WorldWideScience

Sample records for led systems target

  1. LED Systems Target Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

  2. LED lamp power management system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  3. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  4. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  5. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  6. Optical design of a LED searchlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Xu, Haiping; Liang, Jinhua; Liu, Yunfei; Yuan, Zengquan

    2018-01-01

    A 1200m visible searchlight system is designed based on photometry and application of geometric optics. To generate intensity distribution of this relatively powerful light beam we propose to use a high power LED and several refractive optical elements, which are composed of two plane-convex lenses and a conventional Fresnel lens. Two plane-convex lenses enable refraction of the side rays from the LED to the front direction which incident on the Fresnel lens. Fresnel lens, in its turn, concentrate the light flux and provide a nearly collimated beam to meet the requirement of forming a well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. Simulation data shows that this searchlight allow generating an appropriate illumination distribution for the long range requirements. A proof-of-concept prototype producing acceptable illuminance is developed.

  7. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  8. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  9. Plant growth with Led lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Bernardini, A.; Di Carlo, F.; Scoccianti, M.; Alonzo, G.; Carlino, M.; Dondi, F.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Leds lighting is highly relevant for the horticultural industry. Compared to other light sources used for plant production, leds have several properties which are potentially useful in relation to horticulture. However, although LEDs technology has raised strong interest in research for extraterrestrial agriculture, current LEDs panel costs are still too high for commercial adoption in greenhouse sector, and their electrical efficacies do not compete with those of high-pressure sodium lamps, but several manufactures are working to address these issues. When LEDs become practical, their ability to based light sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties (i.e. low radiated heat; lighting from within the canopy) will render the narrow band spectrum of LEDs of particular interest for providing light to greenhouse horticulture. A general description of LEDs application and their technical characteristics is briefly reported. [it

  10. Driver beam-led EURISOL target design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Catherall, Richard; Kadi, Yacine; Kharoua, Cyril; Lettry, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The EURISOL (European Isotope Separation Online) Design Study is addressing new high power target design challenges. A three-step method [1] was proposed to split the high power linac proton driver beam into one $H^{-}$ branch for the 4 $MW_{b}$ [2] mercury target that produces radioactive ion beams (RIB) via spallation neutroninduced fission in a secondary actinide target and three 100 $kW_{b}$ $H^{+}$ branches for the direct targets producing RIBs via fragmentation and spallation reactions. This scheme minimises transient thermo-mechanical stresses on targets and preserves the cw nature of the driver beam in the four branches. The heat load for oxides, carbides, refractory metal foils and liquid metals is driven by the incident proton driver beam while for actinides, exothermic fission reactions are an additional contribution. This paper discusses the constraints that are specific to each class of material and the target design strategies.

  11. LED traffic signal management system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This research originated from the opportunity to develop a methodology to assess when LED (Light Emitting Diode) traffic signal modules begin to fail to meet the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) performance specification for luminous inten...

  12. Lifetime prediction of LED lighting systems considering thermal coupling between LED sources and drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfarog, Azzarn Orner; Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    The lifetime prediction of LED lighting system is important to guide the designers to fulfill the design specifications and to benchmark the cost-competitiveness of different lighting technologies. Currently, the lifetime of LED system is usually predicted from the source part and the driver part...... separately, and then the thermal design is also optimized independently. In practice, the LED source and driver are usually compacted in a single fixture. The heat dissipated from LED source and driver will be coupled together and affect the heat transfer performance, which may degrade the whole system...... and accelerate the failure. In this paper, a new thermal model concerning the thermal coupling is proposed with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation for parameter acquirement. The proposed model has a better estimation of the thermal stresses of key components in the LED lamps and therefore an improved...

  13. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Wireless Dimming Control System for LED Stage Light

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Hui Qin; Bai Shi Lei

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the existing wire dimming system of LED stage light which uses the heavy light operating console to adjust the brightness of stage light, a portable wireless dimming control system for LED stage lighting is proposed, fabricated and tested in this paper. The scheme with the core of ATmega16L microcontroller is composed of wireless transmission and reception units, constant current driving circuit of LED, and the control circuit between this two modules. Through the system present...

  15. Development of an intelligent integrated LED system-in-package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A.W.J.; Hesen, P.; Swartjes, F.H.M.; Zeijl, H. van; Boschman, F.; Bullema, J.-E.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Koh, S.

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent LED lighting systems can save up to 80% of energy compared to traditional lighting systems. In order to provide these intelligent lighting products at reaseonable costs, integration and miniaturisation are important steps. To this end we have designed a LED system-in-package that

  16. A novel amblyopia treatment system based on LED light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Xiaoling

    2011-05-01

    A novel LED (light emitting diode) light source of five different colors (white, red, green, blue and yellow) is adopted instead of conventional incandescent lamps for an amblyopia treatment system and seven training methods for rectifying amblyopia are incorporated so as for achieving an integrated therapy. The LED light source is designed to provide uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity and alterable colors. Experimental tests indicate that the LED light source operates steadily and fulfills the technical demand of amblyopia treatment.

  17. The LED monitoring system of the PHOENICS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, D.

    1991-07-01

    The PHOENICS experiment at ELSA uses a LED monitoring system to control pulse height and time measurement with scintillation counters. A green LED is mounted at the light guide of each of the 304 involved photomultiplier tubes. The LEDs are driven by fast voltage pulses of 5 ns FWHM width and about 20 V amplitude. Simulation of single events is possible by computer controlled switching of individual LEDs. In order to correct for the temperature dependence of the LED intensity an automatic temperature recording system was coupled to the computer. This monitor system allows to control the pulse height and time measurement with an accuracy of about 2% and 100 ps respectively. (orig.) [de

  18. Visual color matching system based on RGB LED light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Huang, Qingmei; Feng, Chen; Li, Wei; Wang, Chaofeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the property and performance of LED as RGB primary color light sources on color mixture in visual psychophysical experiments, and to find out the difference between LED light source and traditional light source, a visual color matching experiment system based on LED light sources as RGB primary colors has been built. By simulating traditional experiment of metameric color matching in CIE 1931 RGB color system, it can be used for visual color matching experiments to obtain a set of the spectral tristimulus values which we often call color-matching functions (CMFs). This system consists of three parts: a monochromatic light part using blazed grating, a light mixing part where the summation of 3 LED illuminations are to be visually matched with a monochromatic illumination, and a visual observation part. The three narrow band LEDs used have dominant wavelengths of 640 nm (red), 522 nm (green) and 458 nm (blue) respectively and their intensities can be controlled independently. After the calibration of wavelength and luminance of LED sources with a spectrophotometer, a series of visual color matching experiments have been carried out by 5 observers. The results are compared with those from CIE 1931 RGB color system, and have been used to compute an average locus for the spectral colors in the color triangle, with white at the center. It has been shown that the use of LED is feasible and has the advantages of easy control, good stability and low cost.

  19. Dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Pavlenko, Nikita A.

    2017-09-01

    Scientific and technological progress of recent years in the production of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to the expansion of areas of their application from the simplest systems to high precision lighting devices used in various fields of human activity. However, development and production (especially mass production) of LED lighting devices are impossible without a thorough analysis of its parameters and characteristics. There are many ways and devices for analysis the spatial, energy and colorimetric parameters of LEDs. The most methods are intended for definition only one parameter (for example, luminous flux) or one characteristic (for example, the angular distribution of energy or the spectral characteristics). Besides, devices used these methods are intended for measuring parameters in only one point or plane. This problem can be solved by using a dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs, developed by specialists of the department OEDS chair of ITMO University in Russia. The paper presents the theoretical aspects of the analysis of LED's spatial (angular), energy and color parameters by using mentioned of diagnostics system. The article also presents the results of spatial), energy and color parameters measurements of some LEDs brands.

  20. Indoor visual positioning system using LED and mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yingkui; Shi, Zhengfa; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    An indoor visual positioning system is proposed, which using four or more LED ceiling lamps and a mobile phone. A 4*4 photodiode array is attached to the mobile phone to receive the three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps via visible light communication, and the front camera of the mobile phone is used to receive the high resolution image of the LED lamps. The mobile phone's three-dimensional coordinates can be determined by matching the spot information and three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps with the image information provided by the mobile phone. An improved collinear equation model is proposed to build the mapping relationship between the three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps and the image information acquired by the front camera. A semi-physical simulation has been conducted and analyzed. The positioning scheme is proved to be valid and the positioning accuracy is up to decimeter level.

  1. Targeted Therapy in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Baron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies use an understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease in an individual patient. Although targeted therapy for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma has not yet reached the level of patient-specific treatments, recent developments in the understanding of the global pathophysiology of the disease have led to new treatments based on the cells and pathways that have been shown to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. The presence of a B cell signature in skin biopsies has led to the trial of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, in SSc. The well-known properties of transforming growth factor (TGF-β in promoting collagen synthesis and secretion has led to a small trial of fresolimumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing TGF-β. Evidence supporting important roles for interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of SSc have led to a large trial of tocilizumab in SSc. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO to the sGC molecule. Processes such as cell growth and proliferation are regulated by cGMP. Evidence that sGC may play a role in SSc has led to a trial of riociguat, a molecule that sensitizes sGC to endogenous NO. Tyrosine kinases (TKs are involved in a wide variety of physiologic and pathological processes including vascular remodeling and fibrogenesis such as occurs in SSc. This has led to a trial of nintedanib, a next-generation tyrosine-kinase (TK inhibitor which targets multiple TKs, in SSc.

  2. LED lamps in shipboard lighting systems: Aspects of electromagnetic compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beley V. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the development of different types of light sources and their energy characteristics have been described in the paper. Analysis of regulatory documents has been given. The results of experimental studies of a number of modern LED lamps have been described. Investigation has been made for a number of LED lamps produced by Philips, Xavax and Melitec. The experimental data have been obtained with the complex of devices: the dual-channel oscilloscope (GDS-71042, the power quality analyzer (Fluke-434 and the multi-function device EcoLight-01 (light-, pulse- and luminance meter. It has been shown that operation of LED lamps is characterized by emission of higher current harmonics and reactive power consumption, which depends on the type and design of the lamp driver. It has been found that the value of luminance created by LED lamps in case of acceptable (for ships prolonged deviation of voltage (–10 % is reduced by 3 %; in case of permissible short-term voltage deviation (–20 % luminance is reduced by 7 %. For incandescent lamps this indicator is characterized by a decrease in luminance by 40 % and 60 %, respectively. Despite the low sensitivity to voltage changes (in comparison with other types of lamps, the operation of LED lamps is also associated with the appearance of flicker. Absence of limitations for fluctuations of the light flux in shipboard lighting systems and imperfection of methods for determining the flicker make it difficult to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lamps. Therefore due to reliability, environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and lumen maintenance LED lamps have prospects for introduction into shipboard lighting systems. However, to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lighting systems it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of energy characteristics of LED lamps and to develop appropriate regulatory requirements and technical solutions.

  3. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor...

  4. [Photoelectric parametric test system of LED based on virtual instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Tao; Wang, Jing; Wang, Li-Dong; Liang, Pei; Dong, Qian-Min

    2014-11-01

    The standardized measuring principle, requirements and implementations of the above parameters of LEDs were researched and analyzed in the present paper. Then a comprehensive test system involved with optics, machinery and computer was designed to accomplish data acquisition, algorithm design and interface design on virtual instrument using NI data acquisition card USB6210. And convincing results of LEDs' parameters, including peak wavelength, width of half-peak wavelength, centroid wavelength, chromaticity coordinates, purity, correlated color temperature and the forward voltage/current, were achieved with good consistency based on the measured spectrum. The system owns simple interface, reliable algorithms and stable results. Respective measurements on five kinds of color of LED result in an average error less than 3%, which show an ideal performance of the system.

  5. Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System Using Blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aobo; Tong, Zheng; Song, Yuhang; Kong, Meiwei; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a self-designed underwater wireless optical communication system using blue LEDs. The performance of the transmitter and receiver was experimentally investigated. Four different square wave signals (10 KHz, 100 KHz, 500 KHz and 1 MHz) were successfully transmitted via a short water channel at the first phase.

  6. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  7. Experiencing LED: Lighting: New Form and Experiential Qualities Emerging in Lighting Systems using LED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kristensen, Ole; Søndergaard, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The project investigates what new forms and qualities of light emerge from technologies such as LED, with a particular focus on basic form qualities and parameters. Existing linear functional understandings of the relation between light source, light flow, reflection and visibility is challenged ...... by relational understandings, where the materiality and visibility of the light emerge through mutual influences between several adaptive and transformative elements....

  8. A user-led approach to information systems investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pferd, J.W.; Fuller, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Information-system (IS) expenditures for upstream E ampersand P have come under strong review along with other overhead expenses. Increasing frustration with IS budgets and concern about their business value led Unocal Corp. to change the way it begins, manages, and implements IS projects. Successful IS investments are aligned with the goals and functions of work groups or business units and are balanced against other investments. The twin demands of business needs and sound technical design must be served together to achieve long-term success from IS investments. This paper describes project organizations and methods to achieve these two objectives

  9. Altruism and Peer-Led HIV Prevention Targeting Heroin and Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convey, Mark R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong

    2013-01-01

    Peer-delivered HIV prevention and intervention programs play an important role in halting the spread of HIV. Rigorous scientific analysis of the forementioned programs have focused on the immediate reduction of risk-related behaviors among the target populations. In our longitudinal study of the RAP Peer Intervention for HIV, we assessed the long-term behavioral effects of a peer-led HIV intervention project with active drug users. Initial analysis of the qualitative data highlights the role of altruism as a motivator in sustaining peer educators beyond the immediate goals of the project. We contend that altruism found in volunteers is an important factor in maintaining long-term participation in HIV intervention programs and initiatives using peer educators. PMID:20639354

  10. From the Provider-Led to an Employer-Led System: Implications of Apprenticeship Reform on the Private Training Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankseliani, Maia; Relly, Susan James

    2015-01-01

    Despite expending a great deal of public money, and after many government-led "reforms" to develop an apprenticeship system that rivals those found in other countries, the apprenticeship system in England still faces a number of challenges and failings, not least in the private training market. This paper explores the landscape of…

  11. LED Based Optical Wireless Communication System for WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTIYA BAQAI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the O-WBANs (Optical Wireless Body Area Networks is presented as an alternative to the radio and microwave BANs which are plagued with issues like interference, power hungry, hazardous and costly spectrum. Various experiments performed in this work demonstrate the feasibility of LED (Light-Emitting Diode based optical systems to be used for BANs. The system cost is kept as low as possible. Mainly the effects on the optical link are observed under ambient light and with different modulation schemes by varying link distance and line of sight in this paper. Experimental results reveal the satisfactory link availability up to the distance of 7 feet (around 2m, the optimum range of WBAN and within the field of view of 30-60º. The low cost solution presented in this paper meets the WBANs data rate requirement for physiological data (i.e. 10-100 kbps. As IR (Infra-Red signals do not provide any interference with the signals generated by the medical equipment of hospitals which is the problem in case of RF or microwave signals, additionally the IR signals are confined within a room hence IR signaling can prove to be potential candidate for WBAN fulfilling its security and limited access requirement.

  12. A UV LED-based Charge Management System for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John W.; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo Janet; Apple, Stephen; Parry, Samantha; Ciani, Giacomo; Wass, Peter; Mueller, Guido

    2018-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first space instrument to observe gravitational waves in the millihertz frequency band. LISA consists of three Sun-orbiting spacecraft that form an equilateral triangle, with each side measuring 2.5 million kilometers in length. Each spacecraft houses two free-floating test masses, which are protected from all disturbing forces so that they follow pure geodesics in spacetime. A drag-free control system commands micronewton thrusters to force the spacecraft to fly in formation with the test masses and laser interferometers measure the minute variations in the distance, or light travel time, between these free-falling test masses caused by gravitational waves. The LISA observatory, with a planned launch in the early 2030s, is led by the European Space Agency with significant contributions from NASA. Recently, NASA has initiated strategic investments in key LISA technologies that will likely become U.S. flight hardware contributions to this ground-breaking mission. One of these payload elements is the Charge Management System (CMS), which controls the electric potential of the test masses relative to their housings to reduce spurious force noise acting on the test masses to below the required level. This talk, presented by University of Florida team that leads the CMS development, will describe this vital U.S. contribution to the LISA mission in the context of the envisioned LISA payload architecture and its in-flight sensitivity to gravitational waves.

  13. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  14. Next Generation Target Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the allegations concerning the Next Generation Target Control System Program and to determine whether the Program is the most cost effective solution to meet the target...

  15. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  16. Conduction-driven cooling of LED-based automotive LED lighting systems for abating local hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saati, Ferina; Arik, Mehmet

    2018-02-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED)-based automotive lighting systems pose unique challenges, such as dual-side packaging (front side for LEDs and back side for driver electronics circuit), size, harsh ambient, and cooling. Packaging for automotive lighting applications combining the advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology with a multifunctional LED-based board is investigated with a focus on the effect of thermal conduction-based cooling for hot spot abatement. A baseline study with a flame retardant 4 technology, commonly known as FR4 PCB, is first compared with a metal-core PCB technology, both experimentally and computationally. The double-sided advanced PCB that houses both electronics and LEDs is then investigated computationally and experimentally compared with the baseline FR4 PCB. Computational models are first developed with a commercial computational fluid dynamics software and are followed by an advanced PCB technology based on embedded heat pipes, which is computationally and experimentally studied. Then, attention is turned to studying different heat pipe orientations and heat pipe placements on the board. Results show that conventional FR4-based light engines experience local hot spots (ΔT>50°C) while advanced PCB technology based on heat pipes and thermal spreaders eliminates these local hot spots (ΔT<10°C), leading to a higher lumen extraction with improved reliability. Finally, possible design options are presented with embedded heat pipe structures that further improve the PCB performance.

  17. LED phototherapy system in skin treatment and detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Wu, Jih-Huah; Lin, Ching-Huang; Ma, Shih-Hsin

    2010-08-01

    In this research, a new module of skin treatment has been proposed. The 40 pieces of red and 36 pieces of yellow LEDs are utilized to be the light sources in treatment the cracks and corrosions on skin, and the 4 pieces of white light LEDs are applied in lighting on skin. In addition, the image of skin could be obtained by a CCD webcam, and the skin inspection will be determined by number of pores in images. Finally, the good experimental results have been obtained in human body.

  18. An underwater optical wireless communication system based on LED source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jionghui; Wei, Wei; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2011-11-01

    Compared with other communication methods, optical wireless communication (OWC) holds the merits of higher transmitting rate and sufficient secrecy. So it is an efficacious communicating measure for data transmitting between underwater carriers. However, due to the water attenuation and the transmitter & the receiver (TX/RX) collimation, this application is restrained in underwater mobile carriers. A prototype for underwater OWC was developed, in which a high-powered green LED array was used as the light source which partly raveled the TX/RX collimation out. A small pumped-multiple-tube (PMT) was used as the detector to increase the communicating range, and FPGA chips were employed to code and decode the communicating data. The data rate of the prototype approached to 4 Mb/s at 8.4m and 1 Mb/s at 22m where voice and Morse communications were achieved in a scope of 30 degree TX/RX angle.

  19. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting.

  20. Integrated Automotive High-Power LED-Lighting Systems in 3D-MID Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing energy consumption of lighting as well as rising luminous efficacies and -fluxes of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have contributed to the widespread use of LEDs in modern lighting systems. One of the most prominent users of the LED-technology is automotive (exterior) lighting.

  1. Combination of Bayesian networks and FEM models to predict reliability of LED systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, J.E.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Hesen, P.; Swartjes, F.H.M.; Boschman, F.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent LED lighting systems can save up to 80% of energy compared to incandescent lighting systems. In order to provide these products at reasonable costs, integration and miniaturization are important steps [1]. Another attractive feature of LED systems is the claimed long life expectancy. The

  2. We Need a Genuinely Demand-Led Skills System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Anyone coming to the skills sector for the first time will swiftly find a baffling array of government "initiatives" and quangos. These latter bodies invariably claim to represent employer need, increase the status of vocational education or deliver best practice (delete as appropriate). The result is that the skills system as it…

  3. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Design for The Indoor Visible Light Communication Application System Based on LED Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an indoor visible light communication application system based on LED. The system can modulate the original signal one or more times, move to a specific frequency band, transmit on the power line, in the LED terminal use this module to decode, restore the Ethernet signals. This design is applicable to the simplicity of the LED visible light communication applications, which provide the premise and guarantee for the construction of smart home network.

  5. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  6. Study of system dynamics model and control of a high-power LED lighting luminaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.-J.; Hsu, P.-C.; Wu, M.-S.; Tang, C.-W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to design a current control system which is robust to the system dynamics uncertainty and the disturbance of ambient temperature to assure a stable optical output property of LED. The system dynamics model of the LED lighting system was first derived. A 96 W high-power LED luminaire was designed and built in the present study. The linearly perturbed system dynamics model for the LED luminaire is derived experimentally. The dynamics model of LED lighting system is of a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system with two inputs (applied voltage and ambient temperature) and two outputs (forward current and heat conducting body temperature). A step response test method was employed to the 96 W LED luminaire to identify the system dynamics model. It is found that the current model is just a constant gain (resistance) and the disturbance model is of first order, both changing with operating conditions (voltage and ambient temperature). A feedback control system using PI algorithm was designed using the results of the system dynamics model. The control system was implemented on a PIC microprocessor. Experimental results show that the control system can stably and accurately control the LED current to a constant value at the variation of ambient temperature up to 40 o C. The control system is shown to have a robust property with respect to the plant uncertainty and the ambient temperature disturbance

  7. Fremtidens bæredygtige solcelle-drevne LED system i øjenhøjde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Dimensionering og optimering af energisystemet samt intelligent styring af energiforbrug i fremtidens autonome og bæredygtige LED systemer.......Dimensionering og optimering af energisystemet samt intelligent styring af energiforbrug i fremtidens autonome og bæredygtige LED systemer....

  8. MOSFET Loss Evaluation for a Low-Power Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-LED System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation and comparison of state-of-the-art low voltage Si MOSFETs for a stand-alone photovoltaic-LED Light to Light (LtL) system. The complete system is formed by two cascaded converters that will be optimized for a determined solar irradiation and LED...

  9. Multi-LED parallel transmission for long distance underwater VLC system with one SPAD receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Hong-Yi; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Ji, Ya-Wei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a multiple light emitting diode (LED) chips parallel transmission (Multi-LED-PT) scheme for underwater visible light communication system with one photon-counting single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) receiver is proposed. As the lamp always consists of multi-LED chips, the data rate could be improved when we drive these multi-LED chips parallel by using the interleaver-division-multiplexing technique. For each chip, the on-off-keying modulation is used to reduce the influence of clipping. Then a serial successive interference cancellation detection algorithm based on ideal Poisson photon-counting channel by the SPAD is proposed. Finally, compared to the SPAD-based direct current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system, the proposed Multi-LED-PT system could improve the error-rate performance and anti-nonlinearity performance significantly under the effects of absorption, scattering and weak turbulence-induced channel fading together.

  10. A white–cyan-red LED system for low correlated colour temperature lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    A white LED complemented by cyan and red LEDs is a good candidate for achieving high colour rendering at low correlated colour temperatures. This is usually very difficult with commercially available white LEDs. In addition, the system is able to replace incandescent lighting in many applications......; for example, the lighting for museum display cases. To investigate and optimize the colour and light distribution properties, both spectral and geometrical modelling are used. Mapping of the possible combinations of LEDs is used to locate the optimal solutions within the colour gamut, with emphasis...

  11. [Analysis of color gamut of LCD system based on LED backlight with area-controlling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Wen; Jin, Wei-Qi; Shao, Xi-Bin; Zhang, Li-Lei; Wan, Li-Fang

    2010-05-01

    Color gamut as a significant performance index for display system describes the color reproduction ability IN real scenes. Liquid crystal display (LCD) is the most popular technology in flat panel display. However, conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlight of LCD can not behave high color gamut compared with cathode ray tube (CRT). The common used method of color gamut measuring for LCD system is introduced at the beginning. According to the inner structure and display principle of LCD system, there are three major factors deciding LCD's color gamut: spectral properties of backlight, transmittance properties of color filters and performance of liquid crystal panel. Instead of conventional backlight CCFL, RGB-LED backlight is used for improving color reproduction of LCD display system. Due to the imperfect match between RGB-LED' s spectra and color filter's transmittance, the color filter would reduce the color gamut of LCD system more or less. Therefore, LCD system based on LED backlight with area-control technique is introduced which modifies backlight control signal according to the input signal After analyzing and calculating the spectra of LED backlight which passes through the color filters using method of colorimetry, the area sizes of color gamut triangles of RGB-LED backlight with area-control and RGB-LED backlight without area-control LCD systems are compared and the relationship between color gamut and varying contrast of liquid crystal panel is analyzed. It is indicated that LED backlight with area-control technique can avoid color saturation dropping and have little effects on the contrast variation of liquid crystal panel. In other words, LED backlight with area-control technique relaxes the requirements of both color filter performance and liquid crystal panel. Thus, it is of importance to improve the color gamut of the current LCD system with area-control LED backlight.

  12. Moving target acquisition and tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael D.; Budenske, John; Richardson, Russell D.

    1990-09-01

    Imaging Systems have traditionally required large development cycles to transition from non-real-time implementations on general purpose computers to final real-time system prototypes using custom hardware. This paper presents a flexible realtime prototyping approach for the Conceptual Definition, Demonstration and Validation phases of development for imaging system applications such as forward observe, perimeterdefense, or "mobile barrier." A target acquisition and tracking system that has utilized this approach will be discussed and tracking system that has utilized this approach will be discussed and used to compare hardware, software, resources and schedule factors to other imaging system development programs. The testbed is shown to maintain a high degree of algorithm flexibility allowing field test experiences to be rapidly incorporated into the system. The entire system is programmable using high order languages to minimize software costs and enhance maintainability. This system was developed and integrated into a mobile lab for field testing. During real-time testing the system was upgraded and modified to provide high detection performance with low false alarm rates. This approach has led to a more complete understanding of the problem being addressed and has positioned this system closer to its final product form.

  13. Setup of a LED light-pulser system for the OLYMPUS experiment; Aufbau eines LED-Lichtpulsersystems fuer das OLYMPUS-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Waqaas

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this thesis consists in the construction and test of an external light-calibration system based on light-emitting diodes (LED) for the application at the symmetric Moller/Bhabha (SYMB) luminosity monitor. In chapter 2 the theoretical foundations of the OLYMPUS experiment, especially of the SYMB luminosity monitor are explained. Thereafter in chapter 3 the details of the setup of the OLYMPUS experiment and the fundamental properties of the SYMB detectors are discussed. In chapter 4 the whole concept of the LED light-pulser system is treated. In chapter 5 then test measurements with the ready LED light-pulser system are described. Thereby the light source shall be optimized in the shape that thereafter light pulses with short signal width are producable. Also different measurements for the unique characterization of the systems are performed. In chapter 6 light-intensity measurements during the operation of the LED light-pulser system are described.

  14. Improved InGaN LED System Efficacy and Cost via Droop Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildeson, Isaac; Armitage, Robert

    2017-11-29

    Efficiency droop is a non-thermal process intrinsic to indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) in which the external quantum efficiency (EQE) decreases with increasing drive current density. Mitigating droop would allow one to reduce the size of LEDs driven at a given current or to drive LEDs of given size at higher current while maintaining high efficiencies. In other words, droop mitigation can lead to significant gains in light output per dollar and/or light output per watt of input power. This project set an EQE improvement goal at high drive current density which was to be attained by improving the LED active region design and growth process following a droop mitigation strategy. The interactions between LED active region design parameters and efficiency droop were studied by modeling and experiments. The crystal defects that tend to form in more complex LED designs intended to mitigate droop were studied with advanced characterization methods that provided insight into the structural and electronic properties of the material. This insight was applied to improve the epitaxy process both in terms of active region design and optimization of growth parameters. The final project goals were achieved on schedule and an epitaxy process leading to LEDs with EQE exceeding the project target was demonstrated.

  15. Increase of energy efficiency in horticultural tissue culture with high-power-LED lighting systems; Energieeffizienzsteigerung pflanzlicher In-vitro-Kulturverfahren mit Hochleistungs-LED-Belichtungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornwasser, Thorsten

    2011-07-01

    The lighting of tissue cultures is one of the main cost factors in growing rooms due to the high energy need. A lighting system with high-power light-emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) was tested as an alternative to the conventionally used fluorescent tubes. Therefore the HP-LED-types royal-blue, red, and cool white were used to create different spectral outputs. The photon flux yield, level of efficiency, and spectral shift of the single HP-LEDs were measured beforehand at different operating conditions (i.e. increasing current and junction temperature). The energy efficiency of the HP-LED lighting system was determined at 0.83 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} with the same shelf board distance (300 mm) and average PPFD on the exposed surface as compared to the control lighting system. The energy efficiency of the fluorescent lighting system could reach a maximum value of 0.68 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In addition to the reduced energy needs, HP-LED lighting systems reduce the need for cooling energy in culture rooms to regulate the room temperature. HP-LED lighting systems allow the reduction of the shelf board distance due to the small mass volume of LEDs and diminished radiant heat output towards the plant. The lower shelf board distance led to an additional increase of the energy efficiency up to 1.16 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} at a distance of 210 mm. Simultaneously the PPFD distribution was more regular than under the exposure with a fluorescent tube. Beside the increase of energy efficiency, HP-LEDs facilitate the control of the spectral composition. The spectral output can be adjusted to the plants' needs and thereby permit a more optimal production and influence the plant morphology (Nhut und Na, 2010; Morrow, 2008). Various plant tissue cultures and their response to different spectral compositions were investigated with the developed HP-LED lighting system. For none of the tested cultures could a preference for one of the spectral compositions be determined

  16. Savings in Cooling Energy with a Thermal Management System for LED Lighting in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED lighting should be considered for lighting efficiency enhancement, however, waste heat from light-emitting diode (LED lighting increases the internal cooling load during the summer season. In order to solve this problem we propose a thermal management system for light-emitting diode (LED lighting with a heat exchanger module integrated with the building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to move the lighting’s waste heat outdoors. An experiment was carried out to investigate the thermal effects in a test chamber and the heat exchange rate between the heat sink and the duct air. The heat generated by the light-emitting diode (LED lighting was calculated as 78.1% of light-emitting diode (LED input power and the heat exchange rate of the lighting heat exchange module was estimated to be between 86.5% and 98.1% according to the light-emitting diode (LED input power and the flow rate of air passing the heat sink. As a result, the average light-emitting diode (LED lighting heat contribution rate for internal heat gain was determined as 0.05; this value was used to calculate the heating and cooling energy demand of the office building through an energy simulation program. In the simulation results, the cooling energy demand was reduced by 19.2% compared with the case of conventionally installed light-emitting diode (LED lighting.

  17. Advanced LED warning system for rural intersections : phase 2 (ALERT-2) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report presents findings of the second phase of the Advanced LED Warning System for Rural : Intersections (ALERT) project. Since it is the next generation of the same system, the second phase : system is referred to as the ALERT-2 system while t...

  18. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  19. Automated system for the determination of patterns of high-intensity LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baly, L.; Bolaño, L.; Arteche, R.; Broco, Y.; Quesada, I.; Rodríguez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of high-intensity LEDs lighting patterns is an important step for the simulation and planning of arrays of these devices configurations. Currently there are systems based on CCD cameras able to efficiently solve this problem, however the high cost of these is a limiting factor for use. Another limitation of CCD cameras, is that they are designed for light levels much lower than those produced by a high-intensity LED. In this paper we present an automated system for the determination of the intensity of LEDs based on the scan point to point patterns. The results of the analysis of a type of LED based on arrays of bars with built-in optical system is presented.

  20. Regression analysis for LED color detection of visual-MIMO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Partha Pratim; Saha, Rappy; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2018-04-01

    Color detection from a light emitting diode (LED) array using a smartphone camera is very difficult in a visual multiple-input multiple-output (visual-MIMO) system. In this paper, we propose a method to determine the LED color using a smartphone camera by applying regression analysis. We employ a multivariate regression model to identify the LED color. After taking a picture of an LED array, we select the LED array region, and detect the LED using an image processing algorithm. We then apply the k-means clustering algorithm to determine the number of potential colors for feature extraction of each LED. Finally, we apply the multivariate regression model to predict the color of the transmitted LEDs. In this paper, we show our results for three types of environmental light condition: room environmental light, low environmental light (560 lux), and strong environmental light (2450 lux). We compare the results of our proposed algorithm from the analysis of training and test R-Square (%) values, percentage of closeness of transmitted and predicted colors, and we also mention about the number of distorted test data points from the analysis of distortion bar graph in CIE1931 color space.

  1. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacMahon Tone, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  2. Efficacy of new microprocessed phototherapy system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Bianca M R; de Carvalho, Manoel; Moreira, Maria E L; Lopes, José M A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a microprocessed phototherapy (PT) system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED) for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia of premature infants. Randomized clinical trial using Super LED phototherapy in the study group and twin halogen spotlight phototherapy in the control group. A stratified blocked randomization, based on birth weight, was performed. The duration of phototherapy and the rate of decrease of total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentration in the first 24 hours of treatment were the main outcome measures. We studied 88 infants, 44 in the Super LED group and 44 in the halogen spotlight PT group. The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. Infants in the Super LED group had a similar mean initial serum bilirubin level (10.1+/-2.4 mg%) to those receiving halogen spotlight treatment (10.9+/-2.0 mg%). After 24 hours of treatment, the decrease in total serum bilirubin levels was significantly greater in the Super LED group (27.9 vs. 10.7%, pphototherapy was significantly shorter in this group (36.8 h vs. 63.8 h, pLED phototherapy had reached serum bilirubin concentrations low enough to allow withdrawal of treatment (23 vs. 10, pLED phototherapy for treating hyperbilirubinemia in premature infants was significantly better than halogen phototherapy.

  3. Energy-Saving Tunnel Illumination System Based on LED's Intelligent Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shanshan; Wu Lan; Gu Hanting; Jiang Shuixiu

    2011-01-01

    At present there is a lot of electric energy wastage in tunnel illumination, whose design is based on the maximum brightness outside and the maximum vehicle speed all year round. LED's energy consumption is low, and the control of its brightness is simple and effective. It can be quickly adjusted between 0-100% of its maximum brightness, and will not affect the service life. Therefore, using LED as tunnel's illumination source, we can achieve a good energy saving effect. According to real-time data acquisition of vehicle speed, traffic flow and brightness outside the tunnel, the auto real-time control of tunnel illumination can be achieved. And the system regulated the LED luminance by means of combination of LED power module and intelligent control module. The tunnel information was detected by inspection equipments, which included luminometer, vehicle detector, and received by RTU(Remote Terminal Unit), then synchronously transmitted to PC. After data processing, RTU emitted the dimming signal to the LED driver to adjust the brightness of LED. Despite the relatively high cost of high-power LED lights, the enormous energy-saving effect and the well-behaved controllability is beyond compare to other lighting devices.

  4. Energy-Saving Automation and LED Lighting Systems in Industry, Transport, Building and Municipal Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Klimenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protocol of diverse technological data unification providing the ability to scale with a minimal increase in auxiliary information volume that allows its usage, ranging from the simplest microcontrollers to integration of automation equipment in global systems was designed for industrial automation systems. Basic technical solutions implemented in development of LED lighting systems of salon subway cars, including a schematic diagram of the lamp, the main technical characteristics of the lamp power supply, the peculiarities of developed design of LED modules are described.

  5. LED surgical lighting system with multiple free-form surfaces for highly sterile operating theater application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yaqin; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Although the ventilation system is widely employed in the operating theater, a strictly sterile surgical environment still cannot be ensured because of laminar disturbance, which is mainly caused by the surgical lighting system. Abandoning traditional products, we propose an LED surgical lighting system, which can alleviate the laminar disturbance and provide an appropriate lighting condition for surgery. It contains a certain amount of LED lens units, which are embedded in the ceiling and arranged around the air supply smallpox. The LED lens unit integrated with an LED light source and a free-form lens is required to produce a uniform circular illumination with a large tolerance to the change of lighting distance. To achieve such a dedicated lens, two free-form refractive surfaces, which are converted into two ordinary differential equations by the design method presented in this paper, are used to deflect the rays. The results show that the LED surgical lighting system can provide an excellent illumination environment for surgery, and, apparently, the laminar disturbance also can be relieved.

  6. An empirical study on energy efficiency improvement through photovoltaic systems and a LED lighting control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Kwan; Lee, Jae Hyeong

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a facility was constructed and its performance was analyzed to improve the energy efficiency of a vertical-type water treatment building. After the design and construction of a fixed tilt Photovoltaic in Building (PVIB) on the rooftop using a crystalline silicon solar cell module and photovoltaic generator integrated with the building by using a Building Integrated Photovoltaic System (BIPV), a thin-film module on the rooftop and outer wall of water treatment building, and the generation efficiency was analyzed. Also, a DC distribution was established for use of a brushless DC (BLDC) pump motor, and the existing lighting-facility-based manual on-off method was turned into a system for energy conservation by controlling light emitting diode (LED) through a wireless motion sensor and dimming control. In addition, a Building Energy Management System (BEMS) for a real-time analysis of the energy efficiency for a vertical0type water treatment building was prepared and tested. The vertical-type water treatment building developed in this study is currently operating the BEMS. The vertical-type water treatment building reported in this paper is expected to reduce energy consumption by about 30% compared to existing water treatment systems.

  7. Investigation of phosphor-LED lamp for real-time half-duplex wireless VLC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Liu, Yen-Liang; Hsu, Dar-Zu

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, a 71.3 to 148.4 Mbit s −1 white phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed and demonstrated under the practical transmission length of 140 to 210 cm. Here, a commercial white-light LED lamp with five cascaded phosphor-LED chips is utilized for illumination and communication simultaneously. In the measurement, we utilize the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-QAM) with bit-loading algorithm and propose an optimal bias-tee circuit design to improve the modulation bandwidth from 1 MHz to 27 MHz. Moreover, a blue optical filter is not used on the client side. Finally, to realize and demonstrate the real-time transmission performance in the proposed LED VLC system, a commercial OFDM-based digital signal processor (DSP) chip is utilized on the LED lighting side and client side, respectively. Hence, the proposed real-time half-duplex VLC transmission could achieve the 70 Mbit s −1 downstream and upstream data throughputs, under a practical transmission length of 200 cm. (paper)

  8. Influence of reverse bias on the LEDs properties used as photo-detectors in VLC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Continuous increasing share of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a lighting market, which we observe during the last couple years, opens new possibilities. Especially, when we talk about practical realization the concept of visible light communications (VLC), which gains on popularity recently. The VLC concept presupposes utilization of illumination systems for a purpose of data transmission. It means, the emitters, in this case the LEDs, will not of a light source only, but also the data transmitters. Currently, most of the conducted researches in this area is concentrated on achievement of effective transmission methods. It means a transmission only in one direction. This is not enough, when we talk about the fully functional transmission system. Ensuring of feedback transmission channel is a necessary also. One of the ideas, which was postulated by authors of this article, is using for this purpose the LEDs in a double role. A utilization of LEDs as photo-detectors requires a reverse polarization, in contrast to a forward bias, which has a place when they work as light emitters. Ensuring of proper polarization get significant meaning. The article presents the investigations results on the influence of reverse bias on photo-receiving properties of LEDs used as light detectors. The conducted research proved that an improvement of sensitivity and bandwidth parameters are possible by application of appropriate value of the reverse voltage in a receiver.

  9. Simulations of effusion from ISOL target/ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the low- and high-conductivity Target/Ion Source systems used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for effusion measurements are performed. Comparisons with the corresponding experimental data for the different geometries are presented and discussed. Independent checks of the simulation using data for simple geometries and using the conductance approach well known in vacuum technology are performed. A simulation-based comparison between the low- and high-conductivity systems is also presented

  10. An inexpensive Arduino-based LED stimulator system for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teikari, Petteri; Najjar, Raymond P; Malkki, Hemi; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Dumortier, Dominique; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M

    2012-11-15

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are being used increasingly as light sources in life sciences applications such as in vision research, fluorescence microscopy and in brain-computer interfacing. Here we present an inexpensive but effective visual stimulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and open-source Arduino microcontroller prototyping platform. The main design goal of our system was to use off-the-shelf and open-source components as much as possible, and to reduce design complexity allowing use of the system to end-users without advanced electronics skills. The main core of the system is a USB-connected Arduino microcontroller platform designed initially with a specific emphasis on the ease-of-use creating interactive physical computing environments. The pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal of Arduino was used to drive LEDs allowing linear light intensity control. The visual stimulator was demonstrated in applications such as murine pupillometry, rodent models for cognitive research, and heterochromatic flicker photometry in human psychophysics. These examples illustrate some of the possible applications that can be easily implemented and that are advantageous for students, educational purposes and universities with limited resources. The LED stimulator system was developed as an open-source project. Software interface was developed using Python with simplified examples provided for Matlab and LabVIEW. Source code and hardware information are distributed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL, version 3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investing in Their Future: Portland’s Purchase and Conversion of an LED Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, B. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosinbum, T. [Portland Bureau of Transportation, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-08-28

    During the ongoing process of converting its streetlights from high-pressure sodium to LED, the city of Portland, Oregon, purchased a large portion of its street lighting system and encountered a range of issues among the stakeholders. This report identifies some of the challenges involved and discusses how they were addressed, in order to help inform and facilitate future lighting transitions elsewhere.

  12. A compact led lidar system fitted for a mars rover - design and ground experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Prane Mariel B.; Shiina, Tatsuo; Manago, Naohiro; Kuze, Hiroaki; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Hashimoto, George; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2018-04-01

    A compact LED lidar was constructed and fieldtested with the aim to observe the Mars' dust devils. To be able to fit it on the Mars rover, a specialized Cassegrain telescope was designed to be within a 10 cm-cube, with a field of view of 3mrad. The transmitter has 385 nm LED light source with 3 cmϕ opening, 70mrad divergence, 0.75W (7.5nJ/10ns) pulse power, and 500 kHz repetition frequency. The configuration of the optical system is biaxial to easily configure the overlap between their optical axes.

  13. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a compact and portable goniospectrometer system is described. Measurements are performed in two very different conditions, in a normal office environment and in a photometry laboratory under standard environmental conditions and both are compared to reference...... measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre...

  14. Kidney–targeted drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kidney-targeted drug delivery systems represent a promising technology to improve drug efficacy and safety in the treatment of renal diseases. In this review, we summarize the strategies that have been employed to develop kidney-targeted drug delivery systems. We also describe how macromolecular carriers and prodrugs play crucial roles in targeting drugs to particular target cells in the kidney. New technologies render it possible to create renal targeting conjugates and other delivery systems including nanoparticles and liposomes present promising strategies to achieve the goal of targeting drugs to the kidney.

  15. Three-chip LED illumination system for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bin; Wang, Liqiang; Duan, Huilong

    2010-11-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) bring great flexibility in color choice and high luminous efficacy design for biomedical illumination. Based on the state-of-the-art LED chips, a three-chip LED illumination system was developed specially for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery. White light is produced by mixing three specific wavelengths of amber red, true green and blue, and then coupled into a fiber-optic light guide with 2mm diameter. The whole device has a compact size of 145mm × 92mm × 84 mm which is more suitable than a conventional xenon lamp source for portable endoscopes. The illuminance and color characteristic of the three-chip model were analyzed, compared to those of traditional light source. A maximum illuminance of 1960 lux was obtained at the distance of 100 mm, with the average current of 450 mA of the LEDs. Additionally, a simulation environment had been set up to find out the performance of the endo-illuminator in the specific circumstance, which was closer distance and crawl space. Experiments showed that images taken under the three-chip LED illumination had better contrast and saturation. With the temperature of 31.5 degrees Celsius at the end of the fiber bundle, the endo-illuminator is also a cold light source.

  16. LED Lighting System Reliability Modeling and Inference via Random Effects Gamma Process and Copula Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibing Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light emitting diode (LED lamp has attracted increasing interest in the field of lighting systems due to its low energy and long lifetime. For different functions (i.e., illumination and color, it may have two or more performance characteristics. When the multiple performance characteristics are dependent, it creates a challenging problem to accurately analyze the system reliability. In this paper, we assume that the system has two performance characteristics, and each performance characteristic is governed by a random effects Gamma process where the random effects can capture the unit to unit differences. The dependency of performance characteristics is described by a Frank copula function. Via the copula function, the reliability assessment model is proposed. Considering the model is so complicated and analytically intractable, the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method is used to estimate the unknown parameters. A numerical example about actual LED lamps data is given to demonstrate the usefulness and validity of the proposed model and method.

  17. Lamp system with a single second-lens newly designed by using the least square method for 4 LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae Heung; Ryu, Jae Myung; Hong, Chun Gang

    2014-05-01

    It is common for many companies to use multiple LEDs to enhance the brightness of a LED lamp and, in general, four LEDs are used in the LED lamp systems. Moreover, the second-lens must be used to obtain a straight uniform illumination from LED lights. Where four LEDs are used, four second-lenses are also assembled conventionally and those four units of second-lenses are manufactured from a single mold and assembled together with the LEDs. However, this study introduces a new method of using the Least Square Method to get a uniform illumination with the divergence angle of 40 degrees with a new single injection molded lens. Thanks to this optical design with a single lens, the assembling process of LED lamp system was simplified by eliminating the complicated assembly procedure. Also, the uniformity of illumination of this newly designed lamp system was less than 14.1%.

  18. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-12

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds' glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  19. Target Bosnia: Integrating Information Activities in Peace Operations. NATO-Led Operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina, December 1995-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegel, Pascale C

    1998-01-01

    This monograph examines the role of information in Peace Support Operations (PSO) and its impact on command and control through the prism of NATO-led operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina from December 1995 into 1997...

  20. Application of wireless intelligent control system for HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinxing; Qiu, Junling; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Yaqiong; Fan, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Because of the particularity of the environment in the tunnel, the rational tunnel illumination system should be developed, so as to optimize the tunnel environment. Considering the high cost of traditional tunnel illumination system with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps as well as the effect of a single light source on tunnel entrance, the energy-saving illumination system with HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel, which could make full use of these two kinds of lamps, was proposed. The wireless intelligent control system based on HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination and microcontrol unit (MCU) Si1000 wireless communication technology was designed. And the remote monitoring, wireless communication, and PWM dimming module of this system were designed emphatically. Intensity detector and vehicle flow detector can be configured in wireless intelligent control system, which gather the information to the master control unit, and then the information is sent to the monitoring center through the Ethernet. The control strategies are got by the monitoring center according to the calculated results, and the control unit wirelessly sends parameters to lamps, which adjust the luminance of each segment of the tunnel and realize the wireless intelligent control of combined illumination in road tunnel.

  1. Drug targeting systems for inflammatory disease: one for all, all for one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, B.J.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Schiffelers, R.M.; Storm, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In various systemic disorders, structural changes in the microenvironment of diseased tissues enable both passive and active targeting of therapeutic agents to these tissues. This has led to a number of targeting approaches that enhance the accumulation of drugs in the target tissues,

  2. A new transfer system for solid targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, J.; Buckley, K. R.; Zeisler, S. K.; Dodd, M.; Tsao, P.; Hoehr, C.; Economou, C.; Corsaut, J.; Appiah, J. P.; Kovacs, M. S.; Valliant, J. F.; Benard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Schaffer, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a collaborative research project funded by Natural Resources Canada, TRIUMF has designed and manufactured solid target and solid target processing systems for the production of technetium-99m using small medical cyclotrons. The system described herein is capable of transporting the target from a hotcell, where the target is loaded and processed, to the cyclotron and back again. The versatility of the transfer system was demonstrated through the successful installation and operation on the ACSI TR 19 at the BC Cancer Agency, the GE PETtrace cyclotrons at Lawson Health Research (LHRI) and the Centre for Probe Development and Commercialization (CDPC).

  3. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  4. I sup(123) target transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Rautenberg, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of target transfer system using a robot into hot cell of IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) for sup(123)I production is presented. The system operation is described, and the advantages are shown. (M.C.K.)

  5. Targeting the endocannabinoid system : future therapeutic strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Rico-Barrio, Irantzu; Zarandona, Iratxe; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in many physiological regulation pathways in the human body, which makes this system the target of many drugs and therapies. In this review, we highlight the latest studies regarding the role of the ECS and the drugs that target it, with a particular

  6. 1Mbps NLOS solar-blind ultraviolet communication system based on UV-LED array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaotian; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Ping'an; Qin, Yu; Bai, Tingzhu

    2018-01-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a high data rate ultraviolet communication system based on a 266nm UV LED array with 50mW luminous power. The emitting source is driven by a three outputs constant-current control circuit, whose driving speed is up to 2Mbps. At the receiving side, in order to achieve the amplification for high-speed signal, a two-stage differential preamplifier is designed to make I-V conversion. The voltage-current gain is up to 140dB and bandwidth is 1.9MHz. An experiment is conducted to test the performance of the UV communication system. The effects of elevation angles and transmission distance are analyzed. It is shown that the ultraviolet communication system has high data rate of up to 921.6kbps and bit error rate of less than 10-7 in 150m, which can beat the best record created by UV-LED communication system in terms of the transmission rate.

  7. Emergency positioning system accuracy with infrared LEDs in high-security facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Sierra N.; Nelson, Charles; Walker, Owens

    2017-05-01

    Instantaneous personnel location presents a challenge in Department of Defense applications where high levels of security restrict real-time tracking of crew members. During emergency situations, command and control requires immediate accountability of all personnel. Current radio frequency (RF) based indoor positioning systems can be unsuitable due to RF leakage and electromagnetic interference with sensitively calibrated machinery on variable platforms like ships, submarines and high-security facilities. Infrared light provide a possible solution to this problem. This paper proposes and evaluates an indoor line-of-sight positioning system that is comprised of IR and high-sensitivity CMOS camera receivers. In this system the movement of the LEDs is captured by the camera, uploaded and analyzed; the highest point of power is located and plotted to create a blueprint of crewmember location. Results provided evaluate accuracy as a function of both wavelength and environmental conditions. Research will further evaluate the accuracy of the LED transmitter and CMOS camera receiver system. Transmissions in both the 780 and 850nm IR are analyzed.

  8. An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Villadangos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  9. Monitoring Satellite Data Ingest and Processing for the Atmosphere Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, J.; Gumley, L.; Braun, J.; Dutcher, S.; Flynn, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmosphere SIPS (Science Investigator-led Processing Systems) team at the Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC), which is funded through a NASA contract, creates Level 2 cloud and aerosol products from the VIIRS instrument aboard the S-NPP satellite. In order to monitor the ingest and processing of files, we have developed an extensive monitoring system to observe every step in the process. The status grid is used for real time monitoring, and shows the current state of the system, including what files we have and whether or not we are meeting our latency requirements. Our snapshot tool displays the state of the system in the past. It displays which files were available at a given hour and is used for historical and backtracking purposes. In addition to these grid like tools we have created histograms and other statistical graphs for tracking processing and ingest metrics, such as total processing time, job queue time, and latency statistics.

  10. Nanomedicine: Drug Delivery Systems and Nanoparticle Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Hye Won; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, Jun Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Applications of nanotechnology in the medical field have provided the fundamentals of tremendous improvement in precise diagnosis and customized therapy. Recent advances in nanomedicine have led to establish a new concept of theragnosis, which utilizes nanomedicines as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool at the same time. The development of high affinity nanoparticles with large surface area and functional groups multiplies diagnostic and therapeutic capacities. Considering the specific conditions related to the disease of individual patient, customized therapy requires the identification of disease target at the cellular and molecular level for reducing side effects and enhancing therapeutic efficiency. Well-designed nanoparticles can minimize unnecessary exposure of cytotoxic drugs and maximize targeted localization of administrated drugs. This review will focus on major pharmaceutical nanomaterials and nanoparticles as key components of designing and surface engineering for targeted theragnostic drug development

  11. Phototherapeutic treatment of patients with peripheral nervous system diseases by means of LED arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Kalinin, Konstantin L.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zmievskoy, Gregory N.; Savin, Alexei A.; Stulin, Igor D.; Shihkerimov, Raphiz K.; Shapkina, Alla V.; Velsher, Leonid Z.; Stakhanov, Mikhail L.

    2001-05-01

    The further development of new method of phototherapy based on use of light-emitting diodes (LED) arrays has been presented. LEDs array distribution is side of cylindrical surface, covering pathology region, was used for treatment group of patients with an affected peripheral nervous system. The main group consisted of patients with humeral plexopathy - one of possible neurological manifestation of postmastectomic syndrome as result of breast cancer radical treatment. This disease was accompanied also by some other peripheral nervous system diseases: diabetic polyneuropathy, compression ischemic mononeuropathy, festering wounds and others. The phototherapeutic method is just directed on improvement of patient's conditions in combination with other traditional methods of treatment. The main parameters of photomatrix therapeutic system: wavelength - 660 nm, line width - no more than 20 nm, intensity of radiation on the surface of edema - 0.5-3 mW/cm2 (in dependence of apparatuses type). To control and study efficiency of phototreatment ultrasonic dopplerography, thermography, electromyography and viscosimetry have been used.

  12. Optimization approach to LED crop illumination inside a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Zhigalova, Tatiana; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Kochetova, Galina; Konovalova, Irina

    Artificial lighting sources for growing plants can be efficiently used to control gas exchange and preserve the necessary closure of internal matter turnover in the atmosphere of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). However, the lighting sources contribute strongly to the equivalent mass of a CELSS. Thus, the choice of an optimal plant lighting regime largely determines the efficiency of the artificial ecosystem. Lighting systems based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now considered the most promising for space applications (Massa et al., 2006). Many types of LEDs have been developed in recent years. Because of this, the problem of optimizing a lighting source for space vegetation chambers has become more difficult: we need to optimize more parameters (such as emission spectrum, light intensity, frequency of light pulses and the shape of the lighting field inside a vegetation chamber), and in a wider range of values. In this presentation we discuss approaches to optimizing the emission spectrum of a lighting source for the use in space applications, including CELSS. One of the benefits of LEDs is their narrow-band emission spectrum, which allows us to construct a lighting source with an optimal spectrum for plant growth and production. A number of experiments have shown that the reaction of plants to a narrow-band emission spectrum of LEDs is highly species-specific and affects many processes in plants. Adding a small amount of far red light to red and blue quanta increased biomass in radish and lettuce (Tamulaitis et al., 2005). Adding blue and near UV light of different wavelengths to red light decreased total sugar content in lettuce (Urbonavičiūtė et al., 2007) and Chinese cabbage (Avercheva et al., 2009). Supplemental green light improved the nutrition quality of some lettuce varieties: decreased nitrate content and increased ascorbic acid content (Samuoliene et al., 2012). It has also been shown that changes in lighting spectrum can lead

  13. Key factors in the design of a LED volumetric 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanfang; Liu, Xu; Yao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaojie; Liu, Xiangdong; Lin, Fengchun

    2005-01-01

    Through careful consideration of key factors that impact upon voxel attributes and image quality, a volumetric three-dimensional (3D) display system employing the rotation of a two-dimensional (2D) thin active panel was developed. It was designed as a lower-cost 3D visualization platform for experimentation and demonstration. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) were arranged into a 256x64 dot matrix on a single surface of the panel, which was positioned symmetrically about the axis of rotation. The motor and necessary supporting structures were located below the panel. LEDs individually of 500 ns response time, 1.6 mm×0.8 mm×0.6 mm external dimensions, 0.38 mm×0.43 mm horizontal and vertical spacing were adopted. The system is functional, providing 512×256×64, i.e. over 8 million addressable voxels within a 292 mm×165 mm cylindrical volume at a refresh frequency in excess of 16 Hz. Due to persistence of vision, momentarily addressed voxels will be perceived and fused into a 3D image. Many static or dynamic 3D scenes were displayed, which can be directly viewed from any position with few occlusion zones and dead zones. Important depth cues like binocular disparity and motion parallax are satisfied naturally.

  14. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation--Two Years Later, Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Gregory P. [Efficiency Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This report follows the GATEWAY Yuma Phase 1.1 Report and reflects LED system results documented two years after the demonstration began.

  15. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation--One Year Later, Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, A. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, R. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This report follows the GATEWAY Yuma Phase 1.0 Report and reflects LED system results documented one year after the demonstration began.

  16. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng....../L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED...... excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems....

  17. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  18. Transformation products formation of ciprofloxacin in UVA/LED and UVA/LED/TiO2systems: Impact of natural organic matter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Hu, Jiangyong

    2018-04-01

    The role of natural organic matter (NOM) in contaminants removal by photolysis and photocatalysis has aroused increasing interest. However, evaluation of the influence of NOM characteristics on the transformation products (TPs) formation and transformation pathways of contaminants has rarely been performed. This study investigated the decomposition kinetics, mineralization, TPs formation and transformation pathways of antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) during photolysis and photocatalysis in the presence of three commercial NOM isolates (Sigma-Aldrich humic acid (SAHA), Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM)) by using UVA light emitting diode (UVA/LED) as an alternative light source. NOM isolates insignificantly affected CIP photolysis but strongly inhibited CIP photocatalysis due to competitive radical quenching. The inhibitory effect followed the order of SAHA (49.6%) > SRHA (29.9%) > SRNOM (21.2%), consistent with their •OH quenching abilities, SUVA 254 values and orders of aromaticity. Mineralization rates as revealed by F - release were negatively affected by NOM during CIP photocatalysis. TPs arising from hydroxylation and defluorination were generally suppressed by NOM isolates in UVA/LED and UVA/LED/TiO 2 systems. In contrast, dealkylation and oxidation of piperazine ring were promoted by NOM. The enhancement in the apparent formation kinetics (k app ) of TP245, TP291, TP334a, TP334b and TP362 followed the order of SRNOM > SRHA > SAHA. k app values were positively correlated with O/C ratio, carboxyl content, E2/E3 and fluorescence index (FI) of NOM and negatively related with SUVA 254 values. The observed correlations indicate that NOM properties are important in determining the fate and transformation of organic contaminants during photolysis and photocatalysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Philadelphia International Airport Apron Lighting: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report documents a trial installation of LED apron lighting that replaced the existing high-pressure sodium luminaires at Philadelphia International Airport. Such high-mast applications remain challenging for LED technology, and the lessons learned from this project may help facility managers and LED product manufacturers better meet those challenges.

  20. OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Aobo; Song, Yuhang; Yu, Xiangyu; Qu, Fengzhong; Han, Jun; Deng, Ning

    2016-06-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an IM/DD-OFDM-based underwater wireless optical communication system. We investigate the dependence of its BER performance on the training symbol number as well as LED's bias voltage and driving voltage. With single compact blue LED and a low-cost PIN photodiode, we achieve net bit rates of 225.90 Mb/s at a BER of 1.54×10-3 using 16-QAM and 231.95 Mb/s at a BER of 3.28×10-3 using 32-QAM, respectively, over a 2-m air channel. Over a 2-m underwater channel, we achieve net bit rates of 161.36 Mb/s using 16-QAM, 156.31 Mb/s using 32-QAM, and 127.07 Mb/s using 64-QAM, respectively. The corresponding BERs are 2.5×10-3, 7.42×10-4, and 3.17×10-3, respectively, which are all below the FEC threshold.

  1. Full Spectrum Visible LED Light Activated Antibacterial System Realized by Optimized Cu2O Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaotong; Xue, Chaowen; Fang, Fang; Song, Xiangwei; Yu, Fen; Liu, Miaoxing; Wei, Zhipeng; Fang, Xuan; Zhao, Dongxu; Xin, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-04-06

    Assisted by three-dimensional printing technology, we proposed and demonstrated a full spectrum visible light activated antibacterial system by using a combination of 500 nm sized Cu2O crystals and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Further improved antibacterial ratios were achieved, for the first time, with pure Cu2O for both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria among all of the six different color LED lamps. For practical antibacterial applications, we revealed that the nonwoven fabric could act as excellent carrier for Cu2O crystals and provide impressive antibacterial performance. Furthermore, integrated with our self-developed app, the poly(ethylene terephthalate) film loaded with Cu2O crystals also showed significant antibacterial property, thus making it possible to be applied in field of touch screen. The present research not only provided a healthier alternative to traditional ultraviolet-based sterilization but also opened an auto-response manner to decrease the rate of microbial contamination on billions of touch screen devices.

  2. Targeting engineering synchronization in chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-07-01

    A method of targeting engineering synchronization states in two identical and mismatch chaotic systems is explained in detail. The method is proposed using linear feedback controller coupling for engineering synchronization such as mixed synchronization, linear and nonlinear generalized synchronization and targeting fixed point. The general form of coupling design to target any desire synchronization state under unidirectional coupling with the help of Lyapunov function stability theory is derived analytically. A scaling factor is introduced in the coupling definition to smooth control without any loss of synchrony. Numerical results are done on two mismatch Lorenz systems and two identical Sprott oscillators.

  3. A windowless frozen hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, P.E.; Beer, G.A.; Beveridge, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    A cryogenic target system has been constructed in which gaseous mixtures of all three hydrogen isotopes have been frozen onto a thin, 65 mm diameter gold foil. The foil is cooled to 3 K while inside a 70 K radiation shield, all of which is mounted in a vacuum system maintained at 10 -9 torr. Stable multi-layer hydrogen targets of known uniformity and thickness have been maintained for required measurement times of up to several days. To date, hundreds of targets have been successfully used in muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at TRIUMF. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  4. Counting on commitment; the quality of primary care-led diabetes management in a system with minimal incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mc Hugh Sheena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of three primary care-led initiatives providing structured care to patients with Type 2 diabetes in Ireland, a country with minimal incentives to promote the quality of care. Methods Data, from three primary care initiatives, were available for 3010 adult patients with Type 2 diabetes. Results were benchmarked against the national guidelines for the management of Type 2 diabetes in the community and results from the National Diabetes Audit (NDA for England (2008/2009 and the Scottish Diabetes Survey (2009. Results The recording of clinical processes of care was similar to results in the UK however the recording of lifestyle factors was markedly lower. Recording of HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids exceeded 85%. Recording of retinopathy screening (71% was also comparable to England (77% and Scotland (90%. Only 63% of patients had smoking status recorded compared to 99% in Scotland while 70% had BMI recorded compared to 89% in England. A similar proportion of patients in this initiative and the UK achieved clinical targets. Thirty-five percent of patients achieved a target HbA1c of 30 kg/m2 in Ireland (50%, n = 1060 compared to Scotland (54%. Conclusions This study has demonstrated what can be achieved by proactive and interested health professionals in the absence of national infrastructure to support high quality diabetes care. The quality of primary care-led diabetes management in the three initiatives studied appears broadly consistent with results from the UK with the exception of recording lifestyle factors. The challenge facing health systems is to establish quality assurance a responsibility for all health care professionals rather than the subject of special interest for a few.

  5. Counting on commitment; the quality of primary care-led diabetes management in a system with minimal incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Hugh, Sheena; Marsden, Paul; Brennan, Carmel; Murphy, Katie; Croarkin, Celine; Moran, Joe; Harkins, Velma; Perry, Ivan J

    2011-12-28

    The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of three primary care-led initiatives providing structured care to patients with Type 2 diabetes in Ireland, a country with minimal incentives to promote the quality of care. Data, from three primary care initiatives, were available for 3010 adult patients with Type 2 diabetes. Results were benchmarked against the national guidelines for the management of Type 2 diabetes in the community and results from the National Diabetes Audit (NDA) for England (2008/2009) and the Scottish Diabetes Survey (2009). The recording of clinical processes of care was similar to results in the UK however the recording of lifestyle factors was markedly lower. Recording of HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids exceeded 85%. Recording of retinopathy screening (71%) was also comparable to England (77%) and Scotland (90%). Only 63% of patients had smoking status recorded compared to 99% in Scotland while 70% had BMI recorded compared to 89% in England. A similar proportion of patients in this initiative and the UK achieved clinical targets. Thirty-five percent of patients achieved a target HbA1c of 30 kg/m²) in Ireland (50%, n = 1060) compared to Scotland (54%). This study has demonstrated what can be achieved by proactive and interested health professionals in the absence of national infrastructure to support high quality diabetes care. The quality of primary care-led diabetes management in the three initiatives studied appears broadly consistent with results from the UK with the exception of recording lifestyle factors. The challenge facing health systems is to establish quality assurance a responsibility for all health care professionals rather than the subject of special interest for a few.

  6. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum......, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on europium chelate as a fluorescent marker. The system performance was tested with the immunoassay based...... on the cardiac marker, TnI. The same signal-to-noise ratio as for the flash lamp based system was obtained, operating the LED below specified maximum current. The background counts of the system and its main contributors were measured and analyzed. The background of the system of the LED based unit was improved...

  7. Allegany Ballistics Lab: sensor test target system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Deran S.

    2011-06-01

    Leveraging the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's historical experience in weapon simulation, Naval Sea Systems Command commissioned development of a remote-controlled, digitally programmable Sensor Test Target as part of a modern, outdoor hardware-in-the-loop test system for ordnance-related guidance, navigation and control systems. The overall Target system design invokes a sciences-based, "design of automated experiments" approach meant to close the logistical distance between sensor engineering and developmental T&E in outdoor conditions over useful real world distances. This enables operating modes that employ broad spectrum electromagnetic energy in many a desired combination, variably generated using a Jet Engine Simulator, a multispectral infrared emitter array, optically enhanced incandescent Flare Simulators, Emitter/Detector mounts, and an RF corner reflector kit. As assembled, the recently tested Sensor Test Target prototype being presented can capably provide a full array of useful RF and infrared target source simulations for RDT&E use with developmental and existing sensors. Certain Target technologies are patent pending, with potential spinoffs in aviation, metallurgy and biofuels processing, while others are variations on well-established technology. The Sensor Test Target System is planned for extended installation at Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (Rocket Center, WV).

  8. An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatskiy Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED with a natural circulation of the coolant capable of removing a heat flux density of more than 1 kW / cm2 is created. It is shown that on the finned surfaces the overheating relative to the saturation temperature in comparison with a smooth surface decreases up to three times for the heater with a diameter of 5 mm. There is up to two times increase in heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones. For finned surfaces on the heater with a diameter of 1 mm the surface overheating relative to the saturation temperature decreases in four times. More than three times increase is observed for the heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones.

  9. An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatskiy, Evgeny

    2017-10-01

    An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED with a natural circulation of the coolant capable of removing a heat flux density of more than 1 kW / cm2 is created. It is shown that on the finned surfaces the overheating relative to the saturation temperature in comparison with a smooth surface decreases up to three times for the heater with a diameter of 5 mm. There is up to two times increase in heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones. For finned surfaces on the heater with a diameter of 1 mm the surface overheating relative to the saturation temperature decreases in four times. More than three times increase is observed for the heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones.

  10. Smart street lighting : The advantages of LED street lighting and a smart control system in Uppsala municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Inga; Gidén Hember, Amanda; Wallerström, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine how LED street lights and a smart street light control system can reduce the energy consumption, costs and in extension the CO2 equivalents in a geographically delimited area. In 2015 the municipality of Sala installed LED armatures connected to a smart control system in the whole municipality. The smart control system enables for instance adjustment of the light intensity at specific times during the day and a supervision of the street light ...

  11. Distributed improvisation: a systems perspective of improvisation 'epics' by led outdoor activity leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Margaret J; Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G

    2018-02-01

    Improvisation represents the spontaneous and real-time conception and execution of a novel response to an unanticipated situation. In order to benefit from the positive safety potential of this phenomenon, it is necessary to understand what influences its appropriateness and effectiveness. This study has applied the system-based methodology Impromaps to analysing accounts of improvisation aimed at mitigating adverse safety outcomes. These accounts were obtained from led outdoor activity (LOA) leaders through critical decision method interviews. Influencing factors and interactions have been identified across all system levels. The factors most influential to leaders' ability to improvise are 'Policy, procedures and rules', 'Organisation culture', 'Training', 'Role responsibilities', 'Communication/instruction/demonstration', 'Situation awareness', 'Leader experience', 'Mental simulation', 'Equipment, clothing & PPE' and 'Terrain/physical environment'. To enhance the likelihood of effective, appropriate improvisation, LOA providers are recommended to focus on higher level factors over which they are able to exert greater control. Practitioner Summary: To enhance resilience in safety-critical situations, organisations need to understand what influences appropriate, effective improvisation. To elucidate this, the Impromaps methodology is applied to in-depth interview data. The Impromap affords a graphical depiction of the influencing factors and interactions across the system, providing a basis for the development of interventions.

  12. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  13. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre......-heating relative differences for total luminous flux of ±2,5% were obtained. Reliable photometric data can be obtained for use in market monitoring to identify probable non-compliance LED lamps and hence as an improved method for selecting LED lamps for accredited verification testing....

  14. [Noninvasive medical imaging system for tissue classification using RGB LED and micro-spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Lin, Yu-Min; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Ying, Shang-Ping

    2013-07-01

    As skin is the exterior organ of human body, cosmetic industry advances year by year. To reveal the details of skin tissue, threedimensional medical imaging is required. Based on the idea of "readout instead of write", a new scheme named spectral classification imaging (SCI) is proposed in the present study to reduce the invasiveness by applying the reflection spectra of the sample points for three-dimensional medical imaging. Broad-band light source and the spectrometer were employed to collect the spectra curves of scanned region, which were classified into several tissue types by their cross-correlations. A colorful tissue tomography can finally be obtained by filling in each image pixel the color indicating the corresponding tissue type. The lateral/longitudinal resolutions and penetration depth were analyzed to characterize the SCI system. The lateral resolution is based on the source's diffraction limit, the longitudinal resolution is by its depth-of-focus, and the penetration depth is equivalent to its skin depth. The imaging results of an amethyst of 0.6 mm (chi-direction) x 0.6 mm (y-direction) with a total of 120 x 120 pixels per frame and a guppy fish of 3.2 mm (chi-direction) x 2.4 mm (y-direction) of 160 x 120 pixels, are presented to show the image quality. The effects of the cross-correlation coefficient and the number of source wavelengths on the imaging results were explored. The value of cross-correlation threshold determines the required time for imaging, the resulted number of tissue groups, and the variety of tissue colors in the imaging result. Owing to its virtual noninvasiveness and easy configuration, the SCI system is highly promising for practical uses. RGB LEDs possess merits of broad bandwidth, low cost, long lifetime, small volume, and are ready to be integrated into a multi-color source module. Replacing the wide-band light source and the spectrometer module with a composite RGB LED with discrete wavelengths and a micro

  15. Tradeoff between laser diodes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for the common weapon control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, R. A.

    1982-07-01

    The use of laser diodes or light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the ground-launched cruise missile (GLCM) is comparatively evaluated. Source characteristics of interest, including radiated power output, spectral width and peak emission, modulation bandwidth, size coupling efficiency, lifetime, rise time, and price, are presented for noncoherent LED and the coherent laser diode. The advantages and disadvantages of laser diodes and LEDs are briefly discussed, and nuclear explosion effects on these instruments, including catastrophic damage, transient ionization effects, and permanent degradation, are summarized. A link analysis of the cable parameters required for the GLCM fiber optic data link is given, arriving at power levels consistent with a LED-PIN link. Two LEDs which meet these requirements are briefly discussed.

  16. Systemic Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan B. J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fundamental principles of internal targeted alpha therapy for cancer were established many decades ago.The high linear energy transfer (LET of alpha radiation to the targeted cancer cellscauses double strand breaks in DNA. At the same time, the short range radiation spares adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts, such as lack of control of some primary cancers (e.g.glioblastoma multiformeand to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. Objective: This review charts the developing role of systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. Method: Targeted alpha therapy is a rapidly advancing experimental therapy that holds promise to deliver high cytotoxicity to targeted cancer cells. Initially thought to be indicated for leukemia and micrometastases, there is now evidence that solid tumors can also be regressed. Results: Alpha therapy may be molecular or physiological in its targeting. Alpha emitting radioisotopes such as Bi-212, Bi-213, At-211 and Ac-225 are used to label monoclonal antibodies or proteins that target specifc cancer cells. Alternatively, Radium-233 is used for palliative therapy of breast and prostate cancers because of its bone seeking properties. Conclusion: Preclinical studies and clinical trials of alpha therapy are discussed for leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, bone metastases, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and other cancers.

  17. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a pharmacist-led collaborative intervention to improve statin prescribing and attainment of cholesterol targets in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowrie

    Full Text Available Small trials with short term follow up suggest pharmacists' interventions targeted at healthcare professionals can improve prescribing. In comparison with clinical guidance, contemporary statin prescribing is sub-optimal and achievement of cholesterol targets falls short of accepted standards, for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who are at highest absolute risk and who stand to obtain greatest benefit. We hypothesised that a pharmacist-led complex intervention delivered to doctors and nurses in primary care, would improve statin prescribing and achievement of cholesterol targets for incident and prevalent patients with vascular disease, beyond one year.We allocated general practices to a 12-month Statin Outreach Support (SOS intervention or usual care. SOS was delivered by one of 11 pharmacists who had received additional training. SOS comprised academic detailing and practical support to identify patients with vascular disease who were not prescribed a statin at optimal dose or did not have cholesterol at target, followed by individualised recommendations for changes to management. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving cholesterol targets. Secondary outcomes were: the proportion of patients prescribed simvastatin 40 mg with target cholesterol achieved; cholesterol levels; prescribing of simvastatin 40 mg; prescribing of any statin and the proportion of patients with cholesterol tested. Outcomes were assessed after an average of 1.7 years (range 1.4-2.2 years, and practice level simvastatin 40 mg prescribing was assessed after 10 years.We randomised 31 practices (72 General Practitioners (GPs, 40 nurses. Prior to randomisation a subset of eligible patients were identified to characterise practices; 40% had cholesterol levels below the target threshold. Improvements in data collection procedures allowed identification of all eligible patients (n = 7586 at follow up. Patients in practices allocated to SOS were

  18. A large-area, LED-based spectral response measurement system for solar PV device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Behrang; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard; Dougherty, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Accurate and reliable measurement of the spectral responsivity (SR) of a solar cell is an important step in evaluating the electrical performance of competing photovoltaic (PV) technologies. We have investigated ways to measure the spectral responsivity, and hence the external quantum efficiency, of solar cells using measurement techniques that employ light emitting diodes (LEDs). Our setup includes one or more plates of compactly-installed, high-powered LEDs each containing up to 32 different LEDs that span the wavelength range of 375 nm to 1200 nm. Each LED plate is placed at the entrance of a tapered, highly reflective light guide for light mixing and large-area projection. Two unique measurement techniques have been investigated at NIST. The first technique consists of an LED sweep algorithm where a pulsed signal is applied to a given LED and the photogenerated current from the device under test is recorded using a lock-in technique. In the second SR technique, 32 variable-frequency, pulsed signals are applied to all LEDs at the same time, while recording the photogenerated current by a spectrum analyzer in the frequency domain. We will describe the uniqueness and advantages offered by each technique in detail and compare the accuracy of the two methods. A scheme for providing light bias and its impact on the SR measurements will be reported.

  19. Development of an autonomous target tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidda, Venkata Ramaiah

    In recent years, surveillance and border patrol have become one of the key research areas in UAV research. Increase in the computational capability of the computers and embedded electronics, coupled with compatibility of various commercial vision algorithms and commercial off the shelf (COTS) embedded electronics, and has further fuelled the research. The basic task in these applications is perception of environment through the available visual sensors like camera. Visual tracking, as the name implies, is tracking of objects using a camera. The process of autonomous target tracking starts with the selection of the target in a sequence of video frames transmitted from the on-board camera. We use an improved fast dynamic template matching algorithm coupled with Kalman Filter to track the selected target in consecutive video frames. The selected target is saved as a reference template. On the ground station computer, the reference template is overlaid on the live streaming video from the on-board system, starting from the upper left corner of the video frame. The template is slid pixel by pixel over the entire source image. A comparison of the pixels is performed between the template and source image. A confidence value R of the match is calculated at each pixel. Based on the method used to perform the template matching, the best match pixel location is found according to the highest or lowest confidence value R. The best match pixel location is communicated to the on-board gimbal controller over the wireless Xbee network. The software on the controller actuates the pan-tilt servos to continuously to hold the selected target at the center of the video frame. The complete system is a portable control system assembled from commercial off the shelf parts. The tracking system is tested on a target having several motion patterns.

  20. Recent Advances in Aptamers Targeting Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Piao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The immune system plays important role in protecting the organism by recognizing non-self molecules from pathogen such as bacteria, parasitic worms, and viruses. When the balance of the host defense system is disturbed, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and inflammation occur. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA ligands that interact with complementary molecules with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as new diagnostic and therapeutic agents for immune disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of aptamers targeting immune system. The selection of aptamers with superior chemical and biological characteristics will facilitate their application in the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders.

  1. Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement data; the annual energy savings of an office building in heating and cooling were calculated through simulation. The LED lighting illuminance increased by approximately 40% and the lighting contribution for indoor heat gain was 7.8% in summer, while 69.8% in winter with the ATOS. Consequently, the annual total energy use of the office building could be reduced by 5.9%; the energy use in cooling and heating was reduced by 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively.

  2. Conceptual design study of IFMIF target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Maekawa, H.; Katsuta, H.; Hua, T.; Cevolani, S.

    1997-01-01

    IFMIF-CDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Conceptual Design Activity) had been carried out during 1995 and 1996, under the auspices of the IEA. The mission of this facility is to provide an accelerator based deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to test the candidate materials of radiation - resistant and low - activation materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. The neutrons of about 14 MeV are obtained by the stripping reaction of the deuteron of Max. 40 MeV with target lithium. Total deuteron beam current is about 250 mA and beam footprint is 20 cm x 5 cm on the free surface of lithium jet. In this report general characteristics of the target lithium system and the results of thermal and flow analysis for the target lithium jet are described. (author)

  3. A Context Dependent Automatic Target Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Payton, D. W.; Olin, K. E.; Tseng, D. Y.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes a new approach to automatic target recognizer (ATR) development utilizing artificial intelligent techniques. The ATR system exploits contextual information in its detection and classification processes to provide a high degree of robustness and adaptability. In the system, knowledge about domain objects and their contextual relationships is encoded in frames, separating it from low level image processing algorithms. This knowledge-based system demonstrates an improvement over the conventional statistical approach through the exploitation of diverse forms of knowledge in its decision-making process.

  4. Lifetime testing UV LEDs for use in the LISA charge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2017-10-01

    As a future charge management light source, UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) offer far superior performance in a range of metrics compared to the mercury lamps used in the past. As part of a qualification program a number of short wavelength UV LEDs have been subjected to a series of lifetime tests for potential use on the laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) mission. These tests were performed at realistic output levels for both fast and continuous discharging in either a DC or pulsed mode of operation and included a DC fast discharge test spanning 50 days, a temperature dependent pulsed fast discharge test spanning 21 days and a pulsed continuous discharge test spanning 507 days. Two types of UV LED have demonstrated lifetimes equivalent to over 25 years of realistic mission usage with one type providing a baseline for LISA and the other offering a backup solution.

  5. LED system performance in a trial installation - one year later: Yuma border patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high temperature and high solar radiation environment, providing an opportunity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study thermal effects on outdoor light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires outside of the testing laboratory. Six LED luminaires were installed on three poles on the U.S.- Mexico border in February 2014 as part of a trial installation, which was detailed in a prior GATEWAY report.1 The initial trial installation was intended as a short - term test of six luminaires installed on three poles before proceeding with the complete installation of over 400 luminaires. Unexpected delays in the full installation have prevented the detailed evaluations initially planned, but the six installed LED luminaires continue to be monitored, and over the past year illuminance measurements were recorded initially in February 2014 and again in September 2014 at about 2500 hours of operation and in March 2015 at about 5000 hours of operation.

  6. LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  7. RI and Target recovery system of Lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. H.; Park, U. J.; Jung, S. H.; Kim, J. B.; Moon, J. H.; Nam, S. S.; Jang, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Separation of adjacent lanthanides is complicated process to obtain pure target nuclide. Several papers have reported that the ionic character change of lanthanides with appropriate chelating agents can isolate the target lanthanides. These specific agents to the metal ion are called as complexing agents including-HIBA, tartaric acid, mandelic acid, lactic acid etc. Radioisotope research division of KAERI has developed separating technique for target lanthanides, total 20mg scale, by using complexing agents and ion-pairing agents in cold state. The reactor-produced radiolanthanides have been pivotal for development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Some radiolanthanides show excellent theranostic effects in that they have proper Let (Linear Energy Transfer) to induce apoptosis for cancer treatment and gamma ray to use as a tracer for cancer diagnosis. This system was designed for automated separation of the (n,γ) reaction product. Especially, we are focused on getting the carrier free Ho-166 which is the first attempt at KAERI. Even though we have already developed to produce c.a Ho-166(carrier added form), we did not try to develop to produce carrier free Ho-166 since the separating process is difficult as well as production process follows double (n,γ) reaction. After HANARO is re-operated, we are schedule to produce n.c.a Ho by using this recovery system.

  8. Targeting herpesvirus reliance of the chemokine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Kledal, Thomas N

    2006-01-01

    Viral infections depend on an intimate relationship between the infectious agent and the host cells. Viruses need the host cells for replication, while the innate- and adaptive- immunesystem of the host is fighting to kill the infected cell in order to clear out the pathogen and survive...... the infection. However, since both virus and host exist, the organisms struggle must reach an ecological equilibrium. Among the best-studied interactions between viruses and the host immune system are those between herpesviruses and their hosts. Herpesviruses are known to devote a significant part...... acquired homologs of both chemokines and chemokine receptors belonging to the 7 transmembrane (7TM) spanning, G protein-coupled receptor family. 7TM receptors are very efficient drug targets and are currently the most popular class of investigational drug targets. A notable trait for the virus encoded...

  9. Achromatic illumination system for small targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigler, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    A pair of light beams is directed to provide illumination that is substantially uniform from all directions on a small target by a system comprising a pair of corrector windows, a pair of planar reflecting surfaces, a pair of paraboloidal mirrors and a reflecting mirror cavity. The components are arranged so that each of the beams passes through a corrector and is reflected from the planar surface to the paraboloidal mirror, from which it is focused through a hole in the planar surface to the interior of the cavity. The surface of the interior portion of the cavity is shaped to reflect the focused beam three times before the focused reflected beam strikes the target

  10. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  11. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Tang,1 Fariborz Soroush,1 Zhaohui Tong,2 Mohammad F Kiani,1 Bin Wang1,3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR, and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly

  12. Commissioning and LED system tests of the engineering prototype of the analog hadronic calorimeter of the CALICE collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartbrich, Oskar

    2012-10-15

    This thesis describes measurements on the LED system and commissioning of the AHCAL EPT, to be used as an active layer in an upcoming hadron test beam. The performed tests of the integrated LED system prove, that it can be used to calibrate SiPM gains on the HBU. The performance of calibrating multiple channels at the same time suffers from inhomogeneities in the LED amplitude for different channels. This was initially suspected to be caused by part variances in the LED production process, but the spatial distribution of LED threshold voltages over the HBU suggest a systematic effect, probably depending on the signal distance between the driver OPAMPs and the LED circuit. Compensation of these differences in pulse amplitude via switchable capacities integrated onto the HBU helps to reduce the spread of threshold voltages, but does not fulfill the goal of one single V{sub Calib} value for the whole setup. Further tests on the LED system performed with an upgraded test stand at Wuppertal confirm the spatial distribution of LED amplitudes. Inspection of the trigger signals arriving at the channel pulser circuits show a degraded signal correlated to the observed pulse amplitude. The test stand setup also allows to measure the time offsets between LED pulses on different channels, which has to be incorporated into a possible TDC offset calibration using the LED system. The spatial distribution of timing offsets also shows similar characteristics as for the amplitudes. Ongoing measurements and research with the test stand aim to improve on these issues, yielding a calibration system that meets all performance requirements. From the commissioning phase of the EPT layer, many new insights about the HBU2 and the SPIROC chips arise. Many crucial parameters of the setup have to be calibrated for each channel separately, raising the need for efficient measurement procedures, optimised for automation and short measurement times. Such schemes are proposed for the input DAC setup

  13. Commissioning and LED system tests of the engineering prototype of the analog hadronic calorimeter of the CALICE collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartbrich, Oskar

    2012-10-01

    This thesis describes measurements on the LED system and commissioning of the AHCAL EPT, to be used as an active layer in an upcoming hadron test beam. The performed tests of the integrated LED system prove, that it can be used to calibrate SiPM gains on the HBU. The performance of calibrating multiple channels at the same time suffers from inhomogeneities in the LED amplitude for different channels. This was initially suspected to be caused by part variances in the LED production process, but the spatial distribution of LED threshold voltages over the HBU suggest a systematic effect, probably depending on the signal distance between the driver OPAMPs and the LED circuit. Compensation of these differences in pulse amplitude via switchable capacities integrated onto the HBU helps to reduce the spread of threshold voltages, but does not fulfill the goal of one single V Calib value for the whole setup. Further tests on the LED system performed with an upgraded test stand at Wuppertal confirm the spatial distribution of LED amplitudes. Inspection of the trigger signals arriving at the channel pulser circuits show a degraded signal correlated to the observed pulse amplitude. The test stand setup also allows to measure the time offsets between LED pulses on different channels, which has to be incorporated into a possible TDC offset calibration using the LED system. The spatial distribution of timing offsets also shows similar characteristics as for the amplitudes. Ongoing measurements and research with the test stand aim to improve on these issues, yielding a calibration system that meets all performance requirements. From the commissioning phase of the EPT layer, many new insights about the HBU2 and the SPIROC chips arise. Many crucial parameters of the setup have to be calibrated for each channel separately, raising the need for efficient measurement procedures, optimised for automation and short measurement times. Such schemes are proposed for the input DAC setup and

  14. Study on the Thermal Resistance of Multi-chip Module High Power LED Packaging Heat Dissipation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.

  15. Fluorescent light induces neurodegeneration in the rodent nigrostriatal system but near infrared LED light does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Stefania; Vitale, Flora; Viaggi, Cristina; di Marco, Stefano; Aloisi, Gabriella; Fasciani, Irene; Pardini, Carla; Pietrantoni, Ilaria; Di Paolo, Mattia; Riccitelli, Serena; Maccarone, Rita; Mattei, Claudia; Capannolo, Marta; Rossi, Mario; Capozzo, Annamaria; Corsini, Giovanni U; Scarnati, Eugenio; Lozzi, Luca; Vaglini, Francesca; Maggio, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effects of continuous artificial light exposure on the mouse substantia nigra (SN). A three month exposure of C57Bl/6J mice to white fluorescent light induced a 30% reduction in dopamine (DA) neurons in SN compared to controls, accompanied by a decrease of DA and its metabolites in the striatum. After six months of exposure, neurodegeneration progressed slightly, but the level of DA returned to the basal level, while the metabolites increased with respect to the control. Three month exposure to near infrared LED light (∼710nm) did not alter DA neurons in SN, nor did it decrease DA and its metabolites in the striatum. Furthermore mesencephalic cell viability, as tested by [ 3 H]DA uptake, did not change. Finally, we observed that 710nm LED light, locally conveyed in the rat SN, could modulate the firing activity of extracellular-recorded DA neurons. These data suggest that light can be detrimental or beneficial to DA neurons in SN, depending on the source and wavelength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics started the construction of a science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for processing data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which will launch on the Aura platform in mid 2004. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura mission. It will continue the Total Ozone Monitoring System (TOMS) record for total ozone and other atmospheric parameters related to ozone chemistry and climate. OMI measurements will be highly synergistic with the other instruments on the EOS Aura platform. The LTP previously developed the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Data Processing System (MODAPS), which has been in full operations since the launches of the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts in December, 1999 and May, 2002 respectively. During that time, it has continually evolved to better support the needs of the MODIS team. We now run multiple instances of the system managing faster than real time reprocessings of the data as well as continuing forward processing. The new OMI Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) was adapted from the MODAPS. It will ingest raw data from the satellite ground station and process it to produce calibrated, geolocated higher level data products. These data products will be transmitted to the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) instance of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for long term archive and distribution to the public. The OMIDAPS will also provide data distribution to the OMI Science Team for quality assessment, algorithm improvement, calibration, etc. We have taken advantage of lessons learned from the MODIS experience and software already developed for MODIS. We made some changes in the hardware system organization, database and

  17. Choice of the Control Method for LED Luminary in Intelligent Lighting System

    OpenAIRE

    Suzdaļenko, A; Galkins, I

    2010-01-01

    Inteliģentā apgaismojuma kontekstā, tika apskatīti vairākas apgaismes tehnoloģijas. Tika izvēlēta tehniski izdevīgākā un nepārtraukti attīstāmā LED tehnoloģija, kurai tika analizēti un eksperimentāli testētas vairākas vadības metodes. Secinājumos ir izvēlēta vispiemērotākā vadības metode un ir izvirzīti mērķi tālākam darbam.

