WorldWideScience

Sample records for led lamp approaches

  1. LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  2. Automotive LED lamp lighted appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lawrence G.; Bennett, Larry R.

    2001-05-01

    The automotive optical engineer has an entirely new set of rules to follow for a 'smooth lighted appearance' with the introduction of LEDs into the automotive signal lighting market. To move away from the 'polka-dot' appearance long associated with the usage of LEDs as the light source for automotive lighting, and give the consumer a smooth lighted appearance to his lamp, there are several optical parameters that must be observed. The number and type of LEDs used, the size of the optical elements used, the spacing of the optical elements, plus many other factors all play a critical role and must be considered in the solution to the 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp. The 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp has long been a difficult problem to which there is more than one solution. The most visually pleasing and effective solution is not always the most easily obtainable solution since photometry requirements and smooth lighted appearance can be diametric goals. Subsequently the most cost effective and the easily 'doable' solution may not give the ultimate in aesthetically pleasing results for the consumer. Therefore, it is the purpose and intent of this paper to outline the parameters that need to be considered to obtain a 'smooth lighted appearance' for an automotive signal lamp, and to clarify the methods and 'tools' that are required to meet this goal.

  3. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  4. LED lamp power management system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  5. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  6. Development and commercialisation of rechargeable wooden LED lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this project was to work with local staff at Kathmandu Alternative Power and Energy Group to commercialise a product which would generate recurring income for the organisation, to enable staff to learn the process of commercialisation and to provide employment and skills in the local community. Rechargeable Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps were deemed suitable for these aims, as they are a simple product, yet one that is urgently required in Nepal due to the prevalence of ‘load-shedding’ – scheduled electrical blackouts. After reviewing the market, it was found that it would be impossible to compete with the price of cheap imported Chinese rechargeable LED lamps, so an alternative approach was taken. This involved sourcing wooden off-cuts from a local furniture factory and transforming them into attractive desk lamps, with the target market being affluent Nepalis, ex-pats living in Nepal and tourists. Successful initial sales were achieved through a Kathmandu-based ex-pat email group, hotel-markets and souvenir stores. KAPEG staff have continued the project, producing variations on the initial design including Himalayan rock salt lamps, employing local people to manufacture lamps and selling them at markets in Kathmandu. Staffing and marketing challenges remain to ensure the lamp manufacture and sales continue.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  8. Thermal design for the high-power LED lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaogai; Chen Wei; Zhang Jiyong

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes different kinds of heat sinks on the market for high power LED lamps. Analysis is made on the thermal model of LED, PCB and heat sink separately with a simplified mode provided. Two examples of simulation are illustrated as a demonstration for the thermal simulation as guidance for LED lamp design. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  10. Design of LED lamps | Ashryatov | Journal of Fundamental and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variant of the lighting system energy efficiency increase with luminaires and linear fluorescent lamps is considered. In the proposed variant, the fluorescent lamps and start regulating devices are replaced with linear LED modules. In order to reduce the glossiness of a luminaire, the LED modules must be covered with ...

  11. LED lamps in shipboard lighting systems: Aspects of electromagnetic compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beley V. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the development of different types of light sources and their energy characteristics have been described in the paper. Analysis of regulatory documents has been given. The results of experimental studies of a number of modern LED lamps have been described. Investigation has been made for a number of LED lamps produced by Philips, Xavax and Melitec. The experimental data have been obtained with the complex of devices: the dual-channel oscilloscope (GDS-71042, the power quality analyzer (Fluke-434 and the multi-function device EcoLight-01 (light-, pulse- and luminance meter. It has been shown that operation of LED lamps is characterized by emission of higher current harmonics and reactive power consumption, which depends on the type and design of the lamp driver. It has been found that the value of luminance created by LED lamps in case of acceptable (for ships prolonged deviation of voltage (–10 % is reduced by 3 %; in case of permissible short-term voltage deviation (–20 % luminance is reduced by 7 %. For incandescent lamps this indicator is characterized by a decrease in luminance by 40 % and 60 %, respectively. Despite the low sensitivity to voltage changes (in comparison with other types of lamps, the operation of LED lamps is also associated with the appearance of flicker. Absence of limitations for fluctuations of the light flux in shipboard lighting systems and imperfection of methods for determining the flicker make it difficult to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lamps. Therefore due to reliability, environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and lumen maintenance LED lamps have prospects for introduction into shipboard lighting systems. However, to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lighting systems it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of energy characteristics of LED lamps and to develop appropriate regulatory requirements and technical solutions.

  12. Thermal simulation and validation of 8W LED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Formánek, J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bolt, P.J.; Kulha, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with thermal simulation and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) LED Lamp in order to get precise 3D thermal models for further lamp thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS-CFX and CoventorWare software tools. The simulated thermal distribution has been

  13. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens

  14. Thermal analysis of LED lamps for optimal driver integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpiñà, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jakovenko, J.; Jordà, X.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal influence of a light-emitting diode (LED) driver on a retrofit LED lamp, also reporting on a procedure for its thermal characterization and multiscale modeling. In this analysis, temperature is measured by infrared thermography and monitoring specific locations with

  15. Improved power quality based high brightness LED lamp driver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with a power factor corrected (PFC) improved power quality based LED lamp driver. The proposed driver consists of a PFC Cuk DC-DC converter which operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM) to improve the power quality at input AC mains. The design, modeling and simulation of an 18W LED (six ...

  16. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  17. Harmonics Study of Common Low Wattage LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Dragoş Deaconu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents experimental data on Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps of low wattage that are commonly found both in commercial and residential applications. A comparison with the existing regulations is performed. The measurements are performed using power and energy quality analyzer intended also for avionic and military systems.

  18. LED lamp incorporating remote phosphor with heat dissipation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tao; Letoquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric

    2016-11-22

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and a remote planar phosphor carrier having at least one conversion material. The phosphor carrier can be remote to the light sources and mounted to the heat sink so that heat from the phosphor carrier spreads into the heat sink. The phosphor carrier can comprise a thermally conductive transparent material and a phosphor layer, with an LED based light source mounted to the heat sink such that light from the light source passes through the phosphor carrier. At least some of the LED light is converted by the phosphor carrier, with some lamp embodiments emitting a white light combination of LED and phosphor light. The phosphor arranged according to the present invention can operate at lower temperature to thereby operate at greater phosphor conversion efficiency and with reduced heat related damage to the phosphor.

  19. Photometric characterization of LED's for optimal design of interior lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, O.; Guerra, H.; Leon, V.; Torres, A. W.; Castannon, H.; Camas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Tuxtla Gutierrez Technology Institute, and the Innovaluz of Mexico S A of C V company have joined forces to develop LED lighting technology in Chiapas, Mexico. We performed a comprehensive study of power savings for a household using this luminary. The main results of the Lighting are presented exclusively for the ILIGPL153BF24W model, as well as the design features of a functional lamp. (Author)

  20. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  1. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  2. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  3. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre......-heating relative differences for total luminous flux of ±2,5% were obtained. Reliable photometric data can be obtained for use in market monitoring to identify probable non-compliance LED lamps and hence as an improved method for selecting LED lamps for accredited verification testing....

  4. Automatic detecting method of LED signal lamps on fascia based on color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoling; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Instrument display panel is one of the most important parts of automobiles. Automatic detection of LED signal lamps is critical to ensure the reliability of automobile systems. In this paper, an automatic detection method was developed which is composed of three parts in the automatic detection: the shape of LED lamps, the color of LED lamps, and defect spots inside the lamps. More than hundreds of fascias were detected with the automatic detection algorithm. The speed of the algorithm is quite fast and satisfied with the real-time request of the system. Further, the detection result was demonstrated to be stable and accurate.

  5. CALiPER Application Summary Report 17. LED AR111 and PAR36 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    Report 17 analyzes the performance of a group of six LED products labeled as AR111 lamps. Results indicate that this product category lags behind other types of directional LED lamps but may perform acceptably in some applications and provide some energy savings.

  6. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  7. LED Light Characteristics for Surgical Shadowless Lamps and Surgical Loupes

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Takeshi; Kinugawa, Yoshitaka; Nobae, Yuichi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Toda, Ikuko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blue light has more energy than longer wavelength light and can penetrate the eye to reach the retina. When surgeons use magnifying loupes under intensive surgical shadowless lamps for better view of the surgical field, the total luminance is about 200 times brighter than that of typical office lighting. In this study, the effects of 2 types of shadowless lamps were compared. Moreover, the effect of various eyeglasses, which support magnifying loupes, on both the light energy and ...

  8. Comparative performance analysis of shunt and series passive filter for LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Edi; Facta, Mochammad; Handoko, Susatyo

    2018-03-01

    Light Emitting Diode lamp or LED lamp nowadays is widely used by consumers as a new innovation in the lighting technologies due to its energy saving for low power consumption lamps for brighter light intensity. How ever, the LED lamp produce an electric pollutant known as harmonics. The harmonics is generated by rectifier as part of LED lamp circuit. The present of harmonics in current or voltage has made the source waveform from the grid is distorted. This distortion may cause inacurrate measurement, mall function, and excessive heating for any element at the grid. This paper present an analysis work of shunt and series filters to suppress the harmonics generated by the LED lamp circuit. The work was initiated by conducting several tests to investigate the harmonic content of voltage and currents. The measurements in this work were carried out by using HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer 3197. The measurement results showed that the harmonics current of tested LED lamps were above the limit of IEEE standard 519-2014. Based on the measurement results shunt and series filters were constructed as low pass filters. The bode analysis were appled during construction and prediction of the filters performance. Based on experimental results, the application of shunt filter at input side of LED lamp has reduced THD current up to 88%. On the other hand, the series filter has significantly reduced THD current up to 92%.

  9. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  10. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paget, M. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lingard, R. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines standard fluorescent lamps, the recessed troffers they are commonly used in, and available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps and their application in fluorescent troffers.

  11. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  12. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  13. Quantification and analysis of color stability based on thermal transient behavior in white LED lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa Khan, M

    2017-09-20

    We present measurement and analysis of color stability over time for two categories of white LED lamps based on their thermal management scheme, which also affects their transient lumen depreciation. We previously reported that lumen depreciation in LED lamps can be minimized by properly designing the heat sink configuration that allows lamps to reach a thermal equilibrium condition quickly. Although it is well known that lumen depreciation degrades color stability of white light since color coordinates vary with total lumen power by definition, quantification and characterization of color shifts based on thermal transient behavior have not been previously reported in literature for LED lamps. Here we provide experimental data and analysis of transient color shifts for two categories of household LED lamps (from a total of six lamps in two categories) and demonstrate that reaching thermal equilibrium more quickly provides better stability for color rendering, color temperature, and less deviation of color coordinates from the Planckian blackbody locus line, which are all very important characterization parameters of color for white light. We report for the first time that a lamp's color degradation from the turn-on time primarily depends on thermal transient behavior of the semiconductor LED chip, which experiences a wavelength shift as well as a decrease in its dominant wavelength peak value with time, which in turn degrades the phosphor conversion. For the first time, we also provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis that differentiates color degradation due to the heat rise in GaN/GaInN LED chips and subsequently the boards these chips are mounted on-from that caused by phosphor heating in a white LED module. Finally, we briefly discuss why there are some inevitable trade-offs between omnidirectionality and color and luminous output stability in current household LED lamps and what will help eliminate these trade-offs in future lamp designs.

  14. Design and Manufacture of a Novel LED Table Lamp with Flower Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work involved the design and manufacture of a novel LED table lamp that provides for flower decoration. It is a combination of a normal LED table lamp and attachments holding flower arrangement frogs. In this application the frogs, as used for traditional flower arrangements, became heat sinks for the LED units. They are made of an aluminum alloy to give good heat transfer and dissipation. In any case since they are fixed to the unit they do not need to be very heavy. The design features of this novel flower-arrangement LED table lamp are: (1 the use of a light aluminum alloy flower decoration frog as a heat sink which gives both high heat dissipation and allows decorative flower arrangement; (2 the installation of LED lamps at three points of the same plate above a cylinder covered with a glass lampshade to achieve a beautiful effect; (3 to provide three different lighting modes for reading, use as a night light and for flower decoration. This novel LED table lamp meets all the energy-saving and environmental protection requirements. It has commercial potential in the market for LED lamps.

  15. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  16. CALiPER Application Summary Report 20. LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-11-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR. Additional testing that focuses on performance attributes beyond those covered by LM-79-08 is planned for this group of lamps, and will be presented in subsequent reports.

  17. CALiPER Application Summary Report 21. Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    This report focuses on the bare lamp performance of 31 linear LED lamps intended as an alternative to T8 fluorescent lamps. Data obtained in accordance with IES LM-79-08 indicated that the mean efficacy is similar to that of fluorescent lamps, but that lumen output is often much lower. This presents a situation where something must change in order for energy savings and equivalent illumination levels to be achieved simultaneously. In this case, the luminous intensity distribution of all the tested lamps was directional or semi-directional, rather than omnidirectional. Also discussed in this report are several issues related to the electrical configuration of the lamps, such as the required socket types and power feed location. While no configuration is necessarily better, the multitude of options can make specifying and installing linear LED lamps more difficult, with the potential for safety issues. Similarly, the variety of color and power quality attributes adds a layer of complexity to the specification process. Many products offered good or excellent quality attributes, but some did not and thus could be perceived as inferior to fluorescent lamps in some installations.

  18. Lumen degradation analysis of LED lamps based on the subsystem isolation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hong-Liang; Hao, Jian; Tu, Jian-Hui; Miao, Pei-Xian; Wang, Chao-Quan; Cui, Jing-Zhong; Sun, Qiang; Sun, Ren-Tao

    2018-02-01

    The lumen degradation of LED lamps undergoing an accelerated aging test is investigated. The entire LED lamp is divided into three subsystems, namely, driver, lampshade, and LED light source. The parameters of output power [Watts (W)], transmittance (%), and lumen flux (lm) are adopted in the analysis of the degradation of the driver, lampshade, and LED light source, respectively. Two groups of LED lamps are aged under the ambient temperatures of 25°C and 85°C, respectively, with the aging time of 2000 h. The lumen degradation of the lamps is from 3.8% to 4.9% for the group under a temperature of 25°C and from 10.6% to 12.7% for the group under a temperature of 85°C. The LED light source is the most aggressive part of the three subsystems, which accounts for 70.5% of the lumen degradation of the LED lamp on average. The lampshade is the second degradation source, which causes 21.5% of the total amount on average. The driver is the third degradation source, which causes 6.5% under 25°C and 2.8% under 85°C of the total amount on average.

  19. Implementation and Test of a LED-Based Lamp for a Lighthouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mercatelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sustainable source was developed for an existing Italian lighthouse, exploiting the light emitting diode (LED technology and the norms evolution. The research work started with the optical design of the device, while this work concerns the realization, installation, and test of the new LED lamp. The lamp recombines multiple separated LEDs, realizing a quasipunctual localized source. After installation in the lighthouse, specific photometric tests verified that the proposed power-saving source satisfied the illumination requirements of the marine signaling norms. The advantages of the LED-based lamp are reduced energy consumption, enhanced efficiency, longer life, decreased faults, slower aging, and lower maintenance costs. The obtained LED signalling device is more durable and reliable. In the future the application of these power-saving long-life sources could be extended to other maritime signaling devices or to other traffic signs.

  20. The Lifetime Prediction of LED Drivers and Lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, B.

    2017-01-01

    Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have become a very promising alternative lighting source with the main advantages of a longer lifetime and a higher efficiency than traditional ones. However, the LED lamp’s lifetime is compromised by its driver’s reliability. Although extensive studies have been made on

  1. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  2. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  3. CALiPER Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Merzouk, Massine B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report is a follow-up to CALiPER Application Summary Report 22, which investigated the photometric performance of LED MR16 lamps. The initial report found that many of the LED MR16 lamps did not perform as required by ENERGY STAR based on their equivalency claims, although they generally did provide substantial efficacy advantages compared to halogen MR16 lamps. All testing was completed using laboratory power supplies, with all but one product tested at 12 V AC. In contrast, this report examined the photoelectric performance of the same set of lamps, using commercially available transformers and dimmers as well as laboratory power supplies providing both AC and DC power.

  4. Procedure to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over LED and magnetic induction lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Otavio Luis de; Menzel, Silvio Carlos, E-mail: otavioluis@ipen.br, E-mail: scmenzel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Ribas, Jacinto Oliveira, E-mail: jacinto@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Eletrica e Instrumentacao

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over Lighting Emitting Diode (LED) and Magnetic Induction (MI) lamps as they use a lot of electronic in their power supply. Considering they have a huge lifetime it is interesting to apply this technology into environments under ionizing radiation, such as a nuclear facility. Thus, it is possible to increase the period between two consecutive maintenance, reduce the repair and global maintenance costs and reduce the operational personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. In this context it is going to be presented a scheme to select different LED and MI lamps available in the Brazilian market, a methodology to irradiate several lamp samples according various radiation levels that can be found in the facilities and the electrical and photometric evaluation to be performed. Considering this methodology it will be possible to analyze the lamps capacity to withstand ionizing radiation, under regular operating conditions of the facilities and its effects in the performance and lifetime of the selected lamps. Thus, the procedures suggested in this work can be used as a guide to perform experiments and analysis to find specific lamps that can reduce the global maintenance costs and the personnel exposure. Hereafter, several lamps are going to be acquired and the tests performed, according the procedures here described. (author)

  5. Procedure to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over LED and magnetic induction lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Otavio Luis de; Menzel, Silvio Carlos; Ribas, Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over Lighting Emitting Diode (LED) and Magnetic Induction (MI) lamps as they use a lot of electronic in their power supply. Considering they have a huge lifetime it is interesting to apply this technology into environments under ionizing radiation, such as a nuclear facility. Thus, it is possible to increase the period between two consecutive maintenance, reduce the repair and global maintenance costs and reduce the operational personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. In this context it is going to be presented a scheme to select different LED and MI lamps available in the Brazilian market, a methodology to irradiate several lamp samples according various radiation levels that can be found in the facilities and the electrical and photometric evaluation to be performed. Considering this methodology it will be possible to analyze the lamps capacity to withstand ionizing radiation, under regular operating conditions of the facilities and its effects in the performance and lifetime of the selected lamps. Thus, the procedures suggested in this work can be used as a guide to perform experiments and analysis to find specific lamps that can reduce the global maintenance costs and the personnel exposure. Hereafter, several lamps are going to be acquired and the tests performed, according the procedures here described. (author)

  6. CALiPER Application Summary Report 16. LED BR30 and R30 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested performance of 13 LED products labeled as BR30 or R30 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR.

  7. Multiple Primary LED Lamp Colour Controller with Inherent Brightness Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barcena, R.; Ackermann, B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong interest in using LEDs for general illumination due to the potential they offer for energy saving, environmental friendliness, new opportunities in lighting design, and control of the intensity, colour, and spatial distribution of light. General illumination requires primarily

  8. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  9. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  10. A Novel Heat Sink Design and Prototyping for LED Desk Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED is a modern lighting device. If the heat dissipating mechanism of LED desk lamp is not well designed, the induced high temperature will cause the reduction of illumination and life time of lamp. Therefore, the heat sink design becomes a key technology for LED lighting device. This study developed a methodology to design and analyze a heat sink for LED cooling. Four different types of heat sinks with fins in longitudinal or transverse directions and with or without vents on the base plate were compared. By using the CFD software FLUENT, heat flux and temperature around the heat sink were analyzed, and the surface temperature distribution was also investigated. The simulation outcomes were compared with experiments results to verify analysis accuracy. The comparisons show only slight differences, and the deviations were less than 4.0%. For cooling LED desk lamp, the design of using 12 vents on both sides of heat sink through natural convection to create the chimney effect was adopted; consequently, the temperature dropped 5°C in average. This design can also reduce the material of heat sink, LED lamp weight, and production cost.

  11. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a compact and portable goniospectrometer system is described. Measurements are performed in two very different conditions, in a normal office environment and in a photometry laboratory under standard environmental conditions and both are compared to reference...... measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre...

  12. Phototaxis of Propsilocerus akamusi (Diptera: Chironomidae) From a Shallow Eutrophic Lake in Response to Led Lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Kimio; Nagai, Yoshinari; Mushya, Tetsuya; Higashino, Makoto; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2017-06-01

    A study on the attraction of adult Propsilocerus akamusi midges to different-colored light traps was carried out from October 21 to November 15, 2013. The 6 colored lights used in light-emitting diode (LED) lamps were white, green, red, blue, amber, and ultraviolet (UV). The UV lamp attracted the most P. akamusi, followed by green, white, blue, amber, and red. A white pulsed LED light attracted only half the number of midges as did a continuous-emission white LED light. The result indicated that manipulation of light color, considering that the red LED light and/or pulsed LED light are not as attractive as the other colors, may be appropriate for the development of an overall integrated strategy to control nuisance P. akamusi in the Lake Suwa area.

  13. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölz, K; Lietard, J; Somoza, M M

    2017-01-03

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p -type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination.

  14. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p-type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination. PMID:28066690

  15. An accelerated test method of luminous flux depreciation for LED luminaires and lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, C.; Fan, X.J.; Fan, J.J.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Light Emitting Diode (LED) luminaires and lamps are energy-saving and environmental friendly alternatives to traditional lighting products. However, current luminous flux depreciation test at luminaire and lamp level requires a minimum of 6000 h testing, which is even longer than the product development cycle time. This paper develops an accelerated test method for luminous flux depreciation to reduce the test time within 2000 h at an elevated temperature. The method is based on lumen maintenance boundary curve, obtained from a collection of LED source lumen depreciation data, known as LM-80 data. The exponential decay model and Arrhenius acceleration relationship are used to determine the new threshold of lumen maintenance and acceleration factor. The proposed method has been verified by a number of simulation studies and experimental data for a wide range of LED luminaire and lamp types from both internal and external experiments. The qualification results obtained by the accelerated test method agree well with traditional 6000 h tests. - Highlights: • We develop an accelerated test method for LED luminaires and lamps. • The method is proposed based on a “Boundary Curve” concept. • The parameters of the boundary curve are extracted from LM-80 test reports. • Qualification results from the proposed method agree with ES requirements.

  16. CALiPER Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-09-01

    An initial sample of 27 LED MR16 lamps and 8 halogen benchmarks underwent photometric testing according to IES LM-79-08. CALiPER Application Summary Report 22 focuses on the initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to the benchmarks and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds.

  17. Application of wireless intelligent control system for HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinxing; Qiu, Junling; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Yaqiong; Fan, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Because of the particularity of the environment in the tunnel, the rational tunnel illumination system should be developed, so as to optimize the tunnel environment. Considering the high cost of traditional tunnel illumination system with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps as well as the effect of a single light source on tunnel entrance, the energy-saving illumination system with HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel, which could make full use of these two kinds of lamps, was proposed. The wireless intelligent control system based on HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination and microcontrol unit (MCU) Si1000 wireless communication technology was designed. And the remote monitoring, wireless communication, and PWM dimming module of this system were designed emphatically. Intensity detector and vehicle flow detector can be configured in wireless intelligent control system, which gather the information to the master control unit, and then the information is sent to the monitoring center through the Ethernet. The control strategies are got by the monitoring center according to the calculated results, and the control unit wirelessly sends parameters to lamps, which adjust the luminance of each segment of the tunnel and realize the wireless intelligent control of combined illumination in road tunnel.

  18. Development of LED light sources and lamps. Final report; Slutrapport for PSO 337-068. Udvikling af LED lyskilder og lamper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, B.; Scharling Holm, J.; Munkgaard Andersen, J.; Falleboe, H.; Olsen, Jesper; Flindt, C.

    2007-04-15

    This report is the final and concluding report on the research and development project 'Development of LED light sources and lamps' PSO no. 337-068 supported by Dansk Energi - Net. The project was a collaboration between Risoe National laboratory, Louis Poulsen Lighting, Dong Energy, Laboratoriet Lys & Syn and RGB Lamps. The objective of this project was to pave the way for replacement of incandescent- and halogen lighting by LED lightning through development of prototypes for new types of LED products: light sources and lamps. The report summarizes and describes the main results of the project, which are: 1) a new LED light source with an efficacy of 51 lm/W and a CRI index of 92 that can replace an incandescent bulb. 2) two LED pendants/lamps, a LED table lamp and a chair with LED lighting developed by designers and researchers. 3) LED seminar and two exhibitions of the newly developed LED products and user test by questionnaires. 4) A new startup company 'Morfoso'. 5) Developed course on light and LED technology for designers. 6) A new LED light laboratory for test and characterization of LED components and LED light sources and lamps. (au)

  19. Minimization of lumen depreciation in LED lamps using thermal transient behavior analysis and design optimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Nisa

    2016-02-10

    We expansively investigate thermal behaviors of various general-purpose light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and apply our measured results, validated by simulation, to establish lamp design rules for optimizing their optical and thermal properties. These design rules provide the means to minimize lumen depreciation over time by minimizing the periods for lamps to reach thermal steady-state while maintaining their high luminous efficacy and omnidirectional light distribution capability. While it is well known that minimizing the junction temperature of an LED leads to a longer lifetime and an increased lumen output, our study demonstrates, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that it is also important to minimize the time it takes to reach thermal equilibrium because doing so minimizes lumen depreciation and enhances light output and color stability during operation. Specifically, we have found that, in addition to inadequate heat-sink fin areas for a lamp configuration, LEDs mounted on multiple boards, as opposed to a single board, lead to longer periods for reaching thermal equilibrium contributing to larger lumen depreciation.

  20. Design of Elliptic Reflective LED Surgical Shadowless Lamps Using Mathematical Optical Tracing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tang Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional surgical shadowless halogen lamps are generally designed as projection type with many light bulbs, which can produce not only mercury pollution but also heat radiation that are serious problems to patient. The study utilized Runge-Kutta methods and mathematical algorithms to design and optimize the freeform lens. The LED (light-emitting diode was adopted to replace the traditional halogen lamp. A uniform lens was designed and fabricated based on the energy conservation. At first, the light field of LED is concentrated through the freeform lens to improve the optical efficiency. Second, the three-shell elliptic curves are applied to the reflective surgical shadowless lamps, where only few LED chips are needed. Light rays emitting from different directions to the target plane can achieve the goal of shadowless. In this study, the LED’s luminance flux is 1,895 lm. The shadow dilution on the target plane is 54%. Ec (central illuminance is 114,900 lux, and the d50/d10 is 57% which is higher than the regulation by 7%, whereas the power consumption is only 20 W. The energy of reflective surgical shadowless lamps can save more than 50%, compared with the traditional projective one.

  1. Experimentation in the teaching of Modern Physics: Photoelectric Effect with neon lamp and LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Eberhardt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an experiment aimed at the teaching of Physics in High School, specifically the Photoelectric Effect, and it aims to support the teacher or serve as an inspiration for the proposition of other didactic activities. The experimentation consists on the exposure of a neon lamp to the lights of different wavelengths emitted by varied LEDs. The photoelectric current is measured on electrodes of the neon lamp, verifying that it has definite direction; the effect occurs when the wavelength of the applied light is less than a certain limit, and; the intensity of the photoelectric current depends on the intensity of the light applied, in agreement with the current scientific model of the phenomenon. This text also includes many decisive moments of the history of the Photoelectric Effect, characteristics of similar experiments using ultraviolet light, the electron work function of the metals of the electrodes and the ionization energy of the gases inside the lamp.

  2. 78 FR 13756 - Technical Report: Effectiveness of LED Stop Lamps for Reducing Rear-End Crashes: Analyses of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...-0013] Technical Report: Effectiveness of LED Stop Lamps for Reducing Rear-End Crashes: Analyses of... Transportation. ACTION: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating LED Stop Lamps. The report's title is...

  3. Lamp system with a single second-lens newly designed by using the least square method for 4 LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae Heung; Ryu, Jae Myung; Hong, Chun Gang

    2014-05-01

    It is common for many companies to use multiple LEDs to enhance the brightness of a LED lamp and, in general, four LEDs are used in the LED lamp systems. Moreover, the second-lens must be used to obtain a straight uniform illumination from LED lights. Where four LEDs are used, four second-lenses are also assembled conventionally and those four units of second-lenses are manufactured from a single mold and assembled together with the LEDs. However, this study introduces a new method of using the Least Square Method to get a uniform illumination with the divergence angle of 40 degrees with a new single injection molded lens. Thanks to this optical design with a single lens, the assembling process of LED lamp system was simplified by eliminating the complicated assembly procedure. Also, the uniformity of illumination of this newly designed lamp system was less than 14.1%.

  4. Cooling of High-Power LED Lamp Using a Commercial Paraffin Wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmywaczyk, J.; Zbińkowski, P.; Smogór, H.; Olejnik, A.; Koniorczyk, P.

    2017-03-01

    -step process. At 283 {°}C there was observed a slightly slower decomposition (9.43 %\\cdot min^{-1}) than that at 323 {°}C (12.5 %\\cdot min^{-1}). The experimental results obtained upon cooling the high-power LED lamp during its operation can be applied to verify results of numerical modeling of the heat transfer problems with phase-change transitions. An attempt at modeling such a problem based on 1D fixed grid with variable time step approach was undertaken in this work.

  5. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, Jeffrey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Joseph C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  7. Glare effect for three types of street lamps based on White LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Jiang, Chong-Jhih; Chen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Tsung-Hsun

    2014-05-01

    This study is aimed to assess the glare effect from LED-based street lamps with three general optical designs, which are cluster LEDs with a single lens, a LED array accompany with a lens array, and a tilted LED array, respectively. Observation conditions were simulated based on various locations and viewing axes. Equivalent luminance calculations were used to reveal the glare levels of the three designs. The age effect for the calculated equivalent luminance was also examined for human eyes of people at the age of 40 or 60. The results demonstrate that among the three design types, a LED array accompany with a lens array causes relatively smaller glare for most viewing conditions.

  8. THE YIELD OF LETTUCE BREEDING LINE UNDER LED LAMPS IN WINTER GREENHOUSE IN THE NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dalke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is widely known and favorite vegetable crop among people. In Europe the main production of lettuce is performed on protected ground with application of  artificial  light  sources. The artificially-lighted  culture  of salad became very actually acquired in the north. Previously, on the basis of multi-year studies on yield registration and experiments with different regimes of lighting we have defined the appropriate parameters of supplementary lighting for lettuce with sodium high-pressure lamps that provided the production in different seasons per year. The aim was to study the accumulation of biomass and yield quality in lettuce ‘Aphytsion’ being grown in winter rotation under light-emitting diodes lamps. The accumulation of biomass and yield quality was studied in ‘Aphytsion’,  grown in winter rotation under lightemitting diodes lamps ECOLED-BIO-112-185WD120 UniversaLED (ООО ‘GK’  ‘CET’, Perm, in  industrial greenhouse OOO ‘Prigorodniy’  at Syktyvkar city. The commodity  output  was obtained  for  two  cycle  of  cultivation, November-December  and  December-January.  Yield  of foliage biomass was 2.4 kg/m2 with flow density PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation about 90 μmole quantum/m2  s. at 20 W/m2 with total light energy 54 MJ/m2  supplied to plants from LED lamps. The plants produced about 0.5 g. of dry weight calculated on one mole of spent light energy. Energy efficiency of PAR was 3% that corresponded with data observed earlier with sodium high-pressure lamps. The conclusion was made about the suitableness of this type of light-emitting diode lamps for lettuce cultivation in winter rotation in first photic zone. It was recommended to increase duration of supplemental lighting up to 22-24 hours in December and up to 20-22 hours in January to improve the productivity and biological value of plant output. It enables to raise RAP income in plants by 35 %, on

  9. Design and Analysis of an Underwater White LED Fish-Attracting Lamp and its Light Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chih Shen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Light emitting diodes (LED are a new source for replacing traditional light sources including under water illumination. As traditional underwater light sources operate under a radiative transfer model, the luminous intensity is dispersed evenly at each emission angle, with the scattering factors included in the attenuation coefficient. By contrast, LED light sources are characterized by being highly directional, causing underwater luminous energy to vary with different emission angles. Thus, the traditional theory of underwater optical transfer becomes inapplicable when an underwater LED lighting module is designed. Therefore, to construct an underwater transfer model for LED light sources, this study employed the average cosine of the underwater light field, the method for light scattering probability, the LED luminous intensity distribution curve (LIDC and axial luminous intensity. Afterwards, an underwater LED fish-attracting lamp was designed. Experimental results showed that, compared with the simulation values, the luminous intensity of the underwater LED lighting module at all emission angles had a percentage error of less than 10%.

  10. CALiPER Report 21.2. Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looks at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps—chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles)—as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  11. Investigation of phosphor-LED lamp for real-time half-duplex wireless VLC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Liu, Yen-Liang; Hsu, Dar-Zu

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, a 71.3 to 148.4 Mbit s −1 white phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed and demonstrated under the practical transmission length of 140 to 210 cm. Here, a commercial white-light LED lamp with five cascaded phosphor-LED chips is utilized for illumination and communication simultaneously. In the measurement, we utilize the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-QAM) with bit-loading algorithm and propose an optimal bias-tee circuit design to improve the modulation bandwidth from 1 MHz to 27 MHz. Moreover, a blue optical filter is not used on the client side. Finally, to realize and demonstrate the real-time transmission performance in the proposed LED VLC system, a commercial OFDM-based digital signal processor (DSP) chip is utilized on the LED lighting side and client side, respectively. Hence, the proposed real-time half-duplex VLC transmission could achieve the 70 Mbit s −1 downstream and upstream data throughputs, under a practical transmission length of 200 cm. (paper)

  12. CALiPER Report 20.2: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-31

    This report focuses on the flicker and power quality performance of the Series 20 lamps at full output and various dimmed levels. All of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps that manufacturers claimed to be dimmable (including all halogen lamps) were evaluated individually (one lamp at a time) both on a switch and under the control of a phase-cut dimmer designed for use with "all classes of bulbs." Measurements of luminous flux, flicker, and power quality were taken at 10 target dimmed settings and compared with operation on a switch. Because only a single unit of each product was evaluated on a single dimmer that may or may not have been recommended by its manufacturer, this report focuses on the performance of the products relative to each other, rather than the best-case performance of each lamp or variation in performance delivered from each lamp. Despite these limitations, the results suggest that LED performance is improving, and performance trends are beginning to emerge, perhaps due in part to the identification of preferred LED driver strategies for lamp products.

  13. Multiple transfer standard for calibration and characterization of test setups for LED lamps and luminaires in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, A.; Meyer, M.; Pendsa, S.; Jordan, W.; Revtova, E.; Poikonen, T.; Renoux, D.; Blattner, P.

    2018-04-01

    Proper characterization of test setups used in industry for testing and traceable measurement of lighting devices by the substitution method is an important task. According to new standards for testing LED lamps, luminaires and modules, uncertainty budgets are requested because in many cases the properties of the device under test differ from the transfer standard used, which may cause significant errors, for example if a LED-based lamp is tested or calibrated in an integrating sphere which was calibrated with a tungsten lamp. This paper introduces a multiple transfer standard, which was designed not only to transfer a single calibration value (e.g. luminous flux) but also to characterize test setups used for LED measurements with additional provided and calibrated output features to enable the application of the new standards.

  14. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  15. CALiPER Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-08-31

    This report looks at the photoelectric performance of the same set of lamps assessed in Report 22, using commercially available transformers and dimmers as well as laboratory power supplies providing either AC or DC. The investigation explores several issues related to the testing and use of MR16 lamps in lighting systems and examines the range of performance that is possible for a given lamp model, based on the system to which it is connected.

  16. Color stable phosphors for LED lamps and methods for preparing them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James Edward; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Camardello, Samuel Joseph

    2013-11-26

    An LED lamp includes a light source configured to emit radiation with a peak intensity at a wavelength between about 250 nm and about 550 nm; and a phosphor composition configured to be radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor composition includes particles of a phosphor of formula I, said particles having a coating composition disposed on surfaces thereof; ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.sub.y-)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) I wherein the coating composition comprises a material selected from aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium phosphate, barium phosphate, strontium phosphate, and combinations thereof; and A is Li, NA, K, or Rb, or a combination thereof; M is Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, or a combination thereof; and 0

  17. Enhancement of Color Rendering Index for White Light LED Lamps by Red Y2O3:EU3+ Phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Quang Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of the red Y2O3:Eu3+ dopant phosphor compound for reaching the color rendering index as high as 86. The Multi-Chip White LED lamps (MCW-LEDs with high Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs including 7000 K and 8500 K are employed in this study. Besides, the impacts of the Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor on the attenuation of light through phosphor layers of the various packages is also demonstrated based on the Beer-Lambert law. Simulation results provide important conclusion for selecting and developing the phosphor materials in MCW-LEDs manufacturing.

  18. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  19. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  20. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-05-20

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  1. Which lamp will be optimum to eye? Incandescent, fluorescent or LED etc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency flicker, high frequency flicker, strong light, strong blue light, infrared, ultraviolet, electromagnetic radiation, ripple flicker and dimming flicker produced by different lamps have negative impact on vision, eyes and health. Negative impact on eyes resulting in myopia or cataract etc:the solution is to remove all the negative factors by applying upright lighting technology and that is optimum to vision, eyes and health.

  2. Which lamp will be optimum to eye? Incandescent, fluorescent or LED etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency flicker, high frequency flicker, strong light, strong blue light, infrared, ultraviolet, electromagnetic radiation, ripple flicker and dimming flicker produced by different lamps have negative impact on vision, eyes and health. Negative impact on eyes resulting in myopia or cataract etc: the solution is to remove all the negative factors by applying upright lighting technology and that is optimum to vision, eyes and health.

  3. Thermo-mechanical evaluation and life time simulation of high power LED lamp boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Pardo, B.; Perpiñà, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a precise 3-D modelling of several LED board technologies mainly focused on thermal, thermo-mechanical evaluation and life time prediction to compare their performances. Main role of each LED board is to transport heat from LED die to heat sink and keep the thermal stresses in

  4. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  5. Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n=30: without heating (Group 1, heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 30 s while setting (Group 2, and heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 60 s while setting (Group 3. Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (α=0.05. Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400 mW/cm2 during setting for 30 s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30 s and 60 s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times.

  6. Effects of Green - Emitting Phosphor (La,Ce,TbPO_4:Ce:Tb on Luminous Flux and Color Quality of White LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present and analyze the influence of (La,Ce,TbPO_4:Ce:Tb green phosphor (LaTb toward the performance of the multi-chip white LED (MCW-LEDs lamps including color uniformity, lumen output, Color Rendering Index (CRI, and Color Quality Scale (CQS. By mixing the LaTb green phosphor and the YAG:Ce yellow phosphor compounding under condition of 7000 K MCW-LEDs, this new approach can produce a huge meaningful change in lumen output and the angular color distribution of MCW-LEDs. We also study the interaction between the concentration and size of the LaTb particles with output flux, color uniformity, CRI, and CQS. The obtained results demonstrate that the higher lumen output, the higher color uniformity enhancement could be attained by adding the LaTb particles with a size range around 6-8 µm and the concentration around 1.5% in phosphor layer. Meanwhile, the decrease of the color rendering value (CRI and the Color Quality Scale (CQS tend to be stable and insignificant. In other words, the obtained results provide a prospective method which plays an important role in the development of MCW-LED manufacturing technology.

  7. University of Maryland Wall Washer Retrofit - LED Modules Replace Halogen Lamps in a Performing Arts Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abell, Thomas C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-03

    The University of Maryland (UMD) began retrofitting halogen wall washers in the Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center (CSPAC) in April 2014. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting (SSL) GATEWAY program documented this process through the final installation in March 2015, summarized in this report. The wall washers illuminate hallways lining the atrium, providing task illuminance for transitioning between spaces and visual interest to the atrium boundaries. The main goals of the retrofit were to maintain the visual appearance of the space while reducing maintenance costs – energy savings was considered an additional benefit by UMD Facilities Management. UMD Facilities Management is pleased with the results of this retrofit, and continues to initiate LED retrofit projects across the UMD campus.

  8. Potential environmental impacts from the metals in incandescent, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-01-15

    Artificial lighting systems are transitioning from incandescent to compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs in response to the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act and the EU Ecodesign Directive, which leads to energy savings and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although CFLs and LEDs are more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs, they require more metal-containing components. There is uncertainty about the potential environmental impacts of these components and whether special provisions must be made for their disposal at the end of useful life. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the resource depletion and toxicity potentials from the metals in incandescent, CFL, and LED bulbs to complement the development of sustainable energy policy. We assessed the potentials by examining whether the lighting products are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing U.S. federal and California state regulations and by applying life cycle impact-based and hazard-based assessment methods (note that "life cycle impact-based method" does not mean a general life cycle assessment (LCA) but rather the elements in LCA used to quantify toxicity potentials). We discovered that both CFL and LED bulbs are categorized as hazardous, due to excessive levels of lead (Pb) leachability (132 and 44 mg/L, respectively; regulatory limit: 5) and the high contents of copper (111,000 and 31,600 mg/kg, respectively; limit: 2500), lead (3860 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 1000), and zinc (34,500 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 5000), while the incandescent bulb is not hazardous (note that the results for CFL bulbs excluded mercury vapor not captured during sample preparation). The CFLs and LEDs have higher resource depletion and toxicity potentials than the incandescent bulb due primarily to their high aluminum, copper, gold, lead, silver, and zinc. Comparing the bulbs on an equivalent quantity basis with respect to the expected lifetimes of

  9. High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakovenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution has been validated with thermal measurement on a commercial 8W LED lamp. Materials parametric study has been carried out to discover problematic parts for heat transfer from power LEDs to ambient and future solutions are proposed. The objectives are to predict the thermal management by simulation of LED lamp, get more understanding in the effect of lamp shape and used materials in order to design more effective LED lamps and predict light quality, life time and reliability.

  10. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  11. Phosphors for LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James Edward; Manepalli, Satya Kishore; Kumar, Prasanth Nammalwar

    2013-08-13

    A phosphor, a phosphor blend including the phosphor, a phosphor prepared by a process, and a lighting apparatus including the phosphor blend are disclosed. The phosphor has the formula (Ca.sub.1-p-qCe.sub.pK.sub.q).sub.xSc.sub.y(Si.sub.1-rGa.sub.r).sub.zO.su- b.12+.delta. or derived from a process followed using disclosed amounts of reactants. In the formula, (0

  12. On the application of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphors in LED based phototherapy lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the interest of scientific community has been increased towards solid state lighting based on LEDs because of their superior advantages over the conventional fluorescent lamps. As the GaN based LEDs are easily available efforts of the researchers are now on making the new phosphors which are excitable in the near UV region (360-400nm) for solid state lighting. This paper reports the photoluminescence characteristics of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphor prepared by wet chemical method. The violet emission of these phosphors with near UV excitation can be useful in making a phototherapy lamp based on LEDs for treating various skin diseases like acne vulgaris and hyperbilirubinemia.

  13. Comparative analysis of high pressure sodium vapor lamps and mercury vapor lamp with the solid state (LED) in the public lighting systems; Analise comparativa das lampadas de vapor de sodio a alta pressao e de vapor de mercurio com a lampada a estado solido (LED) em sistemas de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damato, J.C.; Bueno, J.E.; Astorga, O.A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LESIP/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Eficiencia Energetica em Sistemas de Iluminacao Publica; Ricciulli, D.L.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2009-07-01

    The necessity of energy conservation in Brazilian electric sector, with the intention to diminish the resources of generation investments, has going to use of electric energy conservation programs, being most important PROCEL - a national program of electric conservation energy by ELETROBRAS, and inside this, a national program for public illumination and efficient traffic signaling - named 'Reluz'. This program looks for a more efficient implantation of public lighting systems, that requires the use of lamp technologies that present a greater value in a relation between lumen/watt relation and then beyond providing economy, due to low consumption of electric energy. Besides technologies that are appearing, the inclusion of LED lamps, which offers a great application potential, comes blunting as improvement alternative, being that the next public illumination parks will be able count on these lamps associates to the high-pressure sodium lamps and other types currently used. (author)

  14. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-10-01

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  15. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-11-07

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank-ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members' ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  16. An LED Approach for Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; ONeal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple technique to assess the reactivity of photocatalytic coatings sprayed onto transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This new method uses ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to drive a photocatalytic reaction (the photocatalytic breakdown of a UV-resistant dye applied to a surface coated with the semiconductor titanium dioxide); and then a combination of a stabilized white light LED and a spectrometer to track the dye degradation as a function of time. Simple, standardized evaluation techniques that assess photocatalytic materials over a variety of environmental conditions, including illumination level, are not generally available and are greatly needed prior to in situ application of photocatalytic technologies. To date, much research pertaining to this aspect of photocatalysis has been limited and has focused primarily on laboratory experiments using mercury lamps. Mercury lamp illumination levels are difficult to control over large ranges and are temporally modulated by line power, limiting their use in helping to understand and predict how photocatalytic materials will behave in natural environmental settings and conditions. The methodology described here, using steady-state LEDs and time series spectroradiometric techniques, is a novel approach to explore the effect of UV light on the photocatalytic degradation of a UV resistant dye (crystal violet). GaN UV LED arrays, centered around 365 nm with an adjustable DC power supply, are used to create a small, spatially uniform light field where the steady state light level can be varied over three to four orders of magnitude. For this study, a set of glass microscope slides was custom coated with a thinly sprayed layer of photocatalytic titanium dioxide. Crystal violet was then applied to these titanium-dioxide coated slides and to uncoated control slides. The slides were then illuminated at various light levels from the dye side of the slide by the UV LED array. To monitor

  17. Biaxial flexural strength of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements heat-cured with an LED lamp during setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G. Fabian; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L. Brain; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label,

  18. Pilot project in rural western Madhya Pradesh, India, to assess the feasibility of using LED and solar-powered lanterns to remove kerosene lamps and related hazards from homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamania, S; Chouhan, R; Awasthi, A; Bendell, R; Marsden, N; Gibson, J; Whitaker, I S; Potokar, T S

    2015-05-01

    Globally, 300,000 deaths are estimated to occur annually and the incidence is far greater as a large majority of burns are small and go unreported. Ninety-five percent of the global burden of burns is found in low- and middle-income countries; however, there is relatively little in the literature regarding effective primary prevention in these areas. Flame is the most common cause of burn in Madhya Pradesh, the central state of India. The most common demographic among the burn unit inpatient of Choithram hospital Indore, is young women from 21 to 40 years of age, whose burns are primarily caused by kerosene lamps. A non electrical source of illumination is essential for every household in rural areas due to the infrequent and poor power supply. At the baseline, 23 kerosene lamp burns were reported by villagers in the past 5 years among the study population of this pilot project. A pilot project to investigate the strategies for reducing the incidence of domestic burns in rural villages around the city of Indore was performed, by replacing kerosene lamps with safer and more sustainable alternatives, including solar-powered and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. A total of 1042 households were randomly chosen from 18 villages within the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh (population of 28,825) to receive the alternative light source (670 LED and 372 solar lamps). We investigated the efficacy of this strategy of reducing the incidence of burns, measured the social acceptance by villagers, and quantified the cost implications and availability of LED lamps in rural communities with a high incidence of burns. Replacing kerosene lamps with LED and solar alternatives was deemed socially acceptable by 99.34% of the participants and reduced the cost of lighting for impoverished rural villagers by 85% over 1 year. We successfully demonstrated a significant decrease in the use of kerosene lamps (pkerosene lamps as an effective primary prevention strategy for reducing burns in rural

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at the Lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in the lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) headquarters building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved a simple retrofit of 32 track lights used to illuminate historical black-and-white photos and printed color posters from the 1930s and 1940s. BPA is a federal power marketing agency in the Northwestern United States, and selected this prominent location to demonstrate energy efficient light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit options that not only can reduce the electric bill for their customers but also provide attractive alternatives to conventional products, in this case accent lighting for BPA's historical artwork.

  20. LAVA: An Open-Source Approach To Designing LAMP (Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification DNA Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Shea N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed an extendable open-source Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP signature design program called LAVA (LAMP Assay Versatile Analysis. LAVA was created in response to limitations of existing LAMP signature programs. Results LAVA identifies combinations of six primer regions for basic LAMP signatures, or combinations of eight primer regions for LAMP signatures with loop primers, which can be used as LAMP signatures. The identified primers are conserved among target organism sequences. Primer combinations are optimized based on lengths, melting temperatures, and spacing among primer sites. We compare LAMP signature candidates for Staphylococcus aureus created both by LAVA and by PrimerExplorer. We also include signatures from a sample run targeting all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions We have designed and demonstrated new software for identifying signature candidates appropriate for LAMP assays. The software is available for download at http://lava-dna.googlecode.com/.

  1. CALiPER Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. Lynn [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Young, Joseph [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Royer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    This report builds on CALiPER Report 20.4, focusing on the same 32 PAR38 lamps but investigating causes of color shift and parametric failures. It provides a tear-down analysis of the lamp models and performs additional analyses on the spectroradiometric data obtained using a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus.

  2. A comparison of the antibacterial activity of the two methods of photodynamic therapy (using diode laser 810 nm and LED lamp 630 nm) against Enterococcus faecalis in extracted human anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Asadi, Zahra; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz; Maleki, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Failure of endodontic treatment is usually due to an inadequate disinfection of the root canal system. Enterococcus faecalis has been widely used as a valuable microbiological marker for in-vitro studies because of its ability to colonize in a biofilm like style in root canals, invading dentinal tubules and resistance to some endodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of two methods of photodynamic therapy using a light emitting diode lamp (LED lamp, 630 nm) and a diode laser (810 nm) on E. faecalis biofilms in anterior extracted human teeth. Fifty six single-rooted extracted teeth were used in this study. After routine root canal cleansing, shaping and sterilization, the teeth were incubated with E. faecalis for a period of two weeks. Teeth were then divided into two experimental groups (nu=23) and two control groups (nu=5). Teeth in one experimental group were exposed to a diode laser (810 nm), and in the other group samples were exposed to a LED lamp (630 nm). Intracanal bacterial sampling was done, and bacterial survival rate was then evaluated for each group. The Colony Forming Unit (CFU) in LED group (log10 CFUs=4.88±0.82) was significantly lower than the laser group (log CFUs=5.49±0.71) (p value=0.021). CFUs in positive control group (Log10 CFUs=10.96±0.44) were significantly higher than the treatment group (p˂0.001). No bacterial colony was found in negative control group. The results of this research show that photodynamic therapy could be an effective supplement in root canal disinfection. PDT using LED lamp was more effective than diode laser 810 nm in reducing CFUs of E. faecalis in human teeth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for early detection of Schistosoma mansoni in stool samples: a diagnostic approach in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández-Soto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries.A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection.We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  4. A user-led approach to information systems investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pferd, J.W.; Fuller, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Information-system (IS) expenditures for upstream E ampersand P have come under strong review along with other overhead expenses. Increasing frustration with IS budgets and concern about their business value led Unocal Corp. to change the way it begins, manages, and implements IS projects. Successful IS investments are aligned with the goals and functions of work groups or business units and are balanced against other investments. The twin demands of business needs and sound technical design must be served together to achieve long-term success from IS investments. This paper describes project organizations and methods to achieve these two objectives

  5. A customer-insight led approach to building operational resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Fi

    2018-01-01

    High-profile failures over the past few years have led to the disruption of banking services in the UK, with some banks' customers left unable to make or receive payments, check balances or access cash for days or weeks. Technological advances and a push towards remote channels have increased customer expectations of 'always on' - any time, any place, anywhere - and with disruptions lasting anything from a few minutes to nearly a month, the regulator is also taking an interest. Nationwide Building Society has responded positively to this challenge by defining its operational resilience strategy, a long-term plan aimed at minimising the likelihood and impact of future disruptions. Customer research was used in order to understand customer expectations, as well as define and prioritise its end-to-end customer journeys, known as business service lines. A comprehensive mapping exercise facilitated the development of strategies and investment projects to address identified vulnerabilities and increase resilience.

  6. A woman-led approach to improving postnatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer-Croxall, Claire; Bailey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    As a large NHS teaching trust we see 6,000 women a year who birth with us. Newly appointed as a modern matron, I noted that poor experience on our postnatal ward has always been a key issue in the complaints we receive and from the feedback that our women give to us. The ImPosE (improving postnatal experience) project was launched in December 2013. This brought together members of the multidisciplinary team who were committed to developing our postnatal ward and improving it for our women and their families. We used a quality management approach, putting 'customer' experience at the core, and implemented a varied package of changes as directed by feedback from service users.

  7. Efecto sobre los circuitos de distribución secundarios debido al uso intensivo de bombillas fluorescentes compactas y LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) / Effects of high penetration of compact fluorescent lamps and LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) on the distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Castañeda, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    Las BFCs y los LEDs son tecnologías de alta eficacia que se caracterizan por contener un dispositivo electrónico para su funcionamiento. Estos dispositivos son cargas no lineales que inyectan armónicos a la red. La sustitución masiva de bombillas incandescentes por BFCs y LEDs puede provocar graves alteraciones en los índices de calidad de la potencia y provocar efectos indeseados en las redes de distribución. En esta tesis de maestría se estudia el efecto sobre los circuitos de distribución ...

  8. Analysis of the performance of domestic lighting lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, M.M.; Jasmon, G.B.; Mokhlis, H.; Bakar, A.H.A.

    2013-01-01

    The power crisis problem is getting worse in the developing countries. Measures are being taken to overcome the power shortage problem by efficiently utilizing the available power. Replacement of high-power consumption lamps with energy efficient lamps is also among these steps. This paper presents a detailed comparative analysis between domestic lighting lamps (DLLs) use for producing artificial light. DLLs include incandescent lamp (IL), fluorescent lamp (FL) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). Light emitting diodes (LED) based lamp technology is relatively new in comparison with conventional incandescent and discharge lamps. However, the present study will also cover the LED lamps. Power quality based experiments have been conducted on DLLs in Power System Laboratory and power consumption based calculations are carried out using the lighting design software DIALux. The result shows that with the current technology, the use of FL and LED lamp is beneficial for utility as well as for consumer. However, with the current pace in the development of LED technology, it is possible LED lamps will lead the lighting market in the near future. The paper has also presented the uncertainties that exist in lighting market and proposed the guidelines that will help in making future energy policy. - Highlights: ► Performances of domestic lighting lamps are compared. ► Power quality and power consumption based case study results are presented. ► For future energy policies, recommendations are also given.

  9. An empirical approach for quantifying loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using Escherichia coli as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sowmya; Gomez, Romel D

    2014-01-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a highly efficient, selective and rapid DNA amplification technique for genetic screening of pathogens. However, despite its popularity, there is yet no mathematical model to quantify the outcome and no well-defined metric for comparing results that are available. LAMP is intrinsically complex and involves multiple pathways for gene replication, making fundamental modelling nearly intractable. To circumvent this difficulty, an alternate, empirical model is introduced that will allow one to extract a set of parameters from the concentration versus time curves. A simple recipe to deduce the time to positive, Tp--a parameter analogous to the threshold cycling time in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is also provided. These parameters can be regarded as objective and unambiguous indicators of LAMP amplification. The model is exemplified on Escherichia coli strains by using the two gene fragments responsible for vero-toxin (VT) production and tested against VT-producing (O157 and O45) and non-VT producing (DH5 alpha) strains. Selective amplification of appropriate target sequences was made using well established LAMP primers and protocols, and the concentrations of the amplicons were measured using a Qubit 2.0 fluorometer at specific intervals of time. The data is fitted to a generalized logistic function. Apart from providing precise screening indicators, representing the data with a small set of numbers offers significant advantages. It facilitates comparisons of LAMP reactions independently of the sampling technique. It also eliminates subjectivity in interpretation, simplifies data analysis, and allows easy data archival, retrieval and statistical analysis for large sample populations. To our knowledge this work represents a first attempt to quantitatively model LAMP and offer a standard method that could pave the way towards high throughput automated screening.

  10. An empirical approach for quantifying loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP using Escherichia coli as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Subramanian

    Full Text Available Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP is a highly efficient, selective and rapid DNA amplification technique for genetic screening of pathogens. However, despite its popularity, there is yet no mathematical model to quantify the outcome and no well-defined metric for comparing results that are available. LAMP is intrinsically complex and involves multiple pathways for gene replication, making fundamental modelling nearly intractable. To circumvent this difficulty, an alternate, empirical model is introduced that will allow one to extract a set of parameters from the concentration versus time curves. A simple recipe to deduce the time to positive, Tp--a parameter analogous to the threshold cycling time in polymerase chain reaction (PCR, is also provided. These parameters can be regarded as objective and unambiguous indicators of LAMP amplification. The model is exemplified on Escherichia coli strains by using the two gene fragments responsible for vero-toxin (VT production and tested against VT-producing (O157 and O45 and non-VT producing (DH5 alpha strains. Selective amplification of appropriate target sequences was made using well established LAMP primers and protocols, and the concentrations of the amplicons were measured using a Qubit 2.0 fluorometer at specific intervals of time. The data is fitted to a generalized logistic function. Apart from providing precise screening indicators, representing the data with a small set of numbers offers significant advantages. It facilitates comparisons of LAMP reactions independently of the sampling technique. It also eliminates subjectivity in interpretation, simplifies data analysis, and allows easy data archival, retrieval and statistical analysis for large sample populations. To our knowledge this work represents a first attempt to quantitatively model LAMP and offer a standard method that could pave the way towards high throughput automated screening.

  11. Lamp of adjustable spectrum for photographic usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazikowski, Adam; Feldzensztajn, Mateusz

    2017-08-01

    Photography is a unique rapidly growing interdisciplinary field encompassing aspects of science, art and technology. Expectations of photographers are steadily increasing with the development of technology. One of the areas playing a crucial role in photography is lighting. Consequently, several types of light sources for photographic use have been developed. The ongoing research in this field concentrates on lamps with tunable CCT (Correlated Color Temperature). In this paper, we present a lamp, which emission spectrum can be tailored without affecting the output luminous ux. Intended for photographic uses, the lamp is based on an integrating sphere and a selection of LEDs. As the LED drivers, DC-DC converters controlled by a Raspberry PI were applied. Design process, including the selection of LED wavelengths, is presented. Output characteristics of the lamp were measured using the setup containing the spectrometer. The results of these experiments show good agreement with the spectrum set on the microcomputer.

  12. Polymerization of a dual-cured cement through ceramic: LED curing light vs halogen lamp Polimerização de um cimento resinoso dual através de uma porcelana: LED vs lâmpada halógena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Gonzaga Lopes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light source, LED unit and halogen lamp (HL, on the effectiveness of Enforce dual-cured cement cured under a ceramic disc. Three exposure times (60, 80 and 120 s were also evaluated. Two experimental groups, in which the polymerization of the dual-cured cement was performed through a ceramic disc, and two control groups, in which the polymerization of the dual-cured cement was performed directly without presence of ceramic disc were subdivided into three subgroups (three different exposure times, with five specimens each: G1A- HL 60s; G1B- HL 80s; G1C- HL 120s; G2A- LED 60s; G2B- LED 80s; G2C- LED 120s; and control groups: G3A- HL 60s; G3B- HL 80s; G3C- HL 120s; G4A- LED 60s; G4B- LED 80s and G4C- LED 120s. Cement was applied in a steel matrix (4mm diameter, 1.2mm thickness. In the experimental groups, a ceramic disc was placed on top. The cement was light-cured through the ceramic by a HL and LED, however, the control groups were cured without the ceramic disc. The specimens were stored in a light-proof container at 37ºC for 24 hours, then Vickers hardness was determined. A four-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p£ 0.05 were performed. All specimens cured by LED for 60s showed inferior values compared with the halogen groups. In general, light-curing by LED for 80s and 120s was comparable to halogen groups (60s and 80s and their control groups. LED technology can be viable for light-curing through conventional ceramic indirect restorations, when curing time is increased in relation to HL curing time.O objetivo deste estudo foi estudar a influência da fonte de luz, LED e lâmpada halógena (LH, na efetividade de polimerização do cimento resinoso dual Enforce fotoativado sob um disco de porcelana. Três tempos de exposição (60, 80 e 120 segundos foram também avaliados. Dois grupos experimentais, na qual a polimerização do cimento resinoso foi feita através de um disco cerâmico, e dois

  13. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  14. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  15. An Integrated Solid-State LED Luminaire for General Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Dowling; Fritz Morgan Ihor Lys; Mike Datta; Bernd Keller; Thomas Yuan

    2009-03-31

    A strong systems approach to designing and building practical LED-based replacement lamps is lacking. The general method of taking high-performance LEDs and marrying them to standard printed circuit boards, drivers and a heat sink has fallen short of the promise of LED lighting. In this program, a top-down assessment of requirements and a bottom-up reinvention of LED sources, electronics, optics and mechanics have resulted in the highest performance lamp possible. The team, comprised of Color Kinetics, the leaders in LED lighting and Cree, the leaders in LED devices took an approach to reinvent the package, the driver and the overall form and aesthetic of a replacement source. The challenge was to create a new benchmark in LED lighting - the resultant lamp, a PAR38 equivalent, met the light output, color, color quality and efficacy marks set out in the program as well as being dimmable, which is important for market acceptance. The approach combined the use of multiple source die, a chip-on-board approach, a very efficient driver topology, the use of both direct emission and phosphor conversion, and a unique faceted optic to avoid the losses, artifacts and hotspots of lensed approaches. The integral heat sink provided a mechanical base and airflow using a chimney-effect for use in a wide variety of locations and orientations. These research results led to a much better understanding of the system effects of component level technologies. It was clear that best-of-breed sub-system results do not necessarily result in the best end result for the complete system. In doing this work, we did not neglect the practical aspects of these systems. These were not rarified results and commercially impractical but lent themselves to eventual commercial products in the marketplace. The end result - a high performance replacement lamp - will save significant energy while providing a high-quality light source.

  16. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Beeson, Tracy A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  17. Acupuncture: a first approach on pain relief using a 617 nm LED device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J. M.; Corral-Baqués, M. I.; Amat, A.

    2007-02-01

    In this study, a preliminary approach for pain relief using a novel pulsated LED device was conducted. 12 patients were treated with a Photopuncture device designed by SORISA, which consisted in a 10-channel LED system at 617 nm. 15 patients with different pain localizations were treated: cervicobrachialgia (3 cases), lumbago / sciatica (4 cases), gonalgia (3 cases), cephalalgia (2 cases), talalgia (1 case), epicondylitis (1 case) and trigeminal neuralgia (1 case). To characterize the pain level, the Categorical Pain Scale (none (0), mild (1-3), moderate (4-6) and severe (7-10)) was used. Just patients with severe pain (7-10) were treated. Patients were treated twice a week for 25 minutes; 5 to 8 sessions were given at the following treatment parameters: 10 mW per channel pulsed at 60 Hz with a 50 % duty cycle. The total dose for point was 7.5 J. To characterize the response to the treatment, the results were classified as: "no result", no changes in pain degree; "poor", pain decreased one category; "good", pain decreased two categories; "very good", complete healing (no pain). The results were: 1 case with "very good" result; 11 cases with "good" result; 3 cases with "poor" result; and 0 cases with "no result". We conclude that the Photopuncture led device may be a good alternative to classical Acupuncture in pain relief, although further experimentation is required.

  18. Optimization approach to LED crop illumination inside a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Zhigalova, Tatiana; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Kochetova, Galina; Konovalova, Irina

    Artificial lighting sources for growing plants can be efficiently used to control gas exchange and preserve the necessary closure of internal matter turnover in the atmosphere of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). However, the lighting sources contribute strongly to the equivalent mass of a CELSS. Thus, the choice of an optimal plant lighting regime largely determines the efficiency of the artificial ecosystem. Lighting systems based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now considered the most promising for space applications (Massa et al., 2006). Many types of LEDs have been developed in recent years. Because of this, the problem of optimizing a lighting source for space vegetation chambers has become more difficult: we need to optimize more parameters (such as emission spectrum, light intensity, frequency of light pulses and the shape of the lighting field inside a vegetation chamber), and in a wider range of values. In this presentation we discuss approaches to optimizing the emission spectrum of a lighting source for the use in space applications, including CELSS. One of the benefits of LEDs is their narrow-band emission spectrum, which allows us to construct a lighting source with an optimal spectrum for plant growth and production. A number of experiments have shown that the reaction of plants to a narrow-band emission spectrum of LEDs is highly species-specific and affects many processes in plants. Adding a small amount of far red light to red and blue quanta increased biomass in radish and lettuce (Tamulaitis et al., 2005). Adding blue and near UV light of different wavelengths to red light decreased total sugar content in lettuce (Urbonavičiūtė et al., 2007) and Chinese cabbage (Avercheva et al., 2009). Supplemental green light improved the nutrition quality of some lettuce varieties: decreased nitrate content and increased ascorbic acid content (Samuoliene et al., 2012). It has also been shown that changes in lighting spectrum can lead

  19. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  20. Community-led approaches and interventions for the regeneration of abandoned towns in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May East

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Defined as towns or villages that have been abandoned by their original inhabitants, the so-called ‘ghost towns’ are a sub-product of the opposing conditions of excessive urban growth in one hand and decline of rural regions on the other. Natural disasters, economic and demographic decline, armed conflict, disease and environmental contamination are repeatedly the drivers for their abandonment.  An increasing large concentration of these abandoned small villages is found in the impoverished Southern regions of Italy.  To investigate this problem and identify conservation approaches that could generate new dynamics to the abandoned historic villages, the paper starts by identifying the linkages between globalisation, rapid urbanisation and ghost towns. This is followed by an analysis of the root causes of ghost towns in an attempt to define a ghost town typology. With this in mind, this paper investigates integrated conservation approaches, which could promote the restoration of abandoned towns, strengthening their local identity and enhancing resource-efficient local economies. Based on these considerations, the paper focus the attention on three scenarios of rehabilitation: a community-led approach to conservation demonstrated by the medieval village Torri Superiore embedded in ecovillage principles; the hospitality concept albergo diffuso demonstrated by Albergo Diffuso Borgo di Castelvetere, acting as social, cultural and economic stimuli to depopulated villages; the Riace village humanitarian approach which has integrated migrants in the social fabric of its aging population. The paper ends by reflecting if Torri Superiore and Riace’s approaches offer a potential solution to the housing crises currently engulfing southern Europe. As a result of imaginative housing and food production practices, these villages have made significantly more progress than mainstream government approaches towards the realisation of sustainable communities

  1. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  2. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  3. Lamp for sunshine simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A lamp system is provided, comprising a lamp with a lamp housing accommodating a plurality of light sources for emission of visible light, including blue light, a time keeping unit, a light sensor for sensing intensity of light incident upon it, and a light controller configured for controlling...... the plurality of light sources in response to the intensity of light sensed by the light sensor and the time provided by the time keeping unit, characterized in that the lamp emits blue light for a selected time period, wherein the blue light has a luminous flux ranging from 50 lux to 200 lux and, preferably......, an irradiance that is larger than 5 mW/nm/m2 in a selected wavelength range, such as in the wavelength range from 440 nm to 500 nm, as measured at a distance of 3 metres from the lamp....

  4. An Investigation of Catastrophic Failure in Solid-State Lamps Exposed to Harsh Environment Operational Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Sakalaukus, Peter; Davis, Lynn

    2015-07-06

    mechanism produces the similar failure mode of lumen degradation predominately due to two contributing factors: high junction temperature and moisture ingress. The current state-of-the-art has focused on individual areas of the lamp, such as the LED chip, substrate material, electrical driver design and thermal management techniques. [5] – [16] Looking at the lamp as a whole is a novel approach and has not been seen before in literature. This work followed the JEDEC standard JESD22-A101C of 85/85 with a one hour interval of applied voltage followed by a one hour interval of no applied voltage [17]. This test was performed continuously for each SSL lamp until it became nonoperational, i.e. did not turn on. Periodically, photometric measurements were taken following the IES LM-79-08 standard at room temperature using an integrating sphere, a spectrometer, and lighting software. The overall health of the SSL lamps was assed using the relative luminous flux (RLF), correlated color temperature (CCT) and the color difference (Δu'v') using the Euclidean distance of the CIE 1976 color space coordinates. Finally, a Weibull analysis was completed to compare the characteristic lifetime of the SSL lamp to the actual rated lifetime. An important result from this work shows that the rated lifetime does not come close to the actual lifetime when the SSL lamps are used in a harsh humid environment which is fairly common in outdoor applications across the U.S. Also, the photometric results are presented for the entire lifetime of each SSL lamp under test.

  5. Exploring future hydrogen development and the impact of policy: A novel investment-led approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, T.; Cruden, A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally recognised that the primary tools being utilised today for hydrogen energy forecasting and policy development take a least-cost approach. While useful for comparing the viability of different technologies from a cost perspective, it is argued that these models fail to capture the potential value contribution such technologies could offer companies and, in consequence, the likelihood of their receiving investment. The authors propose a novel model for forecasting the deployment of hydrogen energy systems based on a company value maximisation approach designed to assist governments in the development of appropriate policy instruments. In this paper a theoretical relationship between market sector valuations and investment activity is presented using 3 value metrics, namely net present value (NPV), earnings per share (EPS) and sum of the parts (SOP). It is shown that, as the electricity and transport fuel markets begin to converge, examination of the effects of different policy measures through the value-led model can highlight otherwise hidden counter incentives. The model further recognises that the propensity to invest in hydrogen differs according to the characteristics of the company looking to make the investment and the implications for policy-makers regarding levels of support are also discussed in the paper. - Research highlights: → A novel approach to forecasting energy market development is proposed. → Approach based on analysis of value contribution of investment opportunities. → Model applied to the potential hydrogen energy market in Scotland. → Reveals potential inadequacy of assessing market development based on levelised cost alone. → Highlights relevance of investor company performance in assessing market development.

  6. Lampu Pintar Berbasis LED Dengan Multi Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdan, Ade; Prajitno, Dicky Rianto; Herlan, Herlan; Gojali, Elli Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a LED-based smart lamp prototype that integrated with sensor. The smart lamp use information of people and lighting confirmation, to turn on or turn off the lamp automatically. In addition, the sensor calculates and balances flash and ambient light exposure to decrease the light, so that can make energy efficiently in use. PIR (Passive Infrared Receiver) and Ultrasonic sensor is preferred to detect people condition in one place and LDR (Light Dependent Resistant) is ...

  7. LEDs for general and horticultural lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Girón González, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The work begins with an introductory part about Light Emitting Diode (or LEDs) and how these devices work. This report also shows an overview of different artificial light sources such as incandescent lamps, fluorescents tube and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. The LED lighting is more energy-efficient than other artificial lighting, since they require less energy to operate. The following part of the work reports LEDs for General Lighting that describes some basic concepts such as spec...

  8. An analysis of diversity factors applied to harmonic emission limits for energy saving lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Kling, W.L.; Timens, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation of diversity factors for CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) in combination with LED (light emitting diode) lamps is presented in this paper. Diversity factors were calculated for different configurations of lamps connected to the same feeder in one phase. It was found

  9. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  10. Interior LED Lighting Technology. Navy Energy Technology Validation (Techval) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    evaluated using the Illumination Engineering Societies’ (IES) TM-21 manual. The TM- 21 manual provides a standardized method for evaluating when an LED...the equipment. The Cree luminaires installed in this study are rated for 75,000 hours of service, based on calculation methods that extrapolated...should be replaced with LED lamps. • Replace MR-16 lamps with LED lamps since this type of fixture is used to provide accent lighting and is

  11. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  12. 49 CFR 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lamps; school bus warning lamps; amber warning lamps or flashing warning lamps on tow trucks and... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  13. Features of the methodological approach to the evaluation of the led ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the issues related to research on the LED lighting efficiency in the industrial premises, the need to use the methodology to obtain meaningful scientific results. The LED lighting efficiency should be determined, primarily, based on the creation of conditions that are optimal for visual activity and safe from ...

  14. UV-LED Curing Efficiency of Wood Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Véronic; Blanchet, Pierre; Boivin, Gabrielle; Bouffard, Jean-François; Vlad, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have attracted great interest in recent years. They can be used to polymerize coatings, such as those used for prefinished wood flooring. In this project, two lamps were compared for their suitability to be used on a wood flooring finishing line: a UV-microwave and a UV-LED lamp. Low heat emission was found for the UV-LED lamp compared to the UV-microwave one. This study also reveals that the 4 W/cm2 UV-LED lamp used is not powerful enough to cure ...

  15. Capturing attention to brake lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Scott E

    2008-03-01

    Rear-end collisions and distraction are major concerns and basic research in cognitive psychology concerning attention in visual search is applicable to these problems. It is proposed that using yellow tail lamps will result in faster reaction times and fewer errors than current tail lamp coloring (red) in detecting brake lamps (red) in a "worst case" scenario where brake lamp onset, lamp intensity and temporal and contextual cues are not available. Participants engaged in a visual search for brake lamps in two conditions, one using red tail lamps with red brake lamps and one with the proposed combination of yellow tail lamps with red brake lamps in which they indicated by keyboard response the presence or absence of braking cars. The hypothesis that separating brake and tail lamps by color alone would produce faster RTs, reduce errors, and provide greater conspicuity was supported. Drivers and non-drivers detect absence and presence of red brake lamps faster and with greater accuracy with the proposed yellow tail lamps than red tail lamps without the aid of any of the aforementioned cues. Vehicle conspicuity will be improved and reductions in rear-end collisions and other accidents will be reduced by implementing the proposed yellow tail lamp coloring.

  16. Prognostics-based qualification of high-power white LEDs using Lévy process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kam-Chuen; Sun, Bo; Jiang, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Due to their versatility in a variety of applications and the growing market demand, high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted considerable attention. Reliability qualification testing is an essential part of the product development process to ensure the reliability of a new LED product before its release. However, the widely used IES-TM-21 method does not provide comprehensive reliability information. For more accurate and effective qualification, this paper presents a novel method based on prognostics techniques. Prognostics is an engineering technology predicting the future reliability or determining the remaining useful lifetime (RUL) of a product by assessing the extent of deviation or degradation from its expected normal operating conditions. A Lévy subordinator of a mixed Gamma and compound Poisson process is used to describe the actual degradation process of LEDs characterized by random sporadic small jumps of degradation degree, and the reliability function is derived for qualification with different distribution forms of jump sizes. The IES LM-80 test results reported by different LED vendors are used to develop and validate the qualification methodology. This study will be helpful for LED manufacturers to reduce the total test time and cost required to qualify the reliability of an LED product.

  17. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  18. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp

  19. CALiPER Report 21.1. Linear (T8) Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This report focuses on the performance of the same 31 linear LED lamps operated in a typical troffer with a K12 prismatic lens. In general, luminaire efficacy is strongly dictated by lamp efficacy, but the optical system of the luminaire substantially reduces the differences between the luminous intensity distributions of the lamps. While the distributions in the luminaire are similar, the differences remain large enough that workplane illuminance uniformity may be reduced if linear LED lamps with a narrow distribution are used. At the same time, linear LED lamps with a narrower distribution result in slightly higher luminaire efficiency.

  20. Implementing and Evaluating a Peer-Led Team Learning Approach in Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kevin; Campisi, Jay

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how a Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) program was implemented in a first-year, undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology course sequence to examine the student perceptions of the program and determine the effects of PLTL on student performance.

  1. Lamps and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Cayless, MA; Marsden, A M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of lighting. Covering the physics of light production, light sources, circuits and a wide variety of lighting applications, it is both suitable as a detailed textbook and as thoroughly practical guide for practising lighting engineers. This fourth edition of Lamps and Lighting has been completely updated with new chapters on the latest lamp technology and applications. The editors ahve called upon a wide range of expertise and as a result many sections have been broadened to include both European and US practice.The book begins with

  2. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  3. Optimized positioning of autonomous surgical lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Jörn; Weller, Rene; Kikinis, Ron; Oldhafer, Karl-Jürgen; Lipp, Michael J.; Zachmann, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We consider the problem of finding automatically optimal positions of surgical lamps throughout the whole surgical procedure, where we assume that future lamps could be robotized. We propose a two-tiered optimization technique for the real-time autonomous positioning of those robotized surgical lamps. Typically, finding optimal positions for surgical lamps is a multi-dimensional problem with several, in part conflicting, objectives, such as optimal lighting conditions at every point in time while minimizing the movement of the lamps in order to avoid distractions of the surgeon. Consequently, we use multi-objective optimization (MOO) to find optimal positions in real-time during the entire surgery. Due to the conflicting objectives, there is usually not a single optimal solution for such kinds of problems, but a set of solutions that realizes a Pareto-front. When our algorithm selects a solution from this set it additionally has to consider the individual preferences of the surgeon. This is a highly non-trivial task because the relationship between the solution and the parameters is not obvious. We have developed a novel meta-optimization that considers exactly this challenge. It delivers an easy to understand set of presets for the parameters and allows a balance between the lamp movement and lamp obstruction. This metaoptimization can be pre-computed for different kinds of operations and it then used by our online optimization for the selection of the appropriate Pareto solution. Both optimization approaches use data obtained by a depth camera that captures the surgical site but also the environment around the operating table. We have evaluated our algorithms with data recorded during a real open abdominal surgery. It is available for use for scientific purposes. The results show that our meta-optimization produces viable parameter sets for different parts of an intervention even when trained on a small portion of it.

  4. Application of CaCO3, CaF2, SiO2, and TiO2 particles to silicone lens for enhancing angular color uniformity of white LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh Q. D.; Nguyen, Vinh H.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present an insightful investigation on optimal selection of scattering enhancement particles (SEP) to satisfy each specific optical property of white LEDs (WLEDs). The interested contenders include CaCO3, CaF2, SiO2, and TiO2, each of them is added with YAG:Ce phosphor compounding. The quality improvement on each considered property is demonstrated convincingly by applying Mie-scattering theory together with Monte Carlo simulation on a particular WLEDs which has the color temperature of 8500K. It is observed by simulation results that TiO2 particles provide the highest color uniformity among the SEP, as increasing TiO2 concentration. These results of this work can serve as a practical guideline for manufacturing high-quality WLEDs.

  5. Indoor visual positioning system using LED and mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yingkui; Shi, Zhengfa; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    An indoor visual positioning system is proposed, which using four or more LED ceiling lamps and a mobile phone. A 4*4 photodiode array is attached to the mobile phone to receive the three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps via visible light communication, and the front camera of the mobile phone is used to receive the high resolution image of the LED lamps. The mobile phone's three-dimensional coordinates can be determined by matching the spot information and three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps with the image information provided by the mobile phone. An improved collinear equation model is proposed to build the mapping relationship between the three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps and the image information acquired by the front camera. A semi-physical simulation has been conducted and analyzed. The positioning scheme is proved to be valid and the positioning accuracy is up to decimeter level.

  6. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  7. Nurse-led hypnotherapy: an innovative approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic functional illness, which can greatly reduce patients' quality of life, and consumes healthcare resources. Standard treatments include dietary changes and medication, though these are often ineffective. Clinical studies of hypnotherapy demonstrate improvement in symptoms and quality of life in over 80% of subjects with intractable IBS. Our experience of a nurse-led hypnotherapy service for IBS in a community setting provides evidence of comparable efficacy for symptom control, improved quality of life, reduced dependence on medication and improved general health measures. We address the challenges of setting up and maintaining the service in a changing healthcare environment. This model of care could act as a template for providers of gastroenterology and functional disease services wishing to provide IBS care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Community-led local development approach principles implementation when forming a regional local development projects support system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Udod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.

  9. A peer-led approach to promoting health education in schools: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were ... Key words: constructivism; experience; health education; interventions; life orientation; mixed methods design; peer.

  10. Transforming Communities through Academic Activism: An Emancipatory, Praxis-led Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Hawthorne-Steele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tracks the engagement of university faculty in academic and community activism during thirty years in conflict-affected Northern Ireland. Over time, the team of three academics who wrote the article developed programs to help tackle educational disadvantage in a deeply divided society riven with violent conflict. Our pedagogical approach was driven by social justice principles in practice. In the process, students became what Ledwith & Springett (2010 describe as participative activists in the academy and in their own communities. The aim of this collective activism was to foster transformative change in a society that is now in transition from conflict. Key examples of critical practice are described. We use a case study approach to describe challenges faced by faculty and participants. We argue that academic activism and community partnership can play a positive role in community transformation in the most difficult circumstances.

  11. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  12. Distributed dimming control for LED lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Jae Kyun

    2013-11-04

    This paper presents a distributed energy-saving lighting strategy for the arrangements of a lighting network consisting of a group of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and users. LED lamps have a dimming support feature to meet the illuminance requirements imposed by individual users. Both groups interact with each other via visible light communication (VLC) or other wireless communication features. This work aims to identify a configuration of lamps leading to the maximal energy saving in adaptive and distributed ways. To this end, a distributed assignment strategy is developed based on a message-passing framework where only local interactions among lamps and users are allowed for calculations and exchanges of the information on their status. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other distributed algorithms in a range of indoor lighting configurations.

  13. How applicable is export-led growth and import-led growth hypotheses to South African economy? The VECM and causality approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntebogang Dinah Moroke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated exports, imports and the economic growth nexus in the context of South Africa. The paper sets out to examine if long-run and causal relationships exist between these variables. Quarterly time series data ranging between 1998 and 2013 obtained from the South African Reserve Bank and Quantec databases was employed. Initial data analysis proved that the variables are integrated at their levels. The results further indicated that exports, imports and economic growth are co-integrated, confirming an existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship. Granger causal results were shown running from exports and imports to GDP and from imports to exports, validating export-led and import-led growth hypotheses in South Africa. A significant causality running from imports to exports, suggests that South Africa imported finished goods in excess. If this is not avoided, lots of problems could be caused. A suggestion was made to avoid such problematic issues as they may lead to replaced domestic output and displacement of employees. Another dreadful ramification may be an adverse effect on the economy which may further be experienced in the long-run

  14. Types of Lamp for Homework and Myopia among Chinese School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wu, Rong-Kun; Liu, Hu; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua

    2017-12-27

    We aim to determine the association of the types of lamp for homework including incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp, and light-emitting diode (LED) lamp with the prevalence of myopia in Chinese children. 2346 grade 7 students from ten middle schools (93.5% response rate) aged 13 to 14 years in Mojiang, a small county located in Southwestern China, participated in the study. Refractive error was measured with cycloplegia using an autorefractor by optometrists or trained technicians. An IOL Master was used to measure ocular biometric parameters including axial length (AL). Information regarding the types of lamp for homework af``ter schools was collected by questionnaires. Of all the study participants, 693 (29.5%) were affected by myopia, with the prevalence estimates being higher in girls (36.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.0, 39.6) than in boys (22.8%; 95% CI: 20.4, 25.1) (P homework had a more myopic refractive error and a longer AL compared with those using incandescent or fluorescent lamps. There were no significant differences in myopia prevalence between children using incandescent and fluorescent lamps for homework. The population attributable risk percentage for myopia associated with using LED lamps for homework after schools was 11.2%. Using LED lamps for homework after schools might contribute to the development of myopia among school-aged children.

  15. Improved power quality based high brightness LED lamp driver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Vsm and frequency f. The instantaneous input voltage is given as, s sm. V =V Sinωt. (6). From input supply voltage, a voltage template u (t) is evaluated to generate reference current and controls the AC mains current to follow the reference current to achieve high power factor using a PFC Cuk converter. This control scheme ...

  16. Spectra of Th/Ar and U/Ne hollow cathode lamps for spectrograph calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Shlosberg, Ariel; Kerber, Florian; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Neureiter, Bianca

    2018-01-01

    Low-current Th/Ar hollow cathode lamps have long been used for calibration of astronomical spectrographs on ground-based telescopes. Thorium is an attractive element for calibration as it has a single isotope, has narrow spectral lines, and has a dense spectrum covering the whole of the visible region. However, the high density of the spectrum that makes it attractive for calibrating high-resolution spectrographs is a detriment for lower resolution spectrographs and this is not obvious by examination of existing linelists. In addition, recent changes in regulations regarding the handling of thorium have led to a degradation in the quality of Th/Ar calibration lamps, with contamination by molecular ThO lines that are strong enough to obscure the calibration lines of interest.We are pursuing two approaches to these problems. First, we have expanded and improved the NIST Standard Reference Database 161, "Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps" to cover the region 272 nm to 5500 nm. Spectra of hollow cathode lamps at up to 3 different currents can now be displayed simultaneously. Interactive zooming and the ability to convolve any of the spectra with a Gaussian or uploaded instrument profile enable the user to see immediately what the spectrum would look like at the particular resolution of their spectrograph. Second, we have measured the spectrum of a recent, contaminated Th/Ar hollow cathode lamp using a high-resolution Echelle spectrograph (Madison Wisconsin) at a resolving power (R~ 250,000). This significantly exceeds the resolving power of most astronomical spectrographs and resolves many of the molecular lines of ThO. With these spectra we are measuring and calibrating the positions of these molecular lines in order to make them suitable for spectrograph calibration.In the near infrared region, U/Ne hollow cathode lamps give a higher density of calibration lines than Th/Ar lamps and will be implemented on the upgraded CRIRES+ spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large

  17. PENGEMBANGAN LAMPU LED DENGAN TEKNOLOGI PHOTOVOLTAIC (LED-PV SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PENGUMPUL IKAN PADA PERIKANAN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Sofijanto

    2015-03-01

    mengetahui perbedaan jumlah hasil tangkapan pada bagan tancap akibat perlakuan warna lampu LED yang berbeda. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dan experimental fishing dimana rancangan penelitiannya adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED sebanyak 5 jenis warna yaitu merah (A, kuning (B, hijau (C, biru (D, dan putih (E dengan 6 kali ulangan. Secara deskriptif hasil penelitian menunjukkan lampu LED dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan lampu petromaks dan lampu LHE. Diperoleh 17 jenis ikan laut yang tertarik pada cahaya lampu LED yang digunakan. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan nyata terhadap hasil tangkapan bagan dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED. Berdasarkan Uji Nyata Terkecil dinyatakan bahwa bagan yang menggunakan warna lampu LED biru mendapatkan hasil tangkapan tertinggi kemudian diikuti oleh warna kuning, hijau, putih dan merah.  The set ‘bagan’ (liftnet fishing gear is a kind of fishing gears which using atificial light as fishes gathering. This fishing gear uses an electric generator to turn on the energy saving lamp which hang on under the set ‘bagan’. The price of gasoline more expensive due to the Indonesia government’s fuel subsidy reduced and this make fishing operation costs more expensive for fishermen. This research using the LED lamps that do not use gasoline as fuel because the LED lamps can use the photovoltaic technology (solar cell system. The purposes of this study were: 1 to find out whether the LED lamps can replace the kerosene lamps and saving energy lamps, 2 to know the different in cath using different colours of LED lamps. The reserach methods are descriptive and experimental fishing which used Completely Randomized Design with LED lamps colour treatments i.e: red (A, yellow (B, green (C, blue (D, and white (E, the number of replications are 6 times. LED lamps can be used to replace the kerosene and saving energy lamps. There were 17 species of

  18. DC Pollution of AC Mains due to modern compact fluorescent light lamps and LED lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Timens, R.B.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Modern so-called energy efficient equipment often draw current only during a very short period of the period of a power supply mains. This is causing unwanted non-sinusoidal and harmonic currents. In some cases even a single diode is used for rectification causing direct current (DC) in the mains

  19. Effect of a Baby-Led Approach to Complementary Feeding on Infant Growth and Overweight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Fangupo, Louise J; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Taylor, Barry J; Daniels, Lisa; Fleming, Elizabeth A; McArthur, Jenny; Morison, Brittany; Erickson, Liz Williams; Davies, Rhondda S; Bacchus, Sabina; Cameron, Sonya L; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2017-09-01

    Baby-led approaches to complementary feeding, which promote self-feeding of all nonliquid foods are proposed to improve energy self-regulation and lower obesity risk. However, to date, no randomized clinical trials have studied this proposition. To determine whether a baby-led approach to complementary feeding results in a lower body mass index (BMI) than traditional spoon-feeding. The 2-year Baby-Led Introduction to Solids (BLISS) randomized clinical trial recruited 206 women (168 [81.6%] of European ancestry; 85 [41.3%] primiparous) in late pregnancy from December 19, 2012, through March 17, 2014, as part of a community intervention in Dunedin, New Zealand. Women were randomized to a control condition (n = 101) or the BLISS intervention (n = 105) after stratification for parity and education. All outcomes were collected by staff blinded to group randomization, and no participants withdrew because of an adverse event. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Mothers in the BLISS group received lactation consultant support (≥5 contacts) to extend exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of complementary foods until 6 months of age and 3 personalized face-to-face contacts (at 5.5, 7.0, and 9.0 months). The primary outcome was BMI z score (at 12 and 24 months). Secondary outcomes included energy self-regulation and eating behaviors assessed with questionnaires at 6, 12, and 24 months and energy intake assessed with 3-day weighed diet records at 7, 12, and 24 months. Among the 206 participants (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [5.6] years), 166 were available for analysis at 24 months (retention, 80.5%). The mean (SD) BMI z score was not significantly different at 12 months (control group, 0.20 [0.89]; BLISS group, 0.44 [1.13]; adjusted difference, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.48) or at 24 months (control group, 0.24 [1.01]; BLISS group, 0.39 [1.04]; adjusted difference, 0.16; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.45). At 24 months, 5 of 78 infants (6.4%) were overweight (BMI≥95

  20. How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael W. Taylor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Baby-Led Weaning (BLW is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons, and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines; the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed.

  1. How feasible is Baby-led Weaning as an approach to infant feeding? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya L; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Taylor, Rachael W

    2012-11-02

    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk) on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons), and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines); the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed.

  2. Microplasma light tiles: thin sheet lamps for general illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eden, J G; Park, S-J; Herring, C M; Bulson, J M

    2011-01-01

    Flat, thin and lightweight lamps providing spatially uniform and dimmable illumination from active areas as large as 400 cm 2 are being developed for general illumination and specialty applications. Comprising an array of low-temperature, nonequilibrium microplasmas driven by a dielectric barrier structure and operating at pressures of typically 400-700 Torr, these lamps have a packaged thickness -2 with a luminous efficacy approaching 30 lm W -1 . Third generation lamps, presently in limited production, offer a correlated colour temperature in the 3000-4100 K interval and a colour rendering index of 80. Current lamps employ Xe 2 (λ ∼ 172 nm) as the primary emitter photoexciting a mixture of phosphors, and the pressure dependence of the wavelength-integrated fluorescence from the electronically excited dimer has been investigated with a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer. In contrast to other promising lighting technologies, the decline in luminous efficacy of microplasma lamps with increasing power delivered to the lamp is small. For a 6 x 6 inch 2 (∼225 cm 2 ) lamp, efficacy falls -2 to > 10 000 cd m -2 .

  3. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  4. Has the conduct-based approach to competition law in South Africa led to consistent interpretations of harm to competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hawthorne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Competition Act and certain recent decisions by the competition authorities are examined here to assess the extent to which South Africa’s conduct-based approach to competition law has led to consistent outcomes in the assessment of effects on competition. This has not been the case in the assessment of anti-competitive effects among customers or resellers when a supplier accused of an anti-competitive action does not compete with its customers. An anti-competitive effect among customers or resellers is treated as anti-competitive when it arises from some form of conduct, such as price discrimination. However, it is not seen as anti-competitive when it arises from a refusal to supply, for example. Possible reasons for South Africa’s conduct-based approach and this inconsistent outcome in the assessment of competition among customers and resellers, including the economic foundations of the relevant approaches and their relationship with competition law in other jurisdictions, are assessed.

  5. Phase out of incandescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Since early 2007 almost all OECD and many non-OECD governments have announced policies aimed at phasing-out incandescent lighting within their jurisdictions. This study considers the implications of these policy developments in terms of demand for regulatory compliant lamps and the capacity and motivation of the lamp industry to produce efficient lighting products in sufficient volume to meet future demand. To assess these issues, it reviews the historic international screw-based lamp market, describes the status of international phase-out policies and presents projections of anticipated market responses to regulatory requirements to determine future demand for CFLs.

  6. Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the Lighting Africa initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Fyenbo, Jan

    2010-01-01

    . The discrete components were white light LEDs, a blocking diode, a lithium ion battery, vias and button contacts in two adjacent corners. The completed lamp has outside dimensions of 22.5 × 30.5 cm, a weight of 50 g and a very flat outline. The battery and components were the thickest elements and measured ... mm. A hole with a ring was punched in one corner to enable mechanical fixation or tying. The lamp has two states. In the charging state it has a completely flat outline and will charge the battery when illuminated from either side while the front side illumination is preferable. When used as a lamp...... two adjacent corners are joined via button contacts whereby the device can stand on a horizontal surface and the circuit is closed such that the battery discharges through the LEDs that illuminate the surface in front of the lamp. Several different lamps were prepared using the same solar cell...

  7. Topology optimisation of passive coolers for light-emitting diode lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This work applies topology optimisation to the design of passive coolers for light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. The heat sinks are cooled by the natural convection currents arising from the temperature difference between the LED lamp and the surrounding air. A large scale parallel computational....... The optimisation results show interesting features that are currently being incorporated into industrial designs for enhanced passive cooling abilities....

  8. Design of passive coolers for light-emitting diode lamps using topology optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Sigmund, Ole; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2018-01-01

    Topology optimised designs for passive cooling of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps are investigated through extensive numerical parameter studies. The designs are optimised for either horizontal or vertical orientations and are compared to a lattice-fin design as well as a simple parameter......, while maintaining low sensitivity to orientation. Furthermore, they exhibit several defining features and provide insight and general guidelines for the design of passive coolers for LED lamps....

  9. Anu Lamp / [vestelnud Kalju Orro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    Lavakunstikooli sisseastumisest, õppimisest, õpetajatest ja õpetamisest. Anu Lamp õppis Lavakunstikoolis 10. lennus (1978-1982). Osalenud samas lavakõne õppejõuna 18.-23. lennu ja erialaõppejõuna 20. lennu töös

  10. Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alok Srivatava

    2007-03-31

    This is the Final Report of the Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program is to develop novel hybrid phosphors by coating commercially available lamp phosphors with highly stable wide band-gap nanocrystalline phosphors (NCP). The prime technical approach is the development of NCP quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) and ultra-violet (UV) emitting phosphors with quantum efficiencies exceeding that of the conventional phosphors at 185 nm. The novel hybrid phosphors will increase the efficiency of the fluorescent lamps by up to 32%, enabling total energy savings of 0.26 quads, the reduction in the U.S. energy bill by $6.5 billion and the reduction of the annual carbon emission by 4.1 billion kilogram. Our work started by investigating through modeling calculations the requirement for the particle size of the NCP. Our work to develop suitable nanocrystalline phosphors started with the known oxide quantum splitting and UV emitting phosphors. We demonstrated several synthesis techniques for the production of high quality nanocrystalline materials that crystallizes in the desired phase and with the desired particle size. In collaboration with our subcontractor we demonstrated the feasibility for the manufacture of NC phosphors. We also demonstrated novel techniques of coating the NCP on the surface of micron sized phosphors. Our chief achievement pertains to the successful testing of the coated hybrid phosphor systems in linear fluorescent lamps. In linear fluorescent lamp tests, we have demonstrated up to 7% increase in the efficacy of hybrid phosphors over the conventional (uncoated) phosphors. We have also demonstrated the improvement in the lumen maintenance of the coated phosphors. A hybrid phosphor system based on the commercial red emitting phosphor, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} did not show the anticipated improvement in lamp efficacy. We explored the reasons for this observation

  11. Fundamentals of solid-state lighting LEDs, OLEDs, and their applications in illumination and displays

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    History and Basics of LightingChronological History of LightingLearning Objectives How Early Man Looked at the ""Sun"" The Need for Artificial Light Sources First Steps in the Evolution of Artificial Lighting The First Solid-State Lighting Device The First Practical Electrical Lighting Device The Incandescent Filament Lamp Mercury and Sodium Vapor Lamps The Fluorescent Lamp The Compact Fluorescent Lamp Revolution in the World of Lighting: Advent of Light-Emitting Diodes Birth of the First LED and the Initial Stages of LED Development The Father of the LED: Holonyak Jr. The Post-1962 Developmen

  12. Design methodologies for reliability of SSL LED boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Perpiñà, X.; Jorda, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Husák, M.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.; Gasse, A.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a comparison of various LED board technologies from thermal, mechanical and reliability point of view provided by an accurate 3-D modelling. LED boards are proposed as a possible technology replacement of FR4 LED boards used in 400 lumen retrofit SSL lamps. Presented design

  13. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations. (paper)

  14. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  15. Tuning the white light spectrum of light emitting diode lamps to reduce attraction of nocturnal arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Travis; Aldern, Hannah L; Eggers, John F; Flores, Steve; Franco, Lesly; Hirshfield-Yamanishi, Eric; Petrinec, Laina N; Yan, Wilson A; Barroso, André M

    2015-05-05

    Artificial lighting allows humans to be active at night, but has many unintended consequences, including interference with ecological processes, disruption of circadian rhythms and increased exposure to insect vectors of diseases. Although ultraviolet and blue light are usually most attractive to arthropods, degree of attraction varies among orders. With a focus on future indoor lighting applications, we manipulated the spectrum of white lamps to investigate the influence of spectral composition on number of arthropods attracted. We compared numbers of arthropods captured at three customizable light-emitting diode (LED) lamps (3510, 2704 and 2728 K), two commercial LED lamps (2700 K), two commercial compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs; 2700 K) and a control. We configured the three custom LEDs to minimize invertebrate attraction based on published attraction curves for honeybees and moths. Lamps were placed with pan traps at an urban and two rural study sites in Los Angeles, California. For all invertebrate orders combined, our custom LED configurations were less attractive than the commercial LED lamps or CFLs of similar colour temperatures. Thus, adjusting spectral composition of white light to minimize attracting nocturnal arthropods is feasible; not all lights with the same colour temperature are equally attractive to arthropods. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Udvikling af LED lyskilder og lamper. Slutrapport for PSO 337-068

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte

    This report is the final and concluding report on the research and development project “Development of LED light sources and lamps” PSO no. 337-068 supported by Dansk Energi – Net. The project was a collaboration between Risø National laboratory, Louis Poulsen Lighting, Dong Energy, Laboratoriet...... Lys & Syn and RGB Lamps. The objective of this project was to pave the way for replacement of incandescent- and halogen lighting by LED lightning through development of prototypes for new types of LED products: light sources and lamps. The report summarizes and describes the main results...... of the project, which are: - a new LED light source with an efficacy of 51 lm/W and a CRI index of 92 that can replace an incandescent bulb. - two LED pendants/lamps, a LED table lamp and a chair with LED lighting developed by designers and researchers. - LED seminar and two exhibitions of the newly developed...

  17. Patient and Family Member-Led Research in the Intensive Care Unit: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Marlyn; Bagshaw, Sean M; McKenzie, Emily; Oxland, Peter; Oswell, Donna; Boulton, Debbie; Niven, Daniel J; Potestio, Melissa L; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marlett, Nancy; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-01-01

    Engaging patients and family members as partners in research increases the relevance of study results and enhances patient-centered care; how to best engage patients and families in research is unknown. We tested a novel research approach that engages and trains patients and family members as researchers to see if we could understand and describe the experiences of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their families. Former patients and family members conducted focus groups and interviews with patients (n = 11) and families of surviving (n = 14) and deceased (n = 7) patients from 13 ICUs in Alberta Canada, and analyzed data using conventional content analysis. Separate blinded qualitative researchers conducted an independent analysis. Participants described three phases in the patient/family "ICU journey"; admission to ICU, daily care in ICU, and post-ICU experience. Admission to ICU was characterized by family shock and disorientation with families needing the presence and support of a provider. Participants described five important elements of daily care: honoring the patient's voice, the need to know, decision-making, medical care, and culture in ICU. The post-ICU experience was characterized by the challenges of the transition from ICU to a hospital ward and long-term effects of critical illness. These "ICU journey" experiences were described as integral to appropriate interactions with the care team and comfort and trust in the ICU, which were perceived as essential for a community of caring. Participants provided suggestions for improvement: 1) provide a dedicated family navigator, 2) increase provider awareness of the fragility of family trust, 3) improve provider communication skills, 4) improve the transition from ICU to hospital ward, and 5) inform patients about the long-term effects of critical illness. Analyses by independent qualitative researchers identified similar themes. Patient and family member-led research is feasible and can

  18. [Study on the safety of blue light leak of LED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong-Yu; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Su-Ling; Huang, Qing-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the blue light properties of LED illumination devices have been investigated. Against the status quo of China's LED lighting, we measured the spectrum component of LED lamps and analyzed the photobiological safety under the current domestic and international standards GB/T 20145-2006/CIE S009/E: 2002 and IEC62471: 2006 standards as well as CTL-0744_2009-laser resolution, which provides the reference to the manufacture of LED lighting lamps as well as related safety standards and laws. If the radiance intensity of blue light in LED is lower than 100 W x m(-2) x Sr(-1), there is no harm to human eyes. LEDs will not cause harm to human eyes under normal use, but we should pay attention to the protection of special populations (children), and make sure that they avoid looking at a light source for a long time. The research has found that the blue-rich lamps can affect the human rule of work and rest, and therefore, the LED lamps with color temperature below 4 000 K and color rendering index of 80 are suitable for indoor use. At the same time, the lamps with different parameters should be selected according to the different distances.

  19. LEDs light up the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, N.

    2004-06-30

    A lighting system using light-emitting diodes, and privately financed by a Canadian engineering professor at the University of Calgary, has been set up in a village in Nepal in 2000. Since then, through the efforts of the 'Light Up The World' Foundation, established by Dr. Irvine-Halliday, projects have lit up thousands of homes in the Philippines, India, Afghanistan, the Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Angola. Although the goal of the project is primarily to provide lighting for reading and writing for school-children, the project has been the source of many other advantages; creation of enterprise, increased employment, enhanced income, gender equality, and improvements in health and safety among them. Since LED lamps in most cases replace kerosene lamps, the system also has significant environmental benefits. The system as originally envisioned creates electricity by pedal-powered generator, or by solar panels connected to a battery, depending on what is available at each home. Each home is connected to the power supply and supplied with low-energy diode lamps. The lights are extremely efficient and many homes can be equipped with them using less energy than it takes to power a single 100-watt light bulb. 5 photos.

  20. The role of pesticide fate modelling in a prevention-led approach to potable water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Tom; Pullan, Stephanie; Whelan, Mick; Parsons, David

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse inputs from agriculture are commonly the main source of pesticide contamination in surface water and may have implications for the quality of treated drinking water. After privatisation in 1991, UK water companies primarily focused on the provision of sufficient water treatment to reduce the risk of non-compliance with the European Drinking Water Directive (DWD), under which all pesticide concentrations must be below 0.1µg/l and UK Water Supply Regulations for the potable water they supply. Since 2000, Article 7 of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) has begun to drive a prevention-led approach to compliance with the DWD. As a consequence water companies are now more interested in the quality of 'raw' (untreated) water at the point of abstraction. Modelling (based upon best available estimates of cropping, pesticide use, weather conditions, pesticide characteristics, and catchment characteristics) and monitoring of raw water quality can both help to determine the compliance risks associated with the quality of this 'raw' water resource. This knowledge allows water companies to prioritise active substances for action in their catchments, and is currently used in many cases to support the design of monitoring programmes for pesticide active substances. Additional value can be provided if models are able to help to identify the type and scale of catchment management interventions required to achieve DWD compliance for pesticide active substances through pollution prevention at source or along transport pathways. These questions were explored using a simple catchment-scale pesticide fate and transport model. The model employs a daily time-step and is semi-lumped with calculations performed for soil type and crop combinations, weighted by their proportions within the catchment. Soil properties are derived from the national soil database and the model can, therefore, be applied to any catchment in England and Wales. Various realistic catchment management

  1. How to treat Alzheimer’s with new LED light technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Mai; Petersen, Paul Michael; Broeng, Jes

    We have developed a new therapeutic LED lamp that modulates with 40 Hz the neuron responses in different parts of the brain without affecting the human vision. The lamp may in the future be used to treat patients with Alzheimer’s disease.......We have developed a new therapeutic LED lamp that modulates with 40 Hz the neuron responses in different parts of the brain without affecting the human vision. The lamp may in the future be used to treat patients with Alzheimer’s disease....

  2. UV lamp for photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, M.J.B.; Landers, R.; Sundaram, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    An UV lamp and a differential pumping system which enables to couple the lamp to an ultra-high vacuum chamber (10 -9 torr) without using windows, are described. The differential between the pressure inside the discharge chamber and the one in de UHV region, which is of 10 8 -10 9 , is achieved with two pumping states separated by pyrex capillaries having an internal diameter of 0.6 mm. In the first stage, a mechanical pump (10 -3 torr) is used; in the second stage, a diffusor pump with a cryogenic trap (N 2 liq - 10 -7 torr) is employed. The lamp produces, when used with high purity He, narrow lines almost clear at 21.2 eV and 40.8 eV, depending on the discharge chamber pressure, thus eliminating the need of a monochromator. As a high voltage source (3 KV), a commercial unit with a good current control was used, ensuring UV beam stability - an essential characteristic for this lamp if it is employed for photoelectron excitation of crystalline samples. (C.L.B.) [pt

  3. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  4. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all persons...

  5. Plant growth with Led lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Bernardini, A.; Di Carlo, F.; Scoccianti, M.; Alonzo, G.; Carlino, M.; Dondi, F.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Leds lighting is highly relevant for the horticultural industry. Compared to other light sources used for plant production, leds have several properties which are potentially useful in relation to horticulture. However, although LEDs technology has raised strong interest in research for extraterrestrial agriculture, current LEDs panel costs are still too high for commercial adoption in greenhouse sector, and their electrical efficacies do not compete with those of high-pressure sodium lamps, but several manufactures are working to address these issues. When LEDs become practical, their ability to based light sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties (i.e. low radiated heat; lighting from within the canopy) will render the narrow band spectrum of LEDs of particular interest for providing light to greenhouse horticulture. A general description of LEDs application and their technical characteristics is briefly reported. [it

  6. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  7. UVR measurement of a UV germicidal lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yueh; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2007-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause serious effects such as conjunctivitis and keratitis in eyes and erythema in skin. The exposure assessment of UVR has not been well established and developed in workplaces due to the lack of suitable UV detecting instruments. Therefore, UV monitoring and measuring procedures were investigated and developed with commercial spectroradiometry devices described in this paper. The UVR irradiance integrated with a biological effective parameter (S lambda) represents the impacts on human skin and eyes as UV effective irradiance. The spectral weighting function derived from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists was applied and evaluated to indicate the degree of harmfulness of UVR as a function of wavelength. A portable UV germicidal lamp with short and long wavelengths (254 nm and 365 nm) served as the UVR emission source. The UVR photon count similar to the perceived brightness of a source, irradiance, and effective irradiance (E eff) of the germicidal lamp were measured and analyzed, then the permissible exposure times (T max) were derived for UVR exposure assessment. This monitoring provided a comprehensive approach to detecting UVR magnitude, evaluated the performance of the approach, and quantified the effective exposure based on measured data. From this study, the methodology of UV measurement was established and could be applied to further UVR exposure assessment in the workplace.

  8. Materials for incandescent and fluorescent lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Knud Aage

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the materials systems used for incandescent lamps as well as a brief introduction to the systems used for fluorescent lamps. The materials used for incandescent lamps are doped tungsten used for the filaments, metals and alloys used for terminal and support posts......, lead wires and internal reflectors and screens as well as glasses for the envelope. The physics of bulbs and changes in bulbs during use are elucidated. The cost and energy savings and environmental benefits by replacement of incandescent lamps by fluorescent lamps are presented....

  9. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-09-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life: Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable

  10. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  11. How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael W. Taylor; Sonya L. Cameron; Anne-Louise M. Heath

    2012-01-01

    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk) on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage ...

  12. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of common genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiawang; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Lideng; Kuang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Songnan; You, Shuzhu

    2015-03-01

    Here, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for 11 common transgenic target DNA in GMOs. Six sets of LAMP primer candidates for each target were designed and their specificity, sensitivity, and reproductivity were evaluated. With the optimized LAMP primers, this LAMP assay was simply run within 45-60 min to detect all these targets in GMOs tested. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproductivity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of Real-Time PCR. In consistent with real-time PCR, detection of 0.5% GMOs in equivalent background DNA was possible using this LAMP assay for all targets. In comparison with real-time PCR, the LAMP assay showed the same results with simple instruments. Hence, the LAMP assay developed can provide a rapid and simple approach for routine screening as well as specific events detection of many GMOs.

  13. Bayesian Models for Life Prediction and Fault-Mode Classification in Solid State Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Sakalaukus, Peter

    2015-04-19

    A new method has been developed for assessment of the onset of degradation in solid state luminaires to classifY failure mechanisms by using metrics beyond lumen degradation that are currently used for identification of failure. Luminous Flux output, Correlated Color Temperature Data on Philips LED Lamps has been gathered under 85°C/85%RH till lamp failure. The acquired data has been used in conjunction with Bayesian Probabilistic Models to identifY luminaires with onset of degradation much prior to failure through identification of decision boundaries between lamps with accrued damage and lamps beyond the failure threshold in the feature space. In addition luminaires with different failure modes have been classified separately from healthy pristine luminaires. It is expected that, the new test technique will allow the development of failure distributions without testing till L 70 life for the manifestation of failure.

  14. No difference in self-reported frequency of choking between infants introduced to solid foods using a baby-led weaning or traditional spoon-feeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A

    2017-12-05

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) where infants self-feed family foods during the period that they are introduced to solid foods is growing in popularity. The method may promote healthier eating patterns, although concerns have been raised regarding its safety. The present study therefore explored choking frequency amongst babies who were being introduced to solid foods using a baby-led or traditional spoon-fed approach. In total, 1151 mothers with an infant aged 4-12 months reported how they introduced solid foods to their infant (following a strict BLW, loose BLW or traditional weaning style) and frequency of spoon-feeding and puree use (percentage of mealtimes). Mothers recalled if their infant had ever choked and, if so, how many times and on what type of food (smooth puree, lumpy puree, finger food and specific food examples). In total, 13.6% of infants (n = 155) had ever choked. No significant association was found between weaning style and ever choking, or the frequency of spoon or puree use and ever choking. For infants who had ever choked, infants following a traditional weaning approach experience significantly more choking episodes for finger foods (F 2,147  = 4.417, P = 0.014) and lumpy purees (F 2,131  = 6.46, P = 0.002) than infants following a strict or loose baby-led approach. Baby-led weaning was not associated with increased risk of choking and the highest frequency of choking on finger foods occurred in those who were given finger foods the least often. However, the limitations of noncausal results, a self-selecting sample and reliability of recall must be emphasised. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Izrail; Shanks, Bruce; Sumner, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  16. Mercury dosing solutions for fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corazza, A; Boffito, C [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, Lainate (MI) 20020 (Italy)], E-mail: alessio_corazza@saes-group.com

    2008-07-21

    A review of the different technologies used to dose mercury in fluorescent lamps is presented. Conventional liquid mercury dosing is gradually being replaced with more reliable and environmentally friendly solutions that enable a significant reduction of the amount of mercury introduced in the lamp, so as to cope with more stringent regulations issued to minimize the environmental impact of exhausted lamps. This paper will review the most advanced novel methods to assure an accurate and fine dosing of mercury in fluorescent lamps, especially focusing on solutions based on the use of solid alloys.

  17. A novel amblyopia treatment system based on LED light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Xiaoling

    2011-05-01

    A novel LED (light emitting diode) light source of five different colors (white, red, green, blue and yellow) is adopted instead of conventional incandescent lamps for an amblyopia treatment system and seven training methods for rectifying amblyopia are incorporated so as for achieving an integrated therapy. The LED light source is designed to provide uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity and alterable colors. Experimental tests indicate that the LED light source operates steadily and fulfills the technical demand of amblyopia treatment.

  18. 30 CFR 20.8 - Class 1 lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1 lamps. 20.8 Section 20.8 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.8 Class 1 lamps. (a) Protection against explosion hazards. Unless properly designed, class 1 lamps present two sources of probable...

  19. 30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 2 lamps. 20.9 Section 20.9 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.9 Class 2 lamps. (a) Safety. (1... section (No. 9, class 2 lamps), as experience and service prove to be necessary in the interests of safety. ...

  20. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    LAMP) of the random insertion mobile element (RIME - LAMP) to diagnose camel Trypanosomiasis in Sudan. Extracted DNA from camels was used to detect Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels using RIME-LAMP technique.

  1. Diode-laser-illuminated automotive lamp systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Michael A.; Remillard, Jeffrey T.

    1998-05-01

    We have utilized the high brightness of state-of-the-art diode laser sources, and a variety of emerging optical technologies to develop a new class of thin, uniquely styled automotive brake and signal lamps. Using optics based on thin (5 mm) plastic sheets, these lamps provide appearance and functional advantages not attainable with traditional automotive lighting systems. The light is coupled into the sheets using a 1 mm diameter glass fiber, and manipulated using refraction and reflection from edges, surfaces, and shaped cut-outs. Light can be extracted with an efficiency of approximately 50% and formed into a luminance distribution that meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) photometric requirements. Prototype lamps using these optics have been constructed and are less than one inch in thickness. Thin lamps reduce sheet metal costs, complexity, material usage, weight, and allow for increased trunk volume. In addition, these optics enhance lamp design flexibility. When the lamps are not energized, they can appear body colored, and when lighted, the brightness distribution across the lamp can be uniform or structured. A diode laser based brake lamp consumes seven times less electrical power than one using an incandescent source and has instant on capability. Also, diode lasers have the potential to be 10-year/150,000 mile light sources.

  2. Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) - a bottom-up, science-led approach to identifying indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengis, Nadine; Keller, David P.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces the Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) method, a bottom-up approach which combines expert judgment and statistical information to systematically select transparent, nonredundant indicators for a comprehensive assessment of the state of the Earth system. The methods consists of two basic steps: (1) the calculation of a correlation matrix among variables relevant for a given research question and (2) the systematic evaluation of the matrix, to identify clusters of variables with similar behavior and respective mutually independent indicators. Optional further analysis steps include (3) the interpretation of the identified clusters, enabling a learning effect from the selection of indicators, (4) testing the robustness of identified clusters with respect to changes in forcing or boundary conditions, (5) enabling a comparative assessment of varying scenarios by constructing and evaluating a common correlation matrix, and (6) the inclusion of expert judgment, for example, to prescribe indicators, to allow for considerations other than statistical consistency. The example application of the SCoMaE method to Earth system model output forced by different CO2 emission scenarios reveals the necessity of reevaluating indicators identified in a historical scenario simulation for an accurate assessment of an intermediate-high, as well as a business-as-usual, climate change scenario simulation. This necessity arises from changes in prevailing correlations in the Earth system under varying climate forcing. For a comparative assessment of the three climate change scenarios, we construct and evaluate a common correlation matrix, in which we identify robust correlations between variables across the three considered scenarios.

  3. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: An alternative to mercury based UVC lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoud, N. M. [UV Solutions Inc, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Physics and Chemistry Department, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Murnick, D. E. [UV Solutions Inc, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers.

  4. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  5. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-01-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps. (paper)

  6. Significant growth in. LED use predicted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mike

    2012-03-01

    Although LED lighting has its critics, a number of whom (see article 'LED--panacea or marketing hype', HEJ--February 2012) are concerned about what they claim are some manufacturers' 'exaggerated claims' about lighting efficiency and lamp lifetime, Philips Lighting believes that, such are the advances being made in this innovative lighting technology, that LED's overall share of the European lighting market will have risen from around 7% in 2008 to 25% by 2020 and that, a decade later, it will account for a remarkable 75% of lighting sales. In the UK, Philips' technical and design director for Lighting, Mike Simpson, told HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, healthcare estates and facilities managers are increasingly recognising the potential to save energy, reduce carbon emissions, and cut maintenance costs, using LED.

  7. Peer-led, transformative learning approaches increase classroom engagement in care self-management classes during inpatient rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassaway, Julie; Jones, Michael L; Sweatman, W Mark; Young, Tamara

    2017-10-16

    Evaluate effects of revised education classes on classroom engagement during inpatient rehabilitation for individuals with spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D). Multiple-baseline, quasi-experimental design with video recorded engagement observations during conventional and revised education classes; visual and statistical analysis of difference in positive engagement responses observed in classes using each approach. 81 patients (72% male, 73% white, mean age 36 SD 15.6) admitted for SCI/D inpatient rehabilitation in a non-profit rehabilitation hospital, who attended one or more of 33 care self-management education classes that were video recorded. All study activities were approved by the host facility institutional review board. Conventional nurse-led self-management classes were replaced with revised peer-led classes incorporating approaches to promote transformative learning. Revised classes were introduced across three subject areas in a step-wise fashion over 15 weeks. Positive engagement responses (asking questions, participating in discussion, gesturing, raising hand, or otherwise noting approval) were documented from video recordings of 14 conventional and 19 revised education classes. Significantly higher average (per patient per class) positive engagement responses were observed in the revised compared to conventional classes (p=0.008). Redesigning SCI inpatient rehabilitation care self-management classes to promote transformative learning increased patient engagement. Additional research is needed to examine longer term outcomes and replicability in other settings.

  8. Archaeological science and object biography:a Roman bronze lamp from Kavastu bog (Estonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Oras, Ester; Higham, Thomas; Cramp, Lucy; Bull, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Objects imported over long distances often have rich biographies, not least a collection of bronze objects found in a peat bog in Estonia that included an elaborate lamp of Roman origin. Combining new scientific approaches with earlier observations and traditional archaeological analysis, the authors reconstruct the provenance, possible itinerary and changing use of the lamp over half a millennium, and across thousands of kilometres. They highlight its variable roles, from luxurious illuminat...

  9. High temperature getter for compact HID lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maagt, B J de [Central Development Lighting, Philips Lighting B.V., PO Box 80020, 5600JM, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Corazza, A [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, 20020 Lainate, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-07

    In high intensity discharge (HID) lamps getters are generally used to remove gaseous impurities that otherwise may have negative effects on the lamp characteristics. Hydrogen, in particular, is a dangerous impurity because it can induce ignition problems and, in lamps with a quartz burner, it can diffuse from the outer bulb into the arc tube and cause early corrosion of the quartz. Recently a new getter, suitable to work in compact HID lamps operated at high temperatures, has been developed: this getter is an appropriate solution to sorb hydrogen at high working temperatures in lamps where the use of a conventional getter is inadequate because of its small capacity for gettering hydrogen, its relatively high hydrogen equilibrium pressure and problems associated with the evaporation of getter and container material. The newly developed getter, named high temperature getter (HTG), is based on a special alloy enclosed in a niobium container. The new alloy is very effective in sorbing hydrogen in the temperature region of 500-900 deg. C. It has been proved that by introducing the HTG the processing of high-wattage compact HID lamps can be simplified and a better lamp performance can be obtained.

  10. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  11. Novel Electronic Ballast for Automotive HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakabe, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Hidehiko; Kawasaka, Taihei

    Simplifying the composition of the automotive HID lamp electronic ballast has been considered. This paper describes the novel electronic ballast that is composed of a DC/DC converter, a capacitor connected to a lamp in series, a switch (S3) connected to the capacitor in parallel, a switch (S2) placed between the output terminals of the DC/DC converter and also connected in parallel to the lamp and the capacitor in series, and an igniter. All MOSFETs (S1 in the DC/DC converter, S2 and S3) in the ballast are operated on the common voltage position (GND) of the circuit. The DC/DC converter is operated intermittently and the operation of S2 synchronizes with the operation of it to supply the lamp with an alternate square wave voltage. Operating an automotive HID lamp succeeded using the novel ballast and by setting some issues below. 1) The occurrence of the power loss when S2 is turned on. 2) The occurrence of extinction of gas discharge. This paper describes how the loss can be decreased if a part of the energy stored in the output capacitor of the DC/DC conveter is used to operate the lamp before S2 is turned on. It also describes how an inductor and a capacitor were added to the proposed electronic ballast to raise the lamp voltage in order to prevent the current from disappearing.

  12. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis E.; Hackel, Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  13. A pulse generator for xenon lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Janata, E

    2002-01-01

    A pulse generator is described, which enhances the analyzing light emitted from a xenon lamp as used in kinetic photospectrometry experiments. The lamp current is increased to 600 A for a duration of 3 ms; the current is constant within +-0.2% during a time interval of 2 ms. Because of instabilities of the lamp arc during pulsing, the use of the enhanced light source is limited to measuring times up to 500 mu s. The enhancement in light intensity depends on the wavelength and amounts to more than 400-fold in the UV-region.

  14. Lifetime prediction of LED lighting systems considering thermal coupling between LED sources and drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfarog, Azzarn Orner; Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    The lifetime prediction of LED lighting system is important to guide the designers to fulfill the design specifications and to benchmark the cost-competitiveness of different lighting technologies. Currently, the lifetime of LED system is usually predicted from the source part and the driver part...... separately, and then the thermal design is also optimized independently. In practice, the LED source and driver are usually compacted in a single fixture. The heat dissipated from LED source and driver will be coupled together and affect the heat transfer performance, which may degrade the whole system...... and accelerate the failure. In this paper, a new thermal model concerning the thermal coupling is proposed with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation for parameter acquirement. The proposed model has a better estimation of the thermal stresses of key components in the LED lamps and therefore an improved...

  15. On slit-lamp microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T A

    1975-11-21

    Theoretically the contact lens with a refractive power of -64 dioptres is superior to the concave pre-set lens (Hruby lens) or the convex lens (Bayadi). In practice the results are as follows: With the convex lens the examination of the vitreous is unsatisfactory. The reversed image with the convex lens will become familiar with some experience as one will also get used to the mirror images of the three-mirror contact lens. However, the abnormal curvature of the image is really a nuisance. On the other hand the large field of view is an advantage. The convex lens is only practically useful when it can be firmly attached to the slit-lamp microscope, as otherwise the new adjustment necessary for searching the fundus is too difficult. Attachment to the microscope is also of advantage with the Hruby lens. The concave contact lens of 64 dioptres is best suited for detailed examination of vitreous and fundus and for measurements. When no value is placed on a minute examination and a quick simple orientation suffices, the concave pre-set lens (Hruby lens) has the advantage that the lens does not have to be placed on the eye. If it is centred to the middle axis of the microscope, it facilitates especially quick observation. There will be cases where the pre-set lens will be the only answer, especially shortly after an operation or with very sensitive patients. Furthermore, the Hruby lens is preferable to the Bayadi lens because the vitreous can be better examined. The Hruby lens is also advantageous for examination of the region in the middle, lateral periphery of the fundus, 30 degrees - 60 degrees, and is superior in this area to the simple concave contact lens. The Bayadi lens seems to us only indicated for fundus examination of extremely high myopes. There it definitely offers advantages over and above the concave lens. For the most peripheral fundus, expecially below and above, the three-mirror lens with its modification is so far the best method. Especially for

  16. LAMP Project Case Study--Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    A field test of the materials unit from the LAMP Project for low motivated secondary students is discussed. Facilities, students, teaching methodology, and the evaluation of the situation are described.

  17. Slit-lamp calibration, crucial but neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfah Rif’ati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Kalibrasi berkala alat diagnostik sangat esensial untuk diagnosis yang akurat. Riset fasilitas kesehatan (Rifaskes 2011 mengumpulkan data termasuk kalibrasi lampu celah (slit-lamp pada sampel rumah sakit (RS di Indonesia. Tujuan analisis ialah untuk mengidentifikasi faktor dominan yang berpengaruh terhadap pelaksanaan kalibrasi berkala lampu celah di RS.Metode: Analisis memakai sebagian data Rifaskes 2011 di antara 442 RS yang menyediakan layanan kesehatan mata. Risiko relatif dipergunakan untuk menilai kemungkinan tidak dilakukannya kalibrasi lampu celah di RS.Hasil: Di antara 248 RS sampel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi, hanya 25,8% RS yang melakukan kalibrasi lampu celah tepat waktu. Dibandingkan dengan rumah sakit yang dimiliki oleh Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN, rumah sakit yang dimiliki lembaga lain memiliki risiko yang lebih tinggi tidak mengkalibrasi lampu celah. Menurut tipe RS, RS non-pendidikan dibandingkan dengan RS -pendidikan berisiko 40% lebih tinggi tidak mengkalibrasi lampu [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,40; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,02-1,91].Kesimpulan: Kalibrasi tepat waktu lampu-celah masih menjadi masalah di sebagian besar RS. Dibandingkan dengan rumah sakit yang dimiliki oleh BUMN, rumah sakit yang dimiliki oleh instansi lain berisiko yang lebih tinggi tidak mengkalibrasi lampu celah. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xxKata kunci:kalibrasi, lampu celah, rumah sakitAbstractBackground: Periodical diagnostic tool calibration is essential for accurate diagnosis. Health Facilities Research (Rifaskes in 2011 collected data on the slit-lamp calibration of all registered general hospitals in Indonesia.Methods: Analysis using a part Rifaskes 2011 data among 442 hospitals that provide eye health services. Relative risk was used to assess the risk of performing calibration slit lamp.Results: Out of 442 hospitals, 248 hospitals met the inclusion study criteria, and only 25.8% calibrating the slit-lamp

  18. Emotional approach coping and the effects of online peer-led support group participation among patients with breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Anika; Das, Enny

    2014-11-28

    Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come along with the cancer diagnosis might influence effectiveness of online participation. Emotional approach coping is a construct encompassing the intentional use of emotional processing and emotional expression in efforts to manage adverse circumstances. In this longitudinal study, we hypothesize that mixed findings in previous research are partly caused by individual differences in coping with emotions, which may moderate the effects of online support group participation on patients' well-being. A total of 133 Dutch patients with breast cancer filled out a baseline (T0) and a follow-up (T1, 6 months later) questionnaire assessing intensity of online participation within the online support community, emotional approach coping (ie, actively processing and expressing emotions), and psychological well-being (depression, emotional well-being, and breast cancer-related concerns). There were 109 patients who visited an online support community at both points in time. Repeated measures ANOVAs assessed change in well-being over time. Results showed 3-way interactions of time, online intensity of participation, and emotional approach coping on emotional well-being (F1,89=4.232, P=.04, η(2) ρ=.045) and depression (F1,88=8.167, P=.005, η(2) ρ=.085). Online support group participation increased emotional well-being over time for patients who scored low on emotional approach coping at T0, provided that they were highly active online. Patients who were highly active online with a high score on emotional approach coping reported no change in sense of well-being, but showed the highest score on well-being overall. Participating less frequently online was only beneficial for patients who scored high

  19. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Emergence As an Alternative Technology for Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.

  20. An Open Source "Smart Lamp" for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-03-07

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called "Smart Lamp", useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment.

  1. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together for their efficacy at inactivating Escherichia. coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores; research included an evaluation of genomic damage. Inactivation by the LEDs was compared with the efficacy of conventional UV sources, the low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury vapor lamps. The work also calculated the electrical energy per order of reduction of the microorganisms by the five UV sources.For E. coli, all five UV sources yielded similar inactivation rates. For MS2 coliphage, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was significantly more effective than the LP UV and UVC LED sources. When considering electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was the most efficient for E. coli and MS2, and the MPUV and LPUV were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UVC LEDs, the 280 nm LED unit required the least energy per log reduction of E. coli and HAdV2. The 280 nm and 260|280 nm LED units were equally efficient per log reduction of B. pumilus spores, and the 260 nm LED unit required the lowest energy per order of reduction of MS2 coliphage. The combination of the 260 nm and 280 nm UV LED wavelengths was also evaluated for potential synergistic effects. No dual-wavelength synergy was detected for inactivation of

  2. An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Villadangos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  3. Stuurlicht bij anjer: Consultancy: Vergelijking van LED lampen, spaarlampen en gloeilampen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, van der F.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Referaat Anjers die belicht waren met Philips greenpower LED flowering lamp DRWRFR lampen (1,2 W/m2) gaven voor 1 mei een gelijke productie als anjers die waren belicht met Philips flower power gloeilampen (10 W/m2), ook al kwam onder LED lampen de productie wel 5 dagen later op gang. Dit is de

  4. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper...... the grid and delivers the required voltage to the LEDdriver which is a dual interleaved buck converter. Twelve highpower CBT-90 LEDs have been connected in a 4xRGBconfiguration to deliver high output of saturated colors without the need for subtractive color filters. More than 6000 lm of fixture light...

  5. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  6. Color Shift Failure Prediction for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs by Modeling Features of Spectral Power Distribution with a Nonlinear Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the expanding application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs, the color quality of white LEDs has attracted much attention in several color-sensitive application fields, such as museum lighting, healthcare lighting and displays. Reliability concerns for white LEDs are changing from the luminous efficiency to color quality. However, most of the current available research on the reliability of LEDs is still focused on luminous flux depreciation rather than color shift failure. The spectral power distribution (SPD, defined as the radiant power distribution emitted by a light source at a range of visible wavelength, contains the most fundamental luminescence mechanisms of a light source. SPD is used as the quantitative inference of an LED’s optical characteristics, including color coordinates that are widely used to represent the color shift process. Thus, to model the color shift failure of white LEDs during aging, this paper first extracts the features of an SPD, representing the characteristics of blue LED chips and phosphors, by multi-peak curve-fitting and modeling them with statistical functions. Then, because the shift processes of extracted features in aged LEDs are always nonlinear, a nonlinear state-space model is then developed to predict the color shift failure time within a self-adaptive particle filter framework. The results show that: (1 the failure mechanisms of LEDs can be identified by analyzing the extracted features of SPD with statistical curve-fitting and (2 the developed method can dynamically and accurately predict the color coordinates, correlated color temperatures (CCTs, and color rendering indexes (CRIs of phosphor-converted (pc-white LEDs, and also can estimate the residual color life.

  7. Investigation of microbial inactivation efficiency of a UV disinfection system employing an excimer lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunovic, Zorana; Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2008-12-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) disinfection reactor based on excimer lamp technology was designed by integration of the results of numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics and a fluence rate (E') distribution model for cylindrical excimer lamps. The E' distribution model was developed based on a point source approach that accounts for absorption, dissipation, reflection, and refraction within the reactor system. A prototype reactor was constructed with a xenon-bromide excimer lamp and an internal spiral baffle. Experiments were conducted on the reactor to test its effectiveness for disinfection of drinking water in situations where the use of mercury-based UV sources is restricted or undesirable; a similar design approach could be used to develop an excimer UV reactor for disinfection of other fluid media, including wastewater or air.

  8. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's fluorescent lamp is a device intended for medical purposes to detect...

  9. Short Communication: Electrical energy saving through lamps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern Buildings of all types relies heavily on the use of electrical energy. This energy has to be properly utilized in order to avoid many problems both to the electric utilities supply companies and also to the consumer. This paper presents energy saving through replacement process of conventional electric lamps known ...

  10. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  11. 100 years of Wood's lamp revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatte, J. L.; van der Beek, N.; Kemperman, P. M. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Wood's lamp is a diagnostic tool in dermatology. Unfortunately, this useful tool is often overlooked in the busy and hectic outdoor dermatology clinic. To emphasize its value in modern dermatology, we present an updated review of the principles and applications and shed new light on its proper

  12. Serious complications in experiments in which UV doses are effected by using different lamp heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stephan D; Ryel, Ronald J; Hudelson, Timothy J; Caldwell, Martyn M

    2009-10-06

    Many experiments examining plant responses to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (280-315nm) simply compare an enhanced UV-B treatment with ambient UV-B (or no UV-B radiation in most greenhouse and controlled-environment studies). Some more detailed experiments utilize multiple levels of UV-B radiation. A number of different techniques have been used to adjust the UV dose. One common technique is to place racks of fluorescent UV-emitting lamps at different heights above the plant canopy. However, the lamps and associated support structure cast shadows on the plant bed below. We calculated one example of the sequence of shade intervals for two common heights of lamp racks and show the patterns and duration of shade which the plants receive is distributed differently over the course of the day for different heights of the lamp racks. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment with plants (canola, sunflower and maize) grown under unenergized lamp racks suspended at the same two heights above the canopy. Growth characteristics differed in unpredictable ways between plants grown under the two heights of lamp racks. These differences could enhance or obscure potential UV-B effects. Also, differences in leaf mass per unit foliage area, which were observed in this experiment, could contribute to differences in plant UV-B sensitivity. We recommend the use of other techniques for achieving multiple doses of UV-B radiation. These range from simple and inexpensive approaches (e.g., wrapping individual fluorescent tubes in layers of a neutral-density filter such as cheese cloth) to more technical and expensive alternatives (e.g., electronically modulated lamp control systems). These choices should be determined according to the goals of the particular experiment.

  13. Effects of residential energy-saving lamps on the attraction of nocturnal insects

    OpenAIRE

    Poiani, S. [UNESP; Dietrich, C. [UNESP; Barroso, A.; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Many species of insects display a disposition to move towards light. As a consequence, nocturnal artificial lighting often contributes to an increase in insect population among humans. We tested the hypothesis that residential white lamps can evoke significantly different attraction to insects even when their light outputs are nearly indistinguishable to humans. In a two-choice experiment using insect traps equipped with either a compact fluorescent or a LED light source with similar photomet...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1703 - Portable electric lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable electric lamps. 75.1703 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1703 Portable electric lamps. [Statutory Provisions] Persons underground shall use only permissible electric lamps approved by the...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4630 - Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. 878.4630 Section 878.4630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic...

  16. 46 CFR 92.05-10 - Lamp room construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp room construction. 92.05-10 Section 92.05-10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 92.05-10 Lamp room construction. (a) Lamp, paint, and oil lockers and similar compartments shall be constructed of steel or shall be wholly lined with metal. ...

  17. LED-roulette : LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te

  18. High-performance LED luminaire for sports hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xuan-Hao; Yang, Jin-Tsung; Chien, Wei-Ting; Chang, Jung-Hsuan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Lin, Che-Chu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a luminaire design with anti-glare and energy-saving effects for sports hall. Compared with traditional lamps using in a badminton court, the average illuminance on the ground of the proposed LED luminaire is enhanced about 300%. Besides, the uniformity is obviously enhanced and improved. The switch-on speed of lighting in sports hall is greatly reduced from 5-10 minutes to 1 second. The simulation analysis and the corresponding experiment results are demonstrated.

  19. Evaluation of an Internally Controlled Multiplex Tth Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (TEC-LAMP) Assay for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Owen; Clancy, Eoin; Cormican, Martin; Boo, Teck Wee; Cunney, Robert; Smith, Terry J

    2018-02-09

    Bacterial meningitis infection is a leading global health concern for which rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) offers an effective low-cost diagnostic approach; however, multiplex LAMP is difficult to achieve, limiting its application. We have developed novel real-time multiplex LAMP technology, TEC-LAMP, using Tth endonuclease IV and a unique LAMP primer/probe. This study evaluates the analytical specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and clinical application of an internally controlled multiplex TEC-LAMP assay for detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae , Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae . Analytical specificities were established by testing 168 bacterial strains, and LODs were determined using Probit analysis. The TEC-LAMP assay was 100% specific, with LODs for S. pneumoniae , N. meningitidis and H. influenzae of 39.5, 17.3 and 25.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Clinical performance was evaluated by testing 65 archived PCR-positive samples. Compared to singleplex real-time PCR, the multiplex TEC-LAMP assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 100%, respectively. This is the first report of a single-tube internally controlled multiplex LAMP assay for bacterial meningitis pathogen detection, and the first report of Tth endonuclease IV incorporation into nucleic acid amplification diagnostic technology.

  20. Evaluation of an Internally Controlled Multiplex Tth Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (TEC-LAMP Assay for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Higgins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis infection is a leading global health concern for which rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP offers an effective low-cost diagnostic approach; however, multiplex LAMP is difficult to achieve, limiting its application. We have developed novel real-time multiplex LAMP technology, TEC-LAMP, using Tth endonuclease IV and a unique LAMP primer/probe. This study evaluates the analytical specificity, limit of detection (LOD and clinical application of an internally controlled multiplex TEC-LAMP assay for detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Analytical specificities were established by testing 168 bacterial strains, and LODs were determined using Probit analysis. The TEC-LAMP assay was 100% specific, with LODs for S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae of 39.5, 17.3 and 25.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Clinical performance was evaluated by testing 65 archived PCR-positive samples. Compared to singleplex real-time PCR, the multiplex TEC-LAMP assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 100%, respectively. This is the first report of a single-tube internally controlled multiplex LAMP assay for bacterial meningitis pathogen detection, and the first report of Tth endonuclease IV incorporation into nucleic acid amplification diagnostic technology.

  1. Life-cycle flow of mercury and recycling scenario of fluorescent lamps in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Misuzu; Fukui, Kazuki; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    We summarized the mercury flow of mercury-containing products from their manufacture to their disposal in Japan and discussed the current management of mercury-containing hazardous household waste (HHW). The mercury flow originating from these products was estimated to be about 10-20 tonnes annually, about 5 tonnes of which was attributable to fluorescent lamps, the major mercury-containing product in Japan. The recent rapid increase in digital home electronics with liquid crystal displays (e.g., televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and digital cameras) has led to a marked increase in the production of backlights, which are also fluorescent and contain mercury. Most of the annual flow was disposed of as waste, with only 0.6 tonnes Hg recovered. The mercury flow for end-of-life fluorescent lamps (excluding backlights) was analyzed under three scenarios for Kyoto, Japan for 2003: the present condition scenario, the improved recycling scenario, and the complete recycling scenario. Under the present condition scenario, mercury flow was calculated to be 34 kg Hg for incineration, 21 kg Hg for landfill, and only 4 kg Hg for recycling. The complete recycling scenario shows a simple flow, with all mercury recycled. Under this scenario for Kyoto, we calculated that a cyclic system having 47 kg of mercury (3.5 tonnes Hg in Japan) could be established if all fluorescent lamps (excluding those stored in residences) were collected and recycled. Mercury is a HHW priority chemical, and we need to limit its use and establish a closed-loop system. There are currently no regulations to achieve this, and the management of most HHWs is left to local governments. Therefore, products are disposed of in landfills or incinerated, except for some that are voluntarily collected and recycled. In order to recycle all of the waste fluorescent lamps, we must have a complete recycling system that has a high rate of public participation in collection. We also must have a closed

  2. Life-cycle flow of mercury and recycling scenario of fluorescent lamps in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asari, Misuzu [Kyoto University, Environment Preservation Center, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: misuzuasari@eprc.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukui, Kazuki [Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan, Tokyo 100-8975 (Japan); Sakai, Shin-ichi [Kyoto University, Environment Preservation Center, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2008-04-01

    We summarized the mercury flow of mercury-containing products from their manufacture to their disposal in Japan and discussed the current management of mercury-containing hazardous household waste (HHW). The mercury flow originating from these products was estimated to be about 10-20 tonnes annually, about 5 tonnes of which was attributable to fluorescent lamps, the major mercury-containing product in Japan. The recent rapid increase in digital home electronics with liquid crystal displays (e.g., televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and digital cameras) has led to a marked increase in the production of backlights, which are also fluorescent and contain mercury. Most of the annual flow was disposed of as waste, with only 0.6 tonnes Hg recovered. The mercury flow for end-of-life fluorescent lamps (excluding backlights) was analyzed under three scenarios for Kyoto, Japan for 2003: the present condition scenario, the improved recycling scenario, and the complete recycling scenario. Under the present condition scenario, mercury flow was calculated to be 34 kg Hg for incineration, 21 kg Hg for landfill, and only 4 kg Hg for recycling. The complete recycling scenario shows a simple flow, with all mercury recycled. Under this scenario for Kyoto, we calculated that a cyclic system having 47 kg of mercury (3.5 tonnes Hg in Japan) could be established if all fluorescent lamps (excluding those stored in residences) were collected and recycled. Mercury is a HHW priority chemical, and we need to limit its use and establish a closed-loop system. There are currently no regulations to achieve this, and the management of most HHWs is left to local governments. Therefore, products are disposed of in landfills or incinerated, except for some that are voluntarily collected and recycled. In order to recycle all of the waste fluorescent lamps, we must have a complete recycling system that has a high rate of public participation in collection. We also must have a closed

  3. Energy savings by implementation of light quality LED lighting. Final report; Implementering af energibesparelser ved benyttelse af hoejkvalitets LED belysning. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Thorseth, A.; Poulsen, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The project developed two new LED light sources and systems, emphasising the potential of LED technology for energy savings and lighting quality. A LED light source for display case lighting, replacing incandescent lamps, was successfully installed in the Treasury at Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen, Denmark, and it was decided to extend the solution in 2010. Electricity savings of 74% were achieved. LED light sources replacing halogen bulbs in cooker hoods reduce electricity consumption by 69% and ensure even lighting of the entire working surface with about 500 lux at all cooking areas. Furthermore, a new LED optics system was patented. (ln)

  4. The high pressure xenon lamp as a source of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerdt, J.A. ter.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an investigation into the radiation properties of a commercially available high pressure xenon lamp (type XBO 900 W) in the spectral range 0.3 to 3 μm. The purpose of the study was to find out whether such a lamp can serve as a (secondary) standard of radiation in spectroscopic and radiometric measurements. The main advantades of the xenon lamp over other secondary standards such as the tungsten strip lamp and the anode of a carbon arc lamp are the high temperature of its discharge and the resulting strong radiation over a broad spectral range. (Auth.)

  5. [Remote Slit Lamp Microscope Consultation System Based on Web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfa; Zhuo, Yong; Liu, Zuguo; Chen, Yanping

    2015-11-01

    To realize the remote operation of the slit lamp microscope for department of ophthalmology consultation, and visual display the real-time status of remote slit lamp microscope, a remote slit lamp microscope consultation system based on B/S structure is designed and implemented. Through framing the slit lamp microscope on the website system, the realtime acquisition and transmission of remote control and image data is realized. The three dimensional model of the slit lamp microscope is established and rendered on the web by using WebGL technology. The practical application results can well show the real-time interactive of the remote consultation system.

  6. Energy-saving lamps - the hit in horticulture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domke, O.

    1984-01-01

    In lighting chains, it is not possible to exchange energy saving lamps for light bulbs (market gardening). In the shop sector, however, there will be a number of useful purposes for them (important: long life). Energy-saving lamps function like fluorescent lamps. They can be exchanged for ordinary bulbs because they have the same screw-in system. Economy lamps and fluorescent tubes use approximately 75% less electricity than comparable bulbs, and at the same time, they last about five times as long. What sort of lamp is used should be carefully considered according to what it is to be used for. (orig.).

  7. Facilitating a stakeholder-led approach to the development of Mediterranean climate services: co-ordinating the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIM-RUN case studies provide a real-world context for bringing together experts on the demand and supply side of climate services. They are essential to the CLIM-RUN objective of using iterative and bottom-up (i.e., stakeholder led) approaches for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders. The region of interest for CLIM-RUN is the Mediterranean, which is a recognised climate change hotspot (i.e., a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming) and which does not currently have developed climate service networks such as exist in a number of Central and Northern European countries. The case studies focus on the energy and tourism sectors, but also include a cross-cutting study on wild fires (an issue of increasing concern in the Mediterranean) as well as a cross-sectorial integrated case study for the Venice lagoon. They span coastal (e.g., Tunisia and Croatia), island (e.g., Cyprus) and mountain (e.g., Savoie) environments, the eastern (e.g., Greece) to western (e.g., Spain, Morocco) Mediterranean regions, and regional to local foci. Stakeholder involvement has been critical from the start of the project in March 2011, with a series of targeted workshops helping to define the framework for each case study. Two specific workshop objectives were to (i) better understand who are the climate services stakeholders and (ii) what they need/want from climate services (both in terms of data products and broader knowledge). Many of the workshops were held in local languages to maximise stakeholder participation, with expert knowledge provided by the CLIM-RUN climate and stakeholder expert teams (the CET and SET). Following the workshops, CET members are 'translating' the user needs into specific requirements from climate observations and models and identifying areas where additional modelling and analysis are required. As part of the central co-ordination of the case studies, a perception and data needs

  8. From LAMP to Koha: Case Study of the Pakistan Legislative Assembly Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi-Ullah, Farasat; Qutab, Saima

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to elaborate the library data migration process from LAMP (Library Automation Management Program) to the open source software Koha's (2.2.8 Windows based) Pakistani flavour PakLAG-Koha in six legislative assembly libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains different steps of the data migration…

  9. Indigenous Youth Peer-Led Health Promotion in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States: A Systematic Review of the Approaches, Study Designs, and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcich, Daniel; Thomas, Jessica; Crawford, Katy; Ward, James

    2018-01-01

    Youth peer-led interventions have become a popular way of sharing health information with young people and appear well suited to Indigenous community contexts. However, no systematic reviews focusing on Indigenous youth have been published. We conducted a systematic review to understand the range and characteristics of Indigenous youth-led health promotion projects implemented and their effectiveness. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and ProQuest Social Sciences databases was conducted, supplemented by gray literature searches. Included studies focused on interventions where young Indigenous people delivered health information to age-matched peers. Twenty-four studies were identified for inclusion, based on 20 interventions (9 Australian, 4 Canadian, and 7 from the United States of America). Only one intervention was evaluated using a randomized controlled study design. The majority of evaluations took the form of pre-post studies. Methodological limitations were identified in a majority of studies. Study outcomes included improved knowledge, attitude, and behaviors. Currently, there is limited high quality evidence for the effectiveness of peer-led health interventions with Indigenous young people, and the literature is dominated by Australian-based sexual health interventions. More systematic research investigating the effectiveness of peer-led inventions is required, specifically with Indigenous populations. To improve health outcomes for Indigenous youth, greater knowledge of the mechanisms and context under which peer-delivered health promotion is effective in comparison to other methods of health promotion is needed.

  10. Evaluating Student Motivation in Organic Chemistry Courses: Moving from a Lecture-Based to a Flipped Approach with Peer-Led Team Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujuan; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2018-01-01

    Academic Motivation Scale-Chemistry (AMS-Chemistry), an instrument based on the self-determination theory, was used to evaluate students' motivation in two organic chemistry courses, where one course was primarily lecture-based and the other implemented flipped classroom and peer-led team learning (Flip-PLTL) pedagogies. Descriptive statistics…

  11. Developing an Instrument to Characterise Peer-Led Groups in Collaborative Learning Environments: Assessing Problem-Solving Approach and Group Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Pilar; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning is being used extensively by educators at all levels. Peer-led team learning in a version of collaborative learning that has shown consistent success in science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines. Using a multi-phase research study we describe the development of an observation instrument that can be used to…

  12. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu-Man; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Sliney, David; Yang, Chang-Hao; Lee, Li-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) deliver higher levels of blue light to the retina than do conventional domestic light sources. Chronic exposure to high-intensity light (2,000-10,000 lux) has previously been found to result in light-induced retinal injury, but chronic exposure to relatively low-intensity (750 lux) light has not been previously assessed with LEDs in a rodent model. We examined LED-induced retinal neuronal cell damage in the Sprague-Dawley rat using functional, histological, and biochemical measurements. We used blue LEDs (460 nm) and full-spectrum white LEDs, coupled with matching compact fluorescent lights, for exposures. Pathological examinations included electroretinogram, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also measured free radical production in the retina to determine the oxidative stress level. H&E staining and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors, which indicated blue-light induced photochemical injury of the retina. Free radical production in the retina was increased in LED-exposed groups. IHC staining demonstrated that oxidative stress was associated with retinal injury. Although we found serious retinal light injury in LED groups, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) groups showed moderate to mild injury. Our results raise questions about adverse effects on the retina from chronic exposure to LED light compared with other light sources that have less blue light. Thus, we suggest a precautionary approach with regard to the use of blue-rich "white" LEDs for general lighting. Shang YM, Wang GS, Sliney D, Yang CH, Lee LL. 2014. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environ Health Perspect 122:269-276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294.

  13. White Light–Emitting Diodes (LEDs) at Domestic Lighting Levels and Retinal Injury in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu-Man; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Sliney, David; Lee, Li-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) deliver higher levels of blue light to the retina than do conventional domestic light sources. Chronic exposure to high-intensity light (2,000–10,000 lux) has previously been found to result in light-induced retinal injury, but chronic exposure to relatively low-intensity (750 lux) light has not been previously assessed with LEDs in a rodent model. Objective: We examined LED-induced retinal neuronal cell damage in the Sprague-Dawley rat using functional, histological, and biochemical measurements. Methods: We used blue LEDs (460 nm) and full-spectrum white LEDs, coupled with matching compact fluorescent lights, for exposures. Pathological examinations included electroretinogram, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also measured free radical production in the retina to determine the oxidative stress level. Results: H&E staining and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors, which indicated blue-light induced photochemical injury of the retina. Free radical production in the retina was increased in LED-exposed groups. IHC staining demonstrated that oxidative stress was associated with retinal injury. Although we found serious retinal light injury in LED groups, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) groups showed moderate to mild injury. Conclusion: Our results raise questions about adverse effects on the retina from chronic exposure to LED light compared with other light sources that have less blue light. Thus, we suggest a precautionary approach with regard to the use of blue-rich “white” LEDs for general lighting. Citation: Shang YM, Wang GS, Sliney D, Yang CH, Lee LL. 2014. White light–emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environ Health Perspect 122:269–276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294 PMID:24362357

  14. Energy-Saving Automation and LED Lighting Systems in Industry, Transport, Building and Municipal Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Klimenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protocol of diverse technological data unification providing the ability to scale with a minimal increase in auxiliary information volume that allows its usage, ranging from the simplest microcontrollers to integration of automation equipment in global systems was designed for industrial automation systems. Basic technical solutions implemented in development of LED lighting systems of salon subway cars, including a schematic diagram of the lamp, the main technical characteristics of the lamp power supply, the peculiarities of developed design of LED modules are described.

  15. UVR: sun, lamps, pigmentation and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D. The hea......Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D....... The health benefits of UVR exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways will be discussed in this themed issue in the following articles....

  16. Sequence-specific validation of LAMP amplicons in real-time optomagnetic detection of Dengue serotype 2 synthetic DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minero, Gabriel Khose Antonio; Nogueira, Catarina; Rizzi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    magnetic nanoparticles attached to biotinylated LAMP amplicons. We demonstrate detection of sub-femtomolar Dengue DNA target concentrations in the ideal contamination-free lab environment within 20 min. The second detection approach is based on sequence-specific binding of functionalised magnetic...... nanoparticles to loops of LAMP amplicons. Melting studies reveal that true positive and spurious amplicons have different melting points and this allows us to discriminate between them. This is found to be in a good agreement with subsequent studies on real-time sequence-specific discrimination of LAMP...... amplicons. The specific binding causes clustering of magnetic nanoparticles via binding to multiple sites (loops) emerging in the elongation phase of LAMP. Formation of nanoclusters is monitored via the depletion of the optomagnetic signal due to free nanoparticles. After sequence-specific validation, we...

  17. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  18. PERBEDAAN HASIL TANGKAPAN BAGAN APUNG YANG MENGGUNAKAN LAMPU MERKURI DENGAN LAMPU LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sulaiman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teknik penangkapan ikan dengan alat tangkap bagan di Indonesia khususnya di Kabupaten Barru umumnya masih menggunakan lampu merkuri yang mana membutuhkan energi listrik yang cukup besar. Salah satu alternatif untuk mengurangi penggunaan energi listrik yang besar ini dapat digunakan jenis lampu hemat energi seperti lampu Light Emitting Diode (LED. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan jenis ikan yang dominan tertangkap, komposisi jenis, dan berat ikan tertangkap antara bagan yang menggunakan lampu merkuri dengan lampu LED. Penelitian dilakukan di perairan Kabupaten Barru-Selat Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan. Lokasi pengamatan terletak pada posisi 4°22’48,7"-4°33’47,8"LS sampai dengan 119°25’05,0"-119°33’42,7"BT. Pengamatan lapang/uji coba penangkapan dilakukan pada periode Oktober-Nopember 2012 dan April-Mei 2013 (sebanyak 50 Trip penangkapan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi hasil tangkapan bagan yang menggunakan lampu merkuri dan lampu LED didominasi oleh ikan teri hitam, teri putih, kembung lelaki, tembang, cumi-cumi, dan peperek, masing-masing sebanyak 90% dan 83%. Dengan komposisi jenis hasil tangkapan yang demikian ini menunjukkan bahwa lampu LED dapat digunakan sebagai alat bantu penangkapan ikan karena mampu memikat jenis ikan target dan cenderung hasil tangkapannya sama dengan menggunakan lampu merkuri yang digunakan nelayan bagan. Terdapat perbedaan berat hasil tangkapan bagan yang menggunakan lampu merkuri dari pada yang menggunakan lampu LED, namun dari nilai hasil tangkapan tampak tidak berbeda. Berat jenis hasil tangkapan yang dominan tertangkap dengan lampu LED sebanyak17,49 kg/watt sedangkan lampu merkuri sebanyak 4,89 kg/watt. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa bagan dengan lampu LED mendapatkan tangkapan lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan bagan lampu merkuri. Fishing techniques with lift-net fishing gear in Indonesia especially in Barru Regency still usemercury lamp which

  19. Influence of different types of lamps on the reproductive development of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retes, Pâmela L; Espósito, Marcelo; das Neves, Danusa G; Viana, Arabela G A; Coelho, Louise M; Bobadilla-Mendez, Manuel F; Alvarenga, Renata R; Fassani, Edison J; Peixoto, Juliano V; Zangeronimo, Márcio G

    2017-05-01

    Reproductive tract development during puberty is critical to reproductive performance, and the light is crucial in this process in birds. However, in male quail, there is little information on the effects of types of lamps, more specifically the wavelength emitted. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of types of lamps on the reproductive performance of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Two hundred and forty male quail were exposed to six different types of lamp (incandescent, white fluorescent, or blue, white, red or green LED). The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and five replicates of one quail. Quail were slaughtered on days 35, 47, 57, 71 and 123 to evaluate the development of testes. On day 117, semen samples were analyzed and fertilized eggs were incubated. Body weight of the quails was influenced (P quails but, at 57 days of age, higher testicular development was obtained (P  0.05) on the quality of semen nor on the fertility rates of quail. It is concluded that lamps can influence the histological reproductive characteristics of male quails, but without influencing the semen quality. Fluorescent bulbs and red LED seem to anticipate the sexual maturity, but the white LED results in higher testicular development at 57 days of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  1. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  2. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions

  3. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  4. Systematic review: Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liping; Xiao, Heping; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in nucleic acid amplification have led to breakthroughs in the early detection of PTB compared to traditional sputum smear tests. The sensitivity and specificity of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), simultaneous amplification testing (SAT), and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. A critical review of previous studies of LAMP, SAT, and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis that used laboratory culturing as the reference method was carried out together with a meta-analysis. In 25 previous studies, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of tuberculosis were 93% and 94% for LAMP, 96% and 88% for SAT, and 89% and 98% for Xpert MTB/RIF. The I(2) values for the pooled data were >80%, indicating significant heterogeneity. In the smear-positive subgroup analysis of LAMP, the sensitivity increased from 93% to 98% (I(2) = 2.6%), and specificity was 68% (I(2) = 38.4%). In the HIV-infected subgroup analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 79% (I(2) = 72.9%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.4%). In the HIV-negative subgroup analysis for Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 72% (I(2) = 49.6%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.5%). LAMP, SAT and Xpert MTB/RIF had comparably high levels of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three methods were similar, with LAMP being highly sensitive for the diagnosis of smear-positive PTB. The cost effectiveness of LAMP and SAT make them particularly suitable tests for diagnosing PTB in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  6. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum......, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on europium chelate as a fluorescent marker. The system performance was tested with the immunoassay based...... on the cardiac marker, TnI. The same signal-to-noise ratio as for the flash lamp based system was obtained, operating the LED below specified maximum current. The background counts of the system and its main contributors were measured and analyzed. The background of the system of the LED based unit was improved...

  8. The characteristics of GaN-based blue LED on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Chuanbing; Jiang Fengyi; Fang Wenqing; Wang Li; Mo Chunnan; Liu Hechu

    2007-01-01

    InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Si (1 1 1) substrates, were successfully bonded and transferred onto new Si substrate. After chemical etching Si substrate and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching buffer layer, vertical structure GaN blue LEDs were fabricated. The characteristics of the lateral structure LEDs (grown on Si substrate) and the vertical structure LEDs (bonded on new Si substrate) have been investigated, and the performance of the vertical structure LEDs have obviously been improved compared to the lateral structure LEDs. The improved performance is due to the smaller tensile stress and series resistance in the vertical LEDs than that in lateral LEDs. The electroluminescence difference between vertical LEDs chips and the vertical LEDs lamps can be explained by the difference in heat dissipation

  9. LED roadway luminaires evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research explores whether LED roadway luminaire technologies are a viable future solution to providing roadway lighting. Roadway lighting : enhances highway safety and traffic flow during limited lighting conditions. The purpose of this evaluati...

  10. Surface plasmon enhanced LED

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković, Jelena; Lončar, Marko; Painter, Oskar; Scherer, Axel

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. We designed and fabricated an LED based on a thin semiconductor membrane (λ/2) with silver mirrors. A large spontaneous emission enhancement and a high modulation speed are obtainable due to the strong localization of the electromagnetic field in the microcavity. The coupling to surface plasmon modes which are subsequently scattered out by means of a grating is used to improve the extraction efficiency of the LED. The bottom mirror is thick and unpatterned. The top mi...

  11. Spectral Design Flexibility of LED Brings Better life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Ou, Yiyu

    2012-01-01

    white light using different color mixing schemes. The spectral design flexibility of white LED light sources will promote them for novel applications to improve the life quality of human beings. As an initial exploration to make use of the spectral design flexibility, we present an example: 'no blue...... longer time than the standard light source. At last future perspectives on spectral design flexibility of LED light sources improving human being's life will be discussed, with focus on the light and health. The good health is ensured by the spectrum optimized so that vital hormones (melatonin......Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are penetrating into the huge market of general lighting because they are energy saving and environmentally friendly. The big advantage of LED light sources, compared to traditional incandescent lamps and fluorescent light tubes, is the flexible spectral design to make...

  12. The Use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as Green and Red/Far-Red Light Sources in Plant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The use of green, red, and far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for plant physiological studies is outlined and evaluated. Indicates that LED lamps have the advantage over conventional light sources in that they are lightweight, low-cost, portable, easily constructed, and do not require color filters. (Author/DH)

  13. FASER Rescue Equipment and Mining Lamp Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala, L.

    1984-12-01

    The history of the FASER Rescue Equipment and Mining Lamp Factory founded in 1924 is discussed. Plant development from 1924 to 1939 and from 1947 to 1984 is evaluated. The FASER Plant has been subordinated to the EMAG Center for Research and Production of Electrical Engineering and Mine Automation since 1980. Equipment manufactured by the plant is discussed: oxygen respirators, canisters, protective clothing, control systems and measuring instruments used in mine rescue, medical equipment, lighting systems and light bulbs for underground mines. Some problems associated with manufacturing processes are evaluated: manufacturing equipment, manufacturing technologies, quality of rescue equipment, innovation and its economic significance, etc.

  14. Promoting Literacy and Protection with Solar Lamps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Farrell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By distributing solar lamps to vulnerable rural women in Yemen, we promoted enrollment in literacy programs, as well as reading among their children. We saw a number of secondary benefits as well: safer households where dangerous kerosene lamps were used less frequently in the evening; a number of livelihood activities - cooking, husbandry, handicrafts - continued safely into evening hours; children found it easier to work on their homework using the solar powered lamps; and children found it easier and safer to walk in dark, rural streets in the evening with the solar lamps slung around their necks.

  15. Sa uurisid ekspressionismi 1960ndatel ja 70ndatel... / Ene Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Ene

    2005-01-01

    2004. a. ilmunud raamatu "Ekspressionism" eest Eesti Kultuurkapitali suure kunstipreemia (100000 kr.) saanud Ene Lamp ekspressionismi tähenduse muutumiset, ekspressionismi rollist eesti kunstis, oma tulevikuplaanidest

  16. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  17. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  18. BiliLED low cost neonatal phototherapy, from prototype to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geido, Daniel; Failache, Horacio [Instituto de Fisica de la Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Simini, Franco [Nucleo de Ingenieria Biomedica de las Facultades de Medicina e Ingenieria (Uruguay); Hospital de ClInicas. Av Italia S/N. Piso 15 sala 2, 11600 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2007-11-15

    BiliLED is a phototherapy instrument designed to reduce bilirrubin blood rates in new born babies with jaundice. The light source is centred at 470 nm with a bandwidth of 35 nm and includes a matrix of 196 (14x14) InGaN LEDs. The optical elements are designed to maximize the light intensity useful for treatment, with a small number of LEDs in a compact and low cost unit. The optic array is such that every LED illuminates all the treatment area, which ensures redundancy and, thus, a high reliability not to be found in single-lamp instruments. Thermal dissipation and cost of BiliLED are both an order-of-magnitude smaller than conventional therapy lamps. BiliLED adjusts coetaneous irradiation with a feedback loop to compensate the loss or aging of LEDs achieving a calibrated light source for over a decade of use. A clinical trial in 20 hyperbilirrubinaemia patients shows 16% bilirrubin degradation within 24 hours of treatment, higher than most lamp phototherapy instruments. The steps from prototype to commercial model are described.

  19. BiliLED low cost neonatal phototherapy, from prototype to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geido, Daniel; Failache, Horacio; Simini, Franco

    2007-11-01

    BiliLED is a phototherapy instrument designed to reduce bilirrubin blood rates in new born babies with jaundice. The light source is centred at 470 nm with a bandwidth of 35 nm and includes a matrix of 196 (14×14) InGaN LEDs. The optical elements are designed to maximize the light intensity useful for treatment, with a small number of LEDs in a compact and low cost unit. The optic array is such that every LED illuminates all the treatment area, which ensures redundancy and, thus, a high reliability not to be found in single-lamp instruments. Thermal dissipation and cost of BiliLED are both an order-of-magnitude smaller than conventional therapy lamps. BiliLED adjusts coetaneous irradiation with a feedback loop to compensate the loss or aging of LEDs achieving a calibrated light source for over a decade of use. A clinical trial in 20 hyperbilirrubinaemia patients shows 16% bilirrubin degradation within 24 hours of treatment, higher than most lamp phototherapy instruments. The steps from prototype to commercial model are described.

  20. ESTIMATES OF THE INTENSITY OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING OF A LED IRRADIATOR OF LETTUCE IN GREENHOUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, artificial irradiation of lettuce seedlings is produced with gas discharge lamps that have a low energy efficiency and a significant proportion of the spectrum in the green region. LED chips can be chosen in such a way as to ensure maximum photosynthesis of lettuce with optimal consumption of electrical energy

  1. Impact of lamp shadowing and reflection on the fluence rate distribution in a multiple low-pressure UV lamp array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shanshan; Linden, Karl G; Ducoste, Joel; Liu, Dong

    2005-07-01

    Use of mathematical modeling for determination of ultraviolet (UV) fluence in disinfection reactors requires accurate knowledge of the fluence rate distribution in a multiple lamp array. A method for measuring the fluence rate among a multiple lamp array was demonstrated using spherical actinometry. A matrix of four low-pressure UV lamps in air were investigated to evaluate the potential for shadowing and reflection to impact the fluence rate within and surrounding the lamp array. Two fluence rate distribution models were tested to determine the ability to predict the fluence rate distribution measured by the actinometers. Shadowing proved to attenuate UV light. Reflection from the lamp surface added 3-9% to the fluence rate, depending upon position in the reactor. These effects, as well as the fluence rate at various points in the lamp matrix were effectively modeled using RAD-LSI and UVCalc3D fluence rate distribution models. At fluence rates above 8mWcm(-2), the actinometry measured fluence rate was lower than the modeled rate, presumably from saturation of the actinometer solution at high fluence rates (close to the lamp). With multiple lamp reactors, the impact of shadowing can significantly affect fluence rate distribution and thus the level of microbial inactivation. If shadowing is not included in fluence rate distribution models, the fluence rate will be over predicted in the shadow zone of a neighboring lamp, falsely skewing model inactivation predictions.

  2. Sequence-specific validation of LAMP amplicons in real-time optomagnetic detection of Dengue serotype 2 synthetic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minero, Gabriel Antonio S; Nogueira, Catarina; Rizzi, Giovanni; Tian, Bo; Fock, Jeppe; Donolato, Marco; Strömberg, Mattias; Hansen, Mikkel F

    2017-09-08

    We report on an optomagnetic technique optimised for real-time molecular detection of Dengue fever virus under ideal as well as non-ideal laboratory conditions using two different detection approaches. The first approach is based on the detection of the hydrodynamic volume of streptavidin coated magnetic nanoparticles attached to biotinylated LAMP amplicons. We demonstrate detection of sub-femtomolar Dengue DNA target concentrations in the ideal contamination-free lab environment within 20 min. The second detection approach is based on sequence-specific binding of functionalised magnetic nanoparticles to loops of LAMP amplicons. Melting studies reveal that true positive and spurious amplicons have different melting points and this allows us to discriminate between them. This is found to be in a good agreement with subsequent studies on real-time sequence-specific discrimination of LAMP amplicons. The specific binding causes clustering of magnetic nanoparticles via binding to multiple sites (loops) emerging in the elongation phase of LAMP. Formation of nanoclusters is monitored via the depletion of the optomagnetic signal due to free nanoparticles. After sequence-specific validation, we claim detection of down to 100 fM of Dengue target after 20 min of LAMP with a contamination background.

  3. Led-sukellusvalaisin

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on LED ja sen käyttö sukellusvalaisimissa. Työn tarkoitus oli tutkia miten LED toimii ja miten se soveltuu käytettäväksi sukellusvalaisimessa, sekä syventää omaa tietoutta valosta, mitä se on ja miten sitä mitataan. Työssä käydään läpi LEDin ominaisuuksia ja miten se eroaa muista sukellusvalaisimissa käytetyistä lampuista. Työ on toteutettu tutustumalla LEDiin ja valoon käyttämällä erilaisia lähteitä ja päivittämällä nykyinen sukellusvalaisimeni LED-sukellusvalaisime...

  4. [LED lights in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H

    2017-04-01

    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  6. Combining Life Cycle Thinking with Social Theory: Case Study of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyne D. Sahakian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion remains central to human economic activity with resulting negative consequences for the local and global environment. Material and energy consumption patterns are also increasing globally, as developing countries follow the trail blazed by more industrialized countries. Consumers play a role in shifting towards more sustainable forms of consumption. However, consumer-oriented public-policy measures are often restricted to informational campaigns based on moral and price arguments. A multidisciplinary approach to sustainable consumption must go beyond this limited vision of consumers if transitions toward more environmentally friendly consumption patterns are to be made possible. Both a biophysical and social understanding of consumption is necessary. This paper proposes a systemic approach to consumption studies, combining an assessment of consumption patterns with an understanding of the drivers behind them. The concepts will be illustrated using a case study of the government-led promotion of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Conclusions will include general policy-recommendations.

  7. Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Mohseni, Madjid; Taghipour, Fariborz

    2016-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is an effective technology for the inactivation of pathogens in water and is of growing interest for industrial application. A new UV source - ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) - has emerged in the past decade with a number of advantages compared to traditional UV mercury lamps. This promising alternative raises great interest in the research on application of UV-LEDs for water treatment. Studies on UV-LED water disinfection have increased during the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent studies on UV-LEDs with various wavelengths for the inactivation of different microorganisms. Many inconsistent and incomparable data were found from published studies, which underscores the importance of establishing a standard protocol for studying UV-LED inactivation of microorganisms. Different UV sensitivities to UV-LEDs and traditional UV lamps were observed in the literature for some microorganisms, which requires further investigation for a better understanding of microorganism response to UV-LEDs. The unique aspects of UV-LEDs improve inactivation effectiveness by applying LED special features, such as multiple wavelengths and pulsed illumination; however, more studies are needed to investigate the influencing factors and mechanisms. The special features of UV-LEDs offer the flexibility of novel reactor designs for a broad application of UV-LED reactors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LED light engine concept with ultra-high scalable luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; de Boer, Dick; Bruls, Dominique; van der Eyden, Joost; Koole, Rolf; Li, Yun; Mirsadeghi, Mo; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van den Bergh, John-John; Van de Voorde, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although LEDs have been introduced successfully in many general lighting applications during the past decade, high brightness light source applications are still suffering from the limited luminance of LEDs. High power LEDs are generally limited in luminance to ca 100 Mnit (108 lm/m2sr) or less, while dedicated devices for projection may achieve luminance values up to ca 300 Mnit with phosphor converted green. In particular for high luminous flux applications with limited étendue, like in front projection systems, only very modest luminous flux values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps. In this paper we introduce a light engine concept based on a light converter rod pumped with blue LEDs that breaks through the étendue and brightness limits of LEDs, enabling LED light source luminance values that are more than 4 times higher than what can be achieved with LEDs so far. In LED front projection systems, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green light emitting modules, peak luminance values well above 1.2 Gnit have been achieved, enabling doubling of the screen brightness of LED based DLP projection systems, and even more when this technology is applied to other colors as well. This light source concept, introduced as the ColorSpark High Lumen Density (HLD) LED technology, enables a breakthrough in the performance of LED-based light engines not only for projection, where >2700 ANSI lm was demonstrated, but for a wide variety of high brightness applications.

  9. Diodo emissor de luz (LED) na iluminação artificial de frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Mayara R. de [UNESP; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Naas, Irenilza de A.; Paz, Ibiara Correia de Lima Almeida [UNESP; Caldara, Fabiana R.; Barreto, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has been used in commercial poultry industry by presenting superior energy savings and providing feasibility on production process. The objective of this research was to evaluate performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens exposed to different LED colors compared with fluorescent lamps. For that, two experiments (E1 and E2) were performed and 2,646 Cobb® chickens were used. In experiment E1, male birds were exposed to 20 lux artificial lighting with red, yello...

  10. Light emitting diode (LED) use in artificial lighting for broiler chicken production

    OpenAIRE

    Santana,Mayara R. de; Garcia,Rodrigo G.; Naas,Irenilza de A.; Paz,Ibiara C. de L. A.; Caldara,Fabiana R.; Barreto,Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has been used in commercial poultry industry by presenting superior energy savings and providing feasibility on production process. The objective of this research was to evaluate performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens exposed to different LED colors compared with fluorescent lamps. For that, two experiments (E1 and E2) were performed and 2,646 Cobb® chickens were used. In experiment E1, male birds were exposed to 20 lux artificial lighting with red, yello...

  11. 49 CFR 393.23 - Power supply for lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply for lamps. 393.23 Section 393.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps,...

  12. Evaluation and improvement of LAMP assays for detection of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing LAMP assays were modified via adding 1% tetramethylene sulfoxide and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide as well as optimizing reaction temperature. Results: The detection limit of the modified LAMP assays was 0.1-1 pg per reaction, equivalent to 25-250 cfu per reaction, the non-specific amplification can completely be ...

  13. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RIME-LAMP helps increase the probability of detecting the positive cases of camel Trypanosomiasis and it was found to be one useful and alternative molecular diagnostic tool for the detection of T. evansi infections. Key words: Sudan, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) - random insertion mobile element (RIME ...

  14. Non-crosslinking gold nanoprobe-LAMP for simple, colorimetric, and specific detection of Salmonella typhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozorgmehr, Ali; Yazdanparast, Razieh, E-mail: ryazdan@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollasalehi, Hamidreza [Shahid Beheshti University, Protein Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, we developed a non-crosslinking gold nanoprobe loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for nanodiagnosis of bacterial typhoid fever source, Salmonella typhi. Therefore, a unique region in the S. typhi genomic DNA was targeted for LAMP amplification using a specific set of four precisely designed primers. Also, for specific colorimetric visualization of the amplicons, a thiolated oligonucleotide probe, complementary to the single-stranded loop region of the amplicons between F2 and F1C segments, was designed. The probe was bound to the surface of gold nanoparticles via covalent bonds. Increasing the salt concentration in the detection reaction medium led to aggregation of nanoprobes in the blank and the negative vessels in a time-dependent form. That was followed by a change in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) leading to blue/black color that was observable by the naked eyes after about 5 min. Meanwhile, the original pink/red color was retained in the positive sample due to the large interparticle spaces and the stability against the ionic strength elevation which persisted for about 30 min. The whole process of DNA extraction, amplification, and detection took less than 2 h with a sensitivity of 20 CFU/ml. The developed gold nanoprobe-LAMP could serve as a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for nanodiagnosis of S. typhi in point-of-need applications.

  15. Intelligent control of dynamic LED lighting; Intelligent styring af dynamisk LED belysning. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorseth, A.; Corell, D.; Hansen, Soeren S.; Dam-Hansen, C.; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-15

    The project has resulted in a prototype of a new intelligent lighting control system. The control system enables the end user to control his or her own local lighting environment (lighting zone) according to individual preferences and needs. The report provides a description of how the developed intelligent lighting system is composed and functions. The system is designed as a work lamp that enables dynamic change of the light color scheme according to a number of light control algorithms. It is specifically designed in relation to user tests of the intelligent lighting system, which is carried out in the final part of the project. An intelligent and advanced control of LED lighting was developed, which enables optimization of the user's light conditions in a given situation. Based on a number of known parameters, the system can control lighting so that at any time optimal light conditions are created, using a minimum of electric power. (LN)

  16. Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yen-Liang

    2015-01-26

    To increase the traffic rate in phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC), a multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) modulation is first proposed and demonstrated. In the measurement, we do not utilize optical blue filter to increase modulation bandwidth of phosphor-LED in the VLC system. In this proposed scheme, different bands of OFDM signals are applied to different LED chips in a LED lamp, this can avoid the power fading and nonlinearity issue by applying the same OFDM signal to all the LED chips in a LED lamp. Here, the maximum increase percentages of traffic rates are 41.1%, 17.8% and 17.8% under received illuminations of 200, 500 and 1000 Lux, respectively, when the proposed three-band OFDM modulation is used in the VLC system. In addition, the analysis and verification by experiments are also performed.

  17. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    High power light-emitting diodes allow the creation of luminaires capable of generating saturated colour light at very high efficacies. Contrary to traditional light sources like incandescent and high-intensity discharge lamps, where colour is generated using filters, LEDs use additive light mixing......, where the intensity of each primary colour diode has to be adjusted to the needed intensity to generate specified colour. The function of LED driver is to supply the diode with power needed to achieve the desired intensity. Typically, the drivers operate as a current source and the intensity...... of the diode is controlled either by varying the magnitude of the current or by driving the LED with a pulsed current and regulate the width of the pulse. It has been shown previously, that these two methods yield different effects on diode's efficacy and colour point. A hybrid dimming strategy has been...

  18. Uranium vapor generator: pulsed hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleer, M.; Gagne, J.; Leblanc, B.; Demers, Y.; Mongeau, B.

    1979-01-01

    The production of uranium vapors has been studied in the 5 L 0 6 ground state using a pulsed hollow cathode lamp. The evolution of the 238 U ( 5 L 0 6 ) concentration with time has been studied with Xe and Ar as buffer gases. A density of 2.7 x 10 13 atoms cm -3 was obtained with Xe as a buffer gas. In addition, those measurements, obtained from the absorption of a laser beam tuned to the 5758.143 A ( 5 L 0 6 -17,361 7 L 6 ) transition, allowed the determination of the transition probability A=2.1 x 10 5 sec -1 and of the branching ratio BR=0.08 for this transition

  19. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  20. Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis; Ou, Yiyu; Poulsen, Peter B.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are penetrating into the huge market of general lighting because they are energy saving and environmentally friendly. The big advantage of LED light sources, compared to traditional incandescent lamps and fluorescent light tubes, is the flexible spectral design to make white light using different color mixing schemes. The spectral design flexibility of white LED light sources will promote them for novel applications to improve the life quality of human beings. As an initial exploration to make use of the spectral design flexibility, we present an example: 'no blue' white LED light source for sufferers of disease Porphyria. An LED light source prototype, made of high brightness commercial LEDs applying an optical filter, was tested by a patient suffering from Porphyria. Preliminary results have shown that the sufferer could withstand the light source for much longer time than the standard light source. At last future perspectives on spectral design flexibility of LED light sources improving human being's life will be discussed, with focus on the light and health. The good health is ensured by the spectrum optimized so that vital hormones (melatonin and serotonin) are produced during times when they support human daily rhythm.

  1. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  2. Application of Inkjet Printing in High-Density Pixelated RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Haverinen, Hanna

    2012-05-23

    Recently, an intriguing solution to obtain better color purity has been to introduce inorganic emissive quantum dots (QDs) into an otherwise OLED structure. The emphasis of this chapter is to present a simple discussion of the first attempts to fabricate high-density, pixelated (quarter video graphics array (QVGA) format), monochromatic and RGB quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs), where inkjet printing is used to deposit the light-emitting layer of QDs. It shows some of the factors that have to be considered in order to achieve the desired accuracy and printing quality. The successful operation of the RGB printed devices indicates the potential of the inkjet printing approach in the fabrication of full-color QDLEDs for display application. However, further optimization of print quality is still needed in order to eliminate the formation of pinholes, thus maximizing energy transfer from organic layers to the QDs and in turn increasing the performance of the devices. Controlled Vocabulary Terms: ink jet printing; LED displays; LED lamps; organic light emitting diodes; quantum dots

  3. Deslumbramiento en dispositivos led

    OpenAIRE

    Ixtaina, Rubén Pablo; Presso, Matías; Ferreyra, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio realizado en el LAL a dispositivos para señalización (semáforos, balizas, barrales lumínicos) con tecnología led. Las mediciones tradicionales de intensidad luminosa se complementaron con el análisis de la luminancia de los dispositivos, evaluada para diversas aperturas angula-res. Los resultados obtenidos marcan un notorio incre-mento en las luminancias puntuales, para valores de emisión globales comparables a los obtenidos en dispo-sitivos conve...

  4. Analysis and development of a lamp using light emitting diodes, in order to accelerate the process of photosynthesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Araya, Keyrent

    2012-01-01

    A prototype lamp has been created in order to promote accelerated development of the plant under artificial lighting. The lamp has been constructed using light-emitting diodes; its efficiency has been proven by comparing the performance with other existing commercial lamps. The study has considered mainly the emission spectrum analysis, power consumption, longevity and experimental development of each lamp. Tests are performed with different types of plantations in short periods, between one and two weeks of exposure to artificial lighting, compared to the development of a plantation illuminated with natural sunlight. The importance that meets the illumination and variation of the emitted wavelengths to a plant have been shown in the development and morphological change of the plant. None of the lamps used were able to approach the natural development that the plant should have, and although height growth has exceeded the reference plant has not obtained a proper plant growth. Researches and tests have been a basis for further studies on the changes experienced by plants exposed to artificial lighting. (author) [es

  5. Development and Assessment of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for the Diagnosis of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Akhlaghi, Lame; Mohebali, Mehdi; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Aryan, Ehsan; Oormazdi, Hormozd

    2014-03-01

    Parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) require invasive procedures, so serological and molecular approaches have been developed but are not generally applicable in the field. We evaluated a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay using blood from VL patients and compared it to nested PCR. Forty-seven subjects with clinical features (fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia) were confirmed positive for VL by the direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers >3200. Forty DAT negative individuals from non-endemic areas with no clinical signs or symptoms of VL served as controls. A LAMP assay was performed using a set of six primers targeting Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle gene under isothermal (64 °C) conditions. For nested PCR we used primers targeting the kDNA minicircle gene. The LAMP assay provided a detection limit of 1 parasite in 1 ml of peripheral blood and detected L. infantum DNA in 44 of 47 DAT-confirmed VL cases, with diagnostic sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI). No L. infantum DNA was amplified in controls, indicating a specificity of 100%. The nested PCR yielded sensitivity of 96% (95% CI) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI). The LAMP assay gave results similar to those of nested PCR but in a shorter time. The LAMP method is simple; requires no sophisticated equipment; has a short reaction time; and results, indicated by turbidity of the reaction mixture, are observable with the naked eye.

  6. Development and Assessment of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP Assay for the Diagnosis of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ghasemian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL require invasive procedures, so serological and molecular approaches have been developed but are not generally applicable in the field. We evaluated a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay using blood from VL patients and compared it to nested PCR.Forty-seven subjects with clinical features (fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia were confirmed positive for VL by the direct agglutination test (DAT at titers >3200. Forty DAT negative individuals from non-endemic areas with no clinical signs or symptoms of VL served as controls. A LAMP assay was performed using a set of six primers targeting Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA minicircle gene under isothermal (64 °C conditions. For nested PCR we used primers targeting the kDNA minicircle gene.The LAMP assay provided a detection limit of 1 parasite in 1 ml of peripheral blood and detected L. infantum DNA in 44 of 47 DAT-confirmed VL cases, with diagnostic sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI. No L. infantum DNA was amplified in controls, indicating a specificity of 100%. The nested PCR yielded sensitivity of 96% (95% CI and a specificity of 100% (95% CI.The LAMP assay gave results similar to those of nested PCR but in a shorter time. The LAMP method is simple; requires no sophisticated equipment; has a short reaction time; and results, indicated by turbidity of the reaction mixture, are observable with the naked eye.

  7. "Light-box" accelerated growth of poinsettias: LED-only illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasuriya, Charitha; Detez, Stewart; Hock Ng, Soon; Hughes, Andrew; Callaway, Michael; Harrison, Iain; Katkus, Tomas; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2018-01-01

    For the current commercialized agricultural industry which requires a reduced product lead time to customer and supply all year round, an artificial light emitting diodes (LEDs)-based illumination has high potential due to high efficiency of electrical-to-light conversion. The main advantage of the deployed Red Green Blue Amber LED lighting system is colour mixing capability, which means ability to generate all the colours in the spectrum by using three or four primary colours LEDs. The accelerated plant growth was carried out in a "light-box" which was made to generate an artificial day/night cycle by moving the colour mixing ratio along the colour temperature curve of the chromaticity diagram. The control group of plants form the same initial batch was grown on the same shelf in a greenhouse at the same conditions with addition of artificial illumination by incandescent lamps for few hours. Costs and efficiency projections of LED lamps for horticultural applications is discussed together with required capital investment. The total cost of the "light-box" including LED lamps and electronics was 850 AUD.

  8. Exposure reductions associated with introduction of solar lamps to kerosene lamp-using households in Busia County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, N L; Muhwezi, G; Isabirye, F; Harrison, K; Ruiz-Mercado, I; Amukoye, E; Mokaya, T; Wambua, M; Bates, M N

    2018-03-01

    Solar lamps are a clean and potentially cost-effective alternative to polluting kerosene lamps used by millions of families in developing countries. By how much solar lamps actually reduce exposure to pollutants, however, has not been examined. Twenty households using mainly kerosene for lighting were enrolled through a secondary school in Busia County, Kenya. Personal PM 2.5 and CO concentrations were measured on a school pupil and an adult in each household, before and after provision of 3 solar lamps. PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in main living areas, pupils' bedrooms, and kitchens. Usage sensors measured use of kerosene and solar lighting devices. Ninety percent of baseline kerosene lamp use was displaced at 1-month follow-up, corresponding to average PM 2.5 reductions of 61% and 79% in main living areas and pupils' bedrooms, respectively. Average 48-h exposure to PM 2.5 fell from 210 to 104 μg/m 3 (-50%) among adults, and from 132 to 35 μg/m 3 (-73%) among pupils. Solar lamps displaced most kerosene lamp use in at least the short term. If sustained, this could mitigate health impacts of household air pollution in some contexts. Achieving safe levels of exposure for all family members would likely require also addressing use of solid-fuel stoves. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Determination of non-gaseous and gaseous mercury fractions in unused fluorescent lamps: a study of different lamp types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figi, Renato; Nagel, Oliver; Schreiner, Claudia; Hagendorfer, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Since incandescent light bulbs have been phased out in the European Union from 2009, the use of fluorescent lamps has drastically increased as a reliable, more energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative. State-of-the-art fluorescent lamps are dependent on mercury/mercury alloys, posing a risk for the consumer and the environment, and appropriate waste management is challenging. Consequently analytical methods to determine possible mercury species (non-gaseous/gaseous) in these lamps are of need. Here, a straightforward and wet-chemistry-based analytical strategy for the determination of gaseous and non-gaseous mercury in commercially available fluorescent lamps is presented. It can be adapted in any analytical laboratory, without or with only minimum modifications of already installed equipment. The analytical figures of merit, as well as application of the method to a series of commercially available fluorescent lamps, are presented. Out of 14 analysed and commercially available lamp types, results from this study indicate that only one contains a slightly higher amount of mercury than set by the legislative force. In all new lamps the amount of gaseous mercury is negligible compared with the non-gaseous fraction (88%-99% of total mercury). © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Quality attributes of LED lighting. Current state-of-the-art , advantages, problem areas and potential for development - Final report; Qualitaetsmerkmale der LED-Beleuchtung. Aktueller Stand der Technik, Vorteile, Problempunkte und Entwicklungspotential - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, S.

    2009-09-15

    The present report describes the state-of-the-art of LED technology for room lighting in June 2009, based on internet research, expert interviews as well as a workshop with experts. Of the 20 attributes determined, three key quality characteristics crucial for the breakthrough of LED technology were identified: (i) Energy efficiency: with values of 50 - 70 lumen/watt when in usage, current LED lamps on the market are comparable to energy saving lamps. Experts expect the luminous efficiency to double within the next five years. Declaration is often poor: instead of efficiency in real-life usage many producers declare unrealistic lab measurement results; sometimes even fantasy values are declared. (ii) Light quality: Today's good LEDs reach colour rendering attributes which are comparable to those of halogen lamps and usually better than the CFL's (colour rendering index 80 to 90, with a continuous light spectrum). (iii) Lamp life: A lamp life of up to 50,000 hours can only be reached if the heat dissipation is secured and if the Control gears quality keeps up with the LED's life time. According to the experts, many of today's LED products on the market don't meet these two requirements. Strong uncertainty is caused by inconsistent declaration and partly missing standardisation. With the ANSI standard, the US is ahead of Europe in this matter. Today LED lighting is attractive and economic where its unique advantages can be applied: directional light, very long life-span, no heat in the luminous flux, UV-free light, colour modulation, dimming with little losses. Interesting applications today include: (i) Professional field: operating time > 3,000 hours per year, e.g. shop illumination or downlights in a hall (hotel, administration, etc.). Further spotlights in museums, working place table light fixtures, hybrid solutions (e.g. indirect fluorescent lamp, direct LED). (ii) Domestic field: working place and reading lamps (low luminance, no heat

  11. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng....../L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED...... excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems....

  12. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian; Ury, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  13. UV-LEDs Efficiently Inactivate DNA and RNA Coliphages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M. Zyara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-LEDs are a new method of disinfecting drinking water. Some viruses are very resistant to UV and the efficiency of UV-LEDs to disinfect them needs to be studied. Drinking water was disinfected with UV-LEDs after spiking the water with MS2 and four UV- and/or Cl-resistant coliphages belonging to RNA or DNA coliphages isolated from municipal wastewater. UV-LEDs operating at a wavelength of 270 nm for 2 min with 120 mW of irradiation caused 0.93–2.73 Log10-reductions of coliphages tested in a reactor of a 5.2 L volume. Irradiation time of 10 min in the same system increased the Log10-reductions to 4.30–5.16. Traditional mercury UV (Hg-UV lamp at a 254 nm wavelength caused 0.67–4.08 Log10-reductions in 2 min and 4.56–7.21 Log10-reductions in 10 min in 10 mL of water. All coliphages tested except MS2 achieved 4 Log10-reductions with UV-LEDs at a dose that corresponded to 70 mWs/cm2 using Hg-UV. Thus, UV-LEDs are a promising method of disinfecting UV- and/or Cl-resistant viruses.

  14. 49 CFR 571.108, Nt. - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....4Except for multifunction school activity buses, each school bus shall be equipped with a system of either: (a) Four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July... to SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, and four amber signal lamps designed to...

  15. White LEDs as broad spectrum light sources for spectrophotometry: demonstration in the visible spectrum range in a diode-array spectrophotometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2010-11-01

    Although traditional lamps, such as deuterium lamps, are suitable for bench-top instrumentation, their compatibility with the requirements of modern miniaturized instrumentation is limited. This study investigates the option of utilizing solid-state light source technology, namely white LEDs, as a broad band spectrum source for spectrophotometry. Several white light LEDs of both RGB and white phosphorus have been characterized in terms of their emission spectra and energy output and a white phosphorus Luxeon LED was then chosen for demonstration as a light source for visible-spectrum spectrophotometry conducted in CE. The Luxeon LED was fixed onto the base of a dismounted deuterium (D(2) ) lamp so that the light-emitting spot was geometrically positioned exactly where the light-emitting spot of the original D(2) lamp is placed. In this manner, the detector of a commercial CE instrument equipped with a DAD was not modified in any way. As the detector hardware and electronics remained the same, the change of the deuterium lamp for the Luxeon white LED allowed a direct comparison of their performances. Several anionic dyes as model analytes with absorption maxima between 450 and 600 nm were separated by CE in an electrolyte of 0.01 mol/L sodium tetraborate. The absorbance baseline noise as the key parameter was 5 × lower for the white LED lamp, showing clearly superior performance to the deuterium lamp in the available, i.e. visible part of the spectrum. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Traps Improve the Light-Trapping of Anopheline Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Neta, B M; da Silva, A A; Brito, J M; Moraes, J L P; Rebêlo, J M M; Silva, F S

    2017-11-07

    Numerous advantages over the standard incandescent lamp favor the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as an alternative and inexpensive light source for sampling medically important insects in surveillance studies. Previously published studies examined the response of mosquitoes to different wavelengths, but data on anopheline mosquito LED attraction are limited. Center for Disease Control and Prevention-type light traps were modified by replacing the standard incandescent lamp with 5-mm LEDs, one emitting at 520 nm (green) and the other at 470 nm (blue). To test the influence of moon luminosity on LED catches, the experiments were conducted during the four lunar phases during each month of the study period. A total of 1,845 specimens representing eight anopheline species were collected. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (35.2%) was the most frequently collected, followed by An. (Nys.) triannulatus (21.9%), An. (Nys.) goeldii (12.9%), and An. (Nys.) argyritarsis (11.5%). The green LED was the most attractive light source, accounting for 43.3% of the individuals collected, followed by the blue (31.8%) and control (24.9%) lights. The LED traps were significantly more attractive than the control, independent of the lunar phase. Light trapping of anopheline mosquitoes was more efficient when the standard incandescent lamp was replaced with LEDs, regardless of the moon phase. The efficiency of LEDs improves light trapping results, and it is suggested that the use of LEDs as an attractant for anopheline mosquitoes should be taken into consideration when sampling anopheline mosquitoes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Slit-lamp photography and videography with high magnifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Mao, Xinjie; Ke, Bilian; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Che; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the use of the slit-lamp photography and videography with extremely high magnifications for visualizing structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Methods A Canon 60D digital camera with Movie Crop Function was adapted into a Nikon FS-2 slit-lamp to capture still images and video clips of the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Images obtained using the slit-lamp were tested for spatial resolution. The cornea of human eyes was imaged with the slit-lamp and the structures were compared with the pictures captured using the ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). The central thickness of the corneal epithelium and total cornea was obtained using the slit-lamp and the results were compared with the thickness obtained using UHR-OCT. Results High-quality ocular images and higher spatial resolutions were obtained by using the slit-lamp with extremely high magnifications and Movie Crop Function, rather than the traditional slit-lamp. The structures and characteristics of the cornea, such as the normal epithelium, abnormal epithelium of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia, LASIK interface, and contact lenses, were clearly visualized using this device. These features were confirmed by comparing the obtained images with those acquired using UHR-OCT. Moreover, the tear film debris on the ocular surface and the corneal nerve in the anterior corneal stroma were also visualized. The thicknesses of the corneal epithelium and total cornea were similar to that measured using UHR-OCT (P photography and videography with extremely high magnifications allows better visualization of the anterior segment structures of the eye, especially of the epithelium, when compared with the traditional slit-lamp. PMID:26020484

  18. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie...AND SUBTITLE LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0132 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...designed to generate short-term safety and efficacy data regarding imatinib mesylate ( imatinib ) in the treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM

  19. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Armellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson’s χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure.

  20. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  1. Design of asymmetric freeform lens for low glared LED street light with total internal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Min-Feng; Chen, Yi-Chian; Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2016-01-25

    The study is focused on the asymmetric secondary freeform lens (ASFL) design for creating a low glared light-emitting diode (LED) street light. The lens is mounted on a chip on board (COB) LED as the new LED street light module to perform a non-axial symmetric light intensity distribution. The experimental results show that the street light can work without inclining lamps and reach Chinese National Standards (CNS) and Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) standards at the same time.

  2. Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers. The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, M. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    DOE GATEWAY program report reviewing how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps these dimmers were originally designed to control, and how those differences can lead to complications when attempting to dim LEDs. Providing both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects—as well as real-world examples of how to use those procedures—the report aims to reduce the chance of experiencing compatibility-related problems and, if possible, ensure good dimming performance.

  3. The improvement of photocatalytic processes: Design of a photoreactor using high-power LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Khademalrasool

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to survey the benefits of a well-designed photoreactor containing just 6 ultraviolet (UV high power light emitting diodes (HPLEDs; the power and wavelength of each UV HPLED are 1 W and 365 nm, respectively, the latter being an efficient source for photocatalytic studies. Although the experiment with the 365-nm LEDs is reported here, other LEDs were predicted for conducting similar experiments including green photocatalytic ones. We installed diodes with respect to the luminescence intensity distribution curves (LIDCs or intensity patterns. Then, in order to compare the efficiency of the UV-HPLEDs of the HP-LED photoreactor (HPLED-PhR with that of traditional UV lamps which are extensively used in photocatalytic processes, a set of UV HPLEDs was designed and made up. Next, the performance of HPLED-PhR was compared with that of a traditional fluorescent lamp photoreactor (FL-PhR. As a typical photocatalytic experiment, Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method and used as photocatalyst for purification of water polluted with the reactive blue dye (RB, under UV irradiation in two photoreactors. The results showed that the rate of photocatalytic reaction under the UV-LEDs was two times greater than the rate under the traditional fluorescent UV lamps, while both electrical power consumption and manufacturing cost of the HPLED-PhR were less than a quarter of them for the FL-PhR.

  4. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and investigating potential dual-wavelength synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sara E; Ryu, Hodon; Boczek, Laura A; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Jeanis, Kaitlyn M; Rosenblum, James S; Lawal, Oliver R; Linden, Karl G

    2017-02-01

    A dual-wavelength UV-C LED unit, emitting at peaks of 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together was evaluated for its inactivation efficacy and energy efficiency at disinfecting Escherichia coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores, compared to conventional low-pressure and medium-pressure UV mercury vapor lamps. The dual-wavelength unit was also used to measure potential synergistic effects of multiple wavelengths on bacterial and viral inactivation and DNA and RNA damage. All five UV sources demonstrated similar inactivation of E. coli. For MS2, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was most effective. When measuring electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was most efficient for inactivating E. coli and MS2; the LP UV and MP UV mercury lamps were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UV-C LEDs, there was no statistical difference in electrical efficiency for inactivating MS2, HAdV2, and B. pumilus spores. The 260 nm and 260|280 nm LEDs had a statistical energy advantage for E. coli inactivation. For UV-C LEDs to match the electrical efficiency per order of log reduction of conventional LP UV sources, they must reach efficiencies of 25-39% or be improved on by smart reactor design. No dual wavelength synergies were detected for bacterial and viral inactivation nor for DNA and RNA damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body temperature changes of newborns under fluorescent versus LED phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Ozge; Soysaldı, Emel; Kale, Yusuf; Kavurt, Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Demirel, Nihal

    2014-08-01

    To determine changes in body temperature (BT) of hyperbilirubinemic newborns under conventional phototherapy with fluorescent lamps and light emitting diodes (LED) at different irradiances. Otherwise healthy newborn infants >34 wk gestational age (GA) hospitalized for indirect hyperbilirubinemia, requiring phototherapy in the first 10 d of life were enrolled. Infants who received conventional phototherapy with fluorescent lamps (10-15 μW/cm(2)/nm irradiance) were defined as group 1, LED phototherapy of 26-60 μW/cm(2)/nm irradiance as group 2, and LED phototherapy of 60-120 μW/cm(2)/nm irradiance as group 3. Primary outcome measure was mean BT which was defined as arithmetical mean of axillary BT measured at 2 h intervals during the first day of phototherapy. Thirty patients were enroled in each group. Mean birth weight and GA of the total cohort was 2800 ± 530 g and 36.6 ± 2 wk, respectively. Baseline demographic variables and serum total bilirubin levels were similar among groups. Mean BT was 36.7 ± 0.1 °C in group 1, 36.6 ± 0.2 °C in group 2, 37.7 ± 0.2 °C in group 3. Mean BT was higher in group 3 compared to group 1 (p phototherapy all the patients in group 3 had at least one BT measurement ≥ 37.5 °C and 77 % had BT ≥ 38 °C. Only one patient in group 2 had BT ≥ 37.5 °C which was also ≥ 38 °C. During phototherapy all BT measurements were LED phototherapy of ≥ 60 μW/cm(2)/nm intensity significantly increases BT in hyperbilirubinemic newborns.

  6. Numerical simulation of dc high-pressure discharge lamps including electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, P.; Neiger, M.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a novel modelling method for dc operated high-pressure discharge lamps including both electrodes. No subdivisions of the discharge space into different regions (e.g. space charge layer, ionization zone, plasma column) is necessary. Starting from general diffusion equations, this goal is achieved by using a differential equation for a non-LTE electrical conductivity which is applicable for local thermal equilibrium (LTE) regions as well as non-LTE plasma regions close to electrodes. This novel approach is valid only for high-pressure conditions, where the product of electron mean free path and electric field is such that the mean energy gain of electrons is considerably less than the ionization energy of the discharge gas, so that the same local kinetic energy distribution can be assumed for the electron, the ion, and the neutral gas components anywhere within the discharge. Boundary conditions for this non-LTE electrical conductivity at cathode and anode are derived. We present modelling results for Hg- and Xe-discharge lamps (p≥1 MPa). Comparison with results from traditional models using plasma layers will be presented and discussed. Convective flow within the lamp is not included yet, as the emphasis of this paper is on the regions close to anode and cathode. (author)

  7. Intelligent Automatic Right-Left Sign Lamp Based on Brain Signal Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winda, A.; Sofyan; Sthevany; Vincent, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Comfort as a part of the human factor, plays important roles in nowadays advanced automotive technology. Many of the current technologies go in the direction of automotive driver assistance features. However, many of the driver assistance features still require physical movement by human to enable the features. In this work, the proposed method is used in order to make certain feature to be functioning without any physical movement, instead human just need to think about it in their mind. In this work, brain signal is recorded and processed in order to be used as input to the recognition system. Right-Left sign lamp based on the brain signal recognition system can potentially replace the button or switch of the specific device in order to make the lamp work. The system then will decide whether the signal is ‘Right’ or ‘Left’. The decision of the Right-Left side of brain signal recognition will be sent to a processing board in order to activate the automotive relay, which will be used to activate the sign lamp. Furthermore, the intelligent system approach is used to develop authorized model based on the brain signal. Particularly Support Vector Machines (SVMs)-based classification system is used in the proposed system to recognize the Left-Right of the brain signal. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent Automatic brain signal-based Right-Left sign lamp access control system. The signal is processed by Linear Prediction Coefficient (LPC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and the resulting experiment shows the training and testing accuracy of 100% and 80%, respectively.

  8. Color Maintenance of LEDs in Laboratory and Field Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Tuttle, Ralph; Rosenfeld, Scott M.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-09-30

    Synopsis: To date, consideration for parametric failure of LED products has largely been focused on lumen maintenance. However, color shift is a cause of early failure for some products, and is especially important to consider in certain applications, like museums, where visual appearance is critical. Example data collected by the GATEWAY program for LED lamps installed in museums shows that many have changed color beyond a reasonable tolerance well before their rated lifetime was reached, necessitating replacement. Similar data collected by the CALiPER program between 2008 and 2010 reveals that many early products shifted beyond acceptable tolerances in as little as a few thousand hours. In contrast, data from the L Prize program illustrates that commercially available LED products can have exemplary color stability that is unmatched by traditional light sources. Beyond presenting data from the aforementioned DOE programs, this report discusses the metrics used for communicating color shift—namely MacAdam ellipses and Δu'v'—as well as providing guidance for end users on how to monitor color shift and what to look for in manufacturer warranties. Also included are descriptions of the physical changes that have been documented as leading to color shift in some example types of LED packages. As with complete products, the data presented herein for LED packages shows that a wide variety of products are available; in order for specifiers and consumers to make educated choices, more detailed and standardized information should be made available.

  9. LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S M; Bader, M K-F

    Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.

  10. Design of an oximeter based on LED-LED configuration and FPGA technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-04

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel S(p)O(2) measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  11. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stojanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel SpO2 measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  12. LED Lighting System Reliability Modeling and Inference via Random Effects Gamma Process and Copula Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibing Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light emitting diode (LED lamp has attracted increasing interest in the field of lighting systems due to its low energy and long lifetime. For different functions (i.e., illumination and color, it may have two or more performance characteristics. When the multiple performance characteristics are dependent, it creates a challenging problem to accurately analyze the system reliability. In this paper, we assume that the system has two performance characteristics, and each performance characteristic is governed by a random effects Gamma process where the random effects can capture the unit to unit differences. The dependency of performance characteristics is described by a Frank copula function. Via the copula function, the reliability assessment model is proposed. Considering the model is so complicated and analytically intractable, the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method is used to estimate the unknown parameters. A numerical example about actual LED lamps data is given to demonstrate the usefulness and validity of the proposed model and method.

  13. Signal lights - designed light for rear lamps and new upcoming technologies: innovations in automotive lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mügge, Martin; Hohmann, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Signal functions have to fulfill statutory regulations such as ECE or FMVSS108 to provide a clear signal to other road users and satisfy the same standard definitions of lighting parameters. However, as rear combination lamps are very different from one another, and these days are an increasingly powerful design element of cars, automotive manufacturers want an innovative, superior, and contrasting design. Daytime appearances with a new and unusual look and nighttime appearances with unexpected illumination are strong drivers for developing amazing innovative signal functions. The combination of LED technology and different forms of light-guiding optics, new interpretations of common optical systems to develop various styling options, the use of new materials and components for lighting effects, the introduction of OLED technology on the automotive market, and amazing new optical systems, using diffractive or holographic optics in future rear lamps, are paving the way for further, exciting design possibilities. The challenge of new signal functions is to take these possibilities and to develop the appearance and illumination effects the designer wants to reinforce the image of the car manufacturer and to fit harmoniously into the vehicle design. Lighting systems with a three-dimensional design and appearance when unlit and lit, amazing 3D effects, and surprising lighting scenarios will gain in importance. But the signal lights on cars will, in the future, be not only lighting functions in rear lamps; new functions and stylistic illuminations for coming/leaving-home scenarios will support and complete the car's overall lighting appearance. This paper describes current lighting systems realizing the styling requirements and future lighting systems offering new design possibilities and developing further stylistic, visual effects and improved technologies.

  14. Compact fluorescent lamp phosphors in accidental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K. V. R.; Pallavi, S. P.; Ghildiyal, R.; Parmar, M. C.; Patel, Y. S.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Sai Prasad, A. S.; Natarajan, V.; Page, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The application of lamp phosphors for accidental dosimetry is a new concept. Since the materials used in fluorescent lamps are good photo luminescent materials, if one can either use the inherent defects present in the phosphor or add suitable modifiers to induce thermoluminescence (TL) in these phosphors, then the device (fluorescent lamp) can be used as an accidental dosemeter. In continuation of our search for a suitable phosphor material, which can serve both as an efficient lamp phosphor and as a good radiation monitoring device, detailed examination has been carried out on cerium and terbium-doped lanthanum phosphate material. A 90 Sr beta source with 50 mCi strength (1.85 GBq) was used as the irradiation source for TL studies. The TL response as a function of dose received was examined for all phosphors used and it was observed that the intensity of the TL peak vs. dose received was a linear function in the dose range 0.1-200 Gy in each case. Incidentally LaPO 4 :Ce,Tb is a component of the compact fluorescent lamp marketed recently as an energy bright light source. Besides having very good luminescence efficiency, good dosimetric properties of these phosphors render them useful for their use in accidental dosimetry also. (authors)

  15. Intrapulpal Thermal Changes during Setting Reaction of Glass Carbomer® Using Thermocure Lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs Kahvecioglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To measure the temperature increase induced during thermocure lamp setting reaction of glass carbomer and to compare it with those induced by visible light curing of a resin-modified glass ionomer and a polyacid-modified composite resin in primary and permanent teeth. Materials and Methods. Nonretentive class I cavities were prepared in extracted primary and permanent molars. Glass carbomer (GC was placed in the cavity and set at 60°C for 60 sn using a special thermocure lamp. Resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC and polyacid-modified composite resin (PMCR were placed in the cavities and polymerized with an LED curing unit. Temperature increases during setting reactions were measured with a J-type thermocouple wire connected to a data logger. Data were examined using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s honestly significant difference tests. Results. The use of GC resulted in temperature changes of 5.17 ± 0.92°C and 5.32 ± 0.90°C in primary and permanent teeth, respectively (p>0.05. Temperature increases were greatest in the GC group, differing significantly from those in the PMCR group (p<0.05. Conclusion. Temperature increases during polymerization and setting reactions of the materials were below the critical value in all groups. No difference was observed between primary and permanent teeth, regardless of the material used.

  16. Shader Lamps Virtual Patients: the physical manifestation of virtual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gutierrez, Diego; Welch, Greg; Lincoln, Peter; Whitton, Mary; Cendan, Juan; Chesnutt, David A; Fuchs, Henry; Lok, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Shader Lamps Virtual Patients (SLVP) - the combination of projector-based Shader Lamps Avatars and interactive virtual humans. This paradigm uses Shader Lamps Avatars technology to give a 3D physical presence to conversational virtual humans, improving their social interactivity and enabling them to share the physical space with the user. The paradigm scales naturally to multiple viewers, allowing for scenarios where an instructor and multiple students are involved in the training. We have developed a physical-virtual patient for medical students to conduct ophthalmic exams, in an interactive training experience. In this experience, the trainee practices multiple skills simultaneously, including using a surrogate optical instrument in front of a physical head, conversing with the patient about his fears, observing realistic head motion, and practicing patient safety. Here we present a prototype system and results from a preliminary formative evaluation of the system.

  17. Defects detecting method of lamp cap of single soldering lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jihe; Lv, Jidong

    2017-07-01

    In order to resolve the problems of low efficiency and large separating difference in fault detection of lamp holders with single soldering lug, an image-detection-based defect detection method is presented in this paper. The selected image is first preprocessed, where the possible area of soldering lug is cut in this preprocessing to narrow the scope for subsequent partition with the consideration that the smooth surface of metal at lamp holder and black insulation glass may reflect the light. Then, the soldering lug is extracted by a series of processing including clustering partition. Based on this, the defects are detected by regional marking, area comparison, circularity and coordinate deviation. The experiment results show that the designed method is simple and practical to detect main quality defects of lamp holder with single soldering lug correctly and efficiently.

  18. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha; Shukla, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 3 H and 232 Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  20. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  1. Numerical investigation of symmetry breaking and critical behavior of the acoustic streaming field in high-intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    For energy efficiency and material cost reduction it is preferred to drive high-intensity discharge lamps at frequencies of approximately 300 kHz. However, operating lamps at these high frequencies bears the risk of stimulating acoustic resonances inside the arc tube, which can result in low frequency light flicker and even lamp destruction. The acoustic streaming effect has been identified as the link between high frequency resonances and low frequency flicker. A highly coupled three-dimensional multiphysics model has been set up to calculate the acoustic streaming velocity field inside the arc tube of high-intensity discharge lamps. It has been found that the velocity field suffers a phase transition to an asymmetrical state at a critical acoustic streaming force. In certain respects the system behaves similar to a ferromagnet near the Curie point. It is discussed how the model allows to investigate the light flicker phenomenon. Concerning computer resources the procedure is considerably less demanding than a direct approach with a transient model. (paper)

  2. Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.

  3. Evaluation of an LED Retrofit Project at Princeton University’s Carl Icahn Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Murphy, Arthur L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The LED lighting retrofit at the Carl Icahn Laboratory of the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics was the first building-wide interior LED project at Princeton University, following the University’s experiences from several years of exterior and small-scale interior LED implementation projects. The project addressed three luminaire types – recessed 2x2 troffers, cove and other luminaires using linear T8 fluorescent lamps, and CFL downlights - which combined accounted for over 564,000 kWh of annual energy, over 90% of the lighting energy used in the facility. The Princeton Facilities Engineering staff used a thorough process of evaluating product alternatives before selecting an acceptable LED retrofit solution for each luminaire type. Overall, 815 2x2 luminaires, 550 linear fluorescent luminaires, and 240 downlights were converted to LED as part of this project. Based solely on the reductions in wattage in converting from the incumbent fluorescent lamps to LED retrofit kits, the annual energy savings from the project was over 190,000 kWh, a savings of 37%. An additional 125,000 kWh of energy savings is expected from the implementation of occupancy and task-tuning control solutions, which will bring the total savings for the project to 62%.

  4. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Rapid Detection and Quantification of Dehalococcoides Biomarker Genes in Commercial Reductive Dechlorinating Cultures KB-1 and SDC-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Yogendra H; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Steffan, Robert J; Hashsham, Syed A; Cupples, Alison M

    2016-01-08

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocols specific to the reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes vcrA, bvcA, and tceA are commonly used to quantify Dehalococcoides spp. in groundwater from chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed as an alternative approach for the quantification of these genes. LAMP does not require a real-time thermal cycler (i.e., amplification is isothermal), allowing the method to be performed using less-expensive and potentially field-deployable detection devices. Six LAMP primers were designed for each of three RDase genes (vcrA, bvcA, and tceA) using Primer Explorer V4. The LAMP assays were compared to conventional qPCR approaches using plasmid standards, two commercially available bioaugmentation cultures, KB-1 and SDC-9 (both contain Dehalococcoides species). DNA was extracted over a growth cycle from KB-1 and SDC-9 cultures amended with trichloroethene and vinyl chloride, respectively. All three genes were quantified for KB-1, whereas only vcrA was quantified for SDC-9. A comparison of LAMP and qPCR using standard plasmids indicated that quantification results were similar over a large range of gene concentrations. In addition, the quantitative increase in gene concentrations over one growth cycle of KB-1 and SDC-9 using LAMP was comparable to that of qPCR. The developed LAMP assays for vcrA and tceA genes were validated by comparing quantification on the Gene-Z handheld platform and a real-time thermal cycler using DNA isolated from eight groundwater samples obtained from an SDC-9-bioaugmented site (Tulsa, OK). These assays will be particularly useful at sites subject to bioaugmentation with these two commonly used Dehalococcoides species-containing cultures. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Child-Led Enquiry in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and evaluates the application of a child-led approach to scientific enquiry (the Community of Scientific Enquiry, CoSE) to children aged 8-11 (Key Stage 2) in Northern Ireland. Primary teachers were introduced to CoSE at a workshop and asked to evaluate its implementation with their class. Results from children (n = 364)…

  6. Corneal perforation secondary to UV radiation from a tanning lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Charlotte; Watson, Keith; Stewart, Owen; Dua, Gurcharan

    2006-12-01

    To report the case of a patient with keratoconus who developed a corneal perforation secondary to UV radiation from a tanning lamp. We believe this to be the first case of a corneal perforation secondary to UV radiation. The presentation and management of the patient and the pathophysiology of UV keratitis are discussed. Our patient developed a full-thickness corneal perforation after 30 minutes of tanning lamp exposure without eye protection. The cornea was temporized with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive until penetrating keratoplasty could be performed. With an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of UV damage, treatment should be aimed at modulating the disease to reduce the likelihood of a poor outcome.

  7. Physical aspects of mercury-free high pressure discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of recent results about the replacement of mercury in high pressure discharge lamps by metallic zinc. Actually, this topic is of high relevance for the lighting industry due to the need of more environmentally friendly products. The work presented here is supported by the German government under contract no. 13N8072. Pure zinc/argon discharges as well as lamps including zinc or mercury and metal halide additives are investigated. Experimental data are compared with model calculations of the energy balance involving the transport of heat and radiation. Since the excitation energies of relevant zinc transistions are lower than for mercury, axis temperatures of pure zinc lamps are about 300 K below the value of mercury arcs. In addition, the thermal conductivity of zinc including the contribution of radiation diffusion is larger than compared to mercury. From lamp voltage measurements it is found that the cross section for elastical electron scattering by zinc atoms is about the same as for mercury. When adding metal halides to a pure zinc discharge with argon as a starting gas, i.e. NaI, TlI, DyI3, axis temperatures decrease to about 5100 K due to strong radiation cooling. In order to obtain sufficiently large lamp voltages, wall temperatures of more than 1300 K are adjusted by means of polycrystalline aluminaoxide (Al2O3) as a wall material. Electrical field strenghts of 6.0 V/mm and 8.6 V/mm are measured for metal halide lamps containing zinc or mercury, respectively. The light technical data of the discharges are very close, since mercury and zinc do not contribute significantly to the radiation in the visible range. Efficacies of up to 93 lm/W and 100 lm/W are found in metal halide lamps with zinc and mercury, respectively. Consequently, zinc turns out to be an attractive replacer for mercury in this type of lamp not only from an environmental point of view

  8. TELEGRAPHS TO INCANDESCENT LAMPS: A SEQUENTIAL PROCESS OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Malone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a sequential process of technological innovation in the emergence of the electrical industry in the United States from 1830 to 1880. Successive inventions that realize the commercial possibilities of electricity provided the foundation for an industry where technical knowledge, invention and diffusion were ultimately consolidated within the managerial structure of new firms. The genesis of the industry is traced, sequentially, through the development of the telegraph, arc light and incandescent lamp. Exploring the origins of the telegraph and incandescent lamp reveals a process where a series of inventions and firms result from successful efforts touse scientific principles to create new commodities and markets.

  9. Spectral and photopic studies for high intensity discharge (HID lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Elmageed A.-E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting sources such as High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID are common in these days. This research is focusing on the relation between the spectral power distribution and luminous efficiency function V(λ, which describes the average spectral sensitivity of human visual perception of brightness. The most useable HID lamps inside Egyptian markets are high pressure mercury (HPM, high pressure sodium (HPS and metal halide (MH. A set up based on single monochromator and integrating sphere for relative spectral power distribution and absolute luminous flux measurements are used, respectively. The accompanied standard uncertainties with the measurements are evaluated.

  10. Transport phenomena of aluminium oxide in metal halide lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S; Markus, T [Institute for Energy Research, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Niemann, U [Philips GmbH, Research Laboratories, PO Box 500145, Aachen, D-52085 (Germany)], E-mail: s.fischer@fz-juelich.de

    2008-07-21

    A better understanding of the transport phenomena observed in metal halide lamps can be achieved using computer-based model calculations. The chemical transport of aluminium oxide in advanced high-pressure discharge vessels was calculated as a function of temperature and composition of the salt mixture relevant to the lamp. Below 1773 K chemical transport is the prevailing process; above this temperature the vaporization and condensation of the envelope material-aluminium oxide-become more important. The results of the calculations show that the amount of transported alumina increases linearly with the number of iteration cycles and exponentially with the temperature gradient.

  11. Liquid cooling applications on automotive exterior LED lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Mehmet; Şenyüz, Tunç; Şenyıldız, Teoman; Kılıç, Muhsin

    2018-02-01

    In this study cooling of a LED unit with heatsink and liquid cooling block which is used in automotive head lamp applications has been investigated numerically and experimentally. Junction temperature of a LED which is cooled with heatsink and liquid cooling block obtained in the experiment. 23°C is used both in the simulation and the experiment phase. Liquid cooling block material is choosed aluminium (Al) and polyamide. All tests and simulation are performed with three different flow rate. Temperature distribution of the designed product is investigated by doing the numerical simulations with a commercially software. In the simulations, fluid flow is assumed to be steady, incompressible and laminar and 3 dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations are used. According to the calculations it is obtained that junction temperature is higher in the heatsink design compared to block cooled one. By changing the block material, it is desired to investigate the variation on the LED junction temperature. It is found that more efficient cooling can be obtained in block cooling by using less volume and weight. With block cooling lifetime of LED can be increased and flux loss can be decreased with the result of decreased junction temperature.

  12. Multi-LED parallel transmission for long distance underwater VLC system with one SPAD receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Hong-Yi; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Ji, Ya-Wei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a multiple light emitting diode (LED) chips parallel transmission (Multi-LED-PT) scheme for underwater visible light communication system with one photon-counting single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) receiver is proposed. As the lamp always consists of multi-LED chips, the data rate could be improved when we drive these multi-LED chips parallel by using the interleaver-division-multiplexing technique. For each chip, the on-off-keying modulation is used to reduce the influence of clipping. Then a serial successive interference cancellation detection algorithm based on ideal Poisson photon-counting channel by the SPAD is proposed. Finally, compared to the SPAD-based direct current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system, the proposed Multi-LED-PT system could improve the error-rate performance and anti-nonlinearity performance significantly under the effects of absorption, scattering and weak turbulence-induced channel fading together.

  13. Study on methodology of LED's luminous flux measurement with integrating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Muqing; Zhou Xiaoli; Li Wenyi; Chen Yuyang; Zhang Wanlu

    2008-01-01

    Errors are introduced when using traditional methods for measuring the total luminous flux of LEDs since an LED is quite different from traditional light sources in terms of physical size, flux level, spectrum and spatial distribution. This paper uses commercial lighting simulation software named Tracepro to simulate the self-absorption effect when using traditional integrating sphere methods to measure the total luminous flux of LEDs and then presents a modified method for the measurement. The LED under investigation or a specially designed narrow beam standard lamp is placed on the interior wall of the sphere in our method. The results show that the measurement method presented here can lead to better precision in the evaluation of the total luminous flux of LEDs

  14. LED driver for stroboscopic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, T.; Heikkinen, V.; Kassamakov, I.; Hæggström, E.

    2012-04-01

    Three different types of white light emitting diodes (LEDs) and three types of single color LEDs were tested as light sources for stroboscopic scanning white light interferometry (SSWLI) for dynamic (MEMS) characterization. Short, intense, light pulses and low duty cycle (DC-10 MHz), and can drive single LEDs at 5A peak current (0.7% duty cycle at 1 MHz). The shortest measured electrical pulses were 6.2 +/- 0.1 ns FDHM. The minimum measured Full Duration at Half Maximum (FDHM) of the optical pulse was 8.4 +/- 0.1 ns using nonphosphor white LED and 32.1 +/- 0.1 ns using white phosphor-converted LED (0.7 % duty cycle at 1 MHz in both cases). The minimum optical pulse FDHM for a single color blue/green LED was 6.4 +/- 0.1 ns. The maximum intensity of these pulses was 630 +/- 40 μW and 540 +/- 30 μW, respectively. All types of white LEDs could be used for stroboscopic SWLI measurements at frequencies up to 2 MHz. For higher frequencies, non-phosphor white LEDs must be used together with a cyan LED to avoid ringing in the SWLI interferogram.

  15. Exploring practical approaches to maximising data quality in electronic healthcare records in the primary care setting and associated benefits. Report of panel-led discussion held at SAPC in July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungey, Sheena; Glew, Simon; Heyes, Barbara; Macleod, John; Tate, A Rosemary

    2016-09-01

    Electronic healthcare records provide information about patient care over time which not only affords the opportunity to improve patient care directly through effective monitoring and identification of care requirements but also offers a unique platform for both clinical and service-model research essential to the longer-term development of the health service. The quality of the recorded data can, however, be variable and can compromise the validity of data use both for primary and secondary purposes. In order to explore the challenges and benefits of and approaches to recording high quality primary care electronic records, a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) sponsored workshop was held at the Society of Academic Primary Care (SAPC) conference in 2014 with the aim of engaging GPs and other data users. The workshop was held as a structured discussion, led by an expert panel and focused around three questions: (1) What are the data quality priorities for clinicians and researchers? How do these priorities differ or overlap? (2) What challenges might GPs face in provision of good data quality both for treating their patients and for research? Do these aims conflict? (3) What tools (such as data metrics and visualisations or software components) could assist the GP in improving data quality and patient management and could this tie in with analytical processes occurring at the research stage? The discussion highlighted both overlap and differences in the perceived data quality priorities and challenges for different user groups. Five key areas of focus were agreed upon and recommendations determined for moving forward in improving quality. The importance of good high quality electronic healthcare records has been set forth along with the need for a practical user-considered and collaborative approach to its improvement.

  16. Allele specific LAMP- gold nanoparticle for characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ferreira Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their relevance as disease biomarkers and for diagnostics, screening of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs requires simple and straightforward strategies capable to provide results in medium throughput settings. Suitable approaches relying on isothermal amplification techniques have been evolving to substitute the cumbersome and highly specialized PCR amplification detection schemes. Nonetheless, identification of an individual’s genotype still requires sophisticated equipment and laborious methods.Here, we present a low-cost and reliable approach based on the allele specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (AS-LAMP coupled to ssDNA functionalized gold nanoparticle (Au-nanoprobe colorimetric sequence discrimination. The Au-nanoprobe integration allows for the colorimetric detection of AS-LAMP amplification product that can be easily interpreted in less than 15 min. We targeted a clinical relevant SNP responsible for lactose intolerance (-13910C/T dbSNP rs#: 4988235 to demonstrate its proof of concept and full potential of this novel approach. Keywords: SNP, Isothermal amplification, Gold nanoparticles, Gold nanoprobes, Lactose intolerance

  17. New dental applications with LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, A.; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  18. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  19. Enhanced models for teaching slit-lamp skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Kenneth G

    2003-10-01

    This article describes enhancements to models previously devised for demonstrating slit-lamp findings to students and physicians. The models can simulate the optical appearance of the anterior segment, "flare" and "cells" in the anterior chamber, hypopyon, gross and microscopic hyphema, the red reflex, cataract, corneal epithelial defects (including fluorescein staining) and superficial corneal foreign bodies, whose removal can be practised.

  20. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  1. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... used to extract template for the LAMP process. These methods vary depending on the source material and whether RNA or DNA is required for the procedure. Commercial column based kits are most frequently used and have been used successfully for extraction from microbial cell cultures (En et al., 2008; ...

  2. Evaluation and improvement of LAMP assays for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Pure DNA extract from 23 strains reserved in our lab was used to evaluate the existing LAMP assays. The existing ... and these modified methods were free of non-specific amplification and can rapidly and reliably detect the seven major Shiga ... these DNA templates was used for evaluation of Wang.

  3. LOOP mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collected a quantity of 35 serum samples of HIVpositive patients and a number of 107 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients who had shown symptoms of meningitis. We designed target specific primers for PCR and LAMP techniques to trace C. neoformans and C. gattii. From the total 142 clinical specimens, five ...

  4. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  5. Calibration and Temperature Profile of a Tungsten Filament Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles; Gitton, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work proposed for undergraduate students and teachers is the calibration of a tungsten filament lamp from electric measurements that are both simple and precise, allowing to determine the temperature of tungsten filament as a function of the current intensity. This calibration procedure was first applied to a conventional filament…

  6. Keeleuuendusest sündis diplomilavastus / Anu Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    24. märtsil esietendus teatris NO99 lavakunstikooli 22. lennu viimane diplomilavastus "Keeleuuenduse lõpmatu kurv". Lavastaja Anu Lamp räägib, kuidas sündis ja kuidas materjal Johannes Aaviku keeleuuendusest lavale jõudis

  7. Anu Lamp õpetab presidendile kõnekunsti peensusi / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitleja Anu Lamp õpetab president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele kaheksa akadeemilise tunni jooksul kõnelemisoskust. Vt. samas: Martti Kass. Presidendi hiiglaslik vastuvõtutelk võtab ilmet. Tartus hakati Vanemuise teatri külje alla hiigeltelki püstitama. Telgis surub president Toomas Hendrik Ilves 24. veebruaril 2007 kutsutud külaliste kätt

  8. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, Jan; Koleska, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, NOV (2015), s. 56-59 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fluorescent lamp * mercury measurement * neutron activation analysis * research reactor Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2015

  9. 46 CFR 32.85-1 - Fireproofing of lamp, oil and paint rooms-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fireproofing of lamp, oil and paint rooms-T/ALL. 32.85-1..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Lamp and Paint Rooms and Similar Compartments on Tankships § 32.85-1 Fireproofing of lamp, oil and paint rooms—T/ALL. Lamp, oil and paint rooms shall be wholly and tightly lined...

  10. Silicone materials for LED packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Maneesh; Norris, Ann W.; Zarisfi, Afrooz; Alger, James S.; Windiate, Christopher C.

    2006-08-01

    Silicone based materials have attracted considerable attention from light emitting diode (LED) manufacturers for use as encapsulants and lenses for many high brightness LED (HB LED) devices. Currently silicones function in two key roles in HB LED devices, (1) as protective lenses and (2) stress relieving encapsulants for wire bond protection. The key attributes of silicones that make them attractive as light path materials for high brightness HB LEDs include their high transparency in the UV-visible region, controlled refractive index (RI), stable thermo-mechanical properties, and tuneable modulus from soft gels to hard resins. This paper will describe recent developments in moldable silicone hard resin materials. Progress on cavity moldable and liquid injection moldable (LIM) silicone compositions for discreet components is described. Also, an example of liquid injection overmolding is presented.

  11. LAMP3 is involved in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells through the modulation of autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nagelkerke (Anika); A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); J. Bussink (Johan); F.C. Sweep (Fred); M.P. Look (Maxime); J.A. Foekens (John); J.W.M. Martens (John); P.N. Span (Paul)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a member of the LAMP-family of proteins, which are involved in the process of autophagy. Autophagy is induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cells and may contribute to tamoxifen resistance. In this study, the significance of LAMP3 for

  12. The effect of operating lamps on the protected area of a unidirectional down flow (UDF) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, A.A.L.; Bottenheft, C.; Louman, R.; Heumen, S.P.M. van; Böggeman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited.

  13. 40 CFR 458.40 - Applicability; description of the carbon black lamp process subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the carbon black lamp process subcategory. 458.40 Section 458.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Carbon Black Lamp Process Subcategory § 458.40 Applicability; description of the carbon black lamp...

  14. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lamp, and the capacitor when the capacitor is provided, shall constitute a nominal system in accordance... designed to be operated with a metal halide lamp and a ballast for a metal halide lamp. Probe-start metal... discharge and then power to sustain the discharge through the glow-to-arc transition. Test Procedures ...

  15. LAMP3 is involved in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells through the modulation of autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, A.P.; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Bussink, J.; Sweep, F.C.; Look, M.P.; Foekens, J.A.; Martens, J.W.; Span, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a member of the LAMP-family of proteins, which are involved in the process of autophagy. Autophagy is induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cells and may contribute to tamoxifen resistance. In this study, the significance of LAMP3 for tamoxifen

  16. MudGet: Reproduction of the desired lighting environment using a smart-LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hwi Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of smart LEDs, lighting based interior design is becoming popular. However, most of the smart LED-based lighting systems rely on expert-human intervention to create a desired atmosphere. For convenience, commercial lighting systems offer a number of options but their usability is fairly restricted. Therefore, an intuitive interface is required for novice users to generate the desired lighting environment. In this paper, we have developed a software, named MudGet, which automatically extracts the light mood from a digital image and controls the LED lamps to reproduce a desired lighting effect according to the extracted light mood. In our method, the light mood is regarded as a set of the representative colors of the digital image. The representative colors are extracted by utilizing K-means clustering algorithm. The dimming parameters are set for which each of the LED lamps create the lighting environment with the mood extracted by the software. To evaluate the feasibility of mood reproduction qualitatively, the degree of similarity between the light mood in the digital image and the reproduced result using LEDs is evaluated by a user study under a miniaturized experimental set. We observe that users can easily produce a desired atmosphere through the proposed MudGet software.

  17. Automatic Lamp and Fan Control Based on Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningrum, V. T.; Pramudita, Y. D.

    2018-01-01

    In general, automation can be described as a process following pre-determined sequential steps with a little or without any human exertion. Automation is provided with the use of various sensors suitable to observe the production processes, actuators and different techniques and devices. In this research, the automation system developed is an automatic lamp and an automatic fan on the smart home. Both of these systems will be processed using an Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller. A microcontroller is used to obtain values of physical conditions through sensors connected to it. In the automatic lamp system required sensors to detect the light of the LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) sensor. While the automatic fan system required sensors to detect the temperature of the DHT11 sensor. In tests that have been done lamps and fans can work properly. The lamp can turn on automatically when the light begins to darken, and the lamp can also turn off automatically when the light begins to bright again. In addition, it can concluded also that the readings of LDR sensors are placed outside the room is different from the readings of LDR sensors placed in the room. This is because the light intensity received by the existing LDR sensor in the room is blocked by the wall of the house or by other objects. Then for the fan, it can also turn on automatically when the temperature is greater than 25°C, and the fan speed can also be adjusted. The fan may also turn off automatically when the temperature is less than equal to 25°C.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) on microbial and enzyme inactivation of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Merve Pelvan; Ünlütürk, Sevcan

    2017-11-02

    In this study, the effects of Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) on the inactivation of E. coli K12 (ATCC 25253), an indicator organism of E. coli O157:H7, and polyphneoloxidase (PPO) in cloudy apple juice (CAJ) were investigated. The clear (AJ) and cloudy apple juice were exposed to UV rays for 40min by using a UV device composed of four UV-LEDs with peak emissions at 254 and 280nm and coupled emissions as follows: 254/365, 254/405, 280/365, 280/405 and 254/280/365/405nm. UV-LEDs at 254nm achieved 1.6±0.1 log 10 CFU/mL inactivation of E. coli K12 at UV dose of 707.2mJ/cm 2 . The highest inactivation of E. coli K12 (2.0±0.1log 10 CFU/mL and 2.0±0.4log 10 CFU/mL) was achieved when the cloudy apple juice was treated with both 280nm and 280/365nm UV-LEDs. For clear apple juice the highest inactivation 4.4log 10 CFU/mL obtained for E. coli K12 was achieved using 4 lamps emitting light at 280nm for 40min exposure time. For the same treatment time, the experiments using a combination of lamps emitting light at 280 and 365nm (2lamp/2lamp) were resulted in 3.9±0.2log 10 CFU/mL reductions. UV-A and UV-C rays in combination showed a better inactivation effect on PPO than UV-C rays used separately. Residual activity of PPO in CAJ was reduced to 32.58% when treated with UV-LED in combination of UV-C (280nm) and UV-A (365nm) rays. Additionally, the total color change (ΔE) of CAJ subjected to combined UV-LED irradiation at 280/365nm was the lowest compared to other studied processing conditions. This study provides key implications for the future application of UV-LEDs to fruit juice pasteurization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at Intercontinental Hotel in San Francisco, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Curry, Ku' Uipo J.

    2010-11-01

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program have been prescreened and tested to verify their actual performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products.

  20. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  1. The Study for Saving Energy and Optimization of LED Street Light Heat Sink Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available LED lamps are characterized by high energy efficiency, high luminance, and long lifespans. However, the heat radiation problem caused by the extra high power shortens the lifespan and reduces the luminous efficiency of such lamps. This study introduced the development of a novel cooling fin structure for LED lamps and compared its performance with those of commercially available products. The objective of the design was to reduce the maximum temperature and temperature difference on the fin, the amount of aluminum required for fin manufacturing, and CO2 emissions to save energy. The study employed the Taguchi method for experiment planning and used gray relational analysis and principal component analysis to determine the optimal parameter combination for cooling fins. The results showed that the maximum temperature on the fin surface dropped by 2.62°C in environments without forced convection, which indicated improved lighting efficiency. Furthermore, the amount of aluminum used per unit volume for fins was reduced by 15%, which effectively reduced CO2 emissions during the manufacturing process.

  2. Application of wearable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) techniques for in situ real-time field inspection of apple Marssonina blotch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Han, Sangyeop; Jeong, Hyosang; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    Here we describe the possible application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to inspect Marssonina coronaria infected apple blotch disease of in situ apple leaves. To fulfill the in situ field inspection requirement, we developed a compact wearable OCT system. For the confirmation of OCT results, simultaneous experiment was performed in realtime using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is frequently used in agriculture. LAMP method was developed as an alternative approach for the inspection of disease. We performed field inspection for 30 consecutive days, and all the acquired results from both OCT and lamp were compared to confirm the correlation. A clear identification between healthy specimens, apparently healthy but infected specimens, and infected specimens could be obtained through the real-time OCT images, and the correlation between OCT and lamp results was confirmed through the obtained realtime lamp results. Based on this feasibility study, we conclude that the combination of both these diagnosing modalities can be effective for various novel agricultural discoveries.

  3. Light pipes for LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  4. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of Practical Lighting Design with LEDs has been revised and updated to provide the most current information for developing light-emitting diodes products. The authors, noted authorities in the field, offer a review of the most relevant topics including optical performance, materials, thermal design, and modeling and measurement. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers all the information needed to design LEDs into end products.

  5. Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers: The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report reviews how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps that the dimmers were historically designed to control, and how these differences can lead to complications when trying to dim LEDs. Compatibility between a specific LED source and a specific phase-cut dimmer is often unknown and difficult to assess, and ensuring compatibility adds complexity to the design, specification, bidding, and construction observation phases for new buildings and major remodel projects. To maximize project success, this report provides both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects, as well as real-world examples of how to use those procedures.

  6. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  7. EVALUATING THE CULTURE-LED REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angelo Francesca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a new approach to urban planning, evaluating the culture-led regeneration processes. In the last few years, the cultural turn in urban planning played a central role in the urban studies. In this way we try to elaborate a more robust perspective interpreting the complex phenomenology emerging from the culture-led regeneration processes. Within the concept of complexity we discuss about the metabolic process that are the processes necessary to transform energy, material and information in goods and service functional to the complex urban system life. The approach that will be employed is the MuSIASEM that is based on several novel concept and an innovative methods never applied in this research field.

  8. A study on double hollow electrode discharge and the enhanced performance for electric discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Il; Park, Ki Wan; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Choi, Jai Hyuk; Baik, Hong Koo

    2006-01-01

    We invented a double hollow electrode lamp (DHEL), applied an electron oscillation effect and measured its I-V curve in dc driving to evaluate the electrical characteristics. The volume discharge of this lamp showed an abnormal glow characteristic. Based on these results, we made a 9-channel flat panel lamp and confirmed the possibility of a parallel operation. In order to evaluate the enhanced performance of the DHEL, we compared it with a single hollow triode lamp and a diode lamp (DL). We measured the breakdown voltage, tube current and IR intensity of these three types of lamps. The DHEL showed the lowest breakdown voltage among the three lamps and a higher tube current than that of the DL. The IR intensity of the DHEL was more efficient than that of the DL; the enhanced quantity of efficiency was 11.8% at 0.922 W

  9. Investigations on the influence of pressure, current and electrode gap in high-pressure mercury lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, P; Neiger, M

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical simulation of high-intensity discharge lamps, focusing on the influence of pressure, current and electrode gap on plasma, anode and cathode properties. The interaction between electrodes and plasma is taken into account. Comparisons between experimental findings and numerical results show that the observed increase in the total lamp voltage caused by an increasing lamp current is a superposition of an increasing lamp voltage due to an increasing pressure (caused by the increasing lamp current) and a decreasing lamp voltage due to the increasing lamp current (if the pressure would be constant). Furthermore, the numerical results reveal that the plasma potential in the whole plasma strongly depends on the electrode gap and that even the electrode temperature and the arc attachment to the electrodes are influenced by the size of the electrode gap

  10. Using detergent to enhance detection sensitivity of African trypanosomes in human CSF and blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Grab

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, with its advantages of simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, has evolved as one of the most sensitive and specific methods for the detection of a broad range of pathogenic microorganisms including African trypanosomes. While many LAMP-based assays are sufficiently sensitive to detect DNA well below the amount present in a single parasite, the detection limit of the assay is restricted by the number of parasites present in the volume of sample assayed; i.e. 1 per µL or 10(3 per mL. We hypothesized that clinical sensitivities that mimic analytical limits based on parasite DNA could be approached or even obtained by simply adding detergent to the samples prior to LAMP assay.For proof of principle we used two different LAMP assays capable of detecting 0.1 fg genomic DNA (0.001 parasite. The assay was tested on dilution series of intact bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or blood with or without the addition of the detergent Triton X-100 and 60 min incubation at ambient temperature. With human CSF and in the absence of detergent, the LAMP detection limit for live intact parasites using 1 µL of CSF as the source of template was at best 10(3 parasites/mL. Remarkably, detergent enhanced LAMP assay reaches sensitivity about 100 to 1000-fold lower; i.e. 10 to 1 parasite/mL. Similar detergent-mediated increases in LAMP assay analytical sensitivity were also found using DNA extracted from filter paper cards containing blood pretreated with detergent before card spotting or blood samples spotted on detergent pretreated cards.This simple procedure for the enhanced detection of live African trypanosomes in biological fluids by LAMP paves the way for the adaptation of LAMP for the economical and sensitive diagnosis of other protozoan parasites and microorganisms that cause diseases that plague the developing world.

  11. Using Detergent to Enhance Detection Sensitivity of African Trypanosomes in Human CSF and Blood by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, Dennis J.; Nikolskaia, Olga V.; Inoue, Noboru; Thekisoe, Oriel M. M.; Morrison, Liam J.; Gibson, Wendy; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, with its advantages of simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, has evolved as one of the most sensitive and specific methods for the detection of a broad range of pathogenic microorganisms including African trypanosomes. While many LAMP-based assays are sufficiently sensitive to detect DNA well below the amount present in a single parasite, the detection limit of the assay is restricted by the number of parasites present in the volume of sample assayed; i.e. 1 per µL or 103 per mL. We hypothesized that clinical sensitivities that mimic analytical limits based on parasite DNA could be approached or even obtained by simply adding detergent to the samples prior to LAMP assay. Methodology/Principal Findings For proof of principle we used two different LAMP assays capable of detecting 0.1 fg genomic DNA (0.001 parasite). The assay was tested on dilution series of intact bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood with or without the addition of the detergent Triton X-100 and 60 min incubation at ambient temperature. With human CSF and in the absence of detergent, the LAMP detection limit for live intact parasites using 1 µL of CSF as the source of template was at best 103 parasites/mL. Remarkably, detergent enhanced LAMP assay reaches sensitivity about 100 to 1000-fold lower; i.e. 10 to 1 parasite/mL. Similar detergent-mediated increases in LAMP assay analytical sensitivity were also found using DNA extracted from filter paper cards containing blood pretreated with detergent before card spotting or blood samples spotted on detergent pretreated cards. Conclusions/Significance This simple procedure for the enhanced detection of live African trypanosomes in biological fluids by LAMP paves the way for the adaptation of LAMP for the economical and sensitive diagnosis of other protozoan parasites and microorganisms that cause diseases that plague the

  12. Environmental friendly high efficient light source plasma lamp - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.; Calame, L. [Haute Ecole d' ingenierie et de gestion du canton de Vaud, Institut de micro et nano techniques, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Meyer, A. [Solaronix SA, Aubonne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done on the development of a sulphur-based plasma lamp. In 2007, the capability of a new modulator has been explored. The most important results are discussed. With the production of a 1.2 cm{sup 3} bulb, the way towards the production of a 100 W lamp has been opened. The authors comment that modulation by impulses increases the luminous efficiency in comparison to modulation using a continuous sinusoidal wave. The report deals with the history of the project, the development of the new modulator, the use of rotational effects and the optimisation of the amount of active substances - tellurium and selenium - in the bulb. The electromagnetic coupling system used is described and discussed.

  13. Retroactive effects of energy-saving lamps; Netzrueckwirkungen von Energiesparlampen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrenberger, G. [Forschungsstiftung Mobilkommunikation c/o ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Klaus, G. [Maxwave AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the repercussions on the power supply network that are caused by energy-saving lamps (ESL). These effects result from the operation of the lamps' electronic ballasts which operate at high frequencies. The most noticeable network repercussions that are caused by the rapid current variations in the ESL are discussed, as are ways of considerably reducing them. As for effects on the grid, the authors state that it is not to be expected that any problematic mains feedback will result in practice, particularly not in the well-dimensioned Swiss electricity grid. The methods used in the analysis and the detailed results obtained are presented in tabular and graphical form and discussed.

  14. Cooling analysis of a light emitting diode automotive fog lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of cooling fins inside of a light emitting diode fog lamp is studied using computational fluid dynamics. Diffusion in heat sink, natural convection and radiation are the main principles of the simulated heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the computational fluid dynamics code, including Monte Carlo radiation model and no additional turbulence model was needed. The numerical simulation is tested using the existing lamp geometry and temperature measurements. The agreement is excellent inside of few degrees at all measured points. The main objective of the article is to determine the cooling effect of various heat sink parts. Based on performed simulations, some heat sink parts are found to be very ineffective. The geometry and heat sink modifications are proposed. While radiation influence is significant, compressible effects are found to be minor.

  15. Photodegradation of nitrobenzene using 172 nm excimer UV lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Rong; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Di, Yan; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Jun-Ying

    2006-05-20

    Photodegradation of nitrobenzene (NB) using an excimer UV lamp at a wavelength of 172 nm is investigated. Experimental results show that high concentration nitrobenzene can be efficiently degraded with irradiation by excimer UV lamp, and confirm that degradation of nitrobenzene is more efficient by UV/H(2)O(2) combination than UV only. In the case of using UV only, 60 min of treatment was found to be sufficient to degrade the major part of NB solution with a concentration of less than 4mM. In the case of using the combination of UV/H(2)O(2) with a H(2)O(2) concentration of 7:1 molar ratio to NB, 4.07 mM NB solution drastically decreased to 0.41 mM after treatment for only 20 min. Degradation intermediate products are identified by analyzing the degradation products with GC/HRMS and possible degradation pathways of nitrobenzene are suggested.

  16. Comparative Phenotypical and Molecular Analyses of Arabidopsis Grown under Fluorescent and LED Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Franka; Soll, Jürgen; Bölter, Bettina

    2017-06-13

    Comparative analyses of phenotypic and molecular traits of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under standardised conditions is still a challenge using climatic devices supplied with common light sources. These are in most cases fluorescent lights, which have several disadvantages such as heat production at higher light intensities, an invariable spectral output, and relatively rapid "ageing". This results in non-desired variations of growth conditions and lowers the comparability of data acquired over extended time periods. In this study, we investigated the growth behaviour of Arabidopsis Col0 under different light conditions, applying fluorescent compared to LED lamps, and we conducted physiological as well as gene expression analyses. By changing the spectral composition and/or light intensity of LEDs we can clearly influence the growth behaviour of Arabidopsis and thereby study phenotypic attributes under very specific light conditions that are stable and reproducible, which is not necessarily given for fluorescent lamps. By using LED lights, we can also roughly mimic the sun light emission spectrum, enabling us to study plant growth in a more natural-like light set-up. We observed distinct growth behaviour under the different light regimes which was reflected by physiological properties of the plants. In conclusion, LEDs provide variable emission spectra for studying plant growth under defined, stable light conditions.

  17. Comparative Phenotypical and Molecular Analyses of Arabidopsis Grown under Fluorescent and LED Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Seiler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analyses of phenotypic and molecular traits of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under standardised conditions is still a challenge using climatic devices supplied with common light sources. These are in most cases fluorescent lights, which have several disadvantages such as heat production at higher light intensities, an invariable spectral output, and relatively rapid “ageing”. This results in non-desired variations of growth conditions and lowers the comparability of data acquired over extended time periods. In this study, we investigated the growth behaviour of Arabidopsis Col0 under different light conditions, applying fluorescent compared to LED lamps, and we conducted physiological as well as gene expression analyses. By changing the spectral composition and/or light intensity of LEDs we can clearly influence the growth behaviour of Arabidopsis and thereby study phenotypic attributes under very specific light conditions that are stable and reproducible, which is not necessarily given for fluorescent lamps. By using LED lights, we can also roughly mimic the sun light emission spectrum, enabling us to study plant growth in a more natural-like light set-up. We observed distinct growth behaviour under the different light regimes which was reflected by physiological properties of the plants. In conclusion, LEDs provide variable emission spectra for studying plant growth under defined, stable light conditions.

  18. Detoxification of mercury pollutant leached from spent fluorescent lamps using bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Abuqaoud, Reem H; Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammed H

    2016-03-01

    The spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) are being classified as a hazardous waste due to having mercury as one of its main components. Mercury is considered the second most toxic heavy metal (arsenic is the first) with harmful effects on animal nervous system as it causes different neurological disorders. In this research, the mercury from phosphor powder was leached, then bioremediated using bacterial strains isolated from Qatari environment. Leaching of mercury was carried out with nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions using two approaches: leaching at ambient conditions and microwave-assisted leaching. The results obtained from this research showed that microwave-assisted leaching method was significantly better in leaching mercury than the acid leaching where the mercury leaching efficiency reached 76.4%. For mercury bio-uptake, twenty bacterial strains (previously isolated and purified from petroleum oil contaminated soils) were sub-cultured on Luria Bertani (LB) plates with mercury chloride to check the bacterial tolerance to mercury. Seven of these twenty strains showed a degree of tolerance to mercury. The bio-uptake capacities of the promising strains were investigated using the mercury leached from the fluorescent lamps. Three of the strains (Enterobacter helveticus, Citrobacter amalonaticus, and Cronobacter muytjensii) showed bio-uptake efficiency ranged from 28.8% to 63.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions of theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.

  20. Semiconductor lasers and herterojunction leds

    CERN Document Server

    Kressel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also consider

  1. Extracting light out of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Julius; Wiesmann, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    `External quantum efficiency', that is, the number of photons generated per electron passing through the p-n junction of an LED is probably the most important number to quantify the performance of an LED chip. Although advances in epitaxy have increased the fraction of radiative recombination to extremely high values, the extraction of the precious photons that are trapped in a high refractive index crystal is still tricky. In this brief tutorial, we look at the physics of light extraction both from a geometrical optics/thermodynamic and a wave optics point of view, discussing both random and deterministic surface structures.

  2. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  3. White light emitting diode as potential replacement of tungsten-halogen lamp for visible spectroscopy system: a case study in the measurement of mango qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, W. L.; Omar, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Non-destructive technique based on visible (VIS) spectroscopy using light emitting diode (LED) as lighting was used for evaluation of the internal quality of mango fruit. The objective of this study was to investigate feasibility of white LED as lighting in spectroscopic instrumentation to predict the acidity and soluble solids content of intact Sala Mango. The reflectance spectra of the mango samples were obtained and measured in the visible range (400-700 nm) using VIS spectroscopy illuminated under different white LEDs and tungsten-halogen lamp (pro lamp). Regression models were developed by multiple linear regression to establish the relationship between spectra and internal quality. Direct calibration transfer procedure was then applied between master and slave lighting to check on the acidity prediction results after transfer. Determination of mango acidity under white LED lighting was successfully performed through VIS spectroscopy using multiple linear regression but otherwise for soluble solids content. Satisfactory results were obtained for calibration transfer between LEDs with different correlated colour temperature indicated this technique was successfully used in spectroscopy measurement between two similar light sources in prediction of internal quality of mango.

  4. White light emitting diode as potential replacement of tungsten-halogen lamp for visible spectroscopy system: a case study in the measurement of mango qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiong, W.L.; Omar, A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Non-destructive technique based on visible (VIS) spectroscopy using light emitting diode (LED) as lighting was used for evaluation of the internal quality of mango fruit. The objective of this study was to investigate feasibility of white LED as lighting in spectroscopic instrumentation to predict the acidity and soluble solids content of intact Sala Mango. The reflectance spectra of the mango samples were obtained and measured in the visible range (400–700 nm) using VIS spectroscopy illuminated under different white LEDs and tungsten-halogen lamp (pro lamp). Regression models were developed by multiple linear regression to establish the relationship between spectra and internal quality. Direct calibration transfer procedure was then applied between master and slave lighting to check on the acidity prediction results after transfer. Determination of mango acidity under white LED lighting was successfully performed through VIS spectroscopy using multiple linear regression but otherwise for soluble solids content. Satisfactory results were obtained for calibration transfer between LEDs with different correlated colour temperature indicated this technique was successfully used in spectroscopy measurement between two similar light sources in prediction of internal quality of mango.

  5. Application of an induced field sensor for assessment of electromagnetic exposure from compact fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Jagadish; Douglas, Mark; Capstick, Myles; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2012-02-01

    The development of scientifically sound instrumentation, methods, and procedures for the electromagnetic exposure assessment of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is investigated. The incident and induced fields from 11 CFLs have been measured in the 10 kHz-1 MHz range, and they are compared with the levels for incandescent and light emitting diode (LED) bulbs. Commercially available equipment was used to measure the incident fields, while a novel sensor was built to assess the induced fields in humans. Incident electric field levels significantly exceed the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels at close distances for some sources, while the induced fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions. This demonstrates the importance of assessing the induced fields rather than the incident fields for these sources. Maximum current densities for CFLs are comparable to the limits (in the range of 9% to 56%), demonstrating the need for measurements to establish compliance. For the frequency range investigated, the induced fields were found to be considerably higher for CFLs than for incandescent light bulbs, while the exposure from the two LED bulbs was low. The proposed instrumentation and methods offer several advantages over an existing measurement standard, and the measurement uncertainty is significantly better than the assessment of electric and magnetic fields at close distances. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Network of LAMP systems for atmospheric monitoring in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapragada, Bhavani Kumar; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    2012-07-01

    A systematic knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is required for understanding many atmospheric processes such as dynamics of boundary layer, pollution transport, modification of cloud microphysics etc. At present, the information on the particle distribution in the atmosphere is far from sufficient to estimate properly the load of aerosols in the atmosphere. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has been demonstrated to be a reliable remote sensing technique to obtain altitude profiles of atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering. A LIDAR network is being implemented by National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a Department of Space unit, in India for the measurement and monitoring of the atmospheric aerosols and clouds. Towards this, the technology of boundary layer lidar (BLL) (Bhavani Kumar, 2006) has been exploited. Several industrial grade BLL systems are being fabricated at a private industry in India through technological transfer from NARL. The industrial BLL lidar is named as LAMP, stands for LIDAR for Atmospheric Measurement and Probing. Five LAMP systems have already been fabricated and deployed at several locations of the country for continuous monitoring of aerosols and clouds under the Indian Lidar network (I-LINK) programme. The LAMP system employs a single barrel construction so that no realignment is required in future. Moreover, the network lidar system employs several features like rotation facility about the elevation (EL) axis, a provision of front window for environmental protection to the telescope optics and a silica gel pocket for desiccation (for transmit and receive assembly) and a provision of nitrogen purging to overcome the humidity effects. The LAMP system is an autonomous system equipped with a diode pumped Nd-YAG laser, a PMT for the detection of the backscattered photons, and a PC based photon counting electronics for recording the photon returns. In this paper, a report describing

  7. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential light source for growing plants in spaceflight systems because of their safety, small mass and volume, wavelength specificity, and longevity. Despite these attractive features, red LEDs must satisfy requirements for plant photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis for successful growth and seed yield. To determine the influence of gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) red LEDs on wheat photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield, wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'USU-Super Dwarf') plants were grown under red LEDs and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) lamps and red LEDs supplemented with either 1% or 10% blue light from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. Compared to white light-grown plants, wheat grown under red LEDs alone demonstrated less main culm development during vegetative growth through preanthesis, while showing a longer flag leaf at 40 DAP and greater main culm length at final harvest (70 DAP). As supplemental BF light was increased with red LEDs, shoot dry matter and net leaf photosynthesis rate increased. At final harvest, wheat grown under red LEDs alone displayed fewer subtillers and a lower seed yield compared to plants grown under white light. Wheat grown under red LEDs+10% BF light had comparable shoot dry matter accumulation and seed yield relative to wheat grown under white light. These results indicate that wheat can complete its life cycle under red LEDs alone, but larger plants and greater amounts of seed are produced in the presence of red LEDs supplemented with a quantity of blue light.

  8. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  9. UV-LED photopolymerised monoliths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Nie, F.; Foret, František; Paull, B.; Macka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 7 (2008), s. 864-866 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * UV-LED * polymethacrylate monolith Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  10. Architecture-Led Safety Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Contents Acknowledgments iv Abstract v 1 Introduction 1 2 Architecture -Led Processes and ALSA 2 3 ALSA Practices 5 3.1 Example System 8 4 Identify... Architecture Models 13 5 Identify Operational Hazards and Hazard Contributors 15 5.1 System Partitioning 15 5.2 Operational Context as a Control

  11. On electrode erosion in fluorescent lamps during instant start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadrath, S.

    2006-09-15

    A fluorescent lamp driven with an 'instant start electronic control gear' starts in a glow mode. In the glow mode, which lasts typically for tens of milliseconds, the cathode fall exceeds hundreds of volts. This causes high energy ion bombardment of the electrode which heats the electrode, and induces a transition from glow to arc mode. In the arc mode the electrode emits thermionically and the cathode fall drops to the 12 - 15 V range. Unfortunately, the high energy ion bombardment during the glow mode leads also to intense sputtering of electrode material, including tungsten as well as emitter. Thus, instant started fluorescent lamps often suffer from early failures due to coil fracture. Therefore, the investigation of tungsten erosion during instant start is necessary and was the main goal of this work. The density of neutral atomic tungsten is determined by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements (OES). Investigations are performed on a low-pressure argon dc discharge and on commercial fluorescent lamps. To include the entire temperature profile along the electrode the diffuse and spot operation modes of the dc lamp are studied experimentally and theoretically. The measured dependencies of the cathode temperature along the coil on the discharge and heating parameters are compared with the calculated results. For the first time the tungsten erosion during instant start of commercial fluorescent lamps was experimentally investigated in this work. The erosion process could be related to sputtering. A reconstruction of the temporal evolution of the absolute tungsten population density of the ground state during the glow mode was presented. The sputtered tungsten density increases immediately with the ignition, reaches a maximum where the discharge contracts at the end of the glow mode, and decreases some milliseconds before the glow-to-arc transition takes place. The maximum tungsten density was observed within a

  12. LED light recycling using double prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, George; Li, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    A novel LED recycling scheme using double prisms is presented. Two identical triangular prisms with square bases, one cross-stacked on top of the other, are tight-fit into a mirrored light tunnel. The whole prism/light tunnel assembly is then mounted on top of a square LED source, whose emitting area is the same as that of the base plane of the said prism/light tunnel assembly. Each prism acts as a tapered-down light guide in one dimension, which selectively retro-reflects high angle light along that direction. The outer light tunnel serves as a mirrored wall that folds back any light that escapes outside the two prisms. For a given collection cone angle, the height of the two prisms is optimized using ASAP, a commercial ray-tracing software. Simulation and experimental results show promise in significantly increasing the brightness of the LED sources within the collection cone. Specifically for a 4x recycling ratio a 70% recycling gain in center illuminance has been achieved (i.e., illuminance measured in the forward direction). This scheme has advantages over previous recycling configurations due to its compactness and ease of mounting. For example, compared to Wavien's spherical reflector approach that has been previously published, the current recycling configuration is much smaller in size because instead of fitting a much larger mirrored reflector on top of the LED source, this time we're using a structure that has the same lateral dimensions as those of the LED source itself. Further improvement is also possible if optimization of various system parameters is carried out.

  13. SSL and LED life prediction and assessment of CCT shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Sakalaus, Peter [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2014-05-27

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) products can have a predicted life of 70% lumen output (L70) from 26,000 to 40,000 hours using the LM-80-08 testing standards. Chromaticity shift, correlated color temperature (CCT) and lumen maintenance (LM) will dramatically reduce the nominal life of SSL luminaires. In this work, an off-the-shelf luminaire from Philips (AmbientLED) has been aged in a standard wet hot temperature operating life (WHTOL) of 85% relative humidity and 85°C (85/85) in order to assess reliability of prolonged exposer in a harsh environment. Failure criterion has been derived using the Arrhenius equation from the LM-80-08 standard, as well as the 60W LED Lamp test report from an isothermal environment of 45°C. This is a similar luminaire to the test vehicle used in this research. Data characterization between the two data sets has been carried out to determine the luminaires reliability and life under the 85/85 test conditions. This characterization allows for the determination of poor quality luminaire products in the market place. The distribution properties of the shifting mean values of CCT and LM were incorporated into the Bayesian Linear Regression (BLR) to determine the degradation pattern, in order to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the system due to aging before the end-of-life (EoL).

  14. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  15. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  16. Lifetime testing UV LEDs for use in the LISA charge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2017-10-01

    As a future charge management light source, UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) offer far superior performance in a range of metrics compared to the mercury lamps used in the past. As part of a qualification program a number of short wavelength UV LEDs have been subjected to a series of lifetime tests for potential use on the laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) mission. These tests were performed at realistic output levels for both fast and continuous discharging in either a DC or pulsed mode of operation and included a DC fast discharge test spanning 50 days, a temperature dependent pulsed fast discharge test spanning 21 days and a pulsed continuous discharge test spanning 507 days. Two types of UV LED have demonstrated lifetimes equivalent to over 25 years of realistic mission usage with one type providing a baseline for LISA and the other offering a backup solution.

  17. Celebrity-led development organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima; Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a frontier open up in international development engagement with the entrance of new actors such as celebrity-led organisations. We explore how such organisations earn legitimacy with a focus on Madonna’s Raising Malawi and Ben Affleck’s Eastern Congo Initiative. The study...... draws from organisational materials, interviews, mainstream news coverage, and the texts of the celebrities themselves to investigate the construction of authenticity, credibility, and accountability. We find these organisations earn legitimacy and flourish rapidly amid supportive elite networks...... for funding, endorsements, and expertise. We argue that the ways in which celebrity-led organisations establish themselves as legitimate development actors illustrate broader dynamics of the machinery of development....

  18. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Christensen, Karina; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    , the aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of LAMP-1, a membrane bound protein in lysosomes, in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue from 23 diffuse astrocytomas, 17 anaplastic astrocytomas and 72 glioblastomas. The LAMP-1 expression was scored and compared...... with both tumor grade and patient survival. Moreover double immunofluorescence stainings with LAMP-1 and the stem cell marker CD133 as well as the macrophage marker CD68 were performed. The results showed that LAMP-1 was expressed in the vast majority of tumors being present in the cytoplasm of single tumor...... cells, cell clusters and in blood vessel endothelial cells. The LAMP-1 expression in glioblastomas was significantly higher than in diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas (pLAMP-1 and patient overall survival was found. Double immunofluorescence staining...

  19. Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukas, M.; Wei, G.; Bergenek, K.; Kelso, J.; Zink, N.; Zheng, Y.; Hannah, M.; Stough, M.; Wirth, R.; Linkov, A.; Jermann, F.; Eisert, D.

    2011-03-01

    Many LED-based applications would benefit from more efficient and/or high lumen output devices that enable usage in both white and single color illumination schemes. In the present article we briefly review the materials research history leading to optical ceramic converters and discuss their typical characteristics. Recently demonstrated high performance values in terms of efficacy and external quantum efficiency in orange (amber) spectral region are described.

  20. Influence of interconnection on the long-term reliability of UV LED packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, S.; Mitrenga, D.; Karolewski, D.; Brodersen, O.; Ortlepp, T.

    2017-02-01

    High power LEDs have conquered the mass market in recent years. Besides the main development focus to achieve higher productivity in the field of visible semiconductor LED processing, the wavelength range is further enhanced by active research and development in the direction of UVA / UVB / UVC. UVB and UVC LEDs are new and promising due to their numerous advantages. UV LEDs emit in a near range of one single emission peak with a width (FWHM) below 15 nm compared to conventional mercury discharge lamps and xenon sources, which show broad spectrums with many emission peaks over a wide range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the UV LED size is in the range of a few hundred microns and offers a high potential of significant system miniaturization. Of course, LED efficiency, lifetime and output power have to be increased [1]. Lifetime limiting issues of UVB/UVC-LED are the very high thermal stress in the chip resulting from the higher forward voltages (6-10 V @ 350 mA), the lower external quantum efficiency, below 10 % (most of the power disappears as heat), and the thermal resistance Rth of conventional LED packages being not able to dissipate these large amounts of heat for spreading. Beside the circuit boards and submounts which should have maximum thermal conductivity, the dimension of contacts as well as the interconnection of UV LED to the submount/package determinates the resolvable amount of heat [2]. In the paper different innovative interconnection techniques for UVC-LED systems will be discussed focused on the optimization of thermal conductivity in consideration of the assembly costs. Results on thermal simulation for the optimal contact dimensions and interconnections will be given. In addition, these theoretical results will be compared with results on electrical characterization as well as IR investigations on real UV LED packages in order to give recommendations for optimal UV LED assembly.

  1. Magic Lamp magazine as a sociocultural artifact. For the magazine jubilee

    OpenAIRE

    Kamalova A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article devoted to Magic Lamp magazine, the Russian periodical of 1817. The magazine was published in Saint Petersburg in small printing; only 12 issues were published. It makes Magic Lamp magazine to be a bibliographical rarity. Objective function of Magic Lamp magazine was to amuse and enlighten people. In addition, it could be used as peculiar phrasebook and guidebook for foreigners visiting Saint Petersburg. The articles display typical everyday episodes taking place in the capital of...

  2. Guide to the Impact Behaviour of Aircraft Instrument Panel Lamp Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    oxidised at a point which quickly evaporated and fractured. When this occurred, the glass envelope blackened with a film of metal that originated... metal anvil for the ‘impactor’ to strike. For a test, the lamp support panel (Figure 16) is attached to the weighted ‘impactor’ block using high...strike with a metal anvil. The lamps were then removed for a detailed filament examination. 6.1 Lamp Test Setup Preliminary drop tests were performed

  3. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Tipu Sultan; Zeshan Ahmad; Zahid Anwar; Muhammad Shahzad Khurram

    2017-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV) reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED) and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV rea...

  4. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. LED arrays as cost effective and efficient light sources for widefield microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu F Albeanu

    Full Text Available New developments in fluorophores as well as in detection methods have fueled the rapid growth of optical imaging in the life sciences. Commercial widefield microscopes generally use arc lamps, excitation/emission filters and shutters for fluorescence imaging. These components can be expensive, difficult to maintain and preclude stable illumination. Here, we describe methods to construct inexpensive and easy-to-use light sources for optical microscopy using light-emitting diodes (LEDs. We also provide examples of its applicability to biological fluorescence imaging.

  6. Model of radiation transmittance by inorganic fouling on UV reactor lamp sleeves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Isaac W; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2010-11-01

    The efficacy of UV disinfection of water depends on the ability of radiation to pass from UV lamps through the quartz sleeves that encase them; the accumulation of metal-containing foulants on sleeve surfaces inhibits disinfection by absorbing radiation that would otherwise be available for inactivation. In a series of experiments, the composition and quantity of sleeve foulants were studied relative to water chemistry and sleeve transmittance. Findings indicate that iron and calcium dominate fouling, with elevated fouling activity by iron, aluminum, manganese, and zinc. A regression-based modeling approach was used to characterize and quantify the effects of foulant metals on UV absorbance. The molar extinction coefficient for iron was found to be more than 3 times greater than that of calcium. Iron's relatively high activity in fouling reactions, elevated capacity to absorb UV, and reduced solubility under oxidizing conditions makes it a fouling precursor of particular concern, with respect to potential for sleeve fouling in UV reactors.

  7. Status quo of ceramic material for metal halide discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappen, Theo G M M

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline alumina is an excellent ceramic material for use as the envelope for metal halide discharge lamps. Although this material was introduced in the mid-1960s, and is thus already known for several decades, recent years have seen considerable effort aimed at further development of these ceramic envelope materials. Developments are not only in the field of ceramic shaping technologies, but are also concentrated on the material properties of the ceramic material itself. Optical, mechanical as well as the chemical properties of the ceramic envelope are strongly controlled by the shape as well as the microstructure of the ceramics used

  8. Buurtzorg: nurse-led community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; de Blok, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Buurtzorg is a nurse-led, nurse-run organization of self-managed teams that provide home care to patients in their neighborhoods. Championing humanity over bureaucracy, autonomous teams work with primary care providers, community supports, and family resources to bring patients to optimal functioning as quickly as possible. The award-winning organization grew out of a common sense approach based on principles of trust, autonomy, creativity, simplicity, and collaboration. These organizational principles translate into highly effective and efficient care, satisfied patients, and enthusiastic nurses. The model is being replicated worldwide, with teams starting in Minnesota, Sweden, Japan, and other countries.

  9. There are Many Kinds and Brands of TL Lamp and Ballast Transformer in the Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes-Indrakoesoema; Yayan-Andryanto

    2006-01-01

    However, there is still a problem of how to determining the power factor (cos φ) for one of brand of lamp. Lamps with low power factor will consume relatively high reactive power, hence the active power that can be utilized decreases. One of the effort that can be done to improve the level of the lamp's power factor is to install a suitable capacitor with the lamp. The values of the lamp's power factor of a certain brand of lamp will be different if the lamp is connected with different brand of ballast transformer. Therefore, the value of the capacitor that have to be installed to the lamp also must be different depend on the brand of the transformer. This experiment using 2 (two) TL lamp i.e Chiyoda 40 Watt and Philip 36 Watt which has been installed with capacitor 3.6 μF and combination of ballast transformer Philips, National and Siemens and shows that increase the power factor until 0.95. (author)

  10. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shield for Arduino DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Aldrik H; Schoen, Cor; Saggiomo, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is gaining relevance as a method to detect nucleic acids, as it is easier, faster, and more powerful than conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction. However, LAMP is still mostly used in laboratory settings, because of the lack of a cheap and easy, one-button device that can perform LAMP experiments. Here we show how to build and program an Arduino shield for a LAMP and detection of DNA. The here described Arduino Shield is cheap, easy to assemble, to program and use, it is battery operated and the detection of DNA is done by naked-eye so that it can be used in field.

  11. Simple, rapid, inexpensive platform for the diagnosis of malaria by loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surabattula, Rambabu; Vejandla, Manju Pradeep; Mallepaddi, Prudhvi Chand; Faulstich, Konrad; Polavarapu, Rathnagiri

    2013-07-01

    We attempted to improve the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for malaria diagnosis by using a simple DNA extraction procedure, and a portable device performing both the amplification and detection of LAMP in one platform. Additionally, the device served as a heating block for the DNA preparation. We refer this method as LAMP-Tube scanner, and evaluated using 209 microscopically positive malaria samples and compared them to RDTs and LAMP-Thermocycler. Two most common human infecting Plasmodium species were detected. The LAMP-Tube scanner method is found to be simple and allowed real-time detection of DNA amplification. The time to amplification varied but was closely less than 60 min. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP-Tube scanner in detecting Plasmodium falciparum were 95% and 93.3%, compared to microscopy and 98.3% and 100% respectively, compared to standard LAMP-Thermocycler. In addition, it showed a detection limit of 10 and 40 copies of the parasitemia for Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. Accordingly, in comparison to the results obtained by microscopy, the LAMP-Tube scanner had a less divergence in sensitivity and specificity, and yielded results similar to those of LAMP-Thermocycler. This method has the great potential as a field usable molecular tool for the diagnosis of malaria and is an alternative to conventional PCR-based diagnostic methods for field use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of lamp arrangement in a closed-conduit UV reactor based on a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Tipu; Ahmad, Zeshan; Cho, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    The choice for the arrangement of the UV lamps in a closed-conduit ultraviolet (CCUV) reactor significantly affects the performance. However, a systematic methodology for the optimal lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor is not well established in the literature. In this research work, we propose a viable systematic methodology for the lamp arrangement based on a genetic algorithm (GA). In addition, we analyze the impacts of the diameter, angle, and symmetry of the lamp arrangement on the reduction equivalent dose (RED). The results are compared based on the simulated RED values and evaluated using the computational fluid dynamics simulations software ANSYS FLUENT. The fluence rate was calculated using commercial software UVCalc3D, and the GA-based lamp arrangement optimization was achieved using MATLAB. The simulation results provide detailed information about the GA-based methodology for the lamp arrangement, the pathogen transport, and the simulated RED values. A significant increase in the RED values was achieved by using the GA-based lamp arrangement methodology. This increase in RED value was highest for the asymmetric lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor. These results demonstrate that the proposed GA-based methodology for symmetric and asymmetric lamp arrangement provides a viable technical solution to the design and optimization of the CCUV reactor.

  13. Estimation of mercury amount in the components of spent U-type lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-05-01

    Spent U-type lamps are strongly encouraged to be separately managed in Korea, because U-type lamps are categorized as a household waste and thereby could not be managed properly. Determination of mercury amount in the components of U-type lamp, such as plastics, glass tube and phosphor powder from 3 U-type lamp manufacturers (A, B and C), is carried out to estimate the mercury content in spent U-type lamps. Regardless of lamp manufacturers, the portion of mercury in phosphor powder was higher than 90%, but that in plastics and others was less than 1%. At an air flow rate of 1.0 L/min, the range of the initial mercury concentration in vapor phase for U-type lamp was between 849 and 2076 µg/m 3 from 3 companies. The estimated mercury amount in vapor phase of U-type lamp was in the range from 0.206 mg for company A to 0.593 mg for company B. And the portion of mercury in vapor phase in the total amount of mercury was estimated in the range from 3.0% for company A to 6.7% for company B. Hence, it is desirable to get rid of mercury from phosphor powder in order to perform U-type lamps recycling.

  14. The use of light-emitting diodes (LED in commercial layer production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Borille

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial lighting is one of the most powerful management tools available to commercial layer producers. Artificial light allows anticipating or delaying the beginning of lay, improving egg production, and optimizing feed efficiency. This study aimed at comparing the performance of commercial layers submitted to lighting using different LED colors or conventional incandescent lamps. The study was carried out in a layer house divided in isolated environments in order to prevent any influenced from the neighboring treatments. In total, 360 Isa Brown layers, with an initial age of 56 weeks, were used. The following light sources were used: blue LED, yellow LED, green LED, red LED, white LED, and 40W incandescent light. Birds in all treatment were submitted to a 17-h continuous lighting program, and were fed a corn and soybean meal-based diet. A completely randomized experimental design with subplots was applied, with 24 treatments (six light sources and four periods of three replicates. Egg production (% was significantly different (p0.05 by light source. It was concluded that the replacement of incandescent light bulbs by white and red LEDs does not cause any negative effect on the egg production of commercial layers.

  15. Evaluation of photodynamic therapy using a light-emitting diode lamp against Enterococcus faecalis in extracted human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Alejandro; He, Jianing; Glickman, Gerald N; Spears, Robert; Schneiderman, Emet D; Honeyman, Allen L

    2011-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with high-power lasers as the light source has been proven to be effective in disinfecting root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of PDT using toluidine blue O (TBO) and a low-energy light-emitting diode (LED) lamp after the conventional disinfection protocol of 6% NaOCl. Single-rooted extracted teeth were cleaned, shaped, and sealed at the apex before incubation with Enterococcus faecalis for 2 weeks. Roots were randomly assigned to five experimental groups and three control groups. Dentin shavings were collected from the root canals of all groups with a #50/.06 rotary file, colony-forming units were determined, and the bacterial survival rate was calculated for each treatment. The bacterial survival rate of the NaOCl/TBO/light group (0.1%) was significantly lower (P lamp has the potential to be used as an adjunctive antimicrobial procedure in conventional endodontic therapy. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microfluidic continuous flow digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Chen, Liben; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-02-07

    Digital nucleic acid detection is rapidly becoming a popular technique for ultra-sensitive and quantitative detection of nucleic acid molecules in a wide range of biomedical studies. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the most popular way of conducting digital nucleic acid detection. However, due to the need for thermocycling, digital PCR is difficult to implement in a streamlined manner on a single microfluidic device, leading to complex fragmented workflows and multiple separate devices and instruments. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an excellent isothermal alternative to PCR with potentially better specificity than PCR because of the use of multiple primer sets for a nucleic acid target. Here we report a microfluidic droplet device implementing all the steps required for digital nucleic acid detection including droplet generation, incubation and in-line detection for digital LAMP. As compared to microchamber or droplet array-based digital assays, the continuous flow operation of this device eliminates the constraints on the number of total reactions imposed by the footprint of the device and the analysis throughput caused by the time for lengthy incubation and transfer of materials between instruments.

  17. The fate and management of high mercury-containing lamps from high technology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Kong, H W

    2007-03-22

    This study investigated the fate and management of high mercury-contained lamps, such as cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), ultraviolet lamps (UV lamps), and super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs), from high technology industries in Taiwan, using material flow analysis (MFA) method. Several organizations, such as Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, the light sources manufactories, mercury-containing lamps importer, high technology industrial user, and waste mercury-containing lamps treatment facilities were interviewed in this study. According to this survey, the total mercury contained in CCFLs, UV lamps, and SHPs produced in Taiwan or imported from other countries was 886kg in year 2004. Among the various lamps containing mercury, 57kg mercury was exported as primary CCFLs, 7kg mercury was wasted as defective CCFLs, and 820kg mercury was used in the high technology industries, including 463kg mercury contained in exported industrial products using CCFLs as components. On the contrary, only 59kg of mercury was exported, including 57kg in CCFLs and 2kg in UV lamps. It reveals that 364kg mercury was consumed in Taiwan during year 2004. In addition, 140kg of the 364kg mercury contained in lamps used by high technology industry was well treated through industrial waste treatment system. Among the waste mercury from high technology industry, 80kg (57%), 53kg (38%), and 7kg (5%) of mercury were through domestic treatment, offshore treatment, and emission in air, respectively. Unfortunately, 224kg waste mercury was not suitable treated, including 199kg mercury contained in CCFL, which is a component of monitor for personal computer and liquid crystal display television, and 25kg non-treated mercury. Thus, how to recover the mercury from the waste monitors is an important challenge of zero wastage policy in Taiwan.

  18. Combined daylight and intelligent LED lighting - getting the daylight into the buildings; Kombineret dagslys og intelligent LED belysning - fae dagslys ind i bygningerne. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Corell, D.D.; Thorseth, A.; Behrensdorff Poulsen, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU Fotonik, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Markvart, J.; Iversen, A.; Logadottir, A. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    The main result of the project is the construction of the new intelligent and dynamic LED lighting system for demonstration and research purposes, and a number of extensive user testing is completed. The LED lighting system is a total system for office lighting with ceiling fixtures and desk lamps, which has made it possible to create a general and workplace lighting in two offices each with two work places. The system is installed in a day light laboratory for such two office spaces. All lamps can be controlled via a developed computer interface, and the desk lamps are further manually controllable by a user via two buttons for color temperature and brightness, respectively. The new intelligent and dynamic lighting system is based on color mixing LED technology and makes it possible to control the color composition, color coordinates and thus the color temperature of the light. Control-wise, the system is pre-programmed to produce white light with a correlated color temperature from 2700 K to 7000 K. The color composition is optimized from the desire for a very good color given at a general CRI value of 92-97 over the area. The system can be dimmed 20-100 %, with no significant change in the light's color properties. A mini-spectrometer is calibrated and built-in in the system and provides the current estimate of daylight brightness and color temperature through measurement of daylight color scheme in the visible range. The system uses daylight properties to control the light from the LED lighting system. The results of user tests show, that the developed possibility to automatically control of light in the office depending on the daylight color temperature is considered to be equally preferred and results in equally satisfied users as a traditional lighting system with even lighting in the room. On the other hand, user results showed that there were both energy savings and more satisfied users to be gained by providing users the opportunity to self-adjust either

  19. X-ray-binary spectra in the lamp post model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, F. H.; Różańska, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Madej, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The high-energy radiation from black-hole binaries may be due to the reprocessing of a lamp located on the black hole rotation axis and emitting X-rays. The observed spectrum is made of three major components: the direct spectrum traveling from the lamp directly to the observer; the thermal bump at the equilibrium temperature of the accretion disk heated by the lamp; and the reflected spectrum essentially made of the Compton hump and the iron-line complex. Aims: We aim to accurately compute the complete reprocessed spectrum (thermal bump + reflected) of black-hole binaries over the entire X-ray band. We also determine the strength of the direct component. Our choice of parameters is adapted to a source showing an important thermal component. We are particularly interested in investigating the possibility to use the iron-line complex as a probe to constrain the black hole spin. Methods: We computed in full general relativity the illumination of a thin accretion disk by a fixed X-ray lamp along the rotation axis. We used the ATM21 radiative transfer code to compute the local, energy-dependent spectrum emitted along the disk as a function of radius, emission angle and black hole spin. We then ray traced this local spectrum to determine the final reprocessed spectrum as received by a distant observer. We consider two extreme values of the black hole spin (a = 0 and a = 0.98) and discuss the dependence of the local and ray-traced spectra on the emission angle and black hole spin. Results: We show the importance of the angle dependence of the total disk specific intensity spectrum emitted by the illuminated atmosphere when the thermal disk emission is fully taken into account. The disk flux, together with the X-ray flux from the lamp, determines the temperature and ionization structure of the atmosphere. High black hole spin implies high temperature in the inner disk regions, therefore, the emitted thermal disk spectrum fully covers the iron-line complex. As a

  20. Calculation of harmonic losses and ampacity in low-voltage power cables when used for feeding large LED lighting loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Milardovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation on the harmonic disturbances in low-voltage cables feeding large LED loads is reported. A frequency domain analysis on several commercially-available LEDs was performed to investigate the signature of the harmonic current injected into the power system. Four-core cables and four single-core cable arrangements (three phases and neutral of small, medium, and large conductor cross sections, with the neutral conductor cross section approximately equal to the half of the phase conductors, were examined. The cables were modelled by using electromagnetic finite-element analysis software. High harmonic power losses (up to 2.5 times the value corresponding to an undistorted current of the same rms value of the first harmonic of the LED current were found. A generalized ampacity model was employed for re-rating the cables. It was found that the cross section of the neutral conductor plays an important role in the derating of the cable ampacity due to the presence of a high-level of triplen harmonics in the distorted current. The ampacity of the cables should be derated by about 40 %, almost independent of the conductor cross sections. The calculation have shown that an incoming widespread use of LED lamps in lighting could create significant additional harmonic losses in the supplying low-voltage lines, and thus more severely harmonic emission limits should be defined for LED lamps.

  1. Design and Manufacture of an Energy-saving LED Lantern with Paper-cut Figure Projection Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work designed and manufactured an energy-saving LED lantern adorned with a revolving circle of paper characters, showing the shadow-show function. It used the high-cooling performance LED lamp to light. A small motor was also installed in the lantern to rotate paper characters. Under the light of LED, the rotating paper characters in the lantern would play a shadow show. Many shadows of well-known characters ran on the skin surface of the lantern, being like to tell a story and having lots of fun. For example, “The Magical Monkey King” is the classic Chinese adventure tale. It is one of the favorites in our growing collection of Asian children's books. One can think about that it will touch your mind and return you back to the childhood when such shadows of well-known characters run on the skin surface of the lantern. Besides, it used a special assembly of aluminum-alloy pin-fin heat sinks to be the cooling device of LED lamp within the lantern. The configuration of the cooling device was a vertical hollow square cylinder. Many circular pin fins extended inwardly from the internal surfaces of the vertical cylinder. The LEDs were installed onto the external surfaces of the vertical cylinder. Therefore, the chimney effect of the free convection heat transfer would be formed. A series of experimental tests demonstrated that such cooling design enhanced the total heat-transfer capacity remarkably.

  2. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2011-01-01

    "This book covers all of the information needed to design LEDs into end-products. It is a practical guide, primarily explaning how things are done by practicing engineers. Equations are used only for practical calculations, and are kept to the level of high-school algebra. There are numerous drawings and schematics showing how things such as measurements are actually made, and showing curcuits that actually work. There are practical notes and examples embedded in the text that give pointers and how-to guides on many of the book's topics. After reading each chapter of the book, readers will have the knowledge to implement practical designs. This book will be kept as a reference tool for years to come"--

  3. Design for Manufacture and Assembly for Product Development (Case study : Emergency Lamp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatilah, Y.; Pulansari, F.; Ernawati, Dira; Pujiastuti, C.; Parwati, C. I.; Prasetyo, B.

    2018-01-01

    Community needs that are not primary but important in everyday life are lights for lighting. State electricity company (PLN) is experiencing limitations in supplying electricity for this puIDRose. Therefore emergency lights (emergency lights) are already marketed in the community, which limited function only illuminate a very limited space. Therefore we developed the design of energy saving lamps using “Light Emitting Diode” (LED) which can illuminate the whole house as well as functioning as mobile phone charger (HP). The method used is Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA), with the result of design development The percentage increase in assembly efficiency (E) is 0.01071 - 0.00645 = 0.00426 or = 39.76%. The decrease in material costs is IDR 234,000 - IDR 214,000 = IDR 20,000 or = 8.54% .Development design is received because of more assembly efficiency than the initial design. Power usage on previous products with series and designs of the original product can last only 4-5 hours non-stop, while the development of the design can survive 9-10 hours 2x more energy efficient.

  4. Humphrey Davy and the Safety Lamp: The Use of Metal Gauze as a Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The "safety lamp" invented by Humphrey Davy in 1815 utilised the cooling effect of metal gauze to prevent the flame of a candle or oil lamp (essential for illumination in mines) from passing through such a screen. It is therefore rendered unable to ignite any potentially explosive mixture of air and methane in the atmosphere surrounding…

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shield for Arduino DNA detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders, Aldrik H.; Schoen, Cor; Saggiomo, Vittorio

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is gaining relevance as a method to detect nucleic acids, as it is easier, faster, and more powerful than conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction. However, LAMP is still mostly used in laboratory settings, because of the lack of a cheap

  6. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advertisement. Advertising for any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that does not comply with... mercury and that is contained within an outer envelope. (2) Advertisement means any catalog, specification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. 1040...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1719-4 - Mining machines, cap lamps; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining machines, cap lamps; requirements. 75... Mining machines, cap lamps; requirements. (a) Paint used on exterior surfaces of mining machines shall... frames or reflecting tape shall be installed on each end of mining machines, except that continuous...

  8. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  9. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M; Herd, M T; Lawler, J E

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (T c ). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386)

  10. Development of a novel LAMP diagnostic method for visible detection of swine Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongbo; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui; Wang, Chunren; He, Xianjing; Zheng, Jiasan; Yang, Huanmin

    2010-12-01

    A set of four specific primers for six regions of kmt1 gene from a species specific region was designed for developing the loop-mediated isothermal amplification diagnostic method of swine Pasteurella multocida (Pm-LAMP). After the Pm-LAMP was carried out at 63°C for 1 h, the LAMP products could be visually confirmed using fluorescent dyes as detection reagent under UV-illumination. In sensitivity, the detection limit of the Pm-LAMP was 10 cfu/mL, and was 1 log less than that of the PCR method. In specificity, the Pm-LAMP did not amplify genomic DNA of swine common respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, based on results for clinical swab samples (n = 31) using PCR detection as golden standard, relative sensitivity of the Pm-LAMP was 100%, relative specificity of the Pm-LAMP was 90.9%, and percentage of observation agreement was 93.5% (Kappa = 0.85). The Pm-LAMP method should be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid and visible detection of swine Pasteurella multocida.

  11. The results of nocturnal visual surveys are influenced by lamp properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted standardized visual searches at night for brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) and geckos, where we alternated between spotlight and floodlight lamps. Floodlights rendered us 25% more snakes and 71% more geckos than did spotlights. We show data on searcher variability and discuss what might affect the relative benefit of different lamp types. ?? 2009 Brill Academic Publishers.

  12. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipu Sultan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV reactor chamber and each case consisted of four UV lamps that were simulated once symmetrically and four times asymmetrically. The results of the four asymmetric cases were compared with the symmetric one. Moreover, these results were evaluated by using CFD simulations of a closed-conduit UV reactor. The fluence rate model, UVCalc3D was employed to validate the simulations results. The simulation results provide detailed information about the dose distribution, pathogen track modeling and RED. The RED value was increased by approximately 15% by using UVCalc3D fluence rate model. Additionally, the asymmetric lamp positioning of the UV lamps had more than 50% of the pathogens received a better and a higher UV dose than in the symmetric case. Consequently, the system dose performance was improved by asymmetric lamp positioning. It was concluded that the performance parameters (higher RED and system dose performance were improved by using asymmetric lamp positioning.

  13. Potential mercury emissions from fluorescent lamps production and obsolescence in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Quanyin; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The use of fluorescent lamps has expanded rapidly all over the world in recent years, because of their energy-saving capability. Consequently, however, mercury emissions from production, breakage, and discard of the lamps are drawing increasing concern from the public. This article focuses on evaluating the amount of mercury used for fluorescent lamp production, as well as the potential mercury emissions during production and breakage, in mainland China. It is expected to provide a comprehensive understanding about the risks present in the mercury from fluorescent lamps, and to know about the impacts of the policies on fluorescent lamps after their implementation. It is estimated that, in 2020, mercury consumption will be about 11.30-15.69 tonnes, a significant reduction of 34.9%-37.4% from that used in 2013, owing to improvement in mercury dosing dosage technology and tighter limitations on mercury content in fluorescent lamps. With these improvements, the amount of mercury remaining in fluorescent lamps and released during production is estimated to be 10.71-14.86 and 0.59-0.83 tonnes, respectively; the mercury released from waste fluorescent lamps is estimated to be about 5.37-7.59 tonnes. Also, a significant reduction to the mercury emission can be expected when a collection and treatment system is well established and conducted in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Inactivation kinetics and efficiencies of UV-LEDs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and surrogate microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanakul, Surapong; Oguma, Kumiko

    2018-03-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) to disinfect water, UV-LEDs at peak emission wavelengths of 265, 280, and 300 nm were adopted to inactivate pathogenic species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila, and surrogate species, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis spores, and bacteriophage Qβ in water, compared to conventional low-pressure UV lamp emitting at 254 nm. The inactivation profiles of each species showed either a linear or sigmoidal survival curve, which both fit well with the Geeraerd's model. Based on the inactivation rate constant, the 265-nm UV-LED showed most effective fluence, except for with E. coli which showed similar inactivation rates at 265 and 254 nm. Electrical energy consumption required for 3-log 10 inactivation (E E,3 ) was lowest for the 280-nm UV-LED for all microbial species tested. Taken together, the findings of this study determined the inactivation profiles and kinetics of both pathogenic bacteria and surrogate species under UV-LED exposure at different wavelengths. We also demonstrated that not only inactivation rate constants, but also energy efficiency should be considered when selecting an emission wavelength for UV-LEDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from spotlights incorporating tungsten halogen lamps

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinlay, Alistair F; Whillock, M J

    1989-01-01

    This report summarises measurements of the ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from eleven 'desk-top' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamps and one 'floor-standing' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamp available in the UK. Values of occupational hazard weighted and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation irradiance and measurements and relevant calculations of blue-light hazards are presented. It is concluded that the safety design of some desk-top tungsten halogen lamps is inadequate to prevent unnecessary exposure of the skin to potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is recommended that all tungsten halogen lamps should have sufficient filtration to reduce their ultraviolet emissions to an acceptably low level. As long as the comfort aversion responses of the eye are respected, direct viewing of the lamps examined should not constitute a retinal hazard.

  16. Determination of the cathode fall voltage in fluorescent lamps by measurement of the operating voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the cathode fall voltage of fluorescent lamps is shown. The cathode fall voltage can be determined by measurement of the lamp operating voltage at constant lamp wall temperature, constant discharge current and variation of the electrode heating current. Commercial lamps, which do not need to be specially prepared, can be used for the measurement. The results show good correlation to other measurements of the cathode fall voltage at various discharge currents by means of capacitive coupling. The measured values of the cathode fall voltage are used for determining the minimum, target and maximum setting of the sum of the squares of the pin currents of one electrode (the so-called SOS value) as a function of the discharge current in fluorescent lamp dimming. (author)

  17. Amalgams for fluorescent lamps. Pt. I. Thermodynamic design rules and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankhorst, M.H.R. [Philips Research Labs., Eindhoven (Netherlands); Niemann, U. [Philips Forschungslaboratorien, Weishausstr. 2, 52066, Aachen (Germany)

    2000-08-10

    In compact fluorescent lamps, amalgams can be used to control the mercury vapour pressure inside the lamp. Since the optimal mercury vapour pressure and the coolest spot temperature of these lamps differ for each particular lamp configuration, it is desired to be able to design amalgams in such a way that a mercury vapour pressure versus temperature curve suitable for an optimal light-output is obtained for each particular lamp geometry. Using regular solution thermodynamics, relations have been derived between the mercury vapour pressure of the amalgam and the melting point, melting enthalpy and mercury interaction enthalpy of the underlying alloy. From these relations amalgam design rules and amalgam design limitations have been formulated. (orig.)

  18. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine S; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina G

    2013-01-01

    study was to investigate the presence of lysosomes in astrocytic brain tumors focussing also on the therapy resistant tumor stem cells. Expression of the lysosomal marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 112 formalin fixed paraffin embedded...... astrocytomas and compared with tumor grade and overall patient survival. Moreover, double immunofluorescence stainings were performed with LAMP-1 and the astrocytic marker GFAP and the putative stem cell marker CD133 on ten glioblastomas. Most tumors expressed the LAMP-1 protein in the cytoplasm of the tumor...... cells, while the blood vessels were positive in all tumors. The percentage of LAMP-1 positive tumor cells and staining intensities increased with tumor grade but variations in tumors of the same grade were also found. No association was found between LAMP-1 expression and patient overall survival...

  19. DC Grids for Smart LED-Based Lighting: The EDISON Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Thielemans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the benefits and possible drawbacks of a DC-based lighting infrastructure for powering Light Emitting Diode (LED-lamps. It also evaluates the efforts needed for integrating the so called smart lighting and other sensor/actuator based control systems, and compares existing and emerging solutions. It reviews and discusses published work in this field with special focus on the intelligent DC-based infrastructure named EDISON that is primarily dedicated to lighting, but is applicable to building automation in general. The EDISON “PowerLAN” consists of a DC-based infrastructure that offers telecommunication abilities and can be applied to lighting retrofitting scenarios for buildings. Its infrastructure allows simple and efficient powering of DC-oriented devices like LED lamps, sensors and microcontrollers, while offering a wired communication channel. This paper motivates the design choices for organizing DC lighting grids and their associated communication possibilities. It also shows how the EDISON based smart lighting solution is evolving today to include new communication technologies and to further integrate other parts of building management solutions through the OneM2M (Machine to Machine service bus.

  20. The health risks associated with energy efficient fluorescent, LEDs, and artificial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Allen

    2014-09-01

    With the phasing out of incandescent lamps in many countries, the introduction of new LED based light sources and luminaries sometimes raise the question of whether the spectral characteristics of the LED and other energy savings Fluorescent lights including the popular CFLs are suitable to replace the traditional incandescent lamps. These concerns are sometimes raised particularly for radiation emissions in the UV and Blue parts of the spectrum. This paper aims to address such concerns for the common `white light' sources typically used in household and other general lighting used in the work place. Recent studies have shown that women working the night shift have an increased probability of developing breast cancer. We like to report on the findings of many studies done by medical professionals, in particular the recent announcement of AMA in the US and many studies conducted in the UK, as well as the European community to increase public awareness on the long term health risks of the optical and opto-biological effects on the human health caused by artificial lighting.

  1. Full Spectrum Visible LED Light Activated Antibacterial System Realized by Optimized Cu2O Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaotong; Xue, Chaowen; Fang, Fang; Song, Xiangwei; Yu, Fen; Liu, Miaoxing; Wei, Zhipeng; Fang, Xuan; Zhao, Dongxu; Xin, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-04-06

    Assisted by three-dimensional printing technology, we proposed and demonstrated a full spectrum visible light activated antibacterial system by using a combination of 500 nm sized Cu2O crystals and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Further improved antibacterial ratios were achieved, for the first time, with pure Cu2O for both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria among all of the six different color LED lamps. For practical antibacterial applications, we revealed that the nonwoven fabric could act as excellent carrier for Cu2O crystals and provide impressive antibacterial performance. Furthermore, integrated with our self-developed app, the poly(ethylene terephthalate) film loaded with Cu2O crystals also showed significant antibacterial property, thus making it possible to be applied in field of touch screen. The present research not only provided a healthier alternative to traditional ultraviolet-based sterilization but also opened an auto-response manner to decrease the rate of microbial contamination on billions of touch screen devices.

  2. An electronic flash lamp system to replace the traditional explosively driven light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigman, William L.; Kihara, Ronald; Scarpetti, Raymond D.

    2003-07-01

    Electronic flash lamps are being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These lamps are intended to replace the traditional explosively driven Argon-gas filled light sources (Argon candles) that are currently used to provide illumination for high speed rotating mirror-framing cameras. At Livermore, we are developing an electronic flash lamp system that can match or exceed the light output of a traditional Argon candle. These systems utilize a Plasma Arc Lamp developed by PRISM Science Inc of Woburn, MA, USA. In the past, high-speed photography requiring explosively driven light sources were a one-time-only even that destroyed fixtures and optical alignment. The electronic flash lamp system, utilizing the Plasma ArC Lamp, will replace the explosively driven lighting systems and provide the capability to dry run experimental setups and repeat tests without damage to the experimental set-up. The electronic flash lamp system eliminates the problem of collateral damage to the experiment and does not add to the overall amount of explosives needed for single test. Since the Pulsed-Power driver is remotely located, only the flash lamp itself is destroyed when the explosive shot is fired. The flexible geometry of this light source also enables the user to create complex light patterns as well as photograph very large areas with a single lighting system. This electronic flash lamp system will provide an extremely bright, stable, and repeatable light source for rotating-mirror framing cameras operating at one million frames per second, using both black & white or color films. The design of the Pulsed-Power driver and the flash lamp, along with experimental data and results will be discussed.

  3. Full Length Amelogenin Binds to Cell Surface LAMP-1 on Tooth Root/Periodontium Associated Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Tompkins, Kevin; Garrigues, Jacques; Snead, Malcolm L.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Somerman, Martha J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) has been suggested to be a cell surface receptor for a specific amelogenin isoform, leucine-rich amelogenin peptide or LRAP. However, it is unclear if LAMP-1 is an amelogenin receptor for dental mesenchymal cells. The goal of this study was to determine if LAMP-1 serves as a cell surface binding site for full length amelogenin on tooth root/periodontium associated mesenchymal cells. Design Murine dental follicle cells and cementoblasts (OCCM-30) were cultured for 2 days followed by addition of full length recombinant mouse amelogenin, rp(H)M180. Dose-response (0 to 100 μg/ml) and time course (0 to 120 minutes) assays were performed to determine the optimal conditions for live cell surface binding using immuno-fluorescent microscopy. A competitive binding assay was performed to determine binding specificity by adding Emdogain (1 mg/ml) to the media. An antibody against LAMP-1 was used to detect the location of LAMP-1 on the cell surface and the pattern was compared to cell surface bound amelogenin. Both amelogenin and cell surface LAMP-1 were immuno-co-localized to compare the amount and distribution pattern. Results Maximum surface binding was achieved with 50 μg/ml of rp(H)M180 for 120 minutes. This binding was specific as demonstrated by competitive inhibition (79% lower) with the addition of Emdogain. The binding pattern for rp(H)M180 was similar to the distribution of surface LAMP-1 on dental follicle cells and cementoblasts. The high co-localization coefficient (0.92) for rp(H)M180 and LAMP-1 supports rp(H)M180 binding to cell surface LAMP-1. Conclusions The data from this study suggest that LAMP-1 can serve as a cell surface binding site for amelogenin on dental follicle cells and cementoblasts. PMID:20382373

  4. A straightforward wet-chemistry method for the determination of solid and gaseous mercury fractions in Backlight Cold Cathode Fluorescence Lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figi, Renato; Nagel, Oliver; Hagendorfer, Harald

    2012-10-15

    Backlight Cold Cathode Fluorescence Lamps (B-CCFLs) are already applied in many electronic consumer products such as LCD screens, flat screen TVs, and laptop monitors. In consequence, an increase of such products entering the waste streams can be expected in the near future. As a result of the mercury (Hg) employed in such lamps, the development of recycling techniques to create a best practical environmental option for appropriate end-of-life strategies are necessary. For this purpose the knowledge about speciation in terms of solid and gaseous state of Hg in such lamps is inevitable. However, analytical techniques to discriminate solid and gaseous Hg require a special setup, not available in most routine laboratories. Thus a straightforward and cost efficient analytical technique is of need. In this work we describe sample preparation procedures and analysis techniques, which only require equipment already available in most routine laboratories. The volatile fraction is extracted with a KMnO(4) solution utilizing a novel approach, taking the advantage that the B-CCFL glass tubes have a negative pressure. Thus the extraction solution is directly sucked into the tube where the volatile Hg-fraction is immediately extracted. Subsequently, the solid fraction is dissolved via microwave assisted pressure acid digestion after cryo-milling. Analysis for both fractions took place employing a cold vapor atomic absorption system. To prove the new method is fit for purpose, spiking experiments and analysis of reference materials (when available) was performed with recoveries being between 90% and 110%. First results obtained for a stack of lamps from an used LCD-TV display reveal that solid Hg fractions in all lamps show a variation of 20% between samples whereas the gaseous Hg content can vary up to 600%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Growing lettuce under multispectral light-emitting diodes lamps with adjustable light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diodes (LEDs technology offers vast possibilities in plant lighting due to its ability to mix different light frequencies, high energy use efficiency and low heat production combined to long lifespan. In particular, the combined effect of the Blue:Red (B:R ratio and other frequencies in the central part of the PAR spectrum (CGA, i.e. cyan, green and amber may be very important, though literature information is scarce. In this paper, the effects of six light spectra from LED technology were tested, i.e.: i B:R=0.82 (i.e. similar to sunlight with CGA (treatment T0; ii B:R=0.82 without CGA (T1; iii red prevalence (B:R=0.25 without CGA (T2; iv blue prevalence (B:R=4 without CGA (T3; v red prevalence with CGA (T4; and vi blue prevalence with CGA (T5. The experiment was carried out in a walk-in climatic chamber with controlled temperature and relative humidity and an incident PAR photon flux density (PFD of 300 μmol m–2 s–1 (14/10 light/dark photoperiod, generated by multispectral LED lamps with adjustable light intensity. Smooth leaved lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Gentilina was used as the test plant and biomass yield (DW, g m–2, LAI, soil coverage proportion (SC%, energy-biomass conversion efficiency (E-BCE, kWh g–1 and radiation use efficiency (RUE, g mol–1 photons were determined. Treatments with red predominance (T2 and T4 showed the highest SC% rates, while those with blue predominance (T3 and T5 showed the lowest. Light spectrum also affected leaf size (i.e. mean leaf area. The highest DW and RUE were observed in T2 and T4, followed by T0, while biomass in T3 and T5 was significantly lower (similar to T1. LAI values were generally high, but treatments with blue predominance showed the lowest LAI values (both with or without CGA. The introduction of intermediate wavelengths (green, cyan and amber did not bring about significant improvement in DW or RUE, but resulted in reduced energy-biomass conversion efficiency

  6. An engineering method to estimate the junction temperatures of light-emitting diodes in multiple LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xing; Hu, Run; Luo, Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring the junction temperature of light emitting diode (LED) is essential for performance evaluation. But it is hard to get in the multiple LED applications. In this paper, an engineering method is presented to estimate the junction temperatures of LEDs in multiple LED applications. This method is mainly based on an analytical model, and it can be easily applied with some simple measurements. Simulations and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the method, and the deviations among the results obtained by the present method with those by simulation as well as experiments are less than 2% and 3%, respectively. In the final part of this study, the engineering method was used to analyze the thermal resistances of a street lamp. The material of lead frame was found to affect the system thermal resistance mostly, and the choice of solder material strongly depended on the material of the lead frame.

  7. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities...... in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding....

  8. Design of Solar Street Lamp Control System Based on MPPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengying

    This paper proposes a new solar street lamp control system which is composed of photovoltaic cell, controller, battery and load. In this system controller as the key part applies the microchip to achieve many functions. According to the nonlinear output characteristics of solar cell and the influence of environment, it uses the perturbation and observation (P&O) method to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and promotes the efficiency. In order to prolong the battery life the pulse width modulation (PWM) charge mode is selected to control the battery capacity and provent the battery from the state of over-charge and over-discharge. Meanwhile the function of temperature compensation, charge and discharge protection are set to improve the running safety and stability.

  9. The therapeutic lamp: treating small-animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Maja; Alcañiz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Bretón-López, Juana; Ortega, Mario; Brotons, Daniel Beneito

    2013-01-01

    We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it might develop into psychological disorders such as phobias, producing high anxiety and affecting everyday life. The Therapeutic Lamp is an interactive projection-based augmented-reality system for treating small-animal phobias. It aims to increase patient-therapist communication, promote more natural interaction, and improve the patient's engagement in the therapy.

  10. Fluorescence cell imaging and manipulation using conventional halogen lamp microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    Full Text Available Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped with a halogen lamp. This method allows us to observe previously invisible cell organelles, such as the metaphase spindle of oocytes, without causing phototoxicity. Cells remain healthy even after intensive manipulation under fluorescence observation, such as during bovine, porcine and mouse somatic cell cloning using nuclear transfer. This method does not require expensive epifluorescence equipment and so could help to reduce the science gap between developed and developing countries.

  11. Ultraviolet gas-discharge lamp on iodine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Kalyuzhnaya, A. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2010-08-01

    The emission characteristics of a pulsed-periodic UV radiation source are reported. The source excited by a pulsed-periodic capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine vapor, neon-iodine vapor, or krypton-iodine vapor mixtures radiates in the spectral range 200-450 nm. It is shown that most of the plasma radiation power concentrates in the integral line of the iodine atom (206.2 nm) and in the D'- A' band of the iodine molecule with a maximum at 342 nm. The radiation intensity of the lamp is optimized in accordance with the partial pressure of the inert gases. The discharge plasma parameters that are of interest for simulating the process kinetics and the output characteristics of an UV source based on molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and xenon iodide are calculated in helium-iodine vapor and xenon-iodine vapor mixtures.

  12. Reflective Optics Design for an LED High Beam Headlamp of Motorbikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a reflective optics design for an LED motorbike high beam lamp. We set the measuring screen as an elliptical zone and divide it into many small lattices and divide the spatial angle of the LED source into many parts and make relationships between them. According to the conservation law of energy and the Snell’s law, the reflector is generated by freeform optics design method. Then the optical system is simulated by Monte Carlo method using ASAP software. Light pattern of simulation could meet the standard. The high beam headlamp is finally fabricated and assembled into a physical object. Experiment results can fully comply with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE vehicle regulations R113 revision 2 (Class C.

  13. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  14. [Analysis of color gamut of LCD system based on LED backlight with area-controlling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Wen; Jin, Wei-Qi; Shao, Xi-Bin; Zhang, Li-Lei; Wan, Li-Fang

    2010-05-01

    Color gamut as a significant performance index for display system describes the color reproduction ability IN real scenes. Liquid crystal display (LCD) is the most popular technology in flat panel display. However, conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlight of LCD can not behave high color gamut compared with cathode ray tube (CRT). The common used method of color gamut measuring for LCD system is introduced at the beginning. According to the inner structure and display principle of LCD system, there are three major factors deciding LCD's color gamut: spectral properties of backlight, transmittance properties of color filters and performance of liquid crystal panel. Instead of conventional backlight CCFL, RGB-LED backlight is used for improving color reproduction of LCD display system. Due to the imperfect match between RGB-LED' s spectra and color filter's transmittance, the color filter would reduce the color gamut of LCD system more or less. Therefore, LCD system based on LED backlight with area-control technique is introduced which modifies backlight control signal according to the input signal After analyzing and calculating the spectra of LED backlight which passes through the color filters using method of colorimetry, the area sizes of color gamut triangles of RGB-LED backlight with area-control and RGB-LED backlight without area-control LCD systems are compared and the relationship between color gamut and varying contrast of liquid crystal panel is analyzed. It is indicated that LED backlight with area-control technique can avoid color saturation dropping and have little effects on the contrast variation of liquid crystal panel. In other words, LED backlight with area-control technique relaxes the requirements of both color filter performance and liquid crystal panel. Thus, it is of importance to improve the color gamut of the current LCD system with area-control LED backlight.

  15. Peer-led and professional-led group interventions for people with co-occurring disorders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaveshi, Luljeta; Balachandra, Krishna; Subramanian, Priya; Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    This pilot study evaluated the experience of people with co-occurring disorders (mental illness and addiction) in relation to peer-led and professional-led group interventions. The study used a qualitative (phenomenological) approach to evaluate the experience of a convenience sample of 6 individuals with co-occurring disorders who participated in up to 8 sessions each of both peer-led and professional-led group interventions (with a similar rate of attendance in both groups). The semi-structured interview data were coded and thematically analyzed. We found 5 themes within and across the 2 interventions. In both groups, participants experienced a positive environment and personal growth, and learned, albeit different things. They were more comfortable in the peer-led group and acquired more knowledge and skills in the professional-led group. Offering both peer-led and professional-led group interventions to people with co-occurring disorders may be better than offering either alone.

  16. Research on thermal characteristics of heat pipes for led lightning devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozovoi M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New energy-saving technologies for lighting is a promising trend in lighting technology. To this end, during the recent decade, have been actively developed and implemented lighting units based on LED modules. Reliability of such devices is largely dependent on the ensuring of cooling of the LEDs. Heat pipes are being used with ever increasing frequency for increasing an efficiency of cooling of powerful LEDs within a lightening device. Results of experimental modeling of thermal characteristics of two aluminum heat pipes with grooved capillary structure and ammonia used as a heat transfer agent, designed for application as a heat transfer elements in designs of powerful LED lightening device with forced air cooling are presented in this paper. It is shown that for the heat flux range of 50 to 100 W and for incident flow speed in the range of 0.8 to 2.1 m/s the temperature in the heating zone of the heat pipe falls into the range of 31.0 to 52.5 °C. In this case the temperature difference along the heat pipe is between 0.9…1.7 °C, when a minimal value of the fed heat flux is 50 W, and 1.7…3.1°C, when a maximum value of the heat flux is 100 W. The value of heat transfer resistance of the heat pipes was in the range of 0.012 to 0.044 °C/W. The key factors influencing the thermal characteristics of the heat pipes are: the value of the fed heat flux, the speed of cooling air flux, heat pipe inclination angle with respect to the horizon. By using five such heat pipes within the powerful LED lightning device it is possible to achieve an elimination of the total heat flux from LED modules up to 500 W. At an efficiency factor of LEDs of about 75% this is equivalent to intake power 665 W. Taking into account that luminous efficiency of modern LEDs is about 10 times as high as those of incandescent lamps, proposed lightning device will produce a luminous flux which is equivalent to the luminous flux of a lightening device with incandescent lamps

  17. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting at the I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, MN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-08-31

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology conducted in 2009 at the recently reconstructed I-35W bridge in Minneapolis, MN. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Technology Demonstration Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT), Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), and BetaLED™ (a division of Ruud Lighting). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. DOE has implemented a three-year evaluation of the LED luminaires in this installation in order to develop new longitudinal field data on LED performance in a challenging, real-world environment. This document provides information through the initial phase of the I-35W bridge project, up to and including the opening of the bridge to the public and the initial feedback received on the LED lighting installation from bridge users. Initial findings of the evaluation are favorable, with minimum energy savings level of 13% for the LED installation relative to the simulated base case using 250W high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures. The LEDs had an average illuminance level of 0.91 foot candles compared to 1.29 fc for the HPS lamps. The LED luminaires cost $38,000 more than HPS lamps, yielding a lengthy payback period, however the bridge contractor had offered to include the LED luminaires as part of the construction package at no additional cost. One potentially significant benefit of the LEDs in this installation is avoiding rolling lane closures on the heavily-traveled interstate bridge for the purpose of relamping the HPS fixtures. Rolling lane closures involve multiple crew members and various maintenance and safety vehicles, diversion of traffic, as well as related administrative tasks (e.g., approvals, scheduling, etc.). Mn/DOT records show an average cost of

  18. The Effect of Operating Lamps on the Protected Area of a Unidirectional Down Flow (UDF) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversari, A A L; Bottenheft, C; Louman, R; van Heumen, S P M; Böggemann, J

    2017-04-01

    Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a skirt, different lamps, and the position of the lamp on the protected area. The concentration of airborne particles was measured under different circumstances, in order to determine the size and quality of the protected area. This entrainment/segregation test is based on the deliberate and controlled emission of particles outside the zone that is protected. The degree of protection (DP) at the center of the protected area was higher for the case with the skirt. This skirt stimulates more down flow and prevents the early entry of particles into the protected area. It can also be concluded that Lamp Y, due to its open shape, has the most positive effect on the DP at the center. It has also been shown that the position of the lamp has an effect on the protected area.

  19. Preliminary study on the effectiveness of mosquito repelling lamp, E Da.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C D; Azahari, A H; Saadiyah, I; Lee, H L

    2007-12-01

    Photon (light) technology has already been widely used in make-up, medical treatment etc, but repelling mosquitoes by photon technology is an innovation. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a mosquito repelling lamp, E Da under indoor conditions. E Da lamp is a lamp coated with yellow luminous pigment on the inner part of the glass bulb of the lamp which is used to screen out the UV radiation, and when it is turned on, the yellow illuminating wavelength will drive the mosquitoes away. The tests were conducted inside 2 cabins measuring 8' X 8' X 20'. The mosquito population was estimated by using the Bare Leg Catch (BLC) techniques. For treated test, E Da lamp was placed indoor 2 - 3 meters away from a human bait. Another cabin without the lamp was used as untreated control. BLC was conducted in both sites simultaneously. The mosquitoes collected in this study were solely those of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. There was an 91.34% reduction of Cx. quinquefasciatus population in the treated test compared with the untreated cabin during the 4 hours catches (p lamp used in this study exerted repellency effect against the mosquitoes especially Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  20. LAMP-2 is required for incorporating syntaxin-17 into autophagosomes and for their fusion with lysosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Hubert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process used for removing surplus and damaged proteins and organelles from the cytoplasm. The unwanted material is incorporated into autophagosomes that eventually fuse with lysosomes, leading to the degradation of their cargo. The fusion event is mediated by the interaction between the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17 on autophagosomes and the R-SNARE VAMP8 on lysosomes. Cells deficient in lysosome membrane-associated protein-2 (LAMP-2 have increased numbers of autophagosomes but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. By transfecting LAMP-2-deficient and LAMP-1/2­-double-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs with a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 we observed a failure of fusion between the autophagosomes and the lysosomes that could be rescued by complementation with LAMP-2A. Although we observed no change in expression and localization of VAMP8, its interacting partner STX17 was absent from autophagosomes of LAMP-2-deficient cells. Thus, LAMP-2 is essential for STX17 expression by the autophagosomes and this absence is sufficient to explain their failure to fuse with lysosomes. The results have clear implications for situations associated with a reduction of LAMP-2 expression.

  1. Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing...... an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults...... with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can...

  2. Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LED's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2013-09-17

    Synopsis: Light loss factors are used to help lighting systems meet quantitative design criteria throughout the life of the installation, but they also influence energy use. As the light sources currently being specified continue to evolve, it is necessary to reevaluate the methods used in calculating light loss factors, as well as carefully consider the consequences of different product performance attributes. Because of the unique operating characteristics of LEDs and lack of a comprehensive lifetime rating—as well as the problematic relationship between lifetime and lumen maintenance—determining an appropriate lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) factor for LED products is difficult. As a result, a unique solution has been advocated: when quantity of light is an important design consideration, the IES recommends using an LLD of not greater than 0.70. This method deviates from the typical practice for conventional sources of using the ratio of mean to initial lumen output, and can misrepresent actual performance, increase energy use, and inhibit comparisons between products. This paper discusses the complications related to LLD and LEDs, compares the performance of conventional and LED products, and examines alternatives to a maximum LLD of 0.70 for LEDs.

  3. Application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in cultivation of phototrophic microalgae: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glemser, M; Heining, M; Schmidt, J; Becker, A; Garbe, D; Buchholz, R; Brück, T

    2016-02-01

    The quality and regulation of the incident light is crucial in microalgae cultivation processes. Depending on wavelength, spectrum, and intensity, growth characteristics and biochemical composition of these organisms vary. With mainly fluorescent lamps (FL) used previously for illumination, such variabilities could not be studied adequately due to their broad emission spectrum. In contrast, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit a very narrow wavelength band and enable flexible photobioreactor designs due to their small size. This review provides a condensed overview on the application of LEDs in microalgal cultivation processes. It summarizes the current availability and applicability of LED technologies as an illumination source for research-focused photobioreactor systems. A particular focus is the use of narrow-wavelength LEDs to address fundamental as well as applied aspects of light color on algae biomass and value-added compound formation. In this respect, the application of internal and external illumination systems is reviewed together with trends in the industrial use of LED systems to intensify algae process efficiency.

  4. Three-chip LED illumination system for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bin; Wang, Liqiang; Duan, Huilong

    2010-11-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) bring great flexibility in color choice and high luminous efficacy design for biomedical illumination. Based on the state-of-the-art LED chips, a three-chip LED illumination system was developed specially for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery. White light is produced by mixing three specific wavelengths of amber red, true green and blue, and then coupled into a fiber-optic light guide with 2mm diameter. The whole device has a compact size of 145mm × 92mm × 84 mm which is more suitable than a conventional xenon lamp source for portable endoscopes. The illuminance and color characteristic of the three-chip model were analyzed, compared to those of traditional light source. A maximum illuminance of 1960 lux was obtained at the distance of 100 mm, with the average current of 450 mA of the LEDs. Additionally, a simulation environment had been set up to find out the performance of the endo-illuminator in the specific circumstance, which was closer distance and crawl space. Experiments showed that images taken under the three-chip LED illumination had better contrast and saturation. With the temperature of 31.5 degrees Celsius at the end of the fiber bundle, the endo-illuminator is also a cold light source.

  5. Study and Implementation of White Power-LED Based Indoor Lighting Application for the Healthcare Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, A.; Ganguly, R.

    With the current technological growth in the field of device fabrication, white power-LED's are available for solid state lighting applications. This is a paradigm shift from electrical lighting to electronic lighting. The implemented systems are showing some promise by saving a considerable amount of energy as well as providing a good and acceptable illumination level. However, the `useful life' of such devices is an important parameter. If the proper device is not chosen, the desired reliability and performance will not be obtained. In the present work, different parameters associated with reliability of such LED's are studied. Four different varieties of LED's are put to test the `useful life' as per IESNA LM 79 standard. From the results obtained, the proper LED is chosen for further application. Subsequently, lighting design is done for a hospital waiting room (indoor application) with 24 × 7 lighting requirements for replacement of existing CFLs there. The calculations show that although the initial cost is higher for LED based lighting, yet the savings on energy and replacement of the lamp results in a payback time of less than a year.

  6. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  7. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of a peer-led education intervention to improve the patient safety attitudes of junior pharmacy students: a cross-sectional study using a latent growth curve modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2015-12-08

    Despite the recognition that educating healthcare students in patient safety is essential, changing already full curricula can be challenging. Furthermore, institutions may lack the capacity and capability to deliver patient safety education, particularly from the start of professional practice studies. Using senior students as peer educators to deliver practice-based education can potentially overcome some of the contextual barriers in training junior students. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led patient safety education programme for junior pharmacy students. A repeat cross-sectional design utilising a previously validated patient safety attitudinal survey was used to evaluate attitudes prior to, immediately after and 1 month after the delivery of a patient safety education programme. Latent growth curve (LGC) modelling was used to evaluate the change in attitudes of first-year students using second-year students as a comparator group. Undergraduate university students in Sydney, Australia. 175 first-year and 140 second-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy programme at the University of Sydney. An introductory patient safety programme was implemented into the first-year Bachelor of Pharmacy curriculum at the University of Sydney. The programme covered introductory patient safety topics including teamwork, communication skills, systems thinking and open disclosure. The programme consisted of 2 lectures, delivered by a senior academic, and a workshop delivered by trained final-year pharmacy students. A full LGC model was constructed including the intervention as a non-time-dependent predictor of change (χ(2) (51)=164.070, root mean square error of approximation=0.084, comparative fit index=0.913, standardised root mean square=0.056). First-year students' attitudes significantly improved as a result of the intervention, particularly in relation to internalising errors (p=0.010), questioning behaviours (pimprove

  9. Fokusgruppeinterview som led i en evalueringsproces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Mølgaard, Hanna; Harrit, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Teoretiske begrundelser og perspektiver, responsiv-konstruktivistisk evaluering, fokusgruppeinterview som led i BIKVAmodellen, eksempler, vurdering og perspektivering......Teoretiske begrundelser og perspektiver, responsiv-konstruktivistisk evaluering, fokusgruppeinterview som led i BIKVAmodellen, eksempler, vurdering og perspektivering...

  10. Evaluation of LED vehicular and pedestrian modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute : of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules ...

  11. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...

  12. Smartphone-Imaged HIV-1 Reverse-Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP on a Chip from Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Damhorst

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral load measurements are an essential tool for the long-term clinical care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals. The gold standards in viral load instrumentation, however, are still too limited by their size, cost, and sophisticated operation for these measurements to be ubiquitous in remote settings with poor healthcare infrastructure, including parts of the world that are disproportionately affected by HIV infection. The challenge of developing a point-of-care platform capable of making viral load more accessible has been frequently approached but no solution has yet emerged that meets the practical requirements of low cost, portability, and ease-of-use. In this paper, we perform reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP on minimally processed HIV-spiked whole blood samples with a microfluidic and silicon microchip platform, and perform fluorescence measurements with a consumer smartphone. Our integrated assay shows amplification from as few as three viruses in a ~ 60 nL RT-LAMP droplet, corresponding to a whole blood concentration of 670 viruses per μL of whole blood. The technology contains greater power in a digital RT-LAMP approach that could be scaled up for the determination of viral load from a finger prick of blood in the clinical care of HIV-positive individuals. We demonstrate that all aspects of this viral load approach, from a drop of blood to imaging the RT-LAMP reaction, are compatible with lab-on-a-chip components and mobile instrumentation.

  13. Approaches to Sex Education: Peer-Led or Teacher-Led?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Judith; Strange, Vicki; Allen, Elizabeth; Copas, Andrew; Johnson, Anne; Bonell, Chris; Babiker, Abdel; Oakley, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Teenage pregnancies are fraught with problems. Children born to teenage mothers are often underweight, which can affect their long-term health; young mothers have a high risk of poor mental health after the birth; and teenage parents and their children are at increased risk of living in poverty. Little wonder, then, that faced with one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Western Europe, the Department of Health in England launched a national Teenage Pregnanc...

  14. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...... based luminaries. The LED based luminaries are compared to traditional HPS luminaries; in terms of energy efficiency with regard to the photosynthetic photon flux, and the LED luminaries were found to be more effective than the HPS luminaries...

  15. Research on effect of China’s energy saving policy of phase-out incandescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin; Liang, Xiuying; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    China’s energy saving policy of phase-out of incandescent lamps have been introduced and a comprehensive evaluation framework has been put forward. The impact of the implementation of the policy on manufacturing enterprises and places of sale, lighting industry and domestic and foreign markets, as well as the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction have been analyzed from micro, meso and macro layers. The research results show that, under the guidance of the policy, the orderly product mix transformation has been seen in incandescent lamp manufacturing enterprises, incandescent lamps gradually exit the Chinese mainstream lighting product market, and the energy conservation and emission reduction effect is remarkable.

  16. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis E.; Hackel, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  17. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry

  18. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  19. Ultraviolet radiation emitted by lamps, TVs, tablets and computers: are there risks for the population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Malvestiti, Andrey Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The frequent human exposure to various types of indoor lamps, as well as other light sources (television monitors, tablets and computers), raises a question: are there risks for the population? In the present study the emission of UVA and UVB radiation by lamps and screens of electronic devices were measured in order to determine the safe distance between the emitting source and the individual. We concluded that the lamps and electronic devices do not emit ultraviolet radiation; so they pose no health risk for the population.

  20. Dystrophin deficiency leads to disturbance of LAMP1-vesicle-associated protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duguez, S.; Duddy, W.; Johnston, H.

    2013-01-01

    (SILAC), finding marked enrichment of vesicular markers in the mdx secretome. These included the lysosomal-associated membrane protein, LAMP1, that co-localized in vesicles with an over-secreted cytoskeletal protein, myosin light chain 1. These LAMP1/MLC1-3-positive vesicles accumulated in the cytosol...... of mdx myotubes and were secreted into the culture medium in a range of abnormal densities. Restitution of dystrophin expression, by exon skipping, to some 30 % of the control value, partially normalized the secretome profile and the excess LAMP1 accumulation. Together, our results suggest that a lack...