and raw voltage values show higher delays and dispersions in phase transition detection, suggesting a lower reliability for online applications.

  12. Effects of Indoor Footwear on Balance and Gait Patterns in Community-Dwelling Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-01-01

    Footwear worn indoors is generally less supportive than outdoor footwear and may increase the risk of falls. To evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing different styles of indoor footwear: a backless slipper and an enclosed slipper designed to optimise balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65-83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway, limits of stability, and tandem walking, measured with the NeuroCom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, and step length, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (1) socks, (2) backless slippers with a soft sole, and (3) enclosed slippers with a firm sole and Velcro® fastening. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. Significant overall effects of footwear were observed for postural sway, the limits of stability test (directional control), the tandem walk test (step width and end sway), and temporospatial gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, and step length). No footwear effects were observed for maximum excursion when performing the limits of stability test or for speed when performing the tandem walk test. Post hoc tests indicated that performances were best while wearing the enclosed slippers, intermediate with socks, and worst with backless slippers. The enclosed slippers were perceived to be more attractive, comfortable, and well fitted, but heavier than the backless slippers. Most participants (n = 23; 77%) reported that they would consider wearing the enclosed slippers to reduce their risk of falling. Indoor footwear with an enclosed heel, Velcro® fastening, and a firm sole optimises balance and gait compared to backless slippers, and is therefore recommended to reduce the risk of falling. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Relations between postural stability, gait and falls in elderly persons--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkowicz, Dawid; Szczegielniak, Jan; Proszkowiec, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Balance control in elderly patients is the area of interest of many researchers. The results of their studies suggest that the measurement of shifts in the centre of foot pressure on the support base (COP) can be used as a tool for identification of fall-prone persons. It is interesting whether there are any relations between functional status, gait, posture stability and the risk of falling. The aim of this study was to find the answer to this question. The study involved 20 patients (mean age 78.1+/-11.6). The functional status of the patients was evaluated according to the Barthel Index. Postural stability was assessed with the use of a Neurocom Balance Master platform. Three measurements were taken with visual feedback (eyes open-EO) and three without visual feedback (eyes closed-EC). Balance control was also evaluated with the Berg test and on the basis of the history of episodes of falling in the preceding six months. Gait was evaluated with the six-minute walking test. The parameters recorded by the force platform showed a significant relation to the values obtained in the Berg test (r=-0.60; pfalls showed a significant relation only to the EO test (r=0.4; pfalls was connected with increased body sway. 3. The functional status of the patient and the balance control evaluation according to the Berg test failed to determine the risk of falling. 4. A relation was observed between postural stability, functional status and gait.

  14. Gait Change Is Associated with Cognitive Outcome after an Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Sagnier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognition and gait have often been studied separately after stroke whereas it has been suggested that these two domains could interact through a cognitive-motor interference.Objective: To evaluate the influence of gait changes on cognitive outcome after an ischemic stroke (IS.Methods: We conducted a prospective and monocentric study including patients admitted for an acute supratentorial IS with a National Institute of Health Stroke Score ≤ 15. Cognition, gait and motor disability were evaluated at baseline, 3 months and 1 year post-stroke, using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the 10-m walking test (10-MWT and the Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMMA. The effect of changes in 10-MWT over the year of follow-up on MoCA changes was estimated using a generalized linear mixed model with FMMA, age and gender as covariates.Results: Two hundred and Twelve patients were included (71% male, age 64 ± 13 years old. 10-MWT improved from baseline to 1 year (p < 0.001, as did MoCA (p < 0.001 and FMMA (p < 0.001 scores. Ninety-nine patients (47% had a MoCA <26 at 1 year. Changes in 10-MWT were independently associated with changes in MoCA (β = −0.2, 95% CI −0.24 to −0.07, Bonferroni-corrected p-value = 0.002. Analyses of MoCA sub-scores suggested that changes in gait performance was associated with changes in executive functions and recall.Conclusion: Gait performance is associated with cognitive outcome after a mild to moderate IS, suggesting that they should be managed together to improve post-stroke independence.

  15. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensive gait training in toddlers with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Herskind

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduced muscle growth may be involved in the development of contractures in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Here, we report data from a pilot study of intensive gait training in CP toddlers. Methods: Five children with CP aged 8-30 months performed activity-based gait training for one hour/day, five days/week for three consecutive months. Included children were diagnosed with spastic CP, had a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS score of I–II, and were not epileptic. All children wore pedometers during training. Before and after the training period, kinematic and qualitative gait analysis, clinical and objective evaluation of spasticity, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, and ultrasound of the affected medial gastrocnemius (MG muscle were performed. Two children were also tested before and after three months of receiving only standard care (SC. Results: On average 1410 steps/session were logged during 63 days of training. More steps were achieved at home than at a central facility. During training, MG muscle volume increased significantly, while it decreased for SC children. Gait improved qualitatively in all children, and GMFM-66 score improved in four of the five children. Similar improvements were seen among the SC children. Two children had pathologically increased muscle stiffness prior to training, which was reduced during training. Reflex stiffness was unchanged in all five children. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that intensive gait training may increase muscle volume, improve walking skills and reduce passive muscle stiffness in toddlers with CP.

  17. Knee Kinematic Improvement After Total Knee Replacement Using a Simplified Quantitative Gait Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sarailoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to extract suitable spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters to determine how Total Knee Replacement (TKR alters patients’ knee kinematics during gait, using a rapid and simplified quantitative two-dimensional gait analysis procedure. Methods: Two-dimensional kinematic gait pattern of 10 participants were collected before and after the TKR surgery, using a 60 Hz camcorder in sagittal plane. Then, the kinematic parameters were extracted using the gait data. A student t-test was used to compare the group-average of spatiotemporal and peak kinematic characteristics in the sagittal plane. The knee condition was also evaluated using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS Questionnaire to ensure thateach subject was placed in the right group. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in knee flexion during stance and swing phases after TKR surgery. The walking speed was increased as a result of stride length and cadence improvement, but this increment was not statistically significant. Both post-TKR and control groups showed an increment in spatiotemporal and peak kinematic characteristics between comfortable and fast walking speeds. Discussion: The objective kinematic parameters extracted from 2D gait data were able to show significant improvements of the knee joint after TKR surgery. The patients with TKR surgery were also able to improve their knee kinematics during fast walking speed equal to the control group. These results provide a good insight into the capabilities of the presented method to evaluate knee functionality before and after TKR surgery and to define a more effective rehabilitation program.

  18. Generating high-speed dynamic running gaits in a quadruped robot using an evolutionary search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Darren P; Orin, David E

    2004-08-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a considerable interest in investigating high-speed dynamic gaits for legged robots. While much research has been published, both in the biomechanics and engineering fields regarding the analysis of these gaits, no single study has adequately characterized the dynamics of high-speed running as can be achieved in a realistic, yet simple, robotic system. The goal of this paper is to find the most energy-efficient, natural, and unconstrained gallop that can be achieved using a simulated quadrupedal robot with articulated legs, asymmetric mass distribution, and compliant legs. For comparison purposes, we also implement the bound and canter. The model used here is planar, although we will show that it captures much of the predominant dynamic characteristics observed in animals. While it is not our goal to prove anything about biological locomotion, the dynamic similarities between the gaits we produce and those found in animals does indicate a similar underlying dynamic mechanism. Thus, we will show that achieving natural, efficient high-speed locomotion is possible even with a fairly simple robotic system. To generate the high-speed gaits, we use an efficient evolutionary algorithm called set-based stochastic optimization. This algorithm finds open-loop control parameters to generate periodic trajectories for the body. Several alternative methods are tested to generate periodic trajectories for the legs. The combined solutions found by the evolutionary search and the periodic-leg methods, over a range of speeds up to 10.0 m/s, reveal "biological" characteristics that are emergent properties of the underlying gaits.

  19. Electronic and local atomistic structure of MgSiO3 glass under pressure: a study of X-ray Raman scattering at the silicon and magnesium L-edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Nozomu

    2018-02-01

    We applied X-ray Raman scattering technique to MgSiO3 glass, a precursor to magnesium silicate melts, with respect to magnesium and silicon under high-pressure conditions as well as some polycrystalline phases of MgSiO3 at ambient conditions. We also performed ab initio calculations to interpret the X-ray Raman spectra. Experimentally obtained silicon L-edge spectra indicate that the local environment around silicon started changing at pressure above 10 GPa, where the electronic structure of oxygen is known to change. In contrast, the shape of the magnesium L-edge spectrum changed below 10 GPa. This indicates that the magnesium sites in MgSiO3 glass first distort and that the local structure around magnesium shows a wide variation under pressure. The framework structure consisting of silicon and oxygen changed above 10 GPa, where the coordination number of silicon was more than four. Our results imply that 6-oxygen-coordinated silicon was formed above 20 GPa.

  20. Effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing on the stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Ye, Miao; Li, Desheng

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) on stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females. The findings of this study might be used as clinical guidance of physical therapy for choosing the suitable frequency of RAC. [Subjects] Thirteen healthy young females were recruited in this study. [Methods] Ten meters walking tests were measured in all subjects under 4 conditions with each repeated 3 times and a 3-min seated rest period between repetitions. Subjects first walked as usual and then were asked to listen carefully to the rhythm of a metronome and walk with 3 kinds of RAC (90%, 100%, and 110% of the mean cadence). The three frequencies (90%, 100%, and 110%) of RAC were randomly assigned. Gait speed, stride length, and cadence were calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (version 17.0) computer package. [Results] The gait speed and cadence of 90% RAC walking showed significant decreases compared with normal walking and 100% and 110% RAC walking. The stride length, cadence, and gait speed of 110% RAC walking showed significant increases compared with normal walking and 90% and 100% RAC walking. [Conclusion] Our results showed that 110% RAC was the best of the 3 cueing frequencies for improvement of stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

  1. Gait and balance deterioration over a 12-month period in multiple sclerosis patients with EDSS scores ≤ 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Mary P; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J

    2017-01-01

    It is not currently known whether gait and balance measures are responsive to deterioration of motor function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with low EDSS scores (≤3.0). The aim of this study was to quantify MS-related gait and balance deterioration over a 12-month period. Thirty-eight participants with MS (33 female, mean age: 41.1 ± 8.3 years), mean time since diagnosis 2.2 ± 4.1 years, EDSS score ≤3.0 and without clinical evidence of gait deterioration, were recruited. Participants performed walking trials and Functional and Lateral Reach Tests. Kinematics of the ankle and knee, and electromyography of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were also measured. Three participants reported relapses with worsening EDSS scores and 4 non-relapsing participants had worse EDSS scores at 12 months. There were significant decreases in mean gait speed, stride length and balance scores, and a significant increase in double support. Marked changes in ankle kinematics, with decreased medial gastrocnemius activity were observed. Gait and balance performance of non-disabled RRMS participants may progressively decline, even in the absence of both acute clinical relapse and change in clinical status measured by the EDSS.

  2. Feasibility and effects of home-based smartphone-delivered automated feedback training for gait in people with Parkinson's disease: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Pieter; Nieuwboer, Alice; Dorfman, Moran; Ferrari, Alberto; Gazit, Eran; Canning, Colleen G; Rocchi, Laura; Chiari, Lorenzo; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Inertial measurement units combined with a smartphone application (CuPiD-system) were developed to provide people with Parkinson's disease (PD) real-time feedback on gait performance. This study investigated the CuPiD-system's feasibility and effectiveness compared with conventional gait training when applied in the home environment. Forty persons with PD undertook gait training for 30 min, three times per week for six weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to i) CuPiD, in which a smartphone application offered positive and corrective feedback on gait, or ii) an active control, in which personalized gait advice was provided. Gait, balance, endurance and quality of life were assessed before and after training and at four weeks follow-up using standardized tests. Both groups improved significantly on the primary outcomes (single and dual task gait speed) at post-test and follow-up. The CuPiD group improved significantly more on balance (MiniBESTest) at post-test (from 24.8 to 26.1, SD ∼ 5) and maintained quality of life (SF-36 physical health) at follow-up whereas the control group deteriorated (from 50.4 to 48.3, SD ∼ 16). No other statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. The CuPiD system was well-tolerated and participants found the tool user-friendly. CuPiD was feasible, well-accepted and seemed to be an effective approach to promote gait training, as participants improved equally to controls. This benefit may be ascribed to the real-time feedback, stimulating corrective actions and promoting self-efficacy to achieve optimal performance. Further optimization of the system and adequately-powered studies are warranted to corroborate these findings and determine cost-effectiveness.

  3. Effect of a dual-task net-step exercise on cognitive and gait function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Kazutoshi; Showa, Satoko; Hiraoka, Akira; Fushiki, Yasuhiro; Sakauchi, Humio; Mori, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Participation in generally recommended aerobics or strength exercises may be challenging for older adults. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the types and levels of physical activities suited for them to improve their cognitive and gait function and adherence to exercise programs. This has prompted efforts to identify exercises that require less physical strength and frequency of performance, while still offering cognitive and health benefits. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of a novel dual-task net-step exercise (NSE) performed once a week for 8 consecutive weeks on improvements in cognitive performance and gait function in an older population. In this pretest/posttest experimental case control study, 60 healthy older adults (mean age 76.4 years) were recruited from community-dwelling people and separated randomly into 2 groups: a dual-task NSE group and a control group. The NSE group was asked to walk across a net without stepping on the ropes or being caught in the net. Two computer panel-type cognitive functional assessments, the Touch-M and Touch Panel-Type Dementia Assessment Scale, were administered at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention to determine the effects of NSE. Improvements in gait function were also evaluated using Timed Up and Go test scores. Mixed-effect models with repeated measures (group × time) (analysis of variance, F test) were used to test the effects of NSE. Adjustments were made for covariates including age and sex (analysis of covariance). The NSE group showed significant improvement in cognitive performance (6.8% change; total Touch-M score 5.4 points; P = .04) and gait performance (11.5% change; Timed Up and Go time -0.98 second; P cognitive and gait performance in healthy older adults. Our results indicate that NSE offers an option for a large segment of the older population who need an easier way to maintain their cognitive health and gait function.

  4. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Freezing of gait: moving forward on a mysterious clinical phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutt, J.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Giladi, N.; Hallett, M.; Horak, F.B.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability

  6. Day-to-day reliability of gait characteristics in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    day-to-day reliability of the gait pattern parameters observed in rats during treadmill walking. The results of the present study may serve as a reference material that can help future intervention studies on rat gait characteristics both with respect to the selection of outcome measures...

  7. Gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of severe handicap. Deficiencies in walking may present significant challenges to mobility, resulting in abnormal and inefficient gait patterns in stroke survivors. This study compared the gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors and those of healthy individuals and determined the ...

  8. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  9. Neurological gait disorders in elderly people: clinical approach and classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Giladi, N.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gait disorders are common and often devastating companions of ageing, leading to reductions in quality of life and increased mortality. Here, we present a clinically oriented approach to neurological gait disorders in the elderly population. We also draw attention to several exciting scientific

  10. Pregnancy-related changes in center of pressure during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipe, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Physical and hormonal modifications occuring during the pregnancy, can lead to an increase in postural instability and to a higher risk of falls during gait. The first objective was to describe the center of pressure (COP) during late pregnancy at different gait velocity. Comparison of nulliparous women with postpartum women were conducted in order to investigate the effects of pregnancy. The second objective was to analyse COP variability between pregnant and non-pregnant women in order to investigate the effects of pregnancy on gait variability. Fifty-eight pregnant women in the last four months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women and twenty-three healthy non-pregnant women performed gait trials at three different speeds: preferred, slow and fast. In the last four months of pregnancy gait velocity decreased. During the pregnancy, gait velocity decreased by 22%, stopover time increased by 6-12%, COP excursion XY decreased by 5% and COP velocity decreased by 16% and 20% along the anteroposterior and transverse axes, respectively. After delivery, gait velocity increased by 3% but remained a lower compared to non-pregnant women (-12%). Intra-individual variability was greater for non-pregnant than pregnant women. COP parameters were influenced by pregnancy. This suggests that pregnant women establish very specific and individual strategies with the aim of maintaining stability during gait.