  18. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  19. Mercury erosion experiments for spallation target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct the spallation neutron source at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, under the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A mercury circulation system has been designed so as to supply mercury to the target stably under the rated flow rate of 41 m 3 /hr. Then, it was necessary to confirm a mercury pump performance from the viewpoint of making the mercury circulation system feasible, and more, to investigate erosion rate under the mercury flow as well as an amount of mercury remained on the surface after drain from the viewpoints of mechanical strength relating to the lifetime and remote handling of mercury components. The mercury pump performance was tested under the mercury flow conditions by using an experimental gear pump, which had almost the same structure as a practical mercury pump to be expected in the mercury circulation system, and the erosion rates in a mercury pipeline as well as the amount of mercury remained on the surface were also investigated. The discharged flow rates of the experimental gear pump increased linearly with the rotation speed, so that the gear pump would work as the flow meter. Erosion rates obtained under the mercury velocity less than 1.6 m/s was found to be so small that decrease of pipeline wall thickness would be 390 μm after 30-year operation under the rated mercury velocity of 0.7 m/s. For the amount of remaining mercury on the pipeline, remaining rates of weight and volume were estimated at 50.7 g/m 2 and 3.74 Hg-cm 3 /m 2 , respectively. Applying these remaining rates of weight and volume to the mercury target, the remaining mercury was estimated at about 106.5 g and 7.9 cm 3 . Radioactivity of this remaining mercury volume was found to be three-order lower than that of the target casing. (author)

  20. High-Bandwidth White-Light System Combining a Micro-LED with Perovskite Quantum Dots for Visible Light Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shiliang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Wanlu; Liu, Ran; Zheng, Lirong; Guo, Ruiqian; Tian, Pengfei

    2018-02-14

    This work proposes a high-bandwidth white-light system consisting of a blue gallium nitride (GaN) micro-LEDLED) exciting yellow-emitting CsPbBr 1.8 I 1.2 perovskite quantum dots (YQDs) for high-speed real-time visible light communication (VLC). The packaged 80 μm × 80 μm blue-emitting μLED has a modulation bandwidth of ∼160 MHz and a peak emission wavelength of ∼445 nm. The achievable bandwidth of the white-light system is up to 85 MHz in the absence of filters and equalization technology. Meanwhile, the bandwidth of the YQDs as a color converter is as high as 73 MHz with the blue GaN μLED as the pump source. A maximum data rate of 300 Mbps can be achieved by taking advantage of the high bandwidth of the white-light system using the non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation scheme. The resultant bit-error rate is 2.0 × 10 -3 , well beneath the forward error correction criterion of 3.8 × 10 -3 required for error-free data transmission. In addition, the YQDs which we proposed as a color converter possess high stability for VLC. After half a year, the achievable bandwidths of the white-light system and the YQDs are still up to 83 and 70 MHz, respectively. This study provides the direction of developing high-bandwidth white-light system for both high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-speed VLC.

  1. A tunable fiber-optic LED illumination system for non-invasive measurements of the characteristics of a transparent fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świrniak, Grzegorz; Głomb, Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    This study reports an application of a fiber-optic LED-based illumination system to solve an inverse problem in optical measurements of characteristics of a single-mode fiber. The illumination system has the advantages of low temporal coherence, high intensity, collimation, and thermal stability of the emission spectrum. The inverse analysis is investigated to predict the values of the diameter and refractive index of a single-mode fiber and applies to the far field scattering pattern in the vicinity of a polychromatic rainbow. As the inversion possibility depends considerably on the properties of the incident radiation, a detailed discussion is provided on both the specification of the illumination system as well as preliminary characteristics of the produced radiation. The illumination system uses a direct coupling between a thermally-stabilized LED junction and a plastic optical fiber, which transmits light to an optical collimator. A numerical study of fiber-to-LED coupling efficiency helps to understand the influence of lateral and longitudinal misalignments on the output power.

  2. Tuning the light in senior care: Evaluating a trial LED lighting system at the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Samla, Connie; Bisbee, Dave

    2016-08-31

    This report summarizes the results from a trial installation of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems in several spaces within the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) coordinated the project and invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to document the performance of the LED lighting systems as part of a GATEWAY evaluation. DOE tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct the investigation. SMUD and ACC staff coordinated and completed the design and installation of the LED systems, while PNNL and SMUD staff evaluated the photometric performance of the systems. ACC staff also track behavioral and health measures of the residents; some of those results are reported here, although PNNL staff were not directly involved in collecting or interpreting those data. The trial installation took place in a double resident room and a single resident room, and the corridor that connects those (and other) rooms to the central nurse station. Other spaces in the trial included the nurse station, a common room called the family room located near the nurse station, and the ACC administrator’s private office.

  3. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Mosca, Marta; Bertsias, George

    2014-01-01

    . An extensive research agenda was identified, and four overarching principles were also agreed upon. Treat-to-target-in-SLE (T2T/SLE) recommendations were developed by a large task force of multispecialty experts and a patient representative. It is anticipated that 'treating-to-target' can......The principle of treating-to-target has been successfully applied to many diseases outside rheumatology and more recently to rheumatoid arthritis. Identifying appropriate therapeutic targets and pursuing these systematically has led to improved care for patients with these diseases and useful...

  4. Peer-led team learning in an online course on controversial medication issues and the US healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Amy L; LimBybliw, Amy L

    2013-09-12

    To implement peer-led team learning in an online course on controversial issues surrounding medications and the US healthcare system. The course was delivered completely online using a learning management system. Students participated in weekly small-group discussions in online forums, completed 3 reflective writing assignments, and collaborated on a peer-reviewed grant proposal project. In a post-course survey, students reported that the course was challenging but meaningful. Final projects and peer-reviewed assignments demonstrated that primary learning goals for the course were achieved and students were empowered to engage in the healthcare debate. A peer-led team-learning is an effective strategy for an online course offered to a wide variety of student learners. By shifting some of the learning and grading responsibility to students, the instructor workload for the course was rendered more manageable.

  5. Thermographic and spectrophotometric analysis of the extrinsic tooth bleaching using a diode laser and a LED system. In vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheli, Paola Racy de

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-pulpal temperature change, as well as to compare the bleaching power of a 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Xtra Boost- Ultradent. Inc), when activated with a diode laser, with a LED system and without activation, in the extrinsic tooth bleaching in vitro. Ten mandibular human incisors, a thermocouple, 45 bovine incisors and a spectrophotometer (Shade Eye- Shofu) for the color analysis. The samples were divided into 3 groups: 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by a diode laser (ZAP lasers, wavelength 808 nm ± 5, power of 1,4 W); 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED (Bright LEC-Mmoptics, wavelength 470 nm ± 25, power of 380 mW); 38% hydrogen peroxide without activation. After the artificial pigmentation, the bleaching agent acted for the same time in the 3 groups, differing only by the type of activation. The results of temperature showed that the LED activation was safer than the diode laser, which, in some measures exceeded the limit of 5.6 deg C. The luminosity of the samples did not show significantly statistics differences in none of the groups and moments of this study. The diode laser and LED activation did not influenced at the bleaching power of the peroxide, which showed effective for removing stains, with great capacity of bleaching bovine tooth artificially darkened. (author)

  6. PV led engine characterization lab for standalone light to light systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Lindén, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    PV-powered lighting systems, light-to-light systems (L2L), offer outdoor lighting where it is else where cumbersome to enable lighting. Application of these systems at high latitudes, where the difference in day length between summer and winter is large and the solar energy is low requires smart...... dimming functions for reliable lighting. In this work we have built a laboratory to characterize these systems up to 200 Wp from “nose to tail” in great details to support improvement of the systems and to make accurate field performance predictions....

  7. Automation in irradiating target systems for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Sumair G.; Sciani, Valdir; Almeida, Rosemeire S.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d, 3 He 4 and α, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 μA; the other one, model cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 μ A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotope production for use in Nuclear Medicine, such as 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 111 In, 123 I, 18 F, and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatized was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increasing the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PLC was developed using Simatic Step Seven (S7), Software from Siemens, where all the steps are supervised in screens at a microcomputer. The assembling and sequence of leading were developed using the software from Unisoft, that keeps the operator informed about the work being carried out, at any time. (author)

  8. PV LED ENGINE characterization lab for stand alone light-to-light systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    PV-powered lighting systems, light-to-light systems (L2L), offer outdoor lighting where it is elsewhere cumbersome to enable lighting. Application of these systems at high latitudes, where the difference in day length between summer and winter is large and the solar energy is low requires smart...... dimming functions for reliable lighting. A barrier for exploiting use of standalone solar lighting for the urban environment seem to be lack of knowledge and lack of available tools for proper dimensioning. In this work the development of powerful dimensioning tool is described and initial measurements...

  9. Multidisciplinary Research in Mine Detection and Neutralization Systems: Missouri-Led Muri

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Robert

    2003-01-01

    ...), multi-algorithm and multi-sensor fusion, image processing and detection algorithms for lightweight airborne mine detection, concepts for designing and fielding new OPR based mine detection systems...

  10. Architecture-led Requirements and Safety Analysis of an Aircraft Survivability Situational Awareness System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    system state and behavior, as well as asusmptions about resoruces being utilized, and interactions with supervisory capabilities. When used in the...common safety analysis practice ASSA was assigned a design assurance level E with respect to flight worthiness. However, since aircraft does get...Design Language (AADL) Annex Volume 3 Annex E : Error Model Annex, Draft. Dec 2013. AS 5502/3. 8 SAE International, SAE ARP-4761. Guidelines and

  11. A system for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers using led irradiation and natural latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Marcelino de Almeida Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: We developed and tested a new system for inducing the healing of diabetic foot ulcers. The system relies on the regenerative properties of its two components: an insole with a sheet of natural latex and a device that contains a matrix of light emitting diodes with wavelength of 635 nm. Methods The electronic and latex based devices were developed, and a four weeks test was performed in one control group (CG of five ulcers and one experimental group (EG of eight ulcers. The CG was treated with a standard approach, based on a silver-releasing foam dressing, and the EG was treated with the system under test. For each ulcer, an index for quantifying the percentage ulcer recovery, named CRU(%, has been calculated; a CRU(% = 0% means no healing, and a CRU(% = 100% means total healing. Results There were statistically significant increases of CRU(% of 51.8% (p = 0.022, for the CG, and of 78.4% (p < 0.001, for the EG. The increase in the EG was higher than the increase in the CG, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results showed that the proposed method had, for these particular sets of ulcers, faster healing rates, than for the standard method. Conclusion The results hint that the proposed method seems promising as a future treatment method. However, the technique must undergo further testing before it can be considered for extensive clinical applications.

  12. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  13. The characterization of an economic and portable LED-based photoacoustic imaging system to facilitate molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hariri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging (PAI is a non-invasive, high-resolution hybrid imaging modality that combines optical excitation and ultrasound detection. PAI can image endogenous chromophores (melanin, hemoglobin, etc. and exogenous contrast agents in different medical applications. However, most current equipment uses sophisticated and complicated OPO lasers with tuning and stability features inconsistent with broad clinical deployment. As the number of applications of PAI in medicine increases, there is an urgent need to make the imaging equipment more compact, portable, and affordable. Here, portable light emitting diode – based photoacoustic imaging (PLED-PAI was introduced and characterized in terms of system specifications, light source characterizations, photoacoustic spatial/temporal resolution, and penetration. The system uses two LED arrays attached to the sides of a conventional ultrasound transducer. The LED pulse repetition rate is tunable between 1 K Hz, 2 K Hz, 3 K Hz, and 4 K Hz. The axial resolution was 0.268 mm, and the lateral resolution was between 0.55 and 0.59 mm. The system could detect optical absorber (pencil lead at a depth of 3.2 cm and the detection limits of indocyanine green (ICG and methylene blue (MB were 9 μM and 0.78 mM. In vivo imaging of labeled human mesenchymal stem cells was achieved to confirm compatibility with small animal imaging. The characterization we report here may have value to other groups evaluating commercially available photoacoustic imaging equipment. Keywords: Portable photoacoustic imaging, LED, Optoacoustic imaging, Molecular imaging

  14. Commissioning of an LED calibration and monitoring system for the prototype of a hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattimena, N.

    2006-12-15

    The anticipated physics program for the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires a highly granular hadronic calorimeter. One option for such a tracking calorimeter is a scintillator-steel sandwich structure placed inside the magnetic coil. The development of hadronic showers will be studied with a physics prototype, in order to improve current models. This prototype, currently being built within the collaboration for a CAlorimeter for the LInear Collider Experiment (CALICE) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) also serves to test a new semiconductor based photodetector the so called silicon photomultiplier. The calibration of these new photodetectors requires to take into account their nonlinear response.The response function, describing this behaviour, is investigated in this thesis. A calibration and monitoring system, needed to correct for the temperature and voltage dependence of the silicon photomultiplier signals and to observe changes of their response over time, is optimised and tested. (orig.)

  15. Commissioning of an LED calibration and monitoring system for the prototype of a hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattimena, N.

    2006-12-01

    The anticipated physics program for the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires a highly granular hadronic calorimeter. One option for such a tracking calorimeter is a scintillator-steel sandwich structure placed inside the magnetic coil. The development of hadronic showers will be studied with a physics prototype, in order to improve current models. This prototype, currently being built within the collaboration for a CAlorimeter for the LInear Collider Experiment (CALICE) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) also serves to test a new semiconductor based photodetector the so called silicon photomultiplier. The calibration of these new photodetectors requires to take into account their nonlinear response.The response function, describing this behaviour, is investigated in this thesis. A calibration and monitoring system, needed to correct for the temperature and voltage dependence of the silicon photomultiplier signals and to observe changes of their response over time, is optimised and tested. (orig.)

  16. Design and Implementation of a Smart LED Lighting System Using a Self Adaptive Weighted Data Fusion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsai Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to develop a smart LED lighting system, which is remotely controlled by Android apps via handheld devices, e.g., smartphones, tablets, and so forth. The status of energy use is reflected by readings displayed on a handheld device, and it is treated as a criterion in the lighting mode design of a system. A multimeter, a wireless light dimmer, an IR learning remote module, etc. are connected to a server by means of RS 232/485 and a human computer interface on a touch screen. The wireless data communication is designed to operate in compliance with the ZigBee standard, and signal processing on sensed data is made through a self adaptive weighted data fusion algorithm. A low variation in data fusion together with a high stability is experimentally demonstrated in this work. The wireless light dimmer as well as the IR learning remote module can be instructed directly by command given on the human computer interface, and the reading on a multimeter can be displayed thereon via the server. This proposed smart LED lighting system can be remotely controlled and self learning mode can be enabled by a single handheld device via WiFi transmission. Hence, this proposal is validated as an approach to power monitoring for home appliances, and is demonstrated as a digital home network in consideration of energy efficiency.

  17. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Development of radiation monitoring and visualization systems for Fukushima. GPS monitoring system, Dose3DMap system, and LED-coupled scintillating fiber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Noriaki; Kosako, Kazuaki; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kawaguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Lands that were contaminated with radioactive elements following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 have been decontaminated, and the construction of an interim storage facility for radioactive waste is planned. A GPS monitoring system was developed to concomitantly determine a location and measure the radiation level at the location. Moreover, a mapping system that produces radiation maps at the measurement locations and also predicts post-decontamination radiation maps using the compiled Monte Carlo simulation program was constructed. These systems were used for decontamination planning and estimation of the decontamination effect. An LED-coupled scintillating fiber detector was developed for visually monitoring radiation in real time at the interim storage facility. The LEDs display different colors corresponding to different radiation levels at the measurement locations along the fiber detector, the maximum length of which is 50 m. Thus, the radiation levels at all positions along the length of the detector can be visually monitored in real time. Moreover, it is useful for radiation safety and for risk communication with radiation workers and residents close to the site. (author)

  19. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target

  20. Optimized lighting method of applying shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of LED-multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Hu, Yajia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimized lighting method of applying a shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of light emitting diode (LED)-multispectral imaging system. The optimized lighting method is based on the linear response zone of the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and the spectral response of the camera. The auxiliary light at a higher sensitivity-camera area is introduced to increase the A/D quantization levels that are within the linear response zone of ADC and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The active light is modulated by the shaped-function signal to improve the gray-scale resolution of the image. And the auxiliary light is modulated by the constant intensity signal, which is easy to acquire the images under the active light irradiation. The least square method is employed to precisely extract the desired images. One wavelength in multispectral imaging based on LED illumination was taken as an example. It has been proven by experiments that the gray-scale resolution and the accuracy of information of the images acquired by the proposed method were both significantly improved. The optimum method opens up avenues for the hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue.

  1. Community-led local development approach principles implementation when forming a regional local development projects support system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Udod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.

  2. Drug targeting systems for inflammatory disease: one for all, all for one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crielaard, Bart J; Lammers, Twan; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Storm, Gert

    2012-07-20

    In various systemic disorders, structural changes in the microenvironment of diseased tissues enable both passive and active targeting of therapeutic agents to these tissues. This has led to a number of targeting approaches that enhance the accumulation of drugs in the target tissues, making drug targeting an attractive strategy for the treatment of various diseases. Remarkably, the strategic principles that form the basis of drug targeting are often employed for tumor targeting, while chronic inflammatory diseases appear to draw much less attention. To provide the reader with a general overview of the current status of drug targeting to inflammatory diseases, the passive and active targeting strategies that have been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are discussed. The last part of this review addresses the dualism of platform technology-oriented ("one for all") and disease-oriented drug targeting research ("all for one"), both of which are key elements of effective drug targeting research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermographic and spectrophotometric analysis of the extrinsic tooth bleaching using a diode laser and a LED system. In vitro; Analise termografica e espectrofotometrica do clareamento dental extrinsico utilizando laser de diodo e sistema de LED. Estudio In vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheli, Paola Racy de

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-pulpal temperature change, as well as to compare the bleaching power of a 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Xtra Boost- Ultradent. Inc), when activated with a diode laser, with a LED system and without activation, in the extrinsic tooth bleaching in vitro. Ten mandibular human incisors, a thermocouple, 45 bovine incisors and a spectrophotometer (Shade Eye- Shofu) for the color analysis. The samples were divided into 3 groups: 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by a diode laser (ZAP lasers, wavelength 808 nm {+-} 5, power of 1,4 W); 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED (Bright LEC-Mmoptics, wavelength 470 nm {+-} 25, power of 380 mW); 38% hydrogen peroxide without activation. After the artificial pigmentation, the bleaching agent acted for the same time in the 3 groups, differing only by the type of activation. The results of temperature showed that the LED activation was safer than the diode laser, which, in some measures exceeded the limit of 5.6 deg C. The luminosity of the samples did not show significantly statistics differences in none of the groups and moments of this study. The diode laser and LED activation did not influenced at the bleaching power of the peroxide, which showed effective for removing stains, with great capacity of bleaching bovine tooth artificially darkened. (author)

  4. Developing a patient-led electronic feedback system for quality and safety within Renal PatientView.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Sally J; Reynolds, Caroline; Heyhoe, Jane; Armitage, Gerry

    2017-03-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that patients can provide direct feedback about the quality and safety of their care through patient reporting systems. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of patients, healthcare professionals and researchers working in partnership to develop a patient-led quality and safety feedback system within an existing electronic health record (EHR), known as Renal PatientView (RPV). Phase 1 (inception) involved focus groups (n = 9) and phase 2 (requirements) involved cognitive walkthroughs (n = 34) and 1:1 qualitative interviews (n = 34) with patients and healthcare professionals. A Joint Services Expert Panel (JSP) was convened to review the findings from phase 1 and agree the core principles and components of the system prototype. Phase 1 data were analysed using a thematic approach. Data from phase 1 were used to inform the design of the initial system prototype. Phase 2 data were analysed using the components of heuristic evaluation, resulting in a list of core principles and components for the final system prototype. Phase 1 identified four main barriers and facilitators to patients feeding back on quality and safety concerns. In phase 2, the JSP agreed that the system should be based on seven core principles and components. Stakeholders were able to work together to identify core principles and components for an electronic patient quality and safety feedback system in renal services. Tensions arose due to competing priorities, particularly around anonymity and feedback. Careful consideration should be given to the feasibility of integrating a novel element with differing priorities into an established system with existing functions and objectives. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  5. Development of a cryogenic target system for the FOREST experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, R.; Fujimura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kasagi, J.; Kuwasaki, S.; Sato, M.; Yamazaki, H.; Shimizu, H.; Kanda, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new cryogenic target production system for a 4π γ-ray detector FOREST has been installed in the GeV-γ experimental hall. The achieving temperature at the target is 4.5 K. It can maintain solid or liquid H 2 /D 2 . The target system enables us to make up solid or liquid hydrogen in a short time ∼2 hours after 3 hour-precooling. (author)

  6. Target holders and cooling system for I sup(123) production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Erbe, D.

    1986-01-01

    The constructions of target holder and cooling system for sup(123)I production in the IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) is presented. The system was arranged, constructed and tested by Karlsruhe Dieter Erbe Nuclear Research Center. (author)

  7. Monetary targeting and financial system characteristics : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, A..

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how reforms and characteristics of the financial system affect the likelihood of countries to abandon their strategy of monetary targeting. Apart from financial system characteristics, we include macroeconomic, fiscal, and institutional factors potentially associated with

  8. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Hinas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  9. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinas, Ajmal; Roberts, Jonathan M; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2017-12-17

    In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act) loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  10. loaded, colon-targeted drug delivery system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled delivery of 5-flurouracil (5-FU) in cancer patients. Method: Nine different miCAP formulations were prepared ... osmotically-controlled devices, pro-drug systems,. pH-dependent devices, and systems in which the ..... are very useful tools in the investigation of the thermal properties of miCAPs, and they provide.

  11. Integrating digital teaching-file systems with off-the-shelf presentation software to facilitate speaker-led conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M S; Schultz, T; Dreyer, K

    2001-06-01

    Develop methods for automated transfer of images and associated text from a teaching-file repository into presentation material for speaker-led conferences. Our institution uses a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) software application to maintain a digital teaching-file database that can store and retrieve content in a case-centric fashion. Virtually any number of images can be stored with any given case. Cases and their associated images can be retrieved via a module that supports searches by American College of Radiology (ACR) code and by free-text Boolean queries on the history, findings, diagnosis, and discussion components of a case. In addition to the software system serving directly as an interactive teaching tool, the digital teaching file itself serves as an image repository and resource for attending radiologists who create their own presentations and lectures. To better support this use, software modules were developed for interprocess communication and automated creation of Powerpoint slides. These modules are fully integrated with the teaching-file software application. A single image or a set of selected images can be automatically made into individual slides with two mouse clicks. Images are automatically centered and optimally sized. A slide title is automatically rendered from the user's preference of the case history or diagnosis (stored with the case), or via the entry of freeform text. We describe the programming techniques that are used, as well as how several features of the operating system and Powerpoint itself can be integrated with a customized software application to facilitate this objective. The creation of presentation-ready Powerpoint slides is fully automated from within our teaching-file application, and the time required to create a presentation compared to the conventional method of manually seeking and inserting files from within Powerpoint itself, on a per-slide basis, is drastically reduced. The benefits are

  12. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  13. Interface design recommendations for computerised clinical audit and feedback: Hybrid usability evidence from a research-led system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin; Balatsoukas, Panos; Williams, Richard; Sperrin, Matthew; Buchan, Iain

    2016-10-01

    Audit and Feedback (A&F) is a widely used quality improvement technique that measures clinicians' clinical performance and reports it back to them. Computerised A&F (e-A&F) system interfaces may consist of four key components: (1) Summaries of clinical performance; (2) Patient lists; (3) Patient-level data; (4) Recommended actions. There is a lack of evidence regarding how to best design e-A&F interfaces; establishing such evidence is key to maximising usability, and in turn improving patient safety. To evaluate the usability of a novel theoretically-informed and research-led e-A&F system for primary care (the Performance Improvement plaN GeneratoR: PINGR). (1) Describe PINGR's design, rationale and theoretical basis; (2) Identify usability issues with PINGR; (3) Understand how these issues may interfere with the cognitive goals of end-users; (4) Translate the issues into recommendations for the user-centred design of e-A&F systems. Eight experienced health system evaluators performed a usability inspection using an innovative hybrid approach consisting of five stages: (1) Development of representative user tasks, Goals, and Actions; (2) Combining Heuristic Evaluation and Cognitive Walkthrough methods into a single protocol to identify usability issues; (3) Consolidation of issues; (4) Severity rating of consolidated issues; (5) Analysis of issues according to usability heuristics, interface components, and Goal-Action structure. A final list of 47 issues were categorised into 8 heuristic themes. The most error-prone heuristics were 'Consistency and standards' (13 usability issues; 28% of the total) and 'Match between system and real world' (n=10, 21%). The recommended actions component of the PINGR interface had the most usability issues (n=21, 45%), followed by patient-level data (n=5, 11%), patient lists (n=4, 9%), and summaries of clinical performance (n=4, 9%). The most error-prone Actions across all user Goals were: (1) Patient selection from a list; (2) Data

  14. Bond strength of Epiphany™ Sealer combined with different adhesive systems photo-activated with LED and QTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, A. M. P.; Bandéca, M. C.; Borges, A. H.; Nadalin, M. R.; Thomé, L. H. C.

    2009-08-01

    The Epiphany™ Sealer is a new dual-curing resin-based sealer and has been introduced as an alternative to gutta-percha and traditional root canal sealers. The canal filling is claimed to create a seal with the dentinal tubules within the root canal system producing a ‘monoblock’ effect between the sealer and dentinal tubules. Therefore, considering the possibility to incorporate the others adhesive systems, it is important to study the bond strength of the resulting cement. Forty-eight root mandibular canines were sectioned 8-mm below CEJ. The dentine discs were prepared using a tapered diamond bur and irrigated with 1% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Previous the application Epiphany™ Sealer, the Epiphany™ Primer, AdheSE, and One Up Bond F were applied to the root canal walls. The LED and QTH (Quartz Tungsten Halogen) were used to photo-activation during 45 s with power density of 400 and 720 mW/cm2, respectively. The specimens were performed on a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until bond failure occurred. The force was recorded and the debonding values were used to calculate Push-out bond strength. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc tests showed significant statistical differences ( P light curing unit used including the power density, the polymerization characteristics of these resin-based filling materials, depending on the primer/adhesive used.

  15. An Analysis of a System of Rural Regional Environmental Management Led by ‘a Group of University Students’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Nakamura, Masato; Hiroshige, Yutaka

    This paper aims to analyze the formative processes and the current state of a collaboration between ‘outsiders’ and local residents in a System of Rural Regional Environmental management from the view point of human networks. The system seeks to solve the problem of abandoned farmlands led by a group of university students (outsiders). We chronologically classified a total of eighty-nine activities addressing the issue of abandoned farmlands by utilizing three concepts: ‘calculated devices’ (e.g. the making of relations between a group of university students and local residents and strengthening these relations), ‘assistance/participation’, and ‘voluntary interaction/desire’. Based on this analysis, we: 1) developed an understanding of the formative processes as well as the current state of the collaboration between a group of university students and twenty seven local residents from an individual perspective; 2) identified ten key individuals who played a significant role in the activities examined and revealed their characteristics and motivations; 3) suggest that an existing NPO and informal relations between the local residents played a major role in the formation of collaborative networks; 4) argue that the perceived characteristics of the students (e.g. ‘youthful’, ‘inexperienced’) and the Mori-Mori club (e.g. unstable) contributed to the maintenance and expansion of the collaboration between ‘outsiders’ and local residents.

  16. Radiometric analysis of UV to near infrared LEDs for optical sensing and radiometric measurements in photochemical systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noori, A.; Mahbub, P.; Dvořák, Miloš; Lucieer, A.; Macka, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 262, JUN (2018), s. 171-179 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : light emitting diodes ( LED s) * optical sensing * LED characterisation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  17. Project-Based Learning with an Online Peer Assessment System in a Photonics Instruction for Enhancing LED Design Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Kuo, Yen-Kuang; You, Li-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a novel instructional approach, a two-stage LED simulation of Project-based learning (PBL) course with online peer assessment (OPA), and explored how to apply OPA to the different structured problems in a PBL course to enhance students' professional skills in LED design as well as meta-cognitive thinking. The participants of…

  18. Radiometric analysis of UV to near infrared LEDs for optical sensing and radiometric measurements in photochemical systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noori, A.; Mahbub, P.; Dvořák, Miloš; Lucieer, A.; Macka, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 262, JUN (2018), s. 171-179 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : light emitting diodes (LEDs) * optical sensing * LED characterisation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  19. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  20. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  1. Low-flying target position finding with a seismic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechak, Jaroslav; Hubacek, Petr; Vesely, Jiri

    2009-06-01

    The development of new sensor systems able to detect, identify and find position of the targets equipped with STEALTH technology began early in 1990s. Some of the sensor systems utilise acoustic, magnetic, seismic and/or other physical effects of target activity. A reason motivating the development of new sensor systems based on other than radar or optical principal of operation in detecting targets is that the systems usually emit no electromagnetic energy during operation. Thanks to their passive principle they provide the users with the advantages of hidden positioning and difficult discovery with reconnaissance tools. Therefore, some of the new UGS systems also allow detecting low-flying targets, such as helicopters, propeller or jet aircraft, etc., in the detection range of up to several kilometres. The information of flight direction is usually estimated and deduced from spatiotemporal sequence detections by multiple interlinked UGS systems. The submitted paper analyses low-flying target position finding principle on Time Direction Of Arrival (TDOA) basis. It presents the qualities of found UGS arrangement topologies and the characteristics of the unambiguous position determination of low-flying targets. It also contains mathematical description of signal digital processing intended to find low-flying target's position. The processed results are presented in table and diagram forms created in Matlab mathematical environment. All the presented detection and identification results were obtained from real recorded signals.

  2. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-15

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production.

  3. Compactness of cores of targets for nonlinear delay systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We complement Ukwu [9] and Chukwu [1] by answering in the affirmative that under certain smoothness conditions, the compactness of cores of targets for a linear system guarantees the compactness of cores of target for the linear perturbation. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp.

  4. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  5. Review article: the endocannabinoid system in liver disease, a potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, P P; Aloysius, M M; Shah, N J; Brown, R S

    2014-04-01

    Endocannabinoids are a family of potent lipid-soluble molecules, acting on the cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana. The CB receptors, endocannabinoids and the enzymes involved in their synthesis and degradation are located in the brain and peripheral tissues, including the liver. To review the current understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in liver disease-associated pathophysiological conditions, and drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system as therapy for liver disease. Original articles and reviews were used to summarise the relevant pre-clinical and clinical research findings relating to this topic. The endocannabinoid system as a whole plays an important role in liver diseases (i.e. non-alcoholic liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, hepatic encephalopathy and autoimmune hepatitis) and related pathophysiological conditions (i.e. altered hepatic haemodynamics, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, metabolic syndrome and ischaemia/reperfusion disease). Pharmacological targeting of the endocannabinoid system has had success as treatment for patients with liver disease, but adverse events led to withdrawal of marketing approval. However, there is optimism over novel therapeutics targeting the endocannabinoid system currently in the pre-clinical stage of development. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver disease and its associated conditions. While some drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system have deleterious neurological adverse events, there is promise for a newer generation of therapies that do not cross the blood-brain barrier. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time automatic target identification system for air-to-ground targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mike; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo

    2005-10-01

    Future targeting systems, for manned or unmanned combat aircraft, aim to provide increased mission success and platform survivability by successfully detecting and identifying even difficult targets at very long ranges. One of the key enabling technologies for such systems is robust automatic target identification (ATI), operating on high resolution electro-optic sensor imagery. QinetiQ have developed a real time ATI processor which will be demonstrated with infrared imagery from the Wescam MX15 in airborne trials in summer 2005. This paper describes some of the novel ATI algorithms, the challenges overcome to port the ATI from the laboratory onto a real time system and offers an assessment of likely airborne performance based on analysis of synthetic image sequences.

  8. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  9. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Görtz, S; Gustafsson, K K; Horikawa, N; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW trademark 6.1 under Windows 2000 trademark . About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle trademark database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  11. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautheron, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Doshita, N.; Goertz, St.; Gustafsson, K.; Horikawa, N.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kondo, K.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.

    2004-06-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW TM 6.1 under Windows 2000 TM. About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle TM database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  12. Thermal Hydraulic and Structural Analysis of Liquid Metal Target System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Chung, Chang Hyun

    2002-01-01

    A subcritical transmutation reactor research is in progress for treatment of spent fuel. The subcritical transmutation reactor needs target system to produce high-energy neutrons. In target system, beam window is subject to high thermal field, because it interacts with high energy proton beam. In this study, target was designed based on thermal-hydraulic analysis, and thermal-structural analysis of window was performed. Preliminary design and mechanical analysis of liquid Pb-Bi target and 9Cr-2WVTa window were performed. Target was designed in a way to decrease window temperature. Installation of diffuse plate which has higher porosity in central zone was considered. Temperature and stress of window were analyzed varying minimum window thickness, beam power, and coolant flow rate. Thermal-bending stress was generated in window because of temperature gradient along the thickness of window. Coolant flow rate had insignificant effect on window stresses. It can be concluded that the target and window can be used in transmutation reactor operating condition (1 GeV, 6.78 mA). In this study, only static analysis has been made. But, accelerator beam trip can frequently occur in accelerator operation, so window and target container dynamic stress analysis will be needed. Furthermore, study about corrosion or irradiation characteristics of window will be needed in designing target and window. (authors)

  13. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas system in medaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ansai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas system-based RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN has recently emerged as a simple and efficient tool for targeted genome editing. In this study, we showed successful targeted mutagenesis using RGENs in medaka, Oryzias latipes. Somatic and heritable mutations were induced with high efficiency at the targeted genomic sequence on the DJ-1 gene in embryos that had been injected with the single guide RNA (sgRNA transcribed by a T7 promoter and capped RNA encoding a Cas9 nuclease. The sgRNAs that were designed for the target genomic sequences without the 5′ end of GG required by the T7 promoter induced the targeted mutations. This suggests that the RGEN can target any sequence adjacent to an NGG protospacer adjacent motif (PAM sequence, which occurs once every 8 bp. The off-target alterations at 2 genomic loci harboring double mismatches in the 18-bp targeting sequences were induced in the RGEN-injected embryos. However, we also found that the off-target effects could be reduced by lower dosages of sgRNA. Taken together, our results suggest that CRISPR/Cas-mediated RGENs may be an efficient and flexible tool for genome editing in medaka.

  14. Yuma Border Patrol Area Lighting Retrofit LED System Performance in a Trial Installation – Two Years Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Gregory P. [Efficiency Solutions, Inc, Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Documentation of the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area lighting LED trial demonstration continues to provide a better understanding of LED technology performance in a high ambient temperature and high solar radiation environment. Measured data at the project site showed illuminances changing more rapidly than anticipated. As previously predicted, the causes for these observed changes are mostly if not completely explained by dirt accumulation. The laboratory measurements showed not only the effect of dirt on lumen output, but also on the distribution of light exiting the luminaire.

  15. System for manipulating and optically targeting micro objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system 100 for independently holding and manipulating one or more microscopic objects 158 and for targeting at least a part of the one or more microscopic objects within a trapping volume 102 with electromagnetic radiation 138. The system comprises trapping means...... for holding and manipulating the one or more microscopic objects and electromagnetic radiation targeting means (116). The light means comprising a light source and a spatial light modulator which serve to modify the light from the light source so as to enable specific illumination of at least a part...... of the one or more microscopic objects. The trapping means and the electromagnetic radiation targeting means (116) are enabled to function independently of each other, so that the trapped objects may be moved around without taking being dependent on which parts are being targeted and vice versa....

  16. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, Han Seong; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Mi Ro; Jeong, Hun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  17. Developing conservation targets in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of targets is foundational in conservation. Although progress has been made in setting targets, the diverse linkages among ecological and social components make target setting for coupled social-ecological systems extremely challenging. Developing integrated social-ecological targets is difficult because it forces policy makers to consider how management actions propagate throughout social-ecological systems, and because ultimately it is society, not scientists, that defines targets. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for identifying management targets and illustrate this approach using an example motivated by Puget Sound, USA. Our approach blends ecological modeling with empirical social science to articulate trade-offs and reveal societal preferences for different social-ecological states. The framework aims to place information in the hands of decision makers and promote discussion in the appropriate forums. Our ultimate objective is to encourage the informed participation of citizens in the development of social-ecological targets that reflect their values while also protecting key ecosystem attributes.

  18. Particulate Systems for Targeting of Macrophages: Basic and Therapeutic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Parhamifar, Ladan; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2012-01-01

    Particulate systems in the form of liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric nano- and microparticles, and many others offer a rational approach for selective delivery of therapeutic agents to the macrophage from different physiological portals of entry. Particulate targeting of macrophages and in...... at a particular subset of macrophages. Advances in basic and therapeutic concepts of particulate targeting of macrophages and related nanotechnology approaches for immune cell modifications are discussed.Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  19. High-power LED light sources for optical measurement systems operated in continuous and overdriven pulsed modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Schröder, Andreas; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    The rapid progress of light emitting diode (LED) technology has recently resulted in the availability of high power devices with unprecedented light emission intensities comparable to those of visible laser light sources. On this basis two versatile devices have been developed, constructed and tested. The first one is a high-power, single-LED illuminator equipped with exchangeable projection lenses providing a homogenous light spot of defined diameter. The second device is a multi-LED illuminator array consisting of a number of high-power LEDs, each integrated with a separate collimating lens. These devices can emit R, G, CG, B, UV or white light and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. Using an external trigger signal they can be easily synchronized with cameras or other devices. The mode of operation and all parameters can be controlled by software. Various experiments have shown that these devices have become a versatile and competitive alternative to laser and xenon lamp based light sources. The principle, design, achieved performances and application examples are given in this paper.

  20. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  1. Radiation effects in IFMIF Li target diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Vila, R.; Shikama, T.; Horiike, H.; Simakov, S.; Ciotti, M.; Ibarra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostics for the lithium target will be crucial for the operation of IFMIF. Several parameters as the lithium temperature, target thickness or wave pattern must be monitored during operation. Radiation effects may produce malfunctioning in any of these diagnostics due to the exposure to high radiation fields. The main diagnostic systems proposed for the operation of IFMIF are reviewed in this paper from the point of view of radiation damage. The main tools for the assessment of the performance of these diagnostics are the neutronics calculations by using specialised codes and the information accumulated during the last decades on the radiation effects in functional materials, components and diagnostics for ITER. This analysis allows to conclude that the design of some of the diagnostic systems must be revised to assure the high availability required for the target system.

  2. The positive effects of a peer-led intervention system for individuals with a risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanee A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aree Sanee, Ratana Somrongthong, Samlee Plianbangchang College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a major health risk in Thailand. Although it is reported that females have a higher rate of MetS than males, very few peer-led intervention studies have been conducted on specific groups, such as seamstresses, at risk of MetS. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a peer-led intervention program on reducing MetS risk factors in individuals working in Thai Uniform Sewing Military Factories.Methods: A quasiexperimental program was introduced using a pre- and posttest design that was applied to female sewing factory workers selected for this research. All participants had at least one of the key MetS symptoms. The experimental group (N=50 participants received 12 weekly peer-led individual support discussion sessions that included both dietary and physical activity (PA advice and the control group (N=50 participants followed their usual daily routines. The Student’s t-test and the Pearson’s chi-squared test were used to compare the differences of baseline data and analysis of variance was used for analysis of the data after intervention.Results: The results showed that after 3 months of participation, when compared to the control group, the experimental group had significantly improved systolic blood pressure (BP (P=0.04, diastolic BP (P<0.001, PA (P=0.05, knowledge scores of MetS, perception of MetS and risk factors (P<0.001, and stress assessment (P=0.002. Waist circumference, body mass index, and Food Frequency Questionnaire score were not significantly different but still improved.Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that a peer-led support program can be introduced as an effective means of improving the behaviors of mostly sedentary factory workers at risk of MetS caused by working habits that are detrimental to health. Keywords: peer-led intervention

  3. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Tuning the Light in Senior Care: Evaluating a Trial LED Lighting System at the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Samla, Connie [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bisbee, Dave [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The GATEWAY program documented the performance of tunable-white LED lighting systems installed in several spaces within the ACC Care Center, a senior-care facility in Sacramento, CA. The project results included energy savings and improved lighting quality, as well as other possible health-related benefits that may have been attributable, at least in part, to the lighting changes.

  4. A 2 x 2 imaging MIMO system based on LED Visible Light Communications employing space balanced coding and integrated PIN array reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiehui; Xu, Yinfan; Shi, Jianyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a 2 x 2 imaging Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-Visible Light Communication (VLC) system by employing Space Balanced Coding (SBC) based on two RGB LEDs and integrated PIN array reception. We experimentally demonstrated 1.4-Gbit/s VLC transmission at a distance of 2.5 m...

  5. GATEWAY Report: Tuning the Light in Classrooms: Evaluating Trial LED Lighting Systems in Three Classrooms at the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District in Carrollton, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    The GATEWAY program evaluated a trial installation of tunable-white LED lighting systems in three classrooms in the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District in Carrollton, TX. The report provides valuable insights into the use of this technology in a real-world setting.

  6. GATEWAY Report Brief: Tuning the Light in Classrooms: Evaluating Trial LED Lighting Systems in Three Classrooms at the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District in Carrollton, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-29

    Summary of GATEWAY report evaluating a trial installation of tunable-white LED lighting systems in three classrooms in the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District in Carrollton, TX. The report provides valuable insights into the use of this technology in a real-world setting.

  7. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  8. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 μm, 0.53 μm, and 0.35 μm. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described

  9. Polymer-Based Novel Lung Targeted Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowafy, Enas; Osman, Rihab; Ishak, Rania A H

    2017-01-01

    Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract. The most common preparation methods are outlined in the article. Special emphasis was given to the characteristics of the polymers used to fabricate the developed systems. Efforts made to prepare systems using chitosan (CS), alginate (alg), hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin and albumin as examples of natural polymers and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) as synthetic polymers were compiled. The continuous development and work in the area of lung targeting resulted in the development of engineered smart platforms with the capability to carry small drug molecules, proteins and genes to treat a variety of local and systemic diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Activity of Nanobins Targeted to the Urokinase Plasminogen Activator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Patrick Leon

    While innovations in nanotechnology have resulted in numerous medical advancements for the treatment of cancer, there remains an urgent unmet need for safe and efficient molecular platforms that facilitate the delivery of potent therapeutics to solid tumors. Nanoscale formulations help to overcome the poor bioavailability and systemic organ toxicity associated with many small molecule drugs. Of these nanoparticle drug delivery systems, the greatest clinical successes to date have employed simple nanoscale lipid bilayer assemblies which encase large payloads of chemotherapeutic. While the nanobin platform we have developed has seen initial success through the passive accumulation into tumors, actively targeting nanobins to tumor specific antigens has the potential to increase the therapeutic index of these nanoparticle drugs. We have identified the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its cell surface bound receptor (uPAR) as ideal targets for drug delivery due to their selective overexpression in metastatic cancers and their important role in tumor progression. From a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeted to uPA and uPAR, we have selected ATN291 and ATN658 as lead candidates for nanobin targeting based on their tumor cell binding and ability to be internalized by cells. A novel method of conjugating antibodies to liposomes was developed for our nanobin platform that preserves the high binding affinity and specificity of these antibodies. We evaluated these uPA- and uPAR-targeted nanobins in several xenograft tumor models and found that they were well-tolerated over a wide range of doses and demonstrated significantly increased antitumor efficacy over untargeted nanobins in multiple tumor types. Preliminary studies suggest that uPA-targeted nanobins are readily internalized by tumor cells, and we believe this is the mechanism for their increased antitumor effect. A method for radiolabeling nanobins with gallium-67 was developed, and preliminary SPECT

  11. Microcomputer-aided monitor for liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1983-03-01

    A microcomputer-aided monitor for a liquid hydrogen target system has been designed and tested. Various kinds of input data such as temperature, pressure, vacuum, etc. are scanned in a given time interval. Variation with time in any four items can be displayed on CRT and, if neccessary, printed out on a sheet of recording paper. (author)

  12. Targeting the orexinergic system: Mainly but not only for sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orexin receptors belong to the big family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that constitute the main targets in the modern pharmacological approaches. Although the orexinergic system is involved in a variety of processes, treating sleep-wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy and insomnia, remains the main ...

  13. Endocannabinoid system: potential novel targets for treatment of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Atsushi; Ballinger, Michael; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Wong, Dean F.; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating epidemiological evidences suggest that cannabis use during adolescence is a potential environmental risk for the development of psychosis, including schizophrenia. Consistently, clinical and preclinical studies, using pharmacological approaches and genetically engineered animals to target endocannabinoid signaling, reveal the multiple varieties of endocannabinoid system-mediated human and animal behaviors, including cognition and emotion. Recently, there has been substantial prog...

  14. Petawatt laser and target irradiation system at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Brown, C.G.; Herman, S.; Homer, J.; Miller, J.L.; Stuart, B.C.; Tietbohl, G.; Van Lue, J.; Yanovsky, V.

    1997-01-01

    In May, 1996, we demonstrated the production over a petawatt of peak power in the Nova/Petawatt Laser Facility, generating 620 J in ∼ 430 fs. Results of the first focused irradiance tests, and recent deployment of a novel targeting system will be presented

  15. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosca, Marta; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Bruce, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    on May 8, 2012 to discuss whether a treat-to-target approach could be applied in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (T2T/SLE), define a research agenda, and establish a plan for moving forward. In the present paper, observations raised at the meeting and literature data on potential...

  16. Thermal hydraulics of accelerator driven system windowless targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno ePanella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the fluid dynamics of the windowless spallation target of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS is presented. Several target mockup configurations have been investigated: the first one was a symmetrical target, that was made by two concentric cylinders, the other configurations are not symmetrical. In the experiments water has been used as hydraulic equivalent to lead-bismuth eutectic fluid. The experiments have been carried out at room temperature and flow rate up to 24 kg/s. The fluid velocity components have been measured by an ultrasound technique. The velocity field of the liquid within the target region either for the approximately axial-symmetrical configuration or for the not symmetrical ones as a function of the flow rate and the initial liquid level is presented. A comparison of experimental data with the prediction of the finite volume FLUENT code is also presented. Moreover the results of a 2D-3D numerical analysis that investigates the effect on the steady state thermal and flow fields due to the insertion of guide vanes in the windowless target unit of the EFIT project ADS nuclear reactor are presented, by analysing both the cold flow case (absence of power generation and the hot flow case (nominal power generation inside the target unit.

  17. Ex vivo investigation of magnetically targeted drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Fukui, S.; Fujimoto, S.; Mishima, F.; Takeda, S.; Izumi, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Fujitani, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2007-01-01

    In conventional systemic drug delivery the drug is administered by intravenous injection; it then travels to the heart from where it is pumped to all regions of the body. When the drug is aimed at a small target region, this method is extremely inefficient and leads to require much larger doses than those being necessary. In order to overcome this problem a number of targeted drug delivery methods are developed. One of these, magnetically targeted drug delivery system (MT-DDS) will be a promising way, which involves binding a drug to small biocompatible magnetic particles, injecting these into the blood stream and using a high gradient magnetic field to pull them out of suspension in the target region. In the present paper, we describe an ex vivo experimental work. It is also reported that navigation and accumulation test of the magnetic particles in the Y-shaped glass tube was performed in order to examine the threshold of the magnetic force for accumulation. It is found that accumulation of the magnetic particles was succeeded in the blood vessel when a permanent magnet was placed at the vicinity of the blood vessel. This result indicates the feasibility of the magnetically drug targeting in the blood vessel

  18. Endocannabinoid system: potential novel targets for treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Ballinger, Michael D L; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Wong, Dean F; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating epidemiological evidences suggest that cannabis use during adolescence is a potential environmental risk for the development of psychosis, including schizophrenia. Consistently, clinical and preclinical studies, using pharmacological approaches and genetically engineered animals to target endocannabinoid signaling, reveal the multiple varieties of endocannabinoid system-mediated human and animal behaviors, including cognition and emotion. Recently, there has been substantial progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system for synaptic communications in the central nervous system. Furthermore, the impact of endocannabinoid signaling on diverse cellular processes during brain development has emerged. Thus, although schizophrenia has etiological complexities, including genetic heterogeneities and multiple environmental factors, it now becomes crucial to explore molecular pathways of convergence of genetic risk factors and endocannabinoid signaling, which may provide us with clues to find novel targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, epidemiological, clinical, and pathological evidences on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiologies of schizophrenia will be presented. We will also make a brief overview of the recent progress in understanding molecular mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system for brain development and function, with particular focus on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R)-mediated cascade, the most well-characterized cannabinoid receptor. Lastly, we will discuss the potential of the endocannabinoid system in finding novel therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The endocannabinoid system as a target for novel anxiolytic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sachin; Hill, Mathew N; Cheer, Joseph F; Wotjak, Carsten T; Holmes, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has attracted attention for its role in various behavioral and brain functions, and as a therapeutic target in neuropsychiatric disease states, including anxiety disorders and other conditions resulting from dysfunctional responses to stress. In this mini-review, we highlight components of the eCB system that offer potential 'druggable' targets for new anxiolytic medications, emphasizing some of the less well-discussed options. We discuss how selectively amplifying eCBs recruitment by interfering with eCB-degradation, via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), has been linked to reductions in anxiety-like behaviors in rodents and variation in human anxiety symptoms. We also discuss a non-canonical route to regulate eCB degradation that involves interfering with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Next, we discuss approaches to targeting eCB receptor-signaling in ways that do not involve the cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1R); by targeting the CB2R subtype and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). Finally, we review evidence that cannabidiol (CBD), while representing a less specific pharmacological approach, may be another way to modulate eCBs and interacting neurotransmitter systems to alleviate anxiety. Taken together, these various approaches provide a range of plausible paths to developing novel compounds that could prove useful for treating trauma-related and anxiety disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  1. The systemic effect of 830-nm LED phototherapy on the wound healing of burn injuries: A controlled study in mouse and rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga-Young; Kim, Won-Serk

    2012-04-01

    The present controlled study assessed the systemic effect of 830-nm LED phototherapy in rodent models. Two HR-1 hairless mice and 3 HWY/Slc hairless rats were divided into two groups: the treatment group (Tx Group, one mouse, two rats) and the control group (Con Group, one mouse, one rat). All animals received an identical 12 mm × 12 mm control burn over three sites on the dorsum with a fractional ablative CO(2) laser. Wounds were protected with a film-type dressing. The abdomen of the Tx Group subjects was irradiated with an 830-nm LED array immediately post CO(2) treatment and then at 1, 5 and 6 days post laser irradiation. Wound healing was assessed macroscopically from the clinical photography. At the 2-day post-laser assessment, the healing process in the wounds in the Tx Group was already apparent compared with the Con Group. At the final evaluation (post-burn day 7), no site on the Con Group (six wounds) showed 100% healing, recovery was over 70% in four and lower than 50% in two sites. Of the nine Tx Group sites, 100% recovery was seen in three sites, over 70% in five sites and one wound was exacerbated through trauma. LED phototherapy on the abdomen produced faster wound healing of the uniform burn wounds than in animals with the same burn wounds that did not receive LED phototherapy, strongly suggesting the systemic effect of phototherapy.

  2. IFMIF-CDA technical workshop on lithium target system. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    An intense neutron source, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is planned under the collaborative program by International Energy Agency (IEA), and the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) started in February 1995. US, Japan and EU are responsible to take a lead in coordinating accelerator, target and test cell design, respectively. In order to exchange the current results of the study and to coordinate the activities for the design integration, the first technical workshop on the lithium target system was held in the period of July 18-21 at the Tokai Research Establishment of the JAERI. This publication summarizes the materials presented in this meeting. The presentations and discussions were organized with the identified CDA tasks. It was confirmed that the reference design of the IFMIF target based on the previous studies under FMIT and ESNIT, elaborated to meet IFMIF parameters, is reasonable and feasible. It was pointed out that the interface between accelerator and test cell subsystems should be carefully investigated to avoid technical conflicts. Some design options such as nozzle, backwall and lithium jet geometry, lithium purity control, and lithium vapor control, based on the current technology were proposed to improve the integral target system function, and further R and D studies were suggested for design integration. (author)

  3. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  4. The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Elizabeth A.; Baldridge, William H.; Kelly, Melanie E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease which produces progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only modifiable risk factor, and lowering IOP results in reduced risk of progression of the disorder. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has attracted considerable attention as a potential target for the treatment of glaucoma, largely due to the observed IOP lowering effects seen after administration of exogenous cannabinoids. However, recent evidence has suggested that modulation of the ECS may also be neuroprotective. This paper will review the use of cannabinoids in glaucoma, presenting pertinent information regarding the pathophysiology of glaucoma and how alterations in cannabinoid signalling may contribute to glaucoma pathology. Additionally, the mechanisms and potential for the use of cannabinoids and other novel agents that target the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of glaucoma will be discussed. PMID:26881140

  5. The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Cairns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease which produces progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss. Intraocular pressure (IOP is currently the only modifiable risk factor, and lowering IOP results in reduced risk of progression of the disorder. The endocannabinoid system (ECS has attracted considerable attention as a potential target for the treatment of glaucoma, largely due to the observed IOP lowering effects seen after administration of exogenous cannabinoids. However, recent evidence has suggested that modulation of the ECS may also be neuroprotective. This paper will review the use of cannabinoids in glaucoma, presenting pertinent information regarding the pathophysiology of glaucoma and how alterations in cannabinoid signalling may contribute to glaucoma pathology. Additionally, the mechanisms and potential for the use of cannabinoids and other novel agents that target the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of glaucoma will be discussed.

  6. Design and implementation of typical target image database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    It is necessary to provide essential background data and thematic data timely in image processing and application. In fact, application is an integrating and analyzing procedure with different kinds of data. In this paper, the authors describe an image database system which classifies, stores, manages and analyzes database of different types, such as image database, vector database, spatial database, spatial target characteristics database, its design and structure. (authors)

  7. Circular Orbit Target Capture Using Space Tether-Net System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space tether-net system for on-orbit capture is proposed in this paper. In order to research the dynamic behaviors during system deployment, both free and nonfree deployment dynamics in circular orbit are developed; the system motion with respect to Local Vertical and Local Horizontal frame is also researched with analysis and simulation. The results show that in the case of free deployment, the capture net follows curve trajectories due to the relative orbit dynamic perturbation, and the initial deployment velocities are planned by state transformation equations for static and floating target captures; in the case of non-free deployment, the system undergoes an altitude libration along the Local Vertical, and the analytical solutions that describe the attitude libration are obtained by using variable separation and integration. Finally, the dynamics of postdeployment system is also proved marginally stable if the critical initial conditions are satisfied.

  8. LED-roulette : LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te

  9. Targeting the immune system to treat hypertension: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jennifer L; Sharma, Avadhesh C

    2014-09-01

    Research over the past decade has significantly deepened our understanding of mechanisms that drive the development of hypertension. In particular, a novel paradigm of inflammation as a common mediator of cardiovascular and kidney disease has emerged. This review will summarize the role of the immune system in cardiovascular disease, explore some of the most promising new therapeutic directions and consider their potential as new treatments for hypertension. Recent data continue to demonstrate that targeting the immune system can prevent hypertension in a variety of experimental models. Tempering the enthusiasm for a long-awaited new approach to treating hypertension is decades of clinical data, showing that classic immunosuppression regimens are associated with significant side-effects - including cardiovascular disease - that effectively preclude their use in the setting of chronic hypertension. New, more specific therapies are being developed that target cytokines including IL-17, IL-6 and TNFα. Preclinical data convincingly demonstrate a key role for the immune system and specific cytokine mediators. Several biotherapeutics targeting these pathways are on the market and more are in development. Side-effects, however, continue to resemble those of classic immunosuppressants, highlighting the challenge of translating these research advances into new therapies for hypertension. http://links.lww.com/CONH/A9.

  10. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  11. A computational framework for modeling targets as complex adaptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Santos, Eunice E.; Korah, John; Murugappan, Vairavan; Subramanian, Suresh

    2017-05-01

    Modeling large military targets is a challenge as they can be complex systems encompassing myriad combinations of human, technological, and social elements that interact, leading to complex behaviors. Moreover, such targets have multiple components and structures, extending across multiple spatial and temporal scales, and are in a state of change, either in response to events in the environment or changes within the system. Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory can help in capturing the dynamism, interactions, and more importantly various emergent behaviors, displayed by the targets. However, a key stumbling block is incorporating information from various intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) sources, while dealing with the inherent uncertainty, incompleteness and time criticality of real world information. To overcome these challenges, we present a probabilistic reasoning network based framework called complex adaptive Bayesian Knowledge Base (caBKB). caBKB is a rigorous, overarching and axiomatic framework that models two key processes, namely information aggregation and information composition. While information aggregation deals with the union, merger and concatenation of information and takes into account issues such as source reliability and information inconsistencies, information composition focuses on combining information components where such components may have well defined operations. Since caBKBs can explicitly model the relationships between information pieces at various scales, it provides unique capabilities such as the ability to de-aggregate and de-compose information for detailed analysis. Using a scenario from the Network Centric Operations (NCO) domain, we will describe how our framework can be used for modeling targets with a focus on methodologies for quantifying NCO performance metrics.

  12. A moving target detecting and tracking system based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daonan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the target fast tracking problem in embedded system, a moving target detecting and tracking algorithm based on a combination of three-frame difference and template matching is proposed. The system utilizes DSP to design a set of image processing equipment and DSP uses TI company's DM6437.Three-frame difference can detect a initial position of the target, then Mean Normalized Product Correlation(NNPROD) template matching algorithm was utilized in a partial area to achieve a precise position and reduce the amount of calculation. The algorithm utilized four templates and image compression to fit pose and scale changes when moving. To meet the real-time requirement, an improved algorithm of NNPROD was proposed under certain lighting conditions, what ' s more the C language code was optimized and TI company's highly optimized VLIB vision library was reasonably utilized. After several tests, the results showed that NNPROD can fit the changing of environmental light well, but more time was needed. The improved method can still work well with the changes of pose and scale when the light changes less intensely , and the processing speed of the improved method increased from the previous 11F / s to 23F / s.

  13. Environmental Management System Objectives & Targets Results Summary - FY 2015.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY 2015.

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillat, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.fillat@crg.es; Jose, Anabel; Ros, Xavier Bofill-De; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Sobrevals, Luciano [Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica-CRG, UPF, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona-PRBB and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-18

    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  15. Why Targeted Therapies are Necessary for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Petri, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) continues to have important morbidity and accelerated mortality despite therapeutic advances. Targeted therapies offer the possibility of improved efficacy with fewer side-effects. Current management strategies rely heavily on non-specific immunosuppressive agents. Prednisone, in particular, is responsible for a considerable burden of later organ damage. There are a multitude of diverse mechanisms of disease activity, immunogenic abnormalities and clinical manifestations to take into consideration in SLE. Many targeted agents with robust mechanistic pre-clinical data and promising early phase studies have ultimately been disappointing in phase III randomized controlled studies. Recent efforts have focused on B cell therapies, in particular given the success of belimumab in clinical trials, with limited success. We remain optimistic regarding other specific therapies being evaluated including interferon alpha blockade. It is likely that in SLE, given the heterogeneity of the population involved, precision medicine is needed, rather than expecting that any single biologic will be universally effective. PMID:27497251

  16. Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat anxiety-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Nachshon; Zer-Aviv, Tomer Mizrachi; Ganon-Elazar, Eti; Abush, Hila; Akirav, Irit

    2016-05-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the control of emotions, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders. The most common self-reported reason for using cannabis is rooted in its ability to reduce feelings of stress, tension, and anxiety. Nevertheless, there are only few studies in controlled clinical settings that confirm that administration of cannabinoids can benefit patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are considerable encouraging preclinical data to suggest that endocannabinoid-targeted therapeutics for anxiety disorders should continue. In this review, we will describe data supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system in preventing and treating anxiety-like behavior in animal models and PTSD patients. Cannabinoids have shown beneficial outcomes in rat and mouse models of anxiety and PTSD, but they also may have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including anxiogenic effects. Hence, clinical and preclinical research on the endocannabinoid system should further study the effects of cannabinoids on anxiety and help determine whether the benefits of using exogenous cannabinoids outweigh the risks. In general, this review suggests that targeting the endocannabinoid system represents an attractive and novel approach to the treatment of anxiety-related disorders and, in particular, PTSD.

  17. Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Yang, Da Som; Ryu, WonHyoung; Park, Yong-il

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro. (paper)

  18. Pathogenic Inflammation and Its Therapeutic Targeting in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Timothy A.; Tsantikos, Evelyn; Hibbs, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus) is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues, including skin, kidneys, and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B- and T-lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as belimumab which targets the B-cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B-cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and review the known

  19. Pathogenic inflammation and its therapeutic targeting in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Andrew Gottschalk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, lupus is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues including skin, kidneys and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B and T lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as Belimumab which targets the B cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immuno-suppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and

  20. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  1. The new control system of the SPS target sector

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Mecredy, N; O'Leary, J

    1999-01-01

    The SPS, the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN, is an accelerator originally designed and commissioned in 1976 for protons. The control system of the SPS target stations, beam absorbers and other aperture limiting devices was developed in the seventies. It was mainly based on home made electronics and equipment dependent software. With time, this electronics has become obsolete, difficult to maintain in operation and not suitable for integration into a modern control system. In 1997, a project was set up to modernise the electronics and the related software. The new control system is largely based on standard industrial hardware and software components. SIEMENS Simatic S7-300 programmable logic controllers have been used as equipment controllers and connected through PROFIBUS to a Windows-NT front-end PC running the SIEMENS WinCC SCADA package which acts as local controller and remote access gateway. This fully industrial solution has been successfully integrated into the actual SPS accelerator control infrast...

  2. An mHealth monitoring system for traditional birth attendant-led antenatal risk assessment in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroux, Lisa; Martinez, Boris; Coyote Ixen, Enma; King, Nora; Hall-Clifford, Rachel; Rohloff, Peter; Clifford, Gari D

    Limited funding for medical technology, low levels of education and poor infrastructure for delivering and maintaining technology severely limit medical decision support in low- and middle-income countries. Perinatal and maternal mortality is of particular concern with millions dying every year from potentially treatable conditions. Guatemala has one of the worst maternal mortality ratios, the highest incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and one of the lowest gross national incomes per capita within Latin America. To address the lack of decision support in rural Guatemala, a smartphone-based system is proposed including peripheral sensors, such as a handheld Doppler for the identification of foetal compromise. Designed for use by illiterate birth attendants, the system uses pictograms, audio guidance, local and cloud processing, SMS alerts and voice calling. The initial prototype was evaluated on 22 women in highland Guatemala. Results were fed back into the refinement of the system, currently undergoing RCT evaluation.

  3. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie J

    2018-01-01

    application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. Keywords: solute carrier, digestive system neoplasms, carcinogenesis, tumor progression, chemoresistance, small molecule modulators

  4. Minimizing Residual Pressure within a Windowless Gas Target System - JENSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Orlando; Browne, Justin; Kontos, Antonios; Montes, Fernando; Jensa Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear reactions between light gases and radioactive isotope beams are essential to address open questions in nuclear structure and astrophysics. Pure light gas targets are critical for the measurements of proton- and alpha-induced reactions. J _ et E _ xperiments in N _ uclear S _ tructure and A _ strophysics (JENSA) is the world's most dense (~ 1019 atoms/cm2) windowless gas target system. Most of the gas flow is localized; however, escaping gas creates a pressure gradient which degrades experimental measurements and contaminates the beam line. JENSA contains a differential pumping system to maintain a vacuum. The previous design configuration was not optimized for experiments (pressure measurements 70 cm downstream from the jet were ~ 10-3 torr; optimal is less than 10-4 torr). We have altered the current differential pumping system to minimize the residual pressure profile. Several configurations of two gas-receiving catchers were tested, and the most efficient ones identified using Enhanced Pirani and Cold Cathode gauges. We have determined the 30 mm outer and 20 mm inner gas-receiving cones minimize JENSA central chamber pressure to 200 millitorr at 16,000 torr of discharge pressure. Altering the tubing configuration has additionally lowered the pressure 70 cm downstream to 10-5 torr. The new residual pressure allows operation of JENSA with planned expansion of a recoil mass separator SECAR.

  5. Target-Tracking Camera for a Metrology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Carl; Bartman, Randall; Chapsky, Jacob; Abramovici, Alexander; Brown, David

    2009-01-01

    An analog electronic camera that is part of a metrology system measures the varying direction to a light-emitting diode that serves as a bright point target. In the original application for which the camera was developed, the metrological system is used to determine the varying relative positions of radiating elements of an airborne synthetic aperture-radar (SAR) antenna as the airplane flexes during flight; precise knowledge of the relative positions as a function of time is needed for processing SAR readings. It has been common metrology system practice to measure the varying direction to a bright target by use of an electronic camera of the charge-coupled-device or active-pixel-sensor type. A major disadvantage of this practice arises from the necessity of reading out and digitizing the outputs from a large number of pixels and processing the resulting digital values in a computer to determine the centroid of a target: Because of the time taken by the readout, digitization, and computation, the update rate is limited to tens of hertz. In contrast, the analog nature of the present camera makes it possible to achieve an update rate of hundreds of hertz, and no computer is needed to determine the centroid. The camera is based on a position-sensitive detector (PSD), which is a rectangular photodiode with output contacts at opposite ends. PSDs are usually used in triangulation for measuring small distances. PSDs are manufactured in both one- and two-dimensional versions. Because it is very difficult to calibrate two-dimensional PSDs accurately, the focal-plane sensors used in this camera are two orthogonally mounted one-dimensional PSDs.

  6. Architecture-Led Safety Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Contents Acknowledgments iv Abstract v 1 Introduction 1 2 Architecture -Led Processes and ALSA 2 3 ALSA Practices 5 3.1 Example System 8 4 Identify... Architecture Models 13 5 Identify Operational Hazards and Hazard Contributors 15 5.1 System Partitioning 15 5.2 Operational Context as a Control

  7. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  8. Identifying targets for preventing epilepsy using systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-27

    While there are a plethora of medications that block seizures, these same drugs have little effect on preventing or curing epilepsy. This suggests that the molecular pathways for epileptogenesis are distinct from those that produce acute seizures and therefore will require the identification of novel truly 'antiepileptic' therapeutics. Identification and testing of potential antiepileptic drug targets first in animal models and then in humans is thus becoming an important next step in the battle against epilepsy. In focal forms of human epilepsy the battle, however, is complicated by the large and varied types of brain abnormalities capable of producing a state of chronic, recurrent seizures. Unfortunately, once the epileptic state develops, it often persists to produce a life-long seizure disorder that can only be suppressed by anticonvulsant medications, and cured only in some through surgical resection of the seizure focus. While deductive approaches to drug target identification use our current state of knowledge, based mostly on animal models of epileptogenesis, a growing reductionist approach often referred to as systems biology takes advantage of newer high-throughput technologies to profile large numbers and types of molecules simultaneously. Some of these approaches, such as functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have been undertaken in both human and animal epileptic brain tissues and are beginning to hone in on new therapeutic targets. While these methods are highly sensitive, this same sensitivity also produces a high rate of false positives due to variables other than those of interest. The experimental design, therefore, needs to be tightly controlled to reduce these unintended results that can be misleading. Most importantly, epileptogenic targets need to be validated in animal models of epileptogenesis, so that, if successful, these new methods have the potential to identify unbiased, important new therapeutics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  9. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  10. 4.5-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Tao, Li; Shi, Jianyang; Chi, Nan

    2015-05-18

    Inter-symbol interference (ISI) is one of the key problems that seriously limit transmission data rate in high-speed VLC systems. To eliminate ISI and further improve the system performance, series of equalization schemes have been widely investigated. As an adaptive algorithm commonly used in wireless communication, RLS is also suitable for visible light communication due to its quick convergence and better performance. In this paper, for the first time we experimentally demonstrate a high-speed RGB-LED based WDM VLC system employing carrier-less amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation and recursive least square (RLS) based adaptive equalization. An aggregate data rate of 4.5Gb/s is successfully achieved over 1.5-m indoor free space transmission with the bit error rate (BER) below the 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8x10(-3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in RGB-LED based VLC systems.

  11. Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rimplejeet; Ambwani, Sneha R; Singh, Surjit

    2016-01-01

    the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that act selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted. Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids. In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as "protective" and "disease inducing substance", time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.

  12. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Silva, P; Pezzeti, M; Pavlov, O; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Lettry, J; Kirk, H G; McDonald, K T; Titus, P; Bennett, J R J

    2010-01-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron)complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  13. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Silva, P.; Pezzetti, M.; Pavlov, O.; Pirotte, O.; Metselaar, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Lettry, J.; Kirk, H. G.; McDonald, K. T.; Titus, P.; Bennett, J. R. J.

    2010-04-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron) complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  14. Challenges in thermal and hydraulic analysis of ADS target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetzbach, G.; Batta, A.; Lefhalm, C.-H.; Otic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid metal cooled spallation targets of Accelerator Driven nuclear reactor Systems obey high thermal loads; in addition some flow and cooling conditions are of a prototypical character; in contrast the operating conditions for the engaged materials are narrow; thus, the target development requires a very careful analysis by experimental and numerical means. Especially the cooling of the steel window, which is heated by the proton beam, needs special care. Some of the main goals of the experimental and numerical analyses of the thermal dynamics of those systems are discusses. The prediction of locally detached flows and of flows with larger recirculation areas suffers from insufficient turbulence modeling; this has to be compensated by using prototypical model experiments, e.g. with water, to select the adequate models and numerical schemes. The well known problems with the Reynolds analogy in predicting the heat transfer in liquid metals requires always prototypic liquid metal experiments to select and adapt the turbulent heat flux models. The uncertainties in liquid metal experiments cannot be neglected; so it is necessary to perform CFD calculations and experiments always hand in hand and to develop improve turbulent heat flux models. One contribution to an improved 3 or 4-equation model is deduced from recent Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. (author)

  15. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R T; Kamperschroer, J H; Lagin, L J; Nelson, J R; O' Brien, D W

    2010-05-12

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  16. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  17. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R.T.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Lagin, L.J.; Nelson, J.R.; O'Brien, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  18. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. (Royal Free Hospital, London (England))

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  19. Evaluating system reliability and targeted hardening strategies of power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, Abdullahi M.; Li, Yue; Stewart, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, power distribution systems have been vulnerable to extensive damage from hurricanes which can cause power outage resulting in millions of dollars of economic losses and restoration costs. Most of the outage is as a result of failure of distribution support structures. Over the years, various methods of strengthening distribution systems have been proposed and studied. Some of these methods, such as undergrounding of the system, have been shown to be unjustified from an economic point of view. A potential cost-effective strategy is targeted hardening of the system. This, however, requires a method of determining critical parts of a system that when strengthened, will have greater impact on reliability. This paper presents a framework for studying the effectiveness of targeted hardening strategies on power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes. The framework includes a methodology for evaluating system reliability that relates failure of poles and power delivery, determination of critical parts of a system, hurricane hazard analysis, and consideration of decay of distribution poles. The framework also incorporates cost analysis that considers economic losses due to power outage. A notional power distribution system is used to demonstrate the framework by evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of three hardening measures. - Highlight: • Risk assessment of power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes is carried out. • Framework for studying effectiveness of targeted hardening strategies is presented. • A system reliability method is proposed. • Targeted hardening is cost effective for existing systems. • Economic losses due to power outage should be considered for cost analysis.

  20. System Studies for the ADTF: Target and Materials Test Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2002-01-01

    To meet the objectives of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program, the Accelerator-Driven Test Facility (ADTF) provides a world-class accelerator-driven test facility to: - Provide the capability to assess technology options for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and waste through a proof-of-performance. - Provide a user facility that allows testing of advanced nuclear technologies and applications, material science and research, experimental physics, and conventional nuclear engineering science applications. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions to the ADTF accelerator, to produce tritium for defense purposes, if required. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions, to produce radioisotopes for medical and commercial purposes. These missions are diverse and demand a facility with significant flexibility. In order to meet them, it is envisioned that we construct two target stations: the Target and Materials Test (TMT) station and the Subcritical Multiplier (SCM) test station. The two test stations share common hot-cell facilities for post-irradiation examination. It is expected the TMT will come online first, closely followed by the SCM. The TMT will provide the capability to: - Irradiate small samples of proposed ATW (accelerator-driven transmutation of waste) fuels and materials at prototypic flux, temperature, and coolant conditions (requires intense source of neutrons). - Perform transient testing. - Test liquid (lead-bismuth) and solid spallation targets with water, sodium, or helium coolant. - Test generation-IV fuels for advance nuclear systems (requires high-intensity thermal flux). - Irradiate fission product transmutation targets. - Test advanced fuel and coolant combinations, including helium, water, sodium, and lead-bismuth. - Produce isotopes for commercial and medical applications. - Perform neutron physics experiments. The SCM will provide the capability to: - Irradiate large samples of proposed ATW

  1. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  2. LED roadway luminaires evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research explores whether LED roadway luminaire technologies are a viable future solution to providing roadway lighting. Roadway lighting : enhances highway safety and traffic flow during limited lighting conditions. The purpose of this evaluati...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Maliandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  4. Aging of the Immune System. Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Cornelia M; Goronzy, Jörg J

    2016-12-01

    Beginning with the sixth decade of life, the human immune system undergoes dramatic aging-related changes, which continuously progress to a state of immunosenescence. The aging immune system loses the ability to protect against infections and cancer and fails to support appropriate wound healing. Vaccine responses are typically impaired in older individuals. Conversely, inflammatory responses mediated by the innate immune system gain in intensity and duration, rendering older individuals susceptible to tissue-damaging immunity and inflammatory disease. Immune system aging functions as an accelerator for other age-related pathologies. It occurs prematurely in some clinical conditions, most prominently in patients with the autoimmune syndrome rheumatoid arthritis (RA); and such patients serve as an informative model system to study molecular mechanisms of immune aging. T cells from patients with RA are prone to differentiate into proinflammatory effector cells, sustaining chronic-persistent inflammatory lesions in the joints and many other organ systems. RA T cells have several hallmarks of cellular aging; most importantly, they accumulate damaged DNA. Because of deficiency of the DNA repair kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated, RA T cells carry a higher burden of DNA double-strand breaks, triggering cell-indigenous stress signals that shift the cell's survival potential and differentiation pattern. Immune aging in RA T cells is also associated with metabolic reprogramming; specifically, with reduced glycolytic flux and diminished ATP production. Chronic energy stress affects the longevity and the functional differentiation of older T cells. Altered metabolic patterns provide opportunities to therapeutically target the immune aging process through metabolic interference.

  5. Surface plasmon enhanced LED

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković, Jelena; Lončar, Marko; Painter, Oskar; Scherer, Axel

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. We designed and fabricated an LED based on a thin semiconductor membrane (λ/2) with silver mirrors. A large spontaneous emission enhancement and a high modulation speed are obtainable due to the strong localization of the electromagnetic field in the microcavity. The coupling to surface plasmon modes which are subsequently scattered out by means of a grating is used to improve the extraction efficiency of the LED. The bottom mirror is thick and unpatterned. The top mi...

  6. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  7. Alkylation Damage by Lipid Electrophiles Targets Functional Protein Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G.; Ullery, Jody C.; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A.; Beavers, William N.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions. PMID:24429493

  8. System dynamic analyses on the JKJ mercury target and cold moderator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    The temperature responses of major points in a mercury target cooling system and in a cold moderator system of JKJ (JAERI/KEK Joint Project) were simulated by the analytical code MATLAB (SIMULINK). As a result, it was made clear that non-control of mercury temperature is the best way to control the mercury target cooling system. If the mercury temperature of the system is controlled by the PID control system using an outlet temperature of heat exchanger, the PID control system shows the characteristics of an on-off control system, and the temperature cannot be controlled. Analytical results also showed that mercury temperature remained below the boiling point of 356degC under 0.1 MPa during a transient at one cooling pump trip. Analytical results for the cold moderator system showed that the outlet temperature of cold moderator vessels could be kept within a temperature range of 1 k during steady-state conditions. (author)

  9. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone triage of patients requesting same day consultations in general practice: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing nurse-led and GP-led management systems (ESTEEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen an increase in primary care workload, especially following the introduction of a new General Medical Services contract in 2004. Telephone triage and telephone consultation with patients seeking health care represent initiatives aimed at improving access to care. Some evidence suggests that such approaches may be feasible but conclusions regarding GP workload, cost, and patients’ experience of care, safety, and health status are equivocal. The ESTEEM trial aims to assess the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of nurse-led computer-supported telephone triage and GP-led telephone triage, compared to usual care, for patients requesting same-day consultations in general practice. Methods/design ESTEEM is a pragmatic, multi-centre cluster randomised clinical trial with patients randomised at practice level to usual care, computer decision-supported nurse triage, or GP-led triage. Following triage of 350–550 patients per practice we anticipate estimating and comparing total primary care workload (volume and time), the economic cost to the NHS, and patient experience of care, safety, and health status in the 4-week period following the index same-day consultation request across the three trial conditions. We will recruit all patients seeking a non-emergency same-day appointment in primary care. Patients aged 12.0–15.9 years and temporary residents will be excluded from the study. The primary outcome is the number of healthcare contacts taking place in the 4-week period following (and including) the index same-day consultation request. A range of secondary outcomes will be examined including patient flow, primary care NHS resource use, patients’ experience of care, safety, and health status. The estimated sample size required is 3,751 patients (11,253 total) in each of the three trial conditions, to detect a mean difference of 0.36 consultations per patient in the four week follow-up period between either intervention group and usual

  10. National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B

    2002-01-01

    Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NCTS. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan (PEP) for NCTS has been initiated, and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National Ignition Facility is a multi-megajoule laser facility being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the Department of Energy (DOE). Its primary mission is to support the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) by performing experiments studying weapons physics, including fusion ignition. NIF also supports the missions of weapons effects, inertial fusion energy, and basic science in high-energy-density physics. NIF will be operated by LLNL under contract to the University of California (UC) as a national user facility. NIF is a low-hazard, radiological facility, and its operation will meet all applicable federal, state, and local Environmental Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements. The NCTS Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope, cost, and schedule. The NIF Director controls the NIF Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan. Overall scope content and execution schedules for the High Energy Density Physics Campaign (SSP Campaign 10) are currently undergoing rebaselining and will be brought into alignment with resources expected to be available throughout the NNSA Future Years National Security Plan (FYNSP). The revised schedule for

  11. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  12. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  13. From Molecular Classification to Targeted Therapeutics: The Changing Face of Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1 or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician’s therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients.

  14. Led-sukellusvalaisin

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on LED ja sen käyttö sukellusvalaisimissa. Työn tarkoitus oli tutkia miten LED toimii ja miten se soveltuu käytettäväksi sukellusvalaisimessa, sekä syventää omaa tietoutta valosta, mitä se on ja miten sitä mitataan. Työssä käydään läpi LEDin ominaisuuksia ja miten se eroaa muista sukellusvalaisimissa käytetyistä lampuista. Työ on toteutettu tutustumalla LEDiin ja valoon käyttämällä erilaisia lähteitä ja päivittämällä nykyinen sukellusvalaisimeni LED-sukellusvalaisime...

  15. [LED lights in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H

    2017-04-01

    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. More Fragmented, and yet More Networked: Analysing the Responses of Two Local Authorities in England to the Coalition's "Self-Improving School-Led System" Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greany, Toby

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores school reform in England under the Conservative-led Coalition government, elected in 2010, through a focus on the changing roles and status of Local Authorities (LAs). The Coalition's stated aim was the development of a "self-improving, school-led" system in which LAs should become "champions for children."…

  17. Design of an elliptic spot illumination system in LED-based color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon pico projectors for mobile embedded projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong

    2012-06-01

    We present an elliptic spot illumination system for a color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon (CF-LCoS) pico projector employing a specifically designed free-form lens and a cylindrical lens to improve on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency while yielding an ultracompact and low-cost optical architecture. The detailed design description of the optical system is thoroughly investigated. Simulation results coincide well with the theoretical calculation. The single 1  mm×1  mm LED chip-powered optical engine, which employs a CF-LCoS panel with a diagonal of 0.28 in and an aspect ratio of 4:3, has an estimated output efficiency over 9.8% (11.8 lm@1 W) and an ANSI 9-point uniformity over 88.5%, with the ultrasmall volume 24  mm×19  mm×7  mm. Compared to the circular spot-illuminated projection system, a total increment of about 23% of system efficiency is available with this improved optical engine. It is believed that there would be a huge market potential to commercialize our design.

  18. Opto-mechanical system design of test system for near-infrared and visible target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Yuchao

    2014-12-01

    Guidance precision is the key indexes of the guided weapon shooting. The factors of guidance precision including: information processing precision, control system accuracy, laser irradiation accuracy and so on. The laser irradiation precision is an important factor. This paper aimed at the demand of the precision test of laser irradiator,and developed the laser precision test system. The system consists of modified cassegrain system, the wide range CCD camera, tracking turntable and industrial PC, and makes visible light and near infrared target imaging at the same time with a Near IR camera. Through the analysis of the design results, when it exposures the target of 1000 meters that the system measurement precision is43mm, fully meet the needs of the laser precision test.

  19. Endocannabinoid system and mood disorders: priming a target for new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Vincenzo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Sulcova, Alexandra; Wotjak, Carsten T; Drago, Filippo

    2013-04-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS), comprising two G protein-coupled receptors (the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 [CB1 and CB2] for marijuana's psychoactive principle ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [∆(9)-THC]), their endogenous small lipid ligands (namely anandamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG], also known as endocannabinoids), and the proteins for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and degradation, has been suggested as a pro-homeostatic and pleiotropic signaling system activated in a time- and tissue-specific way during physiopathological conditions. In the brain activation of this system modulates the release of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and of cytokines from glial cells. As such, the ECS is strongly involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly in affective disturbances such as anxiety and depression. It has been proposed that synthetic molecules that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation can exploit the selectivity of endocannabinoid action, thus activating cannabinoid receptors only in those tissues where there is perturbed endocannabinoid turnover due to the disorder, and avoiding the potential side effects of direct CB1 and CB2 activation. However, the realization that endocannabinoids, and AEA in particular, also act at other molecular targets, and that these mediators can be deactivated by redundant pathways, has recently led to question the efficacy of such approach, thus opening the way to new multi-target therapeutic strategies, and to the use of non-psychotropic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), which act via several parallel mechanisms, including indirect interactions with the ECS. The state of the art of the possible therapeutic use of endocannabinoid deactivation inhibitors and phytocannabinoids in mood disorders is discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Apelin/APJ system: A bifunctional target for cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liqun; Wu, Di; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2017-03-01

    Apelin acts as the endogenous ligand of G protein coupled receptors APJ. The apelin/APJ system is responsible for the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, apelin/APJ has been considered to play an important role in cardiac hypertrophy, but whether that role is beneficial or aggravating remains controversial. Apelin/APJ alleviates cardiac hypertrophy which is triggered by angiotensin II, oxidative stress and exercise. However, central administration of apelin induces cardiac hypertrophy. Peripheral administration of apelin also promotes the development of cardiac hypertrophy under non-pathological conditions. Furthermore, our laboratory discovers that apelin/APJ is able to induce hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vitro. The exact mechanism of apelin/APJ's dual effects in cardiac hypertrophy requires further study. In this paper, we review the controversies associated with apelin/APJ in cardiac hypertrophy and we elaborate the role of apelin/APJ in cardiac hypertrophy related-diseases including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, myocarditis and myocardial infarction. We conclude that further studies should emphasize more about the relationship between apelin/APJ and pathological hypertrophy especially in clinical patients. Moreover, apelin/APJ can be a promising therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Review of ISOL target-ion-source systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, R

    2003-01-01

    Any review of target-ion-source systems (TISS) is necessarily a variation of the ISOL-theme 'efficient, fast, selective'. In the first part, more than 30 years of TISS development are examined in view of these key characteristics. By looking at the lines of development that were successful, at the lines that were abandoned (partly for good, partly for less good reasons), the lines with the most promising perspectives emerge. The second part deals with on-line chemistry in the TISS and its possibly double benefits: enhanced selectivity or increased separation speed, or both in favourable cases, as the relatively new sulfide chemistry. For the group-IVa-elements germanium and tin, the separation as sulfide-ions does not only suppress strongly the contamination by the neighbouring elements. It also reduces the effusion part of the release by orders of magnitude to the level of the intrinsic delay caused by molecular flow. The homologue chemistry is likely to work for silicon, but not for lead. While selectivity ...

  2. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  3. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  4. Magneto-mechanical trapping systems for biological target detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2014-03-29

    We demonstrate a magnetic microsystem capable of detecting nucleic acids via the size difference between bare magnetic beads and bead compounds. The bead compounds are formed through linking nonmagnetic beads and magnetic beads by the target nucleic acids. The system comprises a tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensor, a trapping well, and a bead-concentrator. The TMR sensor detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside the trapping well, while the sensor output depends on the number of beads. The size of the bead compounds is larger than that of bare magnetic beads, and fewer magnetic beads are required to fill the trapping well. The bead-concentrator, in turn, is capable of filling the trap in a controlled fashion and so to shorten the assay time. The bead-concentrator includes conducting loops surrounding the trapping well and a conducting line underneath. The central conducting line serves to attract magnetic beads in the trapping well and provides a magnetic field to magnetize them so to make them detectable by the TMR sensor. This system excels by its simplicity in that the DNA is incubated with magnetic and nonmagnetic beads, and the solution is then applied to the chip and analyzed in a single step. In current experiments, a signal-to-noise ratio of 40.3 dB was obtained for a solution containing 20.8 nM of DNA. The sensitivity and applicability of this method can be controlled by the size or concentration of the nonmagnetic bead, or by the dimension of the trapping well.

  5. Target tracking system based on preliminary and precise two-stage compound cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiyan; Hu, Ruolan; She, Jun; Luo, Yiming; Zhou, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Early detection of goals and high-precision of target tracking is two important performance indicators which need to be balanced in actual target search tracking system. This paper proposed a target tracking system with preliminary and precise two - stage compound. This system using a large field of view to achieve the target search. After the target was searched and confirmed, switch into a small field of view for two field of view target tracking. In this system, an appropriate filed switching strategy is the key to achieve tracking. At the same time, two groups PID parameters are add into the system to reduce tracking error. This combination way with preliminary and precise two-stage compound can extend the scope of the target and improve the target tracking accuracy and this method has practical value.

  6. Aligning everyday life priorities with people's self-management support networks: an exploration of the work and implementation of a needs-led telephone support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickem, Christian; Kennedy, Anne; Jariwala, Praksha; Morris, Rebecca; Bowen, Robert; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Blakeman, Tom; Rogers, Anne

    2014-06-17

    Recent initiatives to target the personal, social and clinical needs of people with long-term health conditions have had limited impact within primary care. Evidence of the importance of social networks to support people with long-term conditions points to the need for self-management approaches which align personal circumstances with valued activities. The Patient-Led Assessment for Network Support (PLANS) intervention is a needs-led assessment for patients to prioritise their health and social needs and provide access to local community services and activities. Exploring the work and practices of patients and telephone workers are important for understanding and evaluating the workability and implementation of new interventions. Qualitative methods (interviews, focus group, observations) were used to explore the experience of PLANS from the perspectives of participants and the telephone support workers who delivered it (as part of an RCT) and the reasons why the intervention worked or not. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a sensitising tool to evaluate: the relevance of PLANS to patients (coherence); the processes of engagement (cognitive participation); the work done for PLANS to happen (collective action); the perceived benefits and costs of PLANS (reflexive monitoring). 20 patients in the intervention arm of a clinical trial were interviewed and their telephone support calls were recorded and a focus group with 3 telephone support workers was conducted. Analysis of the interviews, support calls and focus group identified three themes in relation to the delivery and experience of PLANS. These are: formulation of 'health' in the context of everyday life; trajectories and tipping points: disrupting everyday routines; precarious trust in networks. The relevance of these themes are considered using NPT constructs in terms of the work that is entailed in engaging with PLANS, taking action, and who is implicated this process. PLANS gives scope to align

  7. A Simplified, Light Emitting Diode (LED Based, Modular System to be Used for the Rapid Evaluation of Fruit and Vegetable Quality: Development and Validation on Dye Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Civelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available NIR spectroscopy has proven to be one of the most efficient and ready to transfer tools to monitor product’s quality. Portable VIS/NIR instruments are particularly versatile and suitable for field use to monitor the ripening process or quality parameters. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate a new simplified optoelectronic system for potential measurements on fruit and vegetables directly in the field. The development, characterization and validation of an operative prototype is discussed. LED technology was chosen for the design, and spectral acquisition at four specific wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm was proposed. Nevertheless, attention was given to the modularity and versatility of the system. Indeed, the possibility to change the light sources module with other wavelengths allows one to adapt the use of the same device for different foreseeable applications and objectives, e.g., ripeness evaluation, detection of particular diseases and disorders, chemical and physical property prediction, shelf life analysis, as well as for different natures of products (berry, leaf or liquid. Validation tests on blue dye water solutions have shown the capability of the system of discriminating low levels of reflectance, with a repeatability characterized by a standard deviation proportional to the measured intensity and in general limited to 2%–4%.

  8. Gas, Liquid and Molten Targets at Cyclotron Beams: Target Systems and Related Nuclear Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.

    2009-01-01

    In a systematic study our group worked on measurement of activation data of charged particle induced nuclear reaction possible involved in the production of radioisotopes for medical use. We have investigated the cross section and yield data of proton, deuteron helium-3 and alpha particle induced reactions on target materials for isotope productions relevant for medical applications as well as nuclear reactions on different structural material applied in construction of different target units. The acquired information are used or in the future can be used to determine the type of the construction materials optimal for building a certain target unit to be able to produce high specific activity and high quality radioactive isotope. In this work we have investigated different materials in activation point of view. Also several materials and reactions were studied for monitoring purposes. Use of thin metallic foils is a simple method to determine the parameters of the charged particle beams applied for isotope production. Using this method one can determine the energy and intensity of the bombarding beam and in certain cases the distribution or the profile of the bombarding beam. (author)

  9. From carbon to light. A new framework for estimating greenhouse gas emissions reductions from replacing fuel-based lighting with LED systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jacobson, A. [Office of Policy and International Affairs, US Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    There is considerable well-intended, yet wishful anticipation about reducing greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fuel-based lighting in the developing world with grid-independent light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems. Most estimates gloss over important practical realities that stand to erode a genuinely significant potential. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the leading system for quantifying the benefits of such projects in developing countries and embodying them in a market-based platform for trading carbon credits. However, compliance with methodologies for highly decentralized, small-scale energy saving projects currently employed in the CDM is viewed by developers of as onerous, time-consuming, and costly. In recognition of the problem, the CDM has recently placed priority on improved methodologies for estimating carbon dioxide reductions from displacement of fuel-based lighting with energy-efficient alternatives. The over-arching aim is to maintain environmental integrity without stifling sustainable emission-reduction projects and programs in the field. This article informs this process by laying out a new framework that shifts the analytical focus from highly costly yet narrow and uncertain baseline estimations to simplified methods based primarily on deemed values that focus on replacement lighting system quality and performance characteristics. The result - many elements of which have been adopted in a new methodology approved by the CDM - is more structured and rigorous than methodologies used for LED projects in the past and yet simpler to implement, i.e., entailing fewer transaction costs. Applying this new framework, we find that some off-grid lighting technologies can be expected to yield little or no emissions reductions, while well-designed ones, using products independently certified to have high quality and durability, can generate significant reductions. Enfolding quality assurance within the proposed framework will help stem

  10. An active target for the accelerator-based transmutation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebyonkin, K.F. [Institute of Technical Physics, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    Consideration is given to the possibility of radical reduction in power requirements to the proton accelerator of the electronuclear reactor due to neutron multiplication both in the blanket and the target of an active material. The target is supposed to have the fast-neutron spectrum, and the blanket-the thermal one. The blanket and the target are separated by the thermal neutrons absorber, which is responsible for the neutron decoupling of the active target and blanket. Also made are preliminary estimations which illustrate that the realization of the idea under consideration can lead to significant reduction in power requirements to the proton beam and, hence considerably improve economic characteristics of the electronuclear reactor.

  11. Deslumbramiento en dispositivos led

    OpenAIRE

    Ixtaina, Rubén Pablo; Presso, Matías; Ferreyra, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio realizado en el LAL a dispositivos para señalización (semáforos, balizas, barrales lumínicos) con tecnología led. Las mediciones tradicionales de intensidad luminosa se complementaron con el análisis de la luminancia de los dispositivos, evaluada para diversas aperturas angula-res. Los resultados obtenidos marcan un notorio incre-mento en las luminancias puntuales, para valores de emisión globales comparables a los obtenidos en dispo-sitivos conve...

  12. Anomalies within the system - Rochechouart target rock meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contaminated impact crater formations are pertinent to the study of meteoritic contamination at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and other Ir-enriched layers. Target mixing considerations and volumetric estimates of Rochechouart breccias are presently combined with the geochemistry of both major and siderophile trace elements, to evaluate how the chemistry of the preserved target rock-projectile mixture evolved since deposition. Over 99 percent of the mass of extraterrestrial Ir and Os in preserved formations at Rochechouart is located in suevite-like breccias and impact melts. Hydrothermal alteration and/or weathering are the most likely processes to explain both major and trace element redistribution in Rochechouart formations.

  13. Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramers, Anna; Wangel, Josefin; Johansson, Stefan; Höjer, Mattias; Finnveden, Göran; Brandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Climate targets for cities abound. However, what these targets really imply is dependent on a number of decisions regarding system boundaries and methods of calculation. In order to understand and compare cities' climate targets, there is a need for a generic and comprehensive framework of key methodological considerations. This paper identifies eight key methodological considerations for the different choices that can be made when setting targets for GHG emissions in a city and arranges them in four categories: temporal scope of target, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. To explore how target setting is carried out in practice, the climate targets of eight European cities were analysed. The results showed that these targets cover only a limited part of what could be included. Moreover, the cities showed quite limited awareness of what is, or could be, include in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking between cities difficult. - Highlights: • Cities' climate targets are almost impossible to compare and benchmark. • There is a need for consistent protocols and frameworks supporting target setting. • A framework with key methodological considerations for cities' climate targets is identified. • The framework is used to explore the climate targets for eight European cities. • The difference between production- and consumption based accounting is illustrated in a new way

  14. Experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with liquid metallic coolant on water models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.; Davidov, D.; Khokhlov, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with a spherical beam window (membrane). The visualization of current and current velocity fields in energy release area was considered. The findings are used to optimize the geometrical characteristics of target system. Also report contains the information about functioning accelerator-driven system, description it principle circuit and description of basic requirements what the target design should satisfy. (authors)

  15. Nanodelivery Systems as New Tools for Immunostimulant or Vaccine Administration: Targeting the Fish Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish disease treatments have progressed significantly over the last few years and have moved from the massive use of antibiotics to the development of vaccines mainly based on inactivated bacteria. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants and antigens into nanomaterials provide us with new tools to enhance the performance of immunostimulation. Nanoparticles are dispersions or solid particles designed with specific physical properties (size, surface charge, or loading capacity, which allow controlled delivery and therefore improved targeting and stimulation of the immune system. The use of these nanodelivery platforms in fish is in the initial steps of development. Here we review the advances in the application of nanoparticles to fish disease prevention including: the type of biomaterial, the type of immunostimulant or vaccine loaded into the nanoparticles, and how they target the fish immune system.

  16. Moving Target Indication for Multi-channel Airborne Radar Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.

    2010-01-01

    Moving target indication (MTI) using radar is of great interest in civil and military applications. Its uses include airborne or space-borne surveillance of ground moving vehicles (cars, trains) or ships at sea, for instance. Airborne (space-borne) radar offers several advantages when compared to

  17. Automatic system of production, transfer and processing of coin targets for the production of metallic radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicioli, M.; Ouadi, A.; Marchand, P.; Foehrenbacher, T.; Schuler, J.; Dick-Schuler, N.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    The work presented in this paper gathers three main technical developments aiming at 1) optimizing nuclide production by the mean of solid targets 2) automatically transferring coin targets from vault to hotcell without human intervention 3) processing target dilution and purification in hotcell automatically. This system has been installed on a ACSI TR24 cyclotron in Strasbourg France.

  18. CAD Model and Visual Assisted Control System for NIF Target Area Positioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekle, E A; Wilson, E F; Paik, T S

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber contains precision motion control systems that reach up to 6 meters into the target chamber for handling targets and diagnostics. Systems include the target positioner, an alignment sensor, and diagnostic manipulators (collectively called positioners). Target chamber shot experiments require a variety of positioner arrangements near the chamber center to be aligned to an accuracy of 10 micrometers. Positioners are some of the largest devices in NIF, and they require careful monitoring and control in 3 dimensions to prevent interferences. The Integrated Computer Control System provides efficient and flexible multi-positioner controls. This is accomplished through advanced video-control integration incorporating remote position sensing and realtime analysis of a CAD model of target chamber devices. The control system design, the method used to integrate existing mechanical CAD models, and the offline test laboratory used to verify proper operation of the control system are described

  19. Towards new methods for the determination of dose limiting toxicities and the assessment of the recommended dose for further studies of molecularly targeted agents--dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-led study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Collette, Laurence; Paoletti, Xavier; Rizzo, Elisa; Massard, Christophe; Olmos, David; Fowst, Camilla; Levy, Bernard; Mancini, Pierre; Lacombe, Denis; Ivy, Percy; Seymour, Lesley; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Siu, Lillian L; Kaye, Stan B; Verweij, Jaap; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2014-08-01

    Traditional dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition, which uses grade (G) 3-4 toxicity data from cycle 1 (C1) only, may not be appropriate for molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) of prolonged administration, for which late or lower grade toxicities also deserve attention. In collaboration with pharmaceutical companies and academia, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-led initiative, Dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies (DLT-TARGETT), collected data from completed phase 1 trials evaluating MTAs as monotherapy. All toxicities at least possibly related to the study drugs that occurred during C1-6, their type, grade (CTCAEv3.0), and duration as well as patients' relative dose-intensity (RDI), were recorded. The 54 eligible trials enrolled 2084 evaluable adult patients with solid tumours between 1999 and 2013, and evaluated small molecules (40), antibodies (seven), recombinant peptides (five) and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (two). A maximum tolerated dose was set in 43 trials. Fifteen percent of the patients received 75% RDI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High repetition rate laser systems: targets, diagnostics and radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Leonida A.; Clark, Eugene; Neely, David; Roso, Luis; Tolley, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Accessing the high repetition regime of ultra intense laser-target interactions at small or moderate laser energies is now possible at a large number of facilities worldwide. New projects such as HiPER and ELI promise to extend this regime to the high energy realm at the multi-kJ level. This opportunity raises several issues on how best to approach this new regime of operation in a safe and efficient way. At the same time, a new class of experiments or a new generation of secondary sources of particles and radiation may become accessible, provided that target fabrication and diagnostics are capable of handling this rep-rated regime. In this paper, we explore this scenario and analyse existing and perspective techniques that promise to address some of the above issues.

  1. Identifying targets for preventing epilepsy using systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    While there are a plethora of medications that block seizures, these same drugs have little effect on preventing or curing epilepsy. This suggests that the molecular pathways for epileptogenesis are distinct from those that produce acute seizures and therefore will require the identification of novel truly ‘antiepileptic’ therapeutics. Identification and testing of potential antiepileptic drug targets first in animal models and then in humans is thus becoming an important next step in the bat...

  2. Analysis of the microtensile bond strength to enamel of two adhesive systems polymerized by halogen light or LED Análise da microtração em esmalte de dois sistemas adesivos ativados por LED ou por luz halógena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Morales Cobra Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of composite resin polymerization techniques, LEDs were introduced to the market place. Based on the studied literature, the aim of this study was to evaluate, through microtensile testing, the bond strength to enamel of a composite resin associated to a conventional (multi-bottle adhesive system or to a self etching primer adhesive system, polymerized by halogen light or LED (light emitting diode. Bovine teeth were divided into 4 groups with 10 teeth each (n = 10. Then the adhesives Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (3M-ESPE and Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray were applied following the manufacturers’ instructions. Both systems were polymerized for 10 s by halogen light (Degulux Soft Start - Degussa Hulls set at 550 mW/cm² or by LED (Kerr Demetron set at 600 mW/cm². The composite resin Filtek Z-250 was applied in four 1 mm increments with the aid of a square, condensation silicon, 5 mm x 5 mm matrix, and polymerized by either of light sources for 40 s. Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus polymerized by halogen light presented the highest bond strength values (39.69 ± 7.07 MPa, and the other groups did not present statistically significant differences: Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus polymerized by LED (22.28 ± 2.63 MPa, Clearfil SE Bond polymerized by halogen light (27.82 ± 2.65 MPa and by LED (22.89 ± 5.09 MPa.Com a grande busca pelo desenvolvimento das técnicas de polimerização das resinas compostas e dos sistemas adesivos, foram introduzidos no mercado os LEDs. Com base na literatura estudada, neste trabalho é avaliada a força de união da resina composta ao esmalte associado a um sistema adesivo convencional e a um sistema autocondicionante polimerizados por luz halógena e LED, por meio do teste de microtração. Os dentes bovinos foram divididos em 4 grupos com 10 dentes em cada um (n = 10, para aplicação do adesivo Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (3M-ESPE e do Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray conforme orientação do fabricante

  3. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  4. FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN LED PHOSPHOR MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim S. Fudin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency characteristics of modern LED phosphor materials have been considered for the purpose of assessing the prospects of phosphor-based LEDs in wireless communication data systems which use optical wavelengths. The measurements have been carried out on the dependence of the emission intensity of single LEDs and LED chip-on-board modules with phosphors based on yttrium-aluminum and lutetium-aluminum garnets (with or without addition of nitridebased phosphors as well as silicate-based phosphors, on the frequency of electric pulses exciting the emission. It was shown that from the point of view of data transmission rate, garnet-based phosphors (including systems with added nitride phosphors are more promising than silicate–based ones. Garnet-based materials can be used in optical communication data systems with bandwidth (without extra modulation applied up to 3 MHz with single–chip LEDs and up to 4.5 MHz with 9- chip LED chip-on-board modules. The results of the work indicate that a significant part of white LEDs used in general lighting systems can be even now used for data transfer, for example, in systems assisting positioning in closed spaces to facilitate people searching necessary rooms or objects

  5. A Target Advertisement System Based on TV Viewer's Profile Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munjo; Lee, Bumshik; Kim, Munchurl; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Han-Kyu

    With the rapidly growing Internet, the Internet broadcasting and web casting service have been one of the well-known services. Specially, it is expected that the IPTV service will be one of the principal services in the broadband network [2]. However, the current broadcasting environment is served for the general public and requires the passive attitude to consume the TV programs. For the advanced broadcasting environments, various research of the personalized broadcasting is needed. For example, the current unidirectional advertisement provides to the TV viewers the advertisement contents, depending on the popularity of TV programs, the viewing rates, the age groups of TV viewers, and the time bands of the TV programs being broadcast. It is not an efficient way to provide the useful information to the TV viewers from customization perspective. If a TV viewer does not need particular advertisement contents, then information may be wasteful to the TV viewer. Therefore, it is expected that the target advertisement service will be one of the important services in the personalized broadcasting environments. The current research in the area of the target advertisement classifies the TV viewers into clustered groups who have similar preference. The digital TV collaborative filtering estimates the user's favourite advertisement contents by using the usage history [1, 4, 5]. In these studies, the TV viewers are required to provide their profile information such as the gender, job, and ages to the service providers via a PC or Set-Top Box (STB) which is connected to digital TV. Based on explicit information, the advertisement contents are provided to the TV viewers in a customized way with tailored advertisement contents. However, the TV viewers may dislike exposing to the service providers their private information because of the misuse of it. In this case, it is difficult to provide appropriate target advertisement service.

  6. The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) target data collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernodle, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) Target Data Collection System is the result of an effort to provide a base of information from which to draw conclusions on the performance and operational condition of the overall LANSCE target system. During the conceptualization of the system, several goals were defined. A survey was made of both custom-made and off-the-shelf hardware and software that were capable of meeting these goals. The first stage of the system was successfully implemented for the LANSCE run cycle 52. From the operational experience gained thus far, it appears that the LANSCE Target Data Collection System will meet all of the previously defined requirements

  7. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives.

  8. New software of the control and data acquisition system for the Nuclotron internal target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The control and data acquisition system for the Internal Target Station (ITS) of the Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) is implemented. The new software is based on the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the on-line data collected from ITS, as well as the internal target remote control

  9. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Crispe, I Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nanoscale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The conjugation of fluoresceinated ovalbumin (FLUO-OVA) and lactobionic acid with LDL resulted in a substantially increased uptake of FLUO-OVA by murine macrophage-like ANA1 cells in preference to NIH3T3 cells, and by primary peritoneal macrophages in preference to primary hepatic stellate cells. Such preferential uptake led to enhanced proliferation of OVA specific T cells, showing that the galactosylated LDL nanoscale platform is a successful antigen carrier, targeting antigen to macrophages but not to all categories of antigen presenting cells. This system will allow targeted delivery of antigen to macrophages in the liver and elsewhere, addressing the question of the role of Kupffer cells in liver immunology. It may also be an effective way of delivering drugs or vaccines directly at macrophages.

  10. Upgrade to the Cryogenic Hydrogen Gas Target Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael; Tribble, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The cryogenic hydrogen gas target at Texas A&M is a vital component for creating a secondary radioactive beam that is then used in experiments in the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS). A stable beam from the K500 superconducting cyclotron enters the gas cell and some incident particles are transmuted by a nuclear reaction into a radioactive beam, which are separated from the primary beam and used in MARS experiments. The pressure in the target chamber is monitored so that a predictable isotope production rate can be assured. A ``black box'' received the analog pressure data and sent RS232 serial data through an outdated serial connection to an outdated Visual Basic 6 (VB6) program, which plotted the chamber pressure continuously. The black box has been upgraded to an Arduino UNO microcontroller [Atmel Inc.], which can receive the pressure data and output via USB to a computer. It has been programmed to also accept temperature data for future upgrade. A new computer program, with updated capabilities, has been written in Python. The software can send email alerts, create audible alarms through the Arduino, and plot pressure and temperature. The program has been designed to better fit the needs of the users. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  11. Spallation Neutron Source Second Target Station Integrated Systems Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Blokland, Willem [ORNL; Charlton, Timothy R. [ORNL; Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Dayton, Michael J. [ORNL; Dean, Robert A. [ORNL; Dominguez-Ontiveros, Elvis E. [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X. [ORNL; Graves, Van B. [ORNL; Heller, William T. [ORNL; Holmes, Jeffrey A. [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Lumsden, Mark D. [ORNL; McHargue, William M. [ORNL; McManamy, Thomas J. [ORNL; Plum, Michael A. [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Robertson, Lee [ORNL; Sala, Gabriele [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; Trotter, Steven M. [ORNL; Winn, Barry L. [ORNL; Abudureyimu, Reheman [ORNL; Rennich, Mark J. [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed from the beginning to accommodate both an accelerator upgrade to increase the proton power and a second target station (STS). Four workshops were organized in 2013 and 2014 to identify key science areas and challenges where neutrons will play a vital role [1-4]. Participants concluded that the addition of STS to the existing ORNL neutron sources was needed to complement the strengths of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the SNS first target station (FTS). To address the capability gaps identified in the workshops, a study was undertaken to identify instrument concepts that could provide the required new science capabilities. The study outlined 22 instrument concepts and presented an initial science case for STS [5]. These instrument concepts formed the basis of a planning suite of instruments whose requirements determined an initial site layout and moderator selection. An STS Technical Design Report (TDR) documented the STS concept based on those choices [6]. Since issue of the TDR, the STS concept has significantly matured as described in this document.

  12. The peripheral GABAergic system as a target in endocrine disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A; Korf, J; Hakobyan, VP; Melkonyan, KV

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its well-recognized function as a cerebral inhibitory transmitter, less well established is the role of GABA in peripheral nervous and endocrine systems. We Summarize current evidence that GABA serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the autonomic nervous system and as a

  13. Information Systems curriculum: the moving target phenomenon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article determines the scope and nature of Information Systems training at Technikons in South Africa. Due to rapid changes in technology, knowledge regarding technology becomes obsolete rapidly. Therefore Information Systems learners should have the means and skills to keep abreast of advances in the ...

  14. Research on regional intrusion prevention and control system based on target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Jieling; Jiang, Ke; He, Yanhui; Wu, Zhilin

    2017-08-01

    In view of the fact that China’s border is very long and the border prevention and control measures are single, we designed a regional intrusion prevention and control system which based on target-tracking. The system consists of four parts: solar panel, radar, electro-optical equipment, unmanned aerial vehicle and intelligent tracking platform. The solar panel provides independent power for the entire system. The radar detects the target in real time and realizes the high precision positioning of suspicious targets, then through the linkage of electro-optical equipment, it can achieve full-time automatic precise tracking of targets. When the target appears within the range of detection, the drone will be launched to continue the tracking. The system is mainly to realize the full time, full coverage, whole process integration and active realtime control of the border area.

  15. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  16. LEDs: revolution or evolution? Part One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roush, M.

    2000-11-01

    The historical evolution, the current state of light emitting diodes (LEDs), future implications and the promise of this technology for the lighting industry are explored. Some of the misconceptions relative to that promise are dispelled and some of the less obvious benefits that this technology could deliver in the future are discussed. As far as misconceptions are concerned, it is not true that LEDs will deliver light forever at a fraction of the energy of conventional light sources, or that they come in an infinite variety of colours and cost just pennies. Although LEDs per se may last a long time, the fact is that their true life expectancy is only as long as the wiring and the connection within the system, and they are certainly limited. Energy efficiency is another misconception. The truth is that white LEDs (the best for illumination purposes) are limited to less than 10 lumen per Watt, which is hardly a revolutionary improvement over incandescent light sources. Equally disappointing is the misconception concerning price. In actual fact, LEDs in lighting applications are very new and it would require mass production in the millions before LED lighting packages could become inexpensive. At the same time, LEDs have many advantages that are not commonly known. Compactness, very high level of light utilization, high life expectancy and nearly flat mortality curve are some of these. Operating on direct current lends LED installations to battery and solar applications (as for example solar LED road studs to aid in night driving). The absence of ultraviolet emissions in LEDs is another lesser known, but important feature, especially in applications where material degradation is a major concern (as in stores and museums). In general, all indicators point to a bright future for LEDs as their application progresses from decoration to illumination. This topic will be further explored in Part Two of this article. 4 figs.

  17. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Lumileds LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    LED luminaires have seen dramatic changes in cost breakdown over the past few years. The LED component cost, which until recently was the dominant portion of luminaire cost, has fallen to a level of the same order as the other luminaire components, such as the driver, housing, optics etc. With the current state of the technology, further luminaire performance improvement and cost reduction is realized most effectively by optimization of the whole system, rather than a single component. This project focuses on improving the integration between LEDs and drivers. Lumileds has developed a light engine platform based on low-cost high-power LEDs and driver topologies optimized for integration with these LEDs on a single substrate. The integration of driver and LEDs enables an estimated luminaire cost reduction of about 25% for targeted applications, mostly due to significant reductions in driver and housing cost. The high-power LEDs are based on Lumileds’ patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) technology, affording reduced die fabrication and packaging cost compared to existing technology. Two general versions of PSS-FC die were developed in order to create the desired voltage and flux increments for driver integration: (i) small single-junction die (0.5 mm2), optimal for distributed lighting applications, and (ii) larger multi-junction die (2 mm2 and 4 mm2) for high-power directional applications. Two driver topologies were developed: a tapped linear driver topology and a single-stage switch-mode topology, taking advantage of the flexible voltage configurations of the new PSS-FC die and the simplification opportunities enabled by integration of LEDs and driver on the same board. A prototype light engine was developed for an outdoor “core module” application based on the multi-junction PSS-FC die and the single-stage switch-mode driver. The light engine meets the project efficacy target of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux

  18. Targeting DNA repair systems in antitubercular drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Alina; Brzostek, Anna; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2018-01-28

    Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, are difficult to treat using currently available chemotherapeutics. Clinicians agree on the urgent need for novel drugs to treat tuberculosis. In this mini review, we summarize data that prompts the consideration of DNA repair-associated proteins as targets for the development of new antitubercular compounds. We discuss data, including gene expression data, that highlight the importance of DNA repair genes during the pathogenic cycle as well as after exposure to antimicrobials currently in use. Specifically, we report experiments on determining the essentiality of DNA repair-related genes. We report the availability of protein crystal structures and summarize discovered protein inhibitors. Further, we describe phenotypes of available gene mutants of M. tuberculosis and model organisms Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. We summarize experiments regarding the role of DNA repair-related proteins in pathogenesis and virulence performed both in vitro and in vivo during the infection of macrophages and animals. We detail the role of DNA repair genes in acquiring mutations, which influence the rate of drug resistance acquisition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  20. An amplified promoter system for targeted expression of calcium indicator proteins in the cerebellar cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eKuhn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording of identified neuronal network activity using genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs requires labeling that is cell type-specific and bright enough for the detection of functional signals. However, specificity and strong expression are often not achievable using the same promoter. Here we present a combinatorial approach for targeted expression and single-cell-level quantification in which a weak promoter is used to drive trans-amplification under a strong general promoter. We demonstrated this approach using recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs to deliver the sequence of the GECI D3cpv in the mouse cerebellar cortex. Direct expression under the human synapsin promoter (hSYN led to high levels of expression (50-100 µM in five interneuron types of the cerebellar cortex but not in Purkinje cells (PCs (≤10 μM, yielding sufficient contrast to allow functional signals to be recorded from somata and processes in awake animals using two-photon microscopy. When the hSYN promoter was used to drive expression of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA, a second rAAV containing the bidirectional TET promoter (Ptetbi could drive strong D3cpv expression in PCs (10-300 µM, enough to allow reliable complex spike detection in the dendritic arbor. An amplified approach should be of use in monitoring neural processing in selected cell types and boosting expression of optogenetic probes. Additionally, we overcome cell toxicity associated with rAAV injection and/or local GECI overexpression by combining the virus injection with systemic pre-injection of hyperosmotic D-mannitol, and by this double the time window for functional imaging.

  1. A proton microbeam deflection system to scan target surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, D.

    1978-12-01

    A system to deflect the proton beam within the Karlsruhe microbeam setup is described. The deflection is achieved whithin a transverse electrical field generated between parallel electrodes. Their tension is controlled by a pattern generator, thus enabling areal and line scans with a variable number of scan points at variable scan speed. The application is demonstrated at two different examples. (orig.) [de

  2. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  3. The immune system as a target for antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grondel, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OxyTC) in particular, are presented in this thesis with respect to the influence of these drugs on the immune system of carp and chickens. Special attention was paid to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of

  4. Designing with LED

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the recently adopted changes in the way highway lighting systems are designed, with emphasis on how the approved list of solid state–based luminaires is integrated into the design process. Progress made on the approved list and experiences in developing it will also be shared.

  5. Directions for reactor target design based on the US heavy ion fusion systems assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.; Dudziak, D.; Magelssen, G.; Zuckerman, D.; Dreimeyer, D.

    1986-01-01

    We studied areas of major uncertainty in target design using the cost of electricity as our figure of merit. Net electric power from the plant was fixed at 1000 MW to eliminate large effects due to economies of scale. The system is relatively insensitive to target gain. Factors of three changes in gain cause only 8 to 12% changes in electricity cost. An increase in the peak power needed to drive targets poses only a small cost risk, but requires many more beamlets be transported to the target. A shortening of the required ion range causes both cost and beamlet difficulties. A factor of 4 decrease in the required range at a fixed driver energy increases electricity cost by 44% and raises the number of beamlets to 240. Finally, the heavy ion fusion system can accommodate large increases in target costs. To address the major uncertainties, target design should concentrate on the understanding requirements for ion range and peak driver power

  6. Is light-emitting diode phototherapy (LED-LLLT) really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Serk; Calderhead, R Glen

    2011-01-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) has attracted attention in many clinical fields with a new generation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) which can irradiate large targets. To pain control, the first main application of LLLT, have been added LED-LLLT in the accelerated healing of wounds, both traumatic and iatrogenic, inflammatory acne and the patient-driven application of skin rejuvenation. Rationale and Applications: The rationale behind LED-LLLT is underpinned by the reported efficacy of LED-LLLT at a cellular and subcellular level, particularly for the 633 nm and 830 nm wavelengths, and evidence for this is presented. Improved blood flow and neovascularization are associated with 830 nm. A large variety of cytokines, chemokines and macromolecules can be induced by LED phototherapy. Among the clinical applications, non-healing wounds can be healed through restoring the collagenesis/collagenase imbalance in such examples, and 'normal' wounds heal faster and better. Pain, including postoperative pain, postoperative edema and many types of inflammation can be significantly reduced. Experimental and clinical evidence: Some personal examples of evidence are offered by the first author, including controlled animal models demonstrating the systemic effect of 830 nm LED-LLLT on wound healing and on induced inflammation. Human patients are presented to illustrate the efficacy of LED phototherapy on treatment-resistant inflammatory disorders. Provided an LED phototherapy system has the correct wavelength for the target cells, delivers an appropriate power density and an adequate energy density, then it will be at least partly, if not significantly, effective. The use of LED-LLLT as an adjunct to conventional surgical or nonsurgical indications is an even more exciting prospect. LED-LLLT is here to stay.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle drug delivery systems for targeting tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Vicky V.; Cox, Arthur; Shah, Samit; Singh, Ajay; Bevins, Wesley; Parihar, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Tumor hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a result of disordered vasculature that lead to distinctive hypoxic microenvironments not found in normal tissues. Many traditional anti-cancer agents are not able to penetrate into these hypoxic zones, whereas, conventional cancer therapies that work by blocking cell division are not effective to treat tumors within hypoxic zones. Under these circumstances the use of magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivering agent system under the influence of external magnetic field has received much attention, based on their simplicity, ease of preparation, and ability to tailor their properties for specific biological applications. Hence in this review article we have reviewed current magnetic drug delivery systems, along with their application and clinical status in the field of magnetic drug delivery.

  8. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell transplantation. This thesis evaluates the clinical benefit of these strategies as well as the immunological changes that coincide with clinical improvement. By combining clinical outcome with immu...

  9. Pattern-Recognition System for Approaching a Known Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Cheng, Yang

    2008-01-01

    A closed-loop pattern-recognition system is designed to provide guidance for maneuvering a small exploratory robotic vehicle (rover) on Mars to return to a landed spacecraft to deliver soil and rock samples that the spacecraft would subsequently bring back to Earth. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in guiding mobile robots to approach known structures that humans could not approach safely, for such purposes as reconnaissance in military or law-enforcement applications, terrestrial scientific exploration, and removal of explosive or other hazardous items. The system has been demonstrated in experiments in which the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover (a prototype Mars rover equipped with a video camera for guidance) is made to return to a mockup of Mars-lander spacecraft. The FIDO rover camera autonomously acquires an image of the lander from a distance of 125 m in an outdoor environment. Then under guidance by an algorithm that performs fusion of multiple line and texture features in digitized images acquired by the camera, the rover traverses the intervening terrain, using features derived from images of the lander truss structure. Then by use of precise pattern matching for determining the position and orientation of the rover relative to the lander, the rover aligns itself with the bottom of ramps extending from the lander, in preparation for climbing the ramps to deliver samples to the lander. The most innovative aspect of the system is a set of pattern-recognition algorithms that govern a three-phase visual-guidance sequence for approaching the lander. During the first phase, a multifeature fusion algorithm integrates the outputs of a horizontal-line-detection algorithm and a wavelet-transform-based visual-area-of-interest algorithm for detecting the lander from a significant distance. The horizontal-line-detection algorithm is used to determine candidate lander locations based on detection of a horizontal deck that is part of the

  10. Target detect system in 3D using vision apply on plant reproduction by tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results for a system in tree dimension that use a system vision to manipulate plants in a tissue culture process. The system is able to estimate the position of the plant in the work area, first calculate the position and send information to the mechanical system, and recalculate the position again, and if it is necessary, repositioning the mechanical system, using an neural system to improve the location of the plant. The system use only the system vision to sense the position and control loop using a neural system to detect the target and positioning the mechanical system, the results are compared with an open loop system.

  11. Maneuvering Target Detection Based on JRC System in Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the problem of detecting maneuvering targets in the Gaussian and sea clutter environments and based on the established motion state model, this paper proposed a new scheme that uses a joint radar-communication (JRC system with Kalman filter to accurately detect the target with the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT theory and a constant false alarm rate (CFAR based threshold. Also, the theoretical threshold and probability function of GLRT target detection based on CFAR were given. Moreover, target detection probability of the new JRC system in Weibull and K distribution clutter is deduced. In addition to theoretical considerations, simulations and measurement results of the new JRC systems demonstrate excellent detection performance for maneuvering targets in the Weibull and K distribution channel.

  12. Systems engineering meets quantitative systems pharmacology: from low-level targets to engaging the host defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative systems pharmacology aims at systematizing, in a model-based manner, the integration of systems biology and pharmacology in an effort to rationalize the process of assessing the ability of a drug to enhance well-being by off-setting the effects of a disease. Systems engineering, on the other hand, has enabled us to develop principles and methodologies for designing and operating engineered networks of structures exploring the integration of the underlying governing (design) laws. Although the computational tools which have resulted in major advances in the design, analysis, and operation of complex engineered structures have had tremendous success in the analysis of systems pharmacology models, it is argued in this opinion paper, that exploring the underlying conceptual foundation of complex systems engineering will enable us to move toward integrated models at the host level to explore, and possibly, induce synergies between low-level drug targets and higher level, systemic, defense mechanisms. This is an approach which would require refocusing of the key activities; however, it is likely the more promising approach as we enter the new era of personalized and precision medicine. We finally argue for the development of an allostatic approach to quantitative systems pharmacology and the development of an integrated framework for considering drugs in their broader context, beyond their local site of action. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2015, 7:101-112. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1294 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sirtuins in the Cardiovascular System: Potential Targets in Pediatric Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Alessandro; Yuan, Xuejun; Bober, Eva; Braun, Thomas

    2018-03-02

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a major cause of death and morbidity. Cardiac and vascular pathologies develop predominantly in the aged population in part due to lifelong exposure to numerous risk factors but are also found in children and during adolescence. In comparison to adults, much has to be learned about the molecular pathways driving cardiovascular diseases in the pediatric population. Sirtuins are highly conserved enzymes that play pivotal roles in ensuring cardiac homeostasis under physiological and stress conditions. In this review, we discuss novel findings about the biological functions of these molecules in the cardiovascular system and their possible involvement in pediatric cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Systems integration of biodefense omics data for analysis of pathogen-host interactions and identification of potential targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B McGarvey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The NIAID (National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases Biodefense Proteomics program aims to identify targets for potential vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for agents of concern in bioterrorism, including bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The program includes seven Proteomics Research Centers, generating diverse types of pathogen-host data, including mass spectrometry, microarray transcriptional profiles, protein interactions, protein structures and biological reagents. The Biodefense Resource Center (www.proteomicsresource.org has developed a bioinformatics framework, employing a protein-centric approach to integrate and support mining and analysis of the large and heterogeneous data. Underlying this approach is a data warehouse with comprehensive protein + gene identifier and name mappings and annotations extracted from over 100 molecular databases. Value-added annotations are provided for key proteins from experimental findings using controlled vocabulary. The availability of pathogen and host omics data in an integrated framework allows global analysis of the data and comparisons across different experiments and organisms, as illustrated in several case studies presented here. (1 The identification of a hypothetical protein with differential gene and protein expressions in two host systems (mouse macrophage and human HeLa cells infected by different bacterial (Bacillus anthracis and Salmonella typhimurium and viral (orthopox pathogens suggesting that this protein can be prioritized for additional analysis and functional characterization. (2 The analysis of a vaccinia-human protein interaction network supplemented with protein accumulation levels led to the identification of human Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 4 protein as a potential therapeutic target. (3 Comparison of complete genomes from pathogenic variants coupled with experimental information on complete proteomes allowed the identification and

  15. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  16. Quorum-Sensing Systems as Targets for Antivirulence Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom

    2018-04-01

    The development of novel therapies to control diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens is one of the major challenges we are currently facing. Many important plant, animal, and human pathogens regulate virulence by quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication with small signal molecules. Consequently, a significant research effort is being undertaken to identify and use quorum-sensing-interfering agents in order to control diseases caused by these pathogens. In this review, an overview of our current knowledge of quorum-sensing systems of Gram-negative model pathogens is presented as well as the link with virulence of these pathogens, and recent advances and challenges in the development of quorum-sensing-interfering therapies are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  18. [Research on Multi-Spectral Target Recognition System Based on the Magneto-Optical Modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-yan; Qin, Jian-min; Qiao, Ji-pin

    2016-03-01

    The technology of target recognition based on characteristic multi-spectrum has many advantages, such as strong detection capability and discriminating capability of target species. But there are some problems, it requires that you obtain the background spectrum as a priori knowledge, and it requires that the change of background spectrum is small with time. Thereby its application of real-time object recognition is limited in the new environment, or the complex environment. Based on magneto-optical modulation and characteristic multi-spectrum the method is designed, and the target is identified without prior access to the background spectrum. In order to achieve the function of the target information in the one acquisition time for tested, compared to conventional methods in terms of target detection, it's adaptability is better than before on the battlefield, and it is of more practical significance. Meanwhile, the magneto-optical modulator is used to suppress the interference of stray light background, thereby improving the probability of target recognition. Since the magneto-optical modulation provides incremental iterative target spectral information, therefore, even if the unknown background spectrum or background spectrum change is large, it can significantly improve the recognition accuracy of information through an iterative target spectrum. Different test targets back shimmering light intensity and background intensity values were analyzed during experiments, results showed that three targets for linearly polarized reflectance modulation is significantly stronger than the background. And it was of great influence to visible imaging target identification when measured target used camouflage color, but the system of polarization modulation type can still recognize target well. On this basis, the target range within 0.5 km x 2 km multi-wavelength characteristics of the target species were identified. When using three characteristic wavelengths, the

  19. Mechanical design and development of a high power target system for the SLC Positron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, E.; Mansour, D.; Porter, T.; Sax, W.; Szumillo, A.

    1991-12-01

    In order to bring the SLC Positron Source luminosity up to design specifications, the previous (stationary) positron target had to be replaced with a version which could reliably dissipate the higher power levels and cyclic pulsed thermal stresses of the high intensity 33GeV electron beam. In addition to this basic requirement, the new target system had to meet SLAC's specifications for Ultra High Vacuum, be remotely controllable, ''radiation hard,'' and designed in such a way that it could be removed and replaced quickly and easily with minimum personnel exposure to radiation. It was also desirable to integrate the target and collection components into a compact, easily manufacturable, and easily maintainable module. This paper briefly summarize the mechanical design and development of the new modular target system, its associated controls and software, alignment, and the quick removal system. Operational experience gained with the new system over the first running cycle is also summarized

  20. Development of a cryogenic target delivery system for HiPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, J.P. [CEA, DRFMC, Serv Basses Temp, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Perlado, M. [Univ Politecn Madrid, Inst Fus Nucl DENIM, ETSII, Madrid, (Spain); Tolley, M. [Rutherford Appleton Lab, Cent Laser Facil, Rutherford, NJ (United States)

    2009-07-01

    For the future, we have to develop new sources of energy. These new sources may be based on nuclear fusion with magnetic confinement (as with the ITER experiment) or with a new concept based on inertial confinement. The European community plans to build a facility (HiPER project) which is dedicated to reaching high gain with cryogenic targets, and to test the concepts of target mass production and rep rate shots. The cryogenic system for the first phase experiments in HiPER is based on the cryogenic system developed for the French facility Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). The latter must be modified and upgraded for direct drive targets. In particular the target must be protected from the radiation flux from the vacuum vessel by a thermal shroud In addition, the LMJ system must be equipped with a thermal system to allow layering of the fusion fuel to take place. (authors)

  1. Cryogenic-laser-fusion target implosion studies performed with the OMEGA uv-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Letzring, S.A.; Verdon, C.P.; Skupsky, S.; Keck, R.L.; Knauer, J.P.; Kremens, R.L.; Bradley, D.K.; Kessler, T.; Delettrez, J.; and others.

    1989-01-01

    A series of direct-drive laser-fusion implosion experiments was performed on cryogenically cooled, DT-filled glass microballoons with the OMEGA 24-beam uv (351-nm) laser system. The targets consisted of glass microballoons having radii of 100 to 150 μm, wall thicknesses of 3 to 7 μm, filled with DT gas at pressures of 75 to 100 atm. The targets were cooled to below the freezing point of DT, in situ, by a cryogenic target system. The targets were irradiated by approximately 1 to 1.2 kJ of uv light in 650-ps Gaussian pulses. The on-target irradiation uniformity was enhanced for these experiments by the use of distributed phase plates, which brought the estimated irradiation nonuniformities to ∼12% (σ rms ). Target performance was diagnosed by an array of x-ray, plasma, and nuclear instruments. The measured target performance showed ∼70% absorption, thermonuclear yields of 10 6 to 10 8 neutrons, and final fuel areal densities of 20 to 40 mg/cm 2 for the optimum targets examined in these experiments. Fuel densities at the time of thermonuclear neutron production, inferred from direct measurements of the fuel areal density, were in the range of 20 to 50 g/cm 3 (100 to 200 times the density of liquid DT) for the optimum targets

  2. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmonov, Mikhail; Makhov, Kirill; Novozhilova, Olga; Meluzov, A.G.; Beznosov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 10 5 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  3. An Underwater Target Detection System for Electro-Optical Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The detection method involves identifying frames of interest (FOI) containing the potential targets. Once the FOI have been identified, regions of...complicated one. Previous work on EO data has been focused on Streak Tube Imaging Lidar ( STIL ) system [1]–[4], and laser line scan (LLS) [5]–[7...based systems. STIL sensor produces high- resolution 3-D images of underwater objects by scanning (line by line), on the target field [1]. The collected

  4. Integrated Solution of a Back Office System for Serious Games Targeted at Physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious games targeted at physiotherapy can be a solution to help the physical therapy professionals. However, the entire game management, in its various aspects, is under the professional’s responsibility. One way to reduce the professional management work will be to integrate a Back Office system in the game. Following this trend, the purpose of this paper is to present a modular Back Office system for centralized management of one or more games targeted at physical therapy.

  5. Design of Experiments for Model Calibration of Multi-Physics Systems with Targeted Events of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0034 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS FOR MODEL CALIBRATION OF MULTI-PHYSICS SYSTEMS WITH TARGETED EVENTS OF INTEREST (PREPRINT...STATEMENT. *//Signature// //Signature// BENJAMIN P. SMARSLOK MICHAEL S. BROWN, Branch Chief Program Manager Hypersonic Sciences...March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS FOR MODEL CALIBRATION OF MULTI- PHYSICS SYSTEMS WITH TARGETED EVENTS OF INTEREST (PREPRINT) 5a

  6. Technology of target positioning precision measurement of high power laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhihong; Li Ping; Zhao Runchang; Li Zhijun; Liu Hua; Xia Yanwen

    2011-01-01

    The target positioning precision of multi-beam laser facility is crucial to future inertial confinement fusion experiments, so the calculation methods have been developed for estimating the target positioning precision. The measurement method of target positioning precision based on the X-ray pinhole camera was presented. The coordinates of target center position determined by microscope and read by X-ray pinhole camera after the shoot on CH target of multi-hole, the conversion relationship of coordinates between target plane and X-ray pinhole camera was established. The template of focal area was acquired after the shoot of focal area target. The match method of template was adopted, and the position coordinates of focal area center were obtained by X-ray pinhole camera. The position of focal area center in the target plane coordinates can be calculated through the conversion of coordinates, and then the target positioning precision measurement of the laser system can be calculated. The measurement technology and methods of target positioning precision of multi-beam laser facility are presented, and the uncertainty is analyzed, consequently. (authors)

  7. Controlled synthesis of target strings in a class of splicing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C Y

    2005-08-01

    This article presents an approach for synthesizing target strings in a class of computational models of DNA recombination. The computational models are formalized as splicing systems in the context of formal languages. Given a splicing system (of a restricted type) and a target string to be synthesized, we construct (i) a rule-embedded splicing automaton that recognizes languages containing strings embedded with symbols representing splicing rules, and (ii) an automaton that implicitly recognizes the target string. By manipulating these two automata, we extract all rule sequences that lead to the production of the target string (if that string belongs to the splicing language). An algorithm for synthesizing a certain type of target strings based on such rule sequences is presented.

  8. LEDs light up the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, N.

    2004-06-30

    A lighting system using light-emitting diodes, and privately financed by a Canadian engineering professor at the University of Calgary, has been set up in a village in Nepal in 2000. Since then, through the efforts of the 'Light Up The World' Foundation, established by Dr. Irvine-Halliday, projects have lit up thousands of homes in the Philippines, India, Afghanistan, the Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Angola. Although the goal of the project is primarily to provide lighting for reading and writing for school-children, the project has been the source of many other advantages; creation of enterprise, increased employment, enhanced income, gender equality, and improvements in health and safety among them. Since LED lamps in most cases replace kerosene lamps, the system also has significant environmental benefits. The system as originally envisioned creates electricity by pedal-powered generator, or by solar panels connected to a battery, depending on what is available at each home. Each home is connected to the power supply and supplied with low-energy diode lamps. The lights are extremely efficient and many homes can be equipped with them using less energy than it takes to power a single 100-watt light bulb. 5 photos.

  9. An analytical approach of thermodynamic behavior in a gas target system on a medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Pouyan; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Buckley, Ken; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Martinez, D Mark; Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of gas targets used to produce medical isotopes, assuming that the system reaches steady-state. It is based on an integral analysis of the mass and energy balance of the gas-target system, the ideal gas law, and the deformation of the foil. The heat transfer coefficients for different target bodies and gases have been calculated. Excellent agreement is observed between experiments performed at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron and the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

    2007-01-01

    The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

  11. In vivo tumor targeting and anti-tumor effects of 5-fluororacil loaded, folic acid targeted quantum dot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwatanglang, Ibrahim Birma; Mohammad, Faruq; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Hussein, Mohd Zubir; Abu, Nadiah; Mohammed, Nurul Elyani; Nordin, Noraini; Zamberi, Nur Rizi; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we modulated the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) using a carrier system with enhanced targeting efficacy towards folate receptors (FRs) expressing malignant tissues. The 5-FU drug was loaded onto Mn-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated with chitosan (CS) biopolymer and conjugated with folic acid (FA) based on a simple wet chemical method. The formation of 5-FU drug loaded composite was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the in vivo biodistribution and tumor targeting specificity of the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS in the tumor-bearing mice was conducted based on the Zn(2+) tissue bioaccumulation using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. In addition to the characterization, the in vitro release profile of 5-FU from the conjugates investigated under diffusion controlled method demonstrated a controlled release behaviour as compared against the release behaviour of free 5-FU drug. The as-synthesized 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS nanoparticle (NP) systemically induced higher level of apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vitro as compared to cells treated with free 5-FU drug following both cell cycle and annexin assays, respectively. Also, the in vivo toxicity assessment of the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS NPs as compared to the control did not cause any significant increase in the activities of the liver and kidney function biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, based on the FA-FRs chemistry, the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS NPs specifically accumulated in the tumor of the tumor-bearing mice and thus contributed to the smaller tumor size and less event of metastasis was observed in the lungs when compared to the tumor-bearing mice groups treated with the free 5-FU drug. In summary, the results demonstrated that the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS QDs exhibits selective anti-tumor effect in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells in vitro and 4TI breast

  12. LED driver for stroboscopic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, T.; Heikkinen, V.; Kassamakov, I.; Hæggström, E.

    2012-04-01

    Three different types of white light emitting diodes (LEDs) and three types of single color LEDs were tested as light sources for stroboscopic scanning white light interferometry (SSWLI) for dynamic (MEMS) characterization. Short, intense, light pulses and low duty cycle (DC-10 MHz), and can drive single LEDs at 5A peak current (0.7% duty cycle at 1 MHz). The shortest measured electrical pulses were 6.2 +/- 0.1 ns FDHM. The minimum measured Full Duration at Half Maximum (FDHM) of the optical pulse was 8.4 +/- 0.1 ns using nonphosphor white LED and 32.1 +/- 0.1 ns using white phosphor-converted LED (0.7 % duty cycle at 1 MHz in both cases). The minimum optical pulse FDHM for a single color blue/green LED was 6.4 +/- 0.1 ns. The maximum intensity of these pulses was 630 +/- 40 μW and 540 +/- 30 μW, respectively. All types of white LEDs could be used for stroboscopic SWLI measurements at frequencies up to 2 MHz. For higher frequencies, non-phosphor white LEDs must be used together with a cyan LED to avoid ringing in the SWLI interferogram.

  13. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations. (paper)

  14. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  15. Design of a lighting system with high-power LEDs, large area electronics, and light management structure in the LUMENTILE European project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, L.; Simonetta, M.; Benetti, G.; Tramonte, A.; Capelli, G.; Benedetti, M.; Randone, E. M.; Ylisaukko-oja, A.; Keränen, K.; Facchinetti, T.; Giuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    LUMENTILE (LUMinous ElectroNic TILE) is a project funded by the European Commission with the goal of developing a luminous tile with novel functionalities, capable of changing its color and interact with the user. Applications include interior/exterior tile for walls and floors covering, high-efficiency luminaries, and advertising under the form of giant video screens. High overall electrical efficiency of the tile is mandatory, as several millions of square meters are foreseen to be installed each year. Demand is for high uniformity of the illumination of the top tile surface, and for high optical extraction efficiency. These features are achieved by smart light management, using a new approach based on light guiding slab and spatially selective light extraction obtained using both diffusion and/or reflection from the top and bottom interfaces of the optical layer. Planar and edge configurations for the RGB LEDs are considered and compared. A square shape with side length from 20cm to 60cm is considered for the tiles. The electronic circuit layout must optimize the electrical efficiency, and be compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. LED heat management is tackled by using dedicated solutions that allow operation in thermally harsh environment. An approach based on OLEDs has also been considered, still needing improvement on emitted power and ruggedness.

  16. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  17. Cyclic RGD peptide-modified liposomal drug delivery system for targeted oral apatinib administration: enhanced cellular uptake and improved therapeutic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwang; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Xia; Feng, Chan; Lu, Yonglin; Gao, Yong; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Apatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which selectively targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and has the potential to treat many tumors therapeutically. Cyclic arginylglycylaspartic acid (cRGD)- and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes (cRGD-Lipo-PEG) were constructed to act as a targeted delivery system for the delivery of apatinib to the human colonic cancer cell line, HCT116. These cRGD-modified liposomes specifically recognized integrin α v β 3 and exhibited greater uptake efficiency with respect to delivering liposomes into HCT116 cells when compared to nontargeted liposomes (Lipo-PEG), as well as greater death of tumor cells and apoptosis. The mechanism by which cRGD-Lipo-PEG targets cells was elucidated further with competition assays. To determine the anticancer efficacy in vivo, nude mice were implanted with HCT116 xenografts and treated with apatinib-loaded liposomes or free apatinib intravenously or via intragastric administration. The active and passive targeting of cRGD-Lipo-PEG led to significant tumor treatment targeting ability, better inhibition of tumor growth, and less toxicity when compared with treatments using uncombined apatinib. The results presented strongly support the case for cRGD-Lipo-PEG representing a targeted delivery system for apatinib in the treatment of colonic cancer.

  18. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall. The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz. The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable. (A.O.)

  19. Progress and Challenges in Developing Aptamer-Functionalized Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, which can be screened via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX, are superior ligands for molecular recognition due to their high selectivity and affinity. The interest in the use of aptamers as ligands for targeted drug delivery has been increasing due to their unique advantages. Based on their different compositions and preparation methods, aptamer-functionalized targeted drug delivery systems can be divided into two main categories: aptamer-small molecule conjugated systems and aptamer-nanomaterial conjugated systems. In this review, we not only summarize recent progress in aptamer selection and the application of aptamers in these targeted drug delivery systems but also discuss the advantages, challenges and new perspectives associated with these delivery systems.

  20. High-Speed Target Identification System Based on the Plume’s Spectral Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the target of high speed quickly and accurately, an identification system was designed based on analysis of the distribution characteristics of the plume spectrum. In the system, the target was aligned with visible light tracking module, and the spectral analysis of the target’s plume radiation was achieved by interference module. The distinguishing factor recognition algorithm was designed on basis of ratio of multifeature band peaks and valley mean values. Effective recognition of the high speed moving target could be achieved after partition of the active region and the influence of target motion on spectral acquisition was analyzed. In the experiment the small rocket combustion was used as the target. The spectral detection experiment was conducted at different speeds 2.0 km away from the detection system. Experimental results showed that spectral distribution had significant spectral offset in the same sampling period for the target with different speeds, but the spectral distribution was basically consistent. Through calculation of the inclusion relationship between distinguishing factor and distinction interval of the peak value and the valley value at the corresponding wave-bands, effective identification of target could be achieved.

  1. Nanobody-Based Delivery Systems for Diagnosis and Targeted Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaozhong Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of innovative targeted therapeutic approaches are expected to surpass the efficacy of current forms of treatments and cause less damage to healthy cells surrounding the tumor site. Since the first development of targeting agents from hybridoma’s, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been employed to inhibit tumor growth and proliferation directly or to deliver effector molecules to tumor cells. However, the full potential of such a delivery strategy is hampered by the size of mAbs, which will obstruct the targeted delivery system to access the tumor tissue. By serendipity, a new kind of functional homodimeric antibody format was discovered in camelidae, known as heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs. The cloning of the variable domain of HCAbs produces an attractive minimal-sized alternative for mAbs, referred to as VHH or nanobodies (Nbs. Apart from their dimensions in the single digit nanometer range, the unique characteristics of Nbs combine a high stability and solubility, low immunogenicity and excellent affinity and specificity against all possible targets including tumor markers. This stimulated the development of tumor-targeted therapeutic strategies. Some autonomous Nbs have been shown to act as antagonistic drugs, but more importantly, the targeting capacity of Nbs has been exploited to create drug delivery systems. Obviously, Nb-based targeted cancer therapy is mainly focused toward extracellular tumor markers, since the membrane barrier prevents antibodies to reach the most promising intracellular tumor markers. Potential strategies, such as lentiviral vectors and bacterial type 3 secretion system, are proposed to deliver target-specific Nbs into tumor cells and to block tumor markers intracellularly. Simultaneously, Nbs have also been employed for in vivo molecular imaging to diagnose diseased tissues and to monitor the treatment effects. Here, we review the state of the art and focus on recent developments with Nbs as

  2. New dental applications with LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, A.; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  3. Moth eye-inspired anti-reflective surfaces for improved IR optical systems & visible LEDs fabricated with colloidal lithography and etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lesley W; Morse, Daniel E; Gordon, Michael J

    2018-03-16

    Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes. Light-matter interactions at structured and heterogeneous surfaces over different length scales are discussed, as are the various methods used to create ME-inspired surfaces. Special interest is placed on a simple, scalable, and tunable method, namely colloidal lithography with plasma dry etching, to fabricate ME-inspired nanostructures in a vast suite of materials. Anti-reflective surfaces and coatings for IR devices and enhancing light extraction from visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) are highlighted. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Enhancement of the efficiency of magnetic targeting for drug delivery: Development and evaluation of magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Quanliang; Han Xiaotao; Li Liang

    2011-01-01

    Deep magnetic capture and clinical application are the current trends for magnetic targeted drug delivery system. More promising and possible strategies are needed to overcome the current limitations and further improve the magnetic targeting technique. Recent advances in the development of targeting magnet system show promise in progressing this technology from the laboratory to the clinic. Starting from well-known basic concepts, current limitations of magnetic targeted drug delivery system are analyzed. Meanwhile, the design concepts and evaluations of some effective improvements in magnet system are discussed and reviewed with reference to (i) reasonable design of magnet system; (ii) control modes of magnet system used to generate dynamical magnetic fields; and (iii) magnetic field driving types. - Research Highlights: → The current limitations of MTDDS for deep capture and clinical application are analyzed. → The development of magnet system shows promise in progressing MTDDS to clinical application. → The design concepts and evaluations of improvements in magnet system are reviewed and discussed. → The key to improve magnet system lies in controllable magnets and different excitations.

  5. Die-Bonding of LED Chips on Ag/Cu Substrate Using Sn/Zn/Bi/Sn and Sn/Bi/Zn/Bi/Sn Bonding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y. K.; Lin, E. J.; Wang, J. Y.; Lin, Y. S.; Hu, Y. J.; Hsu, Y. C.; Liu, C. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Two multilayer bonding structures have been designed to die-bond light-emitting diode (LED) chips on Ag/Cu thermal substrate, viz. Sn/ZnBi/Sn bilayer solder structure and Sn/BiZnBi/Sn sandwich solder structure. Both multilayer bonding structures successfully achieved LED chip die-attachment on Ag/Cu thermal substrate at relatively low temperature of 150°C. However, voids formed more seriously at the bonding interface for the Sn/ZnBi/Sn bilayer structure. On the other hand, little voiding was seen at the bonding interface for the Sn/BiZnBi/Sn sandwich structure. The average shear strength of the Sn/ZnBi/Sn bilayer solder structure and Sn/BiZnBi/Sn sandwich solder structure was 25 MPa and 40 MPa, respectively. We believe that the improved shear strength results for the sandwich solder structure compared with the bilayer solder structure are mainly due to less voiding at the bonding interface, which weakens the interface joint shear strength. Also, the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) jointing region at the joint interface of the sandwich solder structure was larger than at the joint interface of the bilayer solder structure. We believe that the IMC jointing at the interface could improve the die-bonding strength, while the Zn content in the bonding structure promoted voiding at the bonding interface for both solder structures. Moreover, the Zn content in the bonding structure slightly reduced the IMC joint region at the bonding interface for both solder structures.

  6. Spallation Neutron Source Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-safety Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, Ronald E.; DeVan, B.; Munro, John K. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006, with first beam on target at approximately 200 W. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the facility and were designed and fabricated to SNS conventions to ensure compatibility of systems with Experimental Physics Integrated Control System (EPICS). ControlLogix Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interface to instruments and actuators, and EPICS performs the high-level integration of the PLCs such that all operator control can be accomplished from the Central Control room using EPICS graphical screens that pass process variables to and from the PLCs. Three active safety systems were designed to industry standards ISA S84.01 and IEEE 603 to meet the desired reliability for these safety systems. The safety systems protect facility workers and the environment from mercury vapor, mercury radiation, and proton beam radiation. The facility operators operated many of the systems prior to beam on target and developed the operating procedures. The safety and non-safety control systems were tested extensively prior to beam on target. This testing was crucial to identify wiring and software errors and failed components, the result of which was few problems during operation with beam on target. The SNS has continued beam on target since April to increase beam power, check out the scientific instruments, and continue testing the operation of facility subsystems

  7. Silicone materials for LED packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Maneesh; Norris, Ann W.; Zarisfi, Afrooz; Alger, James S.; Windiate, Christopher C.

    2006-08-01

    Silicone based materials have attracted considerable attention from light emitting diode (LED) manufacturers for use as encapsulants and lenses for many high brightness LED (HB LED) devices. Currently silicones function in two key roles in HB LED devices, (1) as protective lenses and (2) stress relieving encapsulants for wire bond protection. The key attributes of silicones that make them attractive as light path materials for high brightness HB LEDs include their high transparency in the UV-visible region, controlled refractive index (RI), stable thermo-mechanical properties, and tuneable modulus from soft gels to hard resins. This paper will describe recent developments in moldable silicone hard resin materials. Progress on cavity moldable and liquid injection moldable (LIM) silicone compositions for discreet components is described. Also, an example of liquid injection overmolding is presented.

  8. Benefits of pharmacist-led flu vaccination services in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkdale, C L; Nebout, G; Megerlin, F; Thornley, T

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of excess winter deaths and increased hospital admissions. There is a high level of economic burden associated with the infection. Although vaccination targets have been set to tackle this international issue, many countries struggle to reach these coverage targets for their at-risk populations using traditional delivery methods. Traditional providers include family doctors and nurses; however, pharmacist-led influenza vaccination has become a more commonly utilised aid to support vaccination targets. Community pharmacies are convenient and widely accessible and evaluations consistently demonstrate that patients are satisfied with pharmacist-led vaccinations. Allowing community pharmacists to administer influenza vaccination as an alternative option for delivery helps to increase the coverage rate of vaccination. In addition, commissioning community pharmacists to provide this service has been shown to contribute to achieving targets for those at-risk. Pharmacist-led influenza vaccination services can create value for payors and reduce pressure on health systems. This review aims to demonstrate the success of pharmacy-led influenza vaccinations, and the impact it has had in driving up immunisation rates within other countries. Experiences of countries such as England, Portugal and the United States provide evidence to demonstrate the benefit to both the patient and the health system. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Calibrating non-central catadioptric vision system using local target reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fuqiang; Chen, Xin; Chai, Xinghua; Tan, Haishu

    2017-01-01

    In a traditional catadioptric calibration process, a calibration target placed in different views is required and it leads to complexity in the calibration process. In order to simplify the calibration process of a non-central catadioptric vision system, we developed a local target reconstruction method used a circle-square-combined target. Each circle-square on the target is regarded as an independent sub-region. According to the local mapping of the sub-regions, these can be reconstructed based on the curvature of a curved mirror and the characteristics of the circle-square-combined target. The overall procedure requires a single image, due to the reconstructed sub-regions. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, real experiments have been carried out and the results show that the proposed method is reliable and efficient. (paper)

  10. Cannonball target experiment with the GEKKO laser system at ILE Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Azechi, H.; Fujiwara, E.

    1985-01-01

    The GEKKO series glass laser systems are now in operation for the Cannonball target experiments. GEKKO XII is a twelve-beam 30 kJ, 50 TW laser provided with two target chambers. Three types of GEKKO lasers cover the UV, blue, green and red frequency ranges. The Cannonball target displays an excellent performance in implosion. Two kinds of Cannonball target are proposed: the plasma Cannonball and the radiation Cannonball. The neutron yield is 4x10 10 , and the DT fuel density attains 10 g.cm -3 . Laser-to-X-ray conversion has been investigated. Cryogenic target implosion has been performed by using a tailored laser pulse to produce the flush at the core. Various kinds of new diagnostics are being developed. (author)

  11. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  12. Analysis of the Neutron Generator and Target for the LSDTS System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Je; Lee, Yong Deok; Song, Jae Hoon; Song, Kee Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A preliminary analysis was performed based on the literatures and the patents for the neutron generators and targets for the lead slowing down time spectrometer (LSDTS) system. It was found that local neutron generator did not exhibit enough neutron intensity such as 1E+12 n/s, which is a minimum requirement for the LSDTS system to overcome curium backgrounds. However, a neutron generator implemented with an electron accelerator may provide a higher intensity around 1E+13 n/s and it is required to investigate further including a detail analysis. In addition to the neutron generator, a study on target was performed with the Monte Carlo simulation. In the study, an optimal design of target was suggested to provide a high neutron yield and a better thermal resistance. The suggested target consists several cylindrical plates with a certain cooling gap, which have increasing thickness and increasing radius.

  13. Analysis of the Neutron Generator and Target for the LSDTS System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Je; Lee, Yong Deok; Song, Jae Hoon; Song, Kee Chan

    2008-11-01

    A preliminary analysis was performed based on the literatures and the patents for the neutron generators and targets for the lead slowing down time spectrometer (LSDTS) system. It was found that local neutron generator did not exhibit enough neutron intensity such as 1E+12 n/s, which is a minimum requirement for the LSDTS system to overcome curium backgrounds. However, a neutron generator implemented with an electron accelerator may provide a higher intensity around 1E+13 n/s and it is required to investigate further including a detail analysis. In addition to the neutron generator, a study on target was performed with the Monte Carlo simulation. In the study, an optimal design of target was suggested to provide a high neutron yield and a better thermal resistance. The suggested target consists several cylindrical plates with a certain cooling gap, which have increasing thickness and increasing radius

  14. The Endocannabinoid System as a Target for Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 The Endocannabinoid System as a Target for Treatment of Breast Cancer Dr...REFERENCES: 1 Ahn, K., McKinney, M. K. & Cravatt, B. F. Enzymatic pathways that regulate endocannabinoid signaling in the nervous system. Chem Rev

  15. Coherent digital/optical system for automatic target recognition (Abstract Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, John I.; Ghaffari, Tammy G.

    1991-04-01

    Litton Data Systems has developed a hybrid ATR system using DataCube signal processing and imaging boards controlled by a host Sun workstation. The input image preprocessor includes detection algorithms that locate candidate targets in a simulated or real JR scene and segmentation algorithms that generate target outlines which are normalized for recognition processing by Litton's LIGHTMOD optical correlator. Target detection performs a raster scan over the image using nested boxes to find detection pixels based on intesity/variance contrasts. Segmentation operates on windows centered at the centroids of connected components of detection pixels. Optimal thresholds are determined from gray scale histograms. Multimodal optimization seeks to maximize edge/boundary proximities for candidate target and island components obtained by thresholding with respect to the optimal thresholds. Relaxation smooths the boundaries of optimal target components or merged target/island components. Normalization algorithms scale and center the component boundaries in a 128x128 LIGHT-MOD window. The LIGHT_MOD correlates the FT of the normalized outline with the FTs of a reference library of target outlines. Template matching is the basic technique used for recognition.

  16. A liquid 3He target system for use at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.; Abegg, R.; Murdoch, B.T.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; Postma, H.; Soukup, J.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid 3 He target system, with remote instrumentation and handling capabilities, has been developed for experiments using the 180-525 MeV TRIUMF cyclotron. 3 He gas is liquified, by means of a 4 He cryostat, into a cylindrical target cell (4.4 cm diameter, 1.6 cm thick) and maintained during operation at approx. equal to1.6 K. This provides an areal target density of approx. equal to2.7 x 10 22 3 He nuclei/cm 2 (128 mg/cm 2 ), suitable for intermediate energy proton scattering. (orig.)

  17. The Bacterial Type III Secretion System as a Target for Developing New Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    McShan, Andrew C.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens requires new targets for developing novel antibacterials. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an attractive target for developing antibacterials as it is essential in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS consists of structural proteins, effectors and chaperones. Over 20 different structural proteins assemble into a complex nanoinjector that punctures a hole on the eukaryotic cell membrane to allow the delivery of effectors ...

  18. Very high stability systems: LMJ target alignment system and MTG imager test setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compain, Eric; Maquet, Philippe; Kunc, Thierry; Marque, Julien; Lauer-Solelhac, Maxime; Delage, Laurent; Lanternier, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Most of space instruments and research facilities require test equipment with demanding opto-mechanical stability. In some specific cases, when the stability performance directly drives the final performance of the scientific mission and when feasibility is questionable, specific methods must be implemented for the associated technical risk management. In present paper, we will present our heritage in terms of methodology, design, test and the associated results for two specific systems : the SOPAC-POS and the MOTA, generating new references for future developments. From a performance point of view, we will emphasis on following key parameters : design symmetry, thermal load management, and material and structural choices. From a method point of view the difficulties arise first during design, from the strong coupling between the thermal, mechanical and optical performance models, and then during testing, from the difficulty of conceiving test setup having appropriate performance level. We will present how these limitations have been overcome. SOPAC-POS is the target alignment system of the LMJ, Laser Mega Joule, the French inertial confinement fusion research center. Its stability has been demonstrated by tests in 2014 after 10 years of research and development activities, achieving 1μm stability @ 6m during one hour periods. MOTA is an Optical Ground Support Equipment aiming at qualifying by tests the Flexible Combined Imager (FCI). FCI is an instrument for the meteorological satellite MTG-I, a program of and funded by the European Space Agency and under prime contractorship of Thales Alenia Space. Optimized design will allow to get better than 0.2 μrad stability for one hour periods, as required for MTF measurement.

  19. A colon targeted drug delivery system based on alginate modificated graphene oxide for colorectal liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yayuan; Shen, Qiujuan; Ma, Dong; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao

    2017-10-01

    A major problem associated with colon cancer is liver metastasis. A colon-targeted drug delivery system is one way to address this problem after the resection of colorectal cancer. However, traditional drug delivery systems face many challenges, such as an inability to control the release rate, inaccurate targeting, susceptibility to the microenvironment and poor stability. Here, we report the development of a graphene oxide (GO)-based, sodium alginate (ALG) functionalized colon-targeting drug delivery system, that is loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the anti-cancer drug (denoted as GO-ALG/5-FU). Our results demonstrate that the as-prepared drug delivery system possesses a much lower toxicity and better colon-targeting controlled-release behaviours. We show that GO-ALG/5-FU significantly inhibited tumour growth and liver metastasis and prolonged the survival time of mice. We anticipate that our assay will help improve basic research of colon-targeted drug delivery systems and provide a new way to treat colon cancer liver metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CFD Study of the Active Part of the HYPER LBE Spallation Target System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung-ho; Tak, Nam-il; Lee, Yong-bum; Choi, Jae-Hyuk

    2007-01-01

    In an accelerator driven system (ADS), a high-energy proton beam impinges on a heavy metal target to produce spallation neutrons that are multiplied in a subcritical blanket. Therefore, the spallation target is one of the most important units of an ADS. A beam power of 15-25 MW is required for an operation of the HYPER system. But, the design of a 20 MW spallation target is very challenging because more than 60% of a beam power is deposited as heat in a small volume of a target system. LBE is preferred as the target material due to its high neutron production rate, effective heat removal, low melting point and vapor pressure, low neutron absorption and good radiation damage properties. In addition, it can be used simultaneously as a reactor coolant. Single hemi-spherical beam window is considered for the HYPER target. The beam window is a thin physical barrier to separate the vacuum space from the LBE. It is exposed to high thermal and irradiation loads, which affect its life time. The integrity of the beam window is crucial for a safe operation of the HYPER, for preventing the penetration of the radioactive spallation products into the accelerator island. Therefore, a sufficient cooling capability of the beam window is one of the key issues of the target design. In the previous study, a series of parametric thermal and mechanical studies were made for the optimization of the HYPER target. The optimized target has a 0.2 cm thick beam window with a diameter of 35 cm. Also, a 30 cm wide proton beam with a uniform beam distribution should be adopted for the spallation target of the HYPER. A dual injection tube is adopted to economize the LBE flow in the primary system. This paper presents the numerical studies on the optimized spallation target system. Several advanced turbulence models with different grid structures are investigated by using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX 5.7.1

  1. The renin-angiotensin system: a possible new target for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, João; Pereira, Círia; Chavarria, Victor; Köhler, Cristiano; Stubbs, Brendon; Quevedo, João; Kim, Sung-Wan; Carvalho, André F; Berk, Michael; Fernandes, Brisa S

    2017-08-01

    Depression remains a debilitating condition with an uncertain aetiology. Recently, attention has been given to the renin-angiotensin system. In the central nervous system, angiotensin II may be important in multiple pathways related to neurodevelopment and regulation of the stress response. Studies of drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin system have yielded promising results. Here, we review the potential beneficial effects of angiotensin blockers in depression and their mechanisms of action. Drugs blocking the angiotensin system have efficacy in several animal models of depression. While no randomised clinical trials were found, case reports and observational studies showed that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers had positive effects on depression, whereas other antihypertensive agents did not. Drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin system act on inflammatory pathways implicated in depression. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest that these drugs possess antidepressant properties. In light of these results, angiotensin system-blocking agents offer new horizons in mood disorder treatment.

  2. Avaliação da eficácia clínica de uma nova modalidade de fototerapia utilizando diodos emissores de luz Efficacy of new microprocessed phototherapy system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca M. R. Martins

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia terapêutica de um sistema de fototerapia microprocessada que utiliza diodos emissores de luz (Super LED de alta intensidade no tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia em recém-nascidos prematuros. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico, randomizado e controlado, utilizando a fototerapia Super LED no grupo experimental e duas fototerapias halógenas no grupo controle. A randomização foi realizada em blocos e estratificada por peso de nascimento. A duração da fototerapia e a queda nos níveis séricos de bilirrubina total nas primeiras 24 horas de tratamento foram os principais desfechos analisados. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 88 recém-nascidos, 44 no grupo da fototerapia Super LED e 44 no grupo da fototerapia halógena. As características demográficas da população foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. O nível sérico médio inicial de bilirrubina no grupo do Super LED (10,1±2,4 mg% foi semelhante ao do grupo que recebeu fototerapia halógena (10,9±2,0 mg%. A queda percentual na concentração sérica de bilirrubina total nas primeiras 24 horas de tratamento foi significativamente maior (27,9 versus 10,7%, p OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a microprocessed phototherapy (PT system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia of premature infants. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial using Super LED phototherapy in the study group and twin halogen spotlight phototherapy in the control group. A stratified blocked randomization, based on birth weight, was performed. The duration of phototherapy and the rate of decrease of total serum bilirubin (TSB concentration in the first 24 hours of treatment were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: We studied 88 infants, 44 in the Super LED group and 44 in the halogen spotlight PT group. The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. Infants in the Super LED group had a similar mean initial

  3. Systems and methods for managing shared-path instrumentation and irradiation targets in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinold, Mark R.; Berger, John F.; Loper, Milton H.; Runkle, Gary A.

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods permit discriminate access to nuclear reactors. Systems provide penetration pathways to irradiation target loading and offloading systems, instrumentation systems, and other external systems at desired times, while limiting such access during undesired times. Systems use selection mechanisms that can be strategically positioned for space sharing to connect only desired systems to a reactor. Selection mechanisms include distinct paths, forks, diverters, turntables, and other types of selectors. Management methods with such systems permits use of the nuclear reactor and penetration pathways between different systems and functions, simultaneously and at only distinct desired times. Existing TIP drives and other known instrumentation and plant systems are useable with access management systems and methods, which can be used in any nuclear plant with access restrictions.

  4. Light pipes for LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  5. Targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Kunling; Gao, Caixia

    2014-02-20

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have emerged as powerful tools for genome editing in a variety of species. Here, we report, for the first time, targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system. We designed five TALENs targeting 4 genes, namely ZmPDS, ZmIPK1A, ZmIPK, ZmMRP4, and obtained targeting efficiencies of up to 23.1% in protoplasts, and about 13.3% to 39.1% of the transgenic plants were somatic mutations. Also, we constructed two gRNAs targeting the ZmIPK gene in maize protoplasts, at frequencies of 16.4% and 19.1%, respectively. In addition, the CRISPR/Cas system induced targeted mutations in Z. mays protoplasts with efficiencies (13.1%) similar to those obtained with TALENs (9.1%). Our results show that both TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system can be used for genome modification in maize. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of Practical Lighting Design with LEDs has been revised and updated to provide the most current information for developing light-emitting diodes products. The authors, noted authorities in the field, offer a review of the most relevant topics including optical performance, materials, thermal design, and modeling and measurement. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers all the information needed to design LEDs into end products.

  7. A Bulk Superconducting Magnetic System for the CLAS12 Target at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statera, Marco [INFN, Ferrara, Italy; Contalbrigo, Marco [INFN, Ferrara, Italy; Ciullo, Giuseppe [Universite di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Lenisa, Paulo [INFN, Ferrara, Italy; Lowry, Michael M. [JLAB; Sandorfi, Andrew M. [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    A feasibility study of a bulk magnetic system for the target of an experiment to measure the transverse spin effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) at 11 GeV with a transversely polarized target using the CLAS12 detector is presented. An experiment has been approved with the highest priority rating to study spin azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS using 11-GeV polarized electron beams from the upgraded CEBAF facility and the CLAS12 detector equipped with a transversely polarized target. The transverse target in CLAS12 requires the shielding of a volume inside the longitudinal field of the main solenoid. In the shielded region, a transverse target magnet can operate; for the proposed magnetic configuration, the main solenoid maximum magnetic induction is 2 T. A bulk MgB2 cylinder cooled in liquid helium is proposed both to shield the longitudinal field of the main solenoid and to provide a transverse field induction up to 1.2 T for the hydrogen deuteride ice (HD-ice) target. The installation and magnetization procedure will be described. The magnetization procedure has to be compatible with the polarization and installation procedure of the HD-ice target. The design of a test bench to measure the transverse magnetization of a MgB2 bulk cylinder cooled by a coldhead is presented together with the scheduled measurements.

  8. EGFR-targeted gelatin nanoparticles for systemic administration of gemcitabine in an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Xu, Jing; Mattheolabakis, George; Amiji, Mansoor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have formulated redox-responsive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted type B gelatin nanoparticles as a targeted vector for systemic delivery of gemcitabine therapy in pancreatic cancer. The gelatin nanoparticles were formed by ethanol-induced desolvation process to encapsulate the bound drug. The surface of the nanoparticles was decorated either with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to impart enhanced circulation time or with EGFR targeting peptide to confer target specificity. Our in vitro studies in Panc-1 human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells confirm that gemcitabine encapsulated in EGFR-targeted gelatin nanoparticles, released through disulfide bond cleavage, had a significantly improved cytotoxic profile. Further, the in vivo anticancer activity was evaluated in an orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor bearing SCID beige mice, which confirmed that EGFR-targeted gelatin nanoparticles could efficiently deliver gemcitabine to the tumor leading to higher therapeutic benefit as compared to the drug in solution. The treatment of pancreatic cancer remains unsatisfactory, with an average 5-year survival of less than 5%. New treatment modalities are thus urgently needed. In this study, the authors presented their formulation of redox-responsive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted type B gelatin nanoparticles as a carrier for gemcitabine. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments showed encouraging results. It is hoped that the findings would provide a novel and alternative drug delivery platform for the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance Measurement and Target-Setting in California's Safety Net Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Shirin; Schillinger, Dean; Lyles, Courtney; Ackerman, Sara; Gourley, Gato; Vittinghoff, Eric; Handley, Margaret; Sarkar, Urmimala

    Health policies encourage implementing quality measurement with performance targets. The 2010-2015 California Medicaid waiver mandated quality measurement and reporting. In 2013, California safety net hospitals participating in the waiver set a voluntary performance target (the 90th percentile for Medicare preferred provider organization plans) for mammography screening and cholesterol control in diabetes. They did not reach the target, and the difference-in-differences analysis suggested that there was no difference for mammography ( P = .39) and low-density lipoprotein control ( P = .11) performance compared to measures for which no statewide quality improvement initiative existed. California's Medicaid waiver was associated with improved performance on a number of metrics, but this performance was not attributable to target setting on specific health conditions. Performance may have improved because of secular trends or systems improvements related to waiver funding. Relying on condition-specific targets to measure performance may underestimate improvements and disadvantage certain health systems. Achieving ambitious targets likely requires sustained fiscal, management, and workforce investments.

  10. Photobiocatalytic alcohol oxidation using LED light sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, M.C.R.; Schmidt, S.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; oppelt, K.; Kara, S; Hollmann, F.

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of NADH using a flavin photocatalyst and a simple blue LED light source is reported. This in situ NAD+ regeneration system can be used to promote biocatalytic, enantioselective oxidation reactions. Compared to the traditional use of white light bulbs this method enables

  11. Comparative analysis of high pressure sodium vapor lamps and mercury vapor lamp with the solid state (LED) in the public lighting systems; Analise comparativa das lampadas de vapor de sodio a alta pressao e de vapor de mercurio com a lampada a estado solido (LED) em sistemas de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damato, J.C.; Bueno, J.E.; Astorga, O.A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LESIP/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Eficiencia Energetica em Sistemas de Iluminacao Publica; Ricciulli, D.L.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2009-07-01

    The necessity of energy conservation in Brazilian electric sector, with the intention to diminish the resources of generation investments, has going to use of electric energy conservation programs, being most important PROCEL - a national program of electric conservation energy by ELETROBRAS, and inside this, a national program for public illumination and efficient traffic signaling - named 'Reluz'. This program looks for a more efficient implantation of public lighting systems, that requires the use of lamp technologies that present a greater value in a relation between lumen/watt relation and then beyond providing economy, due to low consumption of electric energy. Besides technologies that are appearing, the inclusion of LED lamps, which offers a great application potential, comes blunting as improvement alternative, being that the next public illumination parks will be able count on these lamps associates to the high-pressure sodium lamps and other types currently used. (author)

  12. Peptide-Mediated Liposomal Drug Delivery System Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels in Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chung Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors are known to recruit new blood vessels to support their growth. Therefore, unique molecules expressed on tumor endothelial cells can function as targets for the antiangiogenic therapy of cancer. Current efforts are focusing on developing therapeutic agents capable of specifically targeting cancer cells and tumor-associated microenvironments including tumor blood vessels. These therapies hold the promise of high efficacy and low toxicity. One recognized strategy for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional chemotherapeutics is to encapsulate anticancer drugs into targeting liposomes that bind to the cell surface receptors expressed on tumor-associated endothelial cells. These anti-angiogenic drug delivery systems could be used to target both tumor blood vessels as well as the tumor cells, themselves. This article reviews the mechanisms and advantages of various present and potential methods using peptide-conjugated liposomes to specifically destroy tumor blood vessels in anticancer therapy.

  13. Therapeutic Innovations for Targeting Childhood Neuroblastoma: Implications of the Neurokinin-1 Receptor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; VON Schweinitz, Dietrich

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial malignant tumor in children. Despite recent advances in the treatment of this heterogenous tumor with surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis in advanced stages remains poor. Interestingly, neuroblastoma is one of the few solid tumors, to date, in which an effect for targeted immunotherapy has been proven in controlled clinical trials, giving hope for further advances in the treatment of this and other tumors by targeted therapy. A large array of novel therapeutic options for targeted therapy of neuroblastoma is on the horizon. To this repεrtoirε, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) system was recently added. The present article explores the most recent developments in targeting neuroblastoma cells via the NK1R and how this new knowledge could be helpful to create new anticancer therapies agains neuroblastoma and other cancers. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Formulation, Development, and In Vitro Evaluation of a CD22 Targeted Liposomal System Containing a Non-Cardiotoxic Anthracycline for B Cell Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivesh K. Mittal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity has led to the development of superior chemotherapeutic agents such as AD 198. However, depletion of healthy neutrophils and thrombocytes from AD 198 therapy must be limited. This can be done by the development of a targeted drug delivery system that delivers AD 198 to the malignant cells. The current research highlights the development and in vitro analysis of targeted liposomes containing AD 198. The best lipids were identified and optimized for physicochemical effects on the liposomal system. Physiochemical characteristics such as size, ζ-potential, and dissolution were also studied. Active targeting to CD22 positive cells was achieved by conjugating anti-CD22 Fab’ to the liposomal surface. Size and ζ-potential of the liposomes was between 115 and 145 nm, and −8 to−15 mV. 30% drug was released over 72 h. Higher cytotoxicity was observed in CD22+ve Daudi cells compared to CD22−ve Jurkat cells. The route of uptake was a clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway. Intracellular localization of the liposomes was in the endolysosomes. Upon drug release, apoptotic pathways were activated partly by the regulation of apoptotic and oncoproteins such as caspase-3 and c-myc. It was observed that the CD22 targeted drug delivery system was more potent and specific compared to other untargeted formulations.

  15. Mid-infrared imaging system based on polarizers for detecting marine targets covered in sun glint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Ji, Zheng; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Xiaofeng; Song, Pengfei; Li, Yansong

    2016-07-25

    When a marine target is detected by a mid-infrared detector on a sunny day, the target's information could be lost if it is located in sun glint. Therefore, we developed a new mid-infrared imaging system capable of effectively detecting marine targets in regions of strong sun glint, which is presented in this report. Firstly, the theory of the analysis methods employed in different detection scenarios is briefly described to establish whether one or two polarizers should be utilized to suppress further the p-polarized component of sun glint. Secondly, for the case in which a second polarizer is employed, the formula for the optimum angle between the two polarizers is given. Then, the results of our field experiment are presented, demonstrating that the developed system can significantly reduce sun glint and can enhance the contrast of target images. A commonly used image processing algorithm proved capable of identifying a target in sun glint, confirming the effectiveness of our proposed mid-infrared polarization imaging system.

  16. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  17. The mammalian tachykinin ligand-receptor system: an emerging target for central neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Nick; Chadwick, Wayne; Park, Sung-Soo; Wang, Liyun; Zhou, Yu; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2010-11-01

    Our understanding of the complex signaling neurophysiology of the central nervous system has facilitated the exploration of potential novel receptor-ligand system targets for disorders of this most complex organ. In recent years, many relatively neglected receptor-ligand systems have been re-evaluated with respect to their ability to potently modulate discrete tracts in the central nervous system. One such system is the tachykinin (previously neurokinin) system. The multiple heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors and neuropeptide ligands that comprise this system may be significantly involved in more central nervous systems actions than previously thought, including sleep disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Machado-Joseph disease. The development of our understanding of the role of the tachykinin receptor-ligand system in higher order central functions is likely to allow the creation of more specific and selective tachykinin-related neurotherapeutics.

  18. IMPaCT Back study protocol. Implementation of subgrouping for targeted treatment systems for low back pain patients in primary care: a prospective population-based sequential comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Nadine E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic assessment tools to identify subgroups of patients at risk of persistent low back pain who may benefit from targeted treatments have been developed and validated in primary care. The IMPaCT Back study is investigating the effects of introducing and supporting a subgrouping for targeted treatment system in primary care. Methods/Design A prospective, population-based, quality improvement study in one Primary Care Trust in England with a before and after design. Phases 1 and 3 collect data on current practice, attitudes and behaviour of health care practitioners, patients' outcomes and health care costs. Phase 2 introduces and supports the subgrouping for targeted treatment system, via a multi-component, quality improvement intervention that includes educational courses and outreach visits led by opinion leaders, audit/feedback, mentoring and organisational support to embed the subgrouping tools within IT and clinical management systems. We aim to recruit 1000 low back pain patients aged 18 years and over consulting 7 GP practices within one Primary Care Trust in England, UK. The study includes GPs in participating practices and physiotherapists in associated services. The primary objective is to determine the effect of the subgrouping for targeted treatment system on back pain related disability and catastrophising at 2 and 6 months, comparing data from phase 1 with phase 3. Key secondary objectives are to determine the impact on: a GPs' and physiotherapists' attitudes and behaviour regarding low back pain; b The process of care that patients receive; c The cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the new clinical system. Discussion This paper details the rationale, design, methods, planned analysis and operational aspects of the IMPaCT Back study. We aim to determine whether the new subgrouping for targeted treatment system is implemented and sustained in primary care, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision

  19. Installation alignment of a multi-beam ICF target illumination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.; Stahl, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Target illumination systems for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments require precise alignment of a multitude of mirrors, usually spherically arranged around the ICF target. The mechanical support structure for these mirrors generally consists of a large space frame with many voids. This makes direct alignment or boresighting impossible, since alignment instruments and references cannot be placed at the coordinate centers representing the mirror arrays or focal points. Nevertheless, the structural members must be accurately aligned during the assembly phase, to provide the focusing precision required by the completed illumination system. This paper describes the techniques used to assemble and align the Antares Laser space frame where a total of 48 mirrors fold and focus 24 laser beams onto the ICF target, within a 7.3 meter space frame. The alignment procedures described use optical tooling and test techniques supplemented by surveying instruments and auxiliary devices, as required by the unique geometry of the space frame

  20. Systems biology-embedded target validation: improving efficacy in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Drieke; Minke, Benedikt A; Fitzmaurice, William; Kholodenko, Boris N; Kolch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is faced with a range of challenges with the ever-escalating costs of drug development and a drying out of drug pipelines. By harnessing advances in -omics technologies and moving away from the standard, reductionist model of drug discovery, there is significant potential to reduce costs and improve efficacy. Embedding systems biology approaches in drug discovery, which seek to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of potential drug targets in a network context, will reduce attrition rates by earlier target validation and the introduction of novel targets into the currently stagnant market. Systems biology approaches also have the potential to assist in the design of multidrug treatments and repositioning of existing drugs, while stratifying patients to give a greater personalization of medical treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development and Implementation of New Control Law for Vision Based Target Tracking System Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chong, Tay B

    2006-01-01

    ...) system onboard a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV). The new control law allows for coordinated SUAV guidance and vision-based target tracking of stationary and moving targets in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and measurements noise...

  2. Modelling the impacts of challenging 2050 European climate mitigation targets on Ireland’s energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Rogan, Fionn; Deane, J.P.; Lavigne, Denis; Rout, Ullash K.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    The Copenhagen Accord established political consensus on the 2 °C limit (in global temperature increase) and for deep cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels to achieve this goal. The European Union has set ambitious GHG targets for the year 2050 (80–95% below 1990 levels), with each Member State developing strategies to contribute to these targets. This paper focuses on mitigation targets for one Member State, Ireland, an interesting case study due to the growth in GHG emissions (24% increase between 1990 and 2005) and the high share of emissions from agriculture (30% of total GHG emissions). We use the Irish TIMES energy systems modelling tool to build a number of scenarios delivering an 80% emissions reduction target by 2050, including accounting for the limited options for agriculture GHG abatement by increasing the emissions reduction target for the energy system. We then compare the scenario results in terms of changes in energy technology, the role of energy efficiency and renewable energy. We also quantify the economic impacts of the mitigation scenarios in terms of marginal CO 2 abatement costs and energy system costs. The paper also sheds light on the impacts of short term targets and policies on long term mitigation pathways. - Highlights: ► We developed a techno-economic energy model of Ireland to the year 2050. ► Reductions between 80% and 95% of GHG emissions can be technically achieved. ► A 50% emissions cut in agriculture requires a 95% reductions from the energy system. ► Extending current policies implies greater electrification and efficiency measures. ► The additional cost to achieve mitigation remain less than 2% of GDP levels in 2050.

  3. Design of a control system for HIRFL-CSRe internal target facility in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyu; Liu Wufeng; Shao Caojie; Lin Feiyu; Zhang Jianchuan; Xiao Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    It is described in this paper the design of the control system for HIRFL-CSRe internal target facility, in which there are many different kinds of units need to be monitored and controlled. The control system is composed of several subsystems which are designed to control the gas-jet temperature, chamber vacuum, valves and molecular pumps. A human-computer interaction interface is also realized to do the data acquisition, data processing and display. The whole system has been working stably and safely, it fully meets the requirements of physical experiments in the internal target facility. In January of 2010, the first physics experiment of the radioactive electron capture was finished successfully with the aids of this control system. (authors)

  4. Discovery of gliotoxin as a new small molecule targeting thioredoxin redox system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Shim; Shim, Joong Sup; Kim, Ju-A; Kang, Sang Won; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2007-01-01

    Thioredoxin redox system has been implicated as an intracellular anti-oxidant defense system leading to reduction of cellular oxidative stresses utilizing electrons from NADPH. From high content screening of small molecules targeting the system, gliotoxin, a fungal metabolite, was identified as an active compound. Gliotoxin potently accelerates NADPH oxidation and reduces H 2 O 2 . The compound reduces H 2 O 2 to H 2 O by replacing the function of peroxiredoxin in vitro and decreases intracellular level of H 2 O 2 in HeLa cells. The anti-oxidant activity of gliotoxin was further validated H 2 O 2 -mediated cellular phenotype of angiogenesis. The proliferation of endothelial cells was inhibited by the compound at nanomolar range. In addition, H 2 O 2 -induced tube formation and invasion of the cells were blocked by gliotoxin. Together, these results demonstrate that gliotoxin is a new small molecule targeting thioredoxin redox system

  5. Flood risk and economically optimal safety targets for coastal flood defense systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuits, E.J.C.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    A front defense can improve the reliability of a rear defense in a coastal flood defense system. The influence of this interdependency on the accompanying economically optimal safety targets of both front and rear defense is investigated. The results preliminary suggest that the optimal safety level

  6. Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Roemer, Margaretha G. M.; Stewart, Chip; Tan, Yuxiang; Abo, Ryan P.; Zhang, Liye; Dunford, Andrew J.; Meredith, David M.; Thorner, Aaron R.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Liu, Gang; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Ducar, Matthew D.; Illerhaus, Gerald; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Linden, Erica A.; Sun, Heather H.; Homer, Heather; Aono, Miyuki; Pinkus, Geraldine S.; Ligon, Azra H.; Ligon, Keith L.; Ferry, Judith A.; Freeman, Gordon J.; van Hummelen, Paul; Golub, Todd R.; Getz, Gad; Rodig, Scott J.; de Jong, Daphne; Monti, Stefano; Shipp, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary testicular lymphomas (PTLs) are extranodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with inferior responses to current empiric treatment regimens. To identify targetable genetic features of PCNSL and PTL, we characterized their recurrent somatic

  7. Using affordable LED arrays for photo-stimulation of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Matthew; Wagner, Sebastian; Gallarda, Benjamin W; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2011-11-15

    Standard slice electrophysiology has allowed researchers to probe individual components of neural circuitry by recording electrical responses of single cells in response to electrical or pharmacological manipulations(1,2). With the invention of methods to optically control genetically targeted neurons (optogenetics), researchers now have an unprecedented level of control over specific groups of neurons in the standard slice preparation. In particular, photosensitive channel rhodopsin-2 (ChR2) allows researchers to activate neurons with light(3,4). By combining careful calibration of LED-based photostimulation of ChR2 with standard slice electrophysiology, we are able to probe with greater detail the role of adult-born interneurons in the olfactory bulb, the first central relay of the olfactory system. Using viral expression of ChR2-YFP specifically in adult-born neurons, we can selectively control young adult-born neurons in a milieu of older and mature neurons. Our optical control uses a simple and inexpensive LED system, and we show how this system can be calibrated to understand how much light is needed to evoke spiking activity in single neurons. Hence, brief flashes of blue light can remotely control the firing pattern of ChR2-transduced newborn cells.

  8. Targeting endogenous proteins for degradation through the affinity-directed protein missile system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Luke J; Hutchinson, Luke D; Macartney, Thomas J; Turnbull, Craig; Sapkota, Gopal P

    2017-05-01

    Targeted proteolysis of endogenous proteins is desirable as a research toolkit and in therapeutics. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts are irreversible and often not feasible for many genes. Similarly, RNA interference approaches necessitate prolonged treatments, can lead to incomplete knockdowns and are often associated with off-target effects. Targeted proteolysis can overcome these limitations. In this report, we describe an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system that harbours the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein, the substrate receptor of the Cullin2 (CUL2) E3 ligase complex, tethered to polypeptide binders that selectively bind and recruit endogenous target proteins to the CUL2-E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. By using synthetic monobodies that selectively bind the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and a camelid-derived VHH nanobody that selectively binds the human ASC protein, we demonstrate highly efficient AdPROM-mediated degradation of endogenous SHP2 and ASC in human cell lines. We show that AdPROM-mediated loss of SHP2 in cells impacts SHP2 biology. This study demonstrates for the first time that small polypeptide binders that selectively recognize endogenous target proteins can be exploited for AdPROM-mediated destruction of the target proteins. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Moral Issues in Intelligence-led Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic...... priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: •How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? •What kind of challenges...... and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work....

  10. A PCA3 gene-based transcriptional amplification system targeting primary prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Neveu, Bertrand; Jain, Pallavi; T?tu, Bernard; Wu, Lily; Fradet, Yves; Pouliot, Fr?d?ric

    2015-01-01

    Targeting specifically primary prostate cancer (PCa) cells for immune therapy, gene therapy or molecular imaging is of high importance. The PCA3 long non-coding RNA is a unique PCa biomarker and oncogene that has been widely studied. This gene has been mainly exploited as an accurate diagnostic urine biomarker for PCa detection. In this study, the PCA3 promoter was introduced into a new transcriptional amplification system named the 3-Step Transcriptional Amplification System (PCA3-3STA) and ...

  11. A time-of-flight system for the external target facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueheng; Yu Yuhong; Sun Zhiyu; Mao Ruishi; Wang Shitao; Zhou Yong; Yan Duo; Liu Longxiang

    2013-01-01

    A time-of-flight system with a plastic scintillator coupled to photomultipliers is developed for the external target facility (ETF). This system can satisfy the requirement of an ultrahigh vacuum (∼10 -9 mbar), a high counting rate (∼10 6 particles per second) and a magnetic field environment. In the beam test experiment, a total time resolution of 580 ps FWHM was obtained for the whole system, and nuclei with a mass of up to 80 could be identified using this system. (authors)

  12. Enhancing Targeted Genomic DNA Editing in Chicken Cells Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Yang, Likai; Guo, Yijie; Du, Weili; Yin, Yajun; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Hongzhao

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has enabled highly efficient genome targeted editing for various organisms. However, few studies have focused on CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated chicken genome editing compared with mammalian genomes. The current study combined CRISPR with yeast Rad52 (yRad52) to enhance targeted genomic DNA editing in chicken DF-1 cells. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-induced targeted mutations in the chicken genome was increased to 41.9% via the enrichment of the dual-reporter surrogate system. In addition, the combined effect of CRISPR nuclease and yRad52 dramatically increased the efficiency of the targeted substitution in the myostatin gene using 50-mer oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODN) as the donor DNA, resulting in a 36.7% editing efficiency after puromycin selection. Furthermore, based on the effect of yRad52, the frequency of exogenous gene integration in the chicken genome was more than 3-fold higher than that without yRad52. Collectively, these results suggest that ssODN is an ideal donor DNA for targeted substitution and that CRISPR/Cas9 combined with yRad52 significantly enhances chicken genome editing. These findings could be extensively applied in other organisms. PMID:28068387

  13. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for targeting photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yun; Chen Zhilong; Yang Xiaoxia; Huang Peng; Zhou Xinping; Du Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an increasingly recognized alternative to cancer treatment in clinic. However, PDT therapy agents, namely photosensitizer (PS), are limited in application as a result of prolonged cutaneous photosensitivity, poor water solubility and inadequate selectivity, which are encountered by numerous chemical therapies. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles provide excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and water solubility without compromising their magnetic targeting. Nevertheless, no previous attempt has been reported to develop an in vivo magnetic drug delivery system with chitosan nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitored targeting photodynamic therapy. In this study, magnetic targeting chitosan nanoparticles (MTCNPs) were prepared and tailored as a drug delivery system and imaging agents for PS, designated as PHPP. Results showed that PHPP-MTCNPs could be used in MRI monitored targeting PDT with excellent targeting and imaging ability. Non-toxicity and high photodynamic efficacy on SW480 carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo were achieved with this method at the level of 0-100 μM. Notably, localization of nanoparticles in skin and hepatic tissue was significantly less than in tumor tissue, therefore photosensitivity and hepatotoxicity can be attenuated.

  14. Drugs and drug delivery systems targeting amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Robinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with no cure and limited treatment solutions that are unable to target any of the suspected causes. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the causes of neurodegeneration is the overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ and the inability of Aβ peptides to be cleared from the brain, resulting in self-aggregation to form toxic oligomers, fibrils and plaques. One of the potential treatment options is to target Aβ and prevent self-aggregation to allow for a natural clearing of the brain. In this paper, we review the drugs and drug delivery systems that target Aβ in relation to Alzheimer's disease. Many attempts have been made to use anti-Aβ targeting molecules capable of targeting Aβ (with much success in vitro and in vivo animal models, but the major obstacle to this technique is the challenge posed by the blood brain barrier (BBB. This highly selective barrier protects the brain from toxic molecules and pathogens and prevents the delivery of most drugs. Therefore novel Aβ aggregation inhibitor drugs will require well thought-out drug delivery systems to deliver sufficient concentrations to the brain.

  15. Semiconductor lasers and herterojunction leds

    CERN Document Server

    Kressel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also consider

  16. Extracting light out of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Julius; Wiesmann, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    `External quantum efficiency', that is, the number of photons generated per electron passing through the p-n junction of an LED is probably the most important number to quantify the performance of an LED chip. Although advances in epitaxy have increased the fraction of radiative recombination to extremely high values, the extraction of the precious photons that are trapped in a high refractive index crystal is still tricky. In this brief tutorial, we look at the physics of light extraction both from a geometrical optics/thermodynamic and a wave optics point of view, discussing both random and deterministic surface structures.

  17. An intelligent re-shieldable targeting system for enhanced tumor accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenpeng; Ma, Jinlong; Fu, Fei; Cui, Chen; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Wei; Wan, Yeda; Yuan, Zhi

    2017-12-28

    Programmed ligand targeting strategy promotes the blood circulation stability of nanoparticles by shielding the ligand. However, the irreversible shielding causes the deshielded nanoparticles to be easily recognized and cleared by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), impeding their further retention in the tumor. Here, we for the first time prove the superiority of the intelligent re-shieldable targeting system that is based on the pH-responsive self-assembly/disassembly of gold nanoparticles. The system can enhance the stability of gold nanoparticles in the blood circulation (2.6-fold at 24h), reduce uptake by the RES (35% lower) and improve tumor accumulation (41% higher by analysis of gold content in tumor) effectively compared with the conventional irreversible system. Furthermore, preliminary study indicates that the system could be applied as computed tomography contrast agent in tumor imaging. The in vivo validity of the intelligent re-shieldable targeting system provides inspiration for the design of nanomaterials for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Crosstalk between bone niche and immune system: osteoimmunology signaling as a potential target for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Viale, Giulia; Gelao, Lucia; Esposito, Angela; De Laurentiis, Michele; De Placido, Sabino; Santangelo, Michele; Goldhirsch, Aron; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    There is a well recognized link between the bone and the immune system and in recent years there has been a major effort to elucidate the multiple functions of the molecules expressed in both bone and immune cells. Several molecules that were initially identified and studied in the immune system have been shown to have essential functions also in the bone. An interdisciplinary field embracing immune and bone biology has been brought together and called "osteoimmunology". The co-regulation of the skeletal and immune systems strikingly exemplifies the extreme complexity of such an interaction. Their interdependency must be considered in designing therapeutic approaches for either of the two systems. In other words, it is necessary to think of the osteoimmune system as a complex physiological unit. Denosumab was originally introduced to specifically target bone resorption, but it is now under evaluation for its effect on the long term immune response. Similarly, our current and still growing knowledge of the intimate link between the immune system and bone will be beneficial for the safety of drugs targeting either of these integrated systems. Given the large number of molecules exerting functions on both the skeletal and immune systems, osteoimmunological understanding is becoming increasingly important. Both bone and immune systems are frequently disrupted in cancer; and they may be crucial in regulating tumor growth and progression. Some therapies - such as bisphosphonates and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) targeted drugs - that aim at reducing pathologic osteolysis in cancer may interact with the immune system, thus providing potential favorable effects on survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient and Heritable Targeted Mutagenesis in Mosses Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Toshihisa; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    Targeted genome modification by RNA-guided nucleases derived from the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has seen rapid development in many organisms, including several plant species. In the present study, we succeeded in introducing the CRISPR/Cas9 system into the non-model organism Scopelophila cataractae, a moss that exhibits heavy metal tolerance, and the model organism Physcomitrella patens Utilizing the process by which moss plants regenerate from protoplasts, we conducted targeted mutagenesis by expression of single-chain guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 in protoplasts. Using this method, the acquisition rate of strains exhibiting phenotypic changes associated with the target genes was approximately 45-69%, and strains with phenotypic changes exhibited various insertion and deletion mutations. In addition, we report that our method is capable of multiplex targeted mutagenesis (two independent genes) and also permits the efficient introduction of large deletions (∼3 kbp). These results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to accelerate investigations of bryology and land plant evolution. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Targeted HIV-1 Latency Reversal Using CRISPR/Cas9-Derived Transcriptional Activator Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K Bialek

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 technology is currently considered the most advanced tool for targeted genome engineering. Its sequence-dependent specificity has been explored for locus-directed transcriptional modulation. Such modulation, in particular transcriptional activation, has been proposed as key approach to overcome silencing of dormant HIV provirus in latently infected cellular reservoirs. Currently available agents for provirus activation, so-called latency reversing agents (LRAs, act indirectly through cellular pathways to induce viral transcription. However, their clinical performance remains suboptimal, possibly because reservoirs have diverse cellular identities and/or proviral DNA is intractable to the induced pathways. We have explored two CRISPR/Cas9-derived activator systems as targeted approaches to induce dormant HIV-1 proviral DNA. These systems recruit multiple transcriptional activation domains to the HIV 5' long terminal repeat (LTR, for which we have identified an optimal target region within the LTR U3 sequence. Using this target region, we demonstrate transcriptional activation of proviral genomes via the synergistic activation mediator complex in various in culture model systems for HIV latency. Observed levels of induction are comparable or indeed higher than treatment with established LRAs. Importantly, activation is complete, leading to production of infective viral particles. Our data demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-derived technologies can be applied to counteract HIV latency and may therefore represent promising novel approaches in the quest for HIV elimination.

  1. Ovarian cancer and the immune system - The role of targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Taylor B; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Straughn, J Michael; Randall, Troy D; Arend, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    The majority of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer are diagnosed with advanced disease. While many of these patients will respond initially to chemotherapy, the majority will relapse and die of their disease. Targeted therapies that block or activate specific intracellular signaling pathways have been disappointing. In the past 15years, the role of the immune system in ovarian cancer has been investigated. Patients with a more robust immune response, as documented by the presence of lymphocytes infiltrating within their tumor, have increased survival and better response to chemotherapy. In addition, a strong immunosuppressive environment often accompanies ovarian cancer. Recent research has identified potential therapies that leverage the immune system to identify and destroy tumor cells that previously evaded immunosurveillance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the role of the immune system in ovarian cancer and focus on specific pathways and molecules that show a potential for targeted therapy. We also review the ongoing clinical trials using targeted immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. The role of targeted immunotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer represents a field of growing research and clinical importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  3. UV-LED photopolymerised monoliths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Nie, F.; Foret, František; Paull, B.; Macka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 7 (2008), s. 864-866 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * UV-LED * polymethacrylate monolith Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  4. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Colon-targeted oral drug delivery systems: design trends and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Seth; Brown, Jack E; Dave, Vivek S

    2015-08-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are desirable for the treatment of a range of local diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and colonic cancer. In addition, the colon can be a potential site for the systemic absorption of several drugs to treat non-colonic conditions. Drugs such as proteins and peptides that are known to degrade in the extreme gastric pH, if delivered to the colon intact, can be systemically absorbed by colonic mucosa. In order to achieve effective therapeutic outcomes, it is imperative that the designed delivery system specifically targets the drugs into the colon. Several formulation approaches have been explored in the development colon-targeted drug delivery systems. These approaches involve the use of formulation components that interact with one or more aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, such as the difference in the pH along the GI tract, the presence of colonic microflora, and enzymes, to achieve colon targeting. This article highlights the factors influencing colon-specific drug delivery and colonic bioavailability, and the limitations associated with CDDS. Further, the review provides a systematic discussion of various conventional, as well as relatively newer formulation approaches/technologies currently being utilized for the development of CDDS.

  6. A distributed automatic target recognition system using multiple low resolution sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system which uses swarming techniques to perform high accuracy Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in a distributed manner. The proposed system can co-operatively share the information from low-resolution images of different looks and use this information to perform high accuracy ATR. An advanced, multiple-agent Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems-based approach is proposed which integrates the processing capabilities, combines detection reporting with live video exchange, and swarm behavior modalities that dramatically surpass individual sensor system performance levels. We employ real-time block-based motion analysis and compensation scheme for efficient estimation and correction of camera jitter, global motion of the camera/scene and the effects of atmospheric turbulence. Our optimized Partition Weighted Sum (PWS) approach requires only bitshifts and additions, yet achieves a stunning 16X pixel resolution enhancement, which is moreover parallizable. We develop advanced, adaptive particle-filtering based algorithms to robustly track multiple mobile targets by adaptively changing the appearance model of the selected targets. The collaborative ATR system utilizes the homographies between the sensors induced by the ground plane to overlap the local observation with the received images from other UAVs. The motion of the UAVs distorts estimated homography frame to frame. A robust dynamic homography estimation algorithm is proposed to address this, by using the homography decomposition and the ground plane surface estimation.

  7. Quality Assurance of Ultrasound Imaging Systems for Target Localization and Online Setup Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Orton, Nigel P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe quality assurance paradigms for ultrasound imaging systems for target localization (UISTL). To determine the absolute localization accuracy of a UISTL, an absolute coordinate system can be established in the treatment room and spherical targets at various depths can be localized. To test the ability of such a system to determine the magnitude of internal organ motion, a phantom that mimics the human male pelvic anatomy can be used to simulate different organ motion ranges. To assess the interuser variability of ultrasound (US) guidance, different experienced users can independently determine the daily organ shifts for the same patients for a number of consecutive fractions. The average accuracy for a UISTL for the localization of spherical targets at various depths has been found to be 0.57 ± 0.47 mm in each spatial dimension for various focal depths. For the phantom organ motion test it was found that the true organ motion could be determined to within 1.0 mm along each axis. The variability between different experienced users who localized the same 5 patients for five consecutive fractions was small in comparison to the indicated shifts. In addition to the quality assurance tests that address the ability of a UISTL to accurately localize a target, a thorough quality assurance program should also incorporate the following two aspects to ensure consistent and accurate localization in daily clinical use: (1) adequate training and performance monitoring of users of the US target localization system, and (2) prescreening of patients who may not be good candidates for US localization

  8. Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Systems Discriminate Target from Non-Target DNA through Base Pairing-Independent PAM Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, Kirill A.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat), into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences) located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism. PMID:24039596

  9. The effect of mold materials on the overlay accuracy of a roll-to-roll imprinting system using UV LED illumination within a transparent mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Kook, YunHo; Kim, ChulHo; Yoo, SoonSung; Park, Kwon-Shik; Kim, Seok-min; Kang, Shinill

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies on the roll-to-roll (R2R) imprinting process have reported achieving flexible electronics, improving the alignment accuracy in the overlay process of R2R imprinting is recognized as the biggest problem for the commercialization of this technology. For an overlay technique with high alignment accuracy, it is essential to develop a roll mold with high positional accuracy. In this study, a method for fabricating a roll mold with high positional accuracy is proposed by wrapping a thin glass substrate flexible mold around the transparent roll base, because it can provide higher mechanical strength and thermal stability than a conventional polymer substrate. To confirm the usability of the proposed process, the prepared roll mold was used to fabricate a test pattern of thin-film transistor backplane for a rollable display. The positional and overlay accuracy of the roll mold with the proposed thin glass substrate flexible mold were compared with the roll mold with a conventional polymer substrate flexible mold. Large-area transparent flexible molds with a size of 470  ×  370 mm were fabricated by an ultraviolet (UV) imprinting process on thin glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, and these flexible molds were wrapped around a roll base of 125 mm radius through a precision alignment process. After an anti-adhesion treatment and the wrapping process, the roll mold with the polymer substrate showed a ∼180 μ m positional error, whereas the thin glass substrate showed a ∼30 μ m positional error. After the overlay process using the R2R imprinting system with the alignment system, an average overlay error of ∼3 μ m was obtained when the thin glass flexible wrapped roll mold was used, whereas a ∼22 μ m overlay error was obtained when the polymer substrate flexible wrapped roll mold was used. (paper)

  10. Safety concept for spallation target system. JAERI/KEK joint project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Kaminaga, M.; Haga, K.; Kinoshita, H.; Hino, R.

    2001-01-01

    A MW-class mercury target of the spallation target generates much larger amounts of radioactive nuclides than existing spallation neutron sources. To estimate the maximum level of public exposure under the guillotine break of mercury pipelines that is one of the major accidents of the target system, the hazard analyses were carried out by using a transportation model which considers heat transmission of mercury decay heat, diffusion of evaporated radioactive nuclides, etc. In the analyses, mercury, iodine, bromine and noble gas were selected as the effective source term because of their high vapor pressures and activation levels. From the preliminary analytical results obtained under the conservative conditions of 2 m/s of the air velocity around the mercury leakage area, the maximum level of the public exposure was approximately 5.8 x 10 -3 mSv. This level is negligible in comparison with 1 mSV one-year natural radiation exposure. (author)

  11. Adaptive target binarization method based on a dual-camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Xu, Jiangtao; Gao, Zhiyuan; Gao, Jing

    2018-01-01

    An adaptive target binarization method based on a dual-camera system that contains two dynamic vision sensors was proposed. First, a preprocessing procedure of denoising is introduced to remove the noise events generated by the sensors. Then, the complete edge of the target is retrieved and represented by events based on an event mosaicking method. Third, the region of the target is confirmed by an event-to-event method. Finally, a postprocessing procedure of image open and close operations of morphology methods is adopted to remove the artifacts caused by event-to-event mismatching. The proposed binarization method has been extensively tested on numerous degraded images with nonuniform illumination, low contrast, noise, or light spots and successfully compared with other well-known binarization methods. The experimental results, which are based on visual and misclassification error criteria, show that the proposed method performs well and has better robustness on the binarization of degraded images.

  12. Production of Y-86 and other radiometals for research purposes using a solution target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlke, Elisabeth; Hoehr, Cornelia; Hou, Xinchi; Hanemaayer, Victoire; Zeisler, Stefan; Adam, Michael J.; Ruth, Thomas J.; Celler, Anna; Buckley, Ken; Benard, Francois; Schaffer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnostic radiometals are typically obtained from cyclotrons by irradiating solid targets or from radioisotope generators. These methods have the advantage of high production yields, but require additional solid target handling infrastructure that is not readily available to many cyclotron facilities. Herein, we provide an overview of our results regarding the production of various positron-emitting radiometals using a liquid target system installed on a 13 MeV cyclotron at TRIUMF. Details about the production, purification and quality control of 89 Zr, 68 Ga and for the first time 86 Y are discussed. Methods: Aqueous solutions containing 1.35–1.65 g/mL of natural-abundance zinc nitrate, yttrium nitrate, and strontium nitrate were irradiated on a 13 MeV cyclotron using a standard liquid target. Different target body and foil materials were investigated for corrosion. Production yields were calculated using theoretical cross-sections from the EMPIRE code and compared with experimental results. The radioisotopes were extracted from irradiated target material using solid phase extraction methods adapted from previously reported methods, and used for radiolabelling experiments. Results: We demonstrated production quantities that are sufficient for chemical and biological studies for three separate radiometals, 89 Zr (A sat = 360 MBq/μA and yield = 3.17 MBq/μA), 86 Y (A sat = 31 MBq/μA and yield = 1.44 MBq/μA), and 68 Ga (A sat = 141 MBq/μA and yield = 64 MBq/μA) from one hour long irradiations on a typical medical cyclotron. 68 Ga yields were sufficient for potential clinical applications. In order to avoid corrosion of the target body and target foil, nitrate solutions were chosen as well as niobium as target-body material. An automatic loading system enabled up to three production runs per day. The separation efficiency ranged from 82 to 99%. Subsequently, 68 Ga and 86 Y were successfully used to radiolabel DOTA-based chelators while

  13. Scan statistics with local vote for target detection in distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhai; Wu, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Target detection has occupied a pivotal position in distributed system. Scan statistics, as one of the most efficient detection methods, has been applied to a variety of anomaly detection problems and significantly improves the probability of detection. However, scan statistics cannot achieve the expected performance when the noise intensity is strong, or the signal emitted by the target is weak. The local vote algorithm can also achieve higher target detection rate. After the local vote, the counting rule is always adopted for decision fusion. The counting rule does not use the information about the contiguity of sensors but takes all sensors' data into consideration, which makes the result undesirable. In this paper, we propose a scan statistics with local vote (SSLV) method. This method combines scan statistics with local vote decision. Before scan statistics, each sensor executes local vote decision according to the data of its neighbors and its own. By combining the advantages of both, our method can obtain higher detection rate in low signal-to-noise ratio environment than the scan statistics. After the local vote decision, the distribution of sensors which have detected the target becomes more intensive. To make full use of local vote decision, we introduce a variable-step-parameter for the SSLV. It significantly shortens the scan period especially when the target is absent. Analysis and simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of our method.

  14. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Exploiting off-targeting in guide-RNAs for CRISPR systems for simultaneous editing of multiple genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Raphael; Gatto, Francesco; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Bioinformatics tools to design guide-RNAs (gRNAs) in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats systems mostly focused on minimizing off-targeting to enhance efficacy of genome editing. However, there are circumstances in which off-targeting might be desirable to target multiple ge...

  16. FPGA-Based Real-Time Moving Target Detection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wei Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving target detection is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to find and track object of interest from a bird’s eye view in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications such as search and rescue operation. The complex detection algorithm can be implemented in a real-time embedded system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. This paper presents the development of real-time moving target detection System-on-Chip (SoC using FPGA for deployment on a UAV. The detection algorithm utilizes area-based image registration technique which includes motion estimation and object segmentation processes. The moving target detection system has been prototyped on a low-cost Terasic DE2-115 board mounted with TRDB-D5M camera. The system consists of Nios II processor and stream-oriented dedicated hardware accelerators running at 100 MHz clock rate, achieving 30-frame per second processing speed for 640 × 480 pixels’ resolution greyscale videos.

  17. Lactoferrin bioconjugated solid lipid nanoparticles: a new drug delivery system for potential brain targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Indu; Swami, Rajan; Pooja, Deep; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of drugs to brain is a subtle task in the therapy of many severe neurological disorders. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) easily diffuse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to their lipophilic nature. Furthermore, ligand conjugation on SLN surface enhances the targeting efficiency. Lactoferin (Lf) conjugated SLN system is first time attempted for effective brain targeting in this study. Preparation of Lf-modified docetaxel (DTX)-loaded SLN for proficient delivery of DTX to brain. DTX-loaded SLN were prepared using emulsification and solvent evaporation method and conjugation of Lf on SLN surface (C-SLN) was attained through carbodiimide chemistry. These lipidic nanoparticles were evaluated by DLS, AFM, FTIR, XRD techniques and in vitro release studies. Colloidal stability study was performed in biologically simulated environment (normal saline and serum). These lipidic nanoparticles were further evaluated for its targeting mechanism for uptake in brain tumour cells and brain via receptor saturation studies and distribution studies in brain, respectively. Particle size of lipidic nanoparticles was found to be optimum. Surface morphology (zeta potential, AFM) and surface chemistry (FTIR) confirmed conjugation of Lf on SLN surface. Cytotoxicity studies revealed augmented apoptotic activity of C-SLN than SLN and DTX. Enhanced cytotoxicity was demonstrated by receptor saturation and uptake studies. Brain concentration of DTX was elevated significantly with C-SLN than marketed formulation. It is evident from the cytotoxicity, uptake that SLN has potential to deliver drug to brain than marketed formulation but conjugating Lf on SLN surface (C-SLN) further increased the targeting potential for brain tumour. Moreover, brain distribution studies corroborated the use of C-SLN as a viable vehicle to target drug to brain. Hence, C-SLN was demonstrated to be a promising DTX delivery system to brain as it possessed remarkable biocompatibility, stability and efficacy than

  18. Research and Analysis Laser Target Optics Characteristics and Signal Recognition Processing in Detection Screen System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanshan LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the measurement accuracy of the laser measurement distance system, this paper study the laser target optics characteristics based on the laser detection principle in the laser measurement distance system. A calculation model of laser reflective echo signal is put forward by analyzing the influence factors on the detector output value, and discuss the relationship between the distance from the detector to the target, the laser wavelength, the Transmission power of laser and the detector output power, the radiation intensity, and use the Fisher identification and modulus maxima method based on wavelet analysis to distinguish and identify the received echo signals. By the theoretical calculation and experimentation, the result shows the laser target optics characteristics are consistent with the calculation method of radiation. The real reflective signal can be identified by using wavelet transform, and the numerical value of the distance between the target and the detector is larger, the numerical value of echo signal will be smaller.

  19. Targeting choroid plexus epithelia and ventricular ependyma for drug delivery to the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopa Edward G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the choroid plexus (CP is uniquely suited to control the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, there may be therapeutic benefits to increasing the levels of biologically active proteins in CSF to modulate central nervous system (CNS functions. To this end, we sought to identify peptides capable of ligand-mediated targeting to CP epithelial cells reasoning that they could be exploited to deliver drugs, biotherapeutics and genes to the CNS. Methods A peptide library displayed on M13 bacteriophage was screened for ligands capable of internalizing into CP epithelial cells by incubating phage with CP explants for 2 hours at 37C and recovering particles with targeting capacity. Results Three peptides, identified after four rounds of screening, were analyzed for specific and dose dependant binding and internalization. Binding was deemed specific because internalization was prevented by co-incubation with cognate synthetic peptides. Furthermore, after i.c.v. injection into rat brains, each peptide was found to target phage to epithelial cells in CP and to ependyma lining the ventricles. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ligand-mediated targeting can be used as a strategy for drug delivery to the central nervous system and opens the possibility of using the choroid plexus as a portal of entry into the brain.

  20. TargetVue: Visual Analysis of Anomalous User Behaviors in Online Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Shi, Conglei; Lin, Sabrina; Lu, Jie; Lin, Yu-Ru; Lin, Ching-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Users with anomalous behaviors in online communication systems (e.g. email and social medial platforms) are potential threats to society. Automated anomaly detection based on advanced machine learning techniques has been developed to combat this issue; challenges remain, though, due to the difficulty of obtaining proper ground truth for model training and evaluation. Therefore, substantial human judgment on the automated analysis results is often required to better adjust the performance of anomaly detection. Unfortunately, techniques that allow users to understand the analysis results more efficiently, to make a confident judgment about anomalies, and to explore data in their context, are still lacking. In this paper, we propose a novel visual analysis system, TargetVue, which detects anomalous users via an unsupervised learning model and visualizes the behaviors of suspicious users in behavior-rich context through novel visualization designs and multiple coordinated contextual views. Particularly, TargetVue incorporates three new ego-centric glyphs to visually summarize a user's behaviors which effectively present the user's communication activities, features, and social interactions. An efficient layout method is proposed to place these glyphs on a triangle grid, which captures similarities among users and facilitates comparisons of behaviors of different users. We demonstrate the power of TargetVue through its application in a social bot detection challenge using Twitter data, a case study based on email records, and an interview with expert users. Our evaluation shows that TargetVue is beneficial to the detection of users with anomalous communication behaviors.

  1. Quantitative performance targets by using balanced scorecard system: application to waste management and public administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Paula; Nunes, Luis Miguel; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau

    2014-09-01

    This article demonstrates how decision-makers can be guided in the process of defining performance target values in the balanced scorecard system. We apply a method based on sensitivity analysis with Monte Carlo simulation to the municipal solid waste management system in Loulé Municipality (Portugal). The method includes two steps: sensitivity analysis of performance indicators to identify those performance indicators with the highest impact on the balanced scorecard model outcomes; and sensitivity analysis of the target values for the previously identified performance indicators. Sensitivity analysis shows that four strategic objectives (IPP1: Comply with the national waste strategy; IPP4: Reduce nonrenewable resources and greenhouse gases; IPP5: Optimize the life-cycle of waste; and FP1: Meet and optimize the budget) alone contribute 99.7% of the variability in overall balanced scorecard value. Thus, these strategic objectives had a much stronger impact on the estimated balanced scorecard outcome than did others, with the IPP1 and the IPP4 accounting for over 55% and 22% of the variance in overall balanced scorecard value, respectively. The remaining performance indicators contribute only marginally. In addition, a change in the value of a single indicator's target value made the overall balanced scorecard value change by as much as 18%. This may lead to involuntarily biased decisions by organizations regarding performance target-setting, if not prevented with the help of methods such as that proposed and applied in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The CBS/CSE system: a potential therapeutic target in NAFLD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; O, Karmin

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad spectrum liver disorder diagnosed in patients without a history of alcohol abuse. NAFLD is growing at alarming rates worldwide. Its pathogenesis is complex and incompletely understood. The cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) system regulates homocysteine and cysteine metabolism and contributes to endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the hepatic CBS/CSE system, and for the first time, positions this system as a potential therapeutic target in NAFLD. As will be discussed, the CBS/CSE system is highly expressed and active in the liver. Its dysregulation, presenting as alterations in circulating homocysteine and (or) H2S levels, has been reported in NAFLD patients and in NAFLD-associated co-morbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Intricate links between the CBS/CSE system and a number of metabolic and stress related molecular mediators have also emerged. Various dysfunctions in the hepatic CBS/CSE system have been reported in animal models representative of each NAFLD spectrum. It is anticipated that a newfound appreciation for the hepatic CBS/CSE system will emerge that will improve our understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis, and give rise to new prospective targets for management of this disorder.

  3. Celebrity-led development organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima; Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a frontier open up in international development engagement with the entrance of new actors such as celebrity-led organisations. We explore how such organisations earn legitimacy with a focus on Madonna’s Raising Malawi and Ben Affleck’s Eastern Congo Initiative. The study...... draws from organisational materials, interviews, mainstream news coverage, and the texts of the celebrities themselves to investigate the construction of authenticity, credibility, and accountability. We find these organisations earn legitimacy and flourish rapidly amid supportive elite networks...... for funding, endorsements, and expertise. We argue that the ways in which celebrity-led organisations establish themselves as legitimate development actors illustrate broader dynamics of the machinery of development....

  4. Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukas, M.; Wei, G.; Bergenek, K.; Kelso, J.; Zink, N.; Zheng, Y.; Hannah, M.; Stough, M.; Wirth, R.; Linkov, A.; Jermann, F.; Eisert, D.

    2011-03-01

    Many LED-based applications would benefit from more efficient and/or high lumen output devices that enable usage in both white and single color illumination schemes. In the present article we briefly review the materials research history leading to optical ceramic converters and discuss their typical characteristics. Recently demonstrated high performance values in terms of efficacy and external quantum efficiency in orange (amber) spectral region are described.

  5. Monte carlo analysis of multicolour LED light engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo simulation as a tool for analysing colour feedback systems is presented here to analyse the colour uncertainties and achievable stability in a multicolour dynamic LED system. The Monte Carlo analysis presented here is based on an experimental investigation of a multicolour LED...

  6. Dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system for heating energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Geun Young; Lee, Je Hyeon; Kim, Inhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed the dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system. • We created the VRF control model using the EnergyPlus runtime language. • Multicalorimeter experimental results indicate that the energy efficiency improved by 21%. • EnergyPlus simulations demonstrate that the annual heating energy consumption was lowered by 22%. - Abstract: Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems are widely used because of their ability to provide individualized comfort control with energy-saving potential. This study develops load responsive high pressure control of a VRF system with the aim of reducing the heating energy consumption of a VRF system under part load conditions. The developed control consists of two parts: one part that determines the level of heating load, and the other that assigns a target high pressure based on the level of heating load. In this way, the compressor speed can be accurately matched to heating load, which improves the energy performance of the VRF system. A series of multicalorimeter experiments revealed that the heating capacity of the VRF system varied by 45% by modulating the target high pressure and that its efficiency was enhanced by 21% by changing the high pressure from 30 kgf/cm 2 to 25 kgf/cm 2 . To evaluate the annual heating energy performance of the VRF system with the developed control, a custom computer code was developed to implement the developed control using a programming language called EnergyPlus Runtime Language. Simulation outcomes showed that the annual heating energy consumption of a medium-size office building was reduced by 22% when the developed control was applied.

  7. Highly Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis of Drosophila with the CRISPR/Cas9 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Bassett

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a simple and highly efficient method for generating and detecting mutations of any gene in Drosophila melanogaster through the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated. We show that injection of RNA into the Drosophila embryo can induce highly efficient mutagenesis of desired target genes in up to 88% of injected flies. These mutations can be transmitted through the germline to make stable lines. Our system provides at least a 10-fold improvement in efficiency over previously published reports, enabling wider application of this technique. We also describe a simple and highly sensitive method of detecting mutations in the target gene by high-resolution melt analysis and discuss how the new technology enables the study of gene function.

  8. Small target detection based on human visual system utilizing distance information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linna; An, Wei; Lin, Zaiping; Li, Andong; Ye, Jundu

    2015-10-01

    Small target detection is an importance part of infrared technology. Human visual system properties can improve signal to noise rate and detection rate, etc. In this paper, a small target detection algorithm based on human visual system utilizing distance information is proposed. First, surrounding regions is calculated by weighed sum of each pixel in surrounding regions. The weight is related to distance information between each surrounding pixel and center pixel. Then, the contrast value of center pixel blocks and surrounding regions is calculated. Finally, the contrast value is weighted to the center pixel to get a saliency map. Experiment shows that the proposed has good performance on improving the signal to noise rate and detection rate.

  9. Optimization of Adaboost Algorithm for Sonar Target Detection in a Multi-Stage ATR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung Han (Hank)

    2011-01-01

    JPL has developed a multi-stage Automated Target Recognition (ATR) system to locate objects in images. First, input images are preprocessed and sent to a Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regions-of-interest (ROIs). Second, feature extraction operations are performed using Texton filters and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the features are fed to a classifier, to identify ROIs that contain the targets. Previous work used the Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network for classification. In this project we investigate a version of Adaboost as a classifier for comparison. The version we used is known as GentleBoost. We used the boosted decision tree as the weak classifier. We have tested our ATR system against real-world sonar images using the Adaboost approach. Results indicate an improvement in performance over a single Neural Network design.

  10. Repurposing Auranofin, Ebselen, and PX-12 as Antimicrobial Agents Targeting the Thioredoxin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly C. May

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As microbial resistance to drugs continues to rise at an alarming rate, finding new ways to combat pathogens is an issue of utmost importance. Development of novel and specific antimicrobial drugs is a time-consuming and expensive process. However, the re-purposing of previously tested and/or approved drugs could be a feasible way to circumvent this long and costly process. In this review, we evaluate the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tested drugs auranofin, ebselen, and PX-12 as antimicrobial agents targeting the thioredoxin system. These drugs have been shown to act on bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and helminth pathogens without significant toxicity to the host. We propose that the thioredoxin system could serve as a useful therapeutic target with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.

  11. Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Palmer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery systems have been around for decades, and current technologies (e.g., patches, ointments, and creams enhance the skin permeation of low molecular weight, lipophilic drugs that are efficacious at low doses. The objective of current transdermal drug delivery research is to discover ways to enhance skin penetration of larger, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules for disease treatment and vaccination. Nanocarriers made of lipids, metals, or polymers have been successfully used to increase penetration of drugs or vaccines, control drug release, and target drugs to specific areas of skin in vivo. While more research is needed to identify the safety of nanocarriers, this technology has the potential to expand the use of transdermal routes of administration to a wide array of therapeutics. Here, we review the current state of nanoparticle skin delivery systems with special emphasis on targeting skin diseases.

  12. Automotive LED lamp lighted appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lawrence G.; Bennett, Larry R.

    2001-05-01

    The automotive optical engineer has an entirely new set of rules to follow for a 'smooth lighted appearance' with the introduction of LEDs into the automotive signal lighting market. To move away from the 'polka-dot' appearance long associated with the usage of LEDs as the light source for automotive lighting, and give the consumer a smooth lighted appearance to his lamp, there are several optical parameters that must be observed. The number and type of LEDs used, the size of the optical elements used, the spacing of the optical elements, plus many other factors all play a critical role and must be considered in the solution to the 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp. The 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp has long been a difficult problem to which there is more than one solution. The most visually pleasing and effective solution is not always the most easily obtainable solution since photometry requirements and smooth lighted appearance can be diametric goals. Subsequently the most cost effective and the easily 'doable' solution may not give the ultimate in aesthetically pleasing results for the consumer. Therefore, it is the purpose and intent of this paper to outline the parameters that need to be considered to obtain a 'smooth lighted appearance' for an automotive signal lamp, and to clarify the methods and 'tools' that are required to meet this goal.

  13. LED light engine concept with ultra-high scalable luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; de Boer, Dick; Bruls, Dominique; van der Eyden, Joost; Koole, Rolf; Li, Yun; Mirsadeghi, Mo; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van den Bergh, John-John; Van de Voorde, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although LEDs have been introduced successfully in many general lighting applications during the past decade, high brightness light source applications are still suffering from the limited luminance of LEDs. High power LEDs are generally limited in luminance to ca 100 Mnit (108 lm/m2sr) or less, while dedicated devices for projection may achieve luminance values up to ca 300 Mnit with phosphor converted green. In particular for high luminous flux applications with limited étendue, like in front projection systems, only very modest luminous flux values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps. In this paper we introduce a light engine concept based on a light converter rod pumped with blue LEDs that breaks through the étendue and brightness limits of LEDs, enabling LED light source luminance values that are more than 4 times higher than what can be achieved with LEDs so far. In LED front projection systems, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green light emitting modules, peak luminance values well above 1.2 Gnit have been achieved, enabling doubling of the screen brightness of LED based DLP projection systems, and even more when this technology is applied to other colors as well. This light source concept, introduced as the ColorSpark High Lumen Density (HLD) LED technology, enables a breakthrough in the performance of LED-based light engines not only for projection, where >2700 ANSI lm was demonstrated, but for a wide variety of high brightness applications.

  14. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köhring

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors.

  15. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor-interacting proteins: novel targets for central nervous system drug discovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tricia H; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Selley, Dana E

    2010-01-01

    The main pharmacological effects of marijuana, as well as synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids, are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including CB1 and CB2 receptors. The CB1 receptor is the major cannabinoid receptor in the central nervous system and has gained increasing interest as a target for drug discovery for treatment of nausea, cachexia, obesity, pain, spasticity, neurodegenerative diseases and mood and substance abuse disorders. Evidence has accumulated to sugge...

  16. Nanomedicine strategies for sustained, controlled, and targeted treatment of cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Yuan; Xu, Wei-Heng; Yin, Chuan; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhong, Yan-Qiang; Gao, Jie

    2016-10-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability. They have been identified in a variety of tumors, including tumors of the digestive system. CSCs exhibit some unique characteristics, which are responsible for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Consequently, the development of effective therapeutic strategies against CSCs plays a key role in increasing the efficacy of cancer therapy. Several potential approaches to target CSCs of the digestive system have been explored, including targeting CSC surface markers and signaling pathways, inducing the differentiation of CSCs, altering the tumor microenvironment or niche, and inhibiting ATP-driven efflux transporters. However, conventional therapies may not successfully eradicate CSCs owing to various problems, including poor solubility, stability, rapid clearance, poor cellular uptake, and unacceptable cytotoxicity. Nanomedicine strategies, which include drug, gene, targeted, and combinational delivery, could solve these problems and significantly improve the therapeutic index. This review briefly summarizes the ongoing development of strategies and nanomedicine-based therapies against CSCs of the digestive system.

  17. Fluoroscopic freehand and electromagnetic-guided targeting system for distal locking screws of humeral intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiani, P; Gurzi, M; Moreschini, O; Di Giacomo, G; Villani, C

    2017-04-01

    The current techniques used to lock distal screws for the nailing of long bone fractures expose the surgeons, radiologists and patients to a hearty dose of ionizing radiation. The Sureshot™ Distal Targeting System is a new technique that, with the same results, allows for shorter surgery times and, consequently, less exposure to radiation. The study was performed on 59 patients (34 males and 25 females) with a simple humerus fracture diagnosis, type 1.2.A according to the AO classification, who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was treated with ante-grade intramedullary nailing with distal locking screws inserted with a freehand technique. Group 2 was treated with the intramedullary nail using the Sureshot™ Distal Targeting System. Two intra-operative time parameters were evaluated in both groups: the time needed for the positioning of the distal locking screws and the time of exposure to ionizing radiations during this procedure. Group 2 showed a lower average distal locking time compared to group 1 (645.48″ vs. 1023.57″) and also a lower average time of exposure to ionizing radiation than in group 1 (4.35″ vs. 28.96″). The Sureshot™ Distal Targeting System has proven to be equally effective when compared to the traditional techniques, with the added benefits of a significant reduction in both surgical time and risk factors related to the exposure to ionizing radiation for all the operating room staff and the patient.

  18. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams for spiral: studies and realization of the first target-ion source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the SPIRAL project, which concerns the production and the acceleration of a multicharged radioactive ions beam, the following part has been studied: production and ionization of the radioactive ions beam. A first target-source (nanogan II), devoted exclusively to the production of multicharged radioactive ions gas type beams, has been studied and tested. The diffusion efficiency has been deduced from the diffusion equations (Fick laws). This efficiency is governed by the following parameters: the temperature, the grains size of the target, the Arrhenius parameters and the radioactive period. Another study concerning the production targets is presented. It deals with the temperature distribution allowing an utilization of more than one month at a temperature of 2400 K. Another development (SPIRAL II) is devoted to the production of high neutron content radioactive atoms created by the uranium fission, from fast neutrons. The neutrons beam is produced by the ''stripping break-up'' of a deutons beam in a converter. (A.L.B.)

  19. LED light recycling using double prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, George; Li, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    A novel LED recycling scheme using double prisms is presented. Two identical triangular prisms with square bases, one cross-stacked on top of the other, are tight-fit into a mirrored light tunnel. The whole prism/light tunnel assembly is then mounted on top of a square LED source, whose emitting area is the same as that of the base plane of the said prism/light tunnel assembly. Each prism acts as a tapered-down light guide in one dimension, which selectively retro-reflects high angle light along that direction. The outer light tunnel serves as a mirrored wall that folds back any light that escapes outside the two prisms. For a given collection cone angle, the height of the two prisms is optimized using ASAP, a commercial ray-tracing software. Simulation and experimental results show promise in significantly increasing the brightness of the LED sources within the collection cone. Specifically for a 4x recycling ratio a 70% recycling gain in center illuminance has been achieved (i.e., illuminance measured in the forward direction). This scheme has advantages over previous recycling configurations due to its compactness and ease of mounting. For example, compared to Wavien's spherical reflector approach that has been previously published, the current recycling configuration is much smaller in size because instead of fitting a much larger mirrored reflector on top of the LED source, this time we're using a structure that has the same lateral dimensions as those of the LED source itself. Further improvement is also possible if optimization of various system parameters is carried out.

  20. The GEKKO XII-HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) system relevant to ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Azechi, H.

    2001-01-01

    To test high gain targets surrogated in the planar geometry, we have constructed a new experimental system (HIPER) which provides the high ablation pressure with a uniform irradiance profile. These performances were achieved by bundling twelve beams of the existing GEKKO XII into a F/3 focus cone. The partially coherent light is introduced for the beam smoothing of a green foot pulse consisting of three beams, and the three-directional smoothing by spectral dispersion is utilized for residual nine beams delivering a blue main drive pulse. The detail of design concept and results of initial activation of this system are reported. (author)

  1. Target Tracking of a Linear Time Invariant System under Irregular Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xue-Bo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to event-triggered sampling in a system, or maybe with the aim of reducing data storage, tracking many applications will encounter irregular sampling time. By calculating the matrix exponential using an inverse Laplace transform, this paper transforms the irregular sampling tracking problem to the problem of tracking with time-varying parameters of a system. Using the common Kalman filter, the developed method is used to track a target for the simulated trajectory and video tracking. The results of simulation experiments have shown that it can obtain good estimation performance even at a very high irregular rate of measurement sampling time.

  2. A free Hg jet system for use in a high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Haseroth, H; Kirk, Harold G; Lettry, Jacques; McDonald, Kirk T; Rennich, Mark; Simos, Nikolaos; Titus, P; Tsang, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mercury jet system that is suitable for insertion into the 15cm diameter bore of a high-field solenoid magnet. The device features a hermetically sealed primary containment volume which is enclosed in a secondary containment system to insure isolation of mercury vapors from the remaining experimental environment. The jet diameter is 1-cm while the jet velocity will be up to 20 m/s. Optical diagnostics is incorporated into the target design to allow observation of the dispersal of the mercury as a result of interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20 x 10

  3. Modelling small groundwater systems - the role of targeted field investigations and observational data in reducing model uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Hughes, Andrew; Boon, David

    2017-04-01

    Coastal dunes are delicate systems that are under threat from a variety of human and natural influences. Groundwater modelling can provide a better understanding of how these systems operate and can be a useful tool towards the effective management of a coastal dune system, e.g. through predicting impacts from climatic change, sea level rise and land use management. Because of their small size, typically 10 - 100 km2, models representing small dune aquifer systems are more sensitive to uncertainties in input data, model geometry and model parameterisation as well as to the availability of observational data. This study describes the development of a groundwater flow model for a small (8 km2) spit dune system, Braunton Burrows, on the Southwest coast of England, UK. The system has been extensively studied and its hydrology is thought to be well understood. However, model development revealed a high degree of uncertainty relating to model structure (definition of model boundary conditions) and parameterisation (e.g., transmissivity distributions within the model domain). An iterative approach was employed, integrating (1) sensitivity analyses, (2) targeted field investigations and (3) Monte Carlo simulations within a cycle of repeated interrogation of the model outputs, observed data and conceptual understanding. Assessment of "soft information" and targeted field investigations were an important part of this iterative modelling process. For example, a passive seismic survey (TROMINO®) provided valuable new data for the characterisation of concealed bedrock topography and thickness of superficial deposits. The data confirmed a generally inclined underlying wave cut rock shelf platform (as suggested by literature sources), revealed a buried valley, and led to a more detailed delineation of transmissivity zones within the model domain. Constructing models with increasingly more complex spatial distributions of transmissivity, resulted in considerable improvements in

  4. The Air Force Needs to Improve Cost-Effectiveness and Availability of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    the Freedom of Information Act. The Air Force Needs to Improve Cost -Effectiveness and Availability of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar... Target Attack Radar System Objective We determined whether the Air Force made cost -effective purchases on the performance-based logistics contract to...0263.000) Results in Brief The Air Force Needs to Improve Cost -Effectiveness and Availability of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System

  5. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  6. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation, laser therapy and LED therapy on the masticatory system and the impact on sleep variables in cerebral palsy patients: a randomized, five arms clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannasi Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies demonstrate effectiveness of therapies for oral rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy (CP, given the difficulties in chewing, swallowing and speech, besides the intellectual, sensory and social limitations. Due to upper airway obstruction, they are also vulnerable to sleep disorders. This study aims to assess the sleep variables, through polysomnography, and masticatory dynamics, using electromiography, before and after neuromuscular electrical stimulation, associated or not with low power laser (Gallium Arsenide- Aluminun, =780 nm and LED (= 660 nm irradiation in CP patients. Methods/design 50 patients with CP, both gender, aged between 19 and 60 years will be enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria are: voluntary participation, patient with hemiparesis, quadriparesis or diparetic CP, with ability to understand and respond to verbal commands. The exclusion criteria are: patients undergoing/underwent orthodontic, functional maxillary orthopedic or botulinum toxin treatment. Polysomnographic and surface electromyographic exams on masseter, temporalis and suprahyoid will be carry out in all sample. Questionnaire assessing oral characteristics will be applied. The sample will be divided into 5 treatment groups: Group 1: neuromuscular electrical stimulation; Group 2: laser therapy; Group 3: LED therapy; Group 4: neuromuscular electrical stimulation and laser therapy and Group 5: neuromuscular electrical stimulation and LED therapy. All patients will be treated during 8 consecutive weeks. After treatment, polysomnographic and electromiographic exams will be collected again. Discussion This paper describes a five arm clinical trial assessing the examination of sleep quality and masticatory function in patients with CP under non-invasive therapies. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC RBR-994XFS Descriptors Cerebral Palsy

  7. The Bacterial Type III Secretion System as a Target for Developing New Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens requires new targets for developing novel antibacterials. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an attractive target for developing antibacterials as it is essential in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS consists of structural proteins, effectors and chaperones. Over 20 different structural proteins assemble into a complex nanoinjector that punctures a hole on the eukaryotic cell membrane to allow the delivery of effectors directly into the host cell cytoplasm. Defects in the assembly and function of the T3SS render bacteria non-infective. Two major classes of small molecules, salicylidene acylhydrazides and thiazolidinones, have been shown to inhibit multiple genera of bacteria through the T3SS. Many additional chemically and structurally diverse classes of small molecule inhibitors of the T3SS have been identified as well. While specific targets within the T3SS of a few inhibitors have been suggested, the vast majority of specific protein targets within the T3SS remain to be identified or characterized. Other T3SS inhibitors include polymers, proteins and polypeptides mimics. In addition, T3SS activity is regulated by its interaction with biologically relevant molecules, such as bile salts and sterols, which could serve as scaffolds for drug design. PMID:25521643

  8. A SYSTEM APPROACH TO ORGANISING PROTECTION FROM TARGETED INFORMATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Tumbinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to formalise a generalised algorithm for the distribution of targeted information in social networks, serving as the basis for a methodology for increasing personal information security. Method The research is based on the methodology of protection from unwanted information distributed across social network systems. Results The article presents the formalisation of an algorithm for the distribution of targeted information across social networks: input and output parameters are defined and the algorithm’s internal conditions are described, consisting of parameters for implementing attack scenarios, which variation would allow them to be detailed. A technique for protection from targeted information distributed across social networks is proposed, allowing the level of protection of personal data and information of social networks users to be enhanced, as well as the reliability of information increased. Conclusion The results of the research will help to prevent threats to information security, counteract attacks by intruders who often use methods of competitive intelligence and social engineering through the use of countermeasures. A model for protection against targeted information and implement special software for its integration into online social network social information systems is developed. The system approach will allow external monitoring of events in social networks to be carried out and vulnerabilities identified in the mechanisms of instant messaging, which provide opportunities for attacks by intruders. The results of the research make it possible to apply a network approach to the study of informal communities, which are actively developing today, at a new level. 

  9. An aptamer ligand based liposomal nanocarrier system that targets tumor endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mst Naznin; Matsuda, Takashi; Hyodo, Mamoru; Sakurai, Yu; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Kyoko; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to construct our recently developed aptamer-modified targeted liposome nano-carrier (Apt-PEG-LPs) system to target primary cultured mouse tumor endothelial cells (mTEC), both in vitro and in vivo. We first synthesized an aptamer-polyethylene glycol 2000-distearoyl phosphoethanolamine (Apt-PEG2000-DSPE). The conjugation of the Apt-PEG2000-DSPE was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. A lipid hydration method was used to prepare Apt-PEG-LPs, in which the outer surface of the PEG-spacer was decorated with the aptamer. Apt-PEG-LPs were significantly taken up by mTECs. Cellular uptake capacity was observed both quantitatively and qualitatively using spectrofluorometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), respectively. In examining the extent of localization of aptamer-modified liposomes that entered the cells, approximately 39% of the Apt-PEG-LPs were not co-localized with lysotracker, indicating that they had escaped from endosomes. The uptake route involved a receptor mediated pathway, followed by clathrin mediated endocytosis. This Apt-PEG-LP was also applied for in vivo research whether this system could target tumor endothelial cells. Apt-PEG-LP and PEG5000-DSPE modified Apt-PEG-LP (Apt/PEG5000-LP) were investigated by human renal cell carcinoma (OS-RC-2 cells) inoculating mice using CLSM. Apt-PEG-LP and Apt/PEG5000-LP showed higher accumulation on tumor vasculature compared to PEG-LP and the co-localization efficacy of Apt-PEG-LP and Apt/PEG5000-LP on TEC were quantified 16% and 25% respectively, which was also better than PEG-LP (3%). The findings suggest that this system is considerable promise for targeting tumor endothelial cells to deliver drugs or genes in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens

  11. Direct renin inhibition — a new way of targeting the renin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris J Brown

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The renin system plays a key role in the pathology of hypertension and is influenced, both directly and indirectly, by most antihypertensive agents. The system is the target of several established classes of antihypertensive agents including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta-blockers. Of currently available drugs, only the beta-blockers suppress renin secretion, but these also reduce heart rate and cardiac output. Calcium channel blockers and diuretics cause a modest activation of the renin system secondary to the fall in renal afferent arteriolar pressure and reduction in filtered sodium load. Aliskiren is the first orally available direct inhibitor that blocks the renin system at its rate limiting step and is shown to reduce angiotensin I and II and plasma renin activity.

  12. The challenges of modulating the 'rest and digest' system: acetylcholine receptors as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Sonya; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholine, a major neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, was discovered in the early 1900s. Over the years, researchers have revealed much about its regulation, properties of its receptors and features of the downstream signaling that influence its terminal effects. The acetylcholine system, traditionally associated with neuromuscular communication, is now known to play a crucial part in modulation of the immune system and other 'rest and digest' effects. Recent research seeks to elucidate the system's role in brain functions including cognition, sleep, arousal, motivation, reward and pain. We highlight clinically approved and experimental drugs that modulate the acetylcholine receptors. The complexities in targeting the acetylcholine receptors are vast and finding future indications for drug development associated with specific acetylcholine receptors remains a challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Apelin/APJ system: A novel potential therapy target for kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Wu, Lele; Chen, Linxi

    2018-05-01

    Apelin is an endogenous ligand of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ are distributed in various tissues, including the heart, lung, kidney, and even in tumor tissues. Studies show that apelin mRNA is highly expressed in the inner stripe of kidney outer medulla, which plays an important role in process of water and sodium balance. Additionally, more studies also indicate that apelin/APJ system exerts a broad range of activities in kidney. Therefore, we review the role of apelin/APJ system in kidney diseases such as renal fibrosis, renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, and hemodialysis (HD). Apelin/APJ system can improve renal interstitial fibrosis by reducing the deposition of extracellular matrix. Apelin/APJ system significantly reduces renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting renal cell death. Apelin/APJ system involves the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Apelin/APJ system also predicts the process of polycystic kidney disease. Besides, apelin/APJ system prevents some dialysis complications in HD patients. And apelin/APJ system alleviates chronic kidney disease (CKD) by inhibiting vascular calcification (VC). Overall, apelin/APJ system plays diversified roles in kidney disease and may be a potential target for the treatment of kidney disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. EVALUATING THE CULTURE-LED REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angelo Francesca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a new approach to urban planning, evaluating the culture-led regeneration processes. In the last few years, the cultural turn in urban planning played a central role in the urban studies. In this way we try to elaborate a more robust perspective interpreting the complex phenomenology emerging from the culture-led regeneration processes. Within the concept of complexity we discuss about the metabolic process that are the processes necessary to transform energy, material and information in goods and service functional to the complex urban system life. The approach that will be employed is the MuSIASEM that is based on several novel concept and an innovative methods never applied in this research field.

  15. Excellent color rendering indexes of multi-package white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Su Ji; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Y R

    2012-08-27

    This study introduces multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) system with the ability to realize high luminous efficacy and an excellent color rendering index (CRI, R a) using the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B (R B,M A B,M G B,M denoted as a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF)-capped, monochromatic red, amber and green phosphor converted-LED (pc-LED) pumped by a blue LED chip, and C B denoted as a cyan and blue mixed pc-LED pumped by a blue LED) system. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LED systems are compared while changing the concentration of the cyan phosphor used in the paste of a cyan-blue LED package and the driving current of individual LEDs in multi-package white LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 6,500 K (cold white) to 2,700 K (warm white) using a set of eight CCTs as specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard number C78.377-2008. A R B,M A B,M G B,M C B white LED system provides high luminous efficacy (≥ 96 lm/W) and a color rendering index (≥ 91) encompassing the complete CCT range. We also compare the optical properties of the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B system with those of the R B,M A B,M G B,M B and RAGB (red, amber, green, and blue semiconductor-type narrow-spectrum-band LEDs) systems. It can be expected that the cyan color added to a blue LED in multi-package white LEDs based on LPDF-capped, phosphor-converted monochromatic LEDs will meet the needs of the high-quality, highly efficient, full-color white LED lighting market in the near future.

  16. Structural basis of eukaryotic cell targeting by type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Tommaso; Pflug, Alexander; Discola, Karen F; Neves, David; Dessen, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are macromolecular complexes that translocate a wide number of effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Once within the cytoplasm, many T3SS effectors mimic the structure and/or function of eukaryotic proteins in order to manipulate signaling cascades, and thus play pivotal roles in colonization, invasion, survival and virulence. Structural biology techniques have played key roles in the unraveling of bacterial strategies employed for mimicry and targeting. This review provides an overall view of our current understanding of structure and function of T3SS effectors, as well as of the different classes of eukaryotic proteins that are targeted and the consequences for the infected cell. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal-hydraulic design concept of the solid-target system of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, F.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Takeda, T.; Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In relation to thermal-hydraulic design of the N-Arena solid-target system of the JHF project, heat transfer experiments were performed to obtain experimental data systematically on heat transfer coefficient and CHF for vertical upward and horizontal flows in a thin rectangular channel simulating a coolant channel of the proposed spallation neutron source. Thermal-hydraulic correlations which can be used for design calculations were proposed based on the obtained data. Finally tentative results of feasibility study on maximum beam power which could be attained with a solid target were presented. The result indicated that the condition for the onset of nucleate boiling is the most significant limiting factor to the maximum beam power. (author)

  18. Targeted gene expression in transgenic Xenopus using the binary Gal4-UAS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Katharine O; Nutt, Stephen L; Amaya, Enrique

    2002-02-05

    The transgenic technique in Xenopus allows one to misexpress genes in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. However, this system suffers from two experimental limitations. First, the restriction enzyme-mediated integration procedure relies on chromosomal damage, resulting in a percentage of embryos failing to develop normally. Second, every transgenic embryo has unique sites of integration and unique transgene copy number, resulting in variable transgene expression levels and variable phenotypes. For these reasons, we have adapted the Gal4-UAS method for targeted gene expression to Xenopus. This technique relies on the generation of transgenic lines that carry "activator" or "effector" constructs. Activator lines express the yeast transcription factor, Gal4, under the control of a desired promoter, whereas effector lines contain DNA-binding motifs for Gal4-(UAS) linked to the gene of interest. We show that on intercrossing of these lines, the effector gene is transcribed in the temporal and spatial manner of the activator's promoter. Furthermore, we use the Gal4-UAS system to misexpress Xvent-2, a transcriptional target of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling during early embryogenesis. Embryos inheriting both the Gal4 activator and Xvent-2 effector transgenes display a consistent microcephalic phenotype. Finally, we exploit this system to characterize the neural and mesodermal defects obtained from early misexpression of Xvent-2. These results emphasize the potential of this system for the controlled analyses of gene function in Xenopus.

  19. Targeting the noradrenergic system for gender-sensitive medication development for tobacco dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Terril L; Weinberger, Andrea H; Smith, Philip H; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for both women and men in the United States, and women often experience poorer smoking cessation outcomes than men. Preliminary evidence suggests there are sex differences in medication effectiveness for smoking cessation. However, current medications do not take into account gender-sensitive treatment development and efficacy, underscoring the importance of this underdeveloped area of research. We reviewed preclinical and clinical evidence for gender differences in the inability to quit smoking by examining (a) the effect of increased negative affect and stress reactivity on smoking outcomes in women and (b) smoking for nicotine reinforcement in men. We also reviewed the current literature targeting the noradrenergic system as a novel gender-sensitive treatment strategy for tobacco dependence. We hypothesize that noradrenergic agents that normalize noradrenergic activity may differentially attenuate stress reactivity in women and nicotine-related reinforcement in men, indicating that targeting the noradrenergic system for smoking cessation may be effective for both genders, with benefits operating through sex-specific mechanisms. Converging lines of preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that gender-sensitive approaches to medication development for smoking cessation are a critical next step for addressing low quit rates and exacerbated health risks among women. Evidence reviewed indicates that smoking activates different brain systems modulated by noradrenergic activity in women versus men, and noradrenergic compounds may preferentially target these gender-sensitive systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Development and testing of a homogenous multi-wavelength LED light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Frank J.; Bernat, Amir; Jacques, Steven L.; Levitz, David

    2017-03-01

    Multispectral imaging of human tissue is a powerful method that allows for quantify scattering and absorption parameters of the tissue and differentiate tissue types or identify pathology. This method requires imaging at multiple wavelengths and then fitting the measured data to a model based on light transport theory. Earlier, a mobile phone based multi-spectral imaging system was developed to image the uterine cervix from the colposcopy geometry, outside the patient's body at a distance of 200-300 mm. Such imaging of a distance object has inherent challenges, as bright and homogenous illumination is required. Several solutions addressing this problem were developed, with varied degrees of success. In this paper, several multi-spectral illumination setups were developed and tested for brightness and uniformity. All setups were specifically designed with low cost in mind, utilizing a printed circuit board with surface-mounted LEDs. The three setups include: LEDs illuminating the target directly, LEDs illuminating focused by a 3D printed miniature lens array, and LEDs coupled to a mixing lens and focusing optical system. In order to compare the illumination uniformity and intensity performance two experiments were performed. Test results are presented, and various tradeoffs between the three system configurations are discussed. Test results are presented, and various tradeoffs between the three system configurations are discussed.

  1. Adaptive estimation for control of uncertain nonlinear systems with applications to target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyastha, Venkatesh Kattigari

    2005-08-01

    Design of nonlinear observers has received considerable attention since the early development of methods for linear state estimation. The most popular approach is the extended Kalman filter (EKF), that goes through significant degradation in the presence of nonlinearities, particularly if unmodeled dynamics are coupled to the process and the measurement. For uncertain nonlinear systems, adaptive observers have been introduced to estimate the unknown state variables where no priori information about the unknown parameters is available. While establishing global results, these approaches are applicable only to systems transformable to output feedback form. Over the recent years, neural network (NN) based identification and estimation schemes have been proposed that relax the assumptions on the system at the price of sacrificing on the global nature of the results. However, most of the NN based adaptive observer approaches in the literature require knowledge of the full dimension of the system, therefore may not be suitable for systems with unmodeled dynamics. We first propose a novel approach to nonlinear state estimation from the perspective of augmenting a linear time invariant observer with an adaptive element. The class of nonlinear systems treated here are finite but of otherwise unknown dimension. The objective is to improve the performance of the linear observer when applied to a nonlinear system. The approach relies on the ability of the NNs to approximate the unknown dynamics from finite time histories of available measurements. Next we investigate nonlinear state estimation from the perspective of adaptively augmenting an existing time varying observer, such as an EKF. EKFs find their applications mostly in target tracking problems. The proposed approaches are robust to unmodeled dynamics, including unmodeled disturbances. Lastly, we consider the problem of adaptive estimation in the presence of feedback control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems

  2. Prioritizing drug targets in Clostridium botulinum with a computational systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Syed Aun; Ahmed, Safia; Ali, Amjad; Huang, Hui; Wu, Xiaogang; Yang, X Frank; Naz, Anam; Chen, Jake

    2014-07-01

    A computational and in silico system level framework was developed to identify and prioritize the antibacterial drug targets in Clostridium botulinum (Clb), the causative agent of flaccid paralysis in humans that can be fatal in 5 to 10% of cases. This disease is difficult to control due to the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic strains and the only available treatment antitoxin which can target the neurotoxin at the extracellular level and cannot reverse the paralysis. This study framework is based on comprehensive systems-scale analysis of genomic sequence homology and phylogenetic relationships among Clostridium, other infectious bacteria, host and human gut flora. First, the entire 2628-annotated genes of this bacterial genome were categorized into essential, non-essential and virulence genes. The results obtained showed that 39% of essential proteins that functionally interact with virulence proteins were identified, which could be a key to new interventions that may kill the bacteria and minimize the host damage caused by the virulence factors. Second, a comprehensive comparative COGs and blast sequence analysis of these proteins and host proteins to minimize the risks of side effects was carried out. This revealed that 47% of a set of C. botulinum proteins were evolutionary related with Homo sapiens proteins to sort out the non-human homologs. Third, orthology analysis with other infectious bacteria to assess broad-spectrum effects was executed and COGs were mostly found in Clostridia, Bacilli (Firmicutes), and in alpha and beta Proteobacteria. Fourth, a comparative phylogenetic analysis was performed with human microbiota to filter out drug targets that may also affect human gut flora. This reduced the list of candidate proteins down to 131. Finally, the role of these putative drug targets in clostridial biological pathways was studied while subcellular localization of these candidate proteins in bacterial cellular system exhibited that 68% of the

  3. Design challenges in nanoparticle-based platforms: Implications for targeted drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Douglas Gurnett

    Characterization and control of heterogeneous distributions of nanoparticle-ligand components are major design challenges for nanoparticle-based platforms. This dissertation begins with an examination of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-based targeted delivery platform. A folic acid targeted modular platform was developed to target human epithelial cancer cells. Although active targeting was observed in vitro, active targeting was not found in vivo using a mouse tumor model. A major flaw of this platform design was that it did not provide for characterization or control of the component distribution. Motivated by the problems experienced with the modular design, the actual composition of nanoparticle-ligand distributions were examined using a model dendrimer-ligand system. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) resolved the distribution of components in samples with mean ligand/dendrimer ratios ranging from 0.4 to 13. A peak fitting analysis enabled the quantification of the component distribution. Quantified distributions were found to be significantly more heterogeneous than commonly expected and standard analytical parameters, namely the mean ligand/nanoparticle ratio, failed to adequately represent the component heterogeneity. The distribution of components was also found to be sensitive to particle modifications that preceded the ligand conjugation. With the knowledge gained from this detailed distribution analysis, a new platform design was developed to provide a system with dramatically improved control over the number of components and with improved batch reproducibility. Using semi-preparative HPLC, individual dendrimer-ligand components were isolated. The isolated dendrimer with precise numbers of ligands were characterized by NMR and analytical HPLC. In total, nine different dendrimer-ligand components were obtained with degrees of purity ≥80%. This system has the potential to serve as a platform to which a precise number of functional molecules

  4. CRISPR-DT: designing gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 system with improved target efficiency and specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chun; Zhu, Houxiang

    2018-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cpf1 system has been successfully applied in genome editing. However, target efficiency of the CRISPR-Cpf1 system varies among different gRNA sequences. We reanalyzed the published CRISPR-Cpf1 gRNAs data and found many sequence and structural features related to their target efficiency. Using machine learning technology, a SVM model was created to predict target efficiency for any given gRNAs. We have developed the first web service application, CRISPR-DT (CRISPR DNA Targeting), to...

  5. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-09-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life: Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable

  6. The prototype readout electronics system for the External Target Experiment in CSR of HIRFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Kang, L.; Li, M.; Liu, S.; Zhou, J.; An, Q.

    2014-07-01

    A prototype readout electronics system was designed for the External Target Experiment in the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The kernel parts include the 128-channel 100 ps high-resolution time digitization module, the 16-channel 25 ps high-resolution time and charge measurement module, and the trigger electronics, as well as the clock generation circuits, which are all integrated within the PXI-6U crate. The laboratory test results indicate that a good resolution is achieved, better than the requirement. We also have conducted initial commissioning tests with the detectors to confirm the functions of the system. Through the research of this prototype electronics, preparation for the future extended system is made.

  7. CB2 and GPR55 receptors as therapeutic targets for systemic immune dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is involved in many physiological processes and has been suggested to play critical roles in the immune response and the central nervous system (CNS. Therefore, ECS modulation has potential therapeutic effects on immune dysfunctional disorders, such as sepsis and CNS injury-induced immunodeficiency syndrome (CIDS. In sepsis, excessive release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure and death. In CIDS, an acute CNS injury dysregulates a normally well-balanced interplay between the CNS and immune system, leading to increased patients’ susceptibility to infections. In this review, we will discuss potential therapeutic modulation of the immune response in sepsis and CNS injury by manipulation of the ECS representing a novel target for immunotherapy.

  8. Development and utilization of ``Plate Changer'' system for neutrino interaction locations in OPERA emulsion target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, J.; Ariga, A.; Ban, T.; Hoshino, K.; Ishiguro, K.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Koshiba, S.; Matsuo, T.; Miyanishi, K.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Natsume, M.; Narita, K.; Omura, T.; Oya, M.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T.; Suzuki, K.; Kose, U.; Yoon, C. S.; Zama, Y.

    2013-02-01

    In the OPERA experiment, so-called Scan Back method is used to locate neutrino interaction vertices in the emulsion target named ECC (Emulsion Cloud Chamber). In Scan Back method, tracks detected in the most downstream emulsion plate in ECCs are followed to upstream plate by plate until it reaches to the interaction points. In order to treat a number of neutrino interactions recorded in OPERA, dedicated systems called Plate Changer has been developed and utilized to neutrino event location in Japan. The details of the system have been described in this report. Until the end of November 2012, 6223 Scan Back trials have been performed using this system, and strongly contributed to the detection of tau neutrino appearance.

  9. Development and utilization of ''Plate Changer'' system for neutrino interaction locations in OPERA emulsion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, J; Ariga, A; Ban, T; Hoshino, K; Ishiguro, K; Kazuyama, M; Kitagawa, N; Komatsu, M; Koshiba, S; Miyanishi, K; Morishima, K; Naganawa, N; Naka, T; Nakano, T; Nakatsuka, Y; Natsume, M; Narita, K; Kim, S H; Kodama, K; Matsuo, T

    2013-01-01

    In the OPERA experiment, so-called Scan Back method is used to locate neutrino interaction vertices in the emulsion target named ECC (Emulsion Cloud Chamber). In Scan Back method, tracks detected in the most downstream emulsion plate in ECCs are followed to upstream plate by plate until it reaches to the interaction points. In order to treat a number of neutrino interactions recorded in OPERA, dedicated systems called Plate Changer has been developed and utilized to neutrino event location in Japan. The details of the system have been described in this report. Until the end of November 2012, 6223 Scan Back trials have been performed using this system, and strongly contributed to the detection of tau neutrino appearance.

  10. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2011-01-01

    "This book covers all of the information needed to design LEDs into end-products. It is a practical guide, primarily explaning how things are done by practicing engineers. Equations are used only for practical calculations, and are kept to the level of high-school algebra. There are numerous drawings and schematics showing how things such as measurements are actually made, and showing curcuits that actually work. There are practical notes and examples embedded in the text that give pointers and how-to guides on many of the book's topics. After reading each chapter of the book, readers will have the knowledge to implement practical designs. This book will be kept as a reference tool for years to come"--

  11. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of white LED transmission through a smoke screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Yang, Aiying; Feng, Lihui; Guo, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of white LED transmission through a smoke screen is critical for visible light communication through a smoke screen. Based on the Mie scattering theory, the Monte Carlo transmission model is established. Based on the probability density function, the white LED sampling model is established according to the measured spectrum of a white LED and the distribution angle of the lambert model. The sampling model of smoke screen particle diameter is also established according to its distribution. We simulate numerically the influence the smoke thickness, the smoke concentration and the angle of irradiance of white LED on transmittance of the white LED. We construct a white LED smoke transmission experiment system. The measured result on the light transmittance and the smoke concentration agreed with the simulated result, and demonstrated the validity of simulation model for visible light transmission channel through a smoke screen.

  13. Design of LED lamps | Ashryatov | Journal of Fundamental and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variant of the lighting system energy efficiency increase with luminaires and linear fluorescent lamps is considered. In the proposed variant, the fluorescent lamps and start regulating devices are replaced with linear LED modules. In order to reduce the glossiness of a luminaire, the LED modules must be covered with ...

  14. Overview of dosimetry for systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, Barry W.; Syh, Joseph H.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of systemic targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry include compiling a database of normal organ radiation-absorbed doses that are carrier- and radionuclide-specific, and assuring that the normal organ radiation doses are within a safe range before therapy. Also of importance is quantitation of radiation delivery to tumors vs. normal tissues to correlate absorbed dose with tumor control. For agents with significant and variable excretion, estimates of individual patient distribution/clearance may be needed to optimize the dose-response relationship

  15. Target area acquisition and control system survivability for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagans, K.; Stathis, P.; Wiedwald, J.; Campbell, D.

    1994-06-01

    The hardening of instruments to survive NIF target emission environments presents a significant challenge. Neutron flux is predicted to be as much as six orders of magnitude greater than the highest achieved neutron flux on NOVA. Not withstanding the high prompt radiation fields, the specifications for the instruments are demanding; requiring high resolution imaging and sub nanosecond transient measurements. We present an analysis of the sensitivity of the proposed NIF instrumentation design to EMP, X-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons. Major components assessed include fiber optic cable transport, high bandwidth cable and charge coupled detector (CCD) imaging systems

  16. HOW BOXERS DECIDE TO PUNCH A TARGET: EMERGENT BEHAVIOUR IN NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL MOVEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hristovski

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown how dynamical systems theory provides a relevant framework for investigating decision-making behavior in sport. The aim of this study was to adopt concepts and tools from nonlinear dynamics in examining effects of boxer-target distance and perceived punching efficiency on emergent decision-making during a typical practice task in boxing. Results revealed the existence of critical values of scaled distances between boxers and targets for first time appearance and disappearance of a diverse range of boxing actions including jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the diversity of actions were twofold: i abrupt (qualitative changes in the number of the possible punches, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; and ii, fine modification of the probabilities of selecting specific striking patterns. Boxers were able to exploit the emerging perception of strikeability, leading to a changing diversity of selected actions and a cascade of abrupt changes in the perceptual-motor work space of the task. Perceived efficiency of a punching action by the participants also changed as a function of the scaled distance to a target and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of specific boxing actions. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems an important perceptual constraint in the training task of punching a heavy bag in boxers

  17. Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Stewart, Chip; Tan, Yuxiang; Abo, Ryan P; Zhang, Liye; Dunford, Andrew J; Meredith, David M; Thorner, Aaron R; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Liu, Gang; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Ducar, Matthew D; Illerhaus, Gerald; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Linden, Erica A; Sun, Heather H; Homer, Heather; Aono, Miyuki; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Ligon, Azra H; Ligon, Keith L; Ferry, Judith A; Freeman, Gordon J; van Hummelen, Paul; Golub, Todd R; Getz, Gad; Rodig, Scott J; de Jong, Daphne; Monti, Stefano; Shipp, Margaret A

    2016-02-18

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary testicular lymphomas (PTLs) are extranodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with inferior responses to current empiric treatment regimens. To identify targetable genetic features of PCNSL and PTL, we characterized their recurrent somatic mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, copy number alterations (CNAs), and associated driver genes, and compared these comprehensive genetic signatures to those of diffuse LBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). These studies identify unique combinations of genetic alterations in discrete LBCL subtypes and subtype-selective bases for targeted therapy. PCNSLs and PTLs frequently exhibit genomic instability, and near-uniform, often biallelic, CDKN2A loss with rare TP53 mutations. PCNSLs and PTLs also use multiple genetic mechanisms to target key genes and pathways and exhibit near-uniform oncogenic Toll-like receptor signaling as a result of MYD88 mutation and/or NFKBIZ amplification, frequent concurrent B-cell receptor pathway activation, and deregulation of BCL6. Of great interest, PCNSLs and PTLs also have frequent 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 CNAs and additional translocations of these loci, structural bases of immune evasion that are shared with PMBL. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Target Area Structural Support systems design to achieve the micron-level stability requirement of the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, D.S.; Karpenko, V.P.; Wavrik, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Target Area Structural Support (TASS) systems are designed to provide an optically stable support for the target area systems and personnel access platforms for the 192 laser beam configuration. The conceptual design of the TASS systems was an optimum configuration selected from three designs on which performance studies were conducted. The supporting bases for the design selection were the analytical results, operation, and cost effective

  19. Midline signalling systems direct the formation of a neural map by dendritic targeting in the Drosophila motor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mauss

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental strategy for organising connections in the nervous system is the formation of neural maps. Map formation has been most intensively studied in sensory systems where the central arrangement of axon terminals reflects the distribution of sensory neuron cell bodies in the periphery or the sensory modality. This straightforward link between anatomy and function has facilitated tremendous progress in identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin map development. Much less is known about the way in which networks that underlie locomotion are organised. We recently showed that in the Drosophila embryo, dendrites of motorneurons form a neural map, being arranged topographically in the antero-posterior axis to represent the distribution of their target muscles in the periphery. However, the way in which a dendritic myotopic map forms has not been resolved and whether postsynaptic dendrites are involved in establishing sets of connections has been relatively little explored. In this study, we show that motorneurons also form a myotopic map in a second neuropile axis, with respect to the ventral midline, and they achieve this by targeting their dendrites to distinct medio-lateral territories. We demonstrate that this map is "hard-wired"; that is, it forms in the absence of excitatory synaptic inputs or when presynaptic terminals have been displaced. We show that the midline signalling systems Slit/Robo and Netrin/Frazzled are the main molecular mechanisms that underlie dendritic targeting with respect to the midline. Robo and Frazzled are required cell-autonomously in motorneurons and the balance of their opposite actions determines the dendritic target territory. A quantitative analysis shows that dendritic morphology emerges as guidance cue receptors determine the distribution of the available dendrites, whose total length and branching frequency are specified by other cell intrinsic programmes. Our results suggest that the

  20. Multi-target consensus circle pursuit for multi-agent systems via a distributed multi-flocking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Huiqin; Chen, Shiming; Lai, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the multi-target consensus pursuit problem of multi-agent systems. For solving the problem, a distributed multi-flocking method is designed based on the partial information exchange, which is employed to realise the pursuit of multi-target and the uniform distribution of the number of pursuing agents with the dynamic target. Combining with the proposed circle formation control strategy, agents can adaptively choose the target to form the different circle formation groups accomplishing a multi-target pursuit. The speed state of pursuing agents in each group converges to the same value. A Lyapunov approach is utilised to analyse the stability of multi-agent systems. In addition, a sufficient condition is given for achieving the dynamic target consensus pursuit, and which is then analysed. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.