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Sample records for lectin wheat germ

  1. Antinutritive effects of wheat-germ agglutinin and other N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusztai, A; Ewen, S W; Grant, G; Brown, D S; Stewart, J C; Peumans, W J; Van Damme, E J; Bardocz, S

    1993-07-01

    Incorporation of N-acetylglucosamine-specific agglutinins from wheat germ (Triticum aestivum; WGA), thorn apple (Datura stramonium) or nettle (Urtica dioica) rhizomes in the diet at the level of 7 g/kg reduced the apparent digestibility and utilization of dietary proteins and the growth of rats, with WGA being the most damaging. As a result of their binding and endocytosis by the epithelial cells of the small intestine, all three lectins were growth factors for the gut and interfered with its metabolism and function to varying degrees. WGA was particularly effective; it induced extensive polyamine-dependent hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth of the small bowel by increasing its content of proteins, RNA and DNA. Furthermore, an appreciable portion of the endocytosed WGA was transported across the gut wall into the systemic circulation, where it was deposited in the walls of the blood and lymphatic vessels. WGA also induced the hypertrophic growth of the pancreas and caused thymus atrophy. Although the transfer of the gene of WGA into crop plants has been advocated to increase their insect resistance, as the presence of this lectin in the diet may harm higher animals at the concentrations required to be effective against most pests, its use in plants as natural insecticide is not without health risks for man.

  2. Plant lectins as carriers for oral drugs: Is wheat germ agglutinin a suitable candidate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Pellegrina, Chiara; Rizzi, Corrado; Mosconi, Silvia; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Peruffo, Angelo; Chignola, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant protein that binds specifically to sugars expressed also by gastrointestinal epithelial cells. WGA is currently investigated as an anti-tumor drug and as a carrier for oral drugs. Information on whether it can cross the gastrointestinal epithelium and on its possible effects on the integrity of the epithelial layer is however scanty or lacking, and herein we address these issues. Differentiated Caco2 cells have been used as a model of polarized intestinal epithelium. WGA concentration at both the apical and the basolateral side of the epithelium has been quantified using a sensitive ELISA assay (sensitivity threshold 0.84 nM). Trans epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) has been measured to evaluate the integrity of the epithelium upon treatments with WGA. 3 H-Mannitol (182.2 Da) and FITC-dextran (3000 Da) have been used to measure the permeability of the epithelium. Cell viability has been measured by the MTT, by 7-AAD uptake, and Annexin-V binding assays. Up to a concentration of 5.6 μM, ∼0.1% of intact WGA molecules only could cross the epithelial layer. WGA perturbed the integrity of the epithelium and increased the permeability of the tissue in a dose- and time-dependent manner. WGA did not induce cell death but increased the permeability of individual cells to 7-AAD which is normally not uptaken by viable cells. These data allowed us to define a toxicity threshold for WGA on epithelial cells. WGA suitability as a carrier for oral drugs can therefore be evaluated on a rational basis

  3. Serial lectin affinity chromatography with concavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin demonstrates altered asparagine-linked sugar-chain structures of prostatic acid phosphatase in human prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K I; Honda, M; Arai, K; Hosoya, Y; Moriguchi, H; Sumi, S; Ueda, Y; Kitahara, S

    1997-08-01

    Differences between human prostate carcinoma (PCA, five cases) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, five cases) in asparagine-linked (Asn) sugar-chain structure of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were investigated using lectin affinity chromatography with concanavalin A (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). PAP activities were significantly decreased in PCA-derived PAP, while no significant differences between the two PAP preparations were observed in the enzymatic properties (Michaelis-Menten value, optimal pH, thermal stability, and inhibition study). In these PAP preparations, all activities were found only in the fractions which bound strongly to the Con A column and were undetectable in the Con A unbound fractions and in the fractions which bound weakly to the Con A column. The relative amounts of PAP which bound strongly to the Con A column but passed through the WGA column, were significantly greater in BPH-derived PAP than in PCA-derived PAP. In contrast, the relative amounts of PAP which bound strongly to the Con A column and bound to the WGA column, were significantly greater in PCA-derived PAP than in BPH-derived PAP. The findings suggest that Asn-linked sugar-chain structures are altered during oncogenesis in human prostate and also suggest that studies of qualitative differences of sugar-chain structures of PAP might lead to a useful diagnostic tool for PCA.

  4. Effect of the lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) on the alpha-amylase secretion of rat pancreas in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkat, U; Damm, I; Schröder, G; Schmidt, K; Wirth, C; Weber, H; Jonas, L

    1998-05-01

    Lectins are able to bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors and other glycosylated membrane proteins. The lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) are used for affinity chromatography to isolate the highly glycosylated CCK-A receptor of pancreatic acinar cells. According to the working hypothesis that lectin binding to the CCK receptor should alter the ligand-receptor interaction, the effect of WGA and UEA-I on CCK-8-induced enzyme secretion was studied on isolated rat pancreatic acini in vitro. In vitro both lectins showed a dosage-dependent inhibition of CCK-8-induced alpha-amylase secretion of acini over 60 min. WGA showed a strong inhibitory effect on amylase secretion, approximately 40%, in vitro. UEA-I caused a smaller, but significant decrease, approximately 20%, in enzyme secretion of isolated acini. Additionally, both lectins inhibited cerulein/secretin- or cerulein-induced pancreatic secretion of rats in vivo, but not after secretin alone. The results are discussed with respect to a possible influence of both lectins on the interaction of CCK or cerulein with the CCK-A receptor.

  5. Transcriptional Signatures in Response to Wheat Germ Agglutinin and Starvation in Drosophila melanogaster Larval Midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    One function of plant lectins such as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is to serve as defenses against herbivorous insects. The midgut is one critical site affected by dietary lectins. We observed marked cellular, structural, and gene expression changes in the midguts of Drosophila melanogaster third-i...

  6. The plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin inhibits the binding of pemphigus foliaceus autoantibodies to desmoglein 1 in a majority of patients and prevents pathomechanisms of pemphigus foliaceus in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid; Smolle, Josef; Marquart, Yvonne; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Ridky, Todd W; Bernstein, Pamela; Wolff, Klaus; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2003-12-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is a life-threatening autoimmune blistering skin disease caused by pathogenic IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 (dg1), a desmosomal cadherin-type adhesion glycoprotein. Using lectins and glycosidases, we have shown that dg1 displays an N-glycosylation pattern of the complex triantennary type. We have found that lectins and glycosidases interfere with N-bound sugar residues on the amino-terminal ectodomain of dg1 and completely abolish, in vitro, the antigenicity of dg1 in most of the patients' sera. Moreover, in an ex vivo model using punch biopsies from normal human skin, we demonstrate that preincubation of the epidermis in wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) prevents PF autoantibody binding, acantholysis, and subcorneal blistering. In addition, we show that topical treatment with WGA inhibits PF autoantibody binding to keratinocytes in both newborn BALB/c mice and in organotypic human epidermis grafted onto the back of SCID mice. The epidermis of these pretreated animals displays a regular morphology, whereas control animals develop the immunopathologic phenotype of PF. These findings suggest that WGA may interfere with autoantibody binding to dg1, preventing experimental PF without affecting the adhesive function of dg1. Our observations may provide a new approach to the therapy of PF.

  7. Stress-induced accumulation of wheat germ agglutinin and abscisic acid in roots of wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammue, B.P.A.; Broekaert, W.F.; Kellens, J.T.C.; Peumans, W.J.; Raikhel, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) levels in roots of 2-day-old wheat seedlings increased up to three-fold when stressed by air-drying. Similar results were obtained when seedling roots were incubated either in 0.5 molar mannitol or 180 grams per liter polyethylene glycol 6,000, with a peak level of WGA after 5 hours of stress. Longer periods of osmotic treatment resulted in a gradual decline of WGA in the roots. Since excised wheat roots incorporate more [ 35 S]cysteine into WGA under stress conditions, the observed increase of lectin levels is due to de novo synthesis. Measurement of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots of control and stressed seedlings indicated a 10-fold increase upon air-drying. Similarly, a five- and seven-fold increase of ABA content of seedling roots was found after 2 hours of osmotic stress by polyethylene glycol 6,000 and mannitol, respectively. Finally, the stress-induced increase of WGA in wheat roots could be inhibited by growing seedlings in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. These results indicate that roots of water-stressed wheat seedlings (a) contain more WGA as a result of an increased de novo synthesis of this lectin, and (b) exhibit higher ABA levels. The stress-induced increase of lectin accumulation seems to be under control of ABA

  8. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    심정은

    accumulated gas volume passing through the apparatus were measured using a gas flow meter. Wheat germ oil was ..... of rancidity in wheat germ analyzed by headspace gas chromatography and sensory analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem.

  9. Effect of in vivo γ-irradiation on the binding of wheat germ agglutinin on lymphocyte plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moullier, P.; Daveloose, D.; Dubos, M.; Leterrier, F.; Hoebeke, J.

    1986-01-01

    Using quantitative fluorimetry with fluoresceinated wheat germ agglutinin, we have been able to investigate in vivo gamma radiation-induced damage at the outer membrane level of rat splenic lymphocytes, namely damage to the glucosidic moieties of membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids. This paper demonstrates that below an irradiation level of 1 gray (Gy), removal of sialic acid is the major feature leading to new exposed specific binding sites for wheat germ agglutinin, since this lectin is specific for sialic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Our studies also suggest that above 1 Gy of irradiation more internal damage occurs, since we observed a striking decrease in wheat germ agglutinin binding sites. (orig.)

  10. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V.B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0–30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy. - Highlights: Ø γ-irradiation was found to inactivate Lipase present in Wheat Germ. Ø The treatment did not result in significant changes in Total Ash, Moisture and Protein Content of Wheat Germ. Ø The irradiation at 30 kGy resulted in 31.2 % inactivation of Lipase in Wheat Germ

  11. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoliang Duan; Qiling Hou; Guoyu Liu; Xiaomeng Pang; Zhenli Niu; Xiao Wang; Yufeng Zhang; Baoyun Li; Rongqi Liang

    2018-01-01

    Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa), a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta). The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs) promoter in pBAC-rbcs...

  12. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  13. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    심정은

    For determination of stability, wheat germ oil obtained by ethanolysis reactants was characterized by ... extract non polar lipids with lipid soluble bioactive com- pounds from different sources (Esquivel et al., 1997; ... thin layer of cotton was placed at the bottom of the extraction vessel. Before plugging with cap another layer of ...

  14. Wheat Germ Oil Attenuates Gamma Radiation-Induced Skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage muscle tissue. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be ...

  15. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa, a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta. The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs promoter in pBAC-rbcs-ppa expression vector, was transferred into the wheat cultivar Baofeng104 (BF104 by particle bombardment transformation. Fifty-four T0 transgenic plants were generated. The inheritance and expression of the ppa gene were confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR analysis respectively, and seven homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. An aphid bioassay on detached leaf segments revealed that seven ppa transgenic wheat lines had lower aphid growth rates and higher inhibition rates than BF104. Furthermore, two-year aphid bioassays in isolated fields showed that aphid numbers per tiller of transgenic lines were significantly decreased, compared with wild type BF104. Therefore, ppa could be a strong biotechnological candidate to produce aphid-resistant wheat.

  16. Isolation and purification of wheat germ agglutinin and analysis of its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the wheat germ agglutinin was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography of chicken ovomucoid as ligand. The physicochemical properties were analyzed. The chicken ovomucoid was isolated from egg white and conjugated to affinity chromatography column agarose gel to prepare affinity adsorbent. The crude extract of wheat germ was freezedried by affinity chromatography. The physicochemical properties were analyzed by SDSpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. And the relative molecular mass and isoelectric point of wheat germ agglutinin were obtained, and the high efficiency of purification of wheat germ agglutinin was proved by affinity chromatography.

  17. The impact of atmospheric cold plasma treatment on inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase of wheat germs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolouie, Haniye; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Ghomi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Wheat germ is a by-product of milling process which contains large amount of nutrients. The shelf life of wheat germ could improve by inactivation of destructive endogenous enzymes especially lipase and lipoxygenase. In this work, the impact of atmospheric cold plasma treatment on the inactivation...... of lipase and lipoxygenase enzymes of wheat germ was studied. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was utilized to treat wheat germs. The impact of treatment time and voltage of plasma on the inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase were investigated as well. The higher voltage and treatment time led...

  18. High-affinity multivalent wheat germ agglutinin ligands by one-pot click reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning S. G. Beckmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of six mono-, di-, and trivalent N,N’-diacetylchitobiose derivatives was conveniently prepared by employing a one-pot procedure for Cu(II-catalyzed diazo transfer and Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC starting from commercially available amines. These glycoclusters were probed for their binding potencies to the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA from Triticum vulgaris by an enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA employing covalently immobilized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc as a reference ligand. IC50 values were in the low micromolar/high nanomolar range, depending on the linker between the two disaccharides. Binding enhancements β up to 1000 for the divalent ligands and 2800 for a trivalent WGA ligand, compared to N,N’-diacetylchitobiose as the corresponding monovalent ligand, were observed. Molecular modeling studies, in which the chitobiose moieties were fitted into crystallographically determined binding sites of WGA, correlate the binding enhancements of the multivalent ligands with their ability to bind to the protein in a chelating mode. The best WGA ligand is a trivalent cluster with an IC50 value of 220 nM. Calculated per mol of contained chitobiose, this is the best WGA ligand known so far.

  19. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its particle size, and dough moisture content can improve the nutritional value of cookies, without causing a negative effect on the cookies' sensory characteristics.

  20. STUDY OF AZOSPIRILLUM LECTINS INFLUENCE ON HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCTION IN WHEAT-ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen’kina S.A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found that two cell-surface lectins isolated from the nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and from its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3 can stimulate rapid formation of hydrogen peroxide, associated with an increase in the activities of oxalate oxidase and peroxidase in the roots of wheat seedlings. The most advantageous and most rapidly induced pathway of hydrogen peroxide formation was the oxidation of oxalic acid by oxalate oxidase because in this case, a 10-min treatment of the roots with the lectins at 10 µg ml-1 was sufficient. The data from this study attest that the Azospirillum lectins can act as inducers of adaptation processes in the roots of wheat seedlings.

  1. THE MODERN THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND USE OF THE PRODUCTS OF COMPLEX PROCESSING OF WHEAT GERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The data and methods for the preparation of deep processing of wheat germ and their impact on the physical and chemical properties of the final products. It was found that for use in food technology is preferable to use a method is-cold-pressed wheat germ, under which the processed products do not present a residual amount of solvents and other non-food components. Given food and biological characteristics of wheat germ and products deep processing, it was found that they contain vitamin E, A, D, vitamin group В, more than 20 macro- and microelements. Methods of extracting oil from different types raw materials. Analyzed the functional role of ω-6 and ω -3 fatty acids for the human body and ways to maintain balance. A review of plant oils, the prospects of its use to create food systems balanced composition of fatty acids. It was found that the ratio of ω-6 and ω -3 fatty acids in wheat germ oil does not meet the recommended therefore to establish the necessary balance it is preferable to mix amaranth oil and pumpkin. Classified the factors affecting the quality parameters of wheat germ stored, evaluated the role of the enzyme complex during storage of wheat germ and their products deep processing. It was found that a significant effect on the damage of wheat germ has a dual action of lipase, lipoxygenase and catalase. Given the storage and stabilization of wheat germ, shows the potential use of stabilizers to increase the shelf life of wheat germ. As stabilizers, preference is given to compositions of organic acids: ascorbic, succinic and fumaric. It is proved that the composition of organic acids suppress the activity of lipase and lipoxygenase catalase by wheatgerm type noncompetitive inhibition. A review of the technologies used wheat germ and products of their complex processing in medical, cosmetic, feed and food industry. Evaluated the potential application of wheat germ and products deep processing industry of functional

  2. EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM [Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah K Darusman3

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated.This research consisted of two steps: (1 extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2 analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis.Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v was applied.Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v.

  3. Research of Wheat Germ Foaming Capacity in Dairy Ice-Cream Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Martich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface activity of grain component in model systems and in the milk ice cream is investigated. It is found that increase of wheat germ comtent in model systems and mixtures leads to a corresponding decrease in surface tension in the presence of surface-active plant protein. The expediency of previous frying and shredding of plant material to improve its foaming ability in the milk mixtures is proved. The need of wheat germ hydration before its use to improve functional and technological properties in the ice cream is confirmed.

  4. [Effect of Azospirillum lectins on the Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Their Inhibitors in Wheat Seedling Roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alen'kina, S A; Nikitina, V E

    2015-01-01

    The lectins of associative nitrogen-fixing strains Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Sp245 were shown to exerte a multidirectional effect on the activity of acidic (pH 3.5), neutral (6.8), and alkaline (pH 7.8) proteinases. The lectin of the epiphytic A. brasilense Sp7 decreased proteolytic activity at all pH values, whereas the lectin of the endophytic A. brasilense Sp245 activated neutral and alkaline proteinases, while not affecting the alkaline ones. Experiments with protease inhibitors made it possible to conclude that the lectins of the studied A. brasilense strains alter the ratio between the activities of different protease types in germinating seeds. The activity of trypsin inhibitors in wheat seedling roots was found to increase in the presence of the lectins. Our results indicate a broader spectrum of effects of azospirilla lectins on the host plant organism.

  5. Comparison between the effect of γ-irradiation and roasting on the profile and antioxidant activity of wheat germ lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, M.F.; El-Said Showky, H.; Abd el Rahman, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize wheat germ, a nutrient-dense byproduct of the wheat milling industry, in various food products, different treatments are used to investigate and stabilize its influence on lipid characteristics. However, there are no reports on the effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid profile of wheat germ. In this study, the impact of gamma-irradiation (at radiation doses 1/4, 1/2 and 1 kGy) and roasting at (160 deg C for 20 min) on the lipid constituents of wheat germ was examined. Both thermal and irradiation treatments did not have a significant effect on the total lipid recovery or the fatty acid composition of wheat germ lipids. The fatty acid profile was found to be made up of linoleic followed by oleic and palmitic as the major fatty acids. An increase in the content of free fatty acids characterized the lipid profile of the irradiated wheat germ samples. Antiradical properties of lipids from roasted and irradiated samples were analyzed using the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Lipids from irradiated samples exhibited relatively stronger radical scavenging potential than lipids from roasted wheat germ. It has been concluded that gamma-irradiation could be applied for wheat germ preservation, where it might be limited to a dose of 1/4 kGy in the processing

  6. Protective role of wheat germ oil on some biochemical parameters in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, A.I.; Darwish, M.M.; Sallam, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Wheat germ oil is an organic nutritionally rich vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E and essential fatty acids (octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic). The study confirmed the beneficial role of the used anti-oxidation agents as recommended radio-protectors due to their ability of scavenging free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with wheat germ oil (10 mg/ Kg body wt) for 15 days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when male rats were subjected to fractionated 8 Gy (2 Gy day after day) of gamma irradiation were studied. Blood samples were collected from animals at 10 and 15 days after treatment and/or exposure. In blood, the data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant increases in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and glucose at the 10th day. Meanwhile, significant reduction in contents of total protein, albumin, globulins, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), vitamin E and glucose were recorded at the 15th day. Also, the majority of these parameters were estimated in liver tissues. The results revealed that administration of the natural product wheat germ oil partially ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical disturbances. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of wheat germ oil actions

  7. Efficacy of wheat germ oil in modulating radiation-induced heart damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Azab, Kh.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Wheat Germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. This study was designed to investigate the cardio-protective efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation-induced oxidative damage in rat's heart. Wheat germ oil was supplemented by gavage to rats at a dose of 81 mg/ kg body wt for 10 successive days pre- and 7 successive days post-exposure to 7 Gy (single dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. The dose of wheat germ oil is equivalent to daily human nutritional supplementation quantity. The results revealed that whole body ?-irradiation of rats produced significant alterations in blood cells picture. The erythrocyte, leucocyte, platelet counts and hemoglobin levels decreased after irradiation. Also, radiation-induced biochemical disorders manifested by significant elevation in xanthine oxidase activity (XO) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, with decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in heart tissues, indicating depression in the antioxidant status. Serum lipid profile as total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides levels (TG) were significantly higher than normal control rats. Radiation exposure produced a significant rise in the activities of serum markers for heart damage as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) indicating acute cardiac toxicity. Moreover, the obtained results revealed abnormal electrophoretic pattern of LDH isoenzymes in the 7th day after exposure to gamma rays. Three bands only appear on the agarose film comparing with 4 bands in normal control rats. The rats that received wheat germ oil supplement showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all of the measured parameters when compared to

  8. Wheat Germ Oil Attenuates Gamma Radiation- Induced Skeletal Muscles Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Saada, H.N.; Shedid, Sh.M.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Shousha, W.Gh.

    2008-01-01

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage muscle tissue. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation-induced oxidative damage in rats skeletal muscle. Wheat germ oil was supplemented orally via gavages to rats at a dose of 54 mg/ kg body weight/day for 14 successive days pre- and 7 post-exposure to 5 Gy (one shot dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decreases in the content of reduced glutathione (GSE1), as well as decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. Irradiated rats showed, also, significant decreases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities. Furthermore, total iron, total copper and total calcium levels were significantly increased in skeletal muscles of irradiated rats group compared to control group. Wheat germ oil treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less sever damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that wheat germ oil by attenuating radiation induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity

  9. THE MODERN THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND USE OF THE PRODUCTS OF COMPLEX PROCESSING OF WHEAT GERM

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Rodionova; T. V. Alekseeva

    2014-01-01

    Summary. The data and methods for the preparation of deep processing of wheat germ and their impact on the physical and chemical properties of the final products. It was found that for use in food technology is preferable to use a method is-cold-pressed wheat germ, under which the processed products do not present a residual amount of solvents and other non-food components. Given food and biological characteristics of wheat germ and products deep processing, it was found that they contain vit...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  11. Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on human gastrointestinal epithelium: Insights from an experimental model of immune/epithelial cell interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrina, Chiara Dalla; Perbellini, Omar; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Tomelleri, Carlo; Zanetti, Chiara; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Fusi, Marina; Peruffo, Angelo; Rizzi, Corrado; Chignola, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant protein that binds specifically to sugars expressed, among many others, by human gastrointestinal epithelial and immune cells. WGA is a toxic compound and an anti-nutritional factor, but recent works have shown that it may have potential as an anti-tumor drug and as a carrier for oral drugs. To quantitate the toxicity threshold for WGA on normal epithelial cells we previously investigated the effects of the lectin on differentiated Caco2 cells, and showed that in the micromolar range of concentrations WGA could alter the integrity of the epithelium layer and increase its permeability to both mannitol and dextran. WGA was shown to be uptaken by Caco2 cells and only ∼ 0.1% molecules were observed to cross the epithelium layer by transcytosis. Here we show that at nanomolar concentrations WGA is unexpectedly bioactive on immune cells. The supernatants of WGA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) can alter the integrity of the epithelium layer when administered to the basolateral side of differentiated Caco2 cells and the effects can be partially inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against IL1, IL6 and IL8. At nanomolar concentrations WGA stimulates the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus the biological activity of WGA should be reconsidered by taking into account the effects of WGA on the immune system at the gastrointestinal interface. These results shed new light onto the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of gastrointestinal disorders observed in vivo upon dietary intake of wheat-based foods.