  11. Functional electrical stimulation of the triceps surae during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaghan, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Every year stroke affects approximately 15 million people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in the western world. Gait relearning has high priority for stroke survivors. One of the most commonly treated effects of stroke gait is drop-foot (the inability to raise the toes during the

  12. Gait Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hao Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gait disorder, a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population, is one of the cardinal features of Parkinson's disease. Owing to the characteristics of these gaits varying widely from festination to freezing of gait, analysis can be hardly identified in the clinical setting. Instrumented gait analysis has been widely used in a traditional gait laboratory. Recently, wireless monitoring systems have become highly informative by allowing long-term data collection in a variety of environments outside the labs. The quantitative analysis of gait patterns is probably the first step to a successful management of an individual patient. The presence of abnormal gait usually indicates advanced stages of disease and is often associated with cognitive impairment, falls, and injuries. Besides pharmacological and surgical treatments, parkinsonian gait can benefit from a variety of interventions. Assistive devices prevent patients from falls, and cueing strategies help them decrease episodes of freezing. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team approach to the optimal management is essential for an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease.

  13. Gait analysis of adults with generalised joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Tegner, Heidi; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility experience symptoms such as pain and joint instability, which is likely to influence their gait pattern. Accordingly, the purpose of the present project was to perform a biomechanical gait analysis on a group of patients...

  14. Gait analysis after successful mobile bearing total ankle replacement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, H.C.; van Middelkoop, M.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Nelissen, R.G.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The effect of total ankle replacement on gait is not fully known in terms of joint kinematics, ground reaction force, and activity of the muscles of the lower leg. Methods: A comparative gait study was done in 10 patients after uneventful unilateral mobile-bearing total ankle replacement

  15. Apraxia of gait- or apraxia of postural transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marian L; Curtze, Carolin; Nutt, John G

    2018-02-19

    "Apraxia of gait" is not a useful concept and freezing of gait should also not be considered an apraxia. The concept of apraxia may, however, be applied to distortions of postural transitions that can accompany fronto-parietal lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gait Coordination After Stroke: Benefits of Acoustically Paced Treadmill Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.C.; Kwakkel, G.; van Wieringen, P.C.W.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. Participants: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the

  17. Gait coordination after stroke: benefits of acoustically paced treadmill walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Wieringen, P.C. van; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. PARTICIPANTS: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the

  18. Postural Sway Parameters and Gait Symmetry in Preschool Children: Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane E de Sá

    Full Text Available Abstract The most important function of posture is to ensure the maintenance of control during the start and the continuation of human movement, moreover, posture serves as a reference for the production of precise movements. The aim of this study was to relate the postural sway parameters and gait symmetry in preschool children.This study is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 49 children with a mean age of 4.65 ± 0.44 years. Initially, height and body mass of children were measured using anthropometric scales. Next, an electronic baropodometer was used to evaluate the distribution of dynamic plantar pressure (gait and stabilometry (balance.A Student t test or Mann-Whitney test for comparing two groups was used. To correlate variables, a Pearson's correlation or Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. The stabilometric parameters showed no significant difference between an eyes open test and eyes closed test in preschool child. We found a moderate relationship between axis inclination and cadence symmetry (R=0.40;p=0.007. Postural sway parameters have relationship cadence symmetry of the gait in preschool children.

  19. Metabolic changes in four beat gaited horses after field marcha simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, E K; Manso Filho, H C; Manso, H E C C C; Santiago, T A; McKeever, K H

    2010-11-01

    Mangalarga-Marchador is a popular 4-gaited Brazilian horse breed; however, there is little information about their metabolic and physiological response to exercise. To measure physiological and metabolic responses of the Mangalarga-Marchador to a simulated marcha field test and to compare these responses between 2 types of marcha gaits (picada and batida). Thirteen horses were used in the study and randomly assigned to either the picada or batida gait for the simulated marcha field test (speed ∼ 3.2 m/s; 30 min; load ∼ 80 kg). Included body composition, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), glucose (GLUC), lactate (LACT), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP), albumin, urea, creatinine, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine kinase, alanine, glutamate and glutamine (GLN). Measurements were obtained pretest (control/fasting), immediately after simulation (T(0)), and 15 (T(15)), 30 (T(30)) and 240 (T(240)) min after the simulation. Lactate (LACT) was measured at T(0), T(15) and T(30). Data were analysed using ANOVA, Tukey's test and t tests with significance set at P marcha types and time of sampling for HR, RF, PCV, and [LACT] (P marcha horses, with some degree of dehydration during recovery period. Also, it was demonstrated that picada horses spend more energy when compared with batida horses at the the same speed. Batida horses spend less energy when compared with picada horses, which will need special attention in their training and nutritional management. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Dual-task during gait between elderly with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Santa Rosa Bragatto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Studies report that mobility changes could be present in early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD or even in previous stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The use of motor tests, involving dual task, could facilitate screening and differentiation between elderly with AD and MCI. Objective: to verify if gait tests associated with secondary tasks could differentiate elderly with AD and MCI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review in Pubmed, Web of Science, Medline and Scielo databases. Of the articles included, we collected information about year of the study, characteristics of the sample and the dual task test studied. Results: The databases were accessed during November 2014 and August 2015 and a total of 198 scientific papers was obtained. After reading first the summaries and then the full texts, five studies were inserted in the review. Elderly with AD presented a reduction of gait speed and stride length, using executive functions and countdown as secondary cognitive tasks. The type of MCI appears to influence the differentiation with AD. Conclusion: The review showed that some gait tests associated with a secondary task differentiate elderly with AD and MCI. It emphasizes the need of new studies involving this issue in order to obtain cut-off points and facilitate prevention, early diagnosis and observation of cognitive impairment’s evolution in clinical practice of elderly.

  1. Is adult gait less susceptible than paediatric gait to hip joint centre regression equation error?

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    Kiernan, D; Hosking, J; O'Brien, T

    2016-03-01

    Hip joint centre (HJC) regression equation error during paediatric gait has recently been shown to have clinical significance. In relation to adult gait, it has been inferred that comparable errors with children in absolute HJC position may in fact result in less significant kinematic and kinetic error. This study investigated the clinical agreement of three commonly used regression equation sets (Bell et al., Davis et al. and Orthotrak) for adult subjects against the equations of Harrington et al. The relationship between HJC position error and subject size was also investigated for the Davis et al. set. Full 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 12 healthy adult subjects with data for each set compared to Harrington et al. The Gait Profile Score, Gait Variable Score and GDI-kinetic were used to assess clinical significance while differences in HJC position between the Davis and Harrington sets were compared to leg length and subject height using regression analysis. A number of statistically significant differences were present in absolute HJC position. However, all sets fell below the clinically significant thresholds (GPS <1.6°, GDI-Kinetic <3.6 points). Linear regression revealed a statistically significant relationship for both increasing leg length and increasing subject height with decreasing error in anterior/posterior and superior/inferior directions. Results confirm a negligible clinical error for adult subjects suggesting that any of the examined sets could be used interchangeably. Decreasing error with both increasing leg length and increasing subject height suggests that the Davis set should be used cautiously on smaller subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dual-task cognitive-gait intervention on memory and gait dynamics in older adults with a history of falls: a preliminary investigation.

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    You, Joshua H; Shetty, Anand; Jones, Tawaih; Shields, Kimberli; Belay, Yordanos; Brown, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The present study highlights the effects of the dual-task cognitive-gait intervention (CGI) on working memory and gait functions in older adults with a history of falls. Thirteen older adults with a history of falls were recruited from local community centers and randomly stratified into either the control (n = 5) or experimental (n = 8) group. The experimental group received the dual-task cognitive-motor intervention involving simultaneous motor (walking) and cognitive (memory recall) task whereas the control group received a placebo treatment (walking with simple music). The intervention was provided 30 minutes per session, over a 6-week period. Memory measures included a combination of word recall and arithmetic task. Gait function measures included velocity and center of pressure (COP) stability. Non-parametric tests were used at p memory performance than the control (p long-term dual-task cognitive-motor intervention improved memory of older adults with a history of falls under the dual cognitive motor task condition.

  3. Different types of additional somatosensory information do not promote immediate benefits on gait in patients with Parkinson's disease and older adults

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    Ellen Lirani-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlantar cutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD, but the effects of different types of insoles have not been tested. We evaluated the immediate effect of different types of insoles on gait in PD patients and healthy older adults. Nineteen PD patients and nineteen healthy older adults performed and performed a walking task at their self-selected speed in three conditions: conventional insole, insole with a raised ridge around the foot perimeter, and insole with half-spheres. Plantar sensation was evaluated before and after the walking protocol. There were no differences between groups for plantar sensation before and after the walking task. PD patients demonstrated reduced stride length and stride velocity. There were no immediate benefits offered by the insoles on gait of either group. The increased plantar cutaneous stimulation does not promote immediate benefits on gait in PD patients and healthy older adults.

  4. Spatial-temporal parameters of gait in women with fibromyalgia.

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    Heredia Jiménez, José María; Aparicio García-Molina, Virginia A; Porres Foulquie, Jesús M; Delgado Fernández, Manuel; Soto Hermoso, Victor M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if there are differences in such parameters among patients affected by fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy subjects and whether the degree of affectation by FM can decrease the gait parameters. We studied 55 women with FM and 44 controls. Gait analysis was performed using an instrumented walkway for measurement of the kinematic parameters of gait (GAITRite system), and patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Significant differences (p Gait parameters of women affected by FM were severely impaired when compared to those of healthy women. Different factors such as lack of physical activity, bradikinesia, overweight, fatigue, and pain together with a lower isometric force in the legs can be responsible for the alterations in gait and poorer life quality of women with FM.

  5. Boosting Discriminant Learners for Gait Recognition Using MPCA Features

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    Haiping Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a boosted linear discriminant analysis (LDA solution on features extracted by the multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA to enhance gait recognition performance. Three-dimensional gait objects are projected in the MPCA space first to obtain low-dimensional tensorial features. Then, lower-dimensional vectorial features are obtained through discriminative feature selection. These feature vectors are then fed into an LDA-style booster, where several regularized and weakened LDA learners work together to produce a strong learner through a novel feature weighting and sampling process. The LDA learner employs a simple nearest-neighbor classifier with a weighted angle distance measure for classification. The experimental results on the NIST/USF “Gait Challenge” data-sets show that the proposed solution has successfully improved the gait recognition performance and outperformed several state-of-the-art gait recognition algorithms.

  6. Locomotion Gait Planning of Climber Snake-Like Robot

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    Mohammad Nezaminia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered practical problems plus solutions were addressed. Finally we found out that: the vertical motion was producing more fault than horizontal locomotion, and notably the fastest gait of locomotion was the wheeling gait

  7. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation to improve balance and gait in a subject with orthopedic pathologies.

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    Ungermann, Cathryn M; Gras, Laura Z

    2011-12-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the effect of therapeutic riding with a subject who had an orthopedic diagnosis. This is a single-subject case report. The study was conducted at an equestrian facility with an indoor riding arena. The subject was a 59-year-old woman with grade I spondylolisthesis at L4/L5 and multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis in central and foraminal canals. The subject had an anterior cervical fusion of C3-C7. The subject has been ambulating with a straight cane due to her history of frequent falls. Gait, agility, strength, range of motion, and balance testing were performed. The subject had impairments of bilateral lower extremities with an ataxic gait pattern and was at risk for continued falls according to the balance measures. The intervention comprised therapeutic riding sessions 3 times a week for 20 minutes for 4 weeks. Each riding session was immediately followed by a 10-minute independent walking program with a metronome for rhythmic auditory stimulation. The outcome measures were as follows: Manual muscle testing and range of motion of the lower extremities, Gait Speed Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Four-Square Step Test, Chair Stand Test, Single Leg Stance. Improvements were seen in lower extremity strength and range of motion and balance. The subject improved on balance scores, placing her out of the risk for falls category. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation improved lower extremity range of motion, strength, and balance with this subject.

  8. Limbic and Basal Ganglia Neuroanatomical Correlates of Gait and Executive Function: Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Intact Cognition.

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    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Weaver, Kurt E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Pike, Kenneth C; Grabowski, Thomas J; Teri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition and to examine limbic and basal ganglia neural correlates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study of 46 community-dwelling older adults, ages 70-95 yrs, with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 23) and normal cognition (n = 23). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to attain volumetric measures of limbic and basal ganglia structures. Quantitative motion analysis was used to measure spatiotemporal parameters of gait. The Trail Making Test was used to assess executive function. During fast-paced walking, older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated significantly slower gait speed and shorter stride length compared with older adults with normal cognition. Stride length was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and nucleus accumbens volumes (P function was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate volumes (P older adults with normal cognition, those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated slower gait speed and shorter stride length, during fast-paced walking, and lower executive function. Hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes demonstrated moderate positive correlation with both gait and executive function, after adjusting for age. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) discuss gait performance and cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus normal cognition, (2) discuss neurocorrelates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia, and (3) recognize the importance of assessing gait speed and cognitive function in the clinical management of older

  9. Impact of serial gait analyses on long-term outcome of hippotherapy in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

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    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Takada, Makoto; Doumura, Misato; Ihara, Masayo; Shimomura, Hideo; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ihara, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain data of gait parameters on predicting long-term outcome of hippotherapy. In 20 participants (4-19 years; GMFCS levels I to III) with cerebral palsy (CP), gait and balance abilities were examined after 10-m walking test using a portable motion recorder. Hippotherapy was associated with increased Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66 at 1 year from the baseline (P Hippotherapy increased stride length, walking speed, and mean acceleration and decreased horizontal/vertical displacement ratio over time (P hippotherapy on motor and balance functions can be assessed from the early phase by serial monitoring of the gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does dance-based therapy increase gait speed in older adults with chronic lower extremity pain: a feasibility study.

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    Krampe, Jean; Wagner, Joanne M; Hawthorne, Kelly; Sanazaro, Deborah; Wong-Anuchit, Choochart; Budhathoki, Chakra; Lorenz, Rebecca A; Raaf, Soren

    2014-01-01

    A decreased gait speed in older adults can lead to dependency when the individuals are no longer able to participate in activities or do things for themselves. Thirty-seven senior apartment residents (31 females; Mean age=80.6 years; SD=8.9) with lower extremity pain/stiffness participated in a feasibility and preliminary efficacy study of 12 weeks (24 sessions). Healthy-Steps dance therapy compared to a wait-list control group. Small improvements in gait speed ([ES]=0.33) were noted for participants completing 19-24 dance sessions. Improvements in gait speed measured by a 10 Meter Walk Test (0.0517 m/s) exceeded 0.05 m/s, a value deemed to be meaningful in community dwelling older adults. These feasibility study findings support the need for additional research using dance-based therapy for older adults with lower extremity pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Motor Learning Oriented, Compliant and Mobile Gait Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calanca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available People affected by Cerebral Palsy suffer from physical disabilities due to irreversible neural impairment since the very beginning of their life. Difficulties in motor control and coordination often relegate these patients to the use of a wheelchair and to the unavoidable upcoming of disuse syndromes. As pointed out in recent literature Damiano [7] physical exercise, especially in young ages, can have a deep impact on the patient health and quality of life. For training purposes is very important to keep an upright position, although in some severe cases this is not trivial. Many commercial mobile orthoses are designed to facilitate the standing, but not all the patients are able to deploy them. ARGO, the Active Reciprocated Gait Orthosis we developed, is a device that overcomes some of the limitations of these devices. It is an active device that is realized starting from a commercial reciprocated Gait Orthosis applying sensors and actuators to it. With ARGO we aim to develop a device for helping limbs in a non-coercive way accordingly to user’s intention. In this way patients can drive the orthosis by themselves, deploying augmented biofeedback over movements. In fact Cerebral Palsy patients usually have weak biofeedback mechanisms and consequently are hardly inclined to learn movements. To achieve this behavior ARGO deploys a torque planning algorithm and a force control system. Data collected from a single case of study shows benefits of the orthosis. We will show that our test patient reaches complete autonomous walking after few hour of training with prototype.

  12. A perceptual map for gait symmetry quantification and pathology detection.

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    Moevus, Antoine; Mignotte, Max; de Guise, Jacques A; Meunier, Jean

    2015-10-29

    The gait movement is an essential process of the human activity and the result of collaborative interactions between the neurological, articular and musculoskeletal systems, working efficiently together. This explains why gait analysis is important and increasingly used nowadays for the diagnosis of many different types (neurological, muscular, orthopedic, etc.) of diseases. This paper introduces a novel method to quickly visualize the different parts of the body related to an asymmetric movement in the human gait of a patient for daily clinical usage. The proposed gait analysis algorithm relies on the fact that the healthy walk has (temporally shift-invariant) symmetry properties in the coronal plane. The goal is to provide an inexpensive and easy-to-use method, exploiting an affordable consumer depth sensor, the Kinect, to measure the gait asymmetry and display results in a perceptual way. We propose a multi-dimensional scaling mapping using a temporally shift invariant distance, allowing us to efficiently visualize (in terms of perceptual color difference) the asymmetric body parts of the gait cycle of a subject. We also propose an index computed from this map and which quantifies locally and globally the degree of asymmetry. The proposed index is proved to be statistically significant and this new, inexpensive, marker-less, non-invasive, easy to set up, gait analysis system offers a readable and flexible tool for clinicians to analyze gait characteristics and to provide a fast diagnostic. This system, which estimates a perceptual color map providing a quick overview of asymmetry existing in the gait cycle of a subject, can be easily exploited for disease progression, recovery cues from post-operative surgery (e.g., to check the healing process or the effect of a treatment or a prosthesis) or might be used for other pathologies where gait asymmetry might be a symptom.

  13. Quantitative Gait Analysis in Patients with Huntington’s Disease

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    Seon Jong Pyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Gait disturbance is the main factor contributing to a negative impact on quality of life in patients with Huntington’s disease (HD. Understanding gait features in patients with HD is essential for planning a successful gait strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate temporospatial gait parameters in patients with HD compared with healthy controls. Methods We investigated 7 patients with HD. Diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis, and patients were evaluated with the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. Gait features were assessed with a gait analyzer. We compared the results of patients with HD to those of 7 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Results Step length and stride length were decreased and base of support was increased in the HD group compared to the control group. In addition, coefficients of variability for step and stride length were increased in the HD group. The HD group showed slower walking velocity, an increased stance/swing phase in the gait cycle and a decreased proportion of single support time compared to the control group. Cadence did not differ significantly between groups. Among the UHDRS subscores, total motor score and total behavior score were positively correlated with step length, and total behavior score was positively correlated with walking velocity in patients with HD. Conclusion Increased variability in step and stride length, slower walking velocity, increased stance phase, and decreased swing phase and single support time with preserved cadence suggest that HD gait patterns are slow, ataxic and ineffective. This study suggests that quantitative gait analysis is needed to assess gait problems in HD.

  14. Crowd-Sourced Amputee Gait Data: A Feasibility Study Using YouTube Videos of Unilateral Trans-Femoral Gait.

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    James Gardiner

    Full Text Available Collecting large datasets of amputee gait data is notoriously difficult. Additionally, collecting data on less prevalent amputations or on gait activities other than level walking and running on hard surfaces is rarely attempted. However, with the wealth of user-generated content on the Internet, the scope for collecting amputee gait data from alternative sources other than traditional gait labs is intriguing. Here we investigate the potential of YouTube videos to provide gait data on amputee walking. We use an example dataset of trans-femoral amputees level walking at self-selected speeds to collect temporal gait parameters and calculate gait asymmetry. We compare our YouTube data with typical literature values, and show that our methodology produces results that are highly comparable to data collected in a traditional manner. The similarity between the results of our novel methodology and literature values lends confidence to our technique. Nevertheless, clear challenges with the collection and interpretation of crowd-sourced gait data remain, including long term access to datasets, and a lack of validity and reliability studies in this area.

  15. Crowd-Sourced Amputee Gait Data: A Feasibility Study Using YouTube Videos of Unilateral Trans-Femoral Gait.

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    Gardiner, James; Gunarathne, Nuwan; Howard, David; Kenney, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Collecting large datasets of amputee gait data is notoriously difficult. Additionally, collecting data on less prevalent amputations or on gait activities other than level walking and running on hard surfaces is rarely attempted. However, with the wealth of user-generated content on the Internet, the scope for collecting amputee gait data from alternative sources other than traditional gait labs is intriguing. Here we investigate the potential of YouTube videos to provide gait data on amputee walking. We use an example dataset of trans-femoral amputees level walking at self-selected speeds to collect temporal gait parameters and calculate gait asymmetry. We compare our YouTube data with typical literature values, and show that our methodology produces results that are highly comparable to data collected in a traditional manner. The similarity between the results of our novel methodology and literature values lends confidence to our technique. Nevertheless, clear challenges with the collection and interpretation of crowd-sourced gait data remain, including long term access to datasets, and a lack of validity and reliability studies in this area.

  16. Wearable Device-Based Gait Recognition Using Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Images and a Convolutional Neural Network.

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    Zhao, Yongjia; Zhou, Suiping

    2017-02-28

    The widespread installation of inertial sensors in smartphones and other wearable devices provides a valuable opportunity to identify people by analyzing their gait patterns, for either cooperative or non-cooperative circumstances. However, it is still a challenging task to reliably extract discriminative features for gait recognition with noisy and complex data sequences collected from casually worn wearable devices like smartphones. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel image-based gait recognition approach using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without the need to manually extract discriminative features. The CNN's input image, which is encoded straightforwardly from the inertial sensor data sequences, is called Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Image (AE-GDI). AE-GDI is a new two-dimensional representation of gait dynamics, which is invariant to rotation and translation. The performance of the proposed approach in gait authentication and gait labeling is evaluated using two datasets: (1) the McGill University dataset, which is collected under realistic conditions; and (2) the Osaka University dataset with the largest number of subjects. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves competitive recognition accuracy over existing approaches and provides an effective parametric solution for identification among a large number of subjects by gait patterns.

  17. Wearable Device-Based Gait Recognition Using Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Images and a Convolutional Neural Network

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    Zhao, Yongjia; Zhou, Suiping

    2017-01-01

    The widespread installation of inertial sensors in smartphones and other wearable devices provides a valuable opportunity to identify people by analyzing their gait patterns, for either cooperative or non-cooperative circumstances. However, it is still a challenging task to reliably extract discriminative features for gait recognition with noisy and complex data sequences collected from casually worn wearable devices like smartphones. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel image-based gait recognition approach using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without the need to manually extract discriminative features. The CNN’s input image, which is encoded straightforwardly from the inertial sensor data sequences, is called Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Image (AE-GDI). AE-GDI is a new two-dimensional representation of gait dynamics, which is invariant to rotation and translation. The performance of the proposed approach in gait authentication and gait labeling is evaluated using two datasets: (1) the McGill University dataset, which is collected under realistic conditions; and (2) the Osaka University dataset with the largest number of subjects. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves competitive recognition accuracy over existing approaches and provides an effective parametric solution for identification among a large number of subjects by gait patterns. PMID:28264503

  18. Short- and Long-Term Efficacy of Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment on Balance and Gait in Parkinsonian Patients: A Preliminary Study with a 1-Year Followup

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    Giuseppe Frazzitta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disease in which gait and balance disturbances are relevant symptoms that respond poorly to pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 4-week inpatient multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment (MIRT is effective in improving balance and gait and whether improvements persist at a one-year followup. We studied 20 PD inpatients (stage 3 Hoehn-Yahr who underwent a MIRT. Outcome measures were UPDRS items for balance (30, falls (13, and walk (29, Berg Balance Scale, six-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go Test, and Comfortable-Fast gait speeds. Patients were evaluated at admission, at the end of the 4-week treatment, and at a 1-year followup. Pharmacological therapy was unchanged during MIRT and follow-up. All outcome measures improved significantly at the end of treatment. At 1-year follow-up control, UPDRS walk and Comfortable-Fast gait speeds still maintained better values with respect to admission (P=0.009, P=0.03, and P=0.02, resp., while the remaining scales did not differ significantly. Our results demonstrate that the MIRT was effective in improving balance and gait and that the improvement in gait performances was partially maintained also after 1 year.

  19. Effects of Gait Training With Body Weight Support on a Treadmill Versus Overground in Individuals With Stroke.

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    Gama, Gabriela L; Celestino, Melissa L; Barela, José A; Forrester, Larry; Whitall, Jill; Barela, Ana M

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of gait training with body weight support (BWS) on a treadmill versus overground in individuals with chronic stroke. Randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Individuals (N=28) with chronic stroke (>6mo from the stroke event). Participants were randomly assigned to receive gait training with BWS on a treadmill (n=14) or overground (n=14) 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Gait speed measured using the 10-meter walk test, endurance measured using the 6-minute walk test, functional independence measured using the motor domain of the FIM, lower limb recovery measured using the lower extremity domain of the Fugl-Meyer assessment, step length, step length symmetry ratio, and single-limb support duration. Measurements were obtained at baseline, immediately after the training session, and 6 weeks after the training session. At 1 week after the last training session, both groups improved in all outcome measures except paretic step length and step length symmetry ratio, which were improved only in the overground group (P=.01 and P=.01, respectively). At 6 weeks after the last training session, all improvements remained and the treadmill group also improved paretic step length (P.05). Individuals with chronic stroke equally improve gait speed and other gait parameters after 18 sessions of BWS gait training on either a treadmill or overground. Only the overground group improved step length symmetry ratio, suggesting a role of integrating overground walking into BWS interventions poststroke. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement for three gait trainers.

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    Paleg, Ginny; Huang, Morris; Vasquez Gabela, Stephanie C; Sprigle, Stephen; Livingstone, Roslyn

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement on two different surfaces in a sample of three commonly prescribed gait trainers. Tests were conducted in a laboratory setting to compare the Prime Engineering KidWalk, Rifton Pacer, and Snug Seat Mustang with and without a weighted anthropometric test dummy configured to the weight and proportions of a 4-year-old child. The Pacer was the lightest and the KidWalk the heaviest while footprints of the three gait trainers were similar. Weight was borne fairly evenly on the four casters of the Pacer and Mustang while 85% of the weight was borne on the large wheels of the mid-wheel drive KidWalk. These differences in frame style, wheel, and caster style and overall mass impact inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement. Test results suggest that initiation forces on tile were equivalent for the Pacer and KidWalk while the Mustang had the highest initiation force. Initiation forces on carpet were lowest for the KidWalk and highest for the Mustang. This initial study of inertia and movement initiation forces may provide added information for clinicians to consider when selecting a gait trainer for their clients.

  1. Smartphone User Identity Verification Using Gait Characteristics

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    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based biometrics offers a wide range of possible solutions, which could be used to authenticate users and thus to provide an extra level of security and theft prevention. We propose a method for positive identification of smartphone user’s identity using user’s gait characteristics captured by embedded smartphone sensors (gyroscopes, accelerometers. The method is based on the application of the Random Projections method for feature dimensionality reduction to just two dimensions. Then, a probability distribution function (PDF of derived features is calculated, which is compared against known user PDF. The Jaccard distance is used to evaluate distance between two distributions, and the decision is taken based on thresholding. The results for subject recognition are at an acceptable level: we have achieved a grand mean Equal Error Rate (ERR for subject identification of 5.7% (using the USC-HAD dataset. Our findings represent a step towards improving the performance of gait-based user identity verification technologies.

  2. Effect of Gait Retraining on Balance, Activities of Daily Living, Quality of Life and Depression in Stroke Patients

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    Majid Farhadian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stroke is one of the most common neurological disease and it is the main cause of physical and mental disability and staying in house. Gait difficulties have high incidence in patients with stroke. So the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gait retraining on balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depressionin stroke patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial without control group. Sampling was performed by convenience sampling method and 18 patients participated. After recording demographic data, Berg Balance Scale, Barthel Index, SF36 questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory-II used in pre-test and post-test to assess balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depression, respectively .Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and paired T-test. Results: The results showed statistically significant correlation in pre-test and difference between mean score of the all instruments before and after the intervention. Discussion: According to high prevalence of gait difficulties in stroke patients, it seems interventions in this area is necessary. Statistical results showed that the gait retraining intervention may have a positive effect on improving balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depression of these patients. According to lack of information in this area, further research is needed.

  3. Variability in energy cost and walking gait during race walking in competitive race walkers.

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    Brisswalter, J; Fougeron, B; Legros, P

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variability of energy cost (Cw) and race walking gait after a 3-h walk at the competition pace in race walkers of the same performance level. Nine competitive race walkers were studied. In the same week, after a first test of VO2max determination, each subject completed two submaximal treadmill walks (6 min length, 0% grade, 12 km X h(-1) speed) before and after a 3-h overground test completed at the individual competition speed of the race walker. During the two submaximal tests, subjects were filmed between the 2nd and the 4th min, and physiological parameters were recorded between the 4th and the 6th min. Results showed two trends. On the one hand, we observed a significant and systematic increase in energy cost of walking (mean deltaCw = 8.4%), whereas no variation in the gait kinematics prescribed by the rules of race walking was recorded. On the other hand, this increase in metabolic energy demand was accompanied by variations of different magnitude and direction of stride length, of the excursion of the heel and of the maximal ankle flexion at toe-off among the race walkers. These results indicated that competitive race walkers are able to maintain their walking gait with exercise duration apart from a systematic increase in energy cost. Moreover, in this form of locomotion the effect of fatigue on the gait variability seems to be an individual function of the race walk constraints and the constraints of the performer.

  4. Toward new sensitive measures to evaluate gait stability in focal cerebellar lesion patients

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    Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Sunaert, S.; Swinnen, S.P.; Calenbergh, F. Van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The evident ataxic characteristics of gait in patients with cerebellar damage suggest that the cerebellum plays an important role in the neural control of gait. Ataxic features, such as increased gait variability and increased step width, are often related to gait stability. However, the link

  5. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  6. Probabilistic Gait Classification in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Bayesian Approach

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    Van Gestel, Leen; De Laet, Tinne; Di Lello, Enrico; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; Van Campenhout, Anja; Aertbelien, Erwin; Schwartz, Mike; Wambacq, Hans; De Cock, Paul; Desloovere, Kaat

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) generates a wealth of highly variable data. Gait classifications help to reduce, simplify and interpret this vast amount of 3DGA data and thereby assist and facilitate clinical decision making in the treatment of CP. CP gait is often a mix of several clinically accepted distinct gait patterns. Therefore,…

  7. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Children with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of Right and Left Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…

  8. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  9. Gait Patterns in Twins with Cerebral Palsy: Similarities and Development over Time after Multilevel Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Dreher, Thomas; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.

    2013-01-01

    To examine gait patterns and gait quality, 7 twins with cerebral palsy were measured preoperatively and after surgical intervention. The aim was to study differences and/or similarities in gait between twins, the influence of personal characteristics and birth conditions, and to describe the development of gait over time after single event…

  10. Kinetic characteristics of the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bolli Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of the locomotor system can be compromised by the transport of certain objects, especially when done in an inadequate manner. Due to their weight and size, the transport of musical instruments can contribute to body dysfunctions in musicians who frequently have to carry their instruments, influencing balance andbody posture. Thus, the soil reaction force was investigated during the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument. Two AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technologies, Inc. platforms were used for kinetic data acquisition. A total of 40 measurements were obtainedfor gait and balance: 20 without carrying the instrument and 20 while carrying the instrument. The t test showed significant differences between the two situations for all variables analyzed. The results suggest that the locomotor system suffers alterationswhen carrying any kind of load, as was the case here in which the subject carried 7.75% of his own weight.

  11. Efficacy of Aquatic Treadmill Training on Gait Symmetry and Balance in Subacute Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Eun; Jo, Geun Yeol; Do, Hwan Kwon; Choi, Hee Eun; Kim, Woo Jin

    2017-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of aquatic treadmill training (ATT) as a new modality for stroke rehabilitation, by assessing changes in gait symmetry, balance function, and subjective balance confidence for the paretic and non-paretic leg in stroke patients. Twenty-one subacute stroke patients participated in 15 intervention sessions of aquatic treadmill training. The Comfortable 10-Meter Walk Test (CWT), spatiotemporal gait parameters, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC) were assessed pre- and post-interventions. From pre- to post-intervention, statistically significant improvements were observed in the CWT (0.471±0.21 to 0.558±0.23, pstroke therapy, with other modalities.

  12. Upper limb movement analysis during gait in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stephane; Assal, Frederic; Lalive, Patrice; Allali, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are well studied; however, no previous study has described upper limb movements during gait. However, upper limb movements have an important role during locomotion and can be altered in MS patients due to direct MS lesions or mechanisms of compensation. The aim of this study was to describe the arm movements during gait in a population of MS patients with low disability compared with a healthy control group. In this observational study we analyzed the arm movements during gait in 52 outpatients (mean age: 39.7±9.6years, female: 40%) with relapsing-remitting MS with low disability (mean EDSS: 2±1) and 25 healthy age-matched controls using a 3-dimension gait analysis. MS patients walked slower, with increased mean elbow flexion and decreased amplitude of elbow flexion (ROM) compared to the control group, whereas shoulder and hand movements were similar to controls. These differences were not explained by age or disability. Upper limb alterations in movement during gait in MS patients with low disability can be characterized by an increase in mean elbow flexion and a decrease in amplitude (ROM) for elbow flexion/extension. This upper limb movement pattern should be considered as a new component of gait disorders in MS and may reflect subtle motor deficits or the use of compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  14. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-05-04

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1).

  15. Insights into gait disorders: walking variability using phase plot analysis, Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Johnny; Esser, Patrick; Khalil, Hanan; Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori; DeBono, Katy; Rosser, Anne; Nemeth, Andrea H; Dawes, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Identifying sensitive methodologies to quantitatively measure early motor changes have been difficult to develop. This exploratory observational study investigated gait variability and symmetry in HD using phase plot analysis. We measured the walking of 22 controls and 35 HD gene carriers (7 premanifest (PreHD)), 16 early/mid (HD1) and 12 late stage (HD2) in Oxford and Cardiff, UK. The unified Huntington's disease rating scale-total motor scores (UHDRS-TMS) and disease burden scores (DBS) were used to quantify disease severity. Data was collected during a clinical walk test (8.8 or 10 m) using an inertial measurement unit attached to the trunk. The 6 middle strides were used to calculate gait variability determined by spatiotemporal parameters (co-efficient of variation (CoV)) and phase plot analysis. Phase plots considered the variability in consecutive wave forms from vertical movement and were quantified by SDA (spatiotemporal variability), SDB (temporal variability), ratio ∀ (ratio SDA:SDB) and Δangleβ (symmetry). Step time CoV was greater in manifest HD (p0.05). Phase plot analysis identified differences between manifest HD and controls for SDB, Ratio ∀ and Δangle (all pplot analysis may be a sensitive method of detecting gait changes in HD and can be performed quickly during clinical walking tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Susana Vargas-Valencia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel calibration procedure as a simple, yet powerful, method to place and align inertial sensors with body segments. The calibration can be easily replicated without the need of any additional tools. The proposed method is validated in three different applications: a computer mathematical simulation; a simplified joint composed of two semi-spheres interconnected by a universal goniometer; and a real gait test with five able-bodied subjects. Simulation results demonstrate that, after the calibration method is applied, the joint angles are correctly measured independently of previous sensor placement on the joint, thus validating the proposed procedure. In the cases of a simplified joint and a real gait test with human volunteers, the method also performs correctly, although secondary plane errors appear when compared with the simulation results. We believe that such errors are caused by limitations of the current inertial measurement unit (IMU technology and fusion algorithms. In conclusion, the presented calibration procedure is an interesting option to solve the alignment problem when using IMUs for gait analysis.

  17. Artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured subjects: how to assess clinical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rocha Pithon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adapt the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT to artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured (SCI patients aided by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Method Nine male individuals with paraplegia (AIS A participated in this study. Lesion levels varied between T4 and T12 and time post injured from 4 to 13 years. Patients performed 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2. They used neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and were aided by a walker. The differences between two 6MWT were assessed by using a paired t test. Multiple r-squared was also calculated. Results The 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2 were not statistically different for heart rate, distance, mean speed and blood pressure. Multiple r-squared (r2 = 0.96 explained 96% of the variation in the distance walked. Conclusion The use of 6MWT in artificial gait towards assessing exercise walking capacity is reproducible and easy to apply. It can be used to assess SCI artificial gait clinical performance.

  18. The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stepping strategies for regulating gait adaptability and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Laura; Houdijk, Han; Steenbrink, Frans; Mert, Agali; van der Wurff, Peter; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-03-15

    Besides a stable gait pattern, gait in daily life requires the capability to adapt this pattern in response to environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anticipatory strategies used by able-bodied people to attain an adaptive gait pattern, and how these strategies interact with strategies used to maintain gait stability. Ten healthy subjects walked in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN). To provoke an adaptive gait pattern, subjects had to hit virtual targets, with markers guided by their knees, while walking on a self-paced treadmill. The effects of walking with and without this task on walking speed, step length, step frequency, step width and the margins of stability (MoS) were assessed. Furthermore, these trials were performed with and without additional continuous ML platform translations. When an adaptive gait pattern was required, subjects decreased step length (padaptations resulted in the preservation of equal MoS between trials, despite the disturbing influence of the gait adaptability task. When the gait adaptability task was combined with the balance perturbation subjects further decreased step length, as evidenced by a significant interaction between both manipulations (p=0.012). In conclusion, able-bodied people reduce step length and increase step width during walking conditions requiring a high level of both stability and adaptability. Although an increase in step frequency has previously been found to enhance stability, a faster movement, which would coincide with a higher step frequency, hampers accuracy and may consequently limit gait adaptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential associations between dual-task walking abilities and usual gait patterns in healthy older adults-Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Jerome, Gerald J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Studenski, Stephanie; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2018-04-27

    It is well established that facing a cognitive challenge while carrying out a motor task interferes with the motor task performance, and in general the ability of handling a dual-task declines progressively with aging. However, the reasons for this decline have not been fully elucidated. Understanding the association between usual-walking gait patterns and dual-task walking performance may provide new insights into the mechanisms that lead to gait deterioration in normal aging and its link to motor and cognitive function. Our aim was to assess usual gait parameters in kinematics and kinetics to understand how these parameters are related with a specific task in dual-task walking. We hypothesized that difficulty in dual-task walking would be associated with gait deteriorations as reflected in range of motion and mechanical work expenditure. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the gait of 383 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (68% of whom successfully completed the dual-task walk, 21% failed the motor task, and 11% failed the cognitive task). Compared to successful performers, participants who failed the single motor task had slower gait speed, shorter stride length, higher cadence, and lower range of motion in the knee and ankle joints (p task while walking had longer double support time (p = 0.003), and greater knee absorptive mechanical work (p = 0. 001) and lower ankle generative mechanical work (p task walking may be useful for monitoring subtle and diverse gait deteriorations in aging and possibly for designing interventions for maintaining and regaining proper gait patterns in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains.

  2. Hemorrhagic versus ischemic stroke: Who can best benefit from blended conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierick, Frédéric; Dehas, Mélanie; Isambert, Jean-Luc; Injeyan, Soizic; Bouché, Anne-France; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Portnoy, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to common belief of clinicians that hemorrhagic stroke survivors have better functional prognoses than ischemic, recent studies show that ischemic survivors could experience similar or even better functional improvements. However, the influence of stroke subtype on gait and posture outcomes following an intervention blending conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy is missing. This study compared gait and posture outcome measures between ambulatory hemorrhagic patients and ischemic patients, who received a similar 4 weeks' intervention blending a conventional bottom-up physiotherapy approach and an exoskeleton top-down robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) approach with Lokomat. Forty adult hemiparetic stroke inpatient subjects were recruited: 20 hemorrhagic and 20 ischemic, matched by age, gender, side of hemisphere lesion, stroke severity, and locomotor impairments. Functional Ambulation Category, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 6 Minutes Walk Test, Timed Up and Go and 10-Meter Walk Test were performed before and after a 4-week long intervention. Functional gains were calculated for all tests. Hemorrhagic and ischemic subjects showed significant improvements in Functional Ambulation Category (Pbenefits from the same type, length and frequency of blended conventional physiotherapy and RAGT protocol. The use of intensive treatment plans blending top-down physiotherapy and bottom-up robotic approaches is promising for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  3. Association between stride time fractality and gait adaptability during unperturbed and asymmetric walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Scott W; Liddy, Joshua J; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Busa, Michael A; Claxton, Laura J; van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2018-04-01

    Human locomotion is an inherently complex activity that requires the coordination and control of neurophysiological and biomechanical degrees of freedom across various spatiotemporal scales. Locomotor patterns must constantly be altered in the face of changing environmental or task demands, such as heterogeneous terrains or obstacles. Variability in stride times occurring at short time scales (e.g., 5-10 strides) is statistically correlated to larger fluctuations occurring over longer time scales (e.g., 50-100 strides). This relationship, known as fractal dynamics, is thought to represent the adaptive capacity of the locomotor system. However, this has not been tested empirically. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if stride time fractality during steady state walking associated with the ability of individuals to adapt their gait patterns when locomotor speed and symmetry are altered. Fifteen healthy adults walked on a split-belt treadmill at preferred speed, half of preferred speed, and with one leg at preferred speed and the other at half speed (2:1 ratio asymmetric walking). The asymmetric belt speed condition induced gait asymmetries that required adaptation of locomotor patterns. The slow speed manipulation was chosen in order to determine the impact of gait speed on stride time fractal dynamics. Detrended fluctuation analysis was used to quantify the correlation structure, i.e., fractality, of stride times. Cross-correlation analysis was used to measure the deviation from intended anti-phasing between legs as a measure of gait adaptation. Results revealed no association between unperturbed walking fractal dynamics and gait adaptability performance. However, there was a quadratic relationship between perturbed, asymmetric walking fractal dynamics and adaptive performance during split-belt walking, whereby individuals who exhibited fractal scaling exponents that deviated from 1/f performed the poorest. Compared to steady state preferred walking

  4. Identification of Characteristic Motor Patterns Preceding Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Palmerini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a disabling symptom that is common among patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD. External cues such as rhythmic auditory stimulation can help PD patients experiencing freezing to resume walking. Wearable systems for automatic freezing detection have been recently developed. However, these systems detect a FOG episode after it has happened. Instead, in this study, a new approach for the prediction of FOG (before it actually happens is presented. Prediction of FOG might enable preventive cueing, reducing the likelihood that FOG will occur. Moreover, understanding the causes and circumstances of FOG is still an open research problem. Hence, a quantitative characterization of movement patterns just before FOG (the pre-FOG phase is of great importance. In this study, wearable inertial sensors were used to identify and quantify the characteristics of gait during the pre-FOG phase and compare them with the characteristics of gait that do not precede FOG. The hypothesis of this study is based on the threshold-based model of FOG, which suggests that before FOG occurs, there is a degradation of the gait pattern. Eleven PD subjects were analyzed. Six features extracted from movement signals recorded by inertial sensors showed significant differences between gait and pre-FOG. A classification algorithm was developed in order to test if it is feasible to predict FOG (i.e., detect it before it happens. The aim of the classification procedure was to identify the pre-FOG phase. Results confirm that there is a degradation of gait occurring before freezing. Results also provide preliminary evidence on the feasibility of creating an automatic algorithm to predict FOG. Although some limitations are present, this study shows promising findings for characterizing and identifying pre-FOG patterns, another step toward a better understanding, prediction, and prevention of this disabling symptom.

  5. A Robotic Exoskeleton for Treatment of Crouch Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Design and Initial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Zachary F; Damiano, Diane L; Park, Hyung-Soon; Gravunder, Andrew J; Bulea, Thomas C

    2017-06-01

    Crouch gait, a pathological pattern of walking characterized by excessive knee flexion, is one of the most common gait disorders observed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Effective treatment of crouch during childhood is critical to maintain mobility into adulthood, yet current interventions do not adequately alleviate crouch in most individuals. Powered exoskeletons provide an untapped opportunity for intervention. The multiple contributors to crouch, including spasticity, contracture, muscle weakness, and poor motor control make design and control of such devices challenging in this population. To our knowledge, no evidence exists regarding the feasibility or efficacy of utilizing motorized assistance to alleviate knee flexion in crouch gait. Here, we present the design of and first results from a powered exoskeleton for extension assistance as a treatment for crouch gait in children with CP. Our exoskeleton, based on the architecture of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis, is lightweight (3.2 kg) and modular. On board sensors enable knee extension assistance to be provided during distinct phases of the gait cycle. We tested our device on one six-year-old male participant with spastic diplegia from CP. Our results show that the powered exoskeleton improved knee extension during stance by 18.1° while total knee range of motion improved 21.0°. Importantly, we observed no significant decrease in knee extensor muscle activity, indicating the user did not rely solely on the exoskeleton to extend the limb. These results establish the initial feasibility of robotic exoskeletons for treatment of crouch and provide impetus for continued investigation of these devices with the aim of deployment for long term gait training in this population.

  6. Comparison between treadmill training with rhythmic auditory stimulation and ground walking with rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait ability in chronic stroke patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Park, So-yeon; Kim, Yong-wook; Woo, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Generally, treadmill training is very effective intervention, and rhythmic auditory stimulation is designed to feedback during gait training in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the gait abilities in chronic stroke patients following either treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (TRAS) or over ground walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (ORAS). Nineteen subjects were divided into two groups: a TRAS group (9 subjects) and an ORAS group (10 subjects). Temporal and spatial gait parameters and motor recovery ability were measured before and after the training period. Gait ability was measured by the Biodex Gait trainer treadmill system, Timed up and go test (TUG), 6 meter walking distance (6MWD) and Functional gait assessment (FGA). After the training periods, the TRAS group showed a significant improvement in walking speed, step cycle, step length of the unaffected limb, coefficient of variation, 6MWD, and, FGA when compared to the ORAS group (p <  0.05). Treadmill walking training during the rhythmic auditory stimulation may be useful for rehabilitation of patients with chronic stroke.

  7. Simulated impacts of ankle foot orthoses on muscle demand and recruitment in typically-developing children and children with cerebral palsy and crouch gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Passive ankle foot orthoses (AFOs are often prescribed for children with cerebral palsy (CP to assist locomotion, but predicting how specific device designs will impact energetic demand during gait remains challenging. Powered AFOs have been shown to reduce energy costs of walking in unimpaired adults more than passive AFOs, but have not been tested in children with CP. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential impact of powered and passive AFOs on muscle demand and recruitment in children with CP and crouch gait. We simulated gait for nine children with crouch gait and three typically-developing children with powered and passive AFOs. For each AFO design, we computed reductions in muscle demand compared to unassisted gait. Powered AFOs reduced muscle demand 15-44% compared to unassist