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Sample records for led community based

  1. Community-based peer-led diabetes self-management: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L; Villa, Frank J; Armas, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a community-based diabetes self-management program comparing treatment participants to a randomized usual-care control group at 6 months. A total of 345 adults with type 2 diabetes but no criteria for high A1C were randomized to a usual-care control group or 6-week community-based, peer-led diabetes self-management program (DSMP). Randomized participants were compared at 6 months. The DSMP intervention participants were followed for an additional 6 months (12 months total). A1C and body mass index were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. All other data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. At 6 months, DSMP participants did not demonstrate improvements in A1C as compared with controls. Baseline A1C was much lower than in similar trials. Participants did have significant improvements in depression, symptoms of hypoglycemia, communication with physicians, healthy eating, and reading food labels (P < .01). They also had significant improvements in patient activation and self-efficacy. At 12 months, DSMP intervention participants continued to demonstrate improvements in depression, communication with physicians, healthy eating, patient activation, and self-efficacy (P < .01). There were no significant changes in utilization measures. These findings suggest that people with diabetes without elevated A1C can benefit from a community-based, peer-led diabetes program. Given the large number of people with diabetes and lack of low-cost diabetes education, the DSMP deserves consideration for implementation.

  2. A community led tobacco free city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najith Duminda Galmangoda Guruge

    2018-03-01

    Community led initiatives based on Health Promotion approach are effective in establishing 'Tobacco-free' cities. The community empowerment processes linked with such approaches can reduce the exposure to passive smoking, generating “smoke free cities” as well. Continuous vigilance at ground level and supportive actions from the national level are needed to sustain the results and enhance long term outcomes.

  3. Factors associated with the implementation of community-based peer-led health promotion programs: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthios-Guilledroit, Agathe; Richard, Lucie; Filiatrault, Johanne

    2018-06-01

    Peer education is growing in popularity as a useful health promotion strategy. However, optimal conditions for implementing peer-led health promotion programs (HPPs) remain unclear. This scoping review aimed to describe factors that can influence implementation of peer-led HPPs targeting adult populations. Five databases were searched using the keywords "health promotion/prevention", "implementation", "peers", and related terms. Studies were included if they reported at least one factor associated with the implementation of community-based peer-led HPPs. Fifty-five studies were selected for the analysis. The method known as "best fit framework synthesis" was used to analyze the factors identified in the selected papers. Many factors included in existing implementation conceptual frameworks were deemed applicable to peer-led HPPs. However, other factors related to individuals, programs, and implementation context also emerged from the analysis. Based on this synthesis, an adapted theoretical framework was elaborated, grounded in a complex adaptive system perspective and specifying potential mechanisms through which factors may influence implementation of community-based peer-led HPPs. Further research is needed to test the theoretical framework against empirical data. Findings from this scoping review increase our knowledge of the optimal conditions for implementing peer-led HPPs and thereby maximizing the benefits of such programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthcare students' experiences of an interprofessional, student-led neuro-rehabilitation community-based clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Louise; Hutchinson, Laura; Theodoros, Deborah; Williams, Katrina; Copley, Anna; Fagan, Amy; Desha, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Student-led clinics are becoming more prominent as educators seek alternate models of clinical education for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate healthcare students' experiences of an interprofessional student-led clinic for clients with neurological conditions. Thirteen students representing occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech pathology were recruited for the study. A sequential mixed-methods evaluation was employed and the results from the Interprofessional Education Scale and focus group revealed that the students experienced positive perceptions of working collaboratively with other professions, forming good relationships with others, as well as an increased respect for the roles of other professions. The findings suggest that providing a capstone opportunity, where students can work as part of an interprofessional team with a real client, in a format they may come across in future clinical practice, may be beneficial in providing them with essential interprofessional skills as new graduate health professionals.

  5. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  6. Validating Community-Led Forest Biomass Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Michelle; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, Will; Bird, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The lack of capacity to monitor forest carbon stocks in developing countries is undermining global efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Involving local people in monitoring forest carbon stocks could potentially address this capacity gap. This study conducts a complete expert remeasurement of community-led biomass inventories in remote tropical forests of Papua New Guinea. By fully remeasuring and isolating the effects of 4,481 field measurements, we demonstrate that programmes employing local people (non-experts) can produce forest monitoring data as reliable as those produced by scientists (experts). Overall, non-experts reported lower biomass estimates by an average of 9.1%, equivalent to 55.2 fewer tonnes of biomass ha(-1), which could have important financial implications for communities. However, there were no significant differences between forest biomass estimates of expert and non-expert, nor were there significant differences in some of the components used to calculate these estimates, such as tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree counts and plot surface area, but were significant differences between tree heights. At the landscape level, the greatest biomass discrepancies resulted from height measurements (41%) and, unexpectedly, a few large missing trees contributing to a third of the overall discrepancies. We show that 85% of the biomass discrepancies at the tree level were caused by measurement taken on large trees (DBH ≥50 cm), even though they consisted of only 14% of the stems. We demonstrate that programmes that engage local people can provide high-quality forest carbon data that could help overcome barriers to reducing forest carbon emissions in developing countries. Nonetheless, community-based monitoring programmes should prioritise reducing errors in the field that lead to the most important discrepancies, notably; overcoming challenges to accurately measure large trees.

  7. Engaging Key Stakeholders in Climate Change: A Community-Based Project for Youth-Led Participatory Climate Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Carlie D.

    Few studies have examined how youth think about, and take action on climate change and far fewer have sought to facilitate their engagement using participatory methods. This dissertation evaluated the impacts of Science, Camera, Action! (SCA), a novel after-school program that combined climate change education with participatory action through photovoice. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) Evaluate the impacts of SCA on youth participants' climate change knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; (2) Examine how SCA participation served to empower youth agency; and (3) Explore SCA's influence on youths' science engagement. Participants were 55 youths (ages 10 to 12) across three Boys and Girls Club sites in Northern Colorado. SCA's Science component used interactive activities to demonstrate the interrelationships between Earth's changing climate, ecosystems, and sustainable actions within communities. Photovoice, SCA's Camera component, was used to explore youths' climate change perspectives and to identify opportunities for their active engagement. Finally, SCA's Action component aimed to cultivate youth potential as agents of change in their families and communities through the development and implementation of youth-led action projects. Action projects included local policy advocacy, a tree-planting campaign, a photo gallery opening, development of a website, and the establishment of a Boys and Girls Club community garden. To evaluate SCA impacts, a combination of survey and focus group methods were used. Following the program, youth demonstrated increased knowledge of the scientific and social dimensions of the causes and consequences of climate change, as well as its solutions through human action. Though participants expressed a mix of positive (e.g., hope) and negative (e.g., sadness) emotions about climate change, they left the program with an increased sense of respect for nature, an enhanced sense of environmental responsibility, and a greater sense

  8. ‘We are a community [but] that takes a certain amount of energy’: Exploring shared visions, social action, and resilience in place-based community-led energy initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhill, K.A.; Shirani, F.; Butler, C.; Henwood, K.L.; Groves, C.; Pidgeon, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We engage with conceptual characteristics of 3 community-led energy case studies. • We examine data from interviews to explore the issues community energy groups face. • Shared visions, social action and social resilience are important to community energy. • Creating and maintaining shared visions, social action and social resilience is extremely challenging. - Abstract: In UK energy policy, community-led energy initiatives are increasingly being imbued with transformative power to facilitate low carbon transitions. The ways that such expectations for communities are manifesting in practice remains, however, relatively poorly understood. In particular, key conceptual developments in unpacking what constitutes ‘community’ that highlight the significance of ‘place’ along with important characteristics, such as shared visions, collective social action, and resilience, have yet to be comprehensively explored in the context of community-led energy initiatives. This paper uses an interpretive stance to engage with these conceptual ideas about community and provides insights into the nature of community and its meaning for developing energy-related initiatives and realising the wider goals of energy policy. The paper draws on data from in-depth qualitative, longitudinal interviews undertaken in two residential communities and one purely workplace-based community, which are engaged in community energy initiatives. We argue that there are difficulties and ambiguities in creating shared visions, achieving social action, and developing resilience that are related to the specificities of community in place, but that all three characteristics are likely to be important for the making of sustainable places

  9. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...

  10. Are community-based nurse-led self-management support interventions effective in chronic patients? Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Massimi

    Full Text Available The expansion of primary care and community-based service delivery systems is intended to meet emerging needs, reduce the costs of hospital-based ambulatory care and prevent avoidable hospital use by the provision of more appropriate care. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of self-management in the complex process of care of patient with long-term conditions. Several studies have determined that nurses, among the health professionals, are more recommended to promote health and deliver preventive programs within the primary care context. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy of the nurse-led self-management support versus usual care evaluating patient outcomes in chronic care community programs. Systematic review was carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science including RCTs of nurse-led self-management support interventions performed to improve observer reported outcomes (OROs and patients reported outcomes (PROs, with any method of communication exchange or education in a community setting on patients >18 years of age with a diagnosis of chronic diseases or multi-morbidity. Of the 7,279 papers initially retrieved, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses on systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure reduction (10 studies-3,881 patients and HbA1c reduction (7 studies-2,669 patients were carried-out. The pooled MD were: SBP -3.04 (95% CI -5.01--1.06, DBP -1.42 (95% CI -1.42--0.49 and HbA1c -0.15 (95% CI -0.32-0.01 in favor of the experimental groups. Meta-analyses of subgroups showed, among others, a statistically significant effect if the interventions were delivered to patients with diabetes (SBP or CVD (DBP, if the nurses were specifically trained, if the studies had a sample size higher than 200 patients and if the allocation concealment was not clearly defined. Effects on other OROs and PROs as well as quality of life remain inconclusive.

  11. Effective recruitment of minority populations through community-led strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Carol R; Brenner, Barbara L; Lachapelle, Susanne; Amara, Duna A; Arniella, Guedy

    2009-12-01

    Traditional research approaches frequently fail to yield representative numbers of people of color in research. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be an important strategy for partnering with and reaching populations that bear a greater burden of illness but have been historically difficult to engage. The Community Action Board, consisting of 20 East Harlem residents, leaders, and advocates, used CBPR to compare the effectiveness of various strategies in recruiting and enrolling adults with prediabetes into a peer-led, diabetes prevention intervention. The board created five recruitment strategies: recruiting through clinicians; recruiting at large public events such as farmers markets; organizing special local recruitment events; recruiting at local organizations; and recruiting through a partner-led approach, in which community partners developed and managed the recruitment efforts at their sites. In 3 months, 555 local adults were approached; 249 were appropriate candidates for further evaluation (overweight, nonpregnant, East Harlem residents without known diabetes); 179 consented and returned in a fasting state for 1/2 day of prediabetes testing; 99 had prediabetes and enrolled in a pilot randomized trial. The partner-led approach was highly successful, recruiting 68% of those enrolled. This strategy was also the most efficient; 34% of those approached through partners were ultimately enrolled, versus 0%-17% enrolled through the other four strategies. Participants were predominantly low-income, uninsured, undereducated, Spanish-speaking women. This CBPR approach highlights the value of partner-led recruitment to identify, reach out to, and motivate a vulnerable population into participation in research, using techniques that may be unfamiliar to researchers but are nevertheless rigorous and effective.

  12. Cardiovascular risk outcome and program evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a community-based, lay peer led program for people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Riddell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study demonstrated the increasing burden of diabetes and the challenge it poses to the health systems of all countries. The chronic and complex nature of diabetes requires active self-management by patients in addition to clinical management in order to achieve optimal glycaemic control and appropriate use of available clinical services. This study is an evaluation of a “real world” peer support program aimed at improving the control and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM in Australia. Methods The trial used a randomised cluster design with a peer support intervention and routine care control arms and 12-month follow up. Participants in both arms received a standardised session of self-management education at baseline. The intervention program comprised monthly community-based group meetings over 12 months led by trained peer supporters and active encouragement to use primary health care and other community resources and supports related to diabetes. Clinical, behavioural and other measures were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was the predicted 5 year cardiovascular disease risk using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Risk Equation at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included clinical measures, quality of life, measures of support, psychosocial functioning and lifestyle measures. Results Eleven of 12 planned groups were successfully implemented in the intervention arm. Both the usual care and the intervention arms demonstrated a small reduction in 5 year UKPDS risk and the mean values for biochemical and anthropometric outcomes were close to target at 12 months. There were some small positive changes in self-management behaviours. Conclusions The positive changes in self-management behaviours among intervention participants were not sufficient to reduce cardiovascular risk, possibly because approximately half of the study participants

  13. Utilization of the state led public private partnership program "Chiranjeevi Yojana" to promote facility births in Gujarat, India: a cross sectional community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Vora, Kranti Suresh; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney; Isaakidis, Petros; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Dholakia, Nishith B; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-15

    "Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY)", a state-led large-scale demand-side financing scheme (DSF) under public-private partnership to increase institutional delivery, has been implemented across Gujarat state, India since 2005. The scheme aims to provide free institutional childbirth services in accredited private health facilities to women from socially disadvantaged groups (eligible women). These services are paid for by the state to the private facility with the intention of service being free to the user. This community-based study estimates CY uptake among eligible women and explores factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. This was a community-based cross sectional survey of eligible women who gave birth between January and July 2013 in 142 selected villages of three districts in Gujarat. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistant to collect information on socio-demographic details, pregnancy details, details of childbirth and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses incurred. A multivariable inferential analysis was done to explore the factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. Out of 2,143 eligible women, 559 (26 %) gave birth under the CY program. A further 436(20 %) delivered at free public facilities, 713(33 %) at private facilities (OOP payment) and 435(20 %) at home. Eligible women who belonged to either scheduled tribe or poor [aOR = 3.1, 95 % CI:2.4 - 3.8] or having no formal education [aOR = 1.6, 95 % CI:1.1, 2.2] and who delivered by C-section [aOR = 2.1,95 % CI: 1.2, 3.8] had higher odds of not utilizing CY program. Of births at CY accredited facilities (n = 924), non-utilization was 40 % (n = 365) mostly because of lack of required official documentation that proved eligibility (72 % of eligible non-users). Women who utilized the CY program overall paid more than women who delivered in the free public facilities. Uptake of the CY among eligible women was low after almost a decade

  14. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    , modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed......This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits...

  15. Cost analysis of two community-based HIV testing service modalities led by a Non-Governmental Organization in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Beyers, Nulda; Burger, Ronelle

    2017-12-02

    In South Africa, the financing and sustainability of HIV services is a priority. Community-based HIV testing services (CB-HTS) play a vital role in diagnosis and linkage to HIV care for those least likely to utilise government health services. With insufficient estimates of the costs associated with CB-HTS provided by NGOs in South Africa, this cost analysis explored the cost to implement and provide services at two NGO-led CB-HTS modalities and calculated the costs associated with realizing key HIV outputs for each CB-HTS modality. The study took place in a peri-urban area where CB-HTS were provided from a stand-alone centre and mobile service. Using a service provider (NGO) perspective, all inputs were allocated by HTS modality with shared costs apportioned according to client volume or personnel time. We calculated the total cost of each HTS modality and the cost categories (personnel, capital and recurring goods/services) across each HTS modality. Costs were divided into seven pre-determined project components, used to examine cost drivers. HIV outputs were analysed for each HTS modality and the mean cost for each HIV output was calculated per HTS modality. The annual cost of the stand-alone and mobile modalities was $96,616 and $77,764 respectively, with personnel costs accounting for 54% of the total costs at the stand-alone. For project components, overheads and service provision made up the majority of the costs. The mean cost per person tested at stand-alone ($51) was higher than at the mobile ($25). Linkage to care cost at the stand-alone ($1039) was lower than the mobile ($2102). This study provides insight into the cost of an NGO led CB-HTS project providing HIV testing and linkage to care through two CB-HIV testing modalities. The study highlights; (1) the importance of including all applicable costs (including overheads) to ensure an accurate cost estimate that is representative of the full service implementation cost, (2) the direct link between test

  16. Mixed-method exploratory study of general practitioner and nurse perceptions of a new community based nurse-led heart failure service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Emma; Smith, Amanda; Angus, Neil; Menzies, Sue; Brulisauer, Franz; Leslie, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remains sub-optimal. Specialist CHF nurses are proven to improve care and reduce admission but developing such services, especially in remote areas, can be difficult. This study aimed: first, to assess the perceived acceptability and effectiveness of a new community based nurse-led heart failure service by general practitioners (GPs) in an area with a dispersed population; second, to assess the knowledge and learning needs of GPs; and third, to assess perceptions of the use of national guidelines and telehealth on heart failure management. The study was conducted in the Scottish Highlands, a large geographical area in the north of the UK which includes both rural and urban populations. The area has a total population of 240 000, approximately 60% of whom are within 1 hour travel time of the largest urban centre. A postal survey of all GPs (n = 260) and structured email survey of all CHF specialist nurses (n = 3) was performed. All responses were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, summarised and subjected to thematic analysis. Differences between GPs in 'rural', 'urban' or both 'urban & rural' was investigated using an F-test for continuous variables and a three-sample test for equality of proportions for nominal data. Questionnaires were returned from 83 GPs (32%) and all three CHF specialist nurses. In this sample there were only a few differences between GPs from 'rural', 'urban' and 'urban & rural'. There also appeared to be little difference in responses between those who had the experience of the CHF nurse service and those who had not. Overall, 32 GPs (39%) wished better, local access to echocardiography, while 63 (76%) wished access to testing for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Only 27 GPs (33%) referred all patients with CHF to hospital. A number of GPs stated that this was dependant on individual circumstances and the patient's ability to travel. The GPs were confident to initiate

  17. Video-based versus Medical Personnel-led Training for the Knowledge on Condom Use, Partner Notification and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Rural Communities in Thailand: A Randomized Comparison Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nut Kittipongphat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the knowledge regarding partner notification (PN, condom use (CU and sexually transmitted infections (STIs after video-based or medical personnel-led training. Methods: From December 2016 to January 2017, we conducted an opened-label randomized study in four communities (20 participants/ community in Bangsaphannoi district, Prachuabkirikhan province. In each community, the participants were randomly allocated into Group A (medical personnel-led training or Group B (video-based training. Both trainings covered similar contents which included knowledge about STIs (5 minutes; how to safely notify their partners (10 minutes and techniques of correct condom use (10 minutes. Participants’ knowledge was assessed by five one-best questions for each topic before and after the training. Comparison of scores within group and between groups was done by using Wilcoxon rank sum test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From 160 eligible participants, 148 could complete the study (74 in Group A and 74 in Group B. Between two groups, there was no difference of participants’ characteristics, including age, education, employment, sex debut, STIs and number of partners. Both training techniques significantly improved participants’ knowledge and there was no difference between them. The lowest median score and least improvement of knowledge were found in PN. Conclusion: At the community level, both video-based training and medical personnel-led training improve the knowledge on PN, CU and STIs with comparable results.

  18. Kampala manifesto: Building community-based One Health approaches to disease surveillance and response-The Ebola Legacy-Lessons from a peer-led capacity-building initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dickmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available International activities to respond to the Ebola crisis in West Africa were mainly developed and focussed around the biomedical paradigm of Western health systems. This approach was often insensitive to societal perception, attitude, and behavioural determinants and clashed with community-based health traditions, narratives, and roles, e.g., of community health workers. In this peer-led capacity-building initiative, these deficiencies were identified and analysed. Innovative, more locally focussed, community-based solutions were articulated. The new approaches described put local people at the centre of all preparedness, response, and recovery strategies. This paradigm shift reframed the role of communities from victims to active managers of their response and reacknowledged the strength of community-based One Health. We conclude that strategies should aim at empowering, not just engaging, communities. Communities can improve short-term crisis management and build longer-term resilience and capacities that are much needed in the current global health climate.The Ebola outbreak in West Africa, 2014-2016, was unprecedented in scale, extent, and duration. The international community was slow to step up its assistance in this global public health emergency and then faltered when its infection control management approaches clashed with West African realities [1]. Outbreak response evaluations have identified the need to better integrate social science intelligence [2], better collaborate with communities [3,4], more effectively draw on the strength of community health workers [5], and critically question the paradigm of Western health systems, which focus on imposing 'evidence-based' solutions that lack external validity in affected communities; i.e., they too often recommend actions that are inconsistent with, ignore, or violate traditional behaviours [6]. While there appears to be a consensus now on what needs to be done, how to achieve these goals

  19. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  20. Projecting LED product life based on application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei; Mou, Xi; Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Eshwarage, Oshadhi V. Madihe

    2016-09-01

    LED products have started to displace traditional light sources in many lighting applications. One of the commonly claimed benefits for LED lighting products is their long useful lifetime in applications. Today there are many replacement lamp products using LEDs in the marketplace. Typically, lifetime claims of these replacement lamps are in the 25,000-hour range. According to current industry practice, the time for the LED light output to reach the 70% value is estimated according to IESNA LM-80 and TM-21 procedures and the resulting value is reported as the whole system life. LED products generally experience different thermal environments and switching (on-off cycling) patterns when used in applications. Current industry test methods often do not produce accurate lifetime estimates for LED systems because only one component of the system, namely the LED, is tested under a continuous-on burning condition without switching on and off, and because they estimate for only one failure type, lumen depreciation. The objective of the study presented in this manuscript was to develop a test method that could help predict LED system life in any application by testing the whole LED system, including on-off power cycling with sufficient dwell time, and considering both failure types, catastrophic and parametric. The study results showed for the LED A-lamps tested in this study, both failure types, catastrophic and parametric, exist. The on-off cycling encourages catastrophic failure, and maximum operating temperature influences the lumen depreciation rate and parametric failure time. It was also clear that LED system life is negatively affected by on-off switching, contrary to commonly held belief. In addition, the study results showed that most of the LED systems failed catastrophically much ahead of the LED light output reaching the 70% value. This emphasizes the fact that life testing of LED systems must consider catastrophic failure in addition to lumen depreciation, and

  1. Using community participation to assess acceptability of "Contra Caries", a theory-based, promotora-led oral health education program for rural Latino parents: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S; Rios, Sarah M; Pantoja Guzman, Estela; Barker, Judith C

    2015-09-03

    Latino children experience more prevalent and severe tooth decay than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children. Few theory-based, evaluated and culturally appropriate interventions target parents of this vulnerable population. To fill this gap, the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, a theory-based, promotora-led education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged 1-5 years, was developed. This article describes qualitative findings of the acceptability of curriculum content and activities, presents the process of refinement of the curriculum through engaging the target population and promotoras, and presents results from the evaluation assessing the acceptability of the curriculum once implemented. Focus groups were conducted with low-income Spanish-speaking parents of children 1-5 years living in a city in an agricultural area of California. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated and transcribed, checked for accuracy and the resulting data was thematically coded and analyzed using a social constructionist approach. The Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program was then implemented with a separate but similar sample, and after completing the program, participants were administered surveys asking about acceptability and favorite activities of the education program. Data were entered into a database, checked for accuracy, open-ended questions were categorized, and responses to close-ended questions counted. Twelve focus groups were conducted (N = 51), 105 parents attended the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, and 83 parents filled out surveys. Complete attendance and retention was high (89% and 90%, respectively). This study found that their children's oral health is a high priority. Parents were not only interested in, but actually attended classes focused on increasing their knowledge and skills with respect to early childhood oral health. The Contra Caries content and format was perceived as

  2. LED Virtual Simulation based on Web3D

    OpenAIRE

    Lilan Liu; Liu Han; Zhiqi Lin; Manping Li; Tao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Regarding to the high price and low market popularity of current LED indoor lighting products, a LED indoor lighting platform is proposed based on Web3D technology. The internet virtual reality technology is integrated and applied into the LED collaborative e-commerce website with Virtools. According to the characteristics of the LED indoor lighting products, this paper introduced the method to build encapsulated model and three characteristics of LED lighting: geometrical, optical and behavi...

  3. Stronger communities? Changing prospects for community-led strategic planning in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brosnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand’s Local Government Act 2002 ushered in a new phase in local government, a phase that is best characterised by the term ‘empowerment’. Not only were councils empowered to promote social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being, in contrast with previous more prescriptive legislation, but citizens were empowered to engage in community-led strategic planning. In many respects the new statute reflected contemporary international public management trends in which governance is increasingly being conducted via networks of public and private actors. However, with the change of government from a centre-left Labour-led coalition to a centre-right National-led government following the November 2008 general election, it is less certain that local government and communities will continue to experience a strengthening of the pluralisation of governance that has been a feature of the past decade. This article argues that the potential disempowerment of local government, and possible attenuation of community-led strategic planning in New Zealand, comes at a time when the momentum for devolution to local government and other communities is increasing elsewhere.

  4. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. N. Ogendo, Bsc, MPH, Living goods Nairobi, Kenya,Ministry of Health, Environmental Health ... led drive to set up pit latrines in rural kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable ... Development and Sustainable Development goals lay.

  5. User-led innovation in civic energy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Gerben; Boon, Wouter; Peine, A.

    2016-01-01

    Building on user and grassroots innovation literature, we explore user innovations in five Dutch civic energy communities. Less attention has been paid to the interplay of social, symbolic and technological innovations that seems to be at the heart of many civic energy communities. In this paper, we

  6. 'Setting the guinea pigs free': towards a new model of community-led social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A J; Henry, L

    2009-09-01

    To offer the opportunity to discuss the positive contribution of co-production approaches in the field of social marketing. Recognizing the ever-evolving theoretical base for social marketing, this article offers a brief commentary on the positive contribution of co-production approaches in this field. The authors outline their own move towards conceptualizing a community-led social marketing approach and describe some key features. This developing framework has been influenced by, and tested through, the Early Presentation of Cancer Symptoms Programme, a community-led social marketing approach to tackle health inequalities across priority neighbourhoods in North East Lincolnshire, UK. A blend of social marketing, community involvement and rapid improvement science methodologies are drawn upon. The approach involves not just a strong focus on involving communities in insight and consultation, but also adopts methods where they are in charge of the process of generating solutions. A series of monthly and pre/post measures have demonstrated improvements in awareness of symptoms, reported willingness to act and increases in presentation measured through service referrals. Key features of the approach involve shared ownership and a shift away from service-instigated change by enabling communities 'to do' through developing skills and confidence and the conditions to 'try out'. The approach highlights the contribution that co-production approaches have to offer social marketing activity. In order to maximize potential, it is important to consider ways of engaging communities effectively. Successful approaches include translating social marketing methodology into easy-to-use frameworks, involving communities in gathering and interpreting local data, and supporting communities to act as change agents by planning and carrying out activity. The range of impacts across organisational, health and social capital measures demonstrates that multiple and longer

  7. An Australian Indigenous community-led suicide intervention skills training program: community consultation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Bushra; Kisely, Steve; Hides, Leanne; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Gill, Neeraj S; Hayman, Noel; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2017-06-13

    Little is known of the appropriateness of existing gatekeeper suicide prevention programs for Indigenous communities. Despite the high rates of Indigenous suicide in Australia, especially among Indigenous youth, it is unclear how effective existing suicide prevention programs are in providing appropriate management of Indigenous people at risk of suicide. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with Indigenous communities in rural and regional areas of Southern Queensland. Thematic analysis was performed on the gathered information. Existing programs were time-intensive and included content irrelevant to Indigenous people. There was inconsistency in the content and delivery of gatekeeper training. Programs were also not sustainable for rural and regional Indigenous communities. Appropriate programs should be practical, relevant, and sustainable across all Indigenous communities, with a focus on the social, emotional, cultural and spiritual underpinnings of community wellbeing. Programs need to be developed in thorough consultation with Indigenous communities. Indigenous-led suicide intervention training programs are needed to mitigate the increasing rates of suicide experienced by Indigenous peoples living in rural and remote locations.

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Alternative Community-Led Security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While many believe the state has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force, realities on the ground challenge this assertion, particularly in conflict and ... It will document alternative sources of governance, security, and justice that urban communities apply when state security forces are weak, unresponsive, or abusive.

  9. Building partnerships to support community-led HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite many challenges, the partnership formation process has seen some positive achievements; we outline these and discuss the essential role played by an external change agent, and conclude with a discussion of the possibility of building long-term structures to sustain the project. Keywords: community development ...

  10. A synthetic method of solar spectrum based on LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-qiang; Su, Shi; Zhang, Guo-yu; Zhang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A synthetic method of solar spectrum which based on the spectral characteristics of the solar spectrum and LED, and the principle of arbitrary spectral synthesis was studied by using 14 kinds of LED with different central wavelengths.The LED and solar spectrum data were selected by Origin Software firstly, then calculated the total number of LED for each center band by the transformation relation between brightness and illumination and Least Squares Curve Fit in Matlab.Finally, the spectrum curve of AM1.5 standard solar spectrum was obtained. The results met the technical indexes of the solar spectrum matching with ±20% and the solar constant with >0.5.

  11. Towards a Community-led Agenda for Urban Sustainability Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eames, Malcolm; Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Adebowale, Maria

    This report describes the findings from the Citizens Science for Sustainability (SuScit) Project. The report provides an overview of the innovative ‘bottom-up' public engagement and foresight process developed through the SuScit Project, before setting out a ten point agenda for urban...... sustainability research developed through our work with the local community in the Mildmay area of Islington, North London....

  12. Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Enrico

    2006-04-01

    The main challenge in developing a LED-based projection system is to meet the brightness requirements of the market. Therefore a balanced combination of optical, electrical and thermal parameters must be reached to achieve these performance and cost targets. This paper describes the system design methodology for a digital micromirror display (DMD) based optical engine using LEDs as the light source, starting at the basic physical and geometrical parameters of the DMD and other optical elements through characterization of the LEDs to optimizing the system performance by determining optimal driving conditions. LEDs have a luminous flux density which is just at the threshold of acceptance in projection systems and thus only a fully optimized optical system with a matched set of LEDs can be used. This work resulted in two projection engines, one for a compact pocket projector and the other for a rear projection television, both of which are currently in commercialization.

  13. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  14. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  15. Outcomes and provider perspectives on geriatric care by a nurse practitioner-led community paramedicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rebecca E; Vejar, Maria; Parnes, Bennett; Mulder, Joy; Daddato, Andrea; Matlock, Daniel D; Lum, Hillary D

    2018-05-03

    This study explores the use of a nurse practitioner-led paramedicine program for acute, home-based care of geriatric patients. This case series describes patients, outcomes, and geriatric primary care provider perspectives related to use of this independent paramedicine program. There were 40 patient visits from August 2016-May 2017. We reviewed patient demographics, medical conditions, healthcare utilization, and communication processes and used semi-structured interviews and content analysis to explore staff perspectives. The most commonly treated diagnoses were respiratory conditions, urinary tract infections, and gastrointestinal concerns. Two patients required an immediate transfer to a higher level of care. Six patients had emergency department visits and five patients were hospitalized within two weeks. Geriatric providers identified three themes including: potential benefits to geriatric patients, importance of enhanced care coordination and communication, and considerations for the specific role of nurse practitioner-led community paramedicine programs for geriatric patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). N-LEDs...

  17. Visual color matching system based on RGB LED light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Huang, Qingmei; Feng, Chen; Li, Wei; Wang, Chaofeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the property and performance of LED as RGB primary color light sources on color mixture in visual psychophysical experiments, and to find out the difference between LED light source and traditional light source, a visual color matching experiment system based on LED light sources as RGB primary colors has been built. By simulating traditional experiment of metameric color matching in CIE 1931 RGB color system, it can be used for visual color matching experiments to obtain a set of the spectral tristimulus values which we often call color-matching functions (CMFs). This system consists of three parts: a monochromatic light part using blazed grating, a light mixing part where the summation of 3 LED illuminations are to be visually matched with a monochromatic illumination, and a visual observation part. The three narrow band LEDs used have dominant wavelengths of 640 nm (red), 522 nm (green) and 458 nm (blue) respectively and their intensities can be controlled independently. After the calibration of wavelength and luminance of LED sources with a spectrophotometer, a series of visual color matching experiments have been carried out by 5 observers. The results are compared with those from CIE 1931 RGB color system, and have been used to compute an average locus for the spectral colors in the color triangle, with white at the center. It has been shown that the use of LED is feasible and has the advantages of easy control, good stability and low cost.

  18. Rural School In The Context Of Community-Led Local Development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudečková H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the general concept of knowledge society and deals with regional development theories which emphasize local environment as an important part of rural development. The following two questions were studied: (1 What is the early experience of municipalities when establishing a Community School? (2 In which other municipalities would it be possible and appropriate to build such a school? For this purpose, both secondary and primary research methods were combined with data collection techniques – document study, observation, and questioning. Because the examined problem is set in the context of community-led local development (CLLD, violation of the ‘bottom-up’ approach principle is also highlighted. The paper presents the first experiences in the establishment of seven Community Schools within the Pilsen region and based on them also recommendations for the feasibility and suitability of establishing this type of school in other rural municipalities. The results show that the educational sector is not assisting in the modernization of rural schools with regard to community education and that the possibility of the contemporary and meaningful existence of schools in small rural municipalities remains ignored.

  19. Leading Communities: Community-led Development in England’s Small Towns: the Market Towns Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Morris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Market Towns Initiative (MTI, a UK community-led development programme, operated throughout rural England from 2000 until 2005/6. It was designed to help local people, with professional support, identify – and then capitalize on – the economic, environmental and social strengths and weaknesses of small country towns. This paper explains the origins and ways of working of the MTI. Examples of the topics explored and participants’ views are given, and conclusions drawn. The opportunity is also taken to explain how interest in the roles of England’s small country towns grew in the years following the Second World War, and how this led to the development of the MTI. Evidence suggests that the programme worked well. It demonstrated that local people have the enthusiasm, skills and knowledge to take a lead in the development of the places in which they live; something which, until local government reforms changed roles and structures, was largely taken for granted.

  20. Occupancy-based illumination control of LED lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caicedo Fernandez, D.R.; Pandharipande, A.; Leus, G.

    2011-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED)-based systems are considered to be the future of lighting. We consider the problem of energy-efficient illumination control of such systems. Energy-efficient system design is based on two aspects: localised information on occupancy and optimisation of dimming levels of the

  1. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stojanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel SpO2 measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  2. Design of an oximeter based on LED-LED configuration and FPGA technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-04

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel S(p)O(2) measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  3. Student Leadership Distribution: Effects of a Student-Led Leadership Program on School Climate and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jeff; Yager, Stuart; Yager, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the understandings educators developed from two schools concerning how distributed leadership involving a select group of students affected the climate and community of their schools. Findings suggest that student-led leadership roles within the school community have an impact on creating a positive school-wide climate; a…

  4. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  5. High efficiency nitride based phosphores for white LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan Qiang; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this overview paper, novel rare-earth doped silicon nitride based phosphors for white LEDs applications have been demonstrated. The luminescence properties of orange-red-emitting phosphors (M2Si5N8:Eu2+) and green-to-yellow emitting phosphors (MSi2N2O2:Eu2+, M = Ca, Sr, Ba) are discussed in

  6. A self-calibrating led-based solar test platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    A compact platform for testing solar cells is presented. The light source comprises a multi-wavelength high-power LED (light emitting diode) array allowing the homogenous illumination of small laboratory solar cell devices (substrate size 50 × 25 mm) within the 390–940 nm wavelength range......, it is possible to perform all the commonly employed measurements on the solar cell at very high speed without moving the sample. In particular, the LED-based illumination system provides an alternative to light-biased incident photon-to-current efficiency measurement to be performed which we demonstrate. Both...

  7. Development of a LED based standard for luminous flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, André; Ázara, Ivo; Torres, Miguel; Menegotto, Thiago; Grieneisen, Hans Peter; Borghi, Giovanna; Couceiro, Iakyra; Zim, Alexandre; Muller, Filipe

    2018-03-01

    Incandescent lamps, simple artifacts with radiation spectrum very similar to a black-body emitter, are traditional standards in photometry. Nowadays LEDs are broadly used in lighting, with great variety of spectra, and it is convenient to use standards for photometry with spectral distribution similar to that of the measured artifact. Research and development of such standards occur in several National Metrology Institutes. In Brazil, Inmetro is working on a practical solution for providing a LED based standard to be used for luminous flux measurements in the field of general lighting. This paper shows the measurements made for the developing of a prototype, that in sequence will be characterized in photometric quantities.

  8. Color adjustable LED driver design based on PWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiying; Yu, Caideng; Que, Longcheng; Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian

    2012-10-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) is a liquid cold source light source that rapidly develops in recent years. The merits of high brightness efficiency, long duration, high credibility and no pollution make it satisfy our demands for consumption and natural life, and gradually replace the traditional lamp-house-incandescent light and fluorescent light. However, because of the high cost and unstable drive circuit, the application range is restricted. To popularize the applications of the LED, we focus on improving the LED driver circuit to change this phenomenon. Basing on the traditional LED drive circuit, we adopt pre-setup constant current model and introduce pulse width modulation (PWM) control method to realize adjustable 256 level-grays display. In this paper, basing on human visual characteristics and the traditional PWM control method, we propose a new PWM control timing clock to alter the duty cycle of PWM signal to realize the simple gamma correction. Consequently, the brightness can accord with our visual characteristics.

  9. LED-based UV source for monitoring spectroradiometer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sildoja, Meelis-Mait; Nevas, Saulius; Kouremeti, Natalia; Gröbner, Julian; Pape, Sven; Pendsa, Stefan; Sperfeld, Peter; Kemus, Fabian

    2018-06-01

    A compact and stable UV monitoring source based on state-of-the-art commercially available ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) has been developed. It is designed to trace the radiometric stability—both responsivity and wavelength scale—of array spectroradiometers measuring direct solar irradiance in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 400 nm. The spectral irradiance stability of the UV-LED-based light source observed in the laboratory after seasoning (burning-in) the individual LEDs was better than 0.3% over a 12 h period of continuous operation. The integral irradiance measurements of the source over a period of several months, where the UV-LED source was not operated continuously between the measurements, showed stability within 0.3%. In-field measurements of the source with an array spectroradiometer indicated the stability of the source to be within the standard uncertainty of the spectroradiometer calibration, which was within 1% to 2%.

  10. LED-based high-speed visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Shi, Meng; Zhao, Yiheng; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jianyang; Zhou, Yingjun; Lu, Xingyu; Qiao, Liang

    2018-01-01

    We are seeing a growing use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a range of applications including lighting, TV and backlight board screen, display etc. In comparison with the traditional incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs, LEDs offer long life-space, much higher energy efficiency, high performance cost ratio and above all very fast switching capability. LED based Visible Light Communications (VLC) is an emerging field of optical communications that focuses on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans can see. Depending on the transmission distance, we can divide the whole optical network into two categories, long haul and short haul. Visible light communication can be a promising candidate for short haul applications. In this paper, we outline the configuration of VLC, its unique benefits, and describe the state of the art research contributions consisting of advanced modulation formats including adaptive bit loading OFDM, carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP), pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and single carrier Nyquist, linear equalization and nonlinear distortion mitigation based on machine learning, quasi-balanced coding and phase-shifted Manchester coding. These enabling technologies can support VLC up to 10Gb/s class free space transmission.

  11. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Mushati, Phyllis; Robertson, Laura; Munyati, Shungu; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2013-04-15

    Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent - reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children's health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children's needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness.

  12. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  13. Knowledge Exchange and Discovery in the Age of Social Media: The Journey From Inception to Establishment of a Parent-Led Web-Based Research Advisory Community for Childhood Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dianne J; Sprung, Jennifer; McCauley, Dayle; Kraus de Camargo, Olaf; Buchanan, Francine; Gulko, Roman; Martens, Rachel; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2016-11-11

    Efforts to involve parents and families in all aspects of research, from initiating the question through to dissemination and knowledge exchange, are increasing. While social media as a method for health communication has shown numerous benefits, including increasing accessibility, interactions with others, and access to health care information, little work has been published on the use of social media to enhance research partnerships. Our objective was to describe the development and evaluation of a Web-based research advisory community, hosted on Facebook and connecting a diverse group of parents of special needs children with researchers at CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research. The goal of this community is to work together and exchange knowledge in order to improve research and the lives of children and their families. The Web-based Parents Participating in Research (PPR) advisory community was a secret Facebook group launched in June 2014 and run by 2 parent moderators who worked in consultation with CanChild. We evaluated its success using Facebook statistics of engagement and activity (eg, number of posts, number of comments) between June 2014 and April 2015, and a Web-based survey of members. The PPR community had 96 participants (2 parent moderators, 13 researchers, and 81 family members) as of April 1, 2015. Over 9 months, 432 original posts were made: 155 (35.9%) by moderators, 197 (45.6%) by parents, and 80 (18.5%) by researchers. Posts had a median of 3 likes (range 0-24) and 4 comments (range 0-113). Members, rather than moderators, generated 64% (277/432) of posts. The survey had a 51% response rate (49/96 members), with 40 (82%) being parent members and 9 (18%) being researchers. The initial purpose of the group was to be an advisory to CanChild, and 76% (28/37) of parents and all the researchers (9/9) identified having an impact on childhood disability research as their reason for participating. A total of 58% (23/40) of parents and 56

  14. Novel Carbazole Skeleton-Based Photoinitiators for LED Polymerization and LED Projector 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assi Al Mousawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radical chemistry is a very convenient way to produce polymer materials. Here, an application of a particular photoinduced radical chemistry is illustrated. Seven new carbazole derivatives Cd1–Cd7 are incorporated and proposed as high performance near-UV photoinitiators for both the free radical polymerization (FRP of (methacrylates and the cationic polymerization (CP of epoxides utilizing Light Emitting Diodes LEDs @405 nm. Excellent polymerization-initiating abilities are found and high final reactive function conversions are obtained. Interestingly, these new derivatives display much better near-UV polymerization-initiating abilities compared to a reference UV absorbing carbazole (CARET 9H-carbazole-9-ethanol demonstrating that the new substituents have good ability to red shift the absorption of the proposed photoinitiators. All the more strikingly, in combination with iodonium salt, Cd1–Cd7 are likewise preferred as cationic photoinitiators over the notable photoinitiator bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphenylphosphine oxide (BAPO for mild irradiation conditions featuring their remarkable reactivity. In particular their utilization in the preparation of new cationic resins for LED projector 3D printing is envisioned. A full picture of the included photochemical mechanisms is given.

  15. STEM-related, Student-led Service Learning / Community Engagement Projects: Examples and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Wayland, K.

    2015-12-01

    Field-based, STEM-related service learning / community engagement projects present an opportunity for undergraduate students to demonstrate proficiencies related to the process of inquiry. These proficiencies include: appreciation of the larger project context, articulation of an informed question/hypothesis, project proposal development, interdisciplinary collaboration, project management (including planning, implementation reconfiguration and synthesis) and lastly the generation and handing off of acquired knowledge. Calls for these types of proficiencies have been expressed by governmental, non-governmental as well as the private sector. Accordingly, institutions of higher learning have viewed such activities as opportunities for enriching the learning experience for undergraduate students and for making such students more marketable, especially those from STEM-related fields. This institutional interest has provided an opportunity to support and expand field-based learning. Here we present examples of student-led/faculty-mentored international service learning and community engagement projects along the arc of preparation, implementation and post-field process. Representative examples that draw upon environmental science and engineering knowledge have been selected from more than 20 international undergraduate student projects over past decade and include: slow-sand water filtration, rainwater harvesting, methane biodigesters, water reticulation schemes and development and implementation of rocket stoves for communal cooking. We discuss these efforts in terms of the development of the aforementioned proficiencies, the utility of such proficiencies to the larger enterprise of STEM and the potential for transformative student learning outcomes. We share these experiences and lessons learned with the hope that others may intelligently borrow from our approach in a manner appropriate for their particular context.

  16. Community-led approaches and interventions for the regeneration of abandoned towns in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May East

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Defined as towns or villages that have been abandoned by their original inhabitants, the so-called ‘ghost towns’ are a sub-product of the opposing conditions of excessive urban growth in one hand and decline of rural regions on the other. Natural disasters, economic and demographic decline, armed conflict, disease and environmental contamination are repeatedly the drivers for their abandonment.  An increasing large concentration of these abandoned small villages is found in the impoverished Southern regions of Italy.  To investigate this problem and identify conservation approaches that could generate new dynamics to the abandoned historic villages, the paper starts by identifying the linkages between globalisation, rapid urbanisation and ghost towns. This is followed by an analysis of the root causes of ghost towns in an attempt to define a ghost town typology. With this in mind, this paper investigates integrated conservation approaches, which could promote the restoration of abandoned towns, strengthening their local identity and enhancing resource-efficient local economies. Based on these considerations, the paper focus the attention on three scenarios of rehabilitation: a community-led approach to conservation demonstrated by the medieval village Torri Superiore embedded in ecovillage principles; the hospitality concept albergo diffuso demonstrated by Albergo Diffuso Borgo di Castelvetere, acting as social, cultural and economic stimuli to depopulated villages; the Riace village humanitarian approach which has integrated migrants in the social fabric of its aging population. The paper ends by reflecting if Torri Superiore and Riace’s approaches offer a potential solution to the housing crises currently engulfing southern Europe. As a result of imaginative housing and food production practices, these villages have made significantly more progress than mainstream government approaches towards the realisation of sustainable communities

  17. Conduction-driven cooling of LED-based automotive LED lighting systems for abating local hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saati, Ferina; Arik, Mehmet

    2018-02-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED)-based automotive lighting systems pose unique challenges, such as dual-side packaging (front side for LEDs and back side for driver electronics circuit), size, harsh ambient, and cooling. Packaging for automotive lighting applications combining the advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology with a multifunctional LED-based board is investigated with a focus on the effect of thermal conduction-based cooling for hot spot abatement. A baseline study with a flame retardant 4 technology, commonly known as FR4 PCB, is first compared with a metal-core PCB technology, both experimentally and computationally. The double-sided advanced PCB that houses both electronics and LEDs is then investigated computationally and experimentally compared with the baseline FR4 PCB. Computational models are first developed with a commercial computational fluid dynamics software and are followed by an advanced PCB technology based on embedded heat pipes, which is computationally and experimentally studied. Then, attention is turned to studying different heat pipe orientations and heat pipe placements on the board. Results show that conventional FR4-based light engines experience local hot spots (ΔT>50°C) while advanced PCB technology based on heat pipes and thermal spreaders eliminates these local hot spots (ΔT<10°C), leading to a higher lumen extraction with improved reliability. Finally, possible design options are presented with embedded heat pipe structures that further improve the PCB performance.

  18. Community-led trials: Intervention co-design in a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    In conventional randomised controlled trials (RCTs), researchers design the interventions. In the Camino Verde trial, each intervention community designed its own programmes to prevent dengue. Instead of fixed actions or menus of activities to choose from, the trial randomised clusters to a participatory research protocol that began with sharing and discussing evidence from a local survey, going on to local authorship of the action plan for vector control.Adding equitable stakeholder engagement to RCT infrastructure anchors the research culturally, making it more meaningful to stakeholders. Replicability in other conditions is straightforward, since all intervention clusters used the same engagement protocol to discuss and to mobilize for dengue prevention. The ethical codes associated with RCTs play out differently in community-led pragmatic trials, where communities essentially choose what they want to do. Several discussion groups in each intervention community produced multiple plans for prevention, recognising different time lines. Some chose fast turnarounds, like elimination of breeding sites, and some chose longer term actions like garbage disposal and improving water supplies.A big part of the skill set for community-led trials is being able to stand back and simply support communities in what they want to do and how they want to do it, something that does not come naturally to many vector control programs or to RCT researchers. Unexpected negative outcomes can come from the turbulence implicit in participatory research. One example was the gender dynamic in the Mexican arm of the Camino Verde trial. Strong involvement of women in dengue control activities seems to have discouraged men in settings where activity in public spaces or outside of the home would ordinarily be considered a "male competence".Community-led trials address the tension between one-size-fits-all programme interventions and local needs. Whatever the conventional wisdom about how

  19. Community-led trials: Intervention co-design in a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andersson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In conventional randomised controlled trials (RCTs, researchers design the interventions. In the Camino Verde trial, each intervention community designed its own programmes to prevent dengue. Instead of fixed actions or menus of activities to choose from, the trial randomised clusters to a participatory research protocol that began with sharing and discussing evidence from a local survey, going on to local authorship of the action plan for vector control. Adding equitable stakeholder engagement to RCT infrastructure anchors the research culturally, making it more meaningful to stakeholders. Replicability in other conditions is straightforward, since all intervention clusters used the same engagement protocol to discuss and to mobilize for dengue prevention. The ethical codes associated with RCTs play out differently in community-led pragmatic trials, where communities essentially choose what they want to do. Several discussion groups in each intervention community produced multiple plans for prevention, recognising different time lines. Some chose fast turnarounds, like elimination of breeding sites, and some chose longer term actions like garbage disposal and improving water supplies. A big part of the skill set for community-led trials is being able to stand back and simply support communities in what they want to do and how they want to do it, something that does not come naturally to many vector control programs or to RCT researchers. Unexpected negative outcomes can come from the turbulence implicit in participatory research. One example was the gender dynamic in the Mexican arm of the Camino Verde trial. Strong involvement of women in dengue control activities seems to have discouraged men in settings where activity in public spaces or outside of the home would ordinarily be considered a “male competence”. Community-led trials address the tension between one-size-fits-all programme interventions and local needs. Whatever the

  20. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper...

  1. Improved power quality based high brightness LED lamp driver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    consists of a PFC Cuk DC-DC converter which operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM) to improve the ... In proposed LED driver as shown in Figure 1, a Cuk buck boost AC-DC converter ... Design and Analysis of Proposed LED Driver.

  2. Nurse-led home visitation programme to improve health-related quality of life and reduce disability among potentially frail community-dwelling older people in general practice: a theory-based process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijnen, Mandy M N; Jansen, Maria W J; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2014-10-25

    Population ageing fosters new models of care delivery for older people that are increasingly integrated into existing care systems. In the Netherlands, a primary-care based preventive home visitation programme has been developed for potentially frail community-dwelling older people (aged ≥75 years), consisting of a comprehensive geriatric assessment during a home visit by a practice nurse followed by targeted interdisciplinary care and follow-up over time. A theory-based process evaluation was designed to examine (1) the extent to which the home visitation programme was implemented as planned and (2) the extent to which general practices successfully redesigned their care delivery. Using a mixed-methods approach, the focus was on fidelity (quality of implementation), dose delivered (completeness), dose received (exposure and satisfaction), reach (participation rate), recruitment, and context. Twenty-four general practices participated, of which 13 implemented the home visitation programme and 11 delivered usual care to older people. Data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews with practice nurses (PNs), general practitioners (GPs), and older people; feedback meetings with PNs; structured registration forms filled-out by PNs; and narrative descriptions of the recruitment procedures and registration of inclusion and drop-outs by members of the research team. Fidelity of implementation was acceptable, but time constraints and inadequate reach (i.e., the relatively healthy older people participated) negatively influenced complete delivery of protocol elements, such as interdisciplinary cooperation and follow-up of older people over time. The home visitation programme was judged positively by PNs, GPs, and older people. Useful tools were offered to general practices for organising proactive geriatric care. The home visitation programme did not have major shortcomings in itself, but the delivery offered room for improvement. General practices received

  3. A Simulation-Based LED Design Project in Photonics Instruction Based on Industry-University Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. -H.; Chen, M. -L.; Kuo, Y. -K.; Shen, Y. -C.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing industrial demand for light-emitting diode (LED) design professionals, based on industry-university collaboration in Taiwan, this paper develops a novel instructional approach: a simulation-based learning course with peer assessment to develop students' professional skills in LED design as required by industry as well as…

  4. EarthCube - A Community-led, Interdisciplinary Collaboration for Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Keane, C. M.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance Project completed its initial two-year long process to engage the community and test a demonstration governing organization with the goal of facilitating a community-led process on designing and developing a geoscience cyberinfrastructure. Conclusions are that EarthCube is viable, has engaged a broad spectrum of end-users and contributors, and has begun to foster a sense of urgency around the importance of open and shared data. Levels of trust among participants are growing. At the same time, the active participants in EarthCube represent a very small sub-set of the larger population of geoscientists. Results from Stage I of this project have impacted NSF decisions on the direction of the EarthCube program. The overall tone of EarthCube events has had a constructive, problem-solving orientation. The technical and organizational elements of EarthCube are poised to support a functional infrastructure for the geosciences community. The process for establishing shared technological standards has notable progress but there is a continuing need to expand technological and cultural alignment. Increasing emphasis is being given to the interdependencies among EarthCube funded projects. The newly developed EarthCube Technology Plan highlights important progress in this area by five working groups focusing on: 1. Use cases; 2. Funded project gap analysis; 3. Testbed development; 4. Standards; and 5. Architecture. There is ample justification to continue running a community-led governance framework that facilitates agreement on a system architecture, guides EarthCube activities, and plays an increasing role in making the EarthCube vision of cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences operational. There is widespread community expectation for support of a multiyear EarthCube governing effort to put into practice the science, technical, and organizational plans that have and are continuing to emerge.

  5. Medication reviews led by community pharmacists in Switzerland: a qualitative survey to evaluate barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niquille A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1 To evaluate the participation rate and identify the practical barriers to implementing a community pharmacist-led medication review service in francophone Switzerland and, 2 To assess the effectiveness of external support.Methods: A qualitative survey was undertaken to identify barriers to patient inclusion and medication review delivery in daily practice among all contactable independent pharmacists working in francophone Switzerland (n=78 who were members of a virtual chain (pharmacieplus, regardless of their participation in a simultaneous cross-sectional study. This study analyzed the dissemination of a medication review service including a prescription and drug utilization review with access to clinical data, a patient interview and a pharmaceutical report to the physicians. In addition, we observed an exploratory and external coaching for pharmacists that we launched seven months after the beginning of the cross-sectional study. Results: Poor motivation on the part of pharmacists and difficulties communicating with physicians and patients were the primary obstacles identified. Lack of time and lack of self-confidence in administering the medication review process were the most commonly perceived practical barriers to the implementation of the new service. The main facilitators to overcome these issues may be well-planned workflow organization techniques, strengthened by an adequate remuneration scheme and a comprehensive and practice-based training course that includes skill-building in pharmacotherapy and communication. External support may partially compensate for a weak organizational framework.Conclusions: To facilitate the implementation of a medication review service, a strong local networking with physicians, an effective workflow management and a practice- and communications-focused training for pharmacists and their teams seem key elements required. External support can be useful to help some pharmacists improve their

  6. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    2012-01-01

    High power light-emitting diodes allow the creation of luminaires capable of generating saturated colour light at very high efficacies. Contrary to traditional light sources like incandescent and high-intensity discharge lamps, where colour is generated using filters, LEDs use additive light mixing, where the intensity of each primary colour diode has to be adjusted to the needed intensity to generate specified colour. The function of LED driver is to supply the diode with power needed to ach...

  7. Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-03-28

    The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant.

  8. [Effects of Nurse-Led Team Management on Type 2 Diabetes Patients in the Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yun-Xia; Liu, Su-Zhen; Li, Ji-Ping; Diao, Yong-Shu; Dong, Ting; Tao, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Managing increasing numbers of diabetic patients is placing increasing pressure on healthcare providers, especially general practitioners, who usually serve in multiple roles. This situation has caused generally poor results in terms of diabetes management. However, community nurses in some countries have successfully and effectively controlled chronic diseases among their patients. Therefore, the effects of nurse-led management is worth further exploration in order to better understand and promote this mode of care. To explore the effects of community-nurse-led team management on diabetes patients. An experimental research design was adopted. Patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from two community health centers (the first for the intervention group, the second for the control group) in Wuhou District, Chengdu City, China. The intervention group received nurse-led team management care for 2 years, while the control group received standard care. The evaluations were conducted before the intervention and at 6, 12, and 24 months into the intervention. Outcomes included glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body mass index, waist circumference, visual acuity, ankle brachial index, kidney function index, urinary protein level, and electrocardiogram. The 179 participants included 88 in the intervention group and 91 in the control group. After the intervention, HbA1c level, ankle brachial index, and waist circumference were all significantly better in the intervention group than in the control group (F = 28.894, p team management is an effective mode of care in terms of controlling blood glucose control and preventing diabetes-related complications.

  9. A pilot study of a Community Health Agent-led type 2 diabetes self-management program using Motivational Interviewing-based approaches in a public primary care center in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Valle Nascimento, Thais Moura Ribeiro; Resnicow, Ken; Nery, Marcia; Brentani, Alexandra; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Agrawal, Pooja; Mand, Simanjit; Heisler, Michele

    2017-01-13

    Rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as type 2 diabetes are escalating in low and middle-income countries such as Brazil. Scalable primary care-based interventions are needed to improve self-management and clinical outcomes of adults with diabetes. This pilot study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of training community health agents (CHAs) in Motivational Interviewing (MI)-based counseling for patients with poorly controlled diabetes in a primary care center in São Paulo, Brazil. Nineteen salaried CHAs participated in 32 h of training in MI and behavioral action planning. With support from booster training sessions, they used these skills in their regular monthly home visits over a 6 month period with 57 diabetes patients with baseline HbA1cs > 7.0%. The primary outcome was patients' reports of the quality of diabetes care as measured by the Portuguese version of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) scale. Secondary outcomes included changes in patients' reported diabetes self-management behaviors and in A1c, blood pressure, cholesterol and triglycerides. We also examined CHAs' fidelity to and experiences with the intervention. Patients reported improvements over the 6 month period in quality of diabetes care received (PACIC score improved 33 (+/-19) to 68 (+/-21) (p < .001)). They reported increases in physical activity (p = .001), consumption of fruits and vegetables (p < .001) and medication adherence (p = .002), but no decreases in consumption of high-fat foods (p = .402) or sweets (p = .436). Participants had mean 6-month A1c levels 0.34% points lower than at baseline (p = .08) and improved mean LDL (-16.1 mg/dL, p = .005) and triglyceride levels (-38.725 mg/dL, p = .002). Of the 16 CHAs observed in fidelity assessments, 13 were categorized as medium- or high-performing on MI skills, while 3 were low-performing. CHAs expressed enthusiasm about learning new skills, and many

  10. Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention led by female community health volunteers versus usual care in blood pressure reduction (COBIN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2018-01-01

    ). In the intervention group, 43 FCHVs provided home visits every 4 months for lifestyle counselling and blood pressure monitoring. Eligible participants had been involved in a previous population-based survey, were aged 25–65 years, did not have plans to migrate outside the study area, and were not severely ill......-income population. Methods We did a community-based, open-label, two-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial in Nepal. Using computer-generated codes, we randomly assigned (1:1) 14 clusters to a lifestyle intervention led by female community health volunteers (FCHVs) or usual care (control group...... participants (939 assigned to intervention; 699 assigned to control). At 1 year, 855 participants remained in the intervention group (425 were normotensive, 175 were prehypertensive, and 255 had hypertension) and 613 remained in the control group (305 were normotensive, 128 were prehypertensive, and 180 had...

  11. Optimal LED-based illumination control via distributed convex optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Hermans, R.M.; Pandharipande, A.; Lazar, M.; Boje, Edward; Xia, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Achieving illumination and energy consumption targets is essential in indoor lighting design. The provision of localized illumination to occupants, and the utilization of natural light and energy-efficient light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires can help meet both objectives. Localized illumination

  12. LED based opto-wetting platforms for micromixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tony; Narayanan Unni, Harikrishnan

    2018-02-01

    The digital microfluidics utilizes the gradient in wettability for droplet transportation. This paper reports a novel technique of LED induced wetting ( Opto-wetting) where a single low power LED (Light emitting diode) emitting light of wavelength 395nm peak with luminous intensity of 300mcd (milli candela) is used to move two droplets of 20μL each on a photo responsive substrate of azobenzene (C12H10N2) coated PDMS (Poly Dimethyl Siloxane) substrate. The PDMS substrate of size 5cmx2cmx0.5cm were modified by thin film coating of Azobenzene dissolved in olive oil solution. The LED was aligned vertically on the top of the substrate. The pulsed operation of LED induces a spatial gradient of surface energy due to the reversible process of photo isomerization of Azobenzene molecules coated on the surface. The Photo-isomerization changes the conformation of the molecules thereby changing its surface energy .The change in surface energy of the substrate induces a change in contact angle of the droplet which initiates its movement. Two water droplets each of 20μL were dispensed on the substrate using micro syringe. Two droplets which were initially at a few cm distance apart were gradually moved towards the focus of light and merged together. The urine droplets (20μL) were moved and mixed with the red dye reagent (20μL) by controlling the light intensity of the LED. This concept provides a cost effective technique of droplet manipulation in the Lab on a chip domain where various multiplexed operations on proteins and DNA droplets can be done for point of care diagnostics.

  13. Community-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of healthcare options ... day care centers are either in churches or community centers. Adult day care is commonly used to care for people who ...

  14. Patients' experiences of a multidisciplinary team-led community case management programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Alice; Dickinson, Claire; Gorman, Tom; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel

    2016-09-09

    To explore the views and experiences of patients on the care they have received while enrolled on the Northumberland High Risk Patient Programme (NHRPP). This programme involved case finding of frail patients using a multidisciplinary team (MDT)-led community case management programme, and support of patients through care planning and regular reviews using primary, community, secondary and social care professionals. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Community patients receiving primary care in the county of Northumberland, England. 23 participants took part, of which 16 were patients enrolled on the NHRPP, and 7 carers. GP practices were selected purposively by size, deprivation and location, and patients identified and invited by General Practitioners to participate. 4 main themes emerged from the data: awareness and understanding of the NHRPP, confidence in the primary healthcare team, limitations of home care and the active role of being a patient. Despite having a low level of awareness of the details of the NHRPP, participants did think that its broad aim made sense. Participants discussed their high level of satisfaction with their care and access to team members. However, some limitations of alternatives to hospital care were identified, including the need to consider psychological as well as medical needs, the importance of overnight care and the needs of those without informal carers. Finally, participants discussed the active nature of being a patient under the NHRPP if they were to contribute fully to planning and managing their own care. This study has identified that a programme of MDT-led case management was generally very well received by patients and their families. However, a number of factors were identified that could improve the implementation of the programme and further research needs to be undertaken to address these. Published by the BMJ

  15. The cinema LED lighting system design based on SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, De; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-11-01

    A LED lighting system in the modern theater and the corresponding control program is introduced. Studies show that moderate and mutative brightness in the space would attract audiences' attention on the screen easily. SCM controls LED dynamically by outputting PWM pulse in different duty cycle. That cinema dome lights' intensity can vary with the plot changed, make people get a better view of experience. This article expounds the architecture of hardware system in the schedule and the control flow of the host of the solution. Besides, it introduces the design of software as well. At last, the system which is proved energy-saving, reliable, good visual effect and having using value by means of producing a small-scale model, which reproduce the whole system and achieves the desired result.

  16. Design of LED projector based on gradient-index lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liyong; Zhu, Xiangbing; Cui, Haitian; Wang, Yuanhang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new type of projector light path is designed to eliminate the deficits of existing projection systems, such as complex structure and low collection efficiency. Using a three-color LED array as the lighting source, by means of the special optical properties of a gradient-index lens, the complex structure of the traditional projector is simplified. Traditional components, such as the color wheel, relay lens, and mirror, become unnecessary. In this way, traditional problems, such as low utilization of light energy and loss of light energy, are solved. With the help of Zemax software, the projection lens is optimized. The optimized projection lens, LED, gradient-index lens, and digital micromirror device are imported into Tracepro. The ray tracing results show that both the utilization of light energy and the uniformity are improved significantly.

  17. UV-LED-based charge control for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2014-03-01

    The test masses inside the LISA gravitational reference sensors (GRS) must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. The residual accelerations have to stay below 3fm/s2/rtHz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electro-magnetic fields. The LISA pathfinder (LPF) will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 253 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. UV-LEDs have a lower mass, a better power efficiency, and are smaller than their Hg counterparts. Furthermore, the latest generation produces light at 240 nm, with energy well above the work function of pure gold. I will describe a preliminary design for effective charge control through photoelectric effect by using these LEDs. The effectiveness of this method is verified by taking Quantum Efficiency (QE) measurements which relate the number of electrons emitted to the number of photons incident on the Au test mass surface. This presentation addresses our initial results and future plans which includes implementation and testing in the UF torsion pendulum and space-qualification in a small satellite mission which will launch in the summer of 2014, through a collaboration with Stanford, KACST, and NASA Ames Research Center.

  18. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    of the diode is controlled either by varying the magnitude of the current or by driving the LED with a pulsed current and regulate the width of the pulse. It has been shown previously, that these two methods yield different effects on diode's efficacy and colour point. A hybrid dimming strategy has been...... proposed where two variable quantities control the intensity of the diode. This increases the controllability of the diode giving new optimisation possibilities. It has been shown that it is possible to compensate for temperature drift of white diode's colour point using hybrid dimming strategy. Also...

  19. EarthCube - A Community-led, Interdisciplinary Collaboration for Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Cindy; Allison, Lee

    2016-04-01

    The US NSF EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance Project completed its initial two-year long process to engage the community and test a demonstration governing organization with the goal of facilitating a community-led process on designing and developing a geoscience cyberinfrastructure. Conclusions are that EarthCube is viable, has engaged a broad spectrum of end-users and contributors, and has begun to foster a sense of urgency around the importance of open and shared data. Levels of trust among participants are growing. At the same time, the active participants in EarthCube represent a very small sub-set of the larger population of geoscientists. Results from Stage I of this project have impacted NSF decisions on the direction of the EarthCube program. The overall tone of EarthCube events has had a constructive, problem-solving orientation. The technical and organizational elements of EarthCube are poised to support a functional infrastructure for the geosciences community. The process for establishing shared technological standards has notable progress but there is a continuing need to expand technological and cultural alignment. Increasing emphasis is being given to the interdependencies among EarthCube funded projects. The newly developed EarthCube Technology Plan highlights important progress in this area by five working groups focusing on: 1. Use cases; 2. Funded project gap analysis; 3. Testbed development; 4. Standards; and 5. Architecture. The EarthCube governance implementing processes to facilitate community convergence on a system architecture, which is expected to emerge naturally from a set of data principles, user requirements, science drivers, technology capabilities, and domain needs.

  20. Analysis of behavioral change techniques in community-led total sanitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Rachel; Mahmoudi, Lyana; Graham, Jay Paul

    2015-03-01

    The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases-a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage. While it appears that many of the activities used in CLTS-that target community-level changes in sanitation behaviors instead of household-level changes-have evolved out of existing behavior change frameworks and techniques, it is less clear how these activities are adapted by different organizations and applied in different country contexts. The aims of this study are to (i) show which behavior change frameworks and techniques are the most common in CLTS interventions; (ii) describe how activities are implemented in CLTS interventions by region and context; and (3) determine which activities program implementers considered the most valuable in achieving open defecation free (ODF) status and sustaining it. The results indicate that a wide range of activities are conducted across the different programs and often go beyond standard CLTS activities. CLTS practitioners ranked follow-up and monitoring activities as the most important activities for achieving an ODF community, yet only 1 of 10 organizations conducted monitoring and follow-up throughout their project. Empirical studies are needed to determine which specific behavioral change activities are most effective at ending OD and sustaining it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A UV LED-based Charge Management System for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John W.; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo Janet; Apple, Stephen; Parry, Samantha; Ciani, Giacomo; Wass, Peter; Mueller, Guido

    2018-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first space instrument to observe gravitational waves in the millihertz frequency band. LISA consists of three Sun-orbiting spacecraft that form an equilateral triangle, with each side measuring 2.5 million kilometers in length. Each spacecraft houses two free-floating test masses, which are protected from all disturbing forces so that they follow pure geodesics in spacetime. A drag-free control system commands micronewton thrusters to force the spacecraft to fly in formation with the test masses and laser interferometers measure the minute variations in the distance, or light travel time, between these free-falling test masses caused by gravitational waves. The LISA observatory, with a planned launch in the early 2030s, is led by the European Space Agency with significant contributions from NASA. Recently, NASA has initiated strategic investments in key LISA technologies that will likely become U.S. flight hardware contributions to this ground-breaking mission. One of these payload elements is the Charge Management System (CMS), which controls the electric potential of the test masses relative to their housings to reduce spurious force noise acting on the test masses to below the required level. This talk, presented by University of Florida team that leads the CMS development, will describe this vital U.S. contribution to the LISA mission in the context of the envisioned LISA payload architecture and its in-flight sensitivity to gravitational waves.

  2. Daylight integrated illumination control of LED systems based on enhanced presence sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandharipande, A.; Caicedo Fernandez, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to become the dominant source of illumination in the future, offering long life times, energy efficiency and flexible tunability. The flexibility of adapting LED parameters offers multiple degrees of freedom in designing LED based lighting systems. In this

  3. A filter bank approach for LED illumintaion sensing based on frequency division multiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider illumination sensing in a light emitting diode (LED) based illumination system that normally consists of a large number of LEDs. Illumination sensing is used in order to facilitate the control of such system whose complexity, due to the large number of LEDs, can be quite

  4. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  5. The reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme in community football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Twomey, Dara M; Doyle, Tim L A; Lloyd, David G; Young, Warren; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-04-01

    To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1-8) and 18-week playing season. 1564 community Australian football players. Reach, measured weekly, was the number of players who attended training sessions. Adoption was the number of attending players who completed the programme in full, partially or not at all. Reasons for partial or non-participation were recorded. In week 1, 599 players entered the programme; 55% attended 1 training session and 45% attended > 1 session. By week 12, 1540 players were recruited but training attendance (reach) decreased to <50%. When players attended training, the majority adopted the full programme-ranging from 96% (week 1) to above 80% until week 20. The most common reasons for low adoption were players being injured, too sore, being late for training or choosing their own warm-up. The training programme's reach was highest preseason and halved at the playing season's end. However, when players attended training sessions, their adoption was high and remained close to 70% by season end. For sports injury prevention programmes to be fully effective across a season, attention also needs to be given to (1) encouraging players to attend formal training sessions and (2) considering the possibility of some form of programme delivery outside of formal training.

  6. Spatial layout optimization design of multi-type LEDs lighting source based on photoelectrothermal coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyun; Li, Guang; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Multiple LED-based spectral synthesis technology has been widely used in the fields of solar simulator, color mixing, and artificial lighting of plant factory and so on. Generally, amounts of LEDs are spatially arranged with compact layout to obtain the high power density output. Mutual thermal spreading among LEDs will produce the coupled thermal effect which will additionally increase the junction temperature of LED. Affected by the Photoelectric thermal coupling effect of LED, the spectrum of LED will shift and luminous efficiency will decrease. Correspondingly, the spectral synthesis result will mismatch. Therefore, thermal management of LED spatial layout plays an important role for multi-LEDs light source system. In the paper, the thermal dissipation network topology model considering the mutual thermal spreading effect among the LEDs is proposed for multi-LEDs system with various types of power. The junction temperature increment cased by the thermal coupling has the great relation with the spatial arrangement. To minimize the thermal coupling effect, an optimized method of LED spatial layout for the specific light source structure is presented and analyzed. The results showed that layout of LED with high-power are arranged in the corner and low-power in the center. Finally, according to this method, it is convenient to determine the spatial layout of LEDs in a system having any kind of light source structure, and has the advantages of being universally applicable to facilitate adjustment.

  7. The Development of LED-Based Dental Light Using a Multiplanar Reflector Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplanar reflector was designed to enhance the application efficiency of light-emitting diode (LED light sources that can be employed as LED-based dental lights. This study used a high-power LED developed by Nichia, that is, a single LED capable of providing a total luminous flux of 120 lm, as the primarily light source to design and develop an LED-based dental light. This LED complies with the international standards and regulations stipulated in ISO 9680:2007. The light spots produced by the prototype were rectangular, with a length of 200 mm and a width of 100 mm. These light spots achieved maximum illumination of 12,000 lux. The use of LEDs can reduce energy consumption from 50 W to 3 W, providing an energy saving of more than 90%.

  8. LED; Zum Thema LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This collection of articles on the subject of light emitting diodes (LED) provides technical information on LED technology, examines latest developments and provides examples of LED use in practice. An 'ABC' of LED technology is presented and fifteen common LED mistakes are noted. The chances and risks of LED use are discussed as is the retrofitting of lighting installations with LEDs. The use of LEDs in street lighting is examined. The journal also includes interviews with architects and a lighting designer. Practical examples of the use of LEDs include the refurbished parliamentary library in Berne, their use in the bird sanctuary headquarters in Sempach, Switzerland, as well as LED use in sales outlets. Also, the use of LED lighting in a spa gazebo in Lucerne is examined.

  9. Wellness works: community service health promotion groups led by occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A H

    1999-01-01

    In the context of a group process course, occupational therapy students learned health promotion skills through working on personal wellness goals and leading community-based health promotion groups. The groups targeted topics such as smoking cessation, improving diet, reducing stress through yoga, meditation, tai chi chuan, ROM (Range of Motion) Dance, aerobics, and a variety of other activities. After identifying a personal wellness goal and developing it in a Wellness Awareness Learning Contract, each student used a Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) to predict an expected outcome for achieving the goal and to measure his or her progress toward attaining the goal. Students also used the GAS to measure progress in attaining group leadership skills within the community groups, which they outlined in a separate Group Skills Contract. Students kept weekly logs to foster reflective thinking, and the logs were used for interactive dialogue with the instructor. To further evaluate lifestyle change, students compared pretest and posttest scores on a Self-Assessment Scorecard, which surveyed six areas of health and human potential in body, mind, and spirit. Students monitored their own change process on both their personal health lifestyle goals and their group leadership skills while developing a richer appreciation of the dynamics of working for change with clients in community and traditional settings. Differences on the Self-Assessment Scorecard indicated improvement on two of the six scales for physical health and choices. Students experienced firsthand the challenges of developing healthier lifestyles on the basis of their personal goals as well as through fostering group changes. The two GAS learning contracts provided them with concrete evidence of their growth and learning. This experience--embedded in the context of a group process course with a community service learning group practicum--provided most students with a positive initial experience with group leadership

  10. Community-Led Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Mercury by Native Amerindian Wayana in Southeast Suriname

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peplow, D.; Augustine, S.; Peplow, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a collaboration between Western public health researchers and Suriname indigenous communities. The question asked was how can Western researchers effectively engage traditional indigenous communities in Suriname, South America, in public health research. The approach used a combination of Participatory Action Research methods in which Western researchers became participating observers in an indigenous-led research initiative. The Wayana communities of Puleowime (Apetina) and Kawemhakan (Anapayke) defined a single objective: determine for themselves whether they are at risk from exposure to mercury (Hg) contamination. Community members collected hair samples for analysis. Hair samples were analyzed using a portable Hg analyzer. Individual, community and hazard quotient indices were used to quantify risk. Results showed the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to Hg. This study showed that the community-led approach is an effective way Westerners can engage indigenous communities and address serious public health threats. While factors that appealed to indigenous communities were identified, obstacles inherent to Western research methodology were also encountered

  11. Effects of Nurse-Led Multifactorial Care to Prevent Disability in Community-Living Older People : Cluster Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; ter Riet, Gerben; van Charante, Eric P. Moll; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent disability in community-living older people. Methods In a cluster randomized trail, 11 practices (n = 1,209 participants) were randomized to the intervention group, and 13 practices (n = 1,074 participants) were

  12. Re-Configuring Inclusion, Decolonising Practice: Digital Participation and Learning in Black Women's Community-Led Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Rachel; Lewis, Rosie M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an innovative model of adult education within museums developed from a Black feminist approach. BAM! Sistahood! is a community-led project with regional heritage organisations, universities and women's centres in the UK, that offers a holistic approach to heritage development. The ethos is to challenge the perpetuation of…

  13. Design for The Indoor Visible Light Communication Application System Based on LED Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an indoor visible light communication application system based on LED. The system can modulate the original signal one or more times, move to a specific frequency band, transmit on the power line, in the LED terminal use this module to decode, restore the Ethernet signals. This design is applicable to the simplicity of the LED visible light communication applications, which provide the premise and guarantee for the construction of smart home network.

  14. Scaling-Up Youth-Led Social Justice Efforts through an Online School-Based Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluh, Mariah; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Ozer, Emily J

    2016-06-01

    The exploration of social networking sites (SNS) in promoting social change efforts offers great potential within the field of community psychology. Online communities on SNS provide opportunities for bridging across groups, thus fostering the exchange of novel ideas and practices. Currently, there have only been limited efforts to examine SNS within the context of youth-led efforts. To explore the potential of SNS to facilitate the diffusion of social justice efforts between distinct youth groups, we linked three school-based youth-led participatory action research projects involving 54 high school students through a SNS. This study offers an innovative methodological approach and framework, utilizing social network analysis and strategic sampling of key student informants to investigate what individual behaviors and online network features predict student adoption of social change efforts. Findings highlight prospective facilitators and barriers to diffusion processes within a youth-led online network, as well as key constructs that may inform future research. We conclude by providing suggestions for scholars and practitioners interested in examining how SNS can be used to enhance the diffusion of social justice strategies, youth-led engagement efforts, and large-scale civic organizing. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  15. Creating Community Resilience Through Elder-Led Physical and Social Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Daniel P; Kyota, Emi

    2017-02-01

    Natural disasters and rapidly aging populations are chronic problems for societies worldwide. We investigated the effects of an intervention in Japan known as Ibasho, which embeds elderly residents in vulnerable areas within larger social networks and encourages them to participate in leadership activities. This project sought to deepen the connections of these elderly residents to society and to build elderly leadership and community capacity for future crises. We carried out surveys of participants and nonparticipant residents across the city of Ofunato in Tohoku, Japan, 1 year after the intervention began. Our surveys included questions assessing participation levels in Ibasho, demographic characteristics, efficacy, social networks, and a sense of belonging. Regression analysis and propensity score matching of more than 1100 respondents showed that regular participation in the Ibasho project had a statistically significant and positive connection with various measures of social capital. Given its relatively low cost and focus on deepening cohesion, we suggest that this community-based project could be replicated and scaled up in other countries to deepen resilience, elder health, and social capital. Moving away from an emphasis on investing in physical infrastructure, we believe that disaster risk reduction strategies should center on social infrastructure. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:120-126).

  16. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from lo...

  17. Performance of GaN-Based LEDs with Nanopatterned Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanxu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indium tin oxide (ITO has been widely applied in light emitting diodes (LEDs as the transparent current spreading layer. In this work, the performance of GaN-based blue light LEDs with nanopatterned ITO electrode is investigated. Periodic nanopillar ITO arrays are fabricated by inductive coupled plasma etching with the mask of polystyrene nanosphere. The light extraction efficiency (LEE of LEDs can be improved by nanopatterned ITO ohmic contacts. The light output intensity of the fabricated LEDs with nanopatterned ITO electrode is 17% higher than that of the conventional LEDs at an injection current of 100 mA. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulation matches well with the experimental result. This method may serve as a practical approach to improving the LEE of the LEDs.

  18. Community-Led Total Sanitation, Open Defecation Free Status, and Ebola Virus Disease in Lofa County, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Jean Meyer; Njiru, Haron; deVries, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic entered Liberia through Lofa County in February 2014 and spread to two health districts where the nongovernmental organization Global Communities had been implementing community-led total sanitation (CLTS) since 2012. By December 2014 the county had 928 Ebola cases (422 of them confirmed) and 648 deaths. Before the epidemic, CLTS was triggered in 155 communities, and 98 communities were certified as Open Defecation Free (ODF). Using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods, we determined that no cases of EVD were found in ODF communities and in only one CLTS community that had not reached ODF status. No differences were found between EVD and non-EVD communities in tribe, religion, ethnic group, or major sources of Ebola information. Radio was the most common source of information for all communities, but health workers were the most trusted information sources. CLTS ODF communities attributed their avoidance of EVD to Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene behaviors, especially hand washing with soap and disposal of feces that they learned from CLTS prior to the epidemic. Communities that got EVD blamed their strong initial resistance to Ebola response messages on their distrust that Ebola was real and their reliance on friends and family for advice. A strong inverse correlation between EVD and CLTS with or without ODF emerged from the regression analysis (R = -.6).

  19. Evaluation of a LED-based flatbed document scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry in transmission mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel; García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos; Herrera-González, José Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    Flatbed scanners are the most frequently used reading instrument for radiochromic film dosimetry because its low cost, high spatial resolution, among other advantages. These scanners use a fluorescent lamp and a CCD array as light source and detector, respectively. Recently, manufacturers of flatbed scanners replaced the fluorescent lamp by light emission diodes (LED) as a light source. The goal of this work is to evaluate the performance of a commercial flatbed scanner with LED based source light for radiochromic film dosimetry. Film read out consistency, response uniformity, film-scanner sensitivity, long term stability and total dose uncertainty was evaluated. In overall, the performance of the LED flatbed scanner is comparable to that of a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL). There are important spectral differences between LED and CCFL lamps that results in a higher sensitivity of the LED scanner in the green channel. Total dose uncertainty, film response reproducibility and long-term stability of LED scanner are slightly better than those of the CCFL. However, the LED based scanner has a strong non-uniform response, up to 9%, that must be adequately corrected for radiotherapy dosimetry QA. The differences in light emission spectra between LED and CCFL lamps and its potential impact on film-scanner sensitivity suggest that the design of a dedicated flat-bed scanner with LEDs may improve sensitivity and dose uncertainty in radiochromic film dosimetry. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Illumination sensing in LED lighting systems based on frequency-division multiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, light emitting diode (LED) based illumination systems have attracted considerable research interest. Such systems normally consist of a large number of LEDs. In order to facilitate the control of such high-complexity system, a novel signal processing application, namely illumination

  1. GaN-based micro-LED arrays on flexible substrates for optical cochlear implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goßler, Christian; Bierbrauer, Colin; Moser, Rüdiger; Kunzer, Michael; Holc, Katarzyna; Pletschen, Wilfried; Köhler, Klaus; Wagner, Joachim; Schwarz, Ulrich T; Schwaerzle, Michael; Ruther, Patrick; Paul, Oliver; Neef, Jakob; Keppeler, Daniel; Hoch, Gerhard; Moser, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Currently available cochlear implants are based on electrical stimulation of the spiral ganglion neurons. Optical stimulation with arrays of micro-sized light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) promises to increase the number of distinguishable frequencies. Here, the development of a flexible GaN-based micro-LED array as an optical cochlear implant is reported for application in a mouse model. The fabrication of 15 µm thin and highly flexible devices is enabled by a laser-based layer transfer process of the GaN-LEDs from sapphire to a polyimide-on-silicon carrier wafer. The fabricated 50 × 50 µm 2 LEDs are contacted via conducting paths on both p- and n-sides of the LEDs. Up to three separate channels could be addressed. The probes, composed of a linear array of the said µLEDs bonded to the flexible polyimide substrate, are peeled off the carrier wafer and attached to flexible printed circuit boards. Probes with four µLEDs and a width of 230 µm are successfully implanted in the mouse cochlea both in vitro and in vivo. The LEDs emit 60 µW at 1 mA after peel-off, corresponding to a radiant emittance of 6 mW mm −2 . (paper)

  2. Assessment of the implementation of community-led total sanitation, hygiene, and associated factors in Diretiyara district, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roba Argaw Tessema

    Full Text Available Based on the sustainable development goals, the United Nations plans to achieve equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and to end open defecation by 2030. In Ethiopia, 60% to 80% of health problems are due to communicable diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, unhygienic and unsanitary waste management, which are directly linked to the practice of open defecation. This study has aimed at assessing the implementation of community-led total sanitation and hygiene (CLTSH and associated factors. A community-based cross-sectional study design involving 420 of the 7,225 households found in Diretiyara district was conducted in June 2014. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Using Logistic Regressions, bivariate and multivariate analyses were computed. This study showed that 66% of the respondents have knowledge of CLTSH. Eighty-nine percent of the respondents have latrine, of which 78% were constructed after the introduction of CLTSH. Eleven percent of the respondents reported to have defected in the open field and 15% of them reported that they had been recently exposed to diarrhea diseases. The occurrence of diarrheal disease was significantly associated with the extent of latrine ownership [AOR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.00, 6.12]. Attitude and perception parameters were significantly associated with consistent latrine utilization. Respondents who agreed that "Open defecation is preferred due to the unpleasant smell and heat from the Latrine'' [COR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.34, 0.99] were 58% less likely to use the latrine consistently. In conclusion, CLTSH has increased the extent of latrine ownership and decreased practice of open defecation, and yet, intermittent latrine use and poor hygienic practice were reported. Although some fundamental misconceptions were reported, the majority of the respondents have accepted CLTSH approach as a means to ending open defecation in their village. Health extension workers and local authorities should

  3. The impact of a community-led program promoting weight loss and healthy living in Aboriginal communities: the New South Wales Knockout Health Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Passmore, Erin; Shepherd, Brooke; Milat, Andrew; Maher, Louise; Hennessey, Kiel; Havrlant, Rachael; Maxwell, Michelle; Hodge, Wendy; Christian, Fiona; Richards, Justin; Mitchell, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience significant health burden from chronic disease. There has been limited research to identify effective healthy lifestyle programs to address risk factors for chronic disease among Aboriginal people. Methods The Knockout Health Challenge is a community-led healthy lifestyle program for Aboriginal communities across New South Wales, Australia. An evaluation of the 2013 Knockout Health Challenge was undertaken. Participants’ self-reported physi...

  4. Confronting structural violence in sex work: lessons from a community-led HIV prevention project in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Robert; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima, Mary; Sreeram, S V; Hafeezur, Rahman Syed; O'Neil, John

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from community-led HIV prevention projects suggests that structural interventions may result in reduced rates of HIV and STIs. The complex relationship between empowerment and confronting stigma, discrimination and physical abuse necessitates further investigation into the impact that such interventions have on the personal risks for sex workers. This article aims to describe lived experiences of members from a sex worker's collective in Mysore, India and how they have confronted structural violence. The narratives highlight experiences of violence and the development and implementation of strategies that have altered the social, physical, and emotional environment for sex workers. Building an enabling environment was key to reducing personal risks inherent to sex work, emphasizing the importance of community-led structural interventions for sex workers in India.

  5. Community-led local development approach principles implementation when forming a regional local development projects support system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Udod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.

  6. Implementation and Test of a LED-Based Lamp for a Lighthouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mercatelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sustainable source was developed for an existing Italian lighthouse, exploiting the light emitting diode (LED technology and the norms evolution. The research work started with the optical design of the device, while this work concerns the realization, installation, and test of the new LED lamp. The lamp recombines multiple separated LEDs, realizing a quasipunctual localized source. After installation in the lighthouse, specific photometric tests verified that the proposed power-saving source satisfied the illumination requirements of the marine signaling norms. The advantages of the LED-based lamp are reduced energy consumption, enhanced efficiency, longer life, decreased faults, slower aging, and lower maintenance costs. The obtained LED signalling device is more durable and reliable. In the future the application of these power-saving long-life sources could be extended to other maritime signaling devices or to other traffic signs.

  7. Secrecy Dimming Capacity in Multi-LED PAM-Based Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, mobile cloud computing (MCC has gained a lot of interest for researchers building the next-generation mobile applications. Because unauthorized access may cause serious problems, security and privacy with MCC have become significant issues. This paper addresses the secrecy dimming capacity of secure transmission in MCC over visible light communication (VLC channels. By obtaining the entropy-maximizing symbol probability of multiple light emitting diode- (LED- based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM, mathematical analysis of the secrecy dimming capacity of VLC was derived. Simulation results show that the secure transmission ability of multi-LED-based VLC is determined according to the number of activated LEDs and target dimming level. This can be a guideline for practical VLC-based mobile network designers intending to secure wireless transmission and to decide on the number of activated LEDs at target dimming level to operate.

  8. Precise Temperature Mapping of GaN-Based LEDs by Quantitative Infrared Micro-Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Hee Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A method of measuring the precise temperature distribution of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs by quantitative infrared micro-thermography is reported. To reduce the calibration error, the same measuring conditions were used for both calibration and thermal imaging; calibration was conducted on a highly emissive black-painted area on a dummy sapphire wafer loaded near the LED wafer on a thermoelectric cooler mount. We used infrared thermal radiation images of the black-painted area on the dummy wafer and an unbiased LED wafer at two different temperatures to determine the factors that degrade the accuracy of temperature measurement, i.e., the non-uniform response of the instrument, superimposed offset radiation, reflected radiation, and emissivity map of the LED surface. By correcting these factors from the measured infrared thermal radiation images of biased LEDs, we determined a precise absolute temperature image. Consequently, we could observe from where the local self-heat emerges and how it distributes on the emitting area of the LEDs. The experimental results demonstrated that highly localized self-heating and a remarkable temperature gradient, which are detrimental to LED performance and reliability, arise near the p-contact edge of the LED surface at high injection levels owing to the current crowding effect.

  9. Transforming Communities through Academic Activism: An Emancipatory, Praxis-led Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Hawthorne-Steele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tracks the engagement of university faculty in academic and community activism during thirty years in conflict-affected Northern Ireland. Over time, the team of three academics who wrote the article developed programs to help tackle educational disadvantage in a deeply divided society riven with violent conflict. Our pedagogical approach was driven by social justice principles in practice. In the process, students became what Ledwith & Springett (2010 describe as participative activists in the academy and in their own communities. The aim of this collective activism was to foster transformative change in a society that is now in transition from conflict. Key examples of critical practice are described. We use a case study approach to describe challenges faced by faculty and participants. We argue that academic activism and community partnership can play a positive role in community transformation in the most difficult circumstances.

  10. VLC-based indoor location awareness using LED light and image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Ju; Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, indoor LED lighting can be considered for constructing green infra with energy saving and additionally providing LED-IT convergence services such as visible light communication (VLC) based location awareness and navigation services. For example, in case of large complex shopping mall, location awareness to navigate the destination is very important issue. However, the conventional navigation using GPS is not working indoors. Alternative location service based on WLAN has a problem that the position accuracy is low. For example, it is difficult to estimate the height exactly. If the position error of the height is greater than the height between floors, it may cause big problem. Therefore, conventional navigation is inappropriate for indoor navigation. Alternative possible solution for indoor navigation is VLC based location awareness scheme. Because indoor LED infra will be definitely equipped for providing lighting functionality, indoor LED lighting has a possibility to provide relatively high accuracy of position estimation combined with VLC technology. In this paper, we provide a new VLC based positioning system using visible LED lights and image sensors. Our system uses location of image sensor lens and location of reception plane. By using more than two image sensor, we can determine transmitter position less than 1m position error. Through simulation, we verify the validity of the proposed VLC based new positioning system using visible LED light and image sensors.

  11. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  12. A relative navigation sensor for CubeSats based on LED fiducial markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Francesco; Branz, Francesco; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    Small satellite platforms are becoming very appealing both for scientific and commercial applications, thanks to their low cost, short development times and availability of standard components and subsystems. The main disadvantage with such vehicles is the limitation of available resources to perform mission tasks. To overcome this drawback, mission concepts are under study that foresee cooperation between autonomous small satellites to accomplish complex tasks; among these, on-orbit servicing and on-orbit assembly of large structures are of particular interest and the global scientific community is putting a significant effort in the miniaturization of critical technologies that are required for such innovative mission scenarios. In this work, the development and the laboratory testing of an accurate relative navigation package for nanosatellites compliant to the CubeSat standard is presented. The system features a small camera and two sets of LED fiducial markers, and is conceived as a standard package that allows small spacecraft to perform mutual tracking during rendezvous and docking maneuvers. The hardware is based on off-the-shelf components assembled in a compact configuration that is compatible with the CubeSat standard. The image processing and pose estimation software was custom developed. The experimental evaluation of the system allowed to determine both the static and dynamic performances. The system is capable to determine the close range relative position and attitude faster than 10 S/s, with errors always below 10 mm and 2 deg.

  13. Recognizing Community Voice and a Youth-Led School-Community Partnership in the School Climate Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…

  14. Forward Conduction Mode Controlled Piezoelectric Transformer-Based PFC LED Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roedgaard, M. S.; Weirich, M.; Andersen, M. A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) illumination is getting more and more common; as LED's performance is rising, the price is falling and is getting competitive. Some of the challenges of ac mains supplied illumination are the requirement of power factor correction (PFC) and the competitiveness of a low...... priced market. In this paper, a new forward conduction mode (FCM) control method for piezoelectric transformer (PT)-based power converters is proposed. A PT-based LED drive facilitating passive PFC is developed, utilizing and validating the FCM control method. The drive utilizes an inductorless half...... LED drive has been developed, supplied from 230-V 50-Hz ac mains, achieving a power factor of 0.96....

  15. Who Wants to Save the Forest? Characterizing Community-Led Monitoring in Prey Lang, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turreira-García, Nerea; Meilby, Henrik; Brofeldt, Søren; Argyriou, Dimitris; Theilade, Ida

    2018-06-01

    Community monitoring is believed to be successful only where there is sustained funding, legislation for communities to enforce rules, clear tenure rights, and an enabling environment created by the state. Against this backdrop, we present the case of an autonomous grassroots-monitoring network that took the initiative to protect their forest, in a context, where no external incentives and rule enforcement power were provided. The aim was to analyze the socio-demographic and economic backgrounds, motivations and achievements of forest monitors, compared to non-monitors in the same communities. A total of 137 interviews were conducted in four villages bordering Prey Lang forest in Cambodia. We used binary logit models to identify the factors that influenced the likelihood of being a monitor. Results show that there were few (22%, n = 30) active monitors. Active monitors were intrinsically motivated forest-users, and not specifically associated with a particular gender, ethnicity, or residence-time in that area. The most common interventions were with illegal loggers, and the monitors had a general feeling of success in stopping the illegal activities. Most (73%, n = 22) of them had been threatened by higher authorities and loggers. Our results show that despite the lack of power to enforce rules, absence of external funding and land-ownership rights, and enduring threats of violence and conflicts, autonomous community monitoring may take place when community members are sufficiently motivated by the risk of losing their resources.

  16. Progress and prospects of GaN-based LEDs using nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Xia; Yu, Zhi-Guo; Sun, Bo; Zhu, Shi-Chao; An, Ping-Bo; Yang, Chao; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Jin-Min

    2015-06-01

    Progress with GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) that incorporate nanostructures is reviewed, especially the recent achievements in our research group. Nano-patterned sapphire substrates have been used to grow an AlN template layer for deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs. One efficient surface nano-texturing technology, hemisphere-cones-hybrid nanostructures, was employed to enhance the extraction efficiency of InGaN flip-chip LEDs. Hexagonal nanopyramid GaN-based LEDs have been fabricated and show electrically driven color modification and phosphor-free white light emission because of the linearly increased quantum well width and indium incorporation from the shell to the core. Based on the nanostructures, we have also fabricated surface plasmon-enhanced nanoporous GaN-based green LEDs using AAO membrane as a mask. Benefitting from the strong lateral SP coupling as well as good electrical protection by a passivation layer, the EL intensity of an SP-enhanced nanoporous LED was significantly enhanced by 380%. Furthermore, nanostructures have been used for the growth of GaN LEDs on amorphous substrates, the fabrication of stretchable LEDs, and for increasing the 3-dB modulation bandwidth for visible light communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61334009), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA03A101 and 2014BAK02B08), China International Science and Technology Cooperation Program (Grant No. 2014DFG62280), the “Import Outstanding Technical Talent Plan” and “Youth Innovation Promotion Association Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Energy-Saving Tunnel Illumination System Based on LED's Intelligent Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shanshan; Wu Lan; Gu Hanting; Jiang Shuixiu

    2011-01-01

    At present there is a lot of electric energy wastage in tunnel illumination, whose design is based on the maximum brightness outside and the maximum vehicle speed all year round. LED's energy consumption is low, and the control of its brightness is simple and effective. It can be quickly adjusted between 0-100% of its maximum brightness, and will not affect the service life. Therefore, using LED as tunnel's illumination source, we can achieve a good energy saving effect. According to real-time data acquisition of vehicle speed, traffic flow and brightness outside the tunnel, the auto real-time control of tunnel illumination can be achieved. And the system regulated the LED luminance by means of combination of LED power module and intelligent control module. The tunnel information was detected by inspection equipments, which included luminometer, vehicle detector, and received by RTU(Remote Terminal Unit), then synchronously transmitted to PC. After data processing, RTU emitted the dimming signal to the LED driver to adjust the brightness of LED. Despite the relatively high cost of high-power LED lights, the enormous energy-saving effect and the well-behaved controllability is beyond compare to other lighting devices.

  18. Design and radiation tests on a LED based emergency evacuation directional lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Trikoupis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    A LED (Light Emitting Diode) based directional lighting system has been designed to indicate the best evacuation direction for applications like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel. The design includes constraints for redundancy required by safety systems and for components selection by radiation effects. Most of the literature for radiation effects on LEDs concern digital communications systems, although some recent reports do exist for visible spectrum power LEDs and the reduction in light output versus dose is coherent with the results presented in this paper. Prototype lighting units were irradiated in CERN’s CHARM facility up to a Total Integrated Dose (TID) of 870 Gy and no failures were observed. This paper describes the basic design, presents field tests and the effects of radiation on the LEDs luminance.

  19. Visible light communication based vehicle positioning using LED street light and rolling shutter CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Trong Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle positioning system using LED street lights and two rolling shutter CMOS sensor cameras. In this system, identification codes for the LED street lights are transmitted to camera-equipped vehicles through a visible light communication (VLC) channel. Given that the camera parameters are known, the positions of the vehicles are determined based on the geometric relationship between the coordinates of the LEDs in the images and their real world coordinates, which are obtained through the LED identification codes. The main contributions of the paper are twofold. First, the collinear arrangement of the LED street lights makes traditional camera-based positioning algorithms fail to determine the position of the vehicles. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to fuse data received from the two cameras attached to the vehicles in order to solve the collinearity problem of the LEDs. Second, the rolling shutter mechanism of the CMOS sensors combined with the movement of the vehicles creates image artifacts that may severely degrade the positioning accuracy. This paper also proposes a method to compensate for the rolling shutter artifact, and a high positioning accuracy can be achieved even when the vehicle is moving at high speeds. The performance of the proposed positioning system corresponding to different system parameters is examined by conducting Matlab simulations. Small-scale experiments are also conducted to study the performance of the proposed algorithm in real applications.

  20. Quantification and analysis of color stability based on thermal transient behavior in white LED lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa Khan, M

    2017-09-20

    We present measurement and analysis of color stability over time for two categories of white LED lamps based on their thermal management scheme, which also affects their transient lumen depreciation. We previously reported that lumen depreciation in LED lamps can be minimized by properly designing the heat sink configuration that allows lamps to reach a thermal equilibrium condition quickly. Although it is well known that lumen depreciation degrades color stability of white light since color coordinates vary with total lumen power by definition, quantification and characterization of color shifts based on thermal transient behavior have not been previously reported in literature for LED lamps. Here we provide experimental data and analysis of transient color shifts for two categories of household LED lamps (from a total of six lamps in two categories) and demonstrate that reaching thermal equilibrium more quickly provides better stability for color rendering, color temperature, and less deviation of color coordinates from the Planckian blackbody locus line, which are all very important characterization parameters of color for white light. We report for the first time that a lamp's color degradation from the turn-on time primarily depends on thermal transient behavior of the semiconductor LED chip, which experiences a wavelength shift as well as a decrease in its dominant wavelength peak value with time, which in turn degrades the phosphor conversion. For the first time, we also provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis that differentiates color degradation due to the heat rise in GaN/GaInN LED chips and subsequently the boards these chips are mounted on-from that caused by phosphor heating in a white LED module. Finally, we briefly discuss why there are some inevitable trade-offs between omnidirectionality and color and luminous output stability in current household LED lamps and what will help eliminate these trade-offs in future lamp designs.

  1. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  2. Whose forests, whose voices? Mining and community- based nature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores local experiences of private - sector led community - based nature conservation near Fort Dauphin, southeastern Madagascar through the analysis of a conservation zone managed in partnership between the Rio Tinto mining corporation, local government and local communities. The article assesses ...

  3. The true costs of participatory sanitation: Evidence from community-led total sanitation studies in Ghana and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Saywell, Darren; Shields, Katherine F; Kolsky, Pete; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    Evidence on sanitation and hygiene program costs is used for many purposes. The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory behavior-change approach that presents difficulties for cost analysis. We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia. Data collection included implementation checklists, surveys, and financial records review. Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed. Results are disaggregated by intervention, cost category, actor, geographic area, and project month. The average household size was 4.0 people in Ghana, and 5.8 people in Ethiopia. The program cost of CLTS was $30.34-$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15-$19.21 in Ethiopia. Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions. Local investments ranged from $7.93-$22.36 per household targeted in Ghana, and $2.35-$3.41 in Ethiopia. This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behavior-change intervention. The findings can be used to inform policy and finance decisions, plan program scale-up, perform cost-effectiveness and benefit studies, and compare different interventions. The costing method is applicable to other public health behavior-change programs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostics-based qualification of high-power white LEDs using Lévy process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kam-Chuen; Sun, Bo; Jiang, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Due to their versatility in a variety of applications and the growing market demand, high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted considerable attention. Reliability qualification testing is an essential part of the product development process to ensure the reliability of a new LED product before its release. However, the widely used IES-TM-21 method does not provide comprehensive reliability information. For more accurate and effective qualification, this paper presents a novel method based on prognostics techniques. Prognostics is an engineering technology predicting the future reliability or determining the remaining useful lifetime (RUL) of a product by assessing the extent of deviation or degradation from its expected normal operating conditions. A Lévy subordinator of a mixed Gamma and compound Poisson process is used to describe the actual degradation process of LEDs characterized by random sporadic small jumps of degradation degree, and the reliability function is derived for qualification with different distribution forms of jump sizes. The IES LM-80 test results reported by different LED vendors are used to develop and validate the qualification methodology. This study will be helpful for LED manufacturers to reduce the total test time and cost required to qualify the reliability of an LED product.

  5. A Community-Led Medical Response Effort in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushar, Matthew L; Rosenberg, Rebecca E

    2015-08-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the neighborhood of Red Hook in Brooklyn, New York. The massive tidal surge generated by the storm submerged the coastal area, home to a population over 11,000 individuals, including the largest public housing development in Brooklyn. The infrastructure devastation was profound: the storm rendered electricity, heat, water, Internet, and phone services inoperative, whereas local ambulatory medical services including clinics, pharmacies, home health agencies, and other resources were damaged beyond functionality. Lacking these services or lines of communication, medically fragile individuals became isolated from the hospital and 911-emergency systems without a preexisting mechanism to identify or treat them. Medically fragile individuals primarily included those with chronic medical conditions dependent on frequent and consistent monitoring and treatments. In response, the Red Hook community established an ad hoc volunteer medical relief effort in the wake of the storm, filling a major gap that continues to exist in disaster medicine for low-income urban environments. Here we describe this effort, including an analysis of the medically vulnerable in this community, and recommend disaster risk reduction strategies and resilience measures for future disaster events.

  6. Effectiveness of community-based peer-led diabetes self-management programmes (COMP-DSMP) for improving clinical outcomes and quality of life of adults with diabetes in primary care settings in low and middle-income countries (LMIC): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfalli, Mahmoud; Raubenheimer, Peter; Engel, Mark; Peer, Nasheeta; Kalula, Sebastiana; Kengne, Andre P; Levitt, Naomi S

    2015-07-15

    Globally, an estimated 380 million people live with diabetes today--80% in low-income and middle-income countries. The Middle East, Western Pacific, Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia remain the most affected regions where economic development has transformed lifestyles, people live longer and there is an increase in the adult population. Although peer support has been used in different conditions with varied results, yet there is limited evidence to date supporting its effectiveness, particularly for individuals with diabetes. In this review, we will focus on community-based peer-led diabetes self-management programmes (COMP-DSMP) and examine the implementation strategies and diabetes-related health outcomes associated with them in LMIC primary healthcare settings. In accordance with reporting equity-focused systematic reviews PRISMA-P (preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols 2015 checklist) guidelines, a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials (CCTs) that involve contact with an individual or group of peers (paid or voluntary). Electronic searches will be performed in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOUPS, CINAHL and PsycINFO Database for the period January up to July 2000 along with manual searches in the reference lists of relevant papers. The analyses will be performed based on baseline data from RCTs, CCTs and preintervention and postintervention means or proportions will be reported for both intervention and control groups, and the absolute change from baseline will be calculated, together with 95% CIs. For dichotomous outcomes, the relative risk of the outcome will be presented compared to the control group. The risk difference will be calculated, which is the absolute difference in the proportions in each treatment group. Ethics is not required for this study, given that this is a protocol for a

  7. Efficient conceptual design for LED-based pixel light vehicle headlamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Marcel Philipp; Lachmayer, Roland

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution vehicle headlamps represent a future-oriented technology that can be used to increase traffic safety and driving comfort. As a further development to the current Matrix Beam headlamps, LED-based pixel light systems enable ideal lighting functions (e.g. projection of navigation information onto the road) to be activated in any given driving scenario. Moreover, compared to other light-modulating elements such as DMDs and LCDs, instantaneous LED on-off toggling provides a decisive advantage in efficiency. To generate highly individualized light distributions for automotive applications, a number of approaches using an LED array may be pursued. One approach is to vary the LED density in the array so as to output the desired light distribution. Another notable approach makes use of an equidistant arrangement of the individual LEDs together with distortion optics to formulate the desired light distribution. The optical system adjusts the light distribution in a manner that improves resolution and increases luminous intensity of the desired area. An efficient setup for pixel generation calls for one lens per LED. Taking into consideration the limited space requirements of the system, this implies that the luminous flux, efficiency and resolution image parameters are primarily controlled by the lens dimensions. In this paper a concept for an equidistant LED array arrangement utilizing distortion optics is presented. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the influence of lens geometry on the system efficiency whereas the second part investigates the correlation between resolution and luminous flux based on the lens dimensions.

  8. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grogan Sarah C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up. Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s; and the development of

  9. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Rachel C; Hurst, Gemma L; Smith, Graham R; Grogan, Sarah C; Kurth, Judy

    2011-09-12

    There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up). Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s) related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s); and the development of local systems for ongoing monitoring and evaluation

  10. Affording and Constraining Local Moral Orders in Teacher-Led Ability-Based Mathematics Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Shuker, Mary Jane; Higgins, Joanna; Loveridge, Judith

    2015-01-01

    How teachers position themselves and their students can influence the development of afforded or constrained local moral orders in ability-based teacher-led mathematics lessons. Local moral orders are the negotiated discursive practices and interactions of participants in the group. In this article, the developing local moral orders of 12 teachers…

  11. Validation of the spectral mismatch correction factor using an LED-based solar simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Nicholas; Santamaria Lancia, Adrian Alejo; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    LED-based solar simulators are gaining popularity in the PV characterization field. There are several reasons for this trend, but the primary interest is often the potential of tuning the light source spectrum to a closer match to the AM 1.5G reference spectrum than traditional Xenon or metal-hal...

  12. Nurse-led disease management for hypertension control in a diverse urban community: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul L; Sisk, Jane E; Tuzzio, Leah; Casabianca, Jodi M; Pogue, Velvie A; Wang, Jason J; Chen, Yingchun; Cowles, Christine; McLaughlin, Mary Ann

    2012-06-01

    Treated but uncontrolled hypertension is highly prevalent in African American and Hispanic communities. To test the effectiveness on blood pressure of home blood pressure monitors alone or in combination with follow-up by a nurse manager. Randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Four hundred and sixteen African American or Hispanic patients with a history of uncontrolled hypertension. Patients with blood pressure ≥150/95, or ≥140/85 for patients with diabetes or renal disease, at enrollment were recruited from one community clinic and four hospital outpatient clinics in East and Central Harlem, New York City. Patients were randomized to receive usual care or a home blood pressure monitor plus one in-person counseling session and 9 months of telephone follow-up with a registered nurse. During the trial, the home monitor alone arm was added. Change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 9 and 18 months. Changes from baseline to 9 months in systolic blood pressure relative to usual care was -7.0 mm Hg (Confidence Interval [CI], -13.4 to -0.6) in the nurse management plus home blood pressure monitor arm, and +1.1 mm Hg (95% CI, -5.5 to 7.8) in the home blood pressure monitor only arm. No statistically significant differences in systolic blood pressure were observed among treatment arms at 18 months. No statistically significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were found across treatment arms at 9 or 18 months. Changes in prescribing practices did not explain the decrease in blood pressure in the nurse management arm. A nurse management intervention combining an in-person visit, periodic phone calls, and home blood pressure monitoring over 9 months was associated with a statistically significant reduction in systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure compared to usual care in a high risk population. Home blood pressure monitoring alone was no more effective than usual care.

  13. Structural optimization of a microjet based cooling system for high power LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Liu; Zhiyin Gan [Institute for Microsystems, School of Mechanical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Jianghui Yang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xiaobing Luo [Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2008-08-15

    Based on the previous experiments and simulations reported by the present authors, it was found the cooling system could be optimized to obtain better performance. In this paper, the microjet cooling systems with three different microjet structures were numerically investigated. The numerical model was proven by the experiments. The optimization results demonstrate that the microjet structure with one single inlet but two outlets can achieve better cooling performance. The simulation results show that the maximum temperature of the LED substrate cooled by the optimized microjet cooling device was 23 K lower than that of the LED substrate cooled by the present experimental cooling system. (author)

  14. The LED and fiber based calibration system for the photomultiplier array of SNO+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, L.; Alves, R.; Andringa, S.; Bradbury, S.; Carvalho, J.; Clark, K.; Coulter, I.; Descamps, F.; Falk, L.; Gurriana, L.; Kraus, C.; Lefeuvre, G.; Maio, A.; Maneira, J.; Mottram, M.; Peeters, S.; Rose, J.; Sinclair, J.; Skensved, P.; Waterfield, J.; White, R.; Wilson, J.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    A new external LED/fiber light injection calibration system was designed for the calibration and monitoring of the photomultiplier array of the SNO+ experiment at SNOLAB. The goal of the calibration system is to allow an accurate and regular measurement of the photomultiplier array's performance, while minimizing the risk of radioactivity ingress. The choice in SNO+ was to use a set of optical fiber cables to convey into the detector the light pulses produced by external LEDs. The quality control was carried out using a modified test bench that was used in QC of optical fibers for TileCal/ATLAS. The optical fibers were characterized for transmission, timing and angular dispersions. This article describes the setups used for the characterization and quality control of the system based on LEDs and optical fibers and their results.

  15. Temperature increase inside LED-based illuminators for in vitro aPDT photodamage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, A.; Morici, P.; Tortora, G.; Menciassi, A.; Checcucci, G.; Ghetti, F.; Sgarbossa, A.

    2018-06-01

    Antimicrobial PhotoDynamic Therapy (aPDT) is an emerging strategy aimed at the eradication of bacterial infections, with a special focus on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This method is easy to apply, not expensive and particularly interesting in case of bacteria that spontaneously produce the required photosensitizers. In the framework of a project aimed at the development of an ingestible pill for the application of aPDT to gastric infections by Helicobacter pylori, a LED-based illuminating prototype (LED-BIP) was purposely designed in order to evaluate the photodamage induced by light of different wavelengths on porphyrin-producing bacteria. This short paper reports about temperature tests performed to assess the maximum exposure time and light dose that can be administered to bacterial cultures inside LED-BIP without reaching temperatures exceeding the physiological range.

  16. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1 (+5 V) to logic 0 (+1.7 V). The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of light intensity measurements for a few cents. A light dependent resistor (LDR) modified with similar sensor membrane was also used as a comparison method. Both the LED sensor and the LDR sensor responded to various pH buffer solutions in a similar way to obtain sigmoidal curves expected of the dye. The pKa value obtained for the sensors was found to agree with the literature value.

  17. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C., E-mail: jc.chen@ostendo.com; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li [EPI Lab, Ostendo Technologies, Inc., 679 Brea Canyon Rd, Walnut, CA 91789 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  18. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C.; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li

    2016-01-01

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  19. Study and Implementation of White Power-LED Based Indoor Lighting Application for the Healthcare Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, A.; Ganguly, R.

    With the current technological growth in the field of device fabrication, white power-LED's are available for solid state lighting applications. This is a paradigm shift from electrical lighting to electronic lighting. The implemented systems are showing some promise by saving a considerable amount of energy as well as providing a good and acceptable illumination level. However, the `useful life' of such devices is an important parameter. If the proper device is not chosen, the desired reliability and performance will not be obtained. In the present work, different parameters associated with reliability of such LED's are studied. Four different varieties of LED's are put to test the `useful life' as per IESNA LM 79 standard. From the results obtained, the proper LED is chosen for further application. Subsequently, lighting design is done for a hospital waiting room (indoor application) with 24 × 7 lighting requirements for replacement of existing CFLs there. The calculations show that although the initial cost is higher for LED based lighting, yet the savings on energy and replacement of the lamp results in a payback time of less than a year.

  20. Light extraction from GaN-based LED structures on silicon-on-insulator substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, S.; Teo, S.L.; Lin, V.K.X.; Chen, M.F. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 117602 (Singapore); Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Institut fuer Exerimentelle Physik, Otto-von Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 1, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany); AZZURRO Semiconductors AG, Universitaetsplatz 1, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Christen, J. [Institut fuer Exerimentelle Physik, Otto-von Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 1, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Nano-patterning of GaN-based devices is a promising technology in the development of high output power devices. Recent researches have been focused on the realization of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) structure to improve light extraction efficiency and to control the direction of emission. In this study, we have demonstrated improved light extraction from green light emitting diode (LED) structures on thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using surface nanopatterning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to probe the size, shape, and etch depth of nano-patterns on the LED surfaces. Different types of nanopatterns were created by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The LED structures after post processing are studied by photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The GaN nanophotonic structures formed by ICP etching led to more than five-fold increase in the intensity of the green emission. The improved light extraction is due to the combination of SOI substrate reflectivity and photonic structures on top GaN LED surfaces. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Reconsidering Community-based Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...

  2. International Journal of Web Based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ......Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ...

  3. A community health worker-led lifestyle behavior intervention for Latina (Hispanic) women: feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Villegas, Juan; Melendrez, Marylee; Balcázar, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Latinas (Hispanics) face risk for cardiovascular disease due to high rates of overweight/obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and other factors. Limited access to health care and language barriers may prevent delivery of health promotion messages. Targeted approaches, including the integration of community health workers, may be required to promote healthy lifestyle and prevent chronic disease in underserved ethnic minority groups. The term commonly used to refer to female community health workers in Latino communities is "promotora(s)." This study evaluates the outcomes and feasibility of a promotora-led lifestyle behavior intervention for overweight, immigrant Latinas. A community prevention model was employed in planning and implementing this study. A randomized controlled trial design was used. A Community Advisory Board provided expertise in evaluating feasibility of study implementation in the community and other important guidance. The sample was comprised of 223 women aged 35-64 years, predominantly with low income and ≤8th grade education. The culturally tailored Lifestyle Behavior Intervention included group education (8 classes based upon Su Corazon, Su Vida), followed by 4 months of individual teaching and coaching (home visits and telephone calls). The control group received a comparable length educational program and follow-up contacts. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at 6 and 9 months using a dietary habits questionnaire, accelerometer readings of physical activity, and clinical measures (body mass index, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose). Data were collected between January 2010 and August 2012. Women in the intervention group improved significantly in dietary habits, waist circumference, and physical activity in comparison to those in the control group. A treatment dosage effect was observed for weight and waist circumference. Knowledge about heart disease increased. High attendance at classes and

  4. Riding the rural radio wave: The impact of a community-led drug and alcohol radio advertising campaign in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Alice; Allan, Julaine; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Snijder, Mieke

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal people experience a higher burden of disease as a consequence of drug and alcohol (D&A) abuse. Although media campaigns can be a popular tool for disseminating health promotion messages, evidence of the extent to which they reduce the impact of substance abuse is limited, especially for rural Aboriginal communities. This paper is the first to examine the impact a locally designed D&A radio advertising campaign for Aboriginal people in a remote community in Western NSW. A post-intervention evaluation. The radio campaign was implemented in Bourke, (population 2465, 30% Aboriginal). Fifty-three community surveys were completed. The self-reported level of awareness of the campaign and the number of self-referrals to local D&A workers in the intervention period. Most respondents (79%) reported they listen to radio on a daily basis, with 75% reporting that they had heard one or more of the advertisements. The advertisement that was remembered best contained the voice of a respected, local person. There was one self-referral to local health services during the intervention timeframe. The community-led radio advertising campaign increased community awareness of substance abuse harms, but had limited impact on formal help-seeking. This paper highlights the value of radio as a commonly used, trusted and culturally relevant health promotion medium for rural communities, especially when engaging local respected Aboriginal presenters. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Lawrence, J.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K.; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12–18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  6. Effect of LED-LCU light irradiance distribution on mechanical properties of resin based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhães Filho, T.R.; Weig, K.M. [Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua São Paulo 28, CEP 24020-150 Niterói (Brazil); Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa, M.F. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Werneck, M.M. [Engenharia Elétrica (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68504, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barthem, R.B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa Neto, C.A., E-mail: celio@metalmat.ufrj.br [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the light power distribution along the tip end of the light guide of three LED-LCUs (Light Curing Units) and to evaluate its effect on the mechanical properties of a polymer based dental composite. Firstly, the light power distribution over the whole area of LED-LCU light guide surface was analyzed by three methods: visual projection observation, spectral measurement and optical spectral analysis (OSA). The light power distribution and the total irradiance were different for the three LEDs used, but the wavelength was within the camphorquinone absorption spectrum. The use of a blank sheet was quite on hand to make a qualitative analysis of a beam, and it is costless. Secondly, specimens of a hybrid composite with approximately 8 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness were produced and polymerized by 20 s exposition time to each LED-LCU. Thirdly, the elastic modulus (E) and hardness (HV) were measured throughout the irradiated area by instrumented micro-indentation test (IIT), allowing to correlate localized power and mechanical properties. Both E and HV showed to be very sensitive to local power and wavelength dependent, but they followed the beam power profile. It was also shown that the mechanical properties could be directly correlated to the curing process. Very steep differences in mechanical properties over very short distances may impair the material performance, since residual stresses can easily be built over it. - Highlights: • A resin based composite (RBC) was polymerized by three different Light Emitting Diodes. • Each LED had its beam profile visually, wavelength and power analyzed. • The effective polymerization power (EPP) varied from 28% to 52% of the total beam power. • Wavelength seems to be as relevant as power in the light curing process. • Mechanical properties depend on the simultaneous effect of wavelength and power.

  7. Effect of LED-LCU light irradiance distribution on mechanical properties of resin based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhães Filho, T.R.; Weig, K.M.; Costa, M.F.; Werneck, M.M.; Barthem, R.B.; Costa Neto, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the light power distribution along the tip end of the light guide of three LED-LCUs (Light Curing Units) and to evaluate its effect on the mechanical properties of a polymer based dental composite. Firstly, the light power distribution over the whole area of LED-LCU light guide surface was analyzed by three methods: visual projection observation, spectral measurement and optical spectral analysis (OSA). The light power distribution and the total irradiance were different for the three LEDs used, but the wavelength was within the camphorquinone absorption spectrum. The use of a blank sheet was quite on hand to make a qualitative analysis of a beam, and it is costless. Secondly, specimens of a hybrid composite with approximately 8 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness were produced and polymerized by 20 s exposition time to each LED-LCU. Thirdly, the elastic modulus (E) and hardness (HV) were measured throughout the irradiated area by instrumented micro-indentation test (IIT), allowing to correlate localized power and mechanical properties. Both E and HV showed to be very sensitive to local power and wavelength dependent, but they followed the beam power profile. It was also shown that the mechanical properties could be directly correlated to the curing process. Very steep differences in mechanical properties over very short distances may impair the material performance, since residual stresses can easily be built over it. - Highlights: • A resin based composite (RBC) was polymerized by three different Light Emitting Diodes. • Each LED had its beam profile visually, wavelength and power analyzed. • The effective polymerization power (EPP) varied from 28% to 52% of the total beam power. • Wavelength seems to be as relevant as power in the light curing process. • Mechanical properties depend on the simultaneous effect of wavelength and power.

  8. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kerry A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.

  9. An inexpensive Arduino-based LED stimulator system for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teikari, Petteri; Najjar, Raymond P; Malkki, Hemi; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Dumortier, Dominique; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M

    2012-11-15

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are being used increasingly as light sources in life sciences applications such as in vision research, fluorescence microscopy and in brain-computer interfacing. Here we present an inexpensive but effective visual stimulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and open-source Arduino microcontroller prototyping platform. The main design goal of our system was to use off-the-shelf and open-source components as much as possible, and to reduce design complexity allowing use of the system to end-users without advanced electronics skills. The main core of the system is a USB-connected Arduino microcontroller platform designed initially with a specific emphasis on the ease-of-use creating interactive physical computing environments. The pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal of Arduino was used to drive LEDs allowing linear light intensity control. The visual stimulator was demonstrated in applications such as murine pupillometry, rodent models for cognitive research, and heterochromatic flicker photometry in human psychophysics. These examples illustrate some of the possible applications that can be easily implemented and that are advantageous for students, educational purposes and universities with limited resources. The LED stimulator system was developed as an open-source project. Software interface was developed using Python with simplified examples provided for Matlab and LabVIEW. Source code and hardware information are distributed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL, version 3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Laser LEDs Based a Programmable Optical Sensor for Detection of Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser LED based optical sensor and its multifunctional operation for detection of environmental pollutants are described. The work will provide the instructions to design of circuitry for optical sensor instrument with a program based on a microcontroller (8902051-24PI, and to allow this program to communicate via RS-232 with computer. An algorithm is outlined by which the sensor instrument can use three laser LEDs (blue, Green and red to quantify the composition of pollutant. The operation of measurement through optical sensor has been applied to the study of detection and rate of reaction of pollutant i.e. methyl parathion and the produced informative data were also correlated with UV-vis spectrophotometry for the validation of results. The purpose of designed optical sensor is that the sophisticated analytical techniques show costly impact, time taking process, high consumable solvents and not suit for field application purpose which focuses the merits of the optical sensor.

  11. Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over Systems Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling Prior to February 2016, the Navy had planned to...Background In a May 2015 report, we found that the intended mission and required capabilities of UCLASS were under review as there was debate ...environments, or largely strike with limited surveillance capability operating in highly contested environments.2 This debate delayed the expected

  12. Development of Key Technologies for White Lighting Based on Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Goetz; Bill Imler; James Kim; Junko Kobayashi; Andrew Kim; Mike Krames; Rick Mann; Gerd Mueller-Mach; Anneli Munkholm; Jonathan Wierer

    2004-03-31

    This program was organized to focus on materials development issues critical to the acceleration of solid-state lighting, and was split into three major thrust areas: (1) study of dislocation density reduction for GaN grown on sapphire using 'cantilever epitaxy', and the impact of dislocation density on the performance of state-of-the-art high-power LEDs; (2) the evaluation of in situ techniques for monitoring gas phase chemistry and the properties of GaN-based layers during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD), and (3) feasibility for using semiconductor nanoparticles ('quantum dots') for the down-conversion of blue or ultraviolet light to generate white light. The program included a partnership between Lumileds Lighting (epitaxy and device fabrication for high power LEDs) and Sandia National Laboratories (cantilever epitaxy, gas phase chemistry, and quantum dot synthesis). Key findings included: (1) cantilever epitaxy can provide dislocation density reduction comparable to that of more complicated approaches, but all in one epitaxial growth step; however, further improvements are required to realize significant gains in LED performance at high drive currents, (2) in situ tools can provide detailed knowledge about gas phase chemistry, and can be used to monitor and control epitaxial layer composition and temperature to provide improved yields (e.g., a fivefold increase in color targeting is demonstrated for 540nm LEDs), and (3) quantum efficiency for quantum dots is improved and maintained up to 70% in epoxy thin films, but further work is necessary to increase densification (absorption) and robustness before practical application to LEDs.

  13. Imaging camera system of OYGBR-phosphor-based white LED lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Katsuya; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2005-03-01

    The near-ultraviolet (nUV) white LED approach is analogous to three-color fluorescent lamp technology, which is based on the conversion of nUV radiation to visible light via the photoluminescence process in phosphor materials. The nUV light is not included in the white light generation from nUV-based white LED devices. This technology can thus provide a higher quality of white light than the blue and YAG method. A typical device demonstrates white luminescence with Tc=3,700 K, Ra > 93, K > 40 lm/W and chromaticity (x, y) = (0.39, 0.39), respectively. The orange, yellow, green and blue OYGB) or orange, yellow, red, green and blue (OYRGB) device shows a luminescence spectrum broader than of an RGB white LED and a better color rendering index. Such superior luminous characteristics could be useful for the application of several kinds of endoscope. We have shown the excellent pictures of digestive organs in a stomach of a dog due to the strong green component and high Ra.

  14. The analysis of colour uniformity for a volumetric display based on a rotating LED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Yan, Caijie; Xia, XinXing; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    There is a colour nonuniformity zone existing in three-dimensional (3D) volumetric displays which is based on the rotating colour light-emitting diode (LED) array. We analyse the reason for the colour nonuniformity zone by measuring the light intensity distribution and chromaticity coordinates of the LED in the volumetric display. Two boundaries of the colour nonuniformity zone are calculated. We measure the colour uniformities for a single cuboid of 3*3*4 voxels to display red, green, blue and white colour in different horizontal viewing angles, and for 64 cuboids distributed in the whole cylindrical image space with a fixed viewpoint. To evaluate the colour uniformity of a 3D image, we propose three evaluation indices of colour uniformity: the average of colour difference, the maximum colour difference and the variance of colour difference. The measurement results show that the character of colour uniformity is different for the 3D volumetric display and the two-dimensional display

  15. Output blue light evaluation for phosphor based smart white LED wafer level packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdouz, Zahra; Rostamian, Ali; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Ma, Teng; van Zeijl, Henk; Zhang, Kouchi

    2016-02-22

    This study presents a blue light detector for evaluating the output light of phosphor based white LED package. It is composed of a silicon stripe-shaped photodiode designed and implemented in a 2 μm BiCMOS process which can be used for wafer level integration of different passive and active devices all in just 5 lithography steps. The final device shows a high selectivity to blue light. The maximum responsivity at 480 nm is matched with the target blue LED illumination. The designed structure have better responsivity compared to simple photodiode structure due to reducing the effect of dead layer formation close to the surface because of implantation. It has also a two-fold increase in the responsivity and quantum efficiency compared to previously similar published sensors.

  16. Optimization design of LED heat dissipation structure based on strip fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyun; Wan, Wenbin; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping

    2018-03-01

    To solve the heat dissipation problem of LED, a radiator structure based on strip fins is designed and the method to optimize the structure parameters of strip fins is proposed in this paper. The combination of RBF neural networks and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used for modeling and optimization respectively. During the experiment, the 150 datasets of LED junction temperature when structure parameters of number of strip fins, length, width and height of the fins have different values are obtained by ANSYS software. Then RBF neural network is applied to build the non-linear regression model and the parameters optimization of structure based on particle swarm optimization algorithm is performed with this model. The experimental results show that the lowest LED junction temperature reaches 43.88 degrees when the number of hidden layer nodes in RBF neural network is 10, the two learning factors in particle swarm optimization algorithm are 0.5, 0.5 respectively, the inertia factor is 1 and the maximum number of iterations is 100, and now the number of fins is 64, the distribution structure is 8*8, and the length, width and height of fins are 4.3mm, 4.48mm and 55.3mm respectively. To compare the modeling and optimization results, LED junction temperature at the optimized structure parameters was simulated and the result is 43.592°C which approximately equals to the optimal result. Compared with the ordinary plate-fin-type radiator structure whose temperature is 56.38°C, the structure greatly enhances heat dissipation performance of the structure.

  17. ZnO nanorod based low turn-on voltage LEDs with wide electroluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Kutsay, O.; Bello, I.; Lee, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on arrays of n-type ZnO Nanorods were fabricated on p-GaN films using a hydrothermal method. The LEDs emit mainly in blue and UV range of the light. Their current–Voltage (I–V) characteristics typically show a low leakage current (7.2 μA) and a high rectification ratio (3 5 5). Devices operate at a low turn-on voltage of ∼4.5 V. Photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) measurements suggest low density of ZnO defects; however, in some aspects density of interfacial defects still might be considerable in the studied devices. The PL emission is deconvoluted to three peaks that are located at wavelengths of 361, 381, and 397 nm, while the wide EL spectra are deconvoluted to five peaks appearing at 368, 385, 427, 474, and 515 nm. Near-band-edge (NBE) emission of p-GaN and n-ZnO was observed in both the PL and EL spectra. Deconvoluted EL spectra consist of a very wide green band with the peak at 515 nm and extending up to 650 nm (red), and a rarely reported EL emission at 474 nm. Origin of these emissions is discussed, herein. The electrical characteristics together with EL characteristics indicate potential to develop and study p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorod LEDs for white emitting applications. - Highlights: ► A low turn-on voltage (4–4.5 V) and low threshold (5 V) electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterostructure. ► A wide spectrum EL emission (360–700 nm) suitable for white LED application. ► EL spectra consist of a rarely reported emission band with peak at 474 nm. ► Low-temperature and solution based fabrication, which is scalable and of low cost.

  18. Palladium-based on-wafer electroluminescence studies of GaN-based LED structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcianu, C.O.; Thrush, E.J.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Plumb, R.G. [Centre for Photonic Systems, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FD (United Kingdom); Boyd, A.R.; Rockenfeller, O.; Schmitz, D.; Heuken, M. [AIXTRON AG, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) testing of Light Emitting Diode (LED) structures is usually done at the chip level. Assessing the optical and electrical properties of LED structures at the wafer scale prior to their processing would improve the cost effectiveness of producing LED-lamps. A non-destructive method for studying the luminescence properties of the structure at the wafer-scale is photoluminescence (PL). However, the relationship between the on-wafer PL data and the final device EL can be less than straightforward (Y. H Aliyu et al., Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 437 (1997)) as the two techniques employ different carrier injection mechanisms. This paper provides an overview of some different techniques in which palladium is used as a contact in order to obtain on-wafer electroluminescence information which could be used to screen wafers prior to processing into final devices. Quick mapping of the electrical and optical characteristics was performed using either palladium needle electrodes directly, or using the latter in conjunction with evaporated palladium contacts to inject both electrons and holes into the active region via the p-type capping layer of the structure. For comparison, indium was also used to make contact to the n-layer so that electrons could be directly injected into that layer. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Assembling and Using an LED-Based Detector to Monitor Absorbance Changes during Acid-Base Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Willy G.; Cavalheiro, E´der T. G.

    2015-01-01

    A simple photometric assembly based in an LED as a light source and a photodiode as a detector is proposed in order to follow the absorbance changes as a function of the titrant volume added during the course of acid-base titrations in the presence of a suitable visual indicator. The simplicity and low cost of the electronic device allow the…

  20. SILAR-Based Application of Various Nanopillars on GaN-Based LED to Enhance Light-Extraction Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Shei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported the various nanopillars on GaN-based LED to enhance light-extraction efficiency prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR. Indium tin oxide (ITO with thickness of 1 μm as transparent contact layer was grown to improve the electrical characteristics of the LEDs, including series resistance and operating voltage. SILAR-deposition ZnO nanoparticles on SiO2 were used as etching nanomasks. Multiple nanopillars were simultaneously formed on overall surfaces of ITO p- and n-GaN by ICP etching. The proposed GaN-based LEDs with nanopillars increase light output power by 7%–20.3% (at 20 mA over that of regular GaN-based LEDs. The difference in light output power can be attributed to differences in materials and shapes of nanopillars, resulting in a reduction in Fresnel reflection by the roughened surface of GaN-based LEDs.

  1. A consultant paediatrician led and public health nurse (PHN) provided Community Enuresis Clinic as a model of care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2011-02-01

    A dedicated Community Enuresis Clinic was established in 2004 in Cavan and Monaghan. The service was audited using ERIC (Education and Resources for Improving Childhood Continence) guidelines. There were 106 males and 47 females, giving an M: F ratio of 2.3:1. Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis (MNE) accounted for 127 (83%). Adequate follow-up was available for 108 children with MNE and in this group Initial Success was 49% (ERIC target 50%). 71% were dry at 1 year. There was a dropout rate of 20% in the MNE group (ERIC minimum standard < 25%). We believe the structure of this community based clinic and its approach to MNE management has been successful.

  2. DC Grids for Smart LED-Based Lighting: The EDISON Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Thielemans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the benefits and possible drawbacks of a DC-based lighting infrastructure for powering Light Emitting Diode (LED-lamps. It also evaluates the efforts needed for integrating the so called smart lighting and other sensor/actuator based control systems, and compares existing and emerging solutions. It reviews and discusses published work in this field with special focus on the intelligent DC-based infrastructure named EDISON that is primarily dedicated to lighting, but is applicable to building automation in general. The EDISON “PowerLAN” consists of a DC-based infrastructure that offers telecommunication abilities and can be applied to lighting retrofitting scenarios for buildings. Its infrastructure allows simple and efficient powering of DC-oriented devices like LED lamps, sensors and microcontrollers, while offering a wired communication channel. This paper motivates the design choices for organizing DC lighting grids and their associated communication possibilities. It also shows how the EDISON based smart lighting solution is evolving today to include new communication technologies and to further integrate other parts of building management solutions through the OneM2M (Machine to Machine service bus.

  3. Comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led care coordination to prevent functional decline in community-dwelling older persons: protocol of a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suijker Jacqueline J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional decline in community-dwelling older persons is associated with the loss of independence, the need for hospital and nursing-home care and premature death. The effectiveness of multifactorial interventions in preventing functional decline remains controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate whether functional decline in community-dwelling older persons can be delayed or prevented by a comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led care coordination. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized controlled trial, with the general practice as the unit of randomization, 1281 participants from 25 general practices will be enrolled in each condition to compare the intervention with usual care. The intervention will focus on older persons who are at increased risk for functional decline, identified by an Identification of Seniors at Risk Primary Care (ISAR-PC score (≥ 2. These older persons will receive a comprehensive geriatric assessment, an individually tailored care and treatment plan, consisting of multifactorial, evidence-based interventions and subsequent nurse-led care coordination. The control group will receive 'care as usual' by the general practitioner (GP. The main outcome after 12 months is the level of physical functioning on the modified Katz-15 index score. The secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, psychological and social functioning, healthcare utilization and institutionalization. Furthermore, a process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will provide new knowledge regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of a comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led elderly care in general practice. Trial registration NTR2653 Grant Unrestricted grant 'The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and development' no 313020201

  4. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  5. Multispectral photoacoustic characterization of ICG and porcine blood using an LED-based photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Yusuke; Sato, Naoto; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun; Agano, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid biomedical imaging modality that has emerged over the last decade. In photoacoustic imaging, pulsed-light absorbed by the target emits ultrasound that can be detected using a conventional ultrasound array. This ultrasound data can be used to reconstruct the location and spatial details of the intrinsic/extrinsic light absorbers in the tissue. Recently we reported on the development of a multi-wavelength high frame-rate LED-based photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system (AcousticX). In this work, we photoacoustically characterize the absorption spectrum of ICG and porcine blood using LED arrays with multiple wavelengths (405, 420, 470, 520, 620, 660, 690, 750, 810, 850, 925, 980 nm). Measurements were performed in a simple reflection mode configuration in which LED arrays where fixed on both sides of the linear array ultrasound probe. Phantom used consisted of micro-test tubes filled with ICG and porcine blood, which were placed in a tank filled with water. The photoacoustic spectrum obtained from our measurements matches well with the reference absorption spectrum. These results demonstrate the potential capability of our system in performing clinical/pre-clinical multispectral photoacoustic imaging.

  6. A design of LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyan; Xiao, Zexin; He, Shaojia

    2010-11-01

    As a new generation energy-saving lighting source, LED is applied widely in various technology and industry fields. The requirement of its adaptive lighting technology is more and more rigorous, especially in the automatic on-line detecting system. In this paper, a closed loop feedback LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller is designed, which consists of MEGA16 chip as a Micro-controller Unit (MCU), the ambient light sensor BH1750 chip with Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C), and constant-current driving circuit. A given value of light intensity required for the on-line detecting environment need to be saved to the register of MCU. The optical intensity, detected by BH1750 chip in real time, is converted to digital signal by AD converter of the BH1750 chip, and then transmitted to MEGA16 chip through I2C serial bus. Since the variation law of light intensity in the on-line detecting environment is usually not easy to be established, incremental Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) algorithm is applied in this system. Control variable obtained by the incremental PID determines duty cycle of Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). Consequently, LED's forward current is adjusted by PWM, and the luminous intensity of the detection environment is stabilized by self-adaptation. The coefficients of incremental PID are obtained respectively after experiments. Compared with the traditional LED dimming system, it has advantages of anti-interference, simple construction, fast response, and high stability by the use of incremental PID algorithm and BH1750 chip with I2C serial bus. Therefore, it is suitable for the adaptive on-line detecting applications.

  7. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Clinton

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists.

  8. On the application of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphors in LED based phototherapy lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the interest of scientific community has been increased towards solid state lighting based on LEDs because of their superior advantages over the conventional fluorescent lamps. As the GaN based LEDs are easily available efforts of the researchers are now on making the new phosphors which are excitable in the near UV region (360-400nm) for solid state lighting. This paper reports the photoluminescence characteristics of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphor prepared by wet chemical method. The violet emission of these phosphors with near UV excitation can be useful in making a phototherapy lamp based on LEDs for treating various skin diseases like acne vulgaris and hyperbilirubinemia.

  9. Interface and transport properties of GaN/graphene junction in GaN-based LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liancheng; Zhang Yiyun; Liu Zhiqiang; Guo Enqing; Yi Xiaoyan; Wang Junxi; Wang Guohong; Li Xiao; Zhu Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    A normalized circular transmission line method pattern with uniform interface area was developed to obtain contact resistances of p-, u-, n-GaN/graphene contacts (p, u and n represent p-type doped, unintentionally doped and n-type doped, respectively) and N-polar u-, n-GaN/graphene contacts in GaN-based LEDs. The resistances of the graphene/GaN contacts were mainly determined by the work function gap and the carrier concentration in GaN. Annealing caused diffusion of metal atoms and significantly influenced the interface transport properties.

  10. Design and Fabrication of Multi Quantum well based GaN/InGaN Blue LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, K.; Mahala, P.; Singh, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the optimization of the multi-quantum well based Light Emitting Diode (LED) structure. We investigate the electrical and optical properties of the device on several factors like well width, barrier width, the number of quantum wells and then optimize the structure. The device is optimized for a well width and barrier width of 3nm and 6nm respectively, consisting of five quantum wells. Simulations were carried out using Silvaco ATLAS TCAD simulation program (Silvaco International, USA). The optimized structure was grown by MOCVD and fabricated. The I-V characteristic was also measured.

  11. Community-based gang desistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2018-01-01

    of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  13. Crack-free AlGaN-based UV LED on Si(111) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saengkaew, P.; Dadgar, A.; Blaesing, J.; Witte, H.; Mueller, M.; Guenther, K.M.; Fey, T.; Bastek, B.; Bertram, F.; Kurnatowski, M. von; Wieneke, M.; Hempel, T.; Veit, P.; Clos, R.; Christen, J.; Krost, A. [FNW/IEP/AHE Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To achieve low-cost UV LEDs on large-diameter substrates it is a very interesting approach to grow AlGaN on low-cost Si substrates. Here, AlGaN layers and AlGaN LED structures grown on Si(111) were additionally monitored by in-situ curvature measurements. They show that with the insertion of AlN-based SL buffer layers and LT-AlN interlayers, the AlGaN layers are under compressive stress during growth enabling to compensate tensile stress after cooling. To characterize the crystalline quality, HR-XRD measurements were performed. Cross-sectional TEM to investigate dislocation propagation and annihilation. n- and p- conductivities were achieved by Si and Mg doping of the layers, respectively. By C-V and Hall-effect measurements, the maximum free-electron concentration of 2.6{sup +18} cm{sup -3} and free-hole concentration of 2.4{sup +17} cm{sup -3} by using a structure of Mg-doped GaN/Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N multilayers for the latter were determined. A GaN/Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N MQW structure showed near UV-luminescence around 350-360 nm. The optical and electrical properties of AlGaN-based LED samples were further characterized by I-V, EL, PL and CL measurements. The I-V measurements show forward-diode characteristics with turn-on voltage about 2.6-3.1 V.

  14. The challenge of assessing MTech community-based-visual arts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article explores specific challenges in supervising, accommodating and evaluating diverse candidates who pursue an action-led and community-based research approach rooted within the visual arts. I contend that there is a specific challenge in the field of postgraduate supervision of engaging evaluation strategies.

  15. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  16. Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ... the local population and resources to do that which the governments had failed to do. ... country with a view to reducing poverty and developmental imbalance in Nigeria.

  17. Nurse led home-based care for people with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Elizabeth M; Zani, Babalwa; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Young, Taryn

    2018-03-27

    Home-based care is used in many countries to increase quality of life and limit hospital stay, particularly where public health services are overburdened. Home-based care objectives for HIV/AIDS can include medical care, delivery of antiretroviral treatment and psychosocial support. This review assesses the effects of home-based nursing on morbidity in people infected with HIV/AIDS. The trials studied are in HIV positive adults and children, regardless of sex or setting and all randomised controlled. Home-based care provided by qualified nurses was compared with hospital or health-facility based treatment. The following electronic databases were searched from January 1980 to March 2015: AIDSearch, CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO/LIT, with an updated search in November 2016. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts from the electronic search based on the study design, interventions and types of participant. For all selected abstracts, full text articles were obtained. The final study selection was determined with use of an eligibility form. Data extraction was performed independently from assessment of risk of bias. The results were analysed by narrative synthesis, in order to be able to obtain relevant effect measures plus 95% confidence intervals. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The trial size varied from 37 to 238 participants. Only one trial was conducted in children. Five studies were conducted in the USA and two in China. Four studies looked at home-based adherence support and the rest at providing home-based psychosocial support. Reported adherence to antiretroviral drugs improved with nurse-led home-based care but did not affect viral load. Psychiatric nurse support in those with existing mental health conditions improved mental health and depressive symptoms. Home-based psychological support impacted on HIV stigma, worry and physical functioning and in certain cases depressive symptoms

  18. An easy to deploy street light control system based on wireless communication and LED technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elejoste, Pilar; Angulo, Ignacio; Perallos, Asier; Chertudi, Aitor; Zuazola, Ignacio Julio García; Moreno, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Astrain, José Javier; Falcone, Francisco; Villadangos, Jesús

    2013-05-16

    This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding's environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  19. GaN-based integrated photonics chip with suspended LED and waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yongjin; Hane, Kazuhiro; Shi, Zheng; Yan, Jiang

    2018-05-01

    We propose a GaN-based integrated photonics chip with suspended LED and straight waveguide with different geometric parameters. The integrated photonics chip is prepared by double-side process. Light transmission performance of the integrated chip verse current is quantitatively analyzed by capturing light transmitted to waveguide tip and BPM (beam propagation method) simulation. Reduction of the waveguide width from 8 μm to 4 μm results in an over linear reduction of the light output power while a doubling of the length from 250 μm to 500 μm only results in under linear decrease of the output power. Free-space data transmission with 80 Mbps random binary sequence of the integrated chip is capable of achieving high speed data transmission via visible light. This study provides a potential approach for GaN-based integrated photonics chip as micro light source and passive optical device in VLC (visible light communication).

  20. Portable plant chlorophyll fluorimeter based on blue LED rapid induced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Mi, Ting; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Fluorimeter is an effective device for detecting chlorophyll a content in plants. In order to realize real-time nondestructive detection of plant blades, a camera based fluorescence instrument based on two color mirrors has been developed. The blue light LED is used as the excitation light source, and the lens is used for shaping and focusing the excitation light to ensure the excitation intensity and uniform illumination of the light source. The device uses a 45 degree two color mirror to separate the chlorophyll a excited light path and the fluorescence receiving light path. Finally, the fluorescent signal is collected by the silicon photocell, and the signal is processed by the circuit to transmit the digital information to the display. Through the analysis of the experimental data, the device has the advantages of small size, easy to carry, fast induction, etc., and can be widely applied in outdoor teaching and field investigation.

  1. An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Villadangos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  2. ICP dry etching ITO to improve the performance of GaN-based LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Lili; Chen Yixin; Ma Li; Liu Zike; Shen Guangdi

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the light efficiency of the conventional GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the indium tin oxide (ITO) film is introduced as the current spreading layer and the light anti-reflecting layer on the p-GaN surface. There is a big problem with the ITO thin film's corrosion during the electrode preparation. In this paper, at least, the edge of the ITO film was lateral corroded 3.5 μm width, i.e. 6.43%-1/3 of ITO film's area. An optimized simple process, i.e. inductively couple plasma (ICP), was introduced to solve this problem. The ICP process not only prevented the ITO film from lateral corrosion, but also improved the LED's light intensity and device performance. The edge of the ITO film by ICP dry etching is steep, and the areas of ITO film are whole. Compared with the chip by wet etching, the areas of light emission increase by 6.43% at least and the chip's lop values increase by 45.9% at most. (semiconductor devices)

  3. Laser Therapy and Dementia: A Database Analysis and Future Aspects on LED-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Litscher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mainly because of the movement in the age pyramid, one can assume that the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease or dementia in general will increase in the coming decades. This paper employs a database analysis to examine the profile of publication activity related to this topic. Two databases were searched: PubMed and Cochrane Library. About 600 papers related to the research area “dementia and laser” and about 450 papers related to the search terms “Alzheimer and laser” were found in these two most commonly used databases. Ten plus one papers are described in detail and are discussed in the context of the laser research performed at the Medical University of Graz. First results concerning the measurement of the transmission factor (TF through the human skull of a new LED- (light emitting diode- based system are presented (TF = 0.0434 ± 0.0104 (SD. The measurements show that this LED system (using the QIT (quantum optical induced transparency effect might be used in the treatment of dementia.

  4. DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Dan; Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Wang, Wen; Winterhalder, Martin; Zumbusch, Andreas; Qi, Yujiao; Xia, Liang; Yan, Shaohui; Yang, Yanlong; Gao, Peng; Ye, Tong; Zhao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy has incomparable advantages over other high-resolution microscopic technologies, such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, in the study of biological molecules, pathways and events in live cells and tissues. We present a novel approach of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for fringe projection and a low-coherence LED light for illumination. The lateral resolution of 90 nm and the optical sectioning depth of 120 μm were achieved. The maximum acquisition speed for 3D imaging in the optical sectioning mode was 1.6×10(7) pixels/second, which was mainly limited by the sensitivity and speed of the CCD camera. In contrast to other SIM techniques, the DMD-based LED-illumination SIM is cost-effective, ease of multi-wavelength switchable and speckle-noise-free. The 2D super-resolution and 3D optical sectioning modalities can be easily switched and applied to either fluorescent or non-fluorescent specimens.

  5. A method of LED free-form tilted lens rapid modeling based on scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yidan

    2017-10-01

    According to nonimaging optical principle and traditional LED free-form surface lens, a new kind of LED free-form tilted lens was designed. And a method of rapid modeling based on Scheme language was proposed. The mesh division method was applied to obtain the corresponding surface configuration according to the character of the light source and the desired energy distribution on the illumination plane. Then 3D modeling software and the Scheme language programming are used to generate lens model respectively. With the help of optical simulation software, a light source with the size of 1mm*1mm*1mm in volume is used in experiment, and the lateral migration distance of illumination area is 0.5m, in which total one million rays are computed. We could acquire the simulated results of both models. The simulated output result shows that the Scheme language can prevent the model deformation problems caused by the process of the model transfer, and the degree of illumination uniformity is reached to 82%, and the offset angle is 26°. Also, the efficiency of modeling process is greatly increased by using Scheme language.

  6. Development of LEDs-based microplate reader for bioanalytical assay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaruri, Sami D; Katzlinger, Michael; Schinwald, Bernhard; Kronberger, Georg; Atzler, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The optical design for an LEDs-based microplate reader that can perform fluorescence intensity (top and bottom), absorbance, luminescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements is described. The microplate reader is the first microplate reader in the marketplace that incorporates LEDs as excitation light sources. Absorbance measurements over the 0–3.5 optical density range for caffeine solution are presented. Additionally, fluorescence intensity readings collected at 535 and 625 nm from a green and a red RediPlate TM are reported. Furthermore, fluorescence decay lifetime measurements obtained for Eu (europium) and Sm (samarium) standard solutions using 370 nm excitation are presented. The microplate reader detection limits for the fluorescence intensity top, fluorescence intensity bottom, fluorescence polarization and time-resolved fluorescence modes are 1.5 fmol 100 µL −1 fluorescein (384-well plate), 25 fmol 100 µL −1 fluorescein (384-well plate), 5 mP at 10 nM fluorescein (black 384-well plate) and 30 amol 100 µL −1 europium solution (white 384-well plate), respectively. (paper)

  7. Development of LEDs-based microplate reader for bioanalytical assay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaruri, Sami D.; Katzlinger, Michael; Schinwald, Bernhard; Kronberger, Georg; Atzler, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    The optical design for an LEDs-based microplate reader that can perform fluorescence intensity (top and bottom), absorbance, luminescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements is described. The microplate reader is the first microplate reader in the marketplace that incorporates LEDs as excitation light sources. Absorbance measurements over the 0-3.5 optical density range for caffeine solution are presented. Additionally, fluorescence intensity readings collected at 535 and 625 nm from a green and a red RediPlateTM are reported. Furthermore, fluorescence decay lifetime measurements obtained for Eu (europium) and Sm (samarium) standard solutions using 370 nm excitation are presented. The microplate reader detection limits for the fluorescence intensity top, fluorescence intensity bottom, fluorescence polarization and time-resolved fluorescence modes are 1.5 fmol 100 µL-1 fluorescein (384-well plate), 25 fmol 100 µL-1 fluorescein (384-well plate), 5 mP at 10 nM fluorescein (black 384-well plate) and 30 amol 100 µL-1 europium solution (white 384-well plate), respectively.

  8. Can comprehensive specialised end-of-life care be provided at home? Lessons from a study of an innovative consultant-led community service in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, B; King, N; Woolmore, A; Hughes, P; Winslow, M; Melvin, J; Brooks, J; Bravington, A; Ingleton, C; Bath, P A

    2015-03-01

    The Midhurst Macmillan Specialist Palliative Care Service (MMSPCS) is a UK, medical consultant-led, multidisciplinary team aiming to provide round-the-clock advice and care, including specialist interventions, in the home, community hospitals and care homes. Of 389 referrals in 2010/11, about 85% were for cancer, from a population of about 155 000. Using a mixed method approach, the evaluation comprised: a retrospective analysis of secondary-care use in the last year of life; financial evaluation of the MMSPCS using an Activity Based Costing approach; qualitative interviews with patients, carers, health and social care staff and MMSPCS staff and volunteers; a postal survey of General Practices; and a postal survey of bereaved caregivers using the MMSPCS. The mean cost is about 3000 GBP (3461 EUR) per patient with mean cost of interventions for cancer patients in the last year of life 1900 GBP (2192 EUR). Post-referral, overall costs to the system are similar for MMSPCS and hospice-led models; however, earlier referral avoided around 20% of total costs in the last year of life. Patients and carers reported positive experiences of support, linked to the flexible way the service worked. Seventy-one per cent of patients died at home. This model may have application elsewhere. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Commentary on community-led total sanitation and human rights: should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jamie; Charles, Katrina; Evans, Barbara; O'Hanlon, Lucinda; Pedley, Steve

    2012-12-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve the proportion of the population without access to basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015. The slow pace of progress has lead to a search for innovative responses, including social motivation approaches. One example of this type of approach is 'Community-led Total Sanitation' (CLTS). CLTS represents a major shift for sanitation projects and programmes in recognising the value of stopping open-defecation across the whole community, even when the individual toilets built are not necessarily wholly hygienic. However, recent publications on CLTS document a number of examples of practices which fail to meet basic ethical criteria and infringe human rights. There is a general theme in the CLTS literature encouraging the use of 'shame' or 'social stigma' as a tool for promoting behaviours. There are reported cases where monetary benefits to which individuals are otherwise entitled or the means to practice a livelihood are withheld to create pressures to conform. At the very extreme end of the scale, the investigation and punishment of violence has reportedly been denied if the crime occurred while defecating in the open, violating rights to a remedy and related access to justice. While social mobilisation in general, and CLTS in particular, have drastically and positively changed the way we think about sanitation, they neither need nor benefit from an association with any infringements of human rights.

  10. A New Challenge to Research Ethics: Patients-Led Research (PLR) and the Role of Internet Based Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Eugenia; Salinas, Rodrigo; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the development of health-related social networks is the emergence of internet-based virtual communities, composed of patients. These communities go beyond the mere interchange of information concerning their conditions, intervening in the planning and execution of clinical research, including randomised controlled trials, in collaboration with health professionals. That was the case, in 2009, when patients suffering amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a rare and severe disease, conducted a clinical trial in USA, organising themselves through an online platform. This initiative launched a new model for the planning and conduction of clinical research: "Participants-Led Research" (PLR). The distinctive particularities of this new research paradigm represent a challenge to the traditional standards used for judging the ethical soundness of clinical investigation. That is the case, for example, of informed consent. This article aims at identifying the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) posed by PLR and the relevant concepts that may help in solving them. The following issues, in particular, are analysed, that may give place to a new social contract for the ethical assessment of clinical research: consent for participating in research and personal integrity; data protection and confidentiality; benefits sharing and intellectual property.

  11. The necessary contradictions of 'community-led' health promotion: a case study of HIV prevention in an Indian red light district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Flora; Ghosh, Riddhi

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion interventions with marginalised groups are increasingly expected to demonstrate genuine community participation in their design and delivery. However, ideals of egalitarian democratic participation are far removed from the starting point of the hierarchical and exploitative social relations that typically characterise marginalised communities. What scope is there for health promotion projects to implement ideals of community leadership within the realities of marginalisation and inequality? We examine how the Sonagachi Project, a successful sex-worker-led HIV prevention project in India, has engaged with the unequal social relations in which it is embedded. Our ethnographic study is based on observation of the Project's participatory activities and 39 interviews with a range of its stakeholders (including sex worker employees of the Project, non-sex-worker development professionals, brothel managers, sex workers' clients). The analysis shows that the project is deeply shaped by its relationships with non-sex-worker interest groups. In order to be permitted access to the red light district, it has had to accommodate the interests of local men's clubs and brothel managers. The economic and organisational capacity to run such a project has depended upon the direct input of development professionals and funding agencies. Thus, the 'community' that leads this project is much wider than a local grouping of marginalised sex workers. We argue that, given existing power relations, the engagement with other interest groups was necessary to the project's success. Moreover, as the project has developed, sex workers' interests and leadership have gained increasing prominence. We suggest that existing optimistic expectations of participation inhibit acknowledgement of the troubling work of balancing power relations. Rather than denying such power relations, projects should be expected to plan for them.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people: Results of a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Bosmans, Judith E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people in comparison with usual care. We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside a cluster randomized trial with one-year follow-up. Participants were aged ≥ 70 years and at increased risk of functional decline. Participants in the intervention group (n = 1209) received a comprehensive geriatric assessment and individually tailored multifactorial interventions coordinated by a community-care registered nurse with multiple follow-up visits. The control group (n = 1074) received usual care. Costs were assessed from a healthcare perspective. Outcome measures included disability (modified Katz-Activities of Daily Living (ADL) index score), and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Statistical uncertainty surrounding Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) was estimated using bootstrapped bivariate regression models while adjusting for confounders. There were no statistically significant differences in Katz-ADL index score and QALYs between the two groups. Total mean costs were significantly higher in the intervention group (EUR 6518 (SE 472) compared with usual care (EUR 5214 (SE 338); adjusted mean difference €1457 (95% CI: 572; 2537). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the maximum probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.14 at a willingness to pay (WTP) of EUR 50,000 per one point improvement on the Katz-ADL index score and 0.04 at a WTP of EUR 50,000 per QALY gained. The current intervention was not cost-effective compared to usual care to prevent or postpone new disabilities over a one-year period. Based on these findings, implementation of the evaluated multifactorial nurse-led care model is not to be recommended.

  13. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng....../L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED...... excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems....

  14. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Petersen, Paul Michael; Pedersen, Christian

    2016-09-19

    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng/L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems.

  15. Project-Based Learning with an Online Peer Assessment System in a Photonics Instruction for Enhancing LED Design Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Kuo, Yen-Kuang; You, Li-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a novel instructional approach, a two-stage LED simulation of Project-based learning (PBL) course with online peer assessment (OPA), and explored how to apply OPA to the different structured problems in a PBL course to enhance students' professional skills in LED design as well as meta-cognitive thinking. The participants of…

  16. Multi-band transmission color filters for multi-color white LEDs based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixia; Zhu, Zhendong; Gu, Huarong; Chen, Mengzhu; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based visible light communication (VLC) can provide license-free bands, high data rates, and high security levels, which is a promising technique that will be extensively applied in future. Multi-band transmission color filters with enough peak transmittance and suitable bandwidth play a pivotal role for boosting signal-noise-ratio in VLC systems. In this paper, multi-band transmission color filters with bandwidth of dozens nanometers are designed by a simple analytical method. Experiment results of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) tri-band color filters demonstrate the effectiveness of the multi-band transmission color filters and the corresponding analytical method.

  17. A Complete MCDM Model for NPD Performance Assessment in an LED-Based Lighting Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, industries and economies have undergone rapid development and expansion over the last several decades. As a result, global warming and environmental contaminations have resulted in climate change and jeopardized food security. In many developing countries, already decreasing crop yields are threatened by extreme weather and soil damaged by genetically modified food, making environmental problems worse and increasing food and organic product prices. For these reasons, this study proposes a hybrid multicriteria decision-making (MCDM model for new product development (NPD in the light-emitting diode- (LED- based lighting plant factory. First, literature reviews and expert interviews are employed in constructing a list of decision-making objectives and criteria for new product development. Then, a fuzzy Delphi method (FDM is used to screen the elements of the objectives and criteria, while a fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (FDEMATEL is used to determine the relationships among the objectives and criteria. Finally, a fuzzy analytic network process (FANP and a composite priority vector (CPV are manipulated to determine the relative importance weights of the critical objectives and criteria. Results show that the proposed method can create a useful and assessable MCDM model for decision-making applications in new product development, and a case study is herein performed to validate the feasibility of the proposed model in a Taiwanese LED-based lighting plant factory, which not only provides the decision-makers with a feasible hierarchical data structure for decision-making guidance but also increases the competitive advantages of trade-offs on developing novel products.

  18. High-speed photoacoustic imaging using an LED-based photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoto; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun; Shigeta, Yusuke; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Agano, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    Recently we developed a multispectral LED-based photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system (AcousticX) and have been continuously working on its technical/functional improvements. AcousticX is a linear array ultrasound transducer (128 elements, 10 MHz)-based system in which LED arrays (selectable wavelengths, pulse repetition frequency: 4 kHz, pulse width: tunable from 40 - 100 ns) are fixed on both sides of the transducer to illuminate the tissue for photoacoustic imaging. The ultrasound/photoacoustic data from all 128 elements can be simultaneously acquired, processed and displayed. We already demonstrated our system's capability to perform photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging for dynamic imaging of the tissue at a frame rate of 10 Hz (for example to visualize the pulsation of arteries in vivo in human subjects). In this work, we present the development of a new high-speed imaging mode in AcousticX. In this mode, instead of toggling between ultrasound and photoacoustic measurements, it is possible to continuously acquire only photoacoustic data for 1.5 seconds with a time interval of 1 ms. With this improvement, we can record photoacoustic signals from the whole aperture (38 mm) at fast rate and can be reviewed later at different speeds for analyzing dynamic changes in the photoacoustic signals. We believe that AcousticX with this new high-speed mode opens up a feasible technical path for multiple dynamic studies, for example one which focus on imaging the response of voltage sensitive dyes. We envisage to improve the acquisition speed further in future for exploring ultra-high-speed applications.

  19. Building a community-based culture of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum......, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on europium chelate as a fluorescent marker. The system performance was tested with the immunoassay based...... on the cardiac marker, TnI. The same signal-to-noise ratio as for the flash lamp based system was obtained, operating the LED below specified maximum current. The background counts of the system and its main contributors were measured and analyzed. The background of the system of the LED based unit was improved...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people : Results of a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Charente, Eric P. Moll; Bosmans, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people in comparison with usual care. Methods We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside a cluster randomized trial with one-year

  2. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people: Results of a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Bosmans, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people in comparison with usual care. Methods We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside a cluster randomized trial with one-year

  3. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people : Results of a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Bosmans, Judith E

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people in comparison with usual care. METHODS: We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside a cluster randomized trial with one-year

  4. An Approach to Monitor and Initiate Community Led Actions for Antenatal Care in Rural India – A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongre AR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Utilization of antenatal care in rural India is far from universal. It requires monitoring and identification of specific needs at field level for timely corrective actions. To pilot test the triangulation of rapid quantitative (Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and qualitative (Focus Group Discussion monitoring tools for ensuring antenatal care in a community based program. Methods: The present study was undertaken in surrounding 23 villages of Kasturba Rural Health Training Centre (KRHTC, Anji, which is also a field practice area of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS, Sewagram. The monthly monitoring and action system of the study was based on the rapid quantitative monitoring tool (Lot Quality Assurance Sampling, LQASto find out poor performing supervision areas and overall antenatal service coverage and the qualitative methods (Focus group discussions (FGDs, and free listing for exploring ongoing operational constraints in the processes for timely decision making at program and community level. A trained program supervisor paid house visit to 95 randomly selected pregnant women from 5 supervision areas by using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. For poor performing indicators, semi structured FGDs and free listing exercise were undertaken to identify unmet service needs and reasons for its poor performance. Results: Registration of pregnancy within 12 weeks improved from 22.8% to 29.6%. The consumption of 100 or more IFA tablets during pregnancy significantly improved from 6.3% to 17.3%. There was significant improvement in awareness among pregnant women regarding danger signs and symptoms during pregnancy. Over three months period, the overall antenatal registration improved from 253 (67% to 327 (86.7%. Conclusion: The present field based monitoring and action approach constructively identified the reasons for failures and directed specific collective actions to achieve the targets.

  5. Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.; Lu, T.C.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.; Hsu, T.C.; Hsieh, M.H.; Jou, M.J.; Lee, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    A chemical wet etching technique is presented to form a nano-roughened surface with triangle-like morphology on n-side-up AlGaInP-based LEDs fabricated by adopting adhesive layer bonding scheme. A simple and commonly used H 3 PO 4 -based solution was applied for chemical wet etching. The morphology of nano-roughened surfaces is analyzed by the atomic force microscope (AFM) and significantly related to the enhancement factor of the LED output power. The output power shows 80% increase after optimizing the nano-roughened morphology of n-side surface, as compared to the ordinary flat surface LED

  6. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on ...

  7. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on europium chelate as a fluorescent marker. The system performance was tested with the immunoassay based on the cardiac marker, TnI. The same signal-to-noise ratio as for the flash lamp based system was obtained, operating the LED below specified maximum current. The background counts of the system and its main contributors were measured and analyzed. The background of the system of the LED based unit was improved by 39% compared to that of the Xenon flash lamp based unit, due to the LEDs narrower emission spectrum and longer pulse width. Key parameters of the LED system are discussed to further optimize the signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-background, and hence the sensitivity of the instrument.

  8. The difference nanocomposite hardness level using LED photoactivation based on curing period variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasiana Tatian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polimerizatian is the critical stage to determine the quality of composites resin, this involves isolated monomer carbon double bonds being converted to an extended network of single bonds. Physical and mechanical properties of composites are influenced by the level of conversion attained during polymerization. An adequate light intensity and light curing time are important to obtain the degree of polymerization. The objective of this study is to evaluate the difference of the hardness nanocomposites which activated by LED LCU based on the variation of curing times. This study is a true experimental research. The samples were made from nanocomposites material with cylinder form of 4 mm in depth, 6 mm in diameter. This samples divided into 3 groups of curing times. Group, I was cured for 20's curing time as a control due to manufactory recommended; Group II was cured for 30's, and Group III was cured for 40's and the hardness (Rebound hardness tester was determined using Rebound scale (RS and converted by Mohs scale (MS. There was a very significant level of hardness rate from each group using ANOVA test. The result of the study concludes that there were the differences on the nanocomposites hardness level cured under different curing times 20, 30 and 40 sec. The longer of curing times, the higher level of hardness.

  9. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  10. Design method of freeform light distribution lens for LED automotive headlamp based on DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianshe; Huang, Jianwei; Su, Ping; Cui, Yao

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform light distribution lens for light-emitting diode (LED) automotive headlamp based on digital micro mirror device (DMD). With the Parallel optical path architecture, the exit pupil of the illuminating system is set in infinity. Thus the principal incident rays of micro lens in DMD is parallel. DMD is made of high speed digital optical reflection array, the function of distribution lens is to distribute the emergent parallel rays from DMD and get a lighting pattern that fully comply with the national regulation GB 25991-2010.We use DLP 4500 to design the light distribution lens, mesh the target plane regulated by the national regulation GB 25991-2010 and correlate the mesh grids with the active mirror array of DLP4500. With the mapping relations and the refraction law, we can build the mathematics model and get the parameters of freeform light distribution lens. Then we import its parameter into the three-dimensional (3D) software CATIA to construct its 3D model. The ray tracing results using Tracepro demonstrate that the Illumination value of target plane is easily adjustable and fully comply with the requirement of the national regulation GB 25991-2010 by adjusting the exit brightness value of DMD. The theoretical optical efficiencies of the light distribution lens designed using this method could be up to 92% without any other auxiliary lens.

  11. Community led active schools programme (CLASP) exploring the implementation of health interventions in primary schools: headteachers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Danielle; Todd, Charlotte; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead

    2015-03-13

    Schools are repeatedly utilised as a key setting for health interventions. However, the translation of effective research findings to the school setting can be problematic. In order to improve effective translation of future interventions, it is imperative key challenges and facilitators of implementing health interventions be understood from a school's perspective. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in primary schools (headteachers n = 16, deputy headteacher n = 1, healthy school co-ordinator n = 2). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. The main challenges for schools in implementing health interventions were; government-led academic priorities, initiative overload, low autonomy for schools, lack of staff support, lack of facilities and resources, litigation risk and parental engagement. Recommendations to increase the application of interventions into the school setting included; better planning and organisation, greater collaboration with schools and external partners and elements addressing sustainability. Child-centred and cross-curricular approaches, inclusive whole school approaches and assurances to be supportive of the school ethos were also favoured for consideration. This work explores schools' perspectives regarding the implementation of health interventions and utilises these thoughts to create guidelines for developing future school-based interventions. Recommendations include the need to account for variability between school environments, staff and pupils. Interventions with an element of adaptability were preferred over the delivery of blanket fixed interventions. Involving schools in the developmental stage would add useful insights to ensure the interventions can be tailored to best suit each individual schools' needs and improve implementation.

  12. Testing a high-power LED based light source for hyperspectral imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomkaew, Phiwat; Mayes, Sam A.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Our lab has worked to develop high-speed hyperspectral imaging systems that scan the fluorescence excitation spectrum for biomedical imaging applications. Hyperspectral imaging can be used in remote sensing, medical imaging, reaction analysis, and other applications. Here, we describe the development of a hyperspectral imaging system that comprised an inverted Nikon Eclipse microscope, sCMOS camera, and a custom light source that utilized a series of high-power LEDs. LED selection was performed to achieve wavelengths of 350-590 nm. To reduce scattering, LEDs with low viewing angles were selected. LEDs were surface-mount soldered and powered by an RCD. We utilized 3D printed mounting brackets to assemble all circuit components. Spectraradiometric calibration was performed using a spectrometer (QE65000, Ocean Optics) and integrating sphere (FOIS-1, Ocean Optics). Optical output and LED driving current were measured over a range of illumination intensities. A normalization algorithm was used to calibrate and optimize the intensity of the light source. The highest illumination power was at 375 nm (3300 mW/cm2), while the lowest illumination power was at 515, 525, and 590 nm (5200 mW/cm2). Comparing the intensities supplied by each LED to the intensities measured at the microscope stage, we found there was a great loss in power output. Future work will focus on using two of the same LEDs to double the power and finding more LED and/or laser diodes and chips around the range. This custom hyperspectral imaging system could be used for the detection of cancer and the identification of biomolecules.

  13. The Bluetooth Based LED Control For Arduino Test Platform By Using Mobile APP

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jen Mon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bluetooth is a commonly known convenient and famous communication protocol. In this paper it is used to control LED mounted on Arduino test platform by using the APP of mobile phone. At first the control program is completed by Arduino development software environment then the Android APP is installed in mobile phone. Finally by using the Bluetooth of mobile phone the test platform will be connected. The LED can be controlled by APP of mobile phone. The experiment results are dem...

  14. The impact of a community-led program promoting weight loss and healthy living in Aboriginal communities: the New South Wales Knockout Health Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Erin; Shepherd, Brooke; Milat, Andrew; Maher, Louise; Hennessey, Kiel; Havrlant, Rachael; Maxwell, Michelle; Hodge, Wendy; Christian, Fiona; Richards, Justin; Mitchell, Jo

    2017-12-13

    Aboriginal people in Australia experience significant health burden from chronic disease. There has been limited research to identify effective healthy lifestyle programs to address risk factors for chronic disease among Aboriginal people. The Knockout Health Challenge is a community-led healthy lifestyle program for Aboriginal communities across New South Wales, Australia. An evaluation of the 2013 Knockout Health Challenge was undertaken. Participants' self-reported physical activity and diet were measured at four time points - at the start and end of the Challenge (via paper form), and 5 and 9 months after the Challenge (via telephone survey). Participants' weight was measured objectively at the start and end of the Challenge, and self-reported (via telephone survey) 5 and 9 months after the Challenge. Changes in body composition, physical activity and diet between time points were analysed using linear mixed models. As part of the telephone survey participants were also asked to identify other impacts of the Challenge; these were analysed descriptively (quantitative items) and thematically (qualitative items). A total of 586 people registered in 22 teams to participate in the Challenge. The mean weight at the start was 98.54kg (SD 22.4), and 94% of participants were overweight or obese. Among participants who provided data at all four time points (n=122), the mean weight loss from the start to the end of the Challenge was 2.3kg (95%CI -3.0 to -1.9, pChallenge was 2.3kg (95%CI -3.3 to -1.3, pChallenge, and 0.8kg/m 2 (95%CI -1.2 to -0.4, pChallenge, participants reported they were more physically active and had increased fruit and vegetable consumption compared with the start of the Challenge, and identified a range of other positive impacts. The Challenge was effective in reducing weight and promoting healthy lifestyles among Aboriginal people across New South Wales, and has potential to contribute to closing the health gap between Aboriginal and non

  15. Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

  16. From Campuses to Communities: Community-Based Cultism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the criminal activities of the cult groups in the NDR and ineptitude of the police, communities have responded by creating vigilante groups but this has only promoted cycle of violence. The paper recommended that government should tackle community-based cultism and also strengthen the Nigeria Police Force to be ...

  17. Renewal Strategy and Community Based Organisations in Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    organisations in the study areas and Community-Based Poverty Reduction. Programme ... regions or areas. In Nigeria, for ... industries in the growing and developing urban areas. ..... Security network is also provided by the community. To ..... Development Efforts in Nigeria: Case Study of Anambra and Oyo State, NISER.

  18. GaAs Led based NIEL spectrometer for the space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.J.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Barry, A.L.; Ng, A.

    1999-01-01

    A NIEL (non-ionizing-energy-loss) spectrometer for the Mir space station is described. The NIEL spectrometer package contained 20 GaAs LEDs, 10 SiC LEDs and 13 locations for TLD-700s. In order to probe different energy regions of the radiation field, the package is divided into 4 compartments covered by absorbers of varying thicknesses. This device has been submitted to proton irradiation. The effects on both the response time and the intensity of the light were measured as a function of the fluence. One of the advantages of LEDs as radiation monitors is their sensitivity and it is shown that it would be possible to detect a fluence of 4*10 7 p/cm 2 of 10 MeV protons, with sensitivity scaled as 1/E for other energies. (A.C.)

  19. Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based LEDs with a bottom-up assembled photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Haibo; Hao Xiaopeng; Wu Yongzhong; Cao Bingqiang; Xia Wei; Xu Xiangang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were employed as a template. → A noninvasive photonic crystal was fabricated on the surface of GaN-based LED. → Periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes served as a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. → The electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced. - Abstract: Photonic crystal (PhC) structure is an efficient tool for light extraction from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fabrication of a large area PhC structure on the light output surface of LEDs often involves sophisticated equipments such as nanoimprint lithography machine. In this study a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) microspheres was employed as a template to fabricate a noninvasive photonic crystal of indium tin oxide (ITO) on the surface of GaN-based LED. PS spheres can help to form periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes, a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. Importantly, the electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced by 1.5 times compared to that of the conventional one under various forward injection currents.

  20. Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based LEDs with a bottom-up assembled photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Haibo [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Hao Xiaopeng, E-mail: xphao@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wu Yongzhong [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao Bingqiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Xia Wei [Shandong Huaguang Optoelectronics Company, Ltd., Jinan, 250101 (China); Xu Xiangang [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Shandong Huaguang Optoelectronics Company, Ltd., Jinan, 250101 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were employed as a template. > A noninvasive photonic crystal was fabricated on the surface of GaN-based LED. > Periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes served as a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. > The electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced. - Abstract: Photonic crystal (PhC) structure is an efficient tool for light extraction from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fabrication of a large area PhC structure on the light output surface of LEDs often involves sophisticated equipments such as nanoimprint lithography machine. In this study a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) microspheres was employed as a template to fabricate a noninvasive photonic crystal of indium tin oxide (ITO) on the surface of GaN-based LED. PS spheres can help to form periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes, a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. Importantly, the electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced by 1.5 times compared to that of the conventional one under various forward injection currents.

  1. Key Topics in Producing New Ultraviolet Led and Laser Devices Based on Transparent Semiconductor Zinc Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuezemen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been introduced that ZnO as II-VI semiconductor is promising various technological applications, especially for optoelectronic short wavelength light emitting devices due to its wide and direct band gap profile. The most important advantage of ZnO over the other currently used wide band gap semiconductors such as GaN is that its nearly 3 times higher exciton binding energy (60 meV), which permits efficient excitonic emission at room temperature and above. As-grown ZnO is normally n-type because of the Zn-rich defects such as zinc interstitials (Zn i ) oxygen vacancies (Vo), natively acting as shallow donors and main source of n-type conductivity in as-grown material. Therefore, making p-type ZnO has been more difficult due to unintentional compensation of possible acceptors by these residual donors. In order to develop electro luminescent and laser devices based on the ultraviolet (UV) exciton emission of ZnO, it will be important to fabricate good p-n junctions. Attempts to observe p-type conductivity in ours and our collaborators' laboratories in USA, either by co-doping with N or tuning O pressure have been first successful achievements, resulting in hole concentrations up to 10 1 9 cm - 3 in reactively sputtered thin layers of ZnO. Moreover, in order to produce ZnO based quantum well lasers similar to the previously introduced n-AlGaAs/GaAs/p-AlGaAs structures; we have attempted to grow Zn 1 -xSn x O thin films to enlarge the band gap energy. An increase up to 170 meV has been observed in Zn 1 -xSn x O thin films and this is enough barrier to be able to trap electron-hole pairs in quantum well structures. As a result, two important key issues; p-type conductivity and enhancement of the band gap energy in order to step forward towards the production of electro luminescent UV LEDs and quantum well lasers have been investigated and will be presented in this study

  2. Oblique-angle sputtered AlN nanocolumnar layer as a buffer layer in GaN-based LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Tien, Ching-Ho; Liao, Wei-Chian; Luo, Yi-Min

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an aluminum nitride (AlN) nanocolumnar layer sputtered at various oblique angles and its application as a buffer layer for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that are fabricated on sapphire substrates. The OA-AlN nanocolumnar layer has a diameter of about 30-60 nm. The GaN-based LED structure is perpendicularly extended from the OA-AlN nanocolumnar layer. Then, the nanocolumnar structure is merged into p-GaN layer to form a mesa structure with a diameter of about 200-600 nm on the surface of the GaN-based LED. Moreover, optical characteristics of the LED were studied using photoluminescence, along with the blue-shifts observed as well. - Research highlights: → An AlN nanocolumnar buffer layer prepared by oblique-angle (OA) deposition. → GaN-based LED structures were grown on a sapphire substrate with an AlN nanocolumnar buffer layer. → The OA-AlN nanocolumnar layer has a diameter of about 30-60 nm.

  3. Enabling factors for the improvement of nitride-based LED efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubsch, Ansgar; Bergbauer, Werner; Sabathil, Matthias; Peter, Matthias; Meyer, Tobias; Bruederl, Georg; Linder, Norbert; Streubel, Klaus; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold; Wagner, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the epitaxial growth of LEDs with InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructures has led to a significant enhancement of output power. In this talk, we will discuss the mechanisms limiting the devices' internal efficiency and identify enabling factors for further improvements. We compare samples with different Indium content as well as different design of the active layer. Although heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on sapphire generates high defect densities, non-radiative defect-related Shockley-Read-Hall recombination does not seem to substantially limit the efficiency of standard InGaN/GaN LED structures. We rather discuss a supplemental Auger-like non-radiative path for carrier recombination that becomes dominant at quantum-well carrier densities typical for LED operation. Additionally, the piezo-field induced reduced overlap of electron and hole wavefunction in standard c-plane grown InGaN quantum wells reduces the radiative recombination rate

  4. Effectiveness of structured, hospital-based, nurse-led atrial fibrillation clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Ina; Hendriks, Jeroen M L; Møller, Dorthe S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A previous randomised trial showed that structured, nurse-led atrial fibrillation (AF) care is superior to conventional AF care, although further research is needed to determine the outcomes of such care in a real-world setting. We compared the outcomes of patients in real-world, nurse...

  5. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED As Detector Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Diamond

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED-baseddevice developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol greenmembrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LEDfunctioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventionalemission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond it takes for thephotocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1 ( 5 Vto logic 0 ( 1.7 V. The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of lightintensity measurements for a few cents. A light dependent resistor (LDR modified withsimilar sensor membrane was also used as a comparison method. Both the LED sensor andthe LDR sensor responded to various pH buffer solutions in a similar way to obtainsigmoidal curves expected of the dye. The pKa value obtained for the sensors was found toagree with the literature value.

  6. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Petersen, Paul Michael; Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng/L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flas...

  7. A cost-effective LED and photodetector based fast direct 3D diffuse optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Manob Jyoti; Manjappa, Rakesh; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2017-07-01

    A cost-effective and high-speed 3D diffuse optical tomography system using high power LED light sources and silicon photodetectors has been designed and built, that can continuously scan and reconstruct spectroscopic images at a frame rate of 2 fps. The system is experimentally validated with tissue mimicking cylindrical resin phantom having light absorbing inhomogeneities of different size, shape and contrast, and at different locations.

  8. A new approach to correlate transport processes and optical efficiency in GaN-based LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavesi, M; Manfredi, M; Rossi, F; Salviati, G; Meneghini, M; Zanoni, E

    2009-01-01

    Carrier injection and non-radiative processes are determinants of the optical efficiency of InGaN/GaN LEDs. Among transport mechanisms, tunnelling is crucial for device functioning, but other contributions can be decisive on a varying bias. It is not easy to identify the weights and roles of these terms by a simple current-voltage characterization, so it needs a careful investigation by means of complementary experimental techniques. The correlation between luminescence and microscopic transport processes in InGaN/GaN LEDs has been investigated by means of a set of techniques: electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, current-voltage dc measurements and thermal admittance spectroscopy. Green and blue LEDs, designed with a multi-quantum-well injector layer and an optically active single-quantum-well, have been tested. They showed distinctive current and temperature dependences of the optical efficiency, with a better performance at room temperature observed for green devices. This was discussed in terms of the carrier injection efficiency controlled by electrically active traps. The comparative analysis of the optical and electrical experimental data comes in handy as a methodological approach to correlate the emission properties with the carrier injection mechanisms and to improve the functionality in a large number of quantum well heterostructures for lighting applications.

  9. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis using a senior-friendly peer-led community education and mentoring model: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloseck M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marita Kloseck,1,2 Deborah A Fitzsimmons,1,3,4 Mark Speechley,5 Marie Y Savundranayagam,1 Richard G Crilly1,2 1Sam Katz Community Health and Aging Research Unit, 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 3School of Nursing and Allied Health, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, ON, Canada Background: This randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluated a 6-month peer-led community education and mentorship program to improve the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis.Methods: Ten seniors (74–90 years of age were trained to become peer educators and mentors and deliver the intervention. In the subsequent RCT, 105 seniors (mean age =80.5±6.9; 89% female were randomly assigned to the peer-led education and mentorship program (n=53 or control group (n=52. Knowledge was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Success was defined as discussing osteoporosis risk with their family physician, obtaining a bone mineral density assessment, and returning to review their risk profile and receive advice and/or treatment.Results: Knowledge of osteoporosis did not change significantly. There was no difference in knowledge change between the two groups (mean difference =1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] of difference −0.76 to 3.36. More participants in the intervention group achieved a successful outcome (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.06–0.42, P<0.001.Conclusion: Peer-led education and mentorship can promote positive health behavior in seniors. This model was effective for improving osteoporosis risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a community setting. Keywords: prevention, seniors, mentor, bone mineral density, capacity building, community knowledge translation

  10. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Allender

    Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.

  11. Teaching Innovations in Marketing: A Brand-Based Student-Led Inquiry of Marketing Concepts and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Leonard R., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This teaching innovation is a brand-based student-led inquiry of marketing concepts and practices for an introductory marketing course. During the first week of class, teams of students (or individual students) each select a brand of interest to research and analyze throughout the course. The objective is for students to understand the practical…

  12. Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Shen, Chao; Prabaswara, Aditya; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alhamoud, Abdullah Ali; Alatawi, Abdullah Awaad; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    intensity- and bandwidth-tunable for high color-quality remained unexplored. In this paper, we present for the first time, the proof-of-concept of the generation of high-quality white light using an InGaN-based orange nanowires (NWs) LED grown on silicon

  13. Large-signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based micro-LED for Gbps visible-light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pengfei; Wu, Zhengyuan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Fang, Zhilai; Zhang, Shuailong; Zhou, Xiaolin; Liu, Kefu; Liu, Ming-Gang; Chen, Shu-Jhih; Lee, Chia-Yu; Cong, Chunxiao; Hu, Laigui; Qiu, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Lirong; Liu, Ran

    2018-04-01

    The large-signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based micro-LED have been studied for Gbps visible-light communication. With an increasing signal modulation depth the modulation bandwidth decreases, which matches up with the increase in the sum of the signal rise time and fall time. By simulating the band diagram and the carrier recombination rate of the micro-LED under large-signal modulation, carrier recombination and the carrier sweep-out effect are analyzed and found to be the dominant mechanisms behind the variation of modulation bandwidth. These results give further insight into improving the modulation bandwidth for high-speed visible-light communication.

  14. A pilot randomised controlled trial of community-led ANtipsychotic Drug REduction for Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Rachel; Randell, Elizabeth; Gillespie, David; Wood, Fiona; Felce, David; Romeo, Renee; Angel, Lianna; Espinasse, Aude; Hood, Kerry; Davies, Amy; Meek, Andrea; Addison, Katy; Jones, Glyn; Deslandes, Paul; Allen, David; Knapp, Martin; Thapar, Ajay; Kerr, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Data suggest that approximately 50,000 adults with learning disabilities (LDs) in England and Wales are currently prescribed antipsychotic medication. Illness in this population is common, including significant rates of challenging behaviour and mental illness, but there is particular concern over the use of antipsychotics prescribed for reasons other than the treatment of psychosis. Control of challenging behaviour is the primary reason why such medications are prescribed despite the absence of good evidence for any therapeutic effect for this purpose. To assess the feasibility of recruitment and retention and to explore non-efficacy-based barriers to a blinded antipsychotic medication withdrawal programme for adults with LDs without psychosis compared with treatment as usual. A secondary objective was to compare trial arms regarding clinical outcomes. A two-arm individually randomised double-blind placebo-controlled drug reduction trial. Recruitment was through community learning disability teams (CLDTs) in south Wales and south-west England. Adults with LDs who are prescribed risperidone for treatment of challenging behaviour with no known current psychosis or previous recurrence of psychosis following prior drug reduction. A double-blind drug reduction programme leading to full withdrawal within 6 months. Treatment in the intervention group was gradually reduced over a 6-month period and then maintained at the same level for a further 3 months, still under blind conditions. In the control group, the baseline level of medication was maintained throughout the 9-month period. The blind was broken at 9 months, following final data collection. Feasibility outcomes were (1) the number and proportion of general practices/CLDTs that progressed from initial approach to recruitment of participants and (2) the number and proportion of recruited participants who progressed through the various stages of the study. Trial arms were also compared regarding clinical outcomes

  15. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  16. Green LED as an Effective Light Source for Curing Acrylate-Based Dental Resins in Combination with Irgacure 784

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bukovinszky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low intensity green light emitting diodes (LED were shown to be an effective light source to induce the photopolymerization of an acrylate-based photocurable dental restorative resin mixture of bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, and diurethane dimethacrylate (UDMA, in combination with fluorinated diaryl titanocene (Irgacure 784. Dental matrices were prepared by the LED light source at different intensities. The mechanical properties, such as Vickers microhardness, compressive strength, diametric tensile strength, flexural strength, and E-modulus of the created samples, were investigated. The kinetics of the photopolymerization was followed by Raman spectroscopy and conversion values were determined. It was found that, despite its narrow-emission range centered at a wavelength of 531 nm, the green LED light source is suitable for the preparation of dental matrices with good mechanical properties and high conversion values.

  17. High efficiency GaN-based LEDs using plasma selective treatment of p-GaN surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Bae; Naoi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Shiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Takaki, Ryohei; Sato, Hisao [Nitride Semiconductor Co., Ltd., 115-7 Itayajima, Akinokami, Seto-cho, Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    We have studied a new method of increasing the extraction efficiency of a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) using a plasma surface treatment. In this method, prior to the evaporation of a semitransparent p-metal, the surface of a p-GaN located beneath a p-pad is selectively exposed to a nitrogen plasma in a reactive ion etching (RIE) chamber. The electrical characteristics of the plasma treated p-GaN remarkably changes its resistivity into semi-insulator without any parasitic damage. Since the LEDs with a new method have no light absorption in a p-pad region, a higher optical power can be extracted compared to a conventional LEDs without plasma selective treatment on the p-GaN surface. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Optogenetic activation of neocortical neurons in vivo with a sapphire-based micro-scale LED probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall eMcAlinden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetics has proven to be a revolutionary technology in neuroscience and has advanced continuously over the past decade. However, optical stimulation technologies for in vivo need to be developed to match the advances in genetics and biochemistry that have driven this field. In particular, conventional approaches for in vivo optical illumination have a limitation on the achievable spatio-temporal resolution. Here we utilize a sapphire-based microscale gallium nitride light-emitting diode (µLED probe to activate neocortical neurons in vivo. The probes were designed to contain independently controllable multiple µLEDs, emitting at 450 nm wavelength with an irradiance of up to 2 W/mm2. Monte-Carlo stimulations predicted that optical stimulation using a µLED can modulate neural activity within a localized region. To validate this prediction, we tested this probe in the mouse neocortex that expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 and compared the results with optical stimulation through a fiber at the cortical surface. We confirmed that both approaches reliably induced action potentials in cortical neurons and that the µLED probe evoked strong responses in deep neurons. Due to the possibility to integrate many optical stimulation sites onto a single shank, the µLED probe is thus a promising approach to control neurons locally in vivo.

  19. Prediction of Lumen Output and Chromaticity Shift in LEDs Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn

    2014-06-24

    Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have

  20. Using community-based participatory research in parish nursing: a win-win situation!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitlen, Lynn A; Bockstahler, Amie M; Belcher, Anne E

    2012-01-01

    Parish nurses contribute to community health through the expertise and programming they provide to and through faith communities. Application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles helps develop, implement, and evaluate effective community interventions. University graduate students partnered with a Hospital Parish Nurse Program (HPNP) in an urban community to provide assessment data in a CBPR project that led the HPNP to focus resources and interventions on high obesity rates. The HPNP utilized data to write grant proposals to expand community services to impact obesity.

  1. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  2. Family and community rejection and a Congolese led mediation intervention to reintegrate rejected survivors of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Tosha, Maphie; Ramazani, Paul; Safari, Octave; Bachunguye, Richard; Zahiga, Isaya; Iragi, Aline; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to describe the multiple and inter-related health, economic, and social reasons for rejection and to provide an example of a Congolese-led family mediation program to reintegrate survivors into their families. We conducted this study in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and included two focus group discussions and twenty-seven interviews. Rejection extends beyond physical dislocation to include economic and social aspects. Family mediation is a process requiring knowledge of traditions and norms. Understanding the context of rejection and supporting promising local reintegration efforts will likely improve health, economic, and social outcomes for the survivor, her family, and her community.

  3. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic chips based on the simplest LED lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Wu, Ping; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ren, Yuxuan; Liao, Meixiang; Feng, Lili; Li, Yuting; He, Liqun

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic chips are generally fabricated by a soft lithography method employing commercial lithography equipment. These heavy machines require a critical room environment and high lamp power, and the cost remains too high for most normal laboratories. Here we present a novel microfluidics fabrication method utilizing a portable ultraviolet (UV) LED as an alternative UV source for photolithography. With this approach, we can repeat several common microchannels as do these conventional commercial exposure machines, and both the verticality of the channel sidewall and lithography resolution are proved to be acceptable. Further microfluidics applications such as mixing, blood typing and microdroplet generation are implemented to validate the practicability of the chips. This simple but innovative method decreases the cost and requirement of chip fabrication dramatically and may be more popular with ordinary laboratories.

  4. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic chips based on the simplest LED lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yue; Wu, Ping; Liao, Meixiang; Feng, Lili; Li, Yuting; He, Liqun; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ren, Yuxuan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic chips are generally fabricated by a soft lithography method employing commercial lithography equipment. These heavy machines require a critical room environment and high lamp power, and the cost remains too high for most normal laboratories. Here we present a novel microfluidics fabrication method utilizing a portable ultraviolet (UV) LED as an alternative UV source for photolithography. With this approach, we can repeat several common microchannels as do these conventional commercial exposure machines, and both the verticality of the channel sidewall and lithography resolution are proved to be acceptable. Further microfluidics applications such as mixing, blood typing and microdroplet generation are implemented to validate the practicability of the chips. This simple but innovative method decreases the cost and requirement of chip fabrication dramatically and may be more popular with ordinary laboratories. (paper)

  5. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo, E-mail: jxliuyd@163.com [School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Changbei Open and Developing District, Nanchang, 330013 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62{sup 0}Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  6. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62 0 Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  7. Electroluminescence and rectifying properties of heterojunction LEDs based on ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Chandra Sekhar; Rao, C N R

    2008-01-01

    n-ZnO NR/p-Si and n-ZnO NR/p-PEDOT/PSS heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated with ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by a low-temperature method as well as by employing pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The low-temperature method involves growing the ZnO nanorods by the reaction of water with zinc metal. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunctions show good rectifying diode characteristics. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the nanorods show an emission band at around 390 nm and defect related bands in the 400-550 nm region. Room-temperature electroluminescence is detected under forward bias for both the heterostructures. With the low-temperature grown nanorods, the defect related bands in the 400-550 nm range are more intense in the EL spectra, whereas with the PLD grown nanorods, only the 390 nm band is prominent

  8. In-situ metrology in multiwafer reactors during MOVPE of AIN-based UV-LEDs (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Arne; Brunner, Frank; Kolbe, Tim; Hagedorn, Sylvia; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus

    2017-02-01

    UV-LEDs are of great interest for applications like disinfection, gas sensing, and phototherapy. The cost sensitive LEDs are commonly grown by MOVPE on transparent AlN/sapphire templates. The large thermal and lattice mismatch between AlN and sapphire generates a very high dislocation density (DD) and causes big challenges in strain management. The threading dislocation density should be reduced to the order of low 108cm-2 for high internal efficiency of the AlGaN based UV-LED structures. The TDD will be reduced mainly by dislocation annihilation during the growth of thick Al(Ga)N layers, which is a challenge in terms of strain management. We present how in-situ reflectometry and curvature measurement (EpiCurveTT(at)LayTec) in commercial multiwafer growth reactors helps to optimize the growth processes concerning growth rates, surface roughening and avoidance of layer cracking on 2inch substrates and enhance the reproducibility of epitaxial growth. The growth of up to 3 μm thick planar AlN templates and up-to 10 μm thick AlN/sapphire templates by epitaxial lateral overgrowth of stripe patterned templates for UV-C LED structures will be highlighted. The implementation of different types of AlN/GaN superlattices for the subsequent growth of up to 5μm thick Al0.5Ga0.5N layer for UVB LED structures will be shown. Correlations to ex-situ measurements like X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis of defects in the LED structures will be shown. Some challenges of in-situ control through very narrow viewports as in Close Coupled Showerhead reactors will be discussed as well as the influence of silicon doping on curvature and dislocation density in Al(Ga)N layers.

  9. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  10. Comparison of effect of TDS and Fe in uranium measurement in LED and Xe lamp based fluorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Mohapatra, S.; Lenka, P.; Dubey, J.S.; Patra, A.C.; Thakur, V.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of TDS and Fe on uranium fluorescence in water samples is studied by fluorometric techniques based on LED and xenon lamp systems. Fluorimeters are calibrated with uranium standards to establish the relationship between concentration and fluorescence response. Known concentration of uranium standard solution is measured in both LED and Xe lamp based fluorimeter after spiking with a series of concentration of Fe and TDS solution. Most often high levels of TDS are caused by the presence of K, CI, Na, etc. Thus here the effect of TDS is studied with NaCI solution but the effect may differ with the presence other elements. Details of the optimization procedure and measurement of uranium concentration in fluorometric technique are given elsewhere. In LED based system, sodium pyrophosphate with phosphoric acid is used as the complexing agent while sodium polysilicate is used in Xe lamp based system. Fe standard solution of 0.1 to 10 ppm was spiked with known uranium standard and analysed in both the fluorimeters. The fluorescence response gradually decreased upto 50% with 10 ppm of Fe in the solution in the LED based system whereas there was a gradual decrease of fluorescence response with increase in Fe concentration and it was 60% with 10 ppm of Fe. Thus both the instruments show nearly equal response with the increasing concentration of Fe in sample solution. Therefore, in case of high TDS and Fe content in the sample, precautions should be taken during measurement of uranium in water samples directly by fluorimetric techniques

  11. Measurement of the indium segregation in InGaN based LEDs with single atom sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinschek, Joerg; Kisielowski, Christian; Van Dyck, Dirk; Geuens, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In light emitting diodes (LED) consisting of GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs), the exact indium distribution inside the wells of the active region affects the performance of devices. Indium segregation can take place forming small InGaN clusters of locally varying composition. In the past, we used a local strain analysis from single HRTEM lattice images to determine the In composition inside the InGaN QWs with a resolution of 0.5 nm x 0.3 nm. Truly atomic resolution can be pursued by exploitation of intensity dependencies on the atomic number (Z) of the electron exit-wave (EW). In microscopes with sufficient sensitivity, local variations of amplitude and phase are found to be discrete with sample thickness, which allows for counting the number of atoms in each individual column of ∼0.08 nm diameter. In QW s of ∼17 percent of average indium concentration it is possible to discriminate between pure Ga columns and columns containing 1, 2, 3, or more In atoms because phase changes are discrete and element specific. The preparation of samples with atomically flat surfaces is a limiting factor for the application of the procedure

  12. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis using a senior-friendly peer-led community education and mentoring model: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloseck, Marita; Fitzsimmons, Deborah A; Speechley, Mark; Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Crilly, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated a 6-month peer-led community education and mentorship program to improve the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Ten seniors (74-90 years of age) were trained to become peer educators and mentors and deliver the intervention. In the subsequent RCT, 105 seniors (mean age =80.5±6.9; 89% female) were randomly assigned to the peer-led education and mentorship program (n=53) or control group (n=52). Knowledge was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Success was defined as discussing osteoporosis risk with their family physician, obtaining a bone mineral density assessment, and returning to review their risk profile and receive advice and/or treatment. Knowledge of osteoporosis did not change significantly. There was no difference in knowledge change between the two groups (mean difference =1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] of difference -0.76 to 3.36). More participants in the intervention group achieved a successful outcome (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.06-0.42, P seniors. This model was effective for improving osteoporosis risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a community setting.

  13. Characterization of an array of honeys of different types and botanical origins through fluorescence emission based on LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra-Mejías, Miguel; Torreblanca-Zanca, Albertina; Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Izquierdo, Jesús G; Torrecilla, José S

    2018-08-01

    A set of 10 honeys comprising a diverse range of botanical origins have been successfully characterized through fluorescence spectroscopy using inexpensive light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources. It has been proven that each LED-honey combination tested originates a unique emission spectrum, which enables the authentication of every honey, being able to correctly label it with its botanical origin. Furthermore, the analysis was backed up by a mathematical analysis based on partial least square models which led to a correct classification rate of each type of honey of over 95%. Finally, the same approach was followed to analyze rice syrup, which is a common honey adulterant that is challenging to identify when mixed with honey. A LED-dependent and unique fluorescence spectrum was found for the syrup, which presumably qualifies this approach for the design of uncomplicated, fast, and cost-effective quality control and adulteration assessing tools for different types of honey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement of surface light extraction from flip-chip GaN-based LED by embossing of thermosetting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Kui; Zhang, Bei; Wang, ZhiMin; Dai, Tao; Kang, XiangNing; Chen, ZhiZhong; Xu, Ke; Ji, Hang; Chen, Yong; Gan, ZiZhao [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-07-01

    In this report, a further improvement of surface light extraction from flip-chip GaN-based LED was obtained by the micro patterning of encapsulation on the sapphire. The two dimensional taper arrays with period from 6 to 10 micron were successfully realized on polymer encapsulation by a simple and low cost technique so called embossing of thermosetting polymers. As a preliminary demonstration, at least 1.74 enhancement of the surface output intensity was achieved in the 1 mm x 1 mm GaN-based LED device under the injection current of 350 mA. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. TESS Follow-up Observing Program (TFOP) Working Group:A Mission-led Effort to Coordinate Community Resources to Confirm TESS Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Dragomir, Diana; Crossfield, Ian; Seager, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will observe most of the sky over a period of two years. Observations will be conducted in 26 sectors of sky coverage and each sector will be observed for ~27 days. Data from each sector is expected to produce hundreds of transiting planet candidates (PCs) per month and thousands over the two year nominal mission. The TFOP Working Group (WG) is a mission-led effort organized to efficiently provide follow-up observations to confirm candidates as planets or reject them as false positives. The primary goal of the TFOP WG is to facilitate achievement of the Level One Science Requirement to measure masses for 50 transiting planets smaller than 4 Earth radii. Secondary goals are to serve any science coming out of TESS and to foster communication and coordination both within the TESS Science Team and with the community at large. The TFOP WG is organized as five Sub Groups (SGs). SG1 will provide seeing-limited imaging to measure blending within a candidate's aperture and time-series photometry to identify false positives and in some cases to improve ephemerides, light curves, and/or transit time variation (TTV) measurements. SG2 will provide reconnaissance spectroscopy to identify astrophysical false positives and to contribute to improved host star parameters. SG3 will provide high-resolution imaging with adaptive optics, speckle imaging, and lucky imaging to detect nearby objects. SG4 will provide precise radial velocities to derive orbits of planet(s) and measure their mass(es) relative to the host star. SG5 will provide space-based photometry to confirm and/or improve the TESS photometric ephemerides, and will also provide improved light curves for transit events or TTV measurements. We describe the TFOP WG observing and planet confirmation process, the five SGs that comprise the TFOP WG, ExoFOP-TESS and other web-based tools being developed to support TFOP WG observers, other advantages of joining the TFOP WG, the TFOP

  16. Active tracking system for visible light communication using a GaN-based micro-LED and NRZ-OOK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhijian; Tian, Pengfei; Chen, Hong; Baranowski, Izak; Fu, Houqiang; Huang, Xuanqi; Montes, Jossue; Fan, Youyou; Wang, Hongyi; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Yuji

    2017-07-24

    Visible light communication (VLC) holds the promise of a high-speed wireless network for indoor applications and competes with 5G radio frequency (RF) system. Although the breakthrough of gallium nitride (GaN) based micro-light-emitting-diodes (micro-LEDs) increases the -3dB modulation bandwidth exceptionally from tens of MHz to hundreds of MHz, the light collected onto a fast photo receiver drops dramatically, which determines the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of VLC. To fully implement the practical high data-rate VLC link enabled by a GaN-based micro-LED, it requires focusing optics and a tracking system. In this paper, we demonstrate an active on-chip tracking system for VLC using a GaN-based micro-LED and none-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK). Using this novel technique, the field of view (FOV) was enlarged to 120° and data rates up to 600 Mbps at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.1×10 -4 were achieved without manual focusing. This paper demonstrates the establishment of a VLC physical link that shows enhanced communication quality by orders of magnitude, making it optimized for practical communication applications.

  17. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  18. Strategy community development based on local resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.

  19. Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2016-08-10

    Group-III-nitride laser diode (LD)-based solid-state lighting device has been demonstrated to be droop-free compared to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and highly energy-efficient compared to that of the traditional incandescent and fluorescent white light systems. The YAG:Ce3+ phosphor used in LD-based solid-state lighting, however, is associated with rapid degradation issue. An alternate phosphor/LD architecture, which is capable of sustaining high temperature, high power density, while still intensity- and bandwidth-tunable for high color-quality remained unexplored. In this paper, we present for the first time, the proof-of-concept of the generation of high-quality white light using an InGaN-based orange nanowires (NWs) LED grown on silicon, in conjunction with a blue LD, and in place of the compound-phosphor. By changing the relative intensities of the ultrabroad linewidth orange and narrow-linewidth blue components, our LED/LD device architecture achieved correlated color temperature (CCT) ranging from 3000 K to above 6000K with color rendering index (CRI) values reaching 83.1, a value unsurpassed by the YAG-phosphor/blue-LD counterpart. The white-light wireless communications was implemented using the blue LD through on-off keying (OOK) modulation to obtain a data rate of 1.06 Gbps. We therefore achieved the best of both worlds when orange-emitting NWs LED are utilized as “active-phosphor”, while blue LD is used for both color mixing and optical wireless communications.

  20. Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance ... in data collection, and another module that facilitates gender responsive and ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  1. What Goes Around: the process of building a community-based harm reduction research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Chelsea; Illsley, Shohan; Wylie, John; Migliardi, Paula; West, Ethan; Stewart, Debbie; Mignone, Javier

    2017-11-16

    Often, research takes place on underserved populations rather than with underserved populations. This approach can further isolate and stigmatize groups that are already made marginalized. What Goes Around is a community-based research project that was led by community members themselves (Peers). This research aimed to implement a community-based research methodology grounded in the leadership and growing research capacity of community researchers and to investigate a topic which community members identified as important and meaningful. Chosen by community members, this project explored how safer sex and safer drug use information is shared informally among Peers. Seventeen community members actively engaged as both community researchers and research participants throughout all facets of the project: inception, implementation, analysis, and dissemination of results. Effective collaboration between community researchers, a community organization, and academics facilitated a research process in which community members actively guided the project from beginning to end. The methods used in What Goes Around demonstrated that it is not only possible, but advantageous, to draw from community members' involvement and direction in all stages of a community-based research project. This is particularly important when working with a historically underserved population. Purposeful and regular communication among collaborators, ongoing capacity building, and a commitment to respect the experience and expertise of community members were essential to the project's success. This project demonstrated that community members are highly invested in both informally sharing information about safer sex and safer drug use and taking leadership roles in directing research that prioritizes harm reduction in their communities.

  2. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  3. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  4. 29 January 2013 - Japanese Toshiba Corporation Executive Officer and Corporate Senior Vice President O. Maekawa in the ATLAS visitor centre with representatives of the CERN-Japanese community led by Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    29 January 2013 - Japanese Toshiba Corporation Executive Officer and Corporate Senior Vice President O. Maekawa in the ATLAS visitor centre with representatives of the CERN-Japanese community led by Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  5. Consumer-led development of novel sea buckthorn-based beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Julie; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Giacalone, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In the context of a growing interest toward foods of local origin, this research explored consumer perceptions of novel sea-buckthorn-based beverages (SBBs), developed by combining sea-buckthorn (hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries in combination with other locally sourced ingredients. Specifically...... characteristics were the most important drivers of consumer preferences within this product category. Practical Applications This study offers new insights into consumers’ perception of novel food products of local origin. A key issue with such ingredients is that they have unique sensory properties which...... are unfamiliar to many consumers. We suggest evidence-based directions for product development and identify potential barriers to adoption that food producers should be aware of. Methodologically, this study shows a stepwise approach to consumer-driven product development that effectively differentiated between...

  6. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  7. N-polar InGaN-based LEDs fabricated on sapphire via pulsed sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kohei; Kishikawa, Eiji; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    High-quality N-polar GaN epitaxial films with an atomically flat surface were grown on sapphire (0001) via pulsed sputtering deposition, and their structural and electrical properties were investigated. The crystalline quality of N-polar GaN improves with increasing film thickness and the full width at half maximum values of the x-ray rocking curves for 0002 and 101 ¯ 2 diffraction were 313 and 394 arcsec, respectively, at the film thickness of 6 μ m . Repeatable p-type doping in N-polar GaN films was achieved using Mg dopant, and their hole concentration and mobility can be controlled in the range of 8 × 1016-2 × 1018 cm-3 and 2-9 cm2V-1s-1, respectively. The activation energy of Mg in N-polar GaN based on a temperature-dependent Hall measurement was estimated to be 161 meV, which is comparable to that of the Ga-polar GaN. Based on these results, we demonstrated the fabrication of N-polar InGaN-based light emitting diodes with the long wavelength up to 609 nm.

  8. N-polar InGaN-based LEDs fabricated on sapphire via pulsed sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Ueno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High-quality N-polar GaN epitaxial films with an atomically flat surface were grown on sapphire (0001 via pulsed sputtering deposition, and their structural and electrical properties were investigated. The crystalline quality of N-polar GaN improves with increasing film thickness and the full width at half maximum values of the x-ray rocking curves for 0002 and 101¯2 diffraction were 313 and 394 arcsec, respectively, at the film thickness of 6μm. Repeatable p-type doping in N-polar GaN films was achieved using Mg dopant, and their hole concentration and mobility can be controlled in the range of 8 × 1016–2 × 1018 cm−3 and 2–9 cm2V−1s−1, respectively. The activation energy of Mg in N-polar GaN based on a temperature-dependent Hall measurement was estimated to be 161 meV, which is comparable to that of the Ga-polar GaN. Based on these results, we demonstrated the fabrication of N-polar InGaN-based light emitting diodes with the long wavelength up to 609 nm.

  9. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.

  10. Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanquan; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun; Shang, Huiliang

    2013-01-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel full-duplex bi-directional subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) system based on commercially available red-green-blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) and phosphor-based LED (P-LED) with 575-Mb/s downstream and 225-Mb/s upstream transmission, employing various modulation orders of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). For the downlink, red and green colors/wavelengths are assigned to carry useful information, while blue chip is just kept lighting to maintain the white color illumination, and for the uplink, the low-cost P-LED is implemented. In this demonstration, pre-equalization and post-equalization are also adopted to compensate the severe frequency response of LEDs. Using this scheme, 4-user downlink and 1-user uplink transmission can be achieved. Furthermore, it can support more users by adjusting the bandwidth of each sub-channel. Bit error rates (BERs) of all links are below pre-forward-error-correction (pre-FEC) threshold of 3.8x 10(-3) after 66-cm free-space delivery. The results show that this scheme has great potential in the practical VLC system.

  11. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calciati, Marco; Vallone, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Goano, Michele, E-mail: michele.goano@polito.it; Bertazzi, Francesco [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); IEIIT-CNR, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bellotti, Enrico [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, 02215 Boston, MA (United States); Verzellesi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10{sup −30} cm{sup 6}/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary

  12. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calciati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescence (EL characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs, coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs. First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10−30 cm6/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary

  13. LED-FISH: Fluorescence microscopy based on light emitting diodes for the molecular analysis of Her-2/neu oncogene amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Light emitting diodes (LED, which are available as small monochromatic light sources with characteristic features such as maximum illumination power combined with minimum energy consumption and extremely long lifespan have already proved as a highly potential low-cost alternative for specific diagnostic applications in clinical medicine such as tuberculosis fluorescence microscopy. Likewise, the most reliable evaluation of Her-2/neu (c-erbB2 gene amplification, which has been established in the last few years for routine diagnosis in clinical pathology as determinant towards Herceptin-based treatment of patients with breast cancer, is based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and corresponding high priced fluorescence equipment. In order to test the possibility to utilize the advantages of low-cost LED technology on FISH analysis of c-erbB2 gene expression for routine diagnostic purposes, the applicability of a standard bright field Carl Zeiss Axiostar Plus microscope equipped with a Fraen AFTER* LED Fluorescence Microscope Kit for the detection of Her-2/neu gene signals was compared to an advanced Nikon Eclipse 80i fluorescence microscope in combination with a conventional 100W mercury vapor lamp. Both microscopes were fitted with the same Quicam FAST CCD digital camera to unequivocally compare the quality of the captured images. C-erbB2 gene expression was analyzed in 30 different human tissue samples of primary invasive breast cancer, following formalin fixation and subsequent paraffin-embedding. The Her2/neu gene signals (green were identifiable in the tumor cells in all cases and images of equal quality were captured under almost identical conditions by 480 nm (blue LED module equipped standard Axiostar microscope as compared to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In this first attempt, these monochromatic LED elements proved in principle to be suitable for the detection of Her-2/neu gene expression by FISH. Thus, our own

  14. Community-Based Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Today, virtually every company world-wide is connected to the Internet. This wide-spread connectivity has given rise to sophisticated, targeted, Internet-based attacks. For example, between 2012 and 2013 security researchers counted an average of about 74 targeted attacks per day. These attacks are motivated by economical, financial, or political interests and commonly referred to as “Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)” attacks. Unfortunately, many of these attacks are successful and the advers...

  15. Measuring Costs to Community-Based Agencies for Implementation of an Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason M; Connell, Christian M

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare reform has led to an increase in dissemination of evidence-based practices. Cost is frequently cited as a significant yet rarely studied barrier to dissemination of evidence-based practices and the associated improvements in quality of care. This study describes an approach to measuring the incremental, unreimbursed costs in staff time and direct costs to community-based clinics implementing an evidence-based practice through participating in a learning collaborative. Initial implementation costs exceeding those for providing "treatment as usual" were collected for ten clinics implementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy through participation in 10-month learning collaboratives. Incremental implementation costs of these ten community-based clinic teams averaged the equivalent of US$89,575 (US$ 2012). The most costly activities were training, supervision, preparation time, and implementation team meetings. Recommendations are made for further research on implementation costs, dissemination of evidence-based practices, and implications for researchers and policy makers.

  16. Comparison of an interactive CD-based and traditional instructor-led Basic Life Support skills training for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, Karen J; Schofield, Margot J; Murphy, Gregory C

    2015-08-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS) is a life-saving and fundamental skill in resuscitation. However, studies have reported limitations in BLS training outcomes for both health professional and lay populations, and noted the resource and time-intensive nature of traditional training approaches. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive CD-based BLS training programme that included unsupervised manikin practice compared with a traditional instructor-led BLS training programme involving demonstration and supervised practice. A quasi-experimental post-test with follow-up design was used. The sample was comprised of two cohorts: Novice second-year undergraduate Nursing students (n=187) and Practising Nurses (n=107) in their first year of hospital employment. BLS skill outcomes were assessed at one week and again at eight weeks post training. No statistically significant differences were found between the CD and traditional instructor-led BLS training methods in BLS skills of Novice and Practising Nurses at one week and eight weeks post training. However, there was a decrement in skill between one week and eight weeks post-training across both groups and an overall low level of competence. The failure to find a difference between the CD-based BLS programme with unsupervised manikin practice and a resource-intensive traditional instructor-led BLS training programme may indicate equivalence of the programmes or, even study design limitations. It is concerning that competence displayed by trainees from both groups was less than optimal and suggests the need for renewed efforts to develop and evaluate BLS training programmes which can achieve high rates of competence with acceptable skill retention over time. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Peer-led, school-based nutrition education for young adolescents: feasibility and process evaluation of the TEENS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Perry, Cheryl L

    2002-03-01

    Peer education has become a popular strategy for health promotion interventions with adolescents, but it has not been used widely in school-based nutrition education. This paper describes and reports on the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable intakes and lower fat foods. About 1,000 seventh-grade students in eight schools received the nutrition intervention. Of these, 272 were trained as peer leaders to assist the teacher in implementing the activities. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation based on peer leader and classroom student feedback, direct classroom observation, and teacher ratings and interviews are presented. Results show that peer-led nutrition education approaches in schools are feasible and have high acceptability among peer leaders, classroom students, and teachers.

  18. Community-led initiative for control of anemia among children 6 to 35 months of age and unmarried adolescent girls in rural Wardha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Amol R; Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Garg, Bishan S

    2011-12-01

    Studies in India have reported a high prevalence of nutritional anemia among children and adolescent girls. Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired mental, physical, and cognitive performance in children and is a significant risk factor for maternal mortality. To evaluate the effect of a community-led initiative for control of nutritional anemia among children 6 to 35 months of age and unmarried rural adolescent girls 12 to 19 years of age. This Participatory Action Research was done in 23 villages of the Primary Health Centre, Anji, in Wardha District of Maharashtra. In February and March 2008, needs assessment was undertaken by interviewing the mothers of 261 children and 260 adolescent girls. Hemoglobin levels of adolescent girls and children were measured with the use of the hemoglobin color scale. The girls were given weekly iron-folic acid tablets, and the children were given daily liquid iron prophylaxis for 100 days in a year through community participation. The adolescent girls and the mothers of the children and adolescent girls were also given nutritional education on the benefits and side effects of iron supplementation. In June and July 2008, follow-up assessment was performed by survey and force field analysis. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence of nutritional anemia from 73.8% to 54.6% among the adolescent girls and from 78.2% to 64.2% among the children. There was improvement in awareness of iron-rich food items among the adolescent girls and the mothers of the children. The benefits to girls, such as increase in appetite and reduction in scanty menses, tiredness, and weakness, acted as positive factors leading to better compliance with weekly iron supplementation. The benefits to children perceived by the mothers, such as increase in appetite, weight gain, reduction in irritability, and reduction in mud-eating behavior, acted as a dominant positive force and generated demand for iron syrup. The community-led initiative for

  19. Using an intervention mapping approach for planning, implementing and assessing a community-led project towards malaria elimination in the Eastern Province of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Kateera, Fredrick; Rulisa, Alexis; Van Den Borne, Bart; Nieuwold, Ingmar; Muvunyi, Claude; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Van Vugt, Michele; Mutesa, Leon; Alaii, Jane

    2016-12-16

    Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. The project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and

  20. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    that deliver credible and easily accessible information. Checks and balances can be supported through civil society as well as the media. Finally, the private sector plays a key and potentially beneficial role in the harvest, transport and marketing of CBNRM products. Thus, dialogue partners should include......This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM...... from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida's environmental portfolio. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to secure poverty reduction...

  1. Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008. The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1 acceptability; (2 a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3 community involvement beyond the groups; (4 a focus on marginalized communities; (5 the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6 high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to

  2. 71-Mbit/s ultraviolet-B LED communication link based on 8-QAM-OFDM modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2017-09-14

    A demonstration of ultraviolet-B (UVB) communication link is implemented utilizing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The demonstration is based on a 294-nm UVB-light-emitting-diode (UVB-LED) with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 9 nm and light output power of 190 μW, at 7 V, with a special silica gel lens on top of it. A −3-dB bandwidth of 29 MHz was measured and a high-speed near-solar-blind communication link with a data rate of 71 Mbit/s was achieved using 8-QAM-OFDM at perfect alignment. 23.6 Mbit/s using 2-QAM-OFDM when the angle subtended by the pointing directions of the UVB-LED and photodetector (PD) is 12 degrees, thus establishing a diffuse-line-of-sight (LOS) link. The measured bit-error rate (BER) of 2.8 × 10−4 and 2.4 × 10−4, respectively, are well below the forward error correction (FEC) criterion of 3.8 × 10−3. The demonstrated high data-rate OFDM-based UVB communication link paves the way for realizing high-speed non-line-of-sight free-space optical communications.

  3. 71-Mbit/s ultraviolet-B LED communication link based on 8-QAM-OFDM modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chaaban, Anas; Ng, Tien Khee; Shen, Chao; Chen, Rui; Yan, Jianchang; Sun, Haiding; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S

    2017-09-18

    A demonstration of ultraviolet-B (UVB) communication link is implemented utilizing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The demonstration is based on a 294-nm UVB-light-emitting-diode (UVB-LED) with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 9 nm and light output power of 190 μW, at 7 V, with a special silica gel lens on top of it. A -3-dB bandwidth of 29 MHz was measured and a high-speed near-solar-blind communication link with a data rate of 71 Mbit/s was achieved using 8-QAM-OFDM at perfect alignment. 23.6 Mbit/s using 2-QAM-OFDM when the angle subtended by the pointing directions of the UVB-LED and photodetector (PD) is 12 degrees, thus establishing a diffuse-line-of-sight (LOS) link. The measured bit-error rate (BER) of 2.8 ×10 -4 and 2.4 ×10 -4 , respectively, are well below the forward error correction (FEC) criterion of 3.8 ×10 -3 . The demonstrated high data-rate OFDM-based UVB communication link paves the way for realizing high-speed non-line-of-sight free-space optical communications.

  4. 71-Mbit/s ultraviolet-B LED communication link based on 8-QAM-OFDM modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chaaban, Anas; Ng, Tien Khee; Shen, Chao; Chen, Rui; Yan, Jianchang; Sun, Haiding; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    A demonstration of ultraviolet-B (UVB) communication link is implemented utilizing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The demonstration is based on a 294-nm UVB-light-emitting-diode (UVB-LED) with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 9 nm and light output power of 190 μW, at 7 V, with a special silica gel lens on top of it. A −3-dB bandwidth of 29 MHz was measured and a high-speed near-solar-blind communication link with a data rate of 71 Mbit/s was achieved using 8-QAM-OFDM at perfect alignment. 23.6 Mbit/s using 2-QAM-OFDM when the angle subtended by the pointing directions of the UVB-LED and photodetector (PD) is 12 degrees, thus establishing a diffuse-line-of-sight (LOS) link. The measured bit-error rate (BER) of 2.8 × 10−4 and 2.4 × 10−4, respectively, are well below the forward error correction (FEC) criterion of 3.8 × 10−3. The demonstrated high data-rate OFDM-based UVB communication link paves the way for realizing high-speed non-line-of-sight free-space optical communications.

  5. Community Based Networks and 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument....... The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....

  6. End-of-life conversations and care: an asset-based model for community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Mary; Froggatt, Katherine; Owen, Elaine; Ashton, John R

    2014-09-01

    Public awareness work regarding palliative and end-of-life care is increasingly promoted within national strategies for palliative care. Different approaches to undertaking this work are being used, often based upon broader educational principles, but little is known about how to undertake such initiatives in a way that equally engages both the health and social care sector and the local communities. An asset-based community engagement approach has been developed that facilitates community-led awareness initiatives concerning end-of-life conversations and care by identifying and connecting existing skills and expertise. (1) To describe the processes and features of an asset-based community engagement approach that facilitates community-led awareness initiatives with a focus on end-of-life conversations and care; and (2) to identify key community-identified priorities for sustainable community engagement processes. An asset-based model of community engagement specific to end-of-life issues using a four-step process is described (getting started, coming together, action planning and implementation). The use of this approach, in two regional community engagement programmes, based across rural and urban communities in the northwest of England, is described. The assets identified in the facilitated community engagement process encompassed people's talents and skills, community groups and networks, government and non-government agencies, physical and economic assets and community values and stories. Five priority areas were addressed to ensure active community engagement work: information, outreach, education, leadership and sustainability. A facilitated, asset-based approach of community engagement for end-of-life conversations and care can catalyse community-led awareness initiatives. This occurs through the involvement of community and local health and social care organisations as co-creators of this change across multiple sectors in a sustainable way. This approach

  7. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    1992-01-01

    Defines community-based programing as a cooperative process in which the community college serves as leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among community members, leaders, and groups. Recommends 15 tasks for community college leaders involved in community-based programing, including environmental scanning and coalition building. (DMM)

  8. The characterization of an economic and portable LED-based photoacoustic imaging system to facilitate molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hariri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging (PAI is a non-invasive, high-resolution hybrid imaging modality that combines optical excitation and ultrasound detection. PAI can image endogenous chromophores (melanin, hemoglobin, etc. and exogenous contrast agents in different medical applications. However, most current equipment uses sophisticated and complicated OPO lasers with tuning and stability features inconsistent with broad clinical deployment. As the number of applications of PAI in medicine increases, there is an urgent need to make the imaging equipment more compact, portable, and affordable. Here, portable light emitting diode – based photoacoustic imaging (PLED-PAI was introduced and characterized in terms of system specifications, light source characterizations, photoacoustic spatial/temporal resolution, and penetration. The system uses two LED arrays attached to the sides of a conventional ultrasound transducer. The LED pulse repetition rate is tunable between 1 K Hz, 2 K Hz, 3 K Hz, and 4 K Hz. The axial resolution was 0.268 mm, and the lateral resolution was between 0.55 and 0.59 mm. The system could detect optical absorber (pencil lead at a depth of 3.2 cm and the detection limits of indocyanine green (ICG and methylene blue (MB were 9 μM and 0.78 mM. In vivo imaging of labeled human mesenchymal stem cells was achieved to confirm compatibility with small animal imaging. The characterization we report here may have value to other groups evaluating commercially available photoacoustic imaging equipment. Keywords: Portable photoacoustic imaging, LED, Optoacoustic imaging, Molecular imaging

  9. Coupling structure in LED System-In-Package design: a physical responses-based critical parameter sheet like approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, de E.C.M.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Etman, L.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper introduces an approach to study the coupling structure between the design parameters and design objectives of a LED system-in-package (SiP) design concept [1]. The LED SiP is an integrated device that combines the LED chip with driver chips and potential other components in a

  10. Coupling structure in LED System-in-Package design: a physical responses-based critical parameter sheet like approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, E.C.M. de; Gielen, A.W.J.; Etman, L.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach to study the coupling structure between the design parameters and design objectives of a LED system-in-package (SiP) design concept [1]. The LED SiP is an integrated device that combines the LED chip with driver chips and potential other components in a single

  11. Novel rare-earth doped silicon-nitride based materials as promising conversion phosphors for white LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan Qiang; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Lighting world will change drastically due to the replacement of the traditional TL, PL and incandescent lamps by white LEDs. Advantageous features of white LEDs are a longer lifetime, lower energy consumption and extended possibilities for integration and miniaturisation. A white LED can be

  12. Synthesis, characteristics and luminescent properties of a new Tb(III) ternary complex applied in near UV-based LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Naiqun; Li, Liping; Yang, Yamin; Zhang, Aiqin; Jia, Husheng; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2015-11-01

    A novel Tb(III) ternary complex, Tb(p-BBA)3UA, was synthesized with 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (p-BBA) as primary ligand and undecylenic acid (UA) as reactive ligand. Tb(III) complex exhibits high thermal stability and wide and strong excitation bands from 310 nm to 400 nm when monitored at 543 nm, which matches well with the 365 nm UV chip. The complex displays Tb(III) characteristic peaks at 488, 543, 584 and 619 nm under the excitation of 365 nm UV-light. The intramolecular energy transfer process was also discussed. Meanwhile, the complex has longer fluorescence lifetime (1.317 ms) and higher quantum yield (44.8%). When used in LED with 365 nm UV chip (power efficiency is 17.3 lm/W), the complex still maintained its qualified luminescent performance. All the results indicate that Tb(p-BBA)3UA can be applied as a green component for fabrication of near UV-based white LED.

  13. Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. ... This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity ...

  14. Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and collaborative practice in a health sciences faculty: Student perceptions and experiences. ... It became apparent that students need to be prepared to work in interprofessional groups. The overall intervention was perceived positively, allowing students to become ...

  15. Participation in community based natural resource management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) and its socio-economic effect on rural families in Ikwerre Area, Rivers State Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 beneficiaries of the programme. Data collected were subjected to descriptive ...

  16. Temperature changes under demineralized dentin during polymerization of three resin-based restorative materials using QTH and LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavinasab, Sayed-Mostafa; Khoroushi, Maryam; Moharreri, Mohammadreza; Atai, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    Light-curing of resin-based materials (RBMs) increases the pulp chamber temperature, with detrimental effects on the vital pulp. This in vitro study compared the temperature rise under demineralized human tooth dentin during light-curing and the degrees of conversion (DCs) of three different RBMs using quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) units (LCUs). Demineralized and non-demineralized dentin disks were prepared from 120 extracted human mandibular molars. The temperature rise under the dentin disks (n = 12) during the light-curing of three RBMs, i.e. an Ormocer-based composite resin (Ceram. X, Dentsply DeTrey), a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE), and a giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu GmbH), was measured with a K-type thermocouple wire. The DCs of the materials were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The temperature rise under the demineralized dentin disks was higher than that under the non-demineralized dentin disks during the polymerization of all restorative materials (p 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in the DCs, the temperature rise under demineralized dentin disks for the silorane-based composite was higher than that for dimethacrylate-based restorative materials, particularly with QTH LCU.

  17. Temperature changes under demineralized dentin during polymerization of three resin-based restorative materials using QTH and LED units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Light-curing of resin-based materials (RBMs increases the pulp chamber temperature, with detrimental effects on the vital pulp. This in vitro study compared the temperature rise under demineralized human tooth dentin during light-curing and the degrees of conversion (DCs of three different RBMs using quartz tungsten halogen (QTH and light-emitting diode (LED units (LCUs. Materials and Methods Demineralized and non-demineralized dentin disks were prepared from 120 extracted human mandibular molars. The temperature rise under the dentin disks (n = 12 during the light-curing of three RBMs, i.e. an Ormocer-based composite resin (Ceram. X, Dentsply DeTrey, a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE, and a giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu GmbH, was measured with a K-type thermocouple wire. The DCs of the materials were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results The temperature rise under the demineralized dentin disks was higher than that under the non-demineralized dentin disks during the polymerization of all restorative materials (p 0.05. Conclusions Although there were no significant differences in the DCs, the temperature rise under demineralized dentin disks for the silorane-based composite was higher than that for dimethacrylate-based restorative materials, particularly with QTH LCU.

  18. Nanorods on surface of GaN-based thin-film LEDs deposited by post-annealing after photo-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Lin, Wun-Wei; Liu, Te-Yu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the optoelectronic characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN)-based thin-film light-emitting diodes (TF-LEDs) that are formed by a two-step transfer process that involves wet etching and post-annealing. In the two-step transfer process, GaN LEDs were stripped from sapphire substrates by the laser lift-off (LLO) method using a KrF laser and then transferred onto ceramic substrates. Ga-K nanorods were formed on the surface of the GaN-based TF-LEDs following photo-assisted chemical etching and photo-enhanced post-annealing at 100 °C for 1 min. As a result, the light output power of GaN-based TF-LEDs with wet etching and post-annealing was over 72% more than that of LEDs that did not undergo these treatments.

  19. Restoring Myanmar’s mangrove forests and coastal communities’ socioeconomic stability with community based mangrove management

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholt, Jonathan Grevstad

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove forests have a significant capacity to provide ecosystem services. However, deforestation from land use changes has led to widespread degradation of these services and consequently jeopardizes coastal populations. Reforestation projects and attempts to develop sustainable management procedures are widely attempted worldwide. However, these projects often have sustainable rural livelihood improvements as a complementary goal. Integrated approaches such as Community Based Mangrove Mana...

  20. Improving information for community-based adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-10-15

    Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.

  1. Practical, reliable and inexpensive assay of lycopene in tomato products based on the combined use of light emitting diode (LED) and the optothermal window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Cuypers, R.; Luterotti, S.; Sporec, M.; Zoppi, A.; Vugec, J.

    2008-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) combined with the concept of optothermal window (OW) is proposed as a new approach (LED-OW) to detect lycopene in a wide range of tomato-based products (tomato juice, tomato ketchup, tomato passata and tomato puree). Phytonutrient lycopene is a dominant antioxidant in

  2. LED Technology for Dental Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Soerensen, L. H.

    LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  3. A community-based program evaluation of community competency trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssmann, Christoph; Morrison, Darius; Russian, Ellery; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Bowen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals encounter a multitude of barriers to accessing clinically and culturally competent health care. One strategy to increase the quality and competence of care delivery is workplace trainings. This study describes a community-based program for the evaluation of this type of training. Using a mixed-methods approach, the research team assessed the effectiveness of three competency trainings administered by a local nonprofit organization in the Northwest United States. Quantitative data indicated a significant shift in self-assessed knowledge associated with completion of the training. Qualitative data confirmed this result and revealed a number of important themes about the effect of the trainings on providers and their ability to implement knowledge and skills in practice. Clinical considerations are proposed for providers who seek similar trainings and who aim to increase clinical and cultural competency in delivering care to transgender and gender-nonconforming patients and clients.

  4. Synthesis and luminescent features of NaCaPO4:Tb3+ green phosphor for near UV-based LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnam, B.V.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Bhaskar Kumar, G.; Jang, Kiwan; Kim, S.S.; Lee, Y.I.; Lim, J.M.; Shin, D.S.; Song, T.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Successfully synthesized orthorhombic phase of NaCaPO 4 (NCP) phosphors ► Structural and Luminescent properties have been investigated. ► In the excitation spectrum, 7 F 6 → 5 G 6 transition at 370 nm exhibit highest intensity. ► CIE coordinates of Tb 3+ : NCP phosphor indicate green light emission in CIE diagram. ► Hence, Tb 3+ doped NaCaPO 4 is suitable for UV based pc-LEDs. -- Abstract: An efficient green emitting Tb 3+ doped NaCaPO 4 (NCP) phosphor was synthesized by using conventional solid-state reaction for solid-state lighting applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), FT-IR, emission and excitation properties were extensively investigated for NCP phosphors. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of NaCaPO 4 with orthorhombic structure. The excitation spectrum consists of strong 4f–4f transition at around 370 nm, which has higher intensity than the f–d transition. Emission spectra indicated that this phosphor can be efficiently excited by UV light in the range from 250 to 400 nm, and shows strong emission band centered at 547 nm. Analysis of the emission spectra with different Tb 3+ concentrations revealed that the optimum dopant concentration for these NCP phosphors is about 5 mol% of Tb 3+ . Diminishing of 5 D 3 level and increasing of 5 D 4 level emission intensity with the Tb 3+ concentration explained successfully. The emission color was analyzed and confirmed with the help of chromaticity coordinates and color temperature. The excellent luminescent properties of NaCaPO 4 :Tb 3+ phosphor makes it as a potential green phosphor upon near-UV LED excitation

  5. The characterization of an economic and portable LED-based photoacoustic imaging system to facilitate molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ali; Lemaster, Jeanne; Wang, Junxin; Jeevarathinam, AnanthaKrishnan S; Chao, Daniel L; Jokerst, Jesse V

    2018-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a non-invasive, high-resolution hybrid imaging modality that combines optical excitation and ultrasound detection. PAI can image endogenous chromophores (melanin, hemoglobin, etc.) and exogenous contrast agents in different medical applications. However, most current equipment uses sophisticated and complicated OPO lasers with tuning and stability features inconsistent with broad clinical deployment. As the number of applications of PAI in medicine increases, there is an urgent need to make the imaging equipment more compact, portable, and affordable. Here, portable light emitting diode - based photoacoustic imaging (PLED-PAI) was introduced and characterized in terms of system specifications, light source characterizations, photoacoustic spatial/temporal resolution, and penetration. The system uses two LED arrays attached to the sides of a conventional ultrasound transducer. The LED pulse repetition rate is tunable between 1 K Hz, 2 K Hz, 3 K Hz, and 4 K Hz. The axial resolution was 0.268 mm, and the lateral resolution was between 0.55 and 0.59 mm. The system could detect optical absorber (pencil lead) at a depth of 3.2 cm and the detection limits of indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) were 9 μM and 0.78 mM. In vivo imaging of labeled human mesenchymal stem cells was achieved to confirm compatibility with small animal imaging. The characterization we report here may have value to other groups evaluating commercially available photoacoustic imaging equipment.

  6. Ward-based, nurse-led, outpatient chest tube management: analysis of impact, cost-effectiveness and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherveniakov, Peter; De Siqueira, Jonathan; Milton, Richard; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2012-06-01

    Prolonged drainage and air leaks are recognized complications of elective and acute thoracic surgery and carry significant burden on inpatient stay and outpatient resources. Since 2007, we have run a ward-based, nurse-led clinic for patients discharged with a chest drain in situ. The aim of this study is to assess its cost-effectiveness and safety. We present a retrospective review of the activity of the clinic for a period of 12 months (November 2009-10). An analysis of the gathered data is performed, focusing specifically on the duration of chest tube indwelling, the indications, complications and cost efficiency. The nurse-led clinic was housed in the thoracic ward with no additional fixed costs. Seventy-four patients were reviewed (53 males, 21 females, mean age of 59) and subsequently discharged from the clinic in this time period, accounting for 149 care episodes. Thirty-three (45%) of the patients underwent a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery procedure, 35 (47%) of them a thoracotomy and 7 (9%) had a bedside chest tube insertion. Following hospital discharge, the chest tubes were removed after a median of 14 days (range 1-82 days). Fifty-eight percent of the patients were reviewed because of a prolonged air leak, 26% for persistent fluid drainage and 16% due to prolonged drainage following evacuation of empyemas. For the care episodes analysed, we estimate that the clinic has generated an income of €24,899 for the department. Hourly staffing costs for the service are significantly lower compared with those of the traditional outpatient clinic: €15 vs. €114. Our results show that a dedicated chest tube monitoring clinic is a safe and efficient alternative to formal outpatient clinic review. It can lead to shorter hospital stays and is cost effective.

  7. A trial-based economic evaluation of 2 nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmus, Douwe; Pari, Anees A Abdul; Jaarsma, Tiny; Luttik, Marie Louise; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2011-12-01

    Although previously conducted meta-analyses suggest that nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure (HF) can improve patient outcomes, uncertainty regarding the cost-effectiveness of such programs remains. To compare the relative merits of 2 variants of a nurse-led disease management program (basic or intensive support by a nurse specialized in the management of patients with HF) against care as usual (routine follow-up by a cardiologist), a trial-based economic evaluation was conducted alongside the COACH study. In terms of costs per life-year, basic support was found to dominate care as usual, whereas the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between intensive support and basic support was found to be equal to €532,762 per life-year; in terms of costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), basic support was found to dominate both care as usual and intensive support. An assessment of the uncertainty surrounding these findings showed that, at a threshold value of €20,000 per life-year/€20,000 per QALY, basic support was found to have a probability of 69/62% of being optimal against 17/30% and 14/8% for care as usual and intensive support, respectively. The results of our subgroup analysis suggest that a stratified approach based on offering basic support to patients with mild to moderate HF and intensive support to patients with severe HF would be optimal if the willingness-to-pay threshold exceeds €45,345 per life-year/€59,289 per QALY. Although the differences in costs and effects among the 3 study groups were not statistically significant, from a decision-making perspective, basic support still had a relatively large probability of generating the highest health outcomes at the lowest costs. Our results also substantiated that a stratified approach based on offering basic support to patients with mild to moderate HF and intensive support to patients with severe HF could further improve health outcomes at slightly higher costs. Copyright

  8. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  9. Real-time implementation of a 1.25-Gbit/s DMT transmitter for robust and low-cost LED-based plastic optical fiber applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.C.J.; Breyer, F.; Cárdenas, D.; Randel, S.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time implementation of a DMT transmitter in FPGA is demonstrated for low-cost, standard 1-mm step-index plastic optical fiber applications based on commercial resonant-cavity LED and large-diameter (540 µm) photodiode.

  10. Community-based wetland comanagement in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter explains new solutions to problems resulting from top-down approaches to resource conservation and sustainability. The management of natural resources - in this case, wetlands - is complicated and risky. To address the risks involved with resource management, a case study was done in Bangladesh to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based comanagement. Using multidisciplinary approaches and adaptive management strategies, the Management of Aquatic Ecos...

  11. A trial-based economic evaluation of 2 nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Douwe; Pari, Anees A. Abdul; Jaarsma, Tiny; Luttik, Marie Louise; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Buskens, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background Although previously conducted meta-analyses suggest that nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure (HF) can improve patient outcomes, uncertainty regarding the cost-effectiveness of such programs remains. Methods To compare the relative merits of 2 variants of a nurse-led

  12. Nanorods on surface of GaN-based thin-film LEDs deposited by post-annealing after photo-assisted chemical etching

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Lin, Wun-Wei; Liu, Te-Yu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the optoelectronic characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN)-based thin-film light-emitting diodes (TF-LEDs) that are formed by a two-step transfer process that involves wet etching and post-annealing. In the two-step transfer process, GaN LEDs were stripped from sapphire substrates by the laser lift-off (LLO) method using a KrF laser and then transferred onto ceramic substrates. Ga-K nanorods were formed on the surface of the GaN-based TF-LEDs following photo-assisted ...

  13. Ultraviolet-A LED Based on Quantum-disks-in-AlGaN-nanowires - Optimization and Device Reliability

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2018-03-16

    Group-III nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) quantum-disks (Qdisks) nanowires (NWs) light-emitting diodes grown on silicon substrates offer a scalable, environment-friendly, compact, and low-cost solution for numerous applications such as solid-state lighting, spectroscopy, and biomedical. However, the internal quantum efficiency, injection efficiency, and extraction efficiency need to be further improved. The focus of this paper encompasses investigations based on structural optimization, device simulation, and device reliability. To optimize a UV-A (320-400 nm) device structure we utilize the self-assembled quantum-disk-NWs with varying quantum-disks thickness to study carrier separation in active-region and implement an improved p-contact-layer to increase output power. By simulation, we found a 100° improvement in the direct recombination rate for samples with thicker Qdisks thickness of 1.2 nm compared to the sample with 0.6 nm-thick Qdisks. Moreover, the sample with graded top Mg-doped AlGaN layer in conjunction with thin Mg-doped GaN layer shows 10° improvement in the output power compared to the samples with thicker top Mg-doped GaN absorbing contact layer. A fitting with ABC model revealed the increase in non-radiative recombination centers in the active region after a soft stress-test. This work aims to shed light on the research efforts required for furthering the UV NWs LED research for practical applications.

  14. Epitaxial growth and properties of AlGaN-based UV-LEDs on Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saengkaew, Phannee

    2010-07-08

    An increasing demand for bright and efficient ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVLEDs) is generated by numerous applications such as biochemical sensors, purification and sterilization, and solid-state white lighting. Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N is a promising material to develop UVLEDs due to the direct wide-bandgap material for emission wavelengths in the UV range and the capability of n- and p-type doping. To develop UV-LEDs on Si substrates is very interesting for low-cost UV-light sources since the Si substrate is available at low cost, in large-diameter size enabling the integration with well-known Si electronics. This work presents the first crack-free AlGaN-based UV-LEDs on Si(111) substrates by MOVPE growth. This AlGaN-based UV-LED on Si(111) substrate consists of Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N:Si layers on LT-AlN/HT-AlN SL buffer layers and an active layer of GaN/Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N MQWs followed by Mg-doped (GaN/Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N) superlattices and GaN:Mg cap layers. It yields a {proportional_to}350 nm UV electroluminescence at room temperature and a turn-on voltage in a range of 2.6-3.1 V by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The novel LT-AlN/HT-AlN superlattice buffer layers efficiently improve the crystalline quality of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers and compensate a thermal tensile strain in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers after cooling as observed by in-situ curvature measurements. The dislocation density could be reduced from 8.4 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} in the AlN-based SLs to 1.8 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} in the Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N layers as determined by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Crack-free Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers grown on these LT-AlN/HT-AlN superlattices with 0.05{<=}x{<=} 0.65 are achieved on Si substrates with good crystalline, optical, and electrical properties. The best crystalline quality of Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N is obtained with {omega}-FWHMs of the (0002) and (10-10) reflections of

  15. Community-led cancer action councils in Queens, New York: process evaluation of an innovative partnership with the Queens library system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Roy, Upal; Michel, Tamara; Carpenter, Alison; Lounsbury, David W; Sabino, Eilleen; Stevenson, Alexis Jurow; Combs, Sarah; Jacobs, Jasmine; Padgett, Deborah; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2014-02-06

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has great potential to address cancer disparities, particularly in racially and ethnically diverse and underserved neighborhoods. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of an innovative academic-community partnership, Queens Library HealthLink, which aimed to reduce cancer disparities through neighborhood groups (Cancer Action Councils) that convened in public libraries in Queens, New York. We used a mixed-methods approach to conduct 69 telephone survey interviews and 4 focus groups (15 participants) with Cancer Action Council members. We used 4 performance criteria to inform data collection: action or attention to sustainability, library support for the council, social cohesion and group leadership, and activity level. Focus group transcripts were independently coded and cross-checked for consensus until saturation was achieved. Members reported benefits and barriers to participation. Thirty-three original focus group transcript codes were organized into 8 main themes related to member experiences: 1) library as a needed resource, 2) library as a reputable and nondenominational institution, 3) value of library staff, 4) need for a HealthLink specialist, 5) generation of ideas and coordination of tasks, 6) participation challenges, 7) use of community connections, and 8) collaboration for sustainability. In response to the process evaluation, Cancer Action Council members and HealthLink staff incorporated member suggestions to improve council sustainability. The councils merged to increase intercouncil collaboration, and institutional changes were made in funding to sustain a HealthLink specialist beyond the grant period.

  16. Fabrication of moth-eye structure on p-GaN layer of GaN-based LEDs for improvement of light extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Eun-Ju; Byeon, Kyeong-Jae; Park, Hyoungwon; Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon; Choi, Kyungwoo; Jung, Gun Young

    2009-01-01

    Moth-eye structures were produced on a p-GaN top cladding layer by UV imprint and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch processes in order to improve the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The height and shape of moth-eye structures were adjusted by controlling the thickness of Cr mask layer and ICP etching time. The transmittance of LED device stacks with moth-eye structure was increased up to 1.5-2.5 times, compared to identical LED sample without moth-eye structure and the intensity of photoluminescence from the InGaN multi-quantum well layer of LED sample with moth-eye structure was 5-7 times higher than that of the LED sample without the moth-eye structure.

  17. Factors affecting the delivery of community pharmacist-led medication reviews: evidence from the MedsCheck annual service in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Pechlivanoglou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication reviews have become part of pharmacy practice across developed countries. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the likelihood of eligible Ontario seniors receiving a pharmacy-led medication review called MedsCheck annual (MCA. Methods We designed a cohort study using a random sample of pharmacy claims for MCA-eligible Ontario seniors using linked administrative data from April 2012 to March 2013. Guided by a conceptual framework, we constructed a generalized-estimating-equations model to estimate the effect of patient, pharmacy and community factors on the likelihood of receiving MCA. Results Of the 2,878,958 eligible claim-dates, 65,605 included an MCA. Compared to eligible individuals who did not receive an MCA, recipients were more likely to have a prior MCA (OR = 3.03, receive a new medication on the claim-date (OR = 1.78, be hypertensive (OR = 1.18 or have a recent hospitalization (OR = 1.07. MCA recipients had fewer medications (e.g., OR = 0.44 for ≥12 medications versus 0–4 medications, and were less likely to receive an MCA in a rural (OR = 0.74 or high-volume pharmacy (OR = 0.65. Conclusions The most important determinant of receiving an MCA was having had a prior MCA. Overall, MCA recipients were healthier, younger, urban-dwelling, and taking fewer medications than non-recipients. Policies regarding current and future medication review programs may need to evolve to ensure that those at greatest need receive timely and comprehensive medication reviews.

  18. Timely referral saves the lives of mothers and newborns: Midwifery led continuum of care in marginalized teagarden communities - A qualitative case study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Animesh; Anderson, Rondi; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md; Purno, Nabila; Rahman, Fazlur; Halim, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Background: Prompt and efficient identification, referral of pregnancy related complications and emergencies are key factors to the reduction of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. As a response to this critical need, a midwifery led continuum of reproductive health care was introduced in five teagardens in the Sylhet division, Bangladesh during 2016. Within this intervention, professional midwives provided reproductive healthcare to pregnant teagarden women in the community.  This study evaluates the effect of the referral of pregnancy related complications. Methods: A qualitative case study design by reviewing records retrospectively was used to explore the effect of deploying midwives on referrals of pregnancy related complications from the selected teagardens to the referral health facilities in Moulvibazar district of the Sylhet division during 2016.  In depth analyses was also performed on 15 randomly selected cases to understand the facts behind the referral. Results: Out of a total population of 450 pregnant women identified by the midwives, 72 complicated mothers were referred from the five teagardens to the facilities. 76.4% of mothers were referred to conduct delivery at facilities, and 31.1% of them were referred with the complication of prolonged labour. Other major complications were pre-eclampsia (17.8%), retention of the placenta with post-partum hemorrhage (11.1%) and premature rupture of the membrane (8.9%). About 60% of complicated mothers were referred to the primary health care centre, and among them 14% of mothers were delivered by caesarean section. 94% deliveries resulted in livebirths and only 6% were stillbirths. Conclusions: This study reveals that early detection of pregnancy complications by skilled professionals and timely referral to a facility is beneficial in saving the majority of baby's as well as mother's lives in resource-poor teagardens with a considerable access barrier to health facilities.

  19. Timely referral saves the lives of mothers and newborns: Midwifery led continuum of care in marginalized teagarden communities – A qualitative case study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Animesh; Anderson, Rondi; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md.; Purno, Nabila; Rahman, Fazlur; Halim, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Background: Prompt and efficient identification, referral of pregnancy related complications and emergencies are key factors to the reduction of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. As a response to this critical need, a midwifery led continuum of reproductive health care was introduced in five teagardens in the Sylhet division, Bangladesh during 2016. Within this intervention, professional midwives provided reproductive healthcare to pregnant teagarden women in the community.  This study evaluates the effect of the referral of pregnancy related complications. Methods: A qualitative case study design by reviewing records retrospectively was used to explore the effect of deploying midwives on referrals of pregnancy related complications from the selected teagardens to the referral health facilities in Moulvibazar district of the Sylhet division during 2016.  In depth analyses was also performed on 15 randomly selected cases to understand the facts behind the referral. Results: Out of a total population of 450 pregnant women identified by the midwives, 72 complicated mothers were referred from the five teagardens to the facilities. 76.4% of mothers were referred to conduct delivery at facilities, and 31.1% of them were referred with the complication of prolonged labour. Other major complications were pre-eclampsia (17.8%), retention of the placenta with post-partum hemorrhage (11.1%) and premature rupture of the membrane (8.9%). About 60% of complicated mothers were referred to the primary health care centre, and among them 14% of mothers were delivered by caesarean section. 94% deliveries resulted in livebirths and only 6% were stillbirths. Conclusions: This study reveals that early detection of pregnancy complications by skilled professionals and timely referral to a facility is beneficial in saving the majority of baby’s as well as mother’s lives in resource-poor teagardens with a considerable access barrier to health facilities. PMID:29707205

  20. Network-Based Community Brings forth Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    It has already been shown that an artificial society based on the three relations of social configuration (market, communal, and obligatory relations) functioning in balance with each other formed a sustainable society which the social reproduction is possible. In this artificial society model, communal relations exist in a network-based community with alternating members rather than a conventional community with cooperative mutual assistance practiced in some agricultural communities. In this paper, using the comparison between network-based communities with alternating members and conventional communities with fixed members, the significance of a network-based community is considered. In concrete terms, the difference in appearance rate for sustainable society, economic activity and asset inequality between network-based communities and conventional communities is analyzed. The appearance rate for a sustainable society of network-based community is higher than that of conventional community. Moreover, most of network-based communities had a larger total number of trade volume than conventional communities. But, the value of Gini coefficient in conventional community is smaller than that of network-based community. These results show that communal relations based on a network-based community is significant for the social reproduction and economic efficiency. However, in such an artificial society, the inequality is sacrificed.

  1. COMMUNITY BASED HOME ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Smart Grid (SG scenario, domestic consumers can gain cost reduction benefit by scheduling their Appliance Activation Time (AAT towards the slots of low charge. Minimization in cost is essential in Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS to induce consumers acceptance for power scheduling to accommodate for a Demand Response (DR at peak hours. Despite the fact that many algorithms address the power scheduling for HEMS, community based optimization has not been the focus. This paper presents an algorithm that targets the minimization of energy costs of whole community while keeping a low Peak to Average Ratio (PAR and smooth Power Usage Pattern (PUP. Objective of cost reduction is accomplished by finding most favorable AAT by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO in conjunction with Inclined Block Rate (IBR approach and Circular Price Shift (CPS. Simulated numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of CPS to assist the merger of PSO & IBR to enhance the reduction/stability of PAR and cost reduction.

  2. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, Marc; Paassen, Annemarie van; Leeuwis, Cees; Bos, Sandra; Leonardo, Wilson; Lerner, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  3. Degree of conversion and microhardness of TPO-containing resin-based composites cured by polywave and monowave LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario; Miletic, Vesna; Swift, Michael D; Bradley, Mark

    2012-07-01

    To determine the degree of conversion (DC) and Knoop microhardness (KHN) of resin-based composites (RBCs) containing trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) cured by polywave or monowave LED light-curing units (LCUs). Three groups (each n = 5) of Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Vit-l-escence (Ultradent) and Herculite XRV Ultra (Kerr) were prepared in Teflon moulds (5mm in diameter and 2mm thick) and cured with polywave Bluephase(®) G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), polywave Valo (Ultradent) or monowave Bluephase(®) (Ivoclar Vivadent; control) resulting in 9 groups. DC and KHN were determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy and Knoop microhardness, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to confirm the presence or absence of TPO in the three uncured materials. Data were statistically analysed using two-way and one-way ANOVA and DC and KHN were correlated using Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05). TPO was confirmed in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. All three LCUs produced comparable KHN for Tetric EvoCeram and Herculite XRV Ultra (p > 0.05). Both polywave LCUs resulted in significantly higher KHN for Vit-l-escence and higher DC in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence than the monowave Bluephase(®) (p Conversely, Bluephase(®) showed higher DC than the two polywave LCUs in Herculite XRV Ultra (p conversion and KHN in the two TPO-containing RBCs, but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. DC and KHN were linearly correlated in all three RBCs. Vit-l-escence showed the highest DC and KHN of the three materials tested. The use of polywave LEDs significantly improves both the DC and KHN of materials which contain TPO. This should be taken into account when curing bleached shades of RBCs even if the manufacturers do not indicate the presence of TPO in their materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of LED transfer function nonlinearity on high-speed optical wireless communications based on discrete-multitone modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inan, B.; Lee, S.C.J.; Randel, S.; Neokosmidis, L.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Walewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear dependence of the optical power from white LEDs on the applied driving current and its impact on discrete-multitone modulation was investigated by use of numerical simulations for the case of optical wireless communications.

  5. Family physician-led, team-based, lifestyle intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome: results of a multicentre feasibility project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Heyland, Daren K; Leung, Roger; Day, Andrew G; Brauer, Paula; Royall, Dawna; Tremblay, Angelo; Mutch, David M; Pliamm, Lew; Rhéaume, Caroline; Klein, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a medical condition with major complications and health care costs. Previous research has shown that diet and exercise can improve and reverse this condition. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing the Canadian Health Advanced by Nutrition and Graded Exercise (CHANGE) program into diverse family medicine practices to improve MetS. In this longitudinal before-after study, 305 adult patients with MetS were recruited from 3 diverse family medicine team-based organizations to the CHANGE personalized diet and exercise program. Participants were followed for 12 months. Primary outcomes included feasibility and reversal of MetS. Secondary outcomes included improvement in MetS components, changes in diet quality, aerobic fitness and cardiovascular risk. Participants attended 76% and 90% of the kinesiologist and dietitian visits, respectively. At 12 months, 19% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 14%-24%) showed reversal of MetS, VO2max increased by 16% (95% CI 13%-18%), and Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet Scores improved by 9.6% (95% CI 7.6%-11.6%) and 1.4% (1.1%-1.6%), respectively. In addition, the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) 10-year risk of acute coronary event decreased by 1.4%, from a baseline of 8.6%. A team-based program led by the family physician that educates patients about the risks of MetS, and with a dietitian and kinesiologist, empowers them to undertake an individualized supervised program of diet modification and exercise, is feasible, improves aerobic capacity and diet quality, reverses MetS and improves MetS components at 12 months.

  6. A new bismuth-based coordination polymer as an efficient visible light responding photocatalyst under white LED irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ya-Jing; Zheng, Yue-Qing, E-mail: zhengyueqing@nbu.edu.cn; Wang, Jin-Jian; Zhou, Lin-Xia

    2017-02-15

    A new bismuth-based polymer, [Hbpe][Bi(Hpydc){sub 2}(pydc)]·H{sub 2}O (H{sub 2}pydc=pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, bpe=trans-bis(4-pyridyl) ethylene) has been hydrothermally synthesized. Transient photocurrent response and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies indicate that the synthesized polymer with efficient charge separation and transportation can be used as a potential photocatalyst. So we use it for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye wastewater under visible light. The comparative study on commercial Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows [Hbpe][Bi(Hpydc){sub 2}(pydc)]·H{sub 2}O has the higher photocatalytic performance, with the degradation rate of 97% and 2% within 100 min for [Hbpe][Bi(Hpydc){sub 2}(pydc)]·H{sub 2}O and commercial Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} respectively. Additionally, the five cycle reproducibility results of [Hbpe][Bi(Hpydc){sub 2}(pydc)]·H{sub 2}O implies that it can be used as a stable photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: We report a new 1D coordination polymer [Hbpe][Bi(Hpydc){sub 2}(pydc)]·H{sub 2}O by a facile hydrothermal method. The Bi-CP shows good photoelectric property and photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation under visible white LED lamp irradiation. And the stability of the visible-light-responsive bismuth-based coordination polymer has also been examined. - Highlights: • A new Bi(III) coordination polymer is hydrothermally synthesized. • The Bi-CP shows good photoelectric and photocatalytic properties. • Bi-CP shows higher activity than the commercial Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} for RhB degradation.

  7. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; Volk, N; Diehl, J J E; van Loon, J J A; Belušič, G

    2016-12-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years. Illumination by LEDs and the fluorescent tubes yielded equal numbers of egg clutches, however, the LED illumination resulted in significantly more larvae. The possibilities to optimize the current LED illumination system to better approximate the skylight illuminant and potentially optimize the larval yield are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immigrant-Host Community Relations in Malawi's Community Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    government sponsored settlement schemes in Zimbabwe, for example, are viewed as ... diversity of community development projects and state provided public ..... Development Project in Malawi: case studies of beneficiary groups in Machinga ...

  9. Community Garden Information Systems: Analyzing and Strengthening Community-Based Resource Sharing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…

  10. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College. Institutes & Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    Community-based programming (CBP) is a cooperative process in which a community college serves as the leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among the people, leaders and community organizations in its service area. This report discusses the changing role of the community college, the nature of CBP, and expected outcomes of the process,…

  11. Spectrally adjustable quasi-monochromatic radiance source based on LEDs and its application for measuring spectral responsivity of a luminance meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Juha-Matti; Poikonen, Tuomas; Vaskuri, Anna; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    A spectrally adjustable radiance source based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been constructed for spectral responsivity measurements of radiance and luminance meters. A 300 mm integrating sphere source with adjustable output port is illuminated using 30 thermally stabilized narrow-band LEDs covering the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. The functionality of the measurement setup is demonstrated by measuring the relative spectral responsivities of a luminance meter and a photometer head with cosine-corrected input optics. (paper)

  12. Concept and Method of Asset-Based Community Development Planning: A Case Study on Minlecun Community in Chongqing’s Yuzhong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Ling; Liu; Yang; Xu; Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation of the Chinese economy from an extensive growth to intensive development, city development is also gradually turning from incremental construction to stock management. Community, as a basic unit of human settlements, is an important platform to build and improve the social governance capability. In 2013, Shiyoulu Jiedao Offi ce of Yuzhong District led the 1st urban community development planning, which was a milestone of Chongqing’s city regeneration and governance innovation. This paper focuses on two key issues: how to understand the community values and make the community development planning based on the above, and how to integrate with the local forces so that the community development planning can be integrated into the action plan. Combined with the practice of Minlecun Community Development Planning, using the concept of asset-based community development, a comprehensive survey is conducted on community assets(including three aspects of physical, human, and social capital), and a community comprehensive planning strategy is formulated which covers two parts: the optimization of community spaces and the upgrading of community governance. The paper explores the local-based community planning theories and methods from such aspects as value attitude, public participation, role transformation of urban planners, and others.

  13. DESIGNING CLIENT OF ANDROID-BASED LED INTELLIGENT LIGHTING SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION%基于 Android 的 LED 智能照明系统客户端的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳蕊; 宋开新; 秦会斌; 张明准

    2016-01-01

    To get rid of the way of controlling home lighting with traditional mechanical switches and to make full use of the advantages of smart phones and other mobile equipment resources,we proposed the Android-based LED intelligent lighting systems,and designed and developed the Android-based client of LED intelligent lighting system.We used WiFi to control home lighting equipment,it can not only control the on and off,timing,dimming and colouring of individual light and lights group,but can also select and edit different lighting effects in scene patterns according to the needs of different environments,as well as can dynamically add new lights through code scanning. Moreover,in intelligent light control module we called the China Weather Network API interface and the phone built-in light sensor to automatically control the colour and brightness of the light,the function advertising has also been added to the client.We tested the client system and the lighting module in a wireless network environment,the feasibility and practicality of the LED intelligent lighting system client has been proven.%为了摆脱用传统机械式开关控制家居照明的方式,充分利用智能手机等移动设备资源,提出基于 Android 的 LED 智能照明系统,设计开发基于 Android 的 LED 智能照明系统客户端。利用 WiFi 控制家居照明设备,不仅可以控制单个灯和各组灯的开关、定时、调光和调色,而且可以根据对不同环境的需求在情景模式中选择和编辑不同的灯光效果,还可以通过扫码动态添加新灯等。并且在智能光控模块中调用了中国天气网 API 接口和手机自带的光线传感器来自动调节灯光的颜色和亮度,该客户端还增加了广告功能。把该客户端系统和灯具模块放在无线网络环境中进行测试,验证了该 LED 智能照明系统客户端的可行性和实用性。

  14. Lymphatic filariasis patient identification in a large urban area of Tanzania: An application of a community-led mHealth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwingira, Upendo; Chikawe, Maria; Mandara, Wilfred Lazarus; Mableson, Hayley E; Uisso, Cecilia; Mremi, Irene; Malishee, Alpha; Malecela, Mwele; Mackenzie, Charles D; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Stanton, Michelle C

    2017-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is best known for the disabling and disfiguring clinical conditions that infected patients can develop; providing care for these individuals is a major goal of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF. Methods of locating these patients, knowing their true number and thus providing care for them, remains a challenge for national medical systems, particularly when the endemic zone is a large urban area. A health community-led door-to-door survey approach using the SMS reporting tool MeasureSMS-Morbidity was used to rapidly collate and monitor data on LF patients in real-time (location, sex, age, clinical condition) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Each stage of the phased study carried out in the three urban districts of city consisted of a training period, a patient identification and reporting period, and a data verification period, with refinements to the system being made after each phase. A total of 6889 patients were reported (133.6 per 100,000 population), of which 4169 were reported to have hydrocoele (80.9 per 100,000), 2251 lymphoedema-elephantiasis (LE) (43.7 per 100,000) and 469 with both conditions (9.1 per 100,000). Kinondoni had the highest number of reported patients in absolute terms (2846, 138.9 per 100,000), followed by Temeke (2550, 157.3 per 100,000) and Ilala (1493, 100.5 per 100,000). The number of hydrocoele patients was almost twice that of LE in all three districts. Severe LE patients accounted for approximately a quarter (26.9%) of those reported, with the number of acute attacks increasing with reported LE severity (1.34 in mild cases, 1.78 in moderate cases, 2.52 in severe). Verification checks supported these findings. This system of identifying, recording and mapping patients affected by LF greatly assists in planning, locating and prioritising, as well as initiating, appropriate morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) activities. The approach is a feasible framework that could be used in other large

  15. Lymphatic filariasis patient identification in a large urban area of Tanzania: An application of a community-led mHealth system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendo Mwingira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is best known for the disabling and disfiguring clinical conditions that infected patients can develop; providing care for these individuals is a major goal of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF. Methods of locating these patients, knowing their true number and thus providing care for them, remains a challenge for national medical systems, particularly when the endemic zone is a large urban area.A health community-led door-to-door survey approach using the SMS reporting tool MeasureSMS-Morbidity was used to rapidly collate and monitor data on LF patients in real-time (location, sex, age, clinical condition in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Each stage of the phased study carried out in the three urban districts of city consisted of a training period, a patient identification and reporting period, and a data verification period, with refinements to the system being made after each phase. A total of 6889 patients were reported (133.6 per 100,000 population, of which 4169 were reported to have hydrocoele (80.9 per 100,000, 2251 lymphoedema-elephantiasis (LE (43.7 per 100,000 and 469 with both conditions (9.1 per 100,000. Kinondoni had the highest number of reported patients in absolute terms (2846, 138.9 per 100,000, followed by Temeke (2550, 157.3 per 100,000 and Ilala (1493, 100.5 per 100,000. The number of hydrocoele patients was almost twice that of LE in all three districts. Severe LE patients accounted for approximately a quarter (26.9% of those reported, with the number of acute attacks increasing with reported LE severity (1.34 in mild cases, 1.78 in moderate cases, 2.52 in severe. Verification checks supported these findings.This system of identifying, recording and mapping patients affected by LF greatly assists in planning, locating and prioritising, as well as initiating, appropriate morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP activities. The approach is a feasible framework that could be used in other large

  16. Effects of Nurse-Led Telephone-Based Supportive Interventions for Patients With Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Soon-Rim; Lee, Myung Kyung

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of nurse-led telephone-based supportive interventions (NTSIs) for patients with cancer.
. Electronic databases, including EMBASE®, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, 
Cochrane Library CENTRAL, ProQuest Medical Library, and CINAHL®, were searched through February 2016.
. 239 studies were identified; 16 were suitable for meta-analysis. Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software were used.
. The authors performed a meta-analysis of 16 trials that met eligibility criteria. Thirteen randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and three non-RCTs examined a total of 2,912 patients with cancer. Patients who received NTSIs were compared with those who received attentional control or usual care (no intervention).
. Telephone interventions delivered by a nurse in an oncology care setting reduced cancer symptoms with a moderate effect size (ES) (-0.33) and emotional distress with a small ES (-0.12), and improved self-care with a large ES (0.64) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with a small ES (0.3). Subgroup analyses indicated that the significant effects of NTSIs on cancer symptoms, emotional distress, and HRQOL were larger for studies that combined an application of a theoretical framework, had a control group given usual care, and used an RTC design.
. The findings suggest that an additional tiered evaluation that has a theoretical underpinning and high-quality methodology is required to confirm the efficacy of NTSI for adoption of specific care models.

  17. Social capital, community-based governance and resilience in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...

  18. Research on Livable Community Evaluation Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhangcai; Wu, Yang; Jin, Zhanghaonan; Zhang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Community is the basic unit of the city. Research on livable community could provide a bottom-up research path for the realization of livable city. Livability is the total factor affecting the quality of community life. In this paper, livable community evaluation indexes are evaluated based on GIS and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Then the sum-index and sub-index of community livability are both calculated. And community livable evaluation index system is constructed based on the platform of GIS. This study provides theoretical support for the construction and management of livable communities, so as to guide the development and optimization of city.

  19. Local natural and cultural heritage assets and community based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community based tourism (CBT) is seen as an opportunity which mass tourism does not offer for, especially, rural communities to develop their natural and cultural assets into tourism activities for the benefit of the community. The point of CBT is that the community, collectively and individually, gains a livelihood from ...

  20. Infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in graphene layer infrared photodetectors integrated with LEDs based on van der Waals heterostructures: Concept, device model, and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Karasik, V. E.; Shur, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose the concept of the infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in the devices using the integration of the graphene layer infrared detectors (GLIPs) and the light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Using the developed device model of the GLIP-LEDs, we calculate their characteristics. The GLIP-LED devices can operate as the detectors of far- and mid infrared radiation (FIR and MIR) with an electrical output or with near-infrared radiation (NIR) or visible radiation (VIR) output. In the latter case, GLIP-LED devices function as the photon energy up-converters of FIR and MIR to NIR or VIR. The operation of GLIP-LED devices is associated with the injection of the electron photocurrent produced due to the interband absorption of the FIR/MIR photons in the GLIP part into the LED emitting NIR/VIR photons. We calculate the GLIP-LED responsivity and up-conversion efficiency as functions the structure parameters and the energies of the incident FIR/MIR photons and the output NIR/VIR photons. The advantages of the GLs in the vdW heterostructures (relatively high photoexcitation rate from and low capture efficiency into GLs) combined with the reabsorption of a fraction of the NIR/FIR photon flux in the GLIP (which can enable an effective photonic feedback) result in the elevated GLIP-LED device responsivity and up-conversion efficiency. The positive optical feedback from the LED section of the device lead to increasing current injection enabling the appearance of the S-type current-voltage characteristic with a greatly enhanced responsivity near the switching point and current filamentation.

  1. Community-based faculty: motivation and rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, P K; Wang-Cheng, R

    1997-02-01

    The reasons why practicing physicians precept students in their offices, and the rewards they wish to receive for this work, have not been clearly elucidated. This study determined the reasons for precepting and the rewards expected among a network of preceptors in Milwaukee. A questionnaire was mailed to 120 community-based physician preceptors in a required, third-year ambulatory care clerkship. Respondents were asked to identify why they volunteered and what they considered appropriate recognition or reward. The personal satisfaction derived from the student-teacher interaction was, by far, the most important motivator for preceptors (84%). The most preferred rewards for teaching included clinical faculty appointment, CME and bookstore discounts, computer networking, and workshops for improving skills in clinical teaching. Community-based private physicians who participate in medical student education programs are primarily motivated by the personal satisfaction that they derive from the teaching encounter. An effective preceptor recognition/reward program can be developed using input from the preceptors themselves.

  2. Performance of LED-based fluorescence microscopy to diagnose tuberculosis in a peripheral health centre in Nairobi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Bonnet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sputum microscopy is the only tuberculosis (TB diagnostic available at peripheral levels of care in resource limited countries. Its sensitivity is low, particularly in high HIV prevalence settings. Fluorescence microscopy (FM can improve performance of microscopy and with the new light emitting diode (LED technologies could be appropriate for peripheral settings. The study aimed to compare the performance of LED-FM versus Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy and to assess feasibility of LED-FM at a low level of care in a high HIV prevalence country. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in an urban health clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Three sputum specimens were collected over 2 days from suspected TB patients. Each sample was processed with Auramine O and ZN methods and a 4(th specimen was collected for TB culture reference standard. Auramine smears were read using the same microscope, equipped with the FluoLED™ fluorescence illuminator. Inter-reader agreement, reading time and technicians' acceptability assessed feasibility. RESULTS: 497 patients were included and 1394 specimens were collected. The detection yields of LED-FM and ZN microscopy were 20.3% and 20.6% (p = 0.64, respectively. Sensitivity was 73.2% for LED-FM and 72% for ZN microscopy, p = 0.32. It was 96.7% and 95.9% for specificity, p = 0.53. Inter-reader agreement was high (kappa = 0.9. Mean reading time was three times faster than ZN microscopy with very good acceptance by technicians. CONCLUSIONS: Although it did not increase sensitivity, the faster reading time combined with very good acceptance and ease of use supports the introduction of LED-FM at the peripheral laboratory level of high TB and HIV burden countries.

  3. Evaluating Student Motivation in Organic Chemistry Courses: Moving from a Lecture-Based to a Flipped Approach with Peer-Led Team Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujuan; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2018-01-01

    Academic Motivation Scale-Chemistry (AMS-Chemistry), an instrument based on the self-determination theory, was used to evaluate students' motivation in two organic chemistry courses, where one course was primarily lecture-based and the other implemented flipped classroom and peer-led team learning (Flip-PLTL) pedagogies. Descriptive statistics…

  4. Comparison of instructor-led automated external defibrillation training and three alternative DVD-based training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wiebe; Turner, Nigel M.; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-directed BLS-training, using a personal training manikin with video has been shown to be as effective as instructor-led training. This has not previously been investigated for AED-training. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized study with a non-inferiority design

  5. DESA WISATA SEBAGAI COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Setyo Nugroho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of community-based tourism in the dome house tourism village has succeeded in becoming a tool to trigger the development of the dome house resident and its environment. All of the development can be obviously seen from the economic, social, cultural, environmental and political aspects with a very enthusiastic participation of the resident. The rapid development of the resident and their high participation can emerge a strategy to make the tourist village survive from the tourism industry competition. In this case, the author found that there is a connection between the high level of community participation and the rapid development as the result of it. Therefore, the more the resident willing to participate, the more it will affect the development of the resident and its environment. This research uses qualitative method. The data were obtained by conducting interview, observation, and documentation. After those steps, the data were processed by interactive and SWOT analysis. Then, questionnaire was used to validate the data towards 21 residents.

  6. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji, Madhumitha; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Koschorke, Mirja; Rangaswamy, Thara; Chavan, Animish; Dabholkar, Hamid; Dakshin, Lilly; Kumar, Pratheesh; John, Sujit; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community...

  7. Engaging the Deaf American Sign Language Community: Lessons From a Community-Based Participatory Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael; Thew, Denise; Starr, Matthew; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Reid, John T.; Graybill, Patrick; Velasquez, Julia; Pearson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous publications demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in community health research, but few target the Deaf community. The Deaf community is understudied and underrepresented in health research despite suspected health disparities and communication barriers. Objectives The goal of this paper is to share the lessons learned from the implementation of CBPR in an understudied community of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users in the greater Rochester, New York, area. Methods We review the process of CBPR in a Deaf ASL community and identify the lessons learned. Results Key CBPR lessons include the importance of engaging and educating the community about research, ensuring that research benefits the community, using peer-based recruitment strategies, and sustaining community partnerships. These lessons informed subsequent research activities. Conclusions This report focuses on the use of CBPR principles in a Deaf ASL population; lessons learned can be applied to research with other challenging-to-reach populations. PMID:22982845

  8. LEDs based upon AlGaInP heterostructures with multiple quantum wells: comparison of fast neutrons and gamma-quanta irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradoboev, A. V.; Orlova, K. N.; Simonova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the research results of watt and volt characteristics of LEDs based upon AlGaInP heterostructures with multiple quantum wells in the active region. The research is completed for LEDs (emission wavelengths 624 nm and 590 nm) under irradiation by fast neutron and gamma-quanta in passive powering mode. Watt-voltage characteristics in the average and high electron injection areas are described as a power function of the operating voltage. It has been revealed that the LEDs transition from average electron injection area to high electron injection area occurs by overcoming the transition area. It disappears as it get closer to the limit result of the irradiation LEDs that is low electron injection mode in the entire supply voltage range. It has been established that the gamma radiation facilitates initial defects restructuring only 42% compared to 100% when irradiation is performed by fast neutrons. Ratio between measured on the boundary between low and average electron injection areas current value and the contribution magnitude of the first stage LEDs emissive power reducing is established. It is allows to predict LEDs resistance to irradiation by fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  9. Community and evidence-based approaches to healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... This project developed community connections, shared cross-cultural teaching experiences, and fostered local community partnerships. Participants in the course were encouraged to continue providing evidence-based care throughout their careers. UniLúrio now plans to include the community-based ...

  10. Volume of Home and Community Based Services and...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...

  11. Tribal Community-Based Social Marketing Training Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.

  12. Community Based Health Insurance Knowledge and Willingness to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Health Insurance Knowledge and Willingness to Pay; A Survey of a Rural Community in ... Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2012) > ... and is the most appropriate insurance model for rural areas where incomes are unstable.

  13. Assessing the Performance of LED-Based Flashlights Available in the Kenyan Off-Grid Lighting Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-03-02

    Low cost rechargeable flashlights that use LED technology are increasingly available in African markets. While LED technology holds promise to provide affordable, high quality lighting services, the widespread dissemination of low quality products may make it difficult to realize this potential. This study includes performance results for three brands of commonly available LED flashlights that were purchased in Kenya in 2009. The performance of the flashlights was evaluated by testing five units for each of the three brands. The tests included measurements of battery capacity, time required to charge the battery, maximum illuminance at one meter, operation time and lux-hours from a fully charged battery, light distribution, and color rendering. All flashlights tested performed well below the manufacturers? rated specifications; the measured battery capacity was 30-50percent lower than the rated capacity and the time required to fully charge the battery was 6-25percent greater than the rated time requirement. Our analysis further shows that within each brand there is considerable variability in each performance indicator. The five samples within a single brand varied from each other by as much as 22percent for battery capacity measurements, 3.6percent for the number of hours required for a full charge, 23percent for maximum initial lux, 38percent for run time, 11percent for light distribution and by as much as 200percent for color rendering. Results obtained are useful for creating a framework for quality assurance of off-grid LED products and will be valuable for informing consumers, distributors and product manufacturers about product performance.

  14. Host sensitized novel red phosphor CaZrSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} : Eu{sup 3+} for near UV and blue LED-based white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandi, Vengala Rao; Jeong, Junho; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jayasimhadri, M [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Yi, Soung-Soo [Department of Photonics, Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung-Hyun, E-mail: kwjang@changwon.ac.k [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-06

    A series of red phosphors Ca{sub 1-x}ZrSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} : Eu{sub x} (x = 0.5,1,5,10,12 mol%) were prepared by a solid-state reaction technique at various temperatures and their structural and optical properties were investigated. The x-ray diffraction profiles showed that all peaks could be attributed to the monoclinic phase CaZrSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} doped with Eu{sup 3+}. SEM, FTIR, TG and DTA profiles have also been characterized to explore their structural properties. The luminescence properties of these resulting phosphors have been characterized by photoluminescence spectra. The host matrix itself has shown a strong blue emission which has its maximum intensity at 470 nm. The excitation spectra of CaZrSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} : Eu{sup 3+} revealed two excitation bands at 395 and 464 nm which correspond to the sharp {sup 7}F{sub 0}-{sup 5}L{sub 6} and {sup 7}F{sub 0}-{sup 5}D{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 3+} and matches well with the two popular emissions from n-UV/blue GaN-based LEDs. The prominent red emission was obtained at 615 nm by the excitation transitions {sup 5}L{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 2} of Eu{sup 3+} through the non-radiative energy transfer process from the host to the Eu{sup 3+} ion. The effects of charge compensation by monovalent ions on the luminescence behaviour of a red emitting phosphor CaZrSi{sub 2}O{sub 7} : Eu{sup 3+} were investigated. The high colour saturation and the low thermal quenching effect of these phosphors make it a potential red component for white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs).

  15. An evaluation of a nurse-led rehabilitation programme (the ProBalance Programme) to improve balance and reduce fall risk of community-dwelling older people: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Gonçalves Jardim, Helena; Martins, Maria Manuela; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; de Freitas, Duarte Luís; Maia, José António; Rose, Debra J

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of a nurse-led rehabilitation programme (the ProBalance Programme) on balance and fall risk of community-dwelling older people from Madeira Island, Portugal. Single-blind, randomised controlled trial. University laboratory. Community-dwelling older people, aged 65-85, with balance impairments. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG; n=27) or a wait-list control group (CG; n=25). A rehabilitation nursing programme included gait, balance, functional training, strengthening, flexibility, and 3D training. One trained rehabilitation nurse administered the group-based intervention over a period of 12 weeks (90min sessions, 2 days per week). A wait-list control group was instructed to maintain their usual activities during the same time period. Balance was assessed using the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale. The time points for assessment were at zero (pre-test), 12 (post-test), and 24 weeks (follow up). Changes in the mean (SD) FAB scale scores immediately following the 12-week intervention were 5.15 (2.81) for the IG and -1.45 (2.80) for the CG. At follow-up, the mean (SD) change scores were -1.88 (1.84) and 0.75 (2.99) for the IG and CG, respectively. The results of a mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance, controlling for physical activity levels at baseline, revealed a significant interaction between group and time (F (2, 42)=27.89, pbalance and reducing fall risk in a group of older people with balance impairment, immediately after the intervention. A decline in balance was observed for the IG after a period of no intervention. ACTRN12612000301864. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Community-Based Nursing versus Community Health Nursing: What Does It All Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Marianne E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers practice models for community-based nursing and community health nursing that demonstrate the different roles, philosophies, and activities of the two approaches. Points to curriculum changes that are needed to prepare students to practice in an increasingly community-oriented health care industry. (Author)

  17. Mental Retardation, Poverty and Community Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Helander

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A person with moderate mental retardation would, in a western country, be "diagnosed" early on in life. Consequently, such a child is likely to be sent for special education. Given the high level of job requirements, such a person is unlikely to be employed in the open market later in life. Mental retardation is one of the most frequent disabilities in most studies, mental retardation is found in about three percent of the population. Persons even with mild mental retardation have very large difficulties finding employment and are for this reason often deprived of opportunities for suitable and productive income generation this is why most stay poor. But disability does not only cause poverty poverty itself causes disability. This study follows an analysis, based on a review of the Swedish programme for mental retardation during the period 1930-2000. It is concluded that in Sweden a very large proportion of mild and moderate mental retardation has been eliminated though the combination of poverty alleviation with a community-based rehabilitation programme. For these situations a pro-active programme analysing and meeting the needs of the target groups should be useful as a means to achieve poverty alleviation.

  18. A 2 x 2 imaging MIMO system based on LED Visible Light Communications employing space balanced coding and integrated PIN array reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiehui; Xu, Yinfan; Shi, Jianyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a 2 x 2 imaging Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-Visible Light Communication (VLC) system by employing Space Balanced Coding (SBC) based on two RGB LEDs and integrated PIN array reception. We experimentally demonstrated 1.4-Gbit/s VLC transmission at a distance of 2.5 m...

  19. Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Alcock

    2017-06-01

    studies which included descriptive statistics and many also included inferential statistics intended to show significance. Differences between groups were assessed with parametric measures in 9 studies and non-parametric measures in 15 studies. Good to high statistical significance on at least 1 measurement was achieved in 23 studies. Given the absence of effect sizes, the level of differences between study groups could not be determined. Conclusion – Numerous pedagogical methods are used in librarian-led instruction in evidence based practice. However, there is a paucity of high level evidence and the literature suggests that no instructional method is demonstrated to be more effective than another.

  20. Performance optimization of AlGaN-based LEDs by use of ultraviolet-transparent indium tin oxide: Effect of in situ contact treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenbin; Chen, Zimin; Zhuo, Yi; Li, Zeqi; Ma, Xuejin; Wang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is used as the current-spreading layer for 368 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By performing in situ contact treatment on the LED/ITO interface, the morphology, resistivity, and contact resistance of electrodes become controllable. Resistivity of 2.64 × 10‑4 Ω cm and transmittance at 368 nm of 95.9% are realized for an ITO thin film grown with Sn-purge in situ treatment. Therefore, the high-power operating voltage decreases from 3.94 V (without treatment) to 3.83 V (with treatment). The improved performance is attributed to the lowering of the tunneling barrier at the LED/ITO interface.

  1. Evaluation of Uniformity and Glare Improvement with Low Energy Efficiency Losses in Street Lighting LED Luminaires Using Laser-Sintered Polyamide-Based Diffuse Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gago-Calderón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving in street lighting is garnering more interest and has become a priority in municipal management. Therefore, LED luminaires are gradually becoming prevalent in our cities. Beyond their energy/economic saving potential, quality in public lighting installations concerns aspects such as uniformity and glare which must be maintained if not improved in any installation renewal project using this technology. The high light intensity generated in a discrete point in LED packages and its directional nature result in significant deficiencies in these last two parameters. To soften these effects, translucent covers are being used as one of the most common solutions with the drawback of significant light intensity losses. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of LED luminaire’s polyamide-based optical covers manufactured with a laser-sintered process. These are designed to improve glare and uniformity output, to minimize light output reductions, and to be industrially manufactured with no increment of cost for their lighting equipment compared to conventional transparent polycarbonate solutions. A laboratory and field lighting test study has been applied to different covers with the same LED lamp and luminaire to compare the performance of three different solutions built with different polymeric materials and with different light transmission surface textures. The photometric results have been observed and discussed to demonstrate the ability to significantly improve the lighting performance of LED luminaires—illuminance and uniformity levels and discomfort and disability glare indexes— using an improved optic cover.

  2. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  3. Assessing Payment and Community Based Distribution Issues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Questionnaire interviews were conducted with randomly selected household heads or their representatives in five malaria holo-endemic communities of Southeast Nigeria. Interviews were also held with community leaders before and after ITNs sales. The sale of ITNs was based on the communities' distribution ...

  4. Telemedicine delivery of patient education in remote Ontario communities: feasibility of an Advanced Clinician Practitioner in Arthritis Care (ACPAC-led inflammatory arthritis education program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warmington K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Warmington,1 Carol Flewelling,2 Carol A Kennedy,3,4 Rachel Shupak,5 Angelo Papachristos,5 Caroline Jones,5 Denise Linton,3 Dorcas E Beaton,3,4,6–8 Sydney Lineker9 1Learning Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, 2Telemedicine Program, 3Musculoskeletal Health & Outcomes Research, St. Michael’s Hospital, 4Institute for Work & Health, 5Martin Family Centre for Arthritis Care & Research, St. Michael’s Hospital, 6Graduate Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, 7Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, 8Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 9The Arthritis Society (Ontario Division, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: Telemedicine-based approaches to health care service delivery improve access to care. It was recognized that adults with inflammatory arthritis (IA living in remote areas had limited access to patient education and could benefit from the 1-day Prescription for Education (RxEd program. The program was delivered by extended role practitioners with advanced training in arthritis care. Normally offered at one urban center, RxEd was adapted for videoconference delivery through two educator development workshops that addressed telemedicine and adult education best practices. This study explores the feasibility of and participant satisfaction with telemedicine delivery of the RxEd program in remote communities.Materials and methods: Participants included adults with IA attending the RxEd program at one of six rural sites. They completed post-course program evaluations and follow-up interviews. Educators provided post-course feedback to identify program improvements that were later implemented.Results: In total, 123 people (36 in-person and 87 remote, across 6 sites participated, attending one of three RxEd sessions. Remote participants were satisfied with the quality of the videoconference (% agree/strongly agree: could hear the presenter (92.9% and discussion

  5. Community Based Networks and 5G Wi-Fi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues on why Community Based Networks should be recognized as potential 5G providers using 5G Wi-Fi. The argument is hinged on findings in a research to understand why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out...... inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated. Two Community Based Network Mobilization Models were identified. The findings indicate that 5G Wi-Fi deployment by Community Based Networks is possible if policy initiatives and the 5G Wi-Fi standards are developed to facilitate the causal...

  6. The effect of a resident-led quality improvement project on improving communication between hospital-based and outpatient physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanithi, Lucy; Coffey, Charles E; Mourad, Michelle; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Hollander, Harry; Ranji, Sumant R

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a resident-led quality improvement program to improve communication between inpatient internal medicine residents and their patients' primary care physicians (PCPs). The program included education on care transitions, standardization of documentation, audit and feedback of documented PCP communication rates with public reporting of performance, rapid-cycle data analysis and improvement projects, and a financial incentive. At baseline, PCP communication was documented in 55% of patients; after implementation of the intervention, communication was documented in 89.3% (2477 of 2772) of discharges during the program period. The program was associated with a significant increase in referring PCP satisfaction with communication at hospital admission (baseline, 27.7% "satisfied" or "very satisfied"; postintervention, 58.2%; P communication for patient care and audit and feedback of their performance as the principal drivers of their engagement in the project.

  7. Preparation and Performance of Poly(butyl fumarate-Based Material for Potential Application in LED Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A UV-curable poly(butyl fumarate (PBF/poly(propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF-DA hybrid material with good performance for LED encapsulation is introduced in the paper. They have been prepared by radical polymerization using PBF and PPF-DA macromers with a UV curing system. PBF and PPF-DA were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The thermal behavior, optical and mechanical properties of the material were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–vis, and a material testing system mechanical testing machine, respectively. The results indicated that the hybrid material has a suitable refractive index (n = 1.537 and high transmittance (99.64% in visible range before/after thermal aging. With the increasing of the double bond ratio from 0.5 to 2, the water absorption ratios of the prepared encapsulation material were 1.22%, 1.87% and 2.88%, respectively. The mechanical property experiments showed that bonding strength was in the range of 1.86–3.40 MPa, tensile-shear strength ranged from 0.84 MPa to 1.57 MPa, and compression strength was in the range of 5.10–27.65 MPa. The cured PBF/PPF-DA hybrid material can be used as a light-emitting diode (LED encapsulant, owing to its suitable refractive index, high transparency, excellent thermal stability, lower water absorption, and good mechanical properties.

  8. Application of the EGM Method to a LED-Based Spotlight: A Constrained Pseudo-Optimization Design Process Based on the Analysis of the Local Entropy Generation Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sciubba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the entropy generation minimization (EGM method is applied to an industrial heat transfer problem: the forced convective cooling of a LED-based spotlight. The design specification calls for eighteen diodes arranged on a circular copper plate of 35 mm diameter. Every diode dissipates 3 W and the maximum allowedtemperature of the plate is 80 °C. The cooling relies on the forced convection driven by a jet of air impinging on the plate. An initial complex geometry of plate fins is presented and analyzed with a commercial CFD code that computes the entropy generation rate. A pseudo-optimization process is carried out via a successive series of design modifications based on a careful analysis of the entropy generation maps. One of the advantages of the EGM method is that the rationale behind each step of the design process can be justified on a physical basis. It is found that the best performance is attained when the fins are periodically spaced in the radial direction.

  9. Community-Based Disaster Management: A Lesson Learned From Community Emergency Response Management in Banyumas, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, A. Y.; Sariffuddin, S.

    2018-02-01

    This article aimed to review community-based disaster management in terms of its independent coordination and disaster management. Community resilience was tested during disaster emergency. While panic, the community is required to be viable and able to evacuate, manage logistic, collect data on damage and the victim, and coordinate with outsiders independently. The community in Gununglurah Village, Banyumas Regency which was hit by a landslide in 2015 provides a lesson learned about community based disaster management. This research used qualitative descriptive methodology with in-depth interview with 23 informants from the community, donor institution, village officers, and government officers. Through traditional and informal methods, the community implemented disaster management that was categorized into 3 mechanisms that were social, functional, and sequential mechanism. These mechanisms controlled different portion in which social mechanism holds the most important role in disaster management, then functional mechanism and sequential mechanism. Various community activities in the village equipped the community with organizational experience to manage logistic, human resource and other coordination. In 2007, in fact, there was vulnerability risk assessment done by the local government, which recommended efforts to be done by the community to reduce the disaster risk, yet it was not implemented. It was interesting to note that in spite of the independent disaster management there was a scientific assessment neglected. Based on this research, a new discussion on how to synchronize the endogenous knowledge with scientific modern knowledge was opened.

  10. LED-roulette : LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te

  11. An ultra-bright white LED based non-contact skin cancer imaging system with polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Basu, C.; Roth, B.; Meinhardt-Wollweber, M.

    2013-06-01

    Early detection and excision of melanoma skin cancer is crucial for a successful therapy. Dermoscopy in direct contact with the skin is routinely used for inspection, but screening is time consuming for high-risk patients with a large number of nevi. Features like symmetry, border, color and most importantly changes like growth or depigmentation of a nevus may indicate malignancy. We present a non-contact remote imaging system for human melanocytic nevi with homogenous illumination by an ultra-bright white LED. The advantage compared to established dermoscopy systems requiring direct skin contact is that deformation of raised nevi is avoided and full-body scans of the patients may time-efficiently be obtained while they are in a lying, comfortable position. This will ultimately allow for automated screening in the future. In addition, calibration of true color rendering, which is essential for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions and to ensure reproducibility and comparison between individual check-ups in order to follow nevi evolution is implemented as well as suppression of specular highlights on the skin surface by integration of polarizing filters. Important features of the system which will be crucial for future integration into automated systems are the possibility to record images without artifacts in combination with short exposure times which both reduce image blurring caused by patient motion.

  12. Novel wearable-type biometric devices based on skin tissue optics with multispectral LED-photodiode matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young Chang; Kim, Hae Na; Kang, Jae Hwan; Hong, Hyuck Ki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Jung, Suk Won; Kim, Sung Phil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of using a multispectral skin photomatrix (MSP) module as a novel biometric device. The MSP device measures optical patterns of the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns consist of 2 × 8 photocurrent intensities of photodiode arrays, which are generated by optical transmission and diffuse reflection of photons from LED light sources with variable wavelengths into the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns detected by the MSP device provide information on both the surface and subsurface characteristics of the human skin tissue. We found that in the 21 subjects we studied, they showed their unique characteristics, as determined using several wavelengths of light. The experimental results show that the best personal identification accuracy can be acquired using a combination of infrared light and yellow light. This novel biometric device, the MSP module, exhibited an excellent false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.3% and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.0%, which are better than those of commercialized biometric devices such as a fingerprint biometric system. From these experimental results, we found that people exhibit unique optical patterns of their inner-wrist skin tissue and this uniqueness could be used for developing novel high-accuracy personal identification devices.

  13. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes.

  14. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis using a senior-friendly peer-led community education and mentoring model: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kloseck,Marita; Fitzsimmons,Deborah; Speechley,Mark; Savundranayagam,Marie; Crilly,Richard

    2017-01-01

    Marita Kloseck,1,2 Deborah A Fitzsimmons,1,3,4 Mark Speechley,5 Marie Y Savundranayagam,1 Richard G Crilly1,2 1Sam Katz Community Health and Aging Research Unit, 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 3School of Nursing and Allied Health, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, ON, Canada Backgro...

  15. Community-Based Wildlife Management In Tanzania: The Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...

  16. Community based monitoring: engaging and empowering Alberta ranchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Quinn; Jennifer E. Dubois

    2005-01-01

    Community based monitoring (CBM), a form of citizen science, is presented as a potential contributor to ecosystem management and sustainable development. A conceptual model for CBM and lessons learned from a Canadian national pilot program, the Canadian Community Monitoring Network, are summarized along with a description of the European university-based “science shop...

  17. Community capacity building and sustainability: outcomes of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Tendulkar, Shalini A; Rideout, Catlin; Bhuiya, Nazmim; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Savage, Clara P; Grullon, Milagro; Strelnick, Hal; Leung, Carolyn; DiGirolamo, Ann

    2012-01-01

    For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes. This paper describes a community-academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both. "Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health" was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher-community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee. Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to "transfer of knowledge" from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved. Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes.

  18. Trait-based approaches in the analysis of stream fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Emmanuel; Angermeier, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Species traits are used to study the functional organization of fish communities for a range of reasons, from simply reducing data dimensionality to providing mechanistic explanations for observed variation in communities. Ecological and life history traits have been used to understand the basic ecology of fishes and predict (1) species and community responses to habitat and climate alteration, and (2) species extinction, species invasion, and community homogenization. Many approaches in this arena have been developed during the past three decades, but they often have not been integrated with related ecological concepts or subdisciplines, which has led to confusion in terminology. We review 102 studies of species traits and then summarize patterns in traits being used and questions being addressed with trait-based approaches. Overall, studies of fish–habitat relationships that apply habitat templates and hierarchical filters dominate our sample; the most frequently used traits are related to feeding. We define and show the relationships among key terms such as fundamental and realized niches; functional traits, performance, and fitness; tactic, trait-state, syndromes, and strategies; and guilds and functional groups. We propose accelerating research to (1) quantify trait plasticity, (2) identify traits useful for testing ecological hypotheses, (3) model habitat and biotic interactions in communities while explicitly accounting for phylogenetic relationships, (4) explore how traits control community assembly, and (5) document the importance of traits in fish– community responses to anthropogenic change and in delivering ecosystem services. Further synthesis of these topics is still needed to develop concepts, models, and principles that can unify the disparate approaches taken in trait-based analysis of fish communities, link fish community ecology to general community ecology, and inform sustainable management of ecosystems.

  19. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  20. Community-based research in action: tales from the Ktunaxa community learning centres project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Elizabeth; Wisener, Katherine; Liman, Yolanda; Beznosova, Olga; Lauscher, Helen Novak; Ho, Kendall; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Rural communities, particularly Aboriginal communities, often have limited access to health information, a situation that can have significant negative consequences. To address the lack of culturally and geographically relevant health information, a community-university partnership was formed to develop, implement, and evaluate Aboriginal Community Learning Centres (CLCs). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the community-based research process used in the development of the CLCs. It focuses on the process of building relationships among partners and the CLC's value and sustainability. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, including principal investigators, community research leads, and supervisors. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an open-coding process to identify themes. Key challenges included enacting shared project governance, negotiating different working styles, and hiring practices based on commitment to project objectives rather than skill set. Technological access provided by the CLCs increased capacity for learning and collective community initiatives, as well as building community leads' skills, knowledge, and self-efficacy. An important lesson was to meet all partners "where they are" in building trusting relationships and adapting research methods to fit the project's context and strengths. Successful results were dependent upon persistence and patience in working through differences, and breaking the project into achievable goals, which collectively contributed to trust and capacity building. The process of building these partnerships resulted in increased capacity of communities to facilitate learning and change initiatives, and the capacity of the university to engage in successful research partnerships with Aboriginal communities in the future.

  1. Beyond conventional c-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes: A systematic exploration of LEDs on semi-polar orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, Morteza

    Despite enormous efforts and investments, the efficiency of InGaN-based green and yellow-green light emitters remains relatively low, and that limits progress in developing full color display, laser diodes, and bright light sources for general lighting. The low efficiency of light emitting devices in the green-to-yellow spectral range, also known as the "Green Gap", is considered a global concern in the LED industry. The polar c-plane orientation of GaN, which is the mainstay in the LED industry, suffers from polarization-induced separation of electrons and hole wavefunctions (also known as the "quantum confined Stark effect") and low indium incorporation efficiency that are the two main factors that contribute to the Green Gap phenomenon. One possible approach that holds promise for a new generation of green and yellow light emitting devices with higher efficiency is the deployment of nonpolar and semi-polar crystallographic orientations of GaN to eliminate or mitigate polarization fields. In theory, the use of other GaN planes for light emitters could also enhance the efficiency of indium incorporation compared to c-plane. In this thesis, I present a systematic exploration of the suitable GaN orientation for future lighting technologies. First, in order to lay the groundwork for further studies, it is important to discuss the analysis of processes limiting LED efficiency and some novel designs of active regions to overcome these limitations. Afterwards, the choice of nonpolar orientations as an alternative is discussed. For nonpolar orientation, the (1100)-oriented (mo-plane) structures on patterned Si (112) and freestanding m-GaN are studied. The semi-polar orientations having substantially reduced polarization field are found to be more promising for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to high indium incorporation efficiency predicted by theoretical studies. Thus, the semi-polar orientations are given close attention as alternatives for future LED technology

  2. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  3. Planning for Community Based Tourism in a Remote Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Harwood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote areas are difficult to access, tend to lack critical infrastructure, are highly susceptible to shocks in the marketplace, and are perceived by industry to possess limited development opportunities. Accordingly a community orientated and territorial approach to development planning in a remote area will be more successful than a top down industry based approach [1]. Given the limitations of being remote, the case study community examined in this research manages and sustains a bird watching tourism product within a global market place. This paper examines how a remotely located community in the Arfak Mountains of West Papua overcomes these difficulties and plans for community based tourism (CBT in their locale.

  4. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  5. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  6. COMMUNITY BASED ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT PRACTISE, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larry

    Multiple research techniques employed for this study include Focus ... Keywords: Ecotourism practise, sustainable development, rural communities, multiple research ... in regional areas. Part of its .... cooperation in order to achieve meaning full .... 79. 100.0. Accessible motorable road network. 6. 7.6. 73. 92.4. Health centre.

  7. LED Street Lighting Solutions: Flagstaff, Arizona as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Dark-sky protection in Flagstaff, Arizona extends back to 1958, with the first ordinance in the City banning advertising floodlights. The current ordinance, adopted in 1989, is comprehensive and has played a critical role in maintaining the quality of the night sky for astronomy, tourism, public enjoyment, and other purposes. Flagstaff, like many communities around the world, is now working on a transition from legacy bulb-based technology to LED for its outdoor lighting. The City, Lowell Observatory, the U. S. Naval Observatory, and the Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition have been working intensively for two years to identify an LED-based street lighting solution that will preserve the City's dark skies while meeting municipal needs. We will soon be installing test fixtures for an innovative solution incorporating narrow-band amber LED and modest amounts of low-CCT white LED. In this talk, I will review the types of LEDs available for outdoor lighting and discuss the plans for Flagstaff's street lighting in the LED era, which we hope will be a model for communities worldwide.

  8. Increasing Melanoma Screening Among Hispanic/Latino Americans: A Community-Based Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Grace Y; Brown, Gina; Gibson, Desmond

    2015-10-01

    Melanoma incidence is increasing among Hispanics/Latinos in California. This community-based project reached out to a rural Hispanic/Latino community in North San Diego County to provide melanoma prevention and screening education. At a local community health fair, bilingual volunteer lay health workers led 10- to 15-minute-long information sessions on melanoma disease, risk factors, and skin self-examination techniques. Pearson chi-square analyses of participants' (N = 34) responses to pre- and postintervention evaluation surveys indicate significant increases in knowledge, risk awareness, and self-efficacy for self-screening. The results revealed that Hispanics/Latinos in a low socioeconomic stratum might be at moderate to high risk for developing melanoma. Their low annual income, low level of education, occupational sun-exposure, and lack of access to health care are likely factors that deter at-risk Hispanics/Latinos from seeking health care. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Engaging the Community Cultural Wealth of Latino Immigrant Families in a Community-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study utilizing ethnographic methods was to understand how family members' participation in Digital Home, a community-based technology program in an urban mid-sized Midwestern city, built on and fostered Latino immigrant families' community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005) in order to increase their abilities to…

  10. Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

  11. InGaN/GaN LEDs optical output efficiency enhancement based on AFM surface morphology studies of the constituent layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florescu, D.I.; Ramer, J.C.; Merai, V.N.; Parekh, A.; Lu, D.; Lee, D.S.; Armour, E.A. [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    For GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), the growth mechanism and interface roughness of the n-contact, active region, and p-contact layers are of vital importance for achieving superior optical and electrical characteristics of such devices. Nanoscale range surface morphology is one of the key parameters actively employed to developing high optical efficiency applications. In this study, we illustrate the use of atomic force microscopy to investigate and optimise the surface morphology of (a) sapphire substrates and (b) metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) grown InGaN/GaN LED constituent layers (i.e., n-GaN, InGaN active region, and p-GaN). Several optimal cases are presented and discussed, where based on the surface morphology findings an improved selection of (a) substrates and (b) MOCVD growth parameters was achieved leading to an overall enhancement (over 2 times) of the optical output efficiency of these devices. Applying the principles and observations reported, a thermally robust 465 nm multiple quantum well LED with an unpackaged chip-level power output in the 4.0-5.0 mW range and forward voltage <3.2 V at 20 mA was consistently achieved. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Ensemble method: Community detection based on game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.

  13. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari

    2016-01-01

    Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...

  14. A rural, community-based suicide awareness and intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon; Walker, Coralanne; Miles, Alison C J; De Silva, Eve; Zimitat, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a prominent public health issue in rural Australia and specifically in Tasmania, which has one of the highest suicide rates in the country. The Community Response to Eliminating Suicide (CORES) program was developed in rural Tasmania in response to a significant number of suicides over a short period of time. CORES is unique in that it is both a community-based and gatekeeper education model. CORES aims to build and empower communities to take ownership of suicide prevention strategies. It also aims to increase the individual community member's interpersonal skills and awareness of suicide risks, while building peer support and awareness of suicide prevention support services within the community itself. Pre- and post-test surveys after the CORES 1-day suicide awareness and intervention program (SAIP) showed significant increases in levels of comfort and confidence in discussing suicide with those who may be contemplating that action. CORES builds community capital through establishing new connections within communities. Establishment of local executive groups, funding and SAIP are key activities of successful CORES programs in communities around Australia. Over half of the initial leaders are still actively involved after a decade, which reflects positively on the quality and outcomes of the program. This study supports CORES as a beneficial and feasible community-based suicide intervention program for rural communities.

  15. Effectiveness of structured, hospital-based, nurse-led atrial fibrillation clinics: a comparison between a real-world population and a clinical trial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Ina; Hendriks, Jeroen M L; Møller, Dorthe S; Albertsen, Andi E; Mogensen, Helle M; Oddershede, Gitte D; Odgaard, Annette; Mortensen, Leif Spange; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Frost, Lars

    2016-01-01

    A previous randomised trial showed that structured, nurse-led atrial fibrillation (AF) care is superior to conventional AF care, although further research is needed to determine the outcomes of such care in a real-world setting. We compared the outcomes of patients in real-world, nurse-led, structured hospital AF clinics with the outcomes of a randomised trial of the efficacy of a nurse-led AF clinic, with respect to a composite outcome of cardiovascular-related hospitalisation and death. All patients were referred to the AF nurse specialist by cardiologists. The AF nurse specialist provided patient education, risk-factor control and stimulated empowerment and compliance. During follow-up, treatment was adjusted according to clinical guidelines. Patient education was repeated, and compliance with medical treatment was controlled. The study size was powered as a non-inferiority study. Outcome measures were adjudicated by the same principles in both cohorts. A total of 596 patients from the real world and 356 patients from a clinical trial were included in this study. No significant difference between groups with respect to age, type of AF or CHA2DS2VASc score was found. The composite primary end point occurred with an incidence rate of 8.0 (95% CI 6.1 to 10.4) per 100 person-years in the real-world population and 8.3 (95% CI 6.3 to 10.9) per 100 person-years in the clinical trial, with a crude HR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.23). Structured, nurse-led, hospital-based AF care appears to be effective, and patient outcomes in an actual, hospital-based, structured AF care are as least as good as those in trial settings.

  16. Valuing Our Communities: Ethical Considerations for Economic Evaluation of Community-Based Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Max; Jones, Damon

    2017-12-01

    Restricted public budgets and increasing efforts to link the impact of community interventions to public savings have increased the use of economic evaluation. While this type of evaluation can be important for program planning, it also raises important ethical issues about how we value the time of local stakeholders who support community interventions. In particular, researchers navigate issues of scientific accuracy, institutional inequality, and research utility in their pursuit of even basic cost estimates. We provide an example of how we confronted these issues when estimating the costs of a large-scale community-based intervention. Principles for valuing community members' time and conducting economic evaluations of community programs are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  17. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function and type. Some......; develop novel predictive models that explicitly incorporate traits and associated trade-offs; and utilize these traits to explain and predict zooplankton community structure and dynamics under different environmental conditions, including global change scenarios......Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...

  18. Cohesion Based Personalized Community Recommendation System

    OpenAIRE

    Md Mamunur Rashid; Kazi Wasif Ahmed; Hasan Mahmud; Md. Kamrul Hasan; Husne Ara Rubaiyeat

    2016-01-01

    Our life is totally engaged by the progressive growth of online social networking. Because, millions of users are interconnecting with each other using different social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, Pinterest, Instagram etc. Most of the social sites like Facebook, Google+ allow users to join different groups or communities where people can share their common interests and express opinions around a common cause, problem or activity. However, an information overloading ...

  19. Effects of Pharmacist-Led Patient Education on Diabetes-Related Knowledge and Medication Adherence: A Home-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ee Pin; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patient education is key to the management of acute and chronic conditions. However, the majority of such educational interventions have been reported from health-care settings. In contrast, this study aims to evaluate whether a home-based intervention can result in better understanding about type 2 diabetes mellitus and can increase…

  20. Peer-Led, School-Based Nutrition Education for Young Adolescents: Feasibility and Process Evaluation of the TEENS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…

  1. Effect of an integrated intervention package of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation and health education on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Zouzou, Fabien; Ouattara, Mamadou; Schmidlin, Thomas; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; Dongo, Kouassi; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Koné, Siaka; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Raso, Giovanna

    2018-02-27

    Preventive chemotherapy with donated anthelminthic drugs is the cornerstone for the control of helminthiases. However, reinfection can occur rapidly in the absence of clean water and sanitation coupled with unhygienic behaviour. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an integrated package of interventions, consisting of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and health education, on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections and on participants' knowledge, attitude, practice and beliefs (KAPB) towards these diseases including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). A cross-sectional survey was carried out in nine communities of south-central Côte d'Ivoire to assess people's infection with helminths and intestinal protozoa and KAPB. Subsequently, interventions were targeted to five communities, while the remaining communities served as control. The intervention encouraged latrine construction and an evaluation was done 6-7 months later to determine open defecation status of the respective communities. Anthelminthic treatment was provided to all community members. A follow-up cross-sectional survey was conducted approximately one year later, using the same procedures. Overall, 810 people had complete baseline and follow-up data and were given anthelminthic treatment. The baseline prevalence of hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and Ascaris lumbricoides was 31.1%, 7.0%, 2.0%, 1.0% and 0.3%, respectively. Four of the five intervention communities were classified open-defecation free. For hookworm infection, we observed higher negative changes in terms of proportion of decrease (-0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): - 0.16, -0.04) and higher egg reduction rate (64.9 vs 15.2%) when comparing intervention with control communities. For intestinal protozoa, prevalence reduction was higher in intervention compared to control communities (8.2 vs 2.6%) and WASH indicators and

  2. Effects of Technology-Based Teacher Training and Teacher-Led Classroom Implementation on Learning Reading Comprehension Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Michael; Sales, Gregory C.; Lawrenz, Frances; Robelia, Beth; Richardson, Jayson W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a professionally developed comprehensive reading comprehension strategies program when compared to traditional reading comprehension instruction presented to 865 fourth and fifth graders (682 with full data sets) in 34 classrooms in the United States. The treatment included a strong, technology-based teacher training component as well as highly motivational materials for 53 classroom-delivered student lessons. The research design was a randomized tria...

  3. A Bibliometric Study of Community Pharmacy-Based Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze community pharmacy based research in Arab countries. Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2003 till December 31, 2013 was searched for documents with specific words pertaining to “community pharmacy” in any one of the 13 Middle ...

  4. Community-based conservation of critical sites: Uganda's experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of natural resources, first and foremost for their own good, and then for national and global benefit. Ecotourism and adding value to locally produced materials in communities can translate into support for conservation. This paper highlights the importance of community-based conservation for important biodiversity sites.

  5. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trolle, D.; Hamilton, D.P.; Hipsey, M.R.; Bolding, K.; Bruggeman, J.; Mooij, W.M.; Janse, J.H.; Nielsen, A.; Jeppesen, E.; Elliott, J.A.; Makler-Pick, V.; Petzoldt, T.; Rinke, K.; Flindt, M.R.; Arhonditsis, G.B.; Gal, G.; Bjerring, R.; Tominaga, K.; Hoen, 't J.; Downing, A.S.; Marques, D.M.; Fragoso, C.R.; Sondergaard, M.; Hanson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through a

  6. Implementing and managing community-based education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A current challenge in the training of healthcare professionals is to produce socially responsive graduates who are prepared for work in community settings. Community-based education (CBE) and service learning (SL) are teaching approaches used in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Free ...

  7. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  8. The operational challenges of community-based tourism ventures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based tourism is increasingly being developed and promoted as a means of reducing poverty in developing countries, assisting local communities to meet their needs through the offering of a tourism product. The Swaziland Tourism Authority with the support of the European Union Fund has made significant ...

  9. Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally .... rules in use across a broad range of CPR user- communities .... identified these social clusters and vocational groupings as ..... satisfied with the agreement and the villagers .... protection measures for the red colobus monkey ...

  10. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  11. The improvement of GaN-based LED grown on concave nano-pattern sapphire substrate with SiO2 blocking layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concave nano-patterned sapphire substrates with SiO 2 blocking layer. • The IQE is almost two times larger than that of conventional one. • The EQE was extremely enhanced more than 100%. - Abstract: In contrast to convex nano-pattern sapphire substrates (NPSS), which are frequently used to fabricate high-quality nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), concave NPSS have been paid relatively less attention. In this study, a concave NPSS was fabricated, and its nitride epitaxial growth process was evaluated in a step by step manner. A SiO 2 layer was used to avoid nucleation over the sidewall and bottom of the nano-patterns to reduce dislocation reformation. Traditional LED structures were grown on the NPSS layer to determine its influence on device performance. X-ray diffraction, etched pit density, inverse leakage current, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) results showed that dislocations and non-radiative recombination centers are reduced by the NPSS constructed with a SiO 2 blocking layer. An IQE twice that on a planar substrate was also achieved; such a high IQE significantly enhanced the external quantum efficiency of the resultant device. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the SiO 2 blocking layer proposed in this work can enhance the performance of LEDs.

  12. Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Akira; Nagasawa, Yosuke; Ippommatsu, Masamichi; Aosaki, Ko; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-09-01

    AlGaN-based LEDs are expected to be useful for sterilization, deodorization, photochemical applications such as UV curing and UV printing, medical applications such as phototherapy, and sensing. Today, it has become clear that efficient AlGaN-based LED dies are producible between 355 and 250 nm with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3% on flat sapphire. These dies were realized on flat sapphire without using a special technique, i.e., reduction in threading dislocation density or light extraction enhancement techniques such as the use of a photonic crystal or a patterned sapphire substrate. Despite the limited light extraction efficiency of about 8% owing to light absorption at a thick p-GaN contact layer, high EQEs of approximately 6% has been reproducible between 300 and 280 nm without using special techniques. Moreover, an EQE of 3.9% has been shown at 271 nm, despite the smaller current injection efficiency (CIE). The high EQEs are thought to correspond to the high internal quantum efficiency (IQE), indicating a small room for improving IQE. Accordingly, resin encapsulation on a simple submount is strongly desired. Recently, we have succeeded in demonstrating fluorine resin encapsulation on a ceramic sheet (chip-on-board, COB) that is massproducible. Furthermore, the molecular structure of a resin with a durability of more than 10,000 h is explained in this paper from the photochemical viewpoint. Thus, the key technologies of AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs having an EQE of 10% within a reasonable production cost have been established. The achieved efficiency makes AlGaN-based DUVLEDs comparable to high-pressure mercury lamps.

  13. Achieving water security through community-based agreements in rural Northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Solís, P.; Bommel, P.; Campos, X.; Suarez, A.; Leclerc, G.

    2016-12-01

    Community-based drinking water organizations have the responsibility in supplying water for domestic use to 29% of the Costa Rican population. Nowadays, more than 1.500 of these organizations face important challenges for achieving this critical mission, such as fulfilling national drinking-water quality standards, and improving their organization and administration to secure water supply and distribution under climate change. We conducted action-research in two communities with similar geographical and demographic conditions: Cuajiniquil and Colas de Gallo located in the drought prone Guanacaste region in Costa Rica. Both communities are contrasted regarding to their assets and organization. We addressed the following research question: Can a participatory process help communities assess the situation of their aqueduct and its management, project themselves in the future, and build more resilient strategies to face domestic water restrictions? Through 16 participatory sessions, we adapted the Wat-a-Game (WAG) toolkit to the problem of domestic water provision in these communities, creating the WAG-Tico role-playing game. This was complemented by two other activities: visits by regional actors sharing their experience, and exchange visits between both communities for cross-learning about community-based water management. The process resulted in a locally-led collaboration between both communities and the emergence of community commitments for improving drought resilience. WAG-Tico sensibilized participants to appreciate the value of community organization and the impacts of climate change on water supply, and develop aqueduct management rules. Exchange visits and regional actors interventions promoted opportunities for accessing to external resources (i.e. social, human and financial). Colas de Gallo created its first water committee for building a community aqueduct and their first drilled well. Cuajiniquil has committed in protecting its water springs, organized

  14. Local Community Detection Algorithm Based on Minimal Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks.

  15. Measurement of the photometric characteristics of LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, L.A.; Zubkov, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Proposed and implemented a method for measuring LEDs, which is based on self-calibration of the LED goniophotometer facility by using a trap-detector. Designed and manufactured automated goniophotometer, which provides a measurement of high power LEDs at a specified junction temperature. Designed and experimentally researched the photometer with a photometric sphere based diffuser, which meets all requirements of CIE for photometric measurements of LEDs

  16. A community-based intervention to build community harmony in an Indigenous Guatemalan Mining Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxaj, Claudia Susana; Parroquia de San Miguel Ixtahuacan, Kolol Qnan Tx'otx'

    2018-01-24

    The presence of large-scale mining operations poses many threats to communities. In a rural community in Guatemala, community leaders were motivated to address divisiveness and local conflict that have been exacerbated since the arrival of a mining company in the region. Prior research by our team identified spiritual and cultural strengths as important sources of strength and resilience in the community. We piloted a community-based intervention centred on spiritual and cultural practices in the region, to address divisiveness and build community harmony. One hundred and seventeen participants from over 18 villages in the municipality participated in the workshops and follow-up focus groups. Community leaders facilitated the intervention and partnered with the academic researcher throughout the research process. Overall, community members and facilitators expressed satisfaction with the workshop. Further, our analysis revealed three important processes important to the development of community harmony in the region: (a) mutual recognition and collectivisation; (b) affirmation of ancestral roots and connections to Mother Earth and (c) inspiring action and momentum towards solutions. These mechanisms, and the socio-political contexts that undermine them, have important implications for how global health programmes are developed and how collective processes for well-being are understood within an inequitable, conflict-laden world.

  17. Oxygen-induced high diffusion rate of magnesium dopants in GaN/AlGaN based UV LED heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowski, Paweł Piotr; Złotnik, Sebastian; Sitek, Jakub; Rosiński, Krzysztof; Rudziński, Mariusz

    2018-05-23

    Further development of GaN/AlGaN based optoelectronic devices requires optimization of the p-type material growth process. In particular, uncontrolled diffusion of Mg dopants may decrease the performance of a device. Thus it is meaningful to study the behavior of Mg and the origins of its diffusion in detail. In this work we have employed secondary ion mass spectrometry to study the diffusion of magnesium in GaN/AlGaN structures. We show that magnesium has a strong tendency to form Mg-H complexes which immobilize Mg atoms and restrain their diffusion. However, these complexes are not present in samples post-growth annealed in an oxygen atmosphere or Al-rich AlGaN structures which naturally have a high oxygen concentration. In these samples, more Mg atoms are free to diffuse and thus the average diffusion length is considerably larger than for a sample annealed in an inert atmosphere.

  18. Evaluating community-based public health leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.

  19. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  20. The Situation and Solutions of Institutional and Community-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Institutional and Community-Based Rehabilitation for Persons With Mental and ... regardless of the country and the model, reveals a litany of constraints and ... involvement of all stakeholders in decision making and execution and finally, ...

  1. Devising a Community-based Security Regime to Combat Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic and political structures, has resulted in the perpetuation of crime and the ... community-based organizations and relevant government ministries. A ...... These changes included collecting equipment from local petrol garages rather.

  2. Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest Products in the Nilgiri ... This project will allow Keystone Foundation to design, implement and test a ... traders, forest department officials and other stakeholders in the process.

  3. Fighting Poverty with Facts: Community-Based Monitoring Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... Documents and Articles: ... This book presents the Community-Based Monitoring System ( CBMS ) ... Drawing from CBMS experience in Africa and Asia, the authors present recommendations for policymakers, donor agencies ...

  4. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Adisa, Banji O. ... Key words: Assessment, community-based, natural resources, socio-environmental sustainability, ... Natural resources occur within environments that are.

  5. Community-based health interventions: principles and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guttmacher, Sally; Kelly, Patricia J; Ruiz-Janecko, Yumary

    2010-01-01

    ...: diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, HIV, asthma, and obesity. Following the trend begun by CDC and other agencies, the book takes a proactive and evidence-based approach reducing risk for individuals and communities...

  6. Community Based Organizations in HIV/AIDS Prevention, Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Organizations in HIV/AIDS Prevention, Patient. ... behavioral change communication methods that may contribute significantly to overcoming ... Towards that objective, CBOs need both internal strengthening of programs and ...

  7. Exploring the scope of community-based rehabilitation in ensuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the scope of community-based rehabilitation in ensuring the holistic ... Rehabilitation is defined as the process of combined ... psychological measures for enabling individuals to at- ... inclusion, meeting basic needs and facilitating access to.

  8. CSC Tip Sheets: Community-Based Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to facilitate direct neighbor-to-neighbor communication and influence to promote behavior change. In-person communications are often complemented by electronic social media tools.

  9. Evaluating the Mental Health Training Needs of Community-based Organizations Serving Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Simmelink

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the mental health knowledge and training needs of refugee-serving community based organizations in a Midwestern state. A survey was administered to 31 staff members at 27 community based organizations (CBOs to assess the ability of staff to recognize and screen for mental health symptoms that may interfere with successful resettlement. Of the 31 respondents 93.5% (n=29 see refugees with mental health issues and 48.4% (n=15 assess refugees for mental health symptoms – primarily through informal assessment. Mainstream organizations were more likely than ethnic organizations to have received training related to the mental health needs of refugees. Results indicate that while refugee led CBOs recognize mental health symptoms of refugees they may be less likely to assess mental health symptoms and refer for treatment. Policy recommendations for improving CBO services to refugees are offered.

  10. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  11. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  12. The ASEAN community-based tourism standards: looking beyond certification

    OpenAIRE

    Novelli, M.; Klatte, N.; Dolezal, C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an opportunity study on the appropriateness of implementing community-based tourism standards (CBTS) certification through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) criteria, as a way to improve sustainable tourism provision in the region. Framed by critical reflections on community-based tourism (CBT) literature and existing sustainable tourism standards (STS) practices, qualitative research consisting of interviews with six key industry experts prov...

  13. Get fit with the Grizzlies: a community-school-home initiative to fight childhood obesity led by a professional sports organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Carol; Irwin, Richard; Richey, Phyllis; Miller, Maureen; Boddie, Justin; Dickerson, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    applied to measure correct answers pre and post. Also, breakfast attendance numbers were observed for intervention high schools and compared with breakfast attendance numbers from control high schools. Analyses confirmed that, from the first year through this past one (2010-11), there was significant health knowledge acquisition and health behavior improvement at post-intervention. Breakfast numbers matched these findings. Also, exit polling that took place at one intervention high school indicated the students attending the breakfast assembly gained knowledge and positively changed attitudes regarding the academic and health benefits of eating a healthy breakfast. This community-school-home initiative using a professional team's celebrity platform is largely overlooked by school districts and should be considered as an effective way to confront childhood obesity.

  14. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.

    2012-06-04

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  15. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.; Imam, E.; Nassar, K.

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  16. Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation in Tanzania: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urio, Elisaphinate Moses; Jeje, Benedict; Ndossi, Godwin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition among children under the age of five continues to be a significant public health problem in Tanzania. Despite numerous nutritional interventions that have been implemented, the country still experiences high rates of malnutrition. According to Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey of 2010 the prevalence of underweight was estimated to be 16%, wasting 5% and stunting 42 %. Factors contributing to causes of malnutrition include immediate, underlying and basic causes. All these factors are interlinked and operate synergistically and not independently. Approaches for managing malnourished children in Tanzania evolved from facility based Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NURU) in the late 1960s to Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation (CBNR) in late 1980s. In the latter approach, malnourished children are rehabilitated in the same environment (village, home) that precipitated the condition, using resources and infrastructures available in the community. Mothers are taught about child feeding using family foods to make good food mixtures and of the importance of feeding frequency for the young child. Limitations for this approach include inadequate advocacy to leaders from districts down to the community level, few trained health providers and community health workers on knowledge and skills on community based nutrition rehabilitation, inadequate equipment and supplies for identification and categorization of malnutrition, low awareness of parents, care givers and community leaders on home rehabilitation of malnourished children. Nonetheless, Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation approach has the potential to address malnutrition in children given political will and resources. (author)

  17. The European hadron therapy community touches base

    CERN Multimedia

    Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty

    2010-01-01

    The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet.   Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...

  18. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  19. Improving medication adherence: a framework for community pharmacy-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Janice Pringle,1 Kim C Coley2 1Program Evaluation and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Evidence supports that patient medication adherence is suboptimal with patients typically taking less than half of their prescribed doses. Medication nonadherence is associated with poor health outcomes and higher downstream health care costs. Results of studies evaluating pharmacist-led models in a community pharmacy setting and their impact on medication adherence have been mixed. Community pharmacists are ideally situated to provide medication adherence interventions, and effective strategies for how they can consistently improve patient medication adherence are necessary. This article suggests a framework to use in the community pharmacy setting that will significantly improve patient adherence and provides a strategy for how to apply this framework to develop and test new medication adherence innovations. The proposed framework is composed of the following elements: 1 defining the program's pharmacy service vision, 2 using evidence-based, patient-centered communication and intervention strategies, 3 using specific implementation approaches that ensure fidelity, and 4 applying continuous evaluation strategies. Within this framework, pharmacist interventions should include those services that capitalize on their specific skill sets. It is also essential that the organization's leadership effectively communicates the pharmacy service vision. Medication adherence strategies that are evidence-based and individualized to each patient's adherence problems are most desirable. Ideally, interventions would be delivered repeatedly over time and adjusted when patient's adherence circumstances change. Motivational interviewing principles are particularly well

  20. Hyperbolic mapping of complex networks based on community information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  1. The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, Joniqua; Peters-Lawrence, Marlene H; Mitchell, Valerie; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M

    2017-11-21

    Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth) technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB), which influenced the study's design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities.

  2. The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E. Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joniqua Ceasar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E. model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB, which influenced the study’s design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities.

  3. Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Derek

    2005-06-01

    Why do some community-based natural resource management strategies perform better than others? Commons theorists have approached this question by developing institutional design principles to address collective choice situations, while other analysts have critiqued the underlying assumptions of community-based resource management. However, efforts to enhance community-based natural resource management performance also require an analysis of exogenous and endogenous variables that influence how social actors not only act collectively but do so in ways that respond to changing circumstances, foster learning, and build capacity for management adaptation. Drawing on examples from northern Canada and Southeast Asia, this article examines the relationship among adaptive capacity, community-based resource management performance, and the socio-institutional determinants of collective action, such as technical, financial, and legal constraints, and complex issues of politics, scale, knowledge, community and culture. An emphasis on adaptive capacity responds to a conceptual weakness in community-based natural resource management and highlights an emerging research and policy discourse that builds upon static design principles and the contested concepts in current management practice.

  4. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hui; Tang Ming; Zhang Haifeng

    2012-01-01

    Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible–infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible–infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans. (paper)

  5. Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Boyang; Liu, Li; Yang, Shenwu; Yan, Binbin; Du, Jingyan; Gao, Chao

    2018-05-01

    A 54-inch horizontal-parallax only light-field display based on the light-emitting diode (LED) panel and the micro-pinhole unit array (MPUA) is demonstrated. Normally, the perceived 3D effect of the three-dimensional (3D) display with smooth motion parallax and abundant light-field information can be enhanced with increasing the density of viewpoints. However, the density of viewpoints is inversely proportional to the spatial display resolution for the conventional integral imaging. Here, a special MPUA is designed and fabricated, and the displayed 3D scene constructed by the proposed horizontal light-field display is presented. Compared with the conventional integral imaging, both the density of horizontal viewpoints and the spatial display resolution are significantly improved. In the experiment, A 54-inch horizontal light-field display with 42.8° viewing angle based on the LED panel with the resolution of 1280 × 720 and the MPUA is realized, which can provide natural 3D visual effect to observers with high quality.

  6. Application of a LED-based reflectance sensor for the assessing in situ the lycopene content of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Tuccio, Lorenza; Agati, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Nondestructive in situ determination of the antioxidant lycopene of fresh tomato fruits is of large interest for the growers, willing to optimize the harvest time for high quality products. For this, we developed a portable LED-based colorimeter which was able to measure reflectance spectra of whole tomatoes in the 400-750 nm range. The tomato skins from the same samples were then frozen in liquid nitrogen, extracted with an acetone/ethanol/hexane mixture and analyzed by means of a spectrophotometer for their lycopene content. Concentration of lycopene was varying between 70 and 550 mg/Kg fresh weight skin. Partial Least Square regression was used to correlate spectral data to the tomato lycopene content. The multivariate processing of the reflectance data showed that lycopene content could be nicely predicted with a coefficient of determination R2=0.945 and a root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=57 mg/Kg skin fresh weight. These results suggest that portable, low-cost and compact LED-based sensors appear to be promising instruments for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene even in the field.

  7. Principles from history, community psychology and developmental psychology applied to community based programs for deinstitutionalized youth

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Murray

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This article analyses the issues of the deinstitutionalization of youth, and the development of community based services, using some historical data and some of the principles of community psychology. The basic premise is that there is no such thing as a social vacuum. All programs are implemented and function in an elaborate social context. RESUMO: Este artigo analisa as questões referentes à desinstitunalização dos jovens e ao desenvolvimento de serviços ...

  8. Wireless Falling Detection System Based on Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Wu, Yanqi; Zhang, Bobo; Li, Zhiyang; He, Nongyue; Li, Song

    2015-06-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer the aches or pains from the accidental falls, and both the physiology and psychology of patients would subject to a long-term disturbance, especially when the emergency treatment was not given timely and properly. Although many methods and devices have been developed creatively and shown their efficiency in experiments, few of them are suitable for commercial applications routinely. Here, we design a wearable falling detector as a mobile terminal, and utilize the wireless technology to transfer and monitor the activity data of the host in a relatively small community. With the help of the accelerometer sensor and the Google Mapping service, information of the location and the activity data will be send to the remote server for the downstream processing. The experimental result has shown that SA (Sum-vector of all axes) value of 2.5 g is the threshold value to distinguish the falling from other activities. A three-stage detection algorithm was adopted to increase the accuracy of the real alarm, and the accuracy rate of our system was more than 95%. With the further improvement, the falling detecting device which is low-cost, accurate and user-friendly would become more and more common in everyday life.

  9. Impact of community-based immunization services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing K

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward childhood immunization was surveyed in 2 neighborhoods in greater Bombay, India. The areas were a slum of 75,000 called Malavani, and a nearby area called Kharodi. Measles and triple (DPT or DPV vaccines were available at local health centers, 1.5 km away at the most; oral polio vaccines were given by field workers to the Malavani community to children in their homes, but only in the center for those in Kharodi. BCG tuberculosis vaccinations were available to all, but from a center 5 km away. Malavani mothers had significantly better knowledge of triple and measles vaccines, but knowledge about BCG was similar in the 2 groups. Slightly more women from Kharodi expressed negative attitudes toward immunization. Coverage of children, established from clinic records, was significantly better in the Malavani area: 91% vs. 58% for polio; 71% vs 61% for BCG (n.s.; 85% vs. 55% for triple vaccine; and 21% vs 1% for measles. Evidently, visitation by field teams with polio vaccinations affected mothers′ knowledge and practice for other immunizations available only at the center.

  10. Evaluation of mangrove management through community-based silvofishery in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Yani, P.; Hartini, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Aquaculture expansion has been reported as the primary driver of mangrove loss and a significant cause of mangrove deforestation in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Development of silvofishery based on creating balance condition between conserving mangrove forest and offering better livelihood for local communities surrounding mangrove. The present study evaluates of mangrove management through community-based silvofishery in three villages, namely Paluh Manan, Paluh Kurau, and Lama, Hamparan Perak of Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Three communities used the same ecological type-silvofishery, characterized by planted mangrove surrounded aquaculture. Results showed that in the Paluh Manan village, planted mangrove and aquaculture in the ratio of 75:25 with planting distance of mangrove 50x50 cm, containing 2,500 trees/ha, resulted in US 36.2/month/ha of fish and shrimp farming. In the Paluh Kurau village, a mixture mangrove and aquaculture in an 84:16 ratio, planting distance of 1x1 m, consists of 1,600 trees/ha, US 23.8 of generating revenue from crab farming. Furthermore, in the third village, Lama village, consists of mangrove and aquaculture in the proportions 90:10, with planting spacing 2x2 m, composing 1,000 trees/ha, led to US 45.8/month/ha from fish, shrimp and crab farming. The present study suggested the mangrove management through community-based mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

  11. Degree of conversion of resin-based materials cured with dual-peak or single-peak LED light-curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Siobhan M; Santini, Ario; Roebuck, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of data on polymerization of resin-based materials (RBMs) used in paediatric dentistry, using dual-peak light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs). To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of RBMs cured with dual-peak or single-peak LED LCUs. Samples of Vit-l-escence (Ultradent) and Herculite XRV Ultra (Kerr) and fissure sealants Delton Clear and Delton Opaque (Dentsply) were prepared (n = 3 per group) and cured with either one of two dual-peak LCUs (bluephase(®) G2; Ivoclar Vivadent or Valo; Ultradent) or a single-peak (bluephase(®) ; Ivoclar Vivadent). High-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to confirm the presence or absence of initiators other than camphorquinone. The DC was determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Data were analysed using general linear model anova; α = 0.05. With Herculite XRV Ultra, the single-peak LCU gave higher DC values than either of the two dual-peak LCUs (P < 0.05). Both fissure sealants showed higher DC compared with the two RBMs (P < 0.05); the DC at the bottom of the clear sealant was greater than the opaque sealant, (P < 0.05). 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyldiphenylphosphine oxide (Lucirin(®) TPO) was found only in Vit-l-escence. Dual-peak LED LCUs may not be best suited for curing non-Lucirin(®) TPO-containing materials. A clear sealant showed a better cure throughout the material and may be more appropriate than opaque versions in deep fissures. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reflective learning in community-based dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Naitam, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Community-based dental education (CBDE) is the implementation of dental education in a specific social context, which shifts a substantial part of dental clinical education from dental teaching institutional clinics to mainly public health settings. Dental students gain additional value from CBDE when they are guided through a reflective process of learning. We propose some key elements to the existing CBDE program that support meaningful personal learning experiences. Dental rotations of 'externships' in community-based clinical settings (CBCS) are year-long community-based placements and have proven to be strong learning environments where students develop good communication skills and better clinical reasoning and management skills. We look at the characteristics of CBDE and how the social and personal context provided in communities enhances dental education. Meaningfulness is created by the authentic context, which develops over a period of time. Structured reflection assignments and methods are suggested as key elements in the existing CBDE program. Strategies to enrich community-based learning experiences for dental students include: Photographic documentation; written narratives; critical incident reports; and mentored post-experiential small group discussions. A directed process of reflection is suggested as a way to increase the impact of the community learning experiences. We suggest key elements to the existing CBDE module so that the context-rich environment of CBDE allows for meaningful relations and experiences for dental students and enhanced learning.

  13. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  14. Detection of communities with Naming Game-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Henrique Costa

    2017-01-01

    Complex networks are often organized in groups or communities of agents that share the same features and/or functions, and this structural organization is built naturally with the formation of the system. In social networks, we argue that the dynamic of linguistic interactions of agreement among people can be a crucial factor in generating this community structure, given that sharing opinions with another person bounds them together, and disagreeing constantly would probably weaken the relationship. We present here a computational model of opinion exchange that uncovers the community structure of a network. Our aim is not to present a new community detection method proper, but to show how a model of social communication dynamics can reveal the (simple and overlapping) community structure in an emergent way. Our model is based on a standard Naming Game, but takes into consideration three social features: trust, uncertainty and opinion preference, that are built over time as agents communicate among themselves. We show that the separate addition of each social feature in the Naming Game results in gradual improvements with respect to community detection. In addition, the resulting uncertainty and trust values classify nodes and edges according to role and position in the network. Also, our model has shown a degree of accuracy both for non-overlapping and overlapping communities that are comparable with most algorithms specifically designed for topological community detection. PMID:28797097

  15. Community Partner Perspectives on Benefits, Challenges, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons Learned from Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Wilma Brakefield; Reyes, Angela G; Rowe, Zachary; Weinert, Julia; Israel, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    There is an extensive body of literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the role of community-academic partnerships, much of which has involved community partners in the conceptualization and preparation of publications. However, there has been a relative dearth of solely community voices addressing these topics, given the other roles and responsibilities which community members and leaders of community-based organizations (CBOs) have. The purpose of this article is to share the perspectives of three long-time (>20 years) community partners involved in the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center and its affiliated partnerships. In this article, we community partners provide our assessment of the benefits and challenges in using a CBPR approach at the personal, organizational, and community levels; the factors that facilitate effective partnerships; and our lessons learned through engagement in CBPR. We also present specific recommendations from a community perspective to researchers and institutions interested in conducting CBPR.

  16. Community-Based Native Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Minner, Sam; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes two exemplary school-based Native teacher education programs offered by Northern Arizona University (NAU) to serve Navajo students and by Lakehead University (Ontario) to serve members of the Nishnabe Nation of northern Ontario. The Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program is located in Kayenta,…

  17. The contribution of community-based socio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    of masculinity and the problem of gender-based violence in Rwanda, more than half of the women responded .... his life in Gicumbi and served on the Byumba sociotherapy programme as a staff member throughout the ... in social work on an exploration of the ways in which the war and genocide have affected couples' lives ...

  18. A Modularity Degree Based Heuristic Community Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A community in a complex network can be seen as a subgroup of nodes that are densely connected. Discovery of community structures is a basic problem of research and can be used in various areas, such as biology, computer science, and sociology. Existing community detection methods usually try to expand or collapse the nodes partitions in order to optimize a given quality function. These optimization function based methods share the same drawback of inefficiency. Here we propose a heuristic algorithm (MDBH algorithm based on network structure which employs modularity degree as a measure function. Experiments on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks show that our algorithm gives competitive accuracy with previous modularity optimization methods, even though it has less computational complexity. Furthermore, due to the use of modularity degree, our algorithm naturally improves the resolution limit in community detection.

  19. Penerapan Corporate Social Responsibility dengan Konsep Community Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Suriany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Business is not only economic institution, but social institution too. As social institution, business has responsibility to help society in solving social problem. This responsibility called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. CSR pays attention about social problem and environment, so CSR support continuous development to help government role. Nowadays, our government has national development’s agenda. One of them is tourism sector (Visit Indonesia Year 2008 programmed. But tourism sector has challenge in human resources. In this case, business role in practice CSR is needed to help tourism sector. With CSR activities, the quality of local community will increase to participate in tourism activities. CSR activities include training that based on research. When the quality of local community increase, local community can practice the concept of community based tourism (CBT. In the future, Indonesia has a power to compete with other countries.

  20. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... a literature survey, we document the growing importance of numerical aquatic ecosystem models while also noting the difficulties, up until now, of the aquatic scientific community to make significant advances in these models during the past two decades. Through a common forum for aquatic ecosystem modellers we...... aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv...

  1. Beyond vertical integration--Community based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emma Margaret

    2006-11-01

    The term 'vertical integration' is used broadly in medical education, sometimes when discussing community based medical education (CBME). This article examines the relevance of the term 'vertical integration' and provides an alternative perspective on the complexities of facilitating the CBME process. The principles of learner centredness, patient centredness and flexibility are fundamental to learning in the diverse contexts of 'community'. Vertical integration as a structural concept is helpful for academic organisations but has less application to education in the community setting; a different approach illuminates the strengths and challenges of CBME that need consideration by these organisations.

  2. Community-based tourism in Cape Verde - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Lopez-Guzman; Osvaldo Borges; Ana Maria Castillo-Canalejo

    2011-01-01

    Community-based tourism is taking its place in the world as an alternative to traditional tourist destinations, especially in developing countries. This form of tourism allows for greater contact with the local community and for the tourist to experience new sensations while enabling the economic and social development of the geographic area. In this paper, the results of fieldwork carried out in the island of Fogo (Cape Verde) are presented, assessing the opinion and perception tourists visi...

  3. Trust of community health workers influences the acceptance of community-based maternal and child health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merridy Grant

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Understanding the complex contextual challenges faced by CHWs and community members can strengthen community-based interventions. CHWs require training, support and supervision to develop competencies navigating complex relationships within the community and the health system to provide effective care in communities.

  4. Negotiation of values as driver in community-based PD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronvall, Erik; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Community-based PD projects are often characterized by the meeting of conflicting values among stakeholder groups, but in research there is no uncontested account of the relation between design and conflicting values. Through analysis of three community-based PD cases in Denmark and South Africa......, this paper identifies and discusses challenges for community-based PD that exist in these settings based on the emergence of contrasting and often conflicting values among participants and stakeholders. Discussions of participation are shaped through two theoretical perspectives: the notion of thinging...... and design things; and different accounts of values in design. Inspired by the concept of design things, and as a consequence of the need for continuous negotiation of values observed in all three cases, we suggest the concept of thinging as fruitful for creating productive agonistic spaces with a stronger...

  5. [LED lights in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H

    2017-04-01

    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Tourism Communication in Community Based Tourism in Dieng Community, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Sunuantari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To encourage a community’s role in the field of tourism, the local government of Central Java, Indonesia promotes a Community Based Tourism (CBT as a tourism development for the sustainable economy. It involves the community in decision-making processes, especially related to the acquisition of income, employment, and the preservation of the environment, and culture of the indigenous people. This research aimed to determine communication activities in the implementation of CBT. The theory used was tourism communication using Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA model. Then, the method was a case study by choosing Dieng as a tourist destination, and the tourism communication activities were undertaken in Dieng’s society, especially in the activities of Dieng Culture Festival (DCF. The results show that the tourism communication activities involving the community, POKDARWIS (Kelompok Sadar Wisata - Tourism Awareness Group, tourism advocates, and local governments should pay attention to the cultural and natural tourism potentials, and empower the local communities.

  7. Lessons Learned From Community-Based Approaches to Sodium Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby PhD, Jan L.; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S.; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. Design A multiple case study design was used. Setting This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Subjects Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. Analysis The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semi structured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Results Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. Conclusion The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption. PMID:24575726

  8. Lessons learned from community-based approaches to sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby, Jan L; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2015-01-01

    This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. A multiple case study design was used. This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semistructured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption.

  9. Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: community-based participatory research in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerich, Eugene J; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Bencivenga, Marcyann; Allen, Regina; Miele, Mary Beth; Farace, Elana

    2007-09-01

    In 2002, 10.4% of the 10 million persons alive who have ever been diagnosed with cancer had colorectal cancer (CRC). Barriers, such as distance, terrain, access to care and cultural differences, to CRC survivorship may be especially relevant in rural communities. We tested the hypothesis that teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals would develop a Community Plan (CP) to enhance CRC survivorship. We used community-based participatory research and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to train teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals in Pennsylvania and New York. We measured knowledge at three points in time and tested the change with McNemar's test, corrected for multiple comparisons (p < 0.0167). We also conducted a qualitative review of the CP contents. Fourteen (93.3%) of the 15 coalitions or hospitals initially recruited to the study completed a CP. Knowledge in public health, sponsorship of A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship, and CRC survivorship and treatment increased. Teams identified perceived barriers and community assets. All teams planned to increase awareness of community assets and almost all planned to enhance treatment-related care and psychosocial care for the CRC survivor; 50% planned to enhance primary care and CRC screening. The study demonstrated the interest and ability of rural organizations to plan to enhance CRC survivorship, including linkage of CRC survivorship to primary care. Rural cancer coalitions and hospitals may be a vehicle to develop local action for A National Action Plan. Access to more comprehensive care for CRC cancer survivors in rural communities appears to be facilitated by the community-based initiative described and investigated in this study. Efforts such as these could be replicated in other rural communities and may impact the care and quality of life of survivors with many types of cancers. While access to health services may be increased through community-based initiatives, we still need to measure

  10. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  11. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... deleted at the Data Manager Level in Loki. Conclusion. Community-based surveillance for guinea worm is a good example of a surveillance system on which an integrated disease surveillance system can be based in countries with poor surveillance like South Sudan. This makes its potential value to ...

  12. Design implications for a community-based social recipe system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, V.; Yalvac, F.; Funk, M.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, L.

    2014-01-01

    We introduced the concept of a community-based social recipe system which suggests recipes to groups of users based on available ingredients from these users (i.e. who can be from the same household or different households). In this paper we discuss the relevance and desirability of such a system

  13. Heterogeneous Community-based mobility model for human opportunistic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    a heterogeneous community-based random way-point (HC-RWP) mobility model that captures the four important properties of real human mobility. These properties are based on both intuitive observations of daily human mobility and analysis of empirical mobility traces. By discrete event simulation, we show HC...

  14. Frameworks: A Community-Based Approach to Preventing Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Kristine; Bean, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    Few youth suicide prevention programs are theory based and systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of a community-based youth suicide prevention project guided by an ecological perspective. One hundred fifty-seven adults representing various constituencies from educators to health care providers and 131 ninth-grade…

  15. A controlled community-based trial to promote smoke-free policy in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Condition of karangkepatihan village community balong district ponorogo regency in supporting development of community based tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutedjo, A.; Prasetyo, K.; Sudaryono, L.

    2018-01-01

    In Karangkepatihan village, it can be found some attractions that have the potential to develop. Some attractions have been developed by involving the community in its management, but its development has not been as expected. The purpose of this research is to know the attitude of the community and the level of human resources of the community of Karangkepatihan village in supporting the development of community-based tourism and the right strategy for its development. Subjects in this study were the head of the family and the physical condition of tourist objects, with a sample of 100 family heads taken randomly. Research data which are knowledge, understanding, participation, support to the development of tourism and level of education and skill obtained by interview while observation is done to get potential data of tourism object. The data obtained are analyzed by using scoring technique and SWOT analysis. The results show that community attitudes are positive in supporting community-based tourism development, but have not been shown to participate in developing tourism in Karangkepatihan village. The level of human resources in Karangkepatihan village to support the development of tourism is low so that the development of tourism is slow. An appropriate strategy for developing tourism development in Karangkepatihan village is to grow and build. Improving the skills of the community to fill the job opportunities in the field of tourism, increase the participation or involvement of the community in tourism activities, increasing the accessibility of tourism objects, increasing the facilities and infrastructure of tourism needs to be done.

  17. Community-led stabilisation in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siris Hartkorn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-state armed groups are often considered to lack legitimacy as potential counterparts in building security institutions but when they are in fact in control, this point of view has to be reviewed...

  18. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home-based, nurse-led health promotion for older people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappenden, P; Campbell, F; Rawdin, A; Wong, R; Kalita, N

    2012-01-01

    In older age, reduction in physical function can lead to loss of independence, the need for hospital and long-term nursing or residential home care, and premature death. Home-visiting programmes for older people, carried out by nurses and other health-care professionals (e.g. occupational therapists and physiotherapists), aim to positively affect health and functional status, and may promote independent functioning of older people. The main research question addressed by this assessment is 'What is the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home-based, nurse-led health promotion intervention for older people in the UK?' A comprehensive literature search was undertaken across 12 different databases and research registries from the year 2001 onwards (including MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, NHS Health Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). Published systematic reviews were also hand searched to identify other trials previously published. Potentially relevant studies were sifted by one reviewer, and inclusion decisions were agreed among the broader research team. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The results of included studies were synthesised using narrative and statistical methods. A separate systematic search was undertaken to identify existing health economic analyses of home-based, nurse-led health promotion programmes. Included studies were critically appraised using a published checklist. Owing to resource constraints, a de novo health economic model was not developed. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review of clinical effectiveness. There was considerable heterogeneity among the

  19. Community-based radon education programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laquatra, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in the United States, educational programs about radon gas have been developed and implemented by federal and state government entities and other organizations, including the Cooperative Extension Service and affiliated land grant universities. Approaches have included the production of brochures, pamphlets, workshops for targeted audiences, and consumer telephone hotlines. In a free market for radon mitigation products and services, these efforts can be appropriate for their credibility, lack of bias, and individualized approaches. The purpose of this paper is to report on an educational program about radon undertaken by Cornell Cooperative Extension, including county-based workshops targeted to homeowners, housing professionals, high school teachers, and others. An analysis of survey data from program participants forms the basis for a discussion of the effectiveness of the Cooperative Extension Service in reaching the public about this topic

  20. Social Entrepreneurship Andragogy-Based for Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Dayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of social entrepreneurship is the ability to initiate, lead and implement problem-solving strategies, through cooperation with others in all types of social networks. The purpose of this study analyzes: 1 entrepreneurship training, 2 adult education assumptions, and 3 community empowerment. This study is discussed by using a comparative theory analysis method that related to entrepreneurship training, andragogy, and community empowerment from various literary sources. Analysis is conducted to find conclusions that can be justified scientifically. The results of the study conclude that: 1 social entrepreneurship training is an organized learning process from planning, implementation, and evaluation on non-formal education path aimed at enhancing community knowledge, attitude and skills for learning and endeavor, 2 entrepreneurship training based on andragogy conducted through a learning process that implements adults’ assumptions of self-conceptual, learning experiences, learning readiness, and learning orientation. 3 Community empowerment is a process of empowerment or strength to community to have the ability of individuals who completely agreed with the community in building social and economic empowerment of the community.

  1. Community Mining Method of Label Propagation Based on Dense Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENG Wei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the popularity of handheld Internet equipments like mobile phones, increasing numbers of people are becoming involved in the virtual social network. Because of its large amount of data and complex structure, the network faces new challenges of community mining. A label propagation algorithm with low time complexity and without prior parameters deals easily with a large networks. This study explored a new method of community mining, based on label propagation with two stages. The first stage involved identifying closely linked nodes according to their local adjacency relations that gave rise to a micro-community. The second stage involved expanding and adjusting this community through a label propagation algorithm (LPA to finally obtain the community structure of the entire social network. This algorithm reduced the number of initial labels and avoided the merging of small communities in general LPAs. Thus, the quality of community discovery was improved, and the linear time complexity of the LPA was maintained.

  2. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  3. Deterministic and fuzzy-based methods to evaluate community resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouh, Omar; Noori, Ali Zamani; Taurino, Veronica; Mahin, Stephen A.; Cimellaro, Gian Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Community resilience is becoming a growing concern for authorities and decision makers. This paper introduces two indicator-based methods to evaluate the resilience of communities based on the PEOPLES framework. PEOPLES is a multi-layered framework that defines community resilience using seven dimensions. Each of the dimensions is described through a set of resilience indicators collected from literature and they are linked to a measure allowing the analytical computation of the indicator's performance. The first method proposed in this paper requires data on previous disasters as an input and returns as output a performance function for each indicator and a performance function for the whole community. The second method exploits a knowledge-based fuzzy modeling for its implementation. This method allows a quantitative evaluation of the PEOPLES indicators using descriptive knowledge rather than deterministic data including the uncertainty involved in the analysis. The output of the fuzzy-based method is a resilience index for each indicator as well as a resilience index for the community. The paper also introduces an open source online tool in which the first method is implemented. A case study illustrating the application of the first method and the usage of the tool is also provided in the paper.

  4. An Asset-Based Approach to Tribal Community Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Rachael A. [Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, NY (United States). City and Regional Planning; Martino, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies; Begay, Sandra K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies

    2016-08-01

    Community energy planning is a vital component of successful energy resource development and project implementation. Planning can help tribes develop a shared vision and strategies to accomplish their energy goals. This paper explores the benefits of an asset-based approach to tribal community energy planning. While a framework for community energy planning and federal funding already exists, some areas of difficulty in the planning cycle have been identified. This paper focuses on developing a planning framework that offsets those challenges. The asset-based framework described here takes inventory of a tribe’s capital assets, such as: land capital, human capital, financial capital, and political capital. Such an analysis evaluates how being rich in a specific type of capital can offer a tribe unique advantages in implementing their energy vision. Finally, a tribal case study demonstrates the practical application of an asset-based framework.

  5. Considerations for Community-Based mHealth Initiatives: Insights From Three Beacon Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs. PMID:24128406

  6. Considerations for community-based mHealth initiatives: insights from three Beacon Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Nebeyou A; Capozza, Korey L; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Kulick, David A; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Turske, Scott A

    2013-10-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs.

  7. Community-Based Rural Tourism: A Proposed Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayat Kalsom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tourism projects run by community in the rural areas are labelled as Community-based Rural Tourism (CBRT, a type of a more ‘responsible’ tourism that contributes to sustainable development. However, a framework is needed to enable planners and managers to understand its criteria thus ensuring that the CBRTs fulfil the sustainability requirement. This paper presents findings from a literature review on previous writings in this topic. Findings from an analysis on the criteria of a sustainable CBRT product are discussed. It is found that in order for it to play a role in sustainable development, a CBRT product must focus on competitive management, resource conservation, and benefit creation to the community. The three elements need to be supported, in turn, by community involvement and commitment. As the proposed conceptual framework of sustainable CBRT product can be a basis for further research in CBRT, it offers producing theoretical and practical implications.

  8. Public participatory GIS in community-based disaster risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall B. Kemp

    2008-12-01

    Introducing PPGIS tools into community-based DRR is not a neutral effort. The information and communication technologies (ICT embedded in GIS can both aid the DRR efforts as well as impact the community in unintended ways. ICTs may be common in communities engaged in DRR efforts so the introduction of PPGIS may have minimal impact. What are the societal ramifications, however, of PPGIS methods in DRR efforts when ICTs are a relatively new aspect of a given community?  What are the communication methods pertinent to PPGIS in the DRR context?  How does the ICT literature address PPGIS methods?  The paper addresses these and other influences of ICT on societies prone to natural hazards.

  9. Community Clustering Algorithm in Complex Networks Based on Microcommunity Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the further research on physical meaning and digital features of the community structure in complex networks in recent years, the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of the community mining algorithms in complex networks has become an important subject in this area. This paper puts forward a concept of the microcommunity and gets final mining results of communities through fusing different microcommunities. This paper starts with the basic definition of the network community and applies Expansion to the microcommunity clustering which provides prerequisites for the microcommunity fusion. The proposed algorithm is more efficient and has higher solution quality compared with other similar algorithms through the analysis of test results based on network data set.

  10. Strategies in Mobilizing Coastal Communities for Community-Based Coastal Resource Management in Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Pinat

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Fishery Resources Management Project (MFRMP hopes to facilitate partnership between the local government unit and the local communities in managing the coastal resources of Bolinao. Mobilization, both at the community and municipal levels, has been very important in promoting community-based strategies in coastal resources management. The community organization process in the municipality has gone through several levels; and different organizations have been formed. In empowering individuals and organizations, strategies tend to be varied and fluid depending on the need, the reason for mobilization, and the resources at hand. The Bolinao experience showcases different strategies used in implementing the resource enhancement, coastal zoning, harvest regulation, and capability building components of the program. These have included the formation of people's organizations, the mobilization of zonal action teams for each of the four zones, the creation and orientation of fishery and aquatic resources management councils at the barangay and municipal levels, and the active collaboration with the local government unit. These strategies and approaches have provided the people and the communities a wealth of experience and lessons that provide helpful insights in undertaking different endeavors. The strategies employed in the mobilization activities have significantly contributed to the empowerment of communities and individuals who are the primary managers of their resources.

  11. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

    2010-03-01

    Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  12. Redefining community based on place attachment in a connected world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Blythe, Jessica; Adams, Helen; Adger, W Neil; Curnock, Matthew; Faulkner, Lucy; James, Thomas; Marshall, Nadine A

    2017-09-19

    The concept of community is often used in environmental policy to foster environmental stewardship and public participation, crucial prerequisites of effective management. However, prevailing conceptualizations of community based on residential location or resource use are limited with respect to their utility as surrogates for communities of shared environment-related interests, and because of the localist perspective they entail. Thus, addressing contemporary sustainability challenges, which tend to involve transnational social and environmental interactions, urgently requires additional approaches to conceptualizing community that are compatible with current globalization. We propose a framing for redefining community based on place attachment (i.e., the bonds people form with places) in the context of Australia's Great Barrier Reef, a World Heritage Area threatened by drivers requiring management and political action at scales beyond the local. Using data on place attachment from 5,403 respondents residing locally, nationally, and internationally, we identified four communities that each shared a type of attachment to the reef and that spanned conventional location and use communities. We suggest that as human-environment interactions change with increasing mobility (both corporeal and that mediated by communication and information technology), new types of people-place relations that transcend geographic and social boundaries and do not require ongoing direct experience to form are emerging. We propose that adopting a place attachment framing to community provides a means to capture the neglected nonmaterial bonds people form with the environment, and could be leveraged to foster transnational environmental stewardship, critical to advancing global sustainability in our increasingly connected world.

  13. An Agent-Based Model of Evolving Community Flood Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, Gina L; Guikema, Seth D

    2017-11-17

    Although individual behavior plays a major role in community flood risk, traditional flood risk models generally do not capture information on how community policies and individual decisions impact the evolution of flood risk over time. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the temporal aspects of flood risk through a combined analysis of the behavioral, engineering, and physical hazard aspects of flood risk. Additionally, the study aims to develop a new modeling approach for integrating behavior, policy, flood hazards, and engineering interventions. An agent-based model (ABM) is used to analyze the influence of flood protection measures, individual behavior, and the occurrence of floods and near-miss flood events on community flood risk. The ABM focuses on the following decisions and behaviors: dissemination of flood management information, installation of community flood protection, elevation of household mechanical equipment, and elevation of homes. The approach is place based, with a case study area in Fargo, North Dakota, but is focused on generalizable insights. Generally, community mitigation results in reduced future damage, and individual action, including mitigation and movement into and out of high-risk areas, can have a significant influence on community flood risk. The results of this study provide useful insights into the interplay between individual and community actions and how it affects the evolution of flood risk. This study lends insight into priorities for future work, including the development of more in-depth behavioral and decision rules at the individual and community level. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Systematic Review of Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099

  15. The Cascade of Care for an Australian Community-Based Hepatitis C Treatment Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Wade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia is low. To increase access to hepatitis C virus treatment for people who inject drugs, we developed a community-based, nurse-led service that linked a viral hepatitis service in a tertiary hospital to primary care clinics, and resulted in hepatitis C treatment provision in the community.A retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the community hepatitis service was undertaken to determine the cascade of care. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of hepatitis C treatment uptake.Four hundred and sixty-two patients were referred to the community hepatitis service; 344 attended. Among the 279 attendees with confirmed chronic hepatitis C, 257 (99% reported ever injecting drugs, and 124 (48% injected in the last month. Of 201 (72% patients who had their fibrosis staged, 63 (31% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Fifty-five patients commenced hepatitis C treatment; 26 (47% were current injectors and 25 (45% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Nineteen of the 27 (70% genotype 1 patients and 14 of the 26 (54% genotype 3 patients eligible for assessment achieved a sustained virologic response. Advanced fibrosis was a significant predictor of treatment uptake in adjusted analysis (AOR 2.56, CI 1.30-5.00, p = 0.006.Our community hepatitis service produced relatively high rates of fibrosis assessment, hepatitis C treatment uptake and cure, among people who inject drugs. These findings highlight the potential benefits of providing community-based hepatitis C care to people who inject drugs in Australia-benefits that should be realised as direct-acting antiviral agents become available.

  16. Community Priority Index: utility, applicability and validation for priority setting in community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.

  17. Real-time monitoring of luminescent lifetime changes of PtOEP oxygen sensing film with LED/photodiode-based time-domain lifetime device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shaomin; Wu, Wanhua; Wu, Yubo; Zhao, Taiyang; Zhou, Fuke; Yang, Yubin; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xiaofen; Wu, Wenting; Chi, Lina; Wang, Zhonggang; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2009-05-01

    A cost-effective LED/photodiode(PD)-based time-domain luminescent lifetime measuring device with rugged electronics and simplified algorithms was assembled and successfully used to characterize oxygen sensing films, by continuously monitoring phosphorescence lifetime changes of phosphorescent platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) in cardo poly(aryl ether ketone) polymer (IMPEK-C) vs. variation of the oxygen partial pressure in a gas mixture (O(2)/N(2)). The results determined by both phosphorescence lifetime and intensity monitoring were compared and the lifetime mode gave results which are in good agreement with the intensity mode. The lifetime-based linear Stern-Volmer plot indicates that the PtOEP molecules are nearly homogeneously distributed in the sensing film. The phosphorescent lifetime of the PtOEP film changes from 75 micros in neat N(2) to less than 2 micros in neat O(2). The sensing system (by combination of the PtOEP sensing film with the home-assembled lifetime device) gives a high lifetime-based O(2) sensing resolution, e.g. about 2 micros Torr(-1) for low O(2) concentration (below 3.5% O(2), V/V). This feasible lifetime device configuration is affordable to most sensor laboratories and the device may facilitate the study of O(2) sensing material with the continuous lifetime monitoring method.

  18. Pharmacist-led, primary care-based disease management improves hemoglobin A1c in high-risk patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Russell; Malone, Robb; Bryant, Betsy; Horlen, Cheryl; Pignone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a comprehensive pharmacist-led, primary care-based diabetes disease management program for patients with Type 2 diabetes and poor glucose control at our academic general internal medicine practice. The primary goal of this program was to improve glucose control, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Clinic-based pharmacists offered support to patients with diabetes through direct teaching about diabetes, frequent phone follow-up, medication algorithms, and use of a database that tracked patient outcomes and actively identified opportunities to improve care. From September 1999, to May 2000, 159 subjects were enrolled, and complete follow-up data were available for 138 (87%) patients. Baseline HbA1c averaged 10.8%, and after an average of 6 months of intervention, the mean reduction in HbA1c was 1.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). In predictive regression modeling, baseline HbA1c and new onset diabetes were associated with significant improvements in HbA1c. Age, race, gender, educational level, and provider status were not significant predictors of improvement. In conclusion, a pharmacist-based diabetes care program integrated into primary care practice significantly reduced HbA1c among patients with diabetes and poor glucose control.

  19. Virtual Community Based Destination Marketing with YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Thelijjagoda, Samantha; Good, Alice

    2016-01-01

    YouTube has now evolved into a powerful medium for social interaction. Utilizing YouTube for enhancing marketing endeavours is a strategy practiced by marketing professionals across several industries. This paper rationalizes on the different strategies of leveraging YouTube-based platforms...... for effective destination marketing by the hospitality industry (hotels) and provides insights on the critical drivers and challenges embedded within YouTube-based community interactions for destination marketing. The comments made by YouTube users have been subjected to a content analysis and the results...... are reported under the five broad clusters of virtual communities. More broadly, the typology of virtual communities is adapted to evaluate the YouTube platform for effective destination marketing....

  20. Identification Reduces Stigma of Mental Ill-Health: A Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T; Msetfi, Rachel M; Surgenor, Paul W G

    2018-03-01

    The stigma surrounding mental ill-health is an important issue that affects likelihood of diagnosis and uptake of services, as those affected may work to avoid exposure, judgment, or any perceived loss in status associated with their mental ill-health. In this study, we drew upon social identity theory to examine how social group membership might influence the stigma surrounding mental ill-health. Participants from two urban centers in Ireland (N = 626) completed a survey measuring stigma of mental health, perceived social support as well as identification with two different social groups (community and religion). Mediation analysis showed that subjective identification with religious and community groups led to greater perceived social support and consequently lower perceived stigma of mental ill-health. Furthermore, findings indicated that high identification with more than one social group can lead to enhanced social resources, and that identification with a religious group was associated with greater community identification. This study thus extends the evidence base of group identification by demonstrating its relationship with stigma of mental ill-health, while also reinforcing how multiple identities can interact to enhance social resources crucial for well-being. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.