  12. Alternate gram staining technique using a fluorescent lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, R K; Caldwell, J J; Kendrick, A S

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine in the outer peptidoglycan layer of gram-positive bacteria. The peptidoglycan layer of gram-negative bacteria is covered by a membrane and is not labeled by the lectin. By exploiting this phenomenon, an alternative Gram staining technique has been developed. Images PMID:1697149

  13. Correlation between carbohydrate structures on the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and syncytium inhibition with lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C M; Nielsen, C

    1989-01-01

    The binding of 13 different lectins to gp120 partially purified from two HIV-1 isolates and one HIV-2 isolate was studied by in situ staining on electrophoretically separated and electroblotted HIV antigens. The lectins concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, Vicia faba...

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citric Acid-Treated Wheat Germ Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Yeong; Choi, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jae-Kang; Lee, Beom-Joon; Kim, Woo-Ki; Kang, Hee

    2017-07-10

    Until recently, fermentation was the only processing used to improve the functionality of wheat germ. The release of 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) from hydroquinone glycosides during the fermentation process is considered a marker of quality control. Here, we treated wheat germ extract with citric acid (CWG) to release DMBQ and examined the anti-inflammatory activity of this extract using a lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage model. Treatment of wheat germ with citric acid resulted in detectable release of DMBQ but reduced total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared with untreated wheat germ extract (UWG). CWG inhibited secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 and the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2, while UWG only decreased IL-12 production. CWG and UWG induced high levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and heme oxygenase-1. CWG specifically inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 kinase at 15 min after LPS stimulation. Our study showed that citric acid treatment enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of wheat germ extract.

  15. Lectin receptors in the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Mannis, M J; Lund, J; Jacobs, L

    Five different biotin labeled lectins, Concanavalin-A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA1), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used to study lectin receptors on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human corneas. Con A stained the cytoplasm, cell, and nuclear membranes of the epithelial cells and stained the stroma diffusely. WGA stained the superficial epithelial cells, the epithelial cell membranes, and the keratocytes of the stroma. SBA did not react with any of the corneal layers. RCA1 heavily stained the keratocytes but did not stain the epithelium. UEA1 lightly stained the epithelial cell cytoplasm and interstitial stroma. All staining reactions could be abolished by omission of the lectin or by the use of the appropriate inhibitory sugar. The lectin binding patterns reported here provide a means for further investigation of carbohydrate structures in the human cornea in both normal and disease states.

  16. Yeast derivatives and wheat germ in the adult diet modulates fecundity in a tephritid pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goane, L; Pereyra, P M; Castro, F; Ruiz, M J; Juárez, M L; Segura, D F; Vera, M T

    2018-05-22

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), a pest of great economic importance in South America, needs urgently to be controlled by environmentally friendly methods such as the sterile insect technique for which mass rearing of insects is required. Because oogenesis takes place during the adult stage, mass-rearing facilities should provide the females a diet that maximizes egg production at the lowest cost. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of artificial protein sources in the adult diet (yeast derivatives of different cost but with similar amino acids profiles, and the addition of wheat germ) on fecundity. Additionally, we evaluated different ratios of yeast derivatives or wheat germ on ovary maturation, fecundity, and fertility as well as their association with the nutrient content of females. Females fed hydrolyzed yeast and yeast extract attained the highest fecundity level, and those fed brewer's yeast the lowest. Reducing the amount of hydrolyzed yeast, an expensive protein source, in the diet negatively affected fecundity and ovary maturation. Increasing the amount of brewer's yeast, a low-cost protein source, did not favor fecundity. The addition of wheat germ in the adult diet improved fecundity regardless of the yeast derivate considered. Percentage of egg hatch was not affected by the diet. Nutrient content of A. fraterculus females varied according to the adult diet provided and mating status. Our findings provide novel baseline information to understand the role of nutrition on reproductive performance of A. fraterculus females and are discussed in the context of resource allocation. They also provide valuable advances in the search for cost-effective adult diets at fruit fly mass rearing facilities.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a homogeneous isoenzyme of wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waymack, P P; Van Etten, R L

    1991-08-01

    An acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, acid optimum; EC 3.1.3.2) isoenzyme from wheat germ was purified 7000-fold to homogeneity. The effect of wheat germ sources and their relationship to the isoenzyme content and purification behavior of acid phosphatases was investigated. Extensive information about the purification and stabilization of the enzyme is provided. The instability of isoenzymes in the latter stages of purification appeared to be the result of surface inactivation together with a sensitivity to dilution that could be partially offset by addition of Triton X-100 during chromatographic procedures. Added sulfhydryl protecting reagents had no effect on activity or stability, which was greatest in the pH range 4-7. The purified isoenzyme was homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and exhibited the highest specific activity and turnover number reported for any acid phosphatase. The molecular weights of the pure isoenzyme and of related isoenzymes from wheat germ were found to be identical (58,000). The pure isoenzyme contained a single polypeptide chain and had a negligible carbohydrate content. The amino acid composition was determined. Of the various reasons that were considered to explain isoenzyme occurrence, a genetic basis was considered most likely. The enzyme was found to exhibit substrate inhibition with some substrates below pH 6, while above pH 8 it exhibited downwardly curving Lineweaver-Burk plots of the type that are generally described as "substrate activation". The observation of a phosphotransferase activity was consistent with the formation of a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate, while inactivation by diethyl pyrocarbonate was consistent with the presence of an active site histidine.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Ponomareva; N. N. Alekhinа; I. A. Bakayeva

    2014-01-01

    Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour), which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objective...

  19. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on the conformation of wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongmei; Jin, Jianchang; Shen, Tong; Wang, Yanhua

    2013-11-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the quenching mechanism, the type of force and the binding sites of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat germ acid phosphatase (ACPase). The results showed that the quenching effect of PFOS on ACPase was mainly due to a static quenching mechanism that occurred via the formation of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. The results from synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that PFOS interacts with ACPase close to the tryptophan residues. In addition, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy also showed that PFOS increases the hydrophobicity of the microenvironment of the tyrosine residues, hence decreasing the local polarity.

  20. Identification of rat serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme by means of wheat germ agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H; Niwa, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1997-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitates bone type serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP) isoenzyme specifically. The precipitates are composed of the macromolecules of WGA and "bone type sALP" (WGA-ALP complex). In order to use bone type sALP as a marker in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method to separate "bone type sALP" from the "WGA-ALP complex" was established by using N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-Sepharose 6E column chromatography. It was concluded that this method is useful for clinical examination in the rat.

  1. Studies on the extraction of wheat germ oil by commercial hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Kinawy, Omayma S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of an edible oil from wheat germ, an important byproduct of wheat milling industry in Egypt, using commercial hexane was studied. The extraction was carried out in a single and in two successive stages using different solvent-to-solid ratios from 2 to 6 m3/ ton. The results showed that a good oil recovery (about 75% can be achieved using 4 m3 hexane for each ton germ extracted in a single stage. This amount of solvent can be reduced to 2.5 m3/ ton if the process is carried out in two successive stages. The study has shown also that the amount of oil recovered from wheat germ is not significantly affected by heating the extraction mixture during the extraction process. The developments of free acids and peroxides in the oil during the storage period of wheat germ prior to extraction and during the hot extraction process were also investigated.Se ha estudiado la extracción de un aceite comestible a partir del germen de trigo, importante subproducto de la industria de la molienda del trigo en Egipto, usando hexano comercial. La extracción se llevó a cabo en una etapa única y en dos sucesivas, usando diferentes relaciones solvente-sólido desde 2 a 6 m3/ton. Los resultados mostraron que una buena recuperación de aceite (alrededor del 75% puede alcanzarse usando 4 m3 de hexano por cada tonelada de germen extraído en una etapa única. Esta cantidad de solvente puede reducirse a 2’5 m3/ton si el proceso se lleva a cabo en dos etapas sucesivas. El estudio mostró también que la cantidad de aceite recuperada a partir del germen de trigo no se afectó significativamente por el calentamiento de la mezcla durante el proceso de extracción. También se estudió la producción de ácidos libres y peróxidos en el aceite durante el período de almacenamiento del germen de trigo anterior a la extracción y durante el proceso de extracción en caliente

  2. Substrate specificity and pH dependence of homogeneous wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, R L; Waymack, P P

    1991-08-01

    The broad substrate specificity of a homogeneous isoenzyme of wheat germ acid phosphatase (WGAP) was extensively investigated by chromatographic, electrophoretic, NMR, and kinetic procedures. WGAP exhibited no divalent metal ion requirement and was unaffected upon incubation with EDTA or o-phenanthroline. A comparison of two catalytically homogeneous isoenzymes revealed little difference in substrate specificity. The specificity of WGAP was established by determining the Michaelis constants for a wide variety of substrates. p-Nitrophenyl phosphate, pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and ATP were preferred substrates while lesser activities were seen toward sugar phosphates, trimetaphosphate, phosphoproteins, and (much less) phosphodiesters. An extensive table of Km and Vmax values is given. The pathway for the hydrolysis of trimetaphosphate was examined by colorimetric and 31P NMR methods and it was found that linear tripolyphosphate is not a free intermediate in the enzymatic reaction. In contrast to literature reports, homogeneous wheat germ acid phosphatase exhibits no measurable carboxylesterase activity, nor does it hydrolyze phenyl phosphonothioate esters or phytic acid at significant rates.

  3. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  4. Wheat germ agglutinin-functionalised crosslinked polyelectrolyte microparticles for local colon delivery of 5-FU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavas-Dodov,, Marija; Steffansen, Bente; Srcarevska, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported the development and characterisation of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-functionalised chitosan-Ca-alginate (CTS-Ca-ALG) microparticles (MPs) loaded with acid-resistant particles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In the present work, our goal was to evaluate the potential of these......We have previously reported the development and characterisation of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-functionalised chitosan-Ca-alginate (CTS-Ca-ALG) microparticles (MPs) loaded with acid-resistant particles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In the present work, our goal was to evaluate the potential......-Ca-ALG MPs and WGA conjugates. The concentration of 5-FU associated with Caco-2 cells was significantly greater when delivered from MPs. By incorporation of 5-FU into MPs and further decoration with WGA, an increased [methyl-³H]thymidine uptake was observed few hours after continuous drug treatment followed...... by significantly reduced uptake after 6 h. Gastrointestinal distribution was in favour of increased localisation and concentration of the particles in colon region....

  5. The impact of transgenic wheat expressing GNA (snowdrop lectin) on the aphids Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, and Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jin; Wu, Yuqing; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Yu, Zhenxing; Xu, Qiongfang

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of transgenic wheat expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), commonly known as snowdrop lectin, on three wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae (F.), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). We compared the feeding behavior and the life-table parameters of aphids reared on GNA transgenic wheat (test group) and those aphids reared on untransformed wheat (control group). The results showed that the feeding behaviors of S. avenae and S. graminum on GNA transgenic wheat were affected. Compared with the control group, they had shorter initial probing period, longer total nonprobing period, shorter initial and total phloem sap ingestion phase (waveform E2), shorter duration of sustained ingestion (E (pd) > 10 min), and lower percentage of phloem phase of the total observation time. Moreover, S. graminum made more probes and had a longer total duration of extracellular stylet pathway (waveform C). The fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of S. avenae and S. graminum on the transgenic wheat were lowered in the first and second generations, however, the survival and lifespan were not affected. The effects of the GNA expressing wheat on S. graminum and S. avenae were not significant in the third generation, suggesting rapid adaptation by the two aphid species. Despite the impact we found on S. avenae and S. graminum, transgenic GNA expressing wheat did not have any effects on R. padi.

  6. Inactivation of Lipase and Lipoxygenase of Wheat Germ with Temperature-Controlled Short Wave Infrared Radiation and Its Effect on Storage Stability and Quality of Wheat Germ Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Hongjian; Sun, Dewei; Deng, Boxin; Li, Jinwei; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Wheat germ (WG) is quite susceptible to deterioration due to the presence of lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Therefore it is indispensable to adopt a stabilization step to decrease the activity of LA and LOX while retaining a maximum level of nutrients. But over-drying can make foodstuffs more susceptible to autoxidation. So a stabilization protocol for inactivating LA and LOX of WG with a temperature- controlled short wave infrared (SIR) radiation system was adopted to retard its rancidity and retain a maximum level of fat-soluble nutrients. Meanwhile, the critical storage water activity (Aw) of WG for inhibiting both hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity was appraised. Results indicate that WG irradiated at 90°C for 20 min acquired the optimal stabilization effect, and its residual LA and LOX activity were 18.02% and 19.21%, respectively. At this condition, the free fatty acids (FFA) content and peroxide value (PV) increment of WG oil at 40°C remained below 5% and 2.24 meq O2/kg for 60 days, respectively. The residual Aw of this WG sample was 0.13, and it is near the Aw corresponding to its monolayer. No significant decrease of fatty acids was observed during SIR processing, while about 96.42% of its original tocopherols still retained in WG treated at 90°C for 20 min.

  7. Role of wheat germ oil in radiation-induced oxidative stress and alteration in energy metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S M.E. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The liver is essential in keeping the body functioning properly while muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage liver and muscle tissues. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation induced oxidative damage in rat's liver and skeletal muscle. Wheat germ oil was supplemented orally via gavage to rats at a dose of 54 mg/ kg body weight for 14 successive days pre- and 7 days post-exposure to 5 Gy (single dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the levels of xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decreases in the content of reduced glutathione, as well as decreases in xanthine dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Irradiated rats showed also significant decreases in creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase activities while lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Total iron, total copper and total calcium levels significantly increased in the liver and skeletal muscles of irradiated rats group compared to control group. Wheat germ oil treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that wheat germ oil by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining liver and skeletal muscle

  8. Role of wheat germ oil in radiation-induced oxidative stress and alteration in energy metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedid, S.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The liver is essential in keeping the body functioning properly while muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage liver and muscle tissues. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation induced oxidative damage in rat's liver and skeletal muscle. Wheat germ oil was supplemented orally via gavage to rats at a dose of 54 mg/ kg body weight for 14 successive days pre- and 7 days post-exposure to 5 Gy (single dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the levels of xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decreases in the content of reduced glutathione, as well as decreases in xanthine dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Irradiated rats showed also significant decreases in creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase activities while lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Total iron, total copper and total calcium levels significantly increased in the liver and skeletal muscles of irradiated rats group compared to control group. Wheat germ oil treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that wheat germ oil by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining liver and skeletal muscle

  9. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  10. [Study of enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism in the evaluation of quality of protein-containing wheat germ flakes and wallpaper flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchuk, A N; E En Gyn; Safronova, A M; Peskova, E V

    1991-01-01

    Intake of wheat upholstery meal by growing rats was attended by a sharp decrease in the content and activity of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes in the hepatic microsomes, that was caused by the low biological value of the meal proteins. Hepatic microsomes of the rats that were fed with wheat germ flakes showed increased specific content of cytochromes P-450 and b5, but the total blood protein content per 100 g of body mass was lower than during casein consumption. No significant changes were detected in hydroxylation rate of benz(a)pyrene, aniline and ethylmorphine. During consumption of wheat germ flakes induction of UDP-glucuronide-transferase was detected in hepatic microsomes. Wheat germ flakes induced a 5-fold increase of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat germ flakes produced no significant effect on glutathione-S-aryltransferase and glutathione reductase activity.

  11. Extraction/fractionation and deacidification of wheat germ oil using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zacchi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germ oil was obtained by mechanical pressing using a small-scale screw press and by supercritical extraction in a pilot plant. With this last method, different pressures and temperatures were tested and the tocopherol concentration in the extract was monitored during extraction. Then supercritical extracted oil as well as commercial pressed oil were deacidified in a countercurrent column using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent under different operating conditions. Samples of extract, refined oil and feed oil were analyzed for free fatty acids (FFA and tocopherol contents. The results show that oil with a higher tocopherol content can be obtained by supercritical extraction-fractionation and that FFA can be effectively removed by countercurrent rectification while the tocopherol content is only slightly reduced.

  12. Change in the Content of Salicylic Acid and in the Activities of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Catalase in Wheat Seedling Roots Under the Effect of Azospirillum Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen'kina S.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of changes in the endogenous content of salicylic acid, the ratio between the acid's free and bound forms, and changes in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the effect of the lectins of two strains of the associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum: A. brasilense Sp7 and its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3. Differences in plant response to the action of the lectins from these two strains were established. On the basis of the obtained data, a model was proposed for lectin-assisted induction of resistance, according to which the lectin effect on the roots of seedlings results in accumulation of free salicylic acid, which inhibits catalase activity, ultimately leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and to formation of induced resistance.

  13. Optimization and evaluation of wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu, LiYa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the parameters of supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE of wheat germ oil. The quality of the oil and residual meal obtained by SFE and solvent extraction (SE were evaluated from proximate analysis, fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity. A maximum oil yield of 10.46% was achieved under the optimal conditions of wheat germ particle size 60-80 mesh; water content 4.37%; pressure 30MPa; temperature 40°C extraction time 1.7h. The oil obtained by SFE showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging ability than SE oil at the same concentration. The fatty acid composition of SFE oil was similar to SE oil. Higher contents of protein (34.3% and lysine (2.47g/100g were found in the residual meal obtained by SFE. The results show that oil and defatted meal obtained by SFE can be promising nutritional sources for food.Un diseño Box-Behnken combinado con metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM fue usado para optimizar los parámetros de extracción con fluido supercrítico (SFE del aceite de germen de trigo. La calidad del aceite y de la harina residual obtenida por SFE y por extracción con solvente (SE fue evaluada mediante su análisis porcentual, composición de ácidos grasos y actividad antioxidante. Un máximo rendimiento de aceite del 10.46% fue obtenido con las condiciones óptimas de 60-80 mesh de tamaño de partícula del germen de trigo; 4.37% contenido de agua; 30MPa de presión; 40°C de temperatura y 1.7 h de tiempo de extracción. El aceite obtenido por SFE mostró una capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres mucho mayor que el aceite obtenido por SE a la misma concentración. La composición de ácidos grasos del aceite SFE fue similar al aceite SE. El mayor contenido de proteínas (34% y de lisina (2.47g/100g fue encontrado en las harinas residuales obtenidas por SFE. Los resultados muestran que el aceite y la harina desengrasada obtenidas por SFE

  14. Evaluation of spaghetti prepared from irradiated and non-irradiated semolina flour, defatted soybean and wheat germ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.; Assem, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to produce spaghetti from semolina flour supplemented with 5, 7.5 and 10% wheat germ and 5, 7.5 and 10% defatted soybean flours and gamma irradiated at 5 and 10 KGy to improve its nutritive value. Part of the blend was left without irradiation to serve as control. All samples of spaghetti were analyzed for chemical composition, color, cooking properties, sensory evaluation and amino acids contents. The results of chemical composition showed high protein and fat contents by increasing the percentage of addition for wheat germ and defatted soybean, which irradiated and non-irradiated, in spaghetti. Sensory evaluation and cooking properties for spaghetti supplemented with 5 and 7.5% non-irradiated or irradiated (5 KGy) defatted soybean gave the best values comparing with supplementation by 10% non-irradiated and irradiated with 10 KGy. The best treatments, based on sensory evaluation results, were analyzed for amino acids. Essential and non-essential amino acid levels were found to be higher in samples supplemented with wheat germ and defatted soybean when compared with control, which was prepared from semolina only

  15. Comparison between the effect of γ-irradiation and roasting on the profile and antioxidant activity of wheat germ lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy Ramadan, Mohamed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize wheat germ, a nutrient-dense byproduct of the wheat milling industry, in various food products, different treatments are used to investigate and stabilize its influence on lipid characteristics. However, there are no reports on the effect of γ-irradiation on the lipid profile of wheat germ. In this study, the impact of γ-irradiation (at radiation doses 1/4, 1/2 and 1 kGy and roasting at (160 °C for 20 min on the lipid constituents of wheat germ was examined. Both thermal and irradiation treatments did not have a significant effect on the total lipid recovery or the fatty acid composition of wheat germ lipids. The fatty acid profile was found to be made up of linoleic followed by oleic and palmitic as the major fatty acids. An increase in the content of free fatty acids characterized the lipid profile of the irradiated wheat germ samples. Antiradical properties of lipids from roasted and irradiated samples were analyzed using the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH. Lipids from irradiated samples exhibited relatively stronger radical scavenging potential than lipids from roasted wheat germ. It has been concluded that γ- irradiation could be applied for wheat germ preservation, where it might be limited to a dose of 1/4 kGy in the processing.Se estudió el efecto de la γ-irradiación (dosis de irradiación de 1/4, 1/2 y 1 kGy y del horneado (160 °C durante 20 min en los componentes lipídicos del germen de trigo, un subproducto rico en nutrientes de la industria harinera. Ninguno de los tratamientos empleados tuvo un efecto significativo ni en el total de los lípidos recuperados ni en su composición en ácidos grasos. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron el ácido linoleico, seguido de los ácidos oleico y palmítico. Un aumento del contenido de ácidos grasos libres caracterizó el perfil lipídico de las muestras irradiadas. Las propiedades antiradicalarias de los lípidos de las

  16. Modelling Condensation and Simulation for Wheat Germ Drying in Fluidized Bed Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Sheng Chan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A low-temperature drying with fluidized bed dryer (FBD for wheat germ (WG stabilization could prevent the loss of nutrients during processing. However, both evaporation and condensation behaviors occurred in sequence during FBD drying of WG. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretical thin-layer model coupling with the macro-heat transfer model and the bubble model for simulating both the dehydration and condensation behaviors of WG during low-temperature drying in the FBD. The experimental data were also collected for the model modification. Changes in the moisture content of WG, the air temperature of FBD chamber, and the temperature of WG during drying with different heating approaches were significantly different. The thermal input of WG drying with short heating time approach was one-third of that of WG drying with a traditional heating approach. The mathematical model developed in this study could predict the changes of the moisture content of WG and provide a good understanding of the condensation phenomena of WG during FBD drying.

  17. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  18. [Spectroscopic analysis of the interaction of ethanol and acid phosphatase from wheat germ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-mei; Liu, Guang-shen; Wang, Li-ming; Liu, Wei-ping

    2004-11-01

    Conformational and activity changes of acid phosphatase from wheat germ in ethanol solutions of different concentrations were measured by fluorescence spectra and differential UV-absorption spectra. The effect of ethanol on kinetics of acid phosphatase was determined by using the double reciprocal plot. The results indicate the ethanol has a significant effect on the activity and conformation of acid phosphatase. The activity of acid phosphatase decreased linearly with increasing the concentration of ethanol. Differential UV-absorption spectra of the enzyme denatured in ethanol solutions showed two positive peaks at 213 and 234 nm, respectively. The peaks on the differential UV-absorption spectra suggested that the conformation of enzyme molecule changed from orderly structure to out-of-order crispation. The fluorescence emission peak intensity of the enzyme gradually strengthened with increasing ethanol concentration, which is in concordance with the conformational change of the microenvironments of tyrosine and tryptophan residues. The results indicate that the expression of the enzyme activity correlates with the stability and integrity of the enzyme conformation to a great degree. Ethanol is uncompetitive inhibitor of acid phosphatase.

  19. SUPLEMENTASI STEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM (Triticum sp. PADA MARGARIN (Supplementation of Margarine with Wheat Germ Sterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Anna Marliyati1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Margarine is a water in oil (w/o emulsion product which is widely used for household cooking and baking industry. Consuming of margarine, which contains trans fatty acid may cause health problem due to the increase of LDL cholesterol. Since margarine is also a good carrier of phytosterol which prevent the absorption of cholesterol, there is a possibility to formulate a healthier margarine. In this research formulation and characteristics of products was investigated. The research work consisted of two steps: (1 supplementation of wheat germ sterol into margarine (two methods and (2 analysis of physical, chemical characteristics and hedonic score. Parameters of physical characteristics were melting point and emulsion stability, whereas chemical characteristics were water and oil contents. The hedonic test was carried out based on product’s color, odor, taste, texture, and spreadability. Results showed that method II of supplementation produced better margarine than method I, in which the concentration of sterol in the margarine was higher with a melting point similar to that of control, better emulsion stability, and higher hedonic score. Supplementation process was carried out by mixing sterol into fat phase melted at 50 0C, followed by mixing with aqueous phase at 4 0C. Sterol used for method II was extracted using mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol at the ratio of 1:2 (v/v, which was resulted from previous experimentation.

  20. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.; Brzozowski, R.; Gwardiak, H.; Białecka-Florjańczyk, E.; Bujnowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 o C under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3%) in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%), while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%). These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable. [es

  1. Nullification of aspirin induced gastrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity by prior administration of wheat germ oil in Mus musculus: histopathological, ultrastructural and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H R H; Hamad, S R

    2017-08-30

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is used worldwide to treat various inflammatory conditions and prevent cardiovascular disease, along with reducing the risk of cancer. However, administration of aspirin causes toxic effects, especially in the stomach and liver. Thus, our study examined the protective effect of wheat germ oil on aspirin-induced toxicity in the stomach and liver tissues of Swiss albino mice. Administration of wheat germ oil before aspirin has restored normal hepatic and gastric tissue architecture and DNA integrity has become better than that of a negative health control group compared with the aspirin only treated group. The elevated gastric nitric oxide content in the aspirin only treated group was significantly decreased by wheat germ oil prior administration as a result of reduced the expression of inducible nitric synthase and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase compared to their expression in the aspirin administered group. Wheat germ oil pre-administration significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde, increased the level of glutathione and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared with those in aspirin only treated group. We conclude that wheat germ oil has a potential protective effect against aspirin induced gastro- and hepato-toxicity because of its free radical scavenging ability.

  2. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensing for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells incorporating antibody as capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as signal probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haiying [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044300 (China); Li, Zhejian; Shan, Meng; Li, Congcong; Qi, Honglan; Gao, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Jinyi [College of Science and College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Zhang, Chengxiao, E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • A novel biosensor was developed for the detection of prostate cancer cells. • The selectivity of the biosensor was improved using antibody as capture probe. • The biosensor showed the low extremely detection limit of 2.6 × 10{sup 2} cells mL{sup −1}. • The ruthenium complex-labelled WGA can be transported in the cell vesicles. - Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells was designed using a prostate specific antibody as a capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as a signal probe. The ECL biosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilising the capture probe on a graphene oxide-coated glassy carbon electrode. Target PC-3 cells were selectively captured on the surface of the biosensor, and then, the signal probe was bound with the captured PC-3 cells to form a sandwich. In the presence of tripropylamine, the ECL intensity of the sandwich biosensor was logarithmically directly proportion to the concentration of PC-3 cells over a range from 7.0 × 10{sup 2} to 3.0 × 10{sup 4} cells mL{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 2.6 × 10{sup 2} cells mL{sup −1}. The ECL biosensor was also applied to detect prostate specific antigen with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup −1}. The high selectivity of the biosensor was demonstrated in comparison with that of a lectin-based biosensor. The strategy developed in this study may be a promising approach and could be extended to the design of ECL biosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of other cancer-related cells or cancer biomarkers using different probes.

  3. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensing for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells incorporating antibody as capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as signal probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haiying; Li, Zhejian; Shan, Meng; Li, Congcong; Qi, Honglan; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel biosensor was developed for the detection of prostate cancer cells. • The selectivity of the biosensor was improved using antibody as capture probe. • The biosensor showed the low extremely detection limit of 2.6 × 10 2 cells mL −1 . • The ruthenium complex-labelled WGA can be transported in the cell vesicles. - Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells was designed using a prostate specific antibody as a capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as a signal probe. The ECL biosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilising the capture probe on a graphene oxide-coated glassy carbon electrode. Target PC-3 cells were selectively captured on the surface of the biosensor, and then, the signal probe was bound with the captured PC-3 cells to form a sandwich. In the presence of tripropylamine, the ECL intensity of the sandwich biosensor was logarithmically directly proportion to the concentration of PC-3 cells over a range from 7.0 × 10 2 to 3.0 × 10 4 cells mL −1 , with a detection limit of 2.6 × 10 2 cells mL −1 . The ECL biosensor was also applied to detect prostate specific antigen with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL −1 . The high selectivity of the biosensor was demonstrated in comparison with that of a lectin-based biosensor. The strategy developed in this study may be a promising approach and could be extended to the design of ECL biosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of other cancer-related cells or cancer biomarkers using different probes

  4. IMMOBILIZATION OF ACID PHOSPHATASE (TYPE I) FROM WHEAT GERM ON GLUTARALDEHYDE ACTIVATED CHITOSAN BEADS: OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    K. Belho; S.R. Nongpiur; P.K. Ambasht

    2014-01-01

    Acid phosphatase from wheat germ (specific activity 1.327 U/mg protein) was used for immobilization on glutaraldehyde activated chitosan beads. Upon activation of chitosan beads, elongated fibers with pores were observed. The optimum percent immobilization obtained was 81.25%. The pH optimum of immobilized acid phosphatase was 5.5 with a shift of 0.5 units from the pH optimum of soluble enzyme (5.0). The values of Km for p-nitrophenylphosphate with soluble and immobilized acid pho...

  5. Endocytosis of wheat germ agglutinin binding sites from the cell surface into a tubular endosomal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, T J; Koroly, M J; Roberts, R M

    1990-04-01

    By using fluorescence and electron microscopy, the endocytic pathway encountered by cell surface components after they had bound wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was visualized. The majority of these components are thought to consist of sialylated glycoproteins (HMWAG) that represent a subpopulation of the total cell surface proteins but most of the externally disposed plasma membrane proteins of the cell. Examination of semi-thin sections by medium- and high-voltage electron microscopy revealed the three-dimensional organization of vesicular and tubular endosomes. Binding of either fluorescein isothiocyanate-, horseradish peroxidase-, or ferritin-conjugated WGA to cells at 4 degrees C showed that the HMWAG were distributed uniformly over the cell surface. Warming of surface-labeled cells to 37 degrees C resulted in the endocytosis of WGA into peripheral endosomes via invagination of regions of both coated and uncoated membrane. The peripheral endosome appeared as isolated complexes comprising a vesicular element (300-400 nm diam.) surrounded by and continuous with tubular cisternae (45-60 nm diam.), which did not interconnect the endosomes. After 30 min or more label also became localized in a network of anastomosing tubules (45-60 nm diam.) that were located in the centrosomal region of the cell. Endocytosed WGA-HMWAG complexes did not become associated with cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, although tubular and vesicular endosomes were noted in the vicinity of the trans-Golgi region. The accumulation of WGA-HMWAG in the endosomes within the centrosomal region was inhibited when cells were incubated at 18 degrees C. None of these compartments contained acid phosphatase activity, a result that is consistent with other data that the HMWAG do not pass through lysosomes initially. The kinetics of labeling were consistent with the interpretation that recycling of most of the WGA binding surface glycoproteins occurred rapidly from early peripheral endosomes followed by the

  6. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 oC under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt% than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%. Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3% in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%, while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%. These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable.En este trabajo, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (SFE usando CO2 con etanol como agente de arrastre se realizó a 40 °C bajo una presión de 21 MPa. Se ha llevado a cabo la comparación con una extracción similar sin agente de arrastre. El rendimiento de la extracción de germen de trigo usando CO2 supercrítico con etanol fue ligeramente mayor (10,7% en peso que la de extracción sin agente de arrastre (9,9% en peso. Se recogieron por separado fracciones de extractos SFE durante los experimentos y se analizó la composición de ácidos grasos en cada fracción. Los aceites extraídos mediante SFE eran ricos en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados más valiosos (63,4-71,3%, (PUFA y su contenido en todas las fracciones recogidas fue aproximadamente constante. Un contenido similar de PUFA fueron encontrados en muestras de referencia de los aceites extraídos con n-hexano (66,2-67,0%, mientras que el

  7. [Investigation of the effect of oil and flour from wheat germ meal on lipid metabolism of students and teachers of the university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N S; Isaev, V A; Vishnyakov, A B; Popov, E S; Safonova, N V; Srorublyovtsev, S A

    2016-01-01

    The results of investigation of alimentary correction of lipid metabolism under the admin­istration of processed products from wheat germ - oil (with the content of policosanol at least 1.5-8.0 mg/100 g, vitamin E - 180-200 mg/100 g, PUFA - 60-65%) and cake flour (with the content of protein - 30-35%, oil with analogue composition -5-7%, digestible carbohydrates - 45-47%, fiber - 18-26%, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B9, E, PP, minerals and trace elements - Zn, Mn, K, Fe, Se, P) are presented. Volunteers among teachers and students of the university aged 16 to 65 years daily consumed wheat germ oil obtained by cold pressing in an amount of 3.5 g, regardless of the meal within 30 days. Then a part of them (30 persons) consumed daily 50 g of oil cake obtained after pressing oil, which provided the intake of the same amount of oil (3.5 g). Lipid metabolism param­eters were monitored in experiment participants before receiving the processed products of wheat germ, after germ meal intake and beyond 30 and 60 days after consumption of wheat germ. Data analysis was carried out on three age groups: 16-24, 25-44 and 45- 65 years. All participants of the experiment showed a reduction in total cholesterol level by 6-8%, increasing the concentration of HDL cholesterol by 3-24%, lowering LDL cholesterol concentrations by 4-21%, reduction of triglyceride concentration by 12-24%, a positive correction of atherogenic factor values by for 10-25%. Prolonged action of the investigated foods was established: lipid metabolism parameters in the tested group were better than in the control group after 30 days of intake discontinuation of oil or wheat germ flour, the positive adjustment effect disappeared 60 days after consuming the products. The findings demonstrate a positive effect on the normalization of lipid metabolism when cake flour of wheat germ was administered in daily food ration, similar to the effect of oil intake, which is important for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases

  8. [Effect of thyroid hormones on the histotopography of lectin receptors in the rat salivary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-04-01

    Using lectin-peroxidase technique, the influence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on histotopography of glycoconjugates has been investigated in rat submandibular gland. The following lectins were used: peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Laburnum anagyroides lectin (LAL) and concanavalin A (con A). It has been demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the loss of con A, WGA and LAL receptor sites. Hypothyrodism enhanced con A binding to granular duct cells with a parallel reduction in WGA and LAL binding to these or other duct cells. Hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism markedly enhanced PNA binding to duct epitheliocytes with redistribution of these lectin binding sites from the luminal surface of salivary ducts into the cytoplasm of duct cells. Possible interpretations of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  9. Activities of lectins and their immobilized derivatives in detergent solutions. Implications on the use of lectin affinity chromatography for the purification of membrane glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, R; Beattie, G; Hubbell, W; Nicolson, G L

    1977-05-03

    The effects of several commonly used detergents on the saccharide-binding activities of lectins were investigated using lectin-mediated agglutination of formalin-fixed erythrocytes and affinity chromatography of glycoproteins on columns of lectins immobilized on polyacrylic hydrazide-Sepharose. In the hemagglutination assays, Ricinus communis I (RCA1) and II (RCAII), concanavalin A (Con A), and the agglutinins from peanut (PNA), soybean (SBA), wheat germ (WGA), and Limulus polyphemus (LPA) were tested with several concentrations of switterionic, cationic, anionic, and nonionic detergents. It was found that increasing detergent concentrations eventually affected hemagglutination titers in both test and control samples, and the highest detergent concentrations not affecting lectin hemagglutinating activities were determined. The effects of detergents on specific binding of [3H]fetuin and asialo[3H]fetuin to and elution from columns of immobilized lectins were less severe when compared with lectins in solution, suggesting that the lectins are stabilized by covalent attachment to agarose beads. Nonionic detergents did not affect the binding efficiency of the immobilized lectins tested at concentrations used for membrane solubilization while cationic and zwitterionic detergents caused significant inhibition of Con A- and SBA-Sepharose activities. In sodium deoxycholate (greater than 1%) only RCAI-Sepharose retained its activity, whereas the activities of the other lectins were reduced dramatically. Low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.05%) inhibited only the activity of immobilized SBA, but at higher concentration (0.1%) and prolonged periods of incubation (16 h, 23 degrees C) most of the lectins were inactivated. These data are compared with previous reports on the use of detergents in lectin affinity chromatography, and the conditions for the optimal use of detergents are detailed.

  10. Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated liposomes incorporated with cardiolipin to improve neuronal survival in Alzheimer’s disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo YC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yung-Chih Kuo,1 Che-Yu Lin,1 Jay-Shake Li,2 Yung-I Lou3 1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 3Department of Accounting, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Curcumin (CRM and nerve growth factor (NGF were entrapped in liposomes (LIP with surface wheat germ agglutinin (WGA to downregulate the phosphorylation of kinases in Alzheimer’s disease (AD therapy. Cardiolipin (CL-conjugated LIP carrying CRM (CRM-CL/LIP and also carrying NGF (NGF-CL/LIP were used with AD models of SK-N-MC cells and Wistar rats after an insult with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ. We found that CRM-CL/LIP inhibited the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, and p-tau protein at serine 202 and prevented neurodegeneration of SK-N-MC cells. In addition, NGF-CL/LIP could enhance the quantities of p-neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 for neuronal rescue. Moreover, WGA-grafted CRM-CL/LIP and WGA-grafted NGF-CL/LIP significantly improved the permeation of CRM and NGF across the blood–brain barrier, reduced Aβ plaque deposition and the malondialdehyde level, and increased the percentage of normal neurons and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of AD rats. Based on the marker expressions and in vivo evidence, current LIP carriers can be promising drug delivery systems to protect nervous tissue against Aβ-induced apoptosis in the brain during the clinical management of AD. Keywords: liposome, Alzheimer’s disease, β-amyloid, neurodegeneration, blood–brain barrier, wheat germ agglutinin

  11. Insights into the binding specificity of wild type and mutated wheat germ agglutinin towards Neu5Acα(2-3)Gal: a study by in silico mutations and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Ponnusamy; Murugan, Veeramani; Selvin, Jeyasigamani F A; Gromiha, M Michael; Fukui, Kazuhiko; Veluraja, Kasinadar

    2014-08-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant lectin, which specifically recognizes the sugars NeuNAc and GlcNAc. Mutated WGA with enhanced binding specificity can be used as biomarkers for cancer. In silico mutations are performed at the active site of WGA to enhance the binding specificity towards sialylglycans, and molecular dynamics simulations of 20 ns are carried out for wild type and mutated WGAs (WGA1, WGA2, and WGA3) in complex with sialylgalactose to examine the change in binding specificity. MD simulations reveal the change in binding specificity of wild type and mutated WGAs towards sialylgalactose and bound conformational flexibility of sialylgalactose. The mutated polar amino acid residues Asn114 (S114N), Lys118 (G118K), and Arg118 (G118R) make direct and water mediated hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with sialylgalactose. An analysis of possible hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, total pair wise interaction energy between active site residues and sialylgalactose and MM-PBSA free energy calculation reveals the plausible binding modes and the role of water in stabilizing different binding modes. An interesting observation is that the binding specificity of mutated WGAs (cyborg lectin) towards sialylgalactose is found to be higher in double point mutation (WGA3). One of the substituted residues Arg118 plays a crucial role in sugar binding. Based on the interactions and energy calculations, it is concluded that the order of binding specificity of WGAs towards sialylgalactose is WGA3 > WGA1 > WGA2 > WGA. On comparing with the wild type, double point mutated WGA (WGA3) exhibits increased specificity towards sialylgalactose, and thus, it can be effectively used in targeted drug delivery and as biological cell marker in cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. LecRK-V, an L-type lectin receptor kinase in Haynaldia villosa, plays positive role in resistance to wheat powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongkuan; Cheng, Jiangyue; Fan, Anqi; Zhao, Jia; Yu, Zhongyu; Li, Yingbo; Zhang, Heng; Xiao, Jin; Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Wang, Xiue

    2018-01-01

    Plant sense potential microbial pathogen using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor-like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment. Its transcript level was higher in the leaves than in roots, culms, spikes and callus. Single-cell transient overexpression of LecRK-V led to decreased haustorium index in wheat variety Yangmai158, which is powdery mildew susceptible. Stable transformation LecRK-V into Yangmai158 significantly enhanced the powdery mildew resistance at both seedling and adult stages. At seedling stage, the transgenic line was highly resistance to 18 of the tested 23 Bgt isolates, hypersensitive responses (HR) were observed for 22 Bgt isolates, and more ROS at the Bgt infection sites was accumulated. These indicated that LecRK-V confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew, and ROS and SA pathways contribute to the enhanced powdery mildew resistance in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Wheat germ oil enrichment in broiler feed with α-lipoic acid to enhance the antioxidant potential and lipid stability of meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid peroxidation is the cause of declining the meat quality. Natural antioxidants plays a vital role in enhancing the stability and quality of meat. The supplementation of natural antioxidants in feed decreases lipid peroxidation and improves the stability of meat. Methods The present research was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidants, quality and lipid stability of broiler meat. One day old male broilers were fed with different feeds containing antioxidants i.e. natural (wheat germ oil) and synthetic α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid during the two experimental years. Results The feed treatments have significant variation on the body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) while having no influence on the feed intake. The broilers fed on wheat germ oil (natural α-tocopherol) gained maximum body weight (2451.97 g & 2466.07 g) in the experimental years 2010–11 & 2011–12, respectively. The higher total phenolic contents were found in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast (162.73±4.8 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 162.18±4.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and leg (149.67±3.3 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 146.07±3.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) meat during both experimental years. Similar trend was observed for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The production of malondialdehydes in the breast and leg meat increased with progressive increase in the time period. The deposition of α-tocopherol (AT) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) contents were found to be higher in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast and leg meat during the both experimental years. Conclusion In conclusion, the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid has more beneficial for stability and the quality of the broiler meat and more work should be needed in future for the bio

  14. Lectin typing of Campylobacter jejuni using a novel quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Maria E., E-mail: maria.yakovleva@gmail.com [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Moran, Anthony P. [Department of Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Safina, Gulnara R. [Department of Analytical and Marine Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wadstroem, Torkel [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Danielsson, Bengt [Acromed Invest AB, Magistratsvaegen 10, 226 43 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-23

    Seven Campylobacter jejuni strains were characterised by a lectin typing assay. The typing system was based on a quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) with four commercially available lectins (wheat germ agglutinin, Maackia amurensis lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, and Concanavalin A), which were chosen for their differing carbohydrate specificities. Initially, the gold surfaces of the quartz crystals were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid followed by lectin immobilisation using a conventional amine-coupling technique. Bacterial cells were applied for lectin typing without preliminary treatment, and resonant frequency and dissipation responses were recorded. The adhesion of microorganisms on lectin surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Scanning was performed in the tapping mode and the presence of bacteria on lectin-coated surfaces was successfully demonstrated. A significant difference in the dissipation response was observed for different C. jejuni strains which made it possible to use this parameter for discriminating between bacterial strains. In summary, the QCM technique proved a powerful tool for the recognition and discrimination of C. jejuni strains. The approach may also prove applicable to strain discrimination of other bacterial species, particularly pathogens.

  15. Lectin typing of Campylobacter jejuni using a novel quartz crystal microbalance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, Maria E.; Moran, Anthony P.; Safina, Gulnara R.; Wadstroem, Torkel; Danielsson, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Seven Campylobacter jejuni strains were characterised by a lectin typing assay. The typing system was based on a quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) with four commercially available lectins (wheat germ agglutinin, Maackia amurensis lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, and Concanavalin A), which were chosen for their differing carbohydrate specificities. Initially, the gold surfaces of the quartz crystals were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid followed by lectin immobilisation using a conventional amine-coupling technique. Bacterial cells were applied for lectin typing without preliminary treatment, and resonant frequency and dissipation responses were recorded. The adhesion of microorganisms on lectin surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Scanning was performed in the tapping mode and the presence of bacteria on lectin-coated surfaces was successfully demonstrated. A significant difference in the dissipation response was observed for different C. jejuni strains which made it possible to use this parameter for discriminating between bacterial strains. In summary, the QCM technique proved a powerful tool for the recognition and discrimination of C. jejuni strains. The approach may also prove applicable to strain discrimination of other bacterial species, particularly pathogens.

  16. Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation studied by binding of lectins differing in sugar specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, T; Takeuchi, M; Sugino, Y

    1975-10-01

    Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation were studied by examining changes in the binding of various lectins differing in carbohydrate specificities. Binding of lectins was assayed directly using cells grown in coverslips. The following 125I-lectins were used: Concanavalin-A (specific for glucose and mannose), wheat germ agglutinin (specific for N-acetylglucosamine), castor bean agglutinin (specific for galactose), Wistaria floribunda agglutinin (specific for N-acetylgalactosamine), and soybean agglutinin (specific for N-acetyl-galactosamine). Cells for a clone, SS7, transformed by bovine adenovirus type-3, were found to bind 5 to 6 times more Wistaria floribunda agglutinin than the normal counterpart cells (clone C31, from C3H mouse kidney). In contrast, the binding of soybean agglutinin, which has a sugar specificity similar to Wistaria floribunda agglutinin, to normal and transformed cells was similar. The binding of wheat germ agglutinin and castor bean agglutinin, respectively, to normal and transformed cells was also similar. However, normal cells bound twice as much concanavalin-A as transformed cells. Only half as much Wistaria floribunda agglutinin was bound to transformed cells when they had been dispersed with EDTA. These changes in the number of lectin binding sites on transformation are thought to reflect alteration of the cell surface structure. The amount of lectins bound per cell decreased with increase in cell density, especially in the case of binding of Wistaria floribunda agglutinin to normal cells.

  17. Аrg-Х Proteo-Processing as Model System for Organization of Karyogenomics Interphase Chromatin of Mature Germs of Wheats, Formed in the Conditions of Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ivanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available First experimental data on the epigenetics mechanisms of karyogenomics interphase chromatin of hexaploidy wheat are driven to terminologies of karyogenomics and epibiochemistry. The zones of localization of Arg-X of proteo-processing are educed in nonhistones and core histones, topological associated domens, in the cellular nuclear of mesocotyle of vegetative period of growth morphogeny of mature germs of wheat adapted to cold stress. These data will be useful for those who involved in the development of mathematical logic schemes of the theory and practice of biological specificity, and it could be included in the ontology of the stages karyogenomics plant growth and development.

  18. Differential Lectin Binding Patterns Identify Distinct Heart Regions in Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Trina; May, Adam; Quinn, Joshua; Lafontant, Dominique S.; Shifatu, Olubusola; He, Wei; Gonzalez-Rosa, Juan M.; Burns, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins—wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)—in these hearts. Con A showed broad staining in the myocardium. WGA stained cardiac myocyte borders, with binding markedly stronger in the compact heart and bulbus. BS lectin, which stained giant danio coronaries, was used to measure vascular reconstruction during regeneration. However, BS lectin reacted poorly in zebrafish. RCA I stained the compact heart of both fish. Tomato lectin stained the giant danio, and while low reactivity was seen in the zebrafish ventricle, staining was observed in their transitional cardiac myocytes. In addition, we observed unique staining patterns in the developing zebrafish heart. Lectins’ ability to reveal differential glycoconjugate expression in giant danio and zebrafish hearts suggests they can serve as simple but important tools in studies of developing, adult, and regenerating fish hearts. PMID:27680670

  19. [STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF WHEAT GERM CAKE OIL AND FLOUR ON INDICES OF ENERGY EXCHANGE IN STUDENTS AND TEACHERS OF HIGH SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaulenko, I E; Rodionova, N S; Popov, E S; Melikhova, E P; Khatuaev, R O

    2015-01-01

    There were obtained data which confirm the increase of efficiency of gas exchange processes in students and teachers of the engineering high school in the daily use of at least 3.5 g of wheat germ oil and 50 g of wheat germ cake flour without the correction of the basic ration. The study of the exhaled gas-air mixture showed in all age groups the gain in the concentration of carbon dioxide and the decline of concentration of oxygen by the 0.20-0.30%. There was established the increase of blood oxygenation level in all subjects. There was demonstrated the relationship between the depth of the alteration of these parameters with age, and regular physical activity in studied cases.

  20. The typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a lectin-binding assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Hansen, J E; Rosdahl, V T

    1992-01-01

    A new typing method for Staphylococcus epidermidis was developed. Four biotinylated lectins--wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soy bean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA) and Concanavalin A (ConA)--were added to immobilised whole cells of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in microtitration...... plates. The amount of bound lectin was measured by peroxidase-conjugated avidin followed by a peroxidase reaction. The method was compared to antibiotic-resistance analysis, phage typing, plasmid DNA profiles and slime production. A total of 113 isolates of CNS from 21 patients was investigated and 71...... strains of CNS, including 64 strains of S. epidermidis, were detected if all typing methods were taken into consideration. If only one typing method was used the highest discriminatory power among the S. epidermidis isolates was obtained with the lectin-binding assay which allowed 49 different strains...

  1. Lysosomal processing of sialoglycoconjugates in a wheat germ agglutinin resistant variant of EL4 murine leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devino, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic studies were undertaken in EL4 murine leukemia in WB6, a wheat germ agglutinin-resistant variant of EL4, in order to identify any differences in lysosomal processing of sialoglyco-conjugates. Five lysosomal acid hydrolases, acetylesterase, acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase, and neuraminidase, were studied using fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates. No significant differences were found in the total activity of any of these enzymes in EL4 and WB6. Cells were incubated in the presence of N-acetylmannosamine, the metabolic precursor of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid). Free sialic acid accumulated in the lysosomes of WB6 but not of EL4. The accumulation of lysosomal free sialic acid in WB6 showed a dependence on the concentration of N-acetylmannosamine in the growth medium. Metabolic labelling with [6- 3 H]-N-acetylmannosamine showed that WB6 accumulated lysosomal free sialic acid even at very low concentrations of N-acetylmannosamine. The two cell lines differed in their distribution of radiolabelled neutral sugars, free sialic acid, and sialoglycoproteins. The velocity of 3 H-sialic acid release was 3.7-fold lower in WB6 than in EL4, suggesting that WB6 has a defect in lysosomal sialic acid transport. The metabolic consequences of this defect are examined, in light of other biochemical and immunological data on these cells

  2. The distribution of lectin receptor sites in human breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutelsky, E; Hoenig, S; Griffel, B; Alroy, J

    1988-08-01

    Conflicting data regarding the status of A, B, H and T antigens in epithelium of normal, mastopathies, fibroadenomas and carcinomas of the breast stimulated us to re-examine the carbohydrate residues in these condition. Currently, we extended the number of carbohydrate residues studied by using ten different biotinylated lectins as probes and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) as a visualant. In addition, the pattern of lectin staining of cancerous cells in primary and metastatic sites was compared. In primary and metastatic breast carcinomas, lectin receptor sites were stained more intensely with Concanavalia ensiformi agglutinin (*Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), than in normal breast, in mastopathies or in fibroadenomas. Cryptic receptor sites for peanut agglutinin (PNA) were stained in all cases of breast carcinomas, while free PNA sites stained only in a few cases of well-differentiated carcinomas. Receptors sites for Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) stained non-malignant epithelium of patients with blood group H but did not stain malignant cells. The results show significant differences in lectin-binding patterns and staining intensities between normal and non-malignant, and malignant epithelial breast cells. Furthermore, these results indicate that in malignant cells, there is an increased content of sialic acid-rich carbohydrates but not of asialylated glycoconjugates.

  3. Mucosal immunogenicity of plant lectins in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O’Hagan, D T

    2000-01-01

    The mucosal immunogenicity of a number of plant lectins with different sugar specificities was investigated in mice. Following intranasal (i.n.) or oral administration, the systemic and mucosal antibody responses elicited were compared with those induced by a potent mucosal immunogen (cholera toxin; CT) and a poorly immunogenic protein (ovalbumin; OVA). After three oral or i.n. doses of CT, high levels of specific serum antibodies were measured and specific IgA was detected in the serum, saliva, vaginal wash, nasal wash and gut wash of mice. Immunization with OVA elicited low titres of serum IgG but specific IgA was not detected in mucosal secretions. Both oral and i.n. delivery of all five plant lectins investigated [Viscum album (mistletoe lectin 1; ML‐1), Lycospersicum esculentum (tomato lectin; LEA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus I (UEA‐1)] stimulated the production of specific serum IgG and IgA antibody after three i.n. or oral doses. Immunization with ML‐1 induced high titres of serum IgG and IgA in addition to specific IgA in mucosal secretions. The response to orally delivered ML‐1 was comparable to that induced by CT, although a 10‐fold higher dose was administered. Immunization with LEA also induced high titres of serum IgG, particularly after i.n. delivery. Low specific IgA titres were also detected to LEA in mucosal secretions. Responses to PHA, WGA and UEA‐1 were measured at a relatively low level in the serum, and little or no specific mucosal IgA was detected. PMID:10651938

  4. The effectiveness of fermented wheat germ extract as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeend, Tracey; Robinson, Kai; Lockwood, Craig; McArthur, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    of cancer is such that it is common for individuals to have a friend or close relation who has suffered from, been treated for or has lost their life to cancer. When faced with mortality, many patients experience deep uncertainty and, despite the substantive improvements in survival time and improved prognosis associated with cancer diagnosis and treatment, many will seek additional therapies to support their treatment journey. Common alternate pathways for cancer patients include natural and traditional systems of medicine. These include: Nutrition, Herbal Medicine, Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture, Ayurveda and Homoeopathy. The journey of accesing such modalities is a personal one, rarely supported by conventional treatment regimes or health services. Whilst many of these adjunctive therapies have been used for hundreds, even thousands of years, most lack quality, researched evidence.Since the early 1990's, international attention has accelerated in the investigation and use of a fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) called Avemar. It was noted by Dr Abert Szent-Gyorgyi that the fermented wheat germ product had positive effects in preventing cancer cells from growing. It took another five decades for the properties of the nutritional preparation to be further investigated and implemented as a therapy for cancer sufferers. Avemar is the only patented fermented wheatgerm extract, made from a common, sustainable, biological food source and the availability of the patented extract is increasing. The fermented wheat germ extract has also been referred to as MSC by some scientists. Research programs related to Avemar have focused on aspects of safety and cellular mechanism of action. To date, research and testing with Avemar has been predominantly conducted with animals or in the laboratory on human cell lines. Some highlighted properties of Avemar that have been identified in this research is that it: 1) promotes apoptosis of cancer cells whilst leaving normal cells unharmed

  5. Efficacy of wheat germ oil in alleviating certain disorders induced by aspirin administration and/or Γ-irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, induces during pregnancy high incidence of developmental anomalies in pregnant rats when given on specific days during stage of organogenesis. Accordingly, this study was performed to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of wheat germ oil on the effect of aspirin administration and/or radiation induced maternal and foetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered aspirin from the gestational day (GD), 6 to (GD) 17 at a dose of 250 mg kg/day body wt and exposed to whole body γ-irradiation at dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on GD 9,10,11 and 12 days from pregnancy. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as estimation of alkaline phosphatase and total proteins content in tissues of liver and placenta was used as sensitive parameters of choice to evaluate tissue damage. Radiation exposure and aspirin administration induced marked elevation in lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde), alkaline phosphatase, accompanied by decline in total protein content in placenta and liver tissues. In addition, miscellaneous malformations including anopthalmia, microtia, excencephaly, diminution of size or kypophysis were designated. The results showed that supplementation of pregnant female rats with wheat germ oil were able to reduce the high levels of malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase. Total protein content returned once more to its normal pattern. Also, reduction of severe deleterious symptoms of radiation and aspirin administration inducing i foetal mortality were reduced. Wheat germ oil showed to increase growth in surviving foetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities as well as biochemical, histochemical and embryological disorders

  6. Efficient production and purification of functional bacteriorhodopsin with a wheat-germ cell-free system and a combination of Fos-choline and CHAPS detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genji, Takahisa; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2010-10-01

    Cell-free translation is one potential approach to the production of functional transmembrane proteins. We have now examined various detergents as supplements to a wheat-germ cell-free system in order to optimize the production and subsequent purification of a functional model transmembrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin. We found that Fos-choline and CHAPS detergents counteracted each other's inhibitory effects on cell-free translation activity and thereby allowed the efficient production and subsequent purification of functional bacteriorhodopsin in high yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lectin binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudiger, H.; Gebauer, G.; Gansera, R.; Schurz, H.; Schimpl, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lectins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, many of them being well characterized in their chemical structure and the effects they have on alien biological systems such as erythrocytes or lymphocytes. The biological function of plant lectins remains speculative. We therefore inspected plant extracts from components which might bind specifically to the lectin from the respective plant. Single proteins (lectin binders) could be isolated from each plant extract. The interaction of these proteins with lectins was demonstrated and qualified by several methods. Similar to the lectins, the lectin binders are localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to them, however, they persist during germination and plant growth. Their precise role in the plant is not known, but they are likely to be associated with lectins not only in vitro but also in vivo. They also interact with alien cells, and are able to stimulate mitosis in murine lymphocytes. Some lectin binders act specifically on B lymphocytes, leaving T cells uninfluenced

  8. Rescuing apoptotic neurons in Alzheimer’s disease using wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated and cardiolipin-conjugated liposomes with encapsulated nerve growth factor and curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo YC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yung-Chih Kuo, Ching-Chun Lin Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Liposomes with cardiolipin (CL and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA were developed to permeate the blood–brain barrier and treat Alzheimer’s disease. WGA-conjugated and CL-incorporated liposomes (WGA-CL-liposomes were used to transport nerve growth factor (NGF and curcumin (CUR across a monolayer of human brain-microvascular endothelial cells regulated by human astrocytes and to protect SK-N-MC cells against apoptosis induced by ß-amyloid1–42 (Aß1–42 fibrils. An increase in the CL mole percentage in lipids increased the liposomal diameter, absolute zeta potential value, entrapment efficiency of NGF and CUR, release of NGF, biocompatibility, and viability of SK-N-MC cells with Aß1–42, but decreased the atomic ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus and release of CUR. In addition, an increase in the WGA concentration for grafting enhanced the liposomal diameter, atomic ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus, and permeability of NGF and CUR across the blood–brain barrier, but reduced the absolute zeta potential value and biocompatibility. WGA-CL-liposomes carrying NGF and CUR could be promising colloidal delivery carriers for future clinical application in targeting the blood–brain barrier and inhibiting neurotoxicity. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, nerve growth factor, curcumin, wheat germ agglutinin, cardiolipin, liposome

  9. [Separation of osteoclasts by lectin affinity chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokazu, M; Tan, A; Tanaka, S

    1991-09-01

    Newborn rat calvaria bone cells obtained by digestion were fractionated on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) sepharose 6MB for osteoclast isolation. The initial nonspecific binding cells which were passed through the WGA sepharose column by a buffer acquired a high enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, but not that of acid phosphatase. However, elution of cells using a buffer with the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in a high acid phosphatase activity but no alkaline phosphatase activity. The former WGA binding negative fraction enriched osteoblasts averaging 30 microns in size. The latter WGA binding positive fraction enriched osteoclasts ranging from 20 microns to 60 microns in size. The electron-microscope clearly demonstrated the cellular details of osteoclasts. Isolated cell counts showed a ratio of six to four. These results indicate that our method of osteoclast isolation is simple and useful in lectin affinity chromatography because all cells have sugar moieties on their surface and the binding of osteoclasts can be reversed by the addition of specific lectin-binding sugars to the eluting buffer.

  10. Effect of Chum Salmon Egg Lectin on Tight Junctions in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Nemoto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a chum salmon egg lectin (CSL3 on tight junction (TJ of Caco-2 cell monolayers was investigated. The lectin opened TJ as indicated by the decrease of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER value and the increase of the permeation of lucifer yellow, which is transported via the TJ-mediated paracellular pathway. The effects of CSL3 were inhibited by the addition of 10 mM L-rhamnose or D-galactose which were specific sugars for CSL3. The lectin increased the intracellular Ca2+ of Caco-2 cell monolayers, that could be inhibited by the addition of L-rhamnose. The fluorescence immunostaining of β-actin in Caco-2 cell monolayers revealed that the cytoskeleton was changed by the CSL3 treatment, suggesting that CSL3 depolymerized β-actin to cause reversible TJ structural and functional disruption. Although Japanese jack bean lectin and wheat germ lectin showed similar effects in the decrease of the TER values and the increase of the intracellular Ca2+, they could not be inhibited by the same concentrations of simple sugars, such as D-glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

  11. Lectin immunohistochemical evaluation of human bladder carcinomas. A comparison of Carnoy's and formalin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, T; Ueda, K; Ohtaguro, K; Inoue, K; Washida, H; Mori, M; Tatemoto, Y; Fukushima, S

    1993-10-01

    A lectin immunohistochemical analysis of 51 human bladder carcinomas, including 44 cases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (G1, 15 cases; G2, 17 cases; G3, 12 cases) and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), was performed. Tissues were obtained by cold punch biopsies, fixed in Carnoy's or 10% formalin solution, stained for binding of 10 different lectins, and evaluated under the light microscope. The lectins used were concanavalin agglutinin (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA), Dolichos biflorusa agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, II (UEA-I, II), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PEA). TCC prepared with Carnoy's fixation tended to show moderately positive Con A, UEA-I, and WGA reactions for G1, and strongly positive reactions for G2 and G3 lesions. UEA-II was mainly negative in G1, but tended to increase to become moderate in G3. DBA tended to show a moderately positive reaction in G1 and G2, but was mainly negative in G3. With formalin fixation, only RCA1 demonstrated grade specific variation, tendency to react moderately in the G1 and G2 cases, and strongly in G3. There were no further differences among the histopathological grades of TCC for other lectins. Thus, Carnoy's fixation appears superior for distinguishing between grades of lesions. SCC tended to react more strongly than TCC with all the various lectins except PEA, independent of fixation.

  12. Differing lectin-binding patterns of malignant melanoma and nevocellular and Spitz nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohchiyama, A; Oka, D; Ueki, H

    1987-01-01

    The lectin-binding patterns of primary malignant melanoma, nevocellular nevus, and Spitz nevus were studied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using a series of biotinylated lectins--concanavalin A (ConA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA1), dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Ulex europeus agglutinin-1(UEA1)--and employing the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. In nevocellular and Spitz nevi, all of the nevus cells were positively stained with ConA and RCA1. No positive staining was observed, however, with the other lectins and no change in binding patterns occurred following neuraminidase pretreatment. In malignant melanoma, all of the melanoma cells were positively stained with ConA and RCA1, and some were also stained with MPA, PNA, and WGA. In addition, DBA, SBA, MPA, PNA, and WGA labeled all of the melanoma cells after neuraminidase pretreatment. No positive staining was observed with UEA1 despite neuraminidase pretreatment. The present results showed that malignant melanoma and nevocellular and Spitz nevi have different lectin-binding patterns and different responses to neuraminidase pretreatment. We, therefore, believe that the lectin staining on paraffin-embedded sections can be a useful probe for the differentiation of these diseases.

  13. Endochitinase from wheat germ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabib, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the chitinase that can be assayed by the liberation of tritiated oligosaccharides from [acetyl- 3 H]chitin, 3 with phosphate buffer at pH 6, final concentration in the reaction mixture, 0.05 M

  14. Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, J

    1976-12-01

    Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle. (Localizabión de receptores para lectinas durante el ciclo celular). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 100-104, 1976. The topographic distribution of specific cell surface receptors for concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin was studied by ultrastructural labeling in the course of the cell cycle. C12TSV5 cells were synchronized by double thymidine block or mechanical selection (shakeoff). They were labeled by means of lectin-peroxidase techniques while in G1 S, G2 and M phases of the cycle. The results obtained were similar for both lectins employed. Interphase cells (G1 S, G2) present a stlihtly discontinous labeling pattern that is similar to the one observed on unsynchronized cells of the same line. Cells in mitosis, on the contrary, present a highly discontinous distribution of reaction product. This pattern disappears after the cells enters G1 and is not present on mitotic cells fixed in aldehyde prior to labeling.

  15. Artificial neural network - Genetic algorithm to optimize wheat germ fermentation condition: Application to the production of two anti-tumor benzoquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zi-Yi; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-07-15

    Methoxy-ρ-benzoquinone (MBQ) and 2, 6-dimethoxy-ρ-benzoquinone (DMBQ) are two potential anticancer compounds in fermented wheat germ. In present study, modeling and optimization of added macronutrients, microelements, vitamins for producing MBQ and DMBQ was investigated using artificial neural network (ANN) combined with genetic algorithm (GA). A configuration of 16-11-1 ANN model with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm was applied for modeling the complicated nonlinear interactions among 16 nutrients in fermentation process. Under the guidance of optimized scheme, the total contents of MBQ and DMBQ was improved by 117% compared with that in the control group. Further, by evaluating the relative importance of each nutrient in terms of the two benzoquinones' yield, macronutrients and microelements were found to have a greater influence than most of vitamins. It was also observed that a number of interactions between nutrients affected the yield of MBQ and DMBQ remarkably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wheat germ cell-free expression: Two detergents with a low critical micelle concentration allow for production of soluble HCV membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogeron, Marie-Laure; Badillo, Aurélie; Jirasko, Vlastimil; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Paul, David; Lancien, Loick; Moradpour, Darius; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Meier, Beat H; Penin, François; Böckmann, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to express in a soluble form. Here, we use wheat germ cell-free expression in the presence of various detergents to produce the non-structural membrane proteins 2, 4B and 5A of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We show that lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG-3) and dodecyl octaethylene glycol ether (C12E8) detergents can yield essentially soluble membrane proteins at detergent concentrations that do not inhibit the cell-free reaction. This finding can be explained by the low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of these detergents, which keeps the monomer concentrations low while at the same time providing the necessary excess of detergent concentration above CMC required for full target protein solubilization. We estimate that a tenfold excess of detergent micelles with respect to the protein concentration is sufficient for solubilization, a number that we propose as a guideline for detergent screening assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry based on wheat germ agglutinin labeled with 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch and prediction of diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Hui; Li, Fei-Ming; Shi, Xiu-Mei; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    The 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch (abbreviated as PMS-8-QBA. Thereinto, 8-QBA is 8-quinolineboronic acid, and PMS is phosphorescent molecular switch) was found for the first time. PMS-8-QBA, which was in the "off" state, could only emit weak room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on the acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM). However, PMS-8-QBA turned "on" automatically for its changed structure, causing that the RTP of 8-QBA in the system increased, after PMS-8-QBA-WGA (WGA is wheat germ agglutinin) was formed by reaction between -OH of PMS-8-QBA and -COOH of WGA. More interesting is that the -NH 2 of PMS-8-QBA-WGA could react with the -COOH of alkaline phosphatase (AP) to form the affinity adsorption (AA) product WGA-AP-WGA-8-QBA-PMS (containing -NH-CO- bond), which caused RTP of the system to greatly increase. Thus, affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry using PMS-8-QBA as labelling reagent (PMS-8-QBA-AA-SSRTP) for the determination of trace AP was established. The method had many advantages, such as high sensitivity (the detection limit (LD) was 2.5 zg spot -1. For sample volume of 0.40 μl spot -1, corresponding concentration was 6.2 × 10 -18 g ml -1), good selectivity (the allowed concentration of coexisting material was higher, when the relative error was ±5%), high accuracy (applied to detection of AP content in serum samples, the result was coincided with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay), which was suitable for the detection of trace AP content in serum samples and the forecast of human diseases. Meanwhile, the mechanism of PMS-8-QBA-AASSRTP was discussed. The new field of analytical application and clinic diagnosis technique of molecule switch are exploited, based on the phosphorescence characteristic of PMS-8-QBA, the AA reaction between WGA and AP, as well as the relation between AP content and human diseases. The research results promote the development and interpenetrate among molecule

  18. Effects of plant lectins on in vitro fibroblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been isolated from various sources and presented a wide spectrum of biological activities. The effects of four lectins, namely, Phaseolus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin, PHA, wheat germ agglutinin, WGA, Artocarpus integrifolia seed lectins, jacalin and artocarpin, on in vitro fibroblasts proliferation were investigated. The lectins did not influence the initial cell adhesion to the plate. PHA and WGA at 10-20 µg/mL concentrations significantly decreased fibroblasts proliferation. At these concentrations, they caused morphological alterations on cells and over 80 µg/mL, promoted cell death. Neither jacalin nor artocarpin significantly affected cell proliferation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das lectinas PHA, WGA, jacalina e artocarpina sobre a proliferação de fibroblastos in vitro. Para tanto, fibroblastos gengivais de voluntários saudáveis foram cultivados, por cinco dias, em DMEM suplementado com soro bovino fetal (10% v/v e na presença das lectinas nas concentrações finais de 0.1 a 300 µg/mL. A adesão, o crescimento e a morfologia celular foram acompanhados por microscopia de inversão e contraste de fase. O índice de proliferação foi avaliado pelo método calorimétrico usando MTT. As lectinas não alteraram a adesão inicial dos fibroblastos à placa de poliestireno. PHA e WGA, nas concentrações de 10 a 20 µg/mL, diminuíram significativamente a proliferação celular. Nestas concentrações a morfologia celular é alterada e acima de 80 µg/mL, houve100% de morte celular. As lectinas jacalina e artocarpina não influenciaram a proliferação celular.

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2004-01-01

    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.

  20. Herbal infusions of black seed and wheat germ oil: Their chemical profiles, in vitro bio-investigations and effective formulations as Phyto-Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Z Pinar; Guler, Emine; Demir, Bilal; Barlas, F Baris; Yavuz, Murat; Colpankan, Dilara; Senisik, A Murat; Teksoz, Serap; Unak, Perihan; Coskunol, Hakan; Timur, Suna

    2015-09-01

    The reported studies related to black seed oil (BSO) and wheat germ oil (WGO) have illustrated that they have a wide range of biological activities. Therefore, enhancing the amount of bio-active compounds that caused higher cell based anti-oxidative effect as well as cell proliferation, etc. in seed oils, infusion of crude plant material has been gained importance as a traditional technique. Herein, we accomplished the infusion of Calendula flowers that also contains many phyto-constituents into BSO and WGO. After the infusion of oils, the change of phytochemical amount was investigated and evaluated according to the oils by chromatography, radical scavenging activity. Subsequently, for investigating the biological impact upon live cells, cytotoxicity, cell-based antioxidant capacity, wound healing and radioprotective activity were tested with monkey kidney fibroblast like cells (Vero) and HaCaT keratinocytes. In vitro cell based experiments (wound healing and radioprotective activity) confirmed that Calendula infused BSO and WGO have greater bio-activity when compared to those plain forms. The herbal oils prepared with an effective extraction technique were incorporated into nanoemulsion systems which will be then called as 'Phyto-Nanoemulsion'. After herbal oil biomolecules were encapsulated into nanoemulsion based delivery systems, the designed formulations were investigated in terms of biological activities. In conclusion, these preparations could be a good candidate as a part of dermal cosmetic products or food supplements which have the therapeutic efficiency, especially after radio- or chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Cell Wall Using Lectins: Study of the Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella de Brito Ximenes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated for 2 days at 30 °C with shaking. Cells were obtained by centrifugation, washed in phosphate-buffered saline, and a suspension of 107 cells/mL was obtained. To determine the binding profile of lectins, concanavalin A (Con A, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, and peanut agglutinin (PNA conjugated to fluorescein were used. All the tested clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were intensely stained by WGA, moderately stained by Con A, and weakly stained by PNA and UEA-I. Thus, Cryptococcus can be detected in clinical specimens such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid using the fluorescent lectin WGA, which may be considered as an option for detection in cases of suspected cryptococcosis with low laboratory sensitivity. Future applications may be developed using this basic tool.

  2. Identification of structural and secretory lectin-binding glycoproteins of normal and cancerous human prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, P M; Cooper, J F; Learn, D B; Olson, C V

    1984-12-07

    We have utilized the technique of lectin-loading of SDS gels with iodinated concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin to identify glycoproteins in prostatic and seminal fluids as well as in prostate tissue fractions. The following subunits which bound both lectins were detected: (a) 50, 43 and 38 kDa subunits common to prostatic and seminal fluids, and an additional 55 kDa subunit which predominates only in prostatic fluid; (b) 78, 55, 50 and 43 kDa subunits in prostatic tissue cytosol and (c) 195, 170, 135, 116 and 95 kDa subunits present in the particulate fractions of prostatic tissue. Immunoblotting using specific rabbit antibodies revealed the 50 kDa band to be prostatic acid phosphatase and the 38 kDa band to be prostate-specific antigen. Interestingly, antibodies directed toward prostatic acid phosphatase were found to cross-react with the 43 kDa band. Fractionation on sucrose gradients showed that several of these particulate glycoproteins were associated with a vesicle fraction enriched in adenylate cyclase activity, implying that they are plasma membrane glycoproteins. Comparison of soluble and particulate fractions of normal and cancerous tissue homogenates was made by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms of lectin-loaded gels. Similar relative intensities of lectin-binding were obtained for corresponding proteins in normal and cancerous tissue fractions. Also, immunoblotting showed no differences in prostatic acid phosphatase or prostate-specific antigen between normal and cancerous soluble homogenate fractions. Our results suggest that major lectin-binding proteins are conserved in the transition from normal to cancerous tissue. These results may be useful in developing a multiple-marker profile of metastatic prostate cancer and for the design of imaging agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, to prominent soluble and particulate prostate glycoproteins.

  3. Protective effects of a wheat germ rich diet against the toxic influence of profenofos on rat tissue lipids and oxidative pentose phosphate shunt enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahim, G. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of technical and formulated forms of profenofos on the metabolic lipid fractions of the liver, brain and kidneys as well as the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD, which consider lipid related enzymes, were studied. The two forms of profenofos were given separately either orally or by dermal at doses of 1/20 LD50 for 3 months (one dose every 48 h. Total lipids and lipid fractions (cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipid contents decreased in the three studied organ tissues either in technical or formulated profenofos-induced rats compared with normal control animals. The highest effect was observed in the case of orally formulated profenofo induction, and the lowest was detected for the dermal technical one. The same trend was found in the activities of G6PD and 6PGD associated with lipid metabolism in the liver, brain and kidney tissues under the same conditions. On other hand, the treatment of profenofos-induced animals by feeding a wheat germ rich diet (as antioxidant agent produced significant improvements in both lipid fraction content and enzyme activity. In addition, the effects of the wheat germ rich diet (α-tocopherol rich source readjusted and improved the disturbed metabolic fractions of the lipid profiles in the profenofos-induced rats as well as their related enzyme activities (G6PD and 6PGD: oxidative pentose phosphate shunt.

    El efecto de formas técnicas o formuladas de profenofós en la fracción lipídica metabólica de hígado, cerebro y riñones así como la actividad de la glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (G6PD y 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6PGD, que son consideradas enzimas relacionadas con los lípidos, fueron estudiadas. Ambas formas de profenofós fueron suministradas separadamente tanto por vía oral como cutánea a una dosis de 1/20 LD50 durante 3 meses (una dosis cada 48 horas. Los lípidos totales y

  4. Lectin histochemistry and alkaline phosphatase activity in the pia mater vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumańska, G; Gadamski, R

    1992-01-01

    Some lectins were used to study the localization of sugar residues on the endothelial cell surface in the pia mater blood vessels of control (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR). The lectins tested recognized the following residues: beta-D-galactosyl (Ricinus communis agglutinin 120, RCA-1), alpha-L-fucosyl (Ulex europaeus agglutinin, UEA-1), N-acetylglucosaminyl and sialyl (Wheat germ agglutinin, WGA), N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Limax flavus agglutinin, LFA), and N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl (Helix pomatia agglutinin, HPA). Several differences were revealed in the presence of sugar receptors on the surface of endothelial cells between the control and the hypertensive rats. Our studies showed also differences in the localization of the tested glycoconjugates between pial capillaries, small, medium-size and large pial arteries. The histochemical evaluation of alkaline phosphatase revealed an increased activity of the enzyme in the pial vessels of SHRs as compared with control rats with a similar localization of the enzyme activity. Some differences in the distribution of lectin binding sites and alkaline phosphatase activity could be associated with the different functions of particular segments of the pial vascular network.

  5. Effects of multi-frequency ultrasound pretreatment under low power density on the enzymolysis and the structure characterization of defatted wheat germ protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Yunliang; Li, Suyun; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Wang, Yucheng; Huang, Shanfen; Zhou, Cunshan; Wang, Yang; Mao, Li; Zhang, Yanyan; Ma, Haile; Ye, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    The effects of ultrasonic frequency mode, power density, pretreatment time and other parameters under low power density on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of defatted wheat germ protein (DWGP) and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of DWGP hydrolysate were studied in this research. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra, free sulfhydryl (SH), disulfide bond (SS), surface hydrophobicity and hydrophobic protein content of ultrasound-pretreated protein and hydrophobic amino acid (HAA) content of alcalase-hydrolysate of DWGP were measured under optimized ultrasonic condition. The ultrasonic frequency mode with dual-fixed frequency combination of 28/40kHz showed higher ACE inhibitory activity of DWGP hydrolysate compared with that of other ultrasound frequency modes and all the ultrasonic frequency combinations involving in 28kHz showed higher ACE inhibitory activity. Under the dual-fixed frequency ultrasound mode of 28/40kHz, ultrasonic power density of 60W/L, pretreatment time of 70min, temperature of 60°C and substrate concentration of 60g/L, the ACE inhibitory activity of DWGP hydrolysate was the highest with its value of 74.75% (increased by 62.30% compared to control). However, all the ultrasonic pretreatment did not increase the DH of DWGP significantly (p>0.05). The changes in UV-Vis spectra, SH and SS groups, surface hydrophobicity and hydrophobic protein content indicated that the structure of DWGP unfolded after ultrasound pretreatment. The HAA content of hydrolysate from the pretreated DWGP increased significantly (p<0.05). The results proved that ultrasound pretreatment loosed the protein structure and exposed more HAA residues of protein to be attacked easily by alcalase. This resulted in the increase in the HAA content which related to the ACE inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective role of wheat germ oil against certain functional and structural disorders produced by repeated aspirin administration and/or gamma irradiation during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.N.; Ramadan, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The biggest problem remains its harshness on the stomach with effects ranging from nausea, heartburn to bleeding ulcer. During pregnancy, high incidence of developmental anomalies occurs in pregnant female rats given aspirin on specific days during organogenesis. Moreover, radiation exposure is considered to be a major pathogenic factor. Hence, the objective of this study is to counter these malformations in pregnant rats and their fetuses by using wheat germ oil, which is a natural vegetable oil and it is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol and linolenic, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the oxidative free radicals. Aspirin when administered to pregnant rats as multiple dosing from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 17 (250 mg/Kg/day) or whole body gamma irradiation of rats (0.5 Gy up to 2 Gy) on GDs 9, 10, 11 and 12, the maternal rat's stomach showed sloughing of the superficial parts of mucosa as well as scattered deep erosions. There were areas of necrosis and mononuclear cellular infiltration. In addition, thickened submucosal blood vessels with excess collagen fibres deposition and decreased mucus secretion were also noticed. Combined treatment revealed increased extent of mucosal damage, where erosive and atrophic changes became more obvious. In parallel, there was a significant increase in serum amylase level, while calcium level was significantly decreased. Fetal vertebrae bone and cartilage are also relatively sensitive to aspirin and / or gamma irradiation. There are reduction in the numbers of mitoses and disorderly maturation followed by the asymptomatic degeneration and necrosis of less mature elements. Bleeding was seen in the periosteum of vertebrae. Also, the trabecular of ossification were very thin and less than normal. These changes were also accompanied with decreased mucus secretion

  7. A lectin histochemical study on carbohydrate moieties of the gonadotropin-like substance in the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit of Branchiostoma belcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y. Q.; Welsch, U.

    1997-03-01

    The present light microscopic lectin, histochemical study suggests for the first time that the vertebrate gonadotropin-like substance in the basal part of the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit is a sialic acid-containing glycoprotein. The binding intensity of the epithelial cells in Hatschek's pit to 6 lectins ( Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA), Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) and Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I)) indicate that the carbohydrate composition of the gonadotrophic glycoprotein is similar to that of mammals and fish, and that N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid, glucosamine, D-mannose and L-fucose are components of the carbohydrate portion.

  8. Digoxigenylated wheat germ agglutinin visualized with alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-digoxigenin antibodies--a new, sensitive technique with the potential for single and double tracing of neuronal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veh, R W

    1991-01-02

    For double tracing experiments, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) molecules labeled with two different haptens are desirable. In the present report the suitability of digoxigenylated WGA (DIG-WGA) for retrograde tracing was investigated. For this purpose the new tracer was pressure injected into rat brains and the transported DIG-WGA visualized via its digoxigenyl group with an alkaline phosphatase linked anti DIG antibody in permanently stained sections of high quality. With fixatives containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde only few positive cells were found. However, at milder fixation conditions (4% paraformaldehyde, 0.05% glutaraldehyde 0.2% picric acid, 30 min) retrogradely labeled cells were detected with a sensitivity comparable to tetramethylbenzidine protocols for conventional WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) tracing. Preliminary experiments suggest excellent suitability for double labeling.

  9. Synthetic assembly of novel avidin-biotin-GlcNAc (ABG) complex as an attractive bio-probe and its interaction with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Amrita; Koyama, Tetsuo; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2016-10-01

    A tetravalent GlcNAc pendant glycocluster was constructed with terminal biotin through C6 linker. To acquire the multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions, we synthesized a glycopolymer of tetrameric structure using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) as the target carbohydrate by the use of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) as coupling reagent, followed by biotin-avidin complexation leading to the formation of glycocluster of avidin-biotin-GlcNAc conjugate (ABG complex). The dynamic light scattering (DLS) system was implied for size detection and to check the binding affinity of GlcNAc conjugate with a WGA lectin we use fluorometric assay by means of specific excitation of tryptophan at λex 295nm and it was found to be very high Ka∼1.39×10(7) M(-1) in case of ABG complex as compared to GlcNAc only Ka∼1.01×10(4) M(-1) with the phenomenon proven to be due to glycocluster effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of fish oil and wheat germ oil combination on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hadeer; Mostafa, Tarek M; El-Azab, Gamal A; Abd El Wahab, Ahmed M; Elshahawy, Heba; Sayed-Ahmed, Nagy Ah

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of combined supplementation of fish oil (FO) with antioxidants like wheat germ oil (WGO) on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance HD patients. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved 46 HD patients who were randomly assigned into two groups to receive daily 3000 mg of FO [1053 mg omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs)] plus 300 mg of WGO [0.765 mg vitamin E] or placebo for 4 months. Blood concentrations of hemoglobin (Hgb), white blood cells, mineral-bone parameters including serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and osteoprotegerin and serum concentrations of inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin, and uric acid were measured before and after the intervention. Eighty-seven percentage of patients in each group completed the study. The mean serum Ca levels increased significantly in the supplemented group at the end of study (p = 0.0016), and this increment was also significant as compared to placebo group (p = 0.0418). No significant alterations were observed in the other measured parameters within each group during the study (as p values were >0.05). FO plus WGO supplementation showed beneficial effect on serum Ca levels of HD patients without any statistically significant effect on other mineral-bone and inflammatory markers. Further investigations are required to confirm it.

  11. Cereal n-glycoproteins enrichment by lectin affinity monolithic chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Bobálová, Janette; Laštovičková, Markéta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2016), s. 286-297 ISSN 0133-3720 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/12/P395 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : barley * wheat * glycoprotein * mass spectrometry * lectin chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.496, year: 2016

  12. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Cyborg lectins: novel leguminous lectins with unique specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Maruyama, I N; Osawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPA) is one of the beta-galactose-binding leguminous lectins. Leguminous lectins contain a long metal-binding loop, part of which determines their carbohydrate-binding specificities. Random mutations were introduced into a portion of the cDNA coding BPA that corresponds to the carbohydrate-binding loop of the lectin. An library of the mutant lectin expressed on the surface of lambda foo phages was screened by the panning method. Several phage clones with an affinity for mannose or N-acetylglucosamine were isolated. These results indicate the possibility of making artificial lectins (so-called "cyborg lectins") with distinct and desired carbohydrate-binding specificities.

  14. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  15. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  16. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  17. Atividades biológicas das lectinas PHA, WGA, jacalina e artocarpina Biological activities of PHA, WGA, jacalin and artocarpin lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sell

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available As lectinas são (glicoproteínas que se ligam a açúcares. O interesse destas moléculas na investigação científica se deve às diversas atividades biológicas a elas atribuídas. Além da identificação de grupos sangüíneos, da caracterização de microorganismos e da estimulação mitogênica de células imunes, as lectinas estão envolvidas nos processos de reconhecimento e das interações celulares. No presente trabalho, revisamos algumas atividades biológicas das lectinas PHA (fitohemaglutinina de Phaseolus vulgaris, WGA (aglutinina de germe de trigo, jacalina e artocarpina (lectinas de Artocarpus integrifolia. PHA, jacalina e artocarpina são mitogênicas para os linfócitos, estimulam a produção de citocinas endógenas, a atração e a ativação de leucócitos. WGA é uma lectina não-mitogênica, no entanto, modula a resposta de defesa estimulando a liberação de superóxido pelos neutrófilos. O entendimento das atividades biológicas permitirá o uso destas moléculas como uma ferramenta útil no diagnóstico e tratamento de muitas doenças.Lectins are ubiquitous (glycoproteins, which exhibit a specific and reversibly carbohydrate binding activity. Because of their structural complexity and variability, they can participate in many physiological functions. Besides the blood groups identification, microorganism characterization and mitogenic immune cell proliferation, they are involved in the cell recognition and cell-cell interaction. In the present work we revised some biological activities of the PHA (Phaseolus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin, WGA (wheat germ agglutinin, jacalin and artocarpin (Artocarpus integrifolia lectins. PHA, jacalin and artocarpin may stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, attract and activate mononuclear cells and stimulate endogenous citokines production. WGA is a nonmitogenic lectin, however it may stimulate neutrophil superoxide production. The understanding of the lectin biological activities may

  18. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Lectin affinity electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    An interaction or a binding event typically changes the electrophoretic properties of a molecule. Affinity electrophoresis methods detect changes in the electrophoretic pattern of molecules (mainly macromolecules) that occur as a result of biospecific interactions or complex formation. Lectin affinity electrophoresis is a very effective method for the detection and analysis of trace amounts of glycobiological substances. It is particularly useful for isolating and separating the glycoisomers of target molecules. Here, we describe a sensitive technique for the detection of glycoproteins separated by agarose gel-lectin affinity electrophoresis that uses antibody-affinity blotting. The technique is tested using α-fetoprotein with lectin (Lens culinaris agglutinin and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin)-agarose gels.

  20. Patterns of Glycoconjugate Distribution during Molar Tooth Germ Development in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Varasteh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the structure and distribution of Glycoconjugates during molar tooth germ development in mice.Materials and Methods: Sixteen tooth germs were obtained from BALB/c mice embryos 15 to 18 days post-gestation and fixed in 10% formalin. After routine tissue processing, 5μm sections were cut and stained with BSA1-B4 and PNA using the lectin histochemical method. All slides were evaluated by light microscopy.Results: Both lectins showed positive reaction in the tooth germ but with spatiotemporal differences. During bell stage, the reaction was strong with BSA1-B4 but moderate with PNA. Strong PNA uptake was observed in the odontoblastic and ameloblastic nuclei alongwith the apical cytoplasm of the ameloblasts.Conclusion: Although the lectins that were used in the present study recognize the same terminal sugar residue, they reacted with different disaccharide sequences with various penaltomer sugars. Therefore it may be assumed that the pattern of affinity for different parts of the developing tooth germ such as ameloblasts and odontoblasts is different in various lectins.

  1. Morphometric Measurements to Quantify the Cerulein Induced Hyperstimulatory Pancreatitis of Rats under the Protective Effect of Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Jonas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In preceding papers we demonstrated an inhibitory effect of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA on the cholecystokinin (CCK binding to the CCK receptor of rat pancreatic cells and also on the CCK induced Ca2+ release and α-amylase secretion in vitro as well as on pancreatic secretion of intact rats in vivo. In the present study we show the same inhibitory effect of both lectins on the cerulein pancreatitis of rats. This acute pancreatitis was induced by supramaximal injections (5 µg/kg/h iv or 10 µg/kg/h ip of the CCK analogue cerulein in rats every hour. To monitor the degree of pancreatitis, we measured the number and diameter of injury vacuoles in the pancreatic acinar cells as one of the most important signs of this type of pancreatitis by light microscopic morphometry with two different systems on paraffin sections. Furthermore, the serum α-amylase activity was measured biochemically. We found a correlation between the diameter of vacuoles inside the acinar cells and the serum enzyme activity up to 24 h. The simultaneous ip administration of cerulein and WGA or UEA in a dosage of 125 µg/kg/h for 8 h led to a reduction of vacuolar diameter from 13.1 ± 2.0 µm (cerulein to 7.5 ± 1.1 µm (cerulein + WGA or 7.2 ± 1.3 µm (cerulein + UEA. The serum amylase activity was reduced from 63.7 ± 15.8 mmol/l \\times min (cerulein to 37.7 ± 11.8 (cerulein + WGA or 39.4; +52.9; -31.1 (cerulein + UEA-I. Both parameters allow the grading this special type of pancreatitis to demonstrate the protective effect of the lectins.

  2. Lectins from Mycelia of Basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina E. Nikitina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins of a nonimmunoglobulin nature that are capable of specific recognition of and reversible binding to the carbohydrate moieties of complex carbohydrates, without altering the covalent structure of any of the recognized glycosyl ligands. They have a broad range of biological activities important for the functioning of the cell and the whole organism and, owing to the high specificity of reversible binding to carbohydrates, are valuable tools used widely in biology and medicine. Lectins can be produced by many living organisms, including basidiomycetes. Whereas lectins from the fruit bodies of basidiomycetes have been studied sufficiently well, mycelial lectins remain relatively unexplored. Here, we review and comparatively analyze what is currently known about lectins isolated from the vegetative mycelium of macrobasidiomycetes, including their localization, properties, and carbohydrate specificities. Particular attention is given to the physiological role of mycelial lectins in fungal growth and development.

  3. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  4. An antioxidant peptide produced by autolysis reactions from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An antioxidant peptide produced by autolysis reactions from wheat germ. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... activity was purified using ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column and consecutive chromatographic methods.

  5. The lectin pathway of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie Diederich; Haugaard, Anna Karen; Garred, P

    2014-01-01

    The pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are important components of the innate immune system with known functions in host-virus interactions. This paper summarizes current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Ficolin-1, -2......-1, -2 and -3 and CL-11 could have similar functions in HIV infection as the ficolins have been shown to play a role in other viral infections, and CL-11 resembles MBL and the ficolins in structure and binding capacity.......The pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are important components of the innate immune system with known functions in host-virus interactions. This paper summarizes current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Ficolin-1, -2...

  6. Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC) 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. That is, the tumors originate in the sperm forming cells in the testicles ( ...

  7. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  9. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 84-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Foodborne Germs and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What Causes Food Poisoning? Many different disease-causing germs can contaminate ... email address: Enter Email Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button ... of Foodborne Illness in the U.S. Food Safety is a CDC Winnable Battle Foodborne Illness ...

  11. Lectins and their application to clinical microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Slifkin, M; Doyle, R J

    1990-01-01

    Lectins are generally associated with plant or animal components, selectively bind carbohydrates, and interact with procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Lectins have various specificities that are associated with their ability to interact with acetylaminocarbohydrates, aminocarbohydrates, sialic acids, hexoses, pentoses, and as other carbohydrates. Microbial surfaces generally contain many of the sugar residues that react with lectins. Lectins are presently used in the clinical laboratory to typ...

  12. Genetic effects of feeding irradiated wheat to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalaxmi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of feeding irradiated wheat in mice on bone marrow and testis chromosomes, germ cell numbers and dominant lethal mutations were investigated. Feeding of freshly irradiated wheat resulted in significantly increased incidence of polyploid cells in bone marrow, aneuploid cells in testis, reduction in number of spermatogonia of types A, B and resting primary spermatocytes as well as a higher mutagenic index. Such a response was not observed when mice were fed stored irradiated wheat. Also there was no difference between the mice fed un-irradiated wheat and stored irradiated wheat. (author)

  13. Biological role of lectins: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kiran Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a stracturally vary diverse class of proteins charecterized by their ability to selectively bind carbohydrate moieties of the glycoproteins of the cell surface. Lectins may be derived from plants, microbial or animal sources and may be soluble or membrane bound. Lectins is a tetramer made up of four nearly identical subunits. In human, lectins have been reported to cause food poisoning, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, digestive distress, protein and carbohydrate malabsorption and type I allergies. The present review focuses on the classification, structures, biological significance and application of lectins.

  14. Assessing biosafety of GM plants containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    insects. However, since the cry genes are not active against all insects, e.g. sap-sucking insects, other genes coding for proteins such as lectins show promise of complementing the cry genes for insect resistance. As with other novel plants, lectin-expressing plants will need to be assessed...... for their potential risks to human and animal health and the environment. The expressed lectin protein should be assessed on its own for potential toxicity and allergenicity as for any other new protein. Although not many lectins have been thoroughly tested for their toxicity, our evaluation suggests that most...... of the lectins that are potentially useful for insect resistance will pose no health risk in genetically modified (GM) plants. Since some lectins are known for their toxicity to humans, the insertion of lectin genes in food crop plants will have to be assessed carefully. It is expected that in some cases...

  15. Lectindb: a plant lectin database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Nagasuma R; Kumar, Nirmal; Jeyakani, Justin; Singh, Desh Deepak; Gowda, Sharan B; Prathima, M N

    2006-10-01

    Lectins, a class of carbohydrate-binding proteins, are now widely recognized to play a range of crucial roles in many cell-cell recognition events triggering several important cellular processes. They encompass different members that are diverse in their sequences, structures, binding site architectures, quaternary structures, carbohydrate affinities, and specificities as well as their larger biological roles and potential applications. It is not surprising, therefore, that the vast amount of experimental data on lectins available in the literature is so diverse, that it becomes difficult and time consuming, if not impossible to comprehend the advances in various areas and obtain the maximum benefit. To achieve an effective use of all the data toward understanding the function and their possible applications, an organization of these seemingly independent data into a common framework is essential. An integrated knowledge base ( Lectindb, http://nscdb.bic.physics.iisc.ernet.in ) together with appropriate analytical tools has therefore been developed initially for plant lectins by collating and integrating diverse data. The database has been implemented using MySQL on a Linux platform and web-enabled using PERL-CGI and Java tools. Data for each lectin pertain to taxonomic, biochemical, domain architecture, molecular sequence, and structural details as well as carbohydrate and hence blood group specificities. Extensive links have also been provided for relevant bioinformatics resources and analytical tools. Availability of diverse data integrated into a common framework is expected to be of high value not only for basic studies in lectin biology but also for basic studies in pursuing several applications in biotechnology, immunology, and clinical practice, using these molecules.

  16. Germ killing by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrik, O.

    1975-01-01

    Short-wave UV radiation, in particular the range about 250 nm, has a high germ reducing effect. Corresponding UV burners which above all emit radiation at the line of 254 nm can therefore be used effectively in all cases where the least possible content of germs in the air is aimed at. Apart from this it is also possible to reduce by this process the germs on surfaces and liquids. Especially in the most various ranges of pharmaceutical production one is steadily striving for efficient and last not least economic procedures by which it is possible to reduce the germs present in the air of a room. Numerous scientific investigations have sufficiently proved that short-wave UV radiation is extremely well appropriate for such purposes. Absolutely germ-free air in a room can only be obtained under laboratory conditions. In practice, however, the aim is not to achieve a 100 per cent killing of the germs present in a room but to make sure that the germ rate in certain rooms is constantly reduced to the lowest possible level. If in this connection it is referred to a germ reduction of 100 or 99 per cent this is but theory. (orig.) [de

  17. Translation of satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA modified by (not equal to)-r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene is inhibited in a wheat germ cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Pulkrabek, P.; Takanami, Y.; Grunberger, D.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that (not equal to)-r-7-,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) modification of rabbit globin mRNA results in inhibition of translational initiation. In order to explore the possibility that modification of the 5' cap structure was responsible for this inhibition, the naturally non-capped mRNA from satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) was reacted with BPDE and translated in a wheat germ cell-free system. The extent of modification was 1.3 and 2.9 BPDE residues/molecule. High performance liquid chromatography of the modified nucleosides from enzymatically hydrolyzed STNV RNA revealed that greater than 90% of the nucleoside adducts were substituted at the exocyclic amino group of guanosine. The translational ability of the lower and higher modified STNV, measured by incorporation of [ 14 C]amino acids into acid-precipitable polypeptides is inhibited by 55% and 63%, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analyses of the translation products indicate that predominantly full-length coat proteins are synthesized but with the carcinogen-modified STNV the amount is reduced. On the other hand, 80S initiation complex formation is not inhibited as measured by binding of the BPDE-modified STNV to ribosomes and followed by glycerol gradient centrifugation. Under these conditions, aurintricarboxylic acid completely inhibits 80S initiation complex formation in the presence of either modified or native STNV. These results suggest that inhibition of in vitro translation of BPDE-modified STNV, in contrast to that of globin mRNA, is not at the level of initiation complex formation but possibly by premature termination of growing polypeptides

  18. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  19. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify wheat on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  20. Sugared biomaterial binding lectins: achievements and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojarová, Pavla; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 8 (2016), s. 1142-1160 ISSN 2047-4830 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-02578J Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : C-TYPE LECTINS * AMPHIPHILIC JANUS GLYCODENDRIMERS * BIOMEDICALLY RELEVANT LECTINS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.210, year: 2016

  1. Role of Axumin PET Scan in Germ Cell Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Testis Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor of Testis; Germ Cell Tumor, Testicular, Childhood; Testicular Neoplasms; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Diseases; Germ Cell Cancer Metastatic; Germ Cell Neoplasm of Retroperitoneum; Germ Cell Cancer, Nos

  2. Lectin histochemistry as a tool to identify apoptotic cells in the seminiferous epithelium of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) subjected to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, V; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Sánchez-Huertas, M M; Madrid, J F; Saez, F J; Pastor, L M

    2013-12-01

    Lectins have been widely used to study the pattern of cellular glycoconjugates in numerous species. In the process of cellular apoptosis, it has been observed that changes occur in the membrane sugar sequences of these apoptotic cells. The aim of our work was to identify which lectins, out of an extensive battery of the same (PNA, SBA, HPA, LTA, Con-A, UEA-I, WGA, DBA, MAA, GNA, AAA, SNA), show affinity for germinal cells in apoptosis, at what stage of cell death they do so and in which germinal cell types they can be detected. For this, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) subjected to short photoperiod. Several lectins showed an affinity for the glycoconjugate residues of germ cells in apoptosis: Gal β1,3-GalNAcα1, α-d-mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine and l-fucose. Furthermore, lectin specificity was observed for some specific germinal cells and in certain stages of apoptosis. It was also observed that one of these lectins (PNA) showed affinity for Sertoli cells undergoing apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that the use of lectin histochemistry could be a very useful tool for studying apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium because of the specificity shown towards germinal cells in pathological or experimentally induced epithelial depletion models. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition; Aceite de germen de trigo obtenido mediante extracción con dióxido de carbono supercrítico con etanol: Composición en ácidos grasos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.; Brzozowski, R.; Gwardiak, H.; Białecka-Florjańczyk, E.; Bujnowski, Z.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 o C under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3%) in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%), while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%). These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable. [Spanish] En este trabajo, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (SFE) usando CO2 con etanol como agente de arrastre se realizó a 40 °C bajo una presión de 21 MPa. Se ha llevado a cabo la comparación con una extracción similar sin agente de arrastre. El rendimiento de la extracción de germen de trigo usando CO2 supercrítico con etanol fue ligeramente mayor (10,7% en peso) que la de extracción sin agente de arrastre (9,9% en peso). Se recogieron por separado fracciones de extractos SFE durante los experimentos y se analizó la composición de ácidos grasos en cada fracció . Los aceites extraídos mediante SFE eran ricos en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados más valiosos (63,4-71,3%), (PUFA) y su contenido en todas las fracciones recogidas fue aproximadamente constante. Un contenido similar de PUFA fueron encontrados en muestras de referencia de los aceites extraídos con n-hexano (66,2-67,0%), mientras

  4. Evaluation of a fluorescent lectin-based staining technique for some acidophilic mining bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, D.J.; Bruhn, D.F.; Miller, K.S.; Stoner, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining technique was modified and found to be effective for staining gram-positive, acidophilic mining bacteria. Bacteria identified by others as being gram positive through 16S rRNA sequence analyses, yet clustering near the divergence of that group, stained weakly. Gram-negative bacteria did not stain. Background staining of environmental samples was negligible, and pyrite and soil particles in the samples did not interfere with the staining procedure

  5. Plant Cell Protolytic Enzymes Activity under Exposure to Lectins of Endophytic and Epiphytic Azospirillum Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Alen’kina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of lectins isolated from the surface of the two strains of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria of the genus Azospirillum, A. brasilense Sp7 (epiphytic and A. brasilense Sp245 (endophytic, to show have a regulating effect on the activity of pectinolytic enzymes in the roots of wheat seedlings. Research results showed that the lectins under study can cause the induction of the activity of polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, pectatlyase from the plant cell wall, thereby ensuring the bacteria penetration in the plant tissues, as well as the induction of plants responses which, being combined with growth-stimulating effect of bacteria, contributes to the formation of plants stability and productivity.

  6. Recent Progress in Lectin-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of lectin-based biosensors used for the determination of glucose, pathogenic bacteria and toxins, cancer cells, and lectins. Lectin proteins have been widely used for the construction of optical and electrochemical biosensors by exploiting the specific binding affinity to carbohydrates. Among lectin proteins, concanavalin A (Con A is most frequently used for this purpose as glucose- and mannose-selective lectin. Con A is useful for immobilizing enzymes including glucose oxidase (GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the surface of a solid support to construct glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensors, because these enzymes are covered with intrinsic hydrocarbon chains. Con A-modified electrodes can be used as biosensors sensitive to glucose, cancer cells, and pathogenic bacteria covered with hydrocarbon chains. The target substrates are selectively adsorbed to the surface of Con A-modified electrodes through strong affinity of Con A to hydrocarbon chains. A recent topic in the development of lectin-based biosensors is a successful use of nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, for amplifying output signals of the sensors. In addition, lectin-based biosensors are useful for studying glycan expression on living cells.

  7. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  8. Lectin binding patterns and immunohistochemical antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... placenta and lungs of Brucella abortus-bovine infected fetuses. María Andrea ... The present lectin histochemical study revealed a distinctive pattern of oligosaccharide .... tissue was used as a positive control and nonimmune.

  9. Lectin binders. A new group of plant proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudiger, H; Gebauer, G; Gansera, R; Schurz, H; Schimpl, A [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1982-09-01

    Lectins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, many of them being well characterized in their chemical structure and the effects they have on alien biological systems such as erythrocytes or lymphocytes. The biological function of plant lectins remains speculative. We therefore inspected plant extracts from components which might bind specifically to the lectin from the respective plant. Single proteins (lectin binders) could be isolated from each plant extract. The interaction of these proteins with lectins was demonstrated and qualified by several methods. Similar to the lectins, the lectin binders are localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to them, however, they persist during germination and plant growth. Their precise role in the plant is not known, but they are likely to be associated with lectins not only in vitro but also in vivo. They also interact with alien cells, and are able to stimulate mitosis in murine lymphocytes. Some lectin binders act specifically on B lymphocytes, leaving T cells uninfluenced.

  10. Seed abnormalities and associated mycoflora of rain- fed wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    seeds with discoloured embryo (germ) (1.2 – 1.5%) and brush (0.25 – 1.25%) ends. Fusarium graminearum and Helminthosporium sativum were associated with all seeds, ... Key words: Fungi, seed health testing, seed discolouration, wheat. INTRODUCTION. Abnormality in seeds is a major constraint in crop production in ...

  11. Lectin interactions with alpha-galactosylated xenoantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    alpha-Galactosylated xenoantigens (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1 and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc) are often detected with the alpha-Gal specific lectin Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4). However, this lectin exhibits a broad and variable specificity for carboh...

  12. Identification methods for irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengtao; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-02-01

    The effect of irradiation on wheat seeds was examined using various kinds of analytical methods for the identification of irradiated seeds. In germination test, the growth of sprouts was markedly inhibited at 500Gy, which was not affected by storage. The decrease in germination percentage was detected at 3300Gy. The results of enzymatic activity change in the germ measured by Vita-Scope germinator showed that the seeds irradiated at 10kGy could be identified. The content of amino acids in ungerminated and germinated seeds were analyzed. Irradiation at 10kGy caused the decrease of lysine content but the change was small which need very careful operation to detect it. The chemiluminescence intensity increased with radiation dose and decreased during storage. The wheat irradiated at 10kGy could be identified even after 3 months storage. In the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum analysis, the signal intensity with the g value f 2.0055 of skinned wheat seeds increased with radiation dose. Among these methods, germination test was the most sensitive and effective for identification of irradiated wheat. (author)

  13. CancerLectinDB: a database of lectins relevant to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Deepa; Jeyakani, Justin; Chauhan, Alok; Kumar, Nirmal; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-04-01

    The role of lectins in mediating cancer metastasis, apoptosis as well as various other signaling events has been well established in the past few years. Data on various aspects of the role of lectins in cancer is being accumulated at a rapid pace. The data on lectins available in the literature is so diverse, that it becomes difficult and time-consuming, if not impossible to comprehend the advances in various areas and obtain the maximum benefit. Not only do the lectins vary significantly in their individual functional roles, but they are also diverse in their sequences, structures, binding site architectures, quaternary structures, carbohydrate affinities and specificities as well as their potential applications. An organization of these seemingly independent data into a common framework is essential in order to achieve effective use of all the data towards understanding the roles of different lectins in different aspects of cancer and any resulting applications. An integrated knowledge base (CancerLectinDB) together with appropriate analytical tools has therefore been developed for lectins relevant for any aspect of cancer, by collating and integrating diverse data. This database is unique in terms of providing sequence, structural, and functional annotations for lectins from all known sources in cancer and is expected to be a useful addition to the number of glycan related resources now available to the community. The database has been implemented using MySQL on a Linux platform and web-enabled using Perl-CGI and Java tools. Data for individual lectins pertain to taxonomic, biochemical, domain architecture, molecular sequence and structural details as well as carbohydrate specificities. Extensive links have also been provided for relevant bioinformatics resources and analytical tools. Availability of diverse data integrated into a common framework is expected to be of high value for various studies on lectin cancer biology. CancerLectinDB can be accessed through

  14. [Lectins, adhesins, and lectin-like substances of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhtin, V M; Aleshkin, V A; Lakhtin, M V; Afanas'ev, S S; Pospelova, V V; Shenderov, B A

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface adhesion factors of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, such as lectin/adhesin proteins of S-layers, secreted lectin-like bacteriocins, and lectin-like complexes, are considered and classified in the article. Certain general and specific properties of these factors are noted, such as in vitro and in vivo adhesion, cell co(aggregation), participation in the forming of microbial biofilms and colonization of mammalian alimentary tract, as well as complexation with biopolymers and bioeffectors, specificity to glycanes and natural glycoconjugates, domain and spatial organization of adhesion factors, co-functioning with other cytokines (pro- and anti-inflammatory ones), regulation of target cell properties, and other biological and physiological activities. The authors also note possibilities of application of lectins and lectin-like proteins of probiotic strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in medicine and biotechnology.

  15. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of lectins from Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Jain, P; Kaur, H P

    2013-11-01

    Ten Penicillium sp. were screened for lectin activity for occurrence of lectins. Mycelial extracts from submerged cultures of P. corylophilum, P. expansum and P. purpurogenum showed agglutination against human (A, B, AB and O), goat, sheep, pig and rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment to human blood- type O erythrocytes substantially increased their agglutinability by all the lectins as compared to untreated erythrocytes. Modification of erythrocyte surfaces by protease increased the lectin titre only of P. corylophilum with no effect on other two lectins. P. corylophilum and P. expansum displayed relatively lower titres in mycelial extracts prepared from agar plate cultures as compared to broth cultures. A panel of sugars was tested for inhibition of lectin activity. All the lectins were found to be specific for asialofetuin, bovine submaxillary mucin, porcine stomach mucin, chondroitin-6-sulphate, D-sucrose and D-glucose. P. corylophilum lectin was expressed (Titre 8) by 5 day old cultures, reaching its maximum level (Titre 32) upon 8 days of cultivation, thereafter declin in lectin activity was observed. P. purpurogenum lectin was expressed by 7-10 days old cultures, while in P. expansum maximum lectin activity was elaborated by 5-8 days old cultures. Lectin extracts from all the three species were found to possess antimicrobial activities. Lectin extracts from the three Penicillium species displayed antifungal activity and antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.

  16. Microglial Lectins in Health and Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jing Siew

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the innate sentinels of the central nervous system (CNS and are responsible for the homeostasis and immune defense of the CNS. Under the influence of the local environment and cell-cell interaction, microglia exhibit a multidimensional and context-dependent phenotypes that can be cytotoxic and neuroprotective. Recent studies suggest that microglia express multitudinous types of lectins, including galectins, Siglecs, mannose-binding lectins (MBLs and other glycan binding proteins. Because most studies that examine lectins focus on the peripheral system, the functions of lectins have not been critically investigated in the CNS. In addition, the types of brain cells that contribute to the altered levels of lectins present in diseases are often unclear. In this review, we will discuss how galectins, Siglecs, selectins and MBLs contribute to the dynamic functions of microglia. The interacting ligands of these lectins are complex glycoconjugates, which consist of glycoproteins and glycolipids that are expressed on microglia or surrounding cells. The current understanding of the heterogeneity and functions of glycans in the brain is limited. Galectins are a group of pleotropic proteins that recognize both β-galactoside-containing glycans and non- β-galactoside-containing proteins. The function and regulation of galectins have been implicated in immunomodulation, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, phagocytosis and oxidative bursts. Most Siglecs are expressed at a low level on the plasma membrane and bind to sialic acid residues for immunosurveillance and cell-cell communication. Siglecs are classified based on their inhibitory and activatory downstream signaling properties. Inhibitory Siglecs negatively regulate microglia activation upon recognizing the intact sialic acid patterns and vice versa. MBLs are expressed upon infection in cytoplasm and can be secreted in order to recognize molecules containing terminal mannose as an innate immune

  17. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  18. Visualisation of lectin binding sites on the surface of human platelets using lectins adsorbed to gold granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, A T; Horisberger, M; Savariau, E; Caen, J P

    1980-10-15

    Washed human platelets have been incubated with the lectins WGA, ConA and RCA1, adsorbed to different-sized gold particles. Plasma membrane receptors for each lectin were then located by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Maize root lectins mediate the interaction with Herbaspirillum seropedicae via N-acetyl glucosamine residues of lipopolysaccharides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Balsanelli

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a plant growth-promoting diazotrophic betaproteobacterium which associates with important crops, such as maize, wheat, rice and sugar-cane. We have previously reported that intact lipopolysaccharide (LPS is required for H. seropedicae attachment and endophytic colonization of maize roots. In this study, we present evidence that the LPS biosynthesis gene waaL (codes for the O-antigen ligase is induced during rhizosphere colonization by H. seropedicae. Furthermore a waaL mutant strain lacking the O-antigen portion of the LPS is severely impaired in colonization. Since N-acetyl glucosamine inhibits H. seropedicae attachment to maize roots, lectin-like proteins from maize roots (MRLs were isolated and mass spectrometry (MS analysis showed that MRL-1 and MRL-2 correspond to maize proteins with a jacalin-like lectin domain, while MRL-3 contains a B-chain lectin domain. These proteins showed agglutination activity against wild type H. seropedicae, but failed to agglutinate the waaL mutant strain. The agglutination reaction was severely diminished in the presence of N-acetyl glucosamine. Moreover addition of the MRL proteins as competitors in H. seropedicae attachment assays decreased 80-fold the adhesion of the wild type to maize roots. The results suggest that N-acetyl glucosamine residues of the LPS O-antigen bind to maize root lectins, an essential step for efficient bacterial attachment and colonization.

  20. Maize root lectins mediate the interaction with Herbaspirillum seropedicae via N-acetyl glucosamine residues of lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsanelli, Eduardo; Tuleski, Thalita Regina; de Baura, Valter Antonio; Yates, Marshall Geoffrey; Chubatsu, Leda Satie; Pedrosa, Fabio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Monteiro, Rose Adele

    2013-01-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a plant growth-promoting diazotrophic betaproteobacterium which associates with important crops, such as maize, wheat, rice and sugar-cane. We have previously reported that intact lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for H. seropedicae attachment and endophytic colonization of maize roots. In this study, we present evidence that the LPS biosynthesis gene waaL (codes for the O-antigen ligase) is induced during rhizosphere colonization by H. seropedicae. Furthermore a waaL mutant strain lacking the O-antigen portion of the LPS is severely impaired in colonization. Since N-acetyl glucosamine inhibits H. seropedicae attachment to maize roots, lectin-like proteins from maize roots (MRLs) were isolated and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that MRL-1 and MRL-2 correspond to maize proteins with a jacalin-like lectin domain, while MRL-3 contains a B-chain lectin domain. These proteins showed agglutination activity against wild type H. seropedicae, but failed to agglutinate the waaL mutant strain. The agglutination reaction was severely diminished in the presence of N-acetyl glucosamine. Moreover addition of the MRL proteins as competitors in H. seropedicae attachment assays decreased 80-fold the adhesion of the wild type to maize roots. The results suggest that N-acetyl glucosamine residues of the LPS O-antigen bind to maize root lectins, an essential step for efficient bacterial attachment and colonization.

  1. Unfolding energetics and stability of banana lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima; Sinha, Sharmistha; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-08-01

    The unfolding pathway of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca was determined by isothermal denaturation induced by the chaotrope GdnCl. The unfolding was found to be a reversible process. The data obtained by isothermal denaturation provided information on conformational stability of banana lectin. The high values of DeltaG of unfolding at various temperatures indicated the strength of intersubunit interactions. It was found that banana lectin is a very stable and denatures at high chaotrope concentrations only. The basis of the stability may be attributed to strong hydrogen bonds of the order 2.5-3.1 A at the dimeric interface along with the presence of water bridges. This is perhaps very unique example in proteins where subunit association is not a consequence of the predominance of hydrophobic interactions. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%.

  3. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  4. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  5. Don Germán

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  6. Don Germán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  8. Glycans: bioactive signals decoded by lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2008-12-01

    The glycan part of cellular glycoconjugates affords a versatile means to build biochemical signals. These oligosaccharides have an exceptional talent in this respect. They surpass any other class of biomolecule in coding capacity within an oligomer (code word). Four structural factors account for this property: the potential for variability of linkage points, anomeric position and ring size as well as the aptitude for branching (first and second dimensions of the sugar code). Specific intermolecular recognition is favoured by abundant potential for hydrogen/co-ordination bonds and for C-H/pi-interactions. Fittingly, an array of protein folds has developed in evolution with the ability to select certain glycans from the natural diversity. The thermodynamics of this reaction profits from the occurrence of these ligands in only a few energetically favoured conformers, comparing favourably with highly flexible peptides (third dimension of the sugar code). Sequence, shape and local aspects of glycan presentation (e.g. multivalency) are key factors to regulate the avidity of lectin binding. At the level of cells, distinct glycan determinants, a result of enzymatic synthesis and dynamic remodelling, are being defined as biomarkers. Their presence gains a functional perspective by co-regulation of the cognate lectin as effector, for example in growth regulation. The way to tie sugar signal and lectin together is illustrated herein for two tumour model systems. In this sense, orchestration of glycan and lectin expression is an efficient means, with far-reaching relevance, to exploit the coding potential of oligosaccharides physiologically and medically.

  9. Animal lectins: potential receptors for ginseng polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hee Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng Meyer, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae, is known for its human immune system-related effects, such as immune-boosting effects. Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs are the responsible ingredient of ginseng in immunomodulation, and are classified as acidic and neutral GPs. Although GPs participate in various immune reactions including the stimulation of immune cells and production of cytokines, the precise function of GPs together with its potential receptor(s and their signal transduction pathways have remained largely unknown. Animal lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Among many different biological functions in vivo, animal lectins especially play important roles in the immune system by recognizing carbohydrates that are found exclusively on pathogens or that are inaccessible on host cells. This review summarizes the immunological activities of GPs and the diverse roles of animal lectins in the immune system, suggesting the possibility of animal lectins as the potential receptor candidates of GPs and giving insights into the development of GPs as therapeutic biomaterials for many immunological diseases.

  10. Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work & School Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... everyone from getting germs or spreading germs at home, work, or school. Clean and disinfect surfaces or objects. ...

  11. The search for lectin isolated from the mycelial cultures of Laetiporus sulphureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Końska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proved the presence of lectin in mycelial cultures of Laetiporus sulphureus. Lectin was excreted into the medium and its erythroagglutinating activity was not high. No active lectin was detected in hyphae using both extraction and immunofluorescence method. Comparative studies based on immunological methods indicate~ that the lectin synthesised in vitro differed from the lectin produced in fruit-bodies.

  12. Multiphoton microscopy imaging of developing tooth germs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Pan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, a novel multiphoton microscopy database of images from developing tooth germs in mice was set up. We confirmed that multiphoton laser microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the development of tooth germ and is worthy for further application in the study of tooth regeneration.

  13. Glycan-decorated HPMA copolymers as high-affinity lectin ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojarová, Pavla; Chytil, Petr; Mikulová, Barbora; Bumba, Ladislav; Konefal, Rafal; Pelantová, Helena; Krejzová, Jana; Slámová, Kristýna; Petrásková, Lucie; Kotrchová, Lenka; Cvačka, Josef; Etrych, Tomáš; Křen, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 17 (2017), s. 2647-2658 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-02578J; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28594A; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15085; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE * WHEAT-GERM-AGGLUTININ * CLICK CHEMISTRY Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology; Polymer science (UMCH-V); Polymer science (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 5.375, year: 2016

  14. Lectins, Interconnecting Proteins with Biotechnological/Pharmacological and Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations. Lectins revealed healing effect through induction of reepithelialization and cicatrization of wounds. Some lectins have been efficient agents against virus, fungi, bacteria, and helminths at low concentrations. Lectin-mediated bioadhesion has been an interesting characteristic for development of drug delivery systems. Lectin histochemistry and lectin-based biosensors are useful to detect transformed tissues and biomarkers related to disease occurrence; antitumor lectins reported are promising for cancer therapy. Here, we address lectins from distinct sources with some biological effect and biotechnological potential in the diagnosis and therapeutic of diseases, highlighting many advances in this growing field.

  15. Intracranial germ-cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.L.; Kollias, S.S.; Cogen, P.H.; Barkovich, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the MR characteristics together with the clinical and histologic features of cerebral germ-cell tumors were investigated to augment data regarding this rare, diverse class of neoplasms. Germinomas were homogeneous or heterogeneous masses, predominantly isointense to normal brain on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense and heterogeneous on T2-weighted images; three showed adjacent brain edema. Enhancement was prominent, either homogeneous or heterogeneous. One had spinal drop metastases. Teratomas, more common in young patients, were more heterogeneous than germinomas on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. Five showed hyper- and hypointense foci on T1-weighted images that corresponded to fat and calcium, respectively, at CT. Teratomas did not enhance or enhanced heterogeneously. Two had intratumoral hemorrhage; there were no metastases. Both patients with choriocarcinoma had hemorrhagic masses

  16. Radiosensitivity of mouse germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Toyoko; Maemori, Mamiko; Seki, Naohiko; Tobari, Izuo

    1991-01-01

    To estimate radiosensitivity of mouse germ cells the analysis of chromosome aberrations was performed at diakinesis-metaphase I of spermatocytes and first-cleavage metaphase of one-cell embryos after exposure to radiations at various stages of primary spermatocytes and spermatids. The result provided evidence that there are two major types of DNA damage in X-irradiated sperm : (1) short-lived DNA lesions ; the lesions are subject to repair inhibition by agents added in G 1 , and are converted into chromosome-type aberrations during G 1 , and (2) long-lived DNA lesions ; the lesions persist until S phase and repair of the lesions is inhibited by caffeine, hydroxyurea and arabinofuranosyl cytosine in G 2 . The characteristic of X-ray damage induced in spermiogenic stage and repair mechanism for the damage in the fertilized egg were discussed comparing with the results with two chemicals, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and mitomycin C (MMC). (J.P.N.)

  17. A new method of lectin histochemistry for the study of brain angiogenesis. Lectin angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, T; Miyake, T; Takamatsu, T; Fujita, S

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse the kinetics of angiogenesis in the brain, we developed a new lectin-histochemical staining technique for identifying the vasculature. Three horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated lectins, i.e., Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin 1 (GS1), Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) and soybean agglutinin (SBA), selectively stained vascular walls in brain-tissue sections. When these lectins were injected into the circulation of ether-anesthetized animals via the pulsating left ventricle, they bound specifically to the inner surface of endothelial cells and revealed the three-dimensional architecture of the vascular network within thick tissue preparations. When this technique, referred to a lectin angiography, was combined with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BudR) immunohistochemistry, proliferating capillary cells could be easily identified in three-dimensional structures of the developing vasculature. Because of its simplicity and wide applicability, lectin angiography should be useful for analysing the kinetics of angiogenesis in developmental, regenerative, and pathological conditions in various tissues and organs.

  18. Lectins as endocytic ligands: an assessment of lectin binding and uptake to rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaddoumi, Mohamed; Lee, Vincent H L

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the binding and uptake pattern of three plant lectins in rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCECs) with respect to their potential for enhancing cellular macromolecular uptake. Three fluorescein-labeled plant lectins (Lycoperison esculentum, TL; Solanum tuberosum, STL; and Ulex europaeus 1, UEA-1) were screened with respect to time-, concentration-, and temperature-dependent binding and uptake. Chitin (30 mg/ml) and L-alpha-fucose (10 mM) were used as inhibitory sugars to correct for nonspecific binding of TL or STL and UEA-1, respectively. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm internalization of STL. The binding and uptake of all three lectins in RCECs was time-dependent (reaching a plateau at 1-2 h period) and saturable at 1-h period. The rank order of affinity constants (km) was STL>TL>UEA-1 with values of 0.39>0.48>4.81 microM, respectively. However, maximal, specific binding/uptake potential was in the order UEA-1>STL>TL with values of 53.7, 52.3, and 15.0 nM/mg of cell protein, respectively. Lectins showed temperature dependence in their uptake, with STL exhibiting the highest endocytic capacity. Internalized STL was visualized by confocal microscopy to be localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Based on favorable binding and uptake characteristics, potato lectin appears to be a useful candidate for further investigation as an ocular drug delivery system.

  19. Lessons learned from mice deficient in lectin complement pathway molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Takahashi, Minoru; Sekine, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    in turn activate downstream complement components, ultimately leading to elimination of the pathogen. Mice deficient in the key molecules of lectin pathway of complement have been generated in order to build knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the lectin pathway in health and disease. Despite......The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated when the pattern-recognition molecules, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin-11, bind to invading pathogens or damaged host cells. This leads to activation of MBL/ficolin/collectin-11 associated serine proteases (MASPs), which...... differences in the genetic arrangements of murine and human orthologues of lectin pathway molecules, the knockout mice have proven to be valuable models to explore the effect of deficiency states in humans. In addition, new insight and unexpected findings on the diverse roles of lectin pathway molecules...

  20. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various 125 I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments

  1. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  2. Cholesterol Crystals Activate the Lectin Complement Pathway via Ficolin-2 and Mannose-Binding Lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilely, Katrine; Rosbjerg, Anne; Genster, Ninette

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol crystals (CC) play an essential role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. CC activate the classical and the alternative complement pathways, but the role of the lectin pathway is unknown. We hypothesized that the pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) from the lectin pathway bind...... CC and function as an upstream innate inflammatory signal in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. We investigated the binding of the PRMs mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3, the associated serine proteases, and complement activation products to CC in vitro using...... recognize CC and provides evidence for an important role for this pathway in the inflammatory response induced by CC in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis....

  3. Application of lectins to tumor imaging radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shuji; Jay, M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro binding of 125 I-lectins to Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and in vivo uptake of 125 I-lectins in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) bearing mice. In in vitro binding assays, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA), pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and concanavalia agglutinin (Con A) showed a high affinity for EAT cells. The in vivo biodistribution of 125 I-lectins showed 125 I-PSA to be significantly taken up into EST tissues 24 h postinjection. After IV injection of 125 I-PSA, uptake of the radioactivity into the tumor tissues reached a maximum at 6 h, and thereafter decreased. Rapid disappearance of the radioactivity from blood and its excretion into kidney soon after injection of 125 I-PSA were observed. When compared with the biodistribution of 67 Ga-citrate in EST bearing mice 24 h postinjection, tumor to liver (T/B), tumor to muscle (T/M), and tumor to blood (T/B) ratios were superior for 125 I-PSA. At 6 h postinjection, the T/B-ratio of 125 I-PSA was 2.5, and this value may be sufficient to enable discernable diagnostic images. Our results suggest that PSA might be a useful tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  4. Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, F S; Procópio, T F; Napoleão, T H; Coelho, L C B B; Paiva, P M G

    2013-03-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius leaves are used for treating human diseases caused by micro-organisms. This work reports the isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of S. terebinthifolius leaf lectin (SteLL). The isolation procedure involved protein extraction with 0.15 mol l(-1) NaCl, filtration through activated charcoal and chromatography of the filtrate on a chitin column. SteLL is a 14-kDa glycopeptide with haemagglutinating activity that is inhibited by N-acetyl-glucosamine, not affected by ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and stable upon heating (30-100 °C) as well as over the pH 5.0-8.0. The antimicrobial effect of SteLL was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC), bactericide (MBC) and fungicide (MFC) concentrations. Lectin was active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Highest bacteriostatic and bactericide effects were detected for Salm. enteritidis (MIC: 0.45 μg ml(-1)) and Staph. aureus (MBC: 7.18 μg ml(-1)), respectively. SteLL impaired the growth (MIC: 6.5 μg ml(-1)) and survival (MFC: 26 μg ml(-1)) of Candida albicans. SteLL, a chitin-binding lectin, purified in milligram quantities, showed antimicrobial activity against medically important bacteria and fungi. SteLL can be considered as a new biomaterial for potential antimicrobial applications. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Germ Cell-less Promotes Centrosome Segregation to Induce Germ Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy A. Lerit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primordial germ cells (PGCs specified during embryogenesis serve as progenitors to the adult germline stem cells. In Drosophila, the proper specification and formation of PGCs require both centrosomes and germ plasm, which contains the germline determinants. Centrosomes are microtubule (MT-organizing centers that ensure the faithful segregation of germ plasm into PGCs. To date, mechanisms that modulate centrosome behavior to engineer PGC development have remained elusive. Only one germ plasm component, Germ cell-less (Gcl, is known to play a role in PGC formation. Here, we show that Gcl engineers PGC formation by regulating centrosome dynamics. Loss of gcl leads to aberrant centrosome separation and elaboration of the astral MT network, resulting in inefficient germ plasm segregation and aborted PGC cellularization. Importantly, compromising centrosome separation alone is sufficient to mimic the gcl loss-of-function phenotypes. We conclude Gcl functions as a key regulator of centrosome separation required for proper PGC development.

  6. Epigenetic features of testicular germ cell tumours in relation to epigenetic characteristics of foetal germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dina Graae; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    in humans. However, the common precursor of testicular cancers- the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell- is thought to be an arrested foetal germ cell. Therefore studies of CIS cells may leverage information on human foetal germ cell development and, in particular, when neoplastic transformation is initiated....... In this review, we will focus on current knowledge of the epigenetics of CIS cells and relate it to the epigenetic changes occurring in early developing germ cells of mice during specification, migration and colonization. We will focus on DNA methylation and some of the best studied histone modifications like H3...... event in the initiation of testicular germ cell cancer. Even though only sparse information is available on epigenetic cues in human foetal germ cells, these indicate that the developmental patterns differ from the findings in mice and emphasize the need for further studies of foetal germ cell...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ... and restore) the body’s blood cells. New treatment options Combination chemotherapy (the use of more than one ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Tumors Treatment Testicular Cancer Treatment Age and gender can affect the risk of extragonadal germ cell ... Headache. Change in bowel habits. Feeling very tired. Trouble walking. Trouble in seeing or moving the eyes. ...

  9. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Tumors Treatment Testicular Cancer Treatment Age and gender can affect the risk of extragonadal germ cell ... Headache. Change in bowel habits. Feeling very tired. Trouble walking. Trouble in seeing or moving the eyes. ...

  10. Epigenetic reprogramming in the porcine germ line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Sara Maj Hyldig; Croxall, Nicola; Contreras, David A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epigenetic reprogramming is critical for genome regulation during germ line development. Genome-wide demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells (PGC) is a unique reprogramming event essential for erasing epigenetic memory and preventing the transmission of epimutations to the next...... an increased proportion of cells in G2. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that epigenetic reprogramming occurs in pig migratory and gonadal PGC, and establishes the window of time for the occurrence of these events. Reprogramming of histone H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 detected between E15-E21 precedes the dynamic...... DNA demethylation at imprinted loci and DNA repeats between E22-E42. Our findings demonstrate that major epigenetic reprogramming in the pig germ line follows the overall dynamics shown in mice, suggesting that epigenetic reprogramming of germ cells is conserved in mammals. A better understanding...

  11. Impact of bran components on the quality of whole wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains contain components, such as dietary fiber, starch, fat, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamin, lignans, and phenolic compounds, which are beneficial to human health. Most of the beneficial components are found in the germ and bran as part of a wheat kernel, which are reduced in the ...

  12. Acid phosphatase from stored Poa pratensis caryopses and its ability for binding to lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the storage period of Poa pratensis caryopses on acid phosphatase activity and on the ability of this enzyme to interact with lectins has been studied. It has been shown that after ten years of caryopses storage, the activity of acid phosphatase decreased about 50 per cent, while the content of proteins and carbohydrates did not change. The decrease of enzyme activity during the long period of storage was found only in seeds, but not in chaffs. Acid phosphatase was isolated from caryopses stored one, two, three, five and ten years. The enzyme showed the ability to bind to immoblized as well as to free conA during the whole period of storage, hut did not react with Wheat Germen Agglutinin (WGA. The activation of acid phosphatase by binding to conA decreased with the length of storage period.

  13. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  14. Activation of the lectin complement pathway on human renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the roles of high glucose and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) on the activation of the lectin complement pathway (LCP) on human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis, immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to detect the cell surface ...

  15. Mannose-binding lectin genetics: from A to Z

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, Peter

    2008-01-01

    MBL (mannose-binding lectin) is primarily a liver-derived collagen-like serum protein. It binds sugar structures on micro-organisms and on dying host cells and is one of the four known mediators that initiate activation of the complement system via the lectin pathway. Common variant alleles situa...

  16. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  17. Glycoprofiling of Early Gastric Cancer Using Lectin Microarray Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taijie; Mo, Cuiju; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Liu, Yinkun; Liu, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies have reported that protein glycosylation plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer. Gastric cancer is a common cancer with high morbidity and mortality owing to most gastric cancers are discovered only at an advanced stage. Here, we aim to discover novel specific serum glycanbased biomarkers for gastric cancer. A lectin microarray with 50 kinds of tumor-associated lectin was used to detect the glycan profiles of serum samples between early gastric cancer and healthy controls. Then lectin blot was performed to validate the differences. The result of the lectin microarray showed that the signal intensities of 13 lectins showed significant differences between the healthy controls and early gastric cancer. Compared to the healthy, the normalized fluorescent intensities of the lectins PWA, LEL, and STL were significantly increased, and it implied that their specifically recognized GlcNAc showed an especially elevated expression in early gastric cancer. Moreover, the binding affinity of the lectins EEL, RCA-II, RCA-I, VAL, DSA, PHA-L, UEA, and CAL were higher in the early gastric cancer than in healthy controls. These glycan structures containing GalNAc, terminal Galβ 1-4 GlcNAc, Tri/tetraantennary N-glycan, β-1, 6GlcNAc branching structure, α-linked fucose residues, and Tn antigen were elevated in gastric cancer. While the two lectins CFL GNL reduced their binding ability. In addition, their specifically recognized N-acetyl-D-galactosamine structure and (α-1,3) mannose residues were decreased in early gastric cancer. Furthermore, lectin blot results of LEL, STL, PHA-L, RCA-I were consistent with the results of the lectin microarray. The findings of our study clarify the specific alterations for glycosylation during the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The specific high expression of GlcNAc structure may act as a potential early diagnostic marker for gastric cancer.

  18. Effects of Lectins on initial attachment of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Yasuyoshi; Ito, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2018-02-01

    Oral bacteria initiate biofilm formation by attaching to tooth surfaces via an interaction of a lectin-like bacterial protein with carbohydrate chains on the pellicle. This study aimed to find naturally derived lectins that inhibit the initial attachment of a cariogenic bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), to carbohydrate chains in saliva in vitro. Seventy kinds of lectins were screened for candidate motifs that inhibit the attachment of S. mutans ATCC 25175 to a saliva-coated culture plate. The inhibitory effect of the lectins on attachment of the S. mutans to the plates was quantified by crystal violet staining, and the biofilm was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was performed to examine the binding of S. mutans to carbohydrate chains and the binding of candidate lectins to carbohydrate chains, respectively. Moreover, binding assay between the biotinylated-lectins and the saliva components was conducted to measure the lectin binding. Lectins recognizing a salivary carbohydrate chain, Galβ1-3GalNAc, inhibited the binding of S. mutans to the plate. In particular, Agaricus bisporus agglutinin (ABA) markedly inhibited the binding. This inhibition was confirmed by SEM observation. SPR analysis indicated that S. mutans strongly binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc, and ABA binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc. Finally, the biotinylated Galβ1-3GalNAc-binding lectins including ABA demonstrated marked binding to the saliva components. These results suggest that ABA lectin inhibited the attachment of S. mutans to Galβ1-3GalNAc in saliva and ABA can be useful as a potent inhibitor for initial attachment of oral bacteria and biofilm formation.

  19. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Lectin Complement Pathway Proteins in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Anne; Hansen, Annette Gudmann; Hansen, Søren W K

    2017-01-01

    , it is pivotal to know the normal. Our aim was to describe the concentrations of the eleven known proteins of the lectin pathway in serum and plasma and to uncover possible gender differences, age and diurnal variations, which must be taken into account for investigations in different cohorts. We examined...... morning to the middle of night. There were gender differences for most proteins, whereas age did not seem to influence concentration. The present study underlines the necessity of considering which material to use, correct matching and a trial design that takes the nature of the protein into account...

  1. New evidence for the origin of intracranial germ cell tumours from primordial germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Sehested, A; Juhler, M

    2006-01-01

    that it is not required for the initiation of malignant germ cell transformation. The expression of genes associated with embryonic stem cell pluripotency in CNS germ cell tumours strongly suggests that these tumours are derived from cells that retain, at least partially, an embryonic stem cell-like phenotype, which...... germ cell tumours and analysed expression of a wide panel of stem cell-related proteins (C-KIT, OCT-3/4 (POU5F1), AP-2gamma (TFAP2C), and NANOG) and developmentally regulated germ cell-specific proteins (including MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and TSPY). Expression at the protein level was analysed in 21 children...... and young adults with intracranial germinomas and non-germinomas, contributing to a careful description of these unusual tumours and adding to the understanding of pathogenesis. Stem cell related proteins were highly expressed in intracranial germ cell tumours, and many similarities were detected...

  2. PO-20 - Crosstalk between the lectin pathway and haemostasis in patients with pulmonary cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J B; Christensen, T D; Hvas, C L

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent research has focused on the complement system in cancer, including the lectin pathway of complement activation. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a key activator of the lectin pathway, can bind to tumor cell surfaces in vitro, and lectin pathway activation is increased in several...

  3. Studies on the mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of irradiated wheat in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.; Ebenezer, D.N.; Naidu, N.V.; Goud, S.N.

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to test the mutagenic and cytogenetic potentials of freshly and stored irradiated wheat in mice. In the first series, the effects of feeding of CBA mice for 8 weeks with the diet containing 60% of wheat freshly irradiated ( 3 H/He mice were undertaken. Feeding of both freshly and stored irradiated wheat showed neither an increase in dominant lethals and chromosomal aberrations nor a reduction in germ cells. In another series, the reproductive performance of the CBA females fed stored irradiated (75 krad) wheat was investigated and it was observed that the average total number of litters and the litter size did not vary from those of the females fed unirradiated wheat. (author)

  4. Potential for the use of germinated wheat and soybeans to enhance human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, P L

    1978-01-01

    Wheat and soybeans are the major agricultural exports of the United States. The U.S. sells more of each crop than any other nation. Soybeans are the main staple in China, but the U.S. sells more soybeans than China grows. For hundreds of millions of other people, wheat is the main staple. And yet, most Americans eat whole grains of neither wheat nor soybeans. In the United States, many nutrients of wheat and soybeans are lost in processing or are fed to animals. A highly significant share of the wheat nutrients are lost from the main foodstream when the germ and bran (with aleurone) portions are separated. Whole soybeans are carefully processed for food by only a handful of Americans.

  5. Mycological and mycotoxicological quality of wheat and flour fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Tatjana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed infection is a result of complex factors influence: weather conditions, health conditions of used seed, quantity of infective potentila in soil, etc. By visual evaluation, initial wheat sample has been divided in four fractions: healthy, dark germed, slightly and very fusarious. Three varietes from two localities 1 and 2 have been included in analyses. Beside the wheat, the mycotoxicological contamination of flour produced by grounding of given samples was monitored, too. The representatives of genera Fusarium were dominating, and the most frequent was F. oxysporum. The wheat and flour samples have also been analysed on presence of aflatoxin B1 "AB1" and G1 "AG1", ochratoxin A "OA" and zearalenone "F-2" toxin. AG1 had the lowest representation (2,3 g/kg and the highest representation was of F-2 toxin (even 500 g/kg.

  6. Establishment of the Vertebrate Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chia; Munisha, Mumingjiang; Gutierrez, Juan B; Dougan, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology. At each step, this work was advanced by the development of innovative methods of observing cell behavior in vivo and in culture. Here, we take an historical approach to describe our current understanding of vertebrate germ layer formation as it relates to the long-standing questions of developmental biology. By comparing how germ layers form in distantly related vertebrate species, we find that highly conserved molecular pathways can be adapted to perform the same function in dramatically different embryonic environments.

  7. Morphological variability, lectin binding and Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity of isolated Müller (glial) cells from the rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Dettmer, D; Brückner, G; Neumann, M; Birkenmeyer, G

    1985-03-22

    Rabbit retinal Müller cells were isolated by means of papaine and mechanical dissociation. These cells were shown to have a well preserved morphology and to preserve viability for many hours. Intense wheat germ agglutinin binding occurs on the photoreceptor side of Müller cells, especially in the microvillous region. Rabbit retinal Müller cells have a Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity in the same order of magnitude as brain astroglial cells.

  8. Radiotherapy of patients with germ cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Taisuke; Maeda, Tomoho; Yoshida, Shoji; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Fumio; Imajo, Yoshinari; Gose, Kyuhei; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with germ cell tumor who received radiotherapy were discussed. There were eight patients with germinoma, two patients with malignant teratoma, three patients with pineocytoma (out of category of germ cell tumor today) and eight unverified patients. Irradiated dose was mostly from 50 Gy to 60 Gy and local irradiation was performed after whole brain irradiation in many cases. The effect of radiotherapy was not so good in patients with malignant teratoma. On the contrary, it was relatively good in patients with germinoma and five out of eight patients are alive with no symptoms of recurrence. Six out of eight unverified patients are also alive. Among them, several patients with germinoma are considered to be included. Germinoma occupies many cases of germ cell tumor and has a good response to radiotherapy. Against spinal cord metastasis and late recurrence, additional therapy, such as chemotherapy, seems to be useful to improve cure ratio. (author)

  9. [Germ cell membrane lipids in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Xiao; Quan, Song

    2016-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  10. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  11. Tooth-germ damage by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobkowiak, E.M.; Beetke, E.; Bienengraeber, V.; Held, M.; Kittner, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on animals (four-week-old dogs) were conducted in an investigation made to study the possibility of dose-dependent tooth-germ damage produced by ionizing radiation. The individual doses were 50 R and 200 R, respectively, and they were administered once to three times at weekly intervals. Hyperemia and edemata could be observed on tooth-germ pulps from 150 R onward. Both of these conditions became more acute as the radiation dose increased (from 150 R to 600 R). Possible damage to both the dentin and enamel is pointed out. (author)

  12. Germ line mechanics – and unfinished business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function, and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patch-work quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  13. Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  14. Linearization of germs of hyperbolic vector fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonckaert, P; Naudot, [No Value; Yang, JZ

    2003-01-01

    We develop a normal form to express asymptotically a conjugacy between a germ of resonant vector field and its linear part. We show that such an asymptotic expression can be written in terms of functions of the Logarithmic Mourtada type. To cite this article: P Bonckaert et al., C. R. Acad. Sci.

  15. C-Type Lectin Receptors in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabelo Hadebe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, largely in developed countries. The etiology of the disease is poorly understood, but is likely to involve specific innate and adaptive responses to inhaled microbial components that are found in allergens. Fungal-derived allergens represent a major contributing factor in the initiation, persistence, exacerbation, and severity of allergic asthma. C-type lectin like receptors, such as dectin-1, dectin-2, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin, and mannose receptor, recognize many fungal-derived allergens and other structurally similar allergens derived from house dust mites (HDM. In some cases, the fungal derived allergens have been structurally and functionally identified alongside their respective receptors in both humans and mice. In this review, we discuss recent understanding on how selected fungal and HDM derived allergens as well as their known or unknown receptors shape allergic airway diseases.

  16. Crystallization of Ulex europaeus lectin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T

    1994-10-21

    The lectin I from Ulex europaeus (UEAI) has a strong affinity for the H-type 2 human blood group determinant. Single crystals of UEAI have been grown in the monoclinic crystal system. Initial crystals were obtained after 11 months from a solution of 10 mg/ml protein, 40% 2,4-methylpentanediol and 0.1 N acetate buffer at pH 5.2. The technique of washing and reseeding was used to generate large suitable crystals. The space group is C2 with a = 78.84 A, b = 69.85 A, c = 120.62 A, beta = 108.74 degrees and Z = 4; there is one molecular dimer per asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 58%. The crystals diffract to at least 2.8 A d spacings and are stable in the X-ray beam for more than three days.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: mannose-binding lectin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Caregivers: Complement System Nobelprize.org: The Immune System - In More Detail Patient ... Sources for This Page Arora M, Munoz E, Tenner AJ. Identification of a site on mannan-binding lectin critical ...

  18. Human Lectins and Their Roles in Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Mason

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate recognition of virus proteins is an important component of the immune response to viral pathogens. A component of this immune recognition is the family of lectins; pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that recognise viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs including viral glycoproteins. In this review we discuss the contribution of soluble and membrane-associated PRRs to immunity against virus pathogens, and the potential role of these molecules in facilitating virus replication. These processes are illustrated with examples of viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and Ebola virus (EBOV. We focus on the structure, function and genetics of the well-characterised C-type lectin mannose-binding lectin, the ficolins, and the membrane-bound CD209 proteins expressed on dendritic cells. The potential for lectin-based antiviral therapies is also discussed.

  19. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  20. Insights into Animal and Plant Lectins with Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  1. A germ cell determinant reveals parallel pathways for germ line development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainpal, Rana; Nance, Jeremy; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2015-10-15

    Despite the central importance of germ cells for transmission of genetic material, our understanding of the molecular programs that control primordial germ cell (PGC) specification and differentiation are limited. Here, we present findings that X chromosome NonDisjunction factor-1 (XND-1), known for its role in regulating meiotic crossover formation, is an early determinant of germ cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. xnd-1 mutant embryos display a novel 'one PGC' phenotype as a result of G2 cell cycle arrest of the P4 blastomere. Larvae and adults display smaller germ lines and reduced brood size consistent with a role for XND-1 in germ cell proliferation. Maternal XND-1 proteins are found in the P4 lineage and are exclusively localized to the nucleus in PGCs, Z2 and Z3. Zygotic XND-1 turns on shortly thereafter, at the ∼300-cell stage, making XND-1 the earliest zygotically expressed gene in worm PGCs. Strikingly, a subset of xnd-1 mutants lack germ cells, a phenotype shared with nos-2, a member of the conserved Nanos family of germline determinants. We generated a nos-2 null allele and show that nos-2; xnd-1 double mutants display synthetic sterility. Further removal of nos-1 leads to almost complete sterility, with the vast majority of animals without germ cells. Sterility in xnd-1 mutants is correlated with an increase in transcriptional activation-associated histone modification and aberrant expression of somatic transgenes. Together, these data strongly suggest that xnd-1 defines a new branch for PGC development that functions redundantly with nos-2 and nos-1 to promote germline fates by maintaining transcriptional quiescence and regulating germ cell proliferation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Montezuma Barbosa Monteiro Tínel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe, D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL. Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania.

  3. The identification of plant lectins with mucosal adjuvant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O'hagan, D T

    2001-01-01

    To date, the most potent mucosal vaccine adjuvants to be identified have been bacterial toxins. The present data demonstrate that the type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type 2 RIP), mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) is a strong mucosal adjuvant of plant origin. A number of plant lectins were investigated as intranasal (i.n.) coadjuvants for a bystander protein, ovalbumin (OVA). As a positive control, a potent mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin (CT), was used. Co-administration of ML-I or CT with OVA stimulated high titres of OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in addition to OVA-specific IgA in mucosal secretions. CT and ML-I were also strongly immunogenic, inducing high titres of specific serum IgG and specific IgA at mucosal sites. None of the other plant lectins investigated significantly boosted the response to co-administered OVA. Immunization with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus OVA elicited a lectin-specific response but did not stimulate an enhanced response to OVA compared with the antigen alone. Intranasal delivery of tomato lectin (LEA) elicited a strong lectin-specific systemic and mucosal antibody response but only weakly potentiated the response to co-delivered OVA. In contrast, administration of wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA) or Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-I) with OVA stimulated a serum IgG response to OVA while the lectin-specific responses (particularly for WGA) were relatively low. Thus, there was not a direct correlation between immunogenicity and adjuvanticity although the strongest adjuvants (CT, ML-I) were also highly immunogenic. PMID:11168640

  4. "Click" saccharide/beta-lactam hybrids for lectin inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Claudio; Aizpurua, Jesus M; Balentová, Eva; Azcune, Itxaso; Santos, J Ignacio; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Cañada, Javier; Miranda, José Ignacio

    2008-06-05

    Hybrid glycopeptide beta-lactam mimetics designed to bind lectins or carbohydrate recognition domains in selectins have been prepared according to a "shape-modulating linker" design. This approach was implemented using the azide-alkyne "click" cycloaddition reaction, and as shown by NMR/MD experiments, binding of the resulting mimetics to Ulex Europaeus Lectin-1 (UEL-1) occurred after a "bent-to-extended" conformational change around a partially rotatable triazolylmethylene moiety.

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel legume-like lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A legume-type lectin (L-lectin) gene of the red algae Gracilaria fisheri (GFL) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of GFL was 1714 bp and contained a 1542 bp open reading frame encoding 513 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.5 kDa. Analysis of the putative ...

  6. Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Skinner

    Full Text Available A number of environmental factors (e.g. toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Transgenerational inheritance requires the germline transmission of altered epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct environmental exposures. The primary periods for epigenetic programming of the germ line are those associated with primordial germ cell development and subsequent fetal germline development. The current study examined the actions of an agricultural fungicide vinclozolin on gestating female (F0 generation progeny in regards to the primordial germ cell (PGC epigenetic reprogramming of the F3 generation (i.e. great-grandchildren. The F3 generation germline transcriptome and epigenome (DNA methylation were altered transgenerationally. Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13 and after cord formation in the testis at embryonic day 16 (E16. A larger number of DNA methylation abnormalities (epimutations and transcriptional alterations were observed in the E13 germ cells than in the E16 germ cells. These observations indicate that altered transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming and function of the male germline is a component of vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Insights into the molecular control of germline transmitted epigenetic inheritance are provided.

  7. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Severo Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256µg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.

  8. New advances of wheat mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1991-09-01

    Five wheat varieties have been released between 1980 and 1990, these varieties possess early maturity, high yield, good quality, disease resistance and wide adaptability. They have been cultivated on 373 330 ha. Some of them are proved to be very valuable germ plasma for cross breeding. Technique of induced wheat mutation have been studied. Since selecting adaptable irradiation conditions, using combination of radiation with hybridization, irradiating male gamete, female gamete and zygote, soaking treatment with KH+2 32 PO 4 , etc., the efficiency of induced mutation have been increased. By combining radiation with distant hybridization, F 0 unfruitfulness and F 1 sterility have been overcome, and 21 wheat-rye translocation lines have been selected. One of them, 6BS/6RL translocation line, which is called Longfumai No. 4, was released in 1987. The procedure of inducting and identifying translocation lines has been raised already. Mature embryos, anthers and young embryos of wheat were irradiated and inoculated as explants. The rude toxin of Bipoloris sorokiniana, as a screening factor, was added to different medi and finally 3 lines with resistance to Bipoloris sorokiniana were selected. It was established that technical system for in-vitro radiation induced mutation and screening wheat mutants of resistance to disease. The biochemical identify methods for mutants have been studied already

  9. Direct analysis of the lectin reactivity of alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum by crossed affinity radio-immunoelectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerckaert, J.P.; Bayard, B.; Biserte, G.; Puech, F.; Codaccioni, X.

    1980-01-01

    Affinity experiments with the lentil (Lens culinaris) lectin have revealed the existence of two distinct molecular populations of alpha-fetoprotein: lectin reactive and lectin non-reactive. Using a combination of crossed lectin immunoelectrophoresis and radio-immunoelectrophoresis, it has been possible to obtain directly the lentil lectin affinity patterns of alpha-fetoprotein present in maternal sera. The lentil lectin reactivity of maternal alpha-fetoprotein decreases almost linearly with the gestational age from week 15 to 35. (Auth.)

  10. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  11. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  12. Interaction of lectins with membrane receptors on erythrocyte surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, L A; Kabat, E A; Chien, S

    1985-08-01

    The interactions of human genotype AO erythrocytes (red blood cells) (RBCs) with N-acetylgalactosamine-reactive lectins isolated from Helix pomatia (HPA) and from Dolichos biflorus (DBA) were studied. Binding curves obtained with the use of tritium-labeled lectins showed that the maximal numbers of lectin molecules capable of binding to human genotype AO RBCs were 3.8 X 10(5) and 2.7 X 10(5) molecules/RBC for HPA and DBA, respectively. The binding of one type of lectin may influence the binding of another type. HPA was found to inhibit the binding of DBA, but not vice versa. The binding of HPA was weakly inhibited by a beta-D-galactose-reactive lectin isolated from Ricinus communis (designated RCA1). Limulus polyphemus lectin (LPA), with specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid, did not influence the binding of HPA but enhanced the binding of DBA. About 80% of LPA receptors (N-acetylneuraminic acid) were removed from RBC surfaces by neuraminidase treatment. Neuraminidase treatment of RBCs resulted in increases of binding of both HPA and DBA, but through different mechanisms. An equal number (7.6 X 10(5) of new HPA sites were generated on genotypes AO and OO RBCs by neuraminidase treatment, and these new sites accounted for the enhancement (AO cells) and appearance (OO cells) of hemagglutinability by HPA. Neuraminidase treatment did not generate new DBA sites, but increased the DBA affinity for the existing receptors; as a result, genotype AO cells increased their hemagglutinability by DBA, while OO cells remained unagglutinable. The use of RBCs of different genotypes in binding assays with 3H-labeled lectins of known specificities provides an experimental system for studying cell-cell recognition and association.

  13. DNA repair studies in mammalian germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    In submammalian test systems, nitrosocarbamates (NEC) are 100-fold more mutagenic than are their corresponding nitrosourea homologues. To learn more about its interaction with germ-cell DNA in the mouse testis, male mice were given i.p. injections of NEC. Testicular injections of [ 3 H]dThd were given along with the NEC. Sixteen days after treatment, sperm were recovered from the caudal epididymides and assayed for an unscheduled-DNA-synthesis

  14. Diagnostic markers for germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2015-01-01

    This concise review summarises tissue and serum markers useful for differential diagnosis of germ cell tumours (GCTs), with focus on the most common testicular GCTs (TGCTs). GCTs are characterised by phenotypic heterogeneity due to largely retained embryonic pluripotency and aberrant somatic diff...... of molecular markers, which allow specific diagnosis of various subtypes of GCT and are very useful for early detection at the precursor stage and for monitoring of patients during the follow-up....

  15. A role for Lin28 in primordial germ cell development and germ cell malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jason A.; Viswanathan, Srinivas R.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Cunniff, Kerianne; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Park, In-Hyun; Sero, Julia E.; Zhu, Hao; Perez-Atayde, Antonio; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Surani, M. Azim; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    The rarity and inaccessibility of the earliest primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the mouse embryo thwarts efforts to investigate molecular mechanisms of germ cell specification. Stella marks the minute founder population of the germ lineage1,2. Here we differentiate mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) carrying a Stella transgenic reporter into putative PGCs in vitro. The Stella+ cells possess a transcriptional profile similar to embryo-derived PGCs, and like their counterparts in vivo, lose imprints in a time-dependent manner. Using inhibitory RNAs to screen candidate genes for effects on the development of Stella+ cells in vitro, we discovered that Lin28, a negative regulator of let-7 microRNA processing3-6, is essential for proper PGC development. We further show that Blimp1, a let-7 target and a master regulator of PGC specification7-9, can rescue the effect of Lin28-deficiency during PGC development, thereby establishing a mechanism of action for Lin28 during PGC specification. Over-expression of Lin28 promotes formation of Stella+ cells in vitro and PGCs in chimeric embryos, and is associated with human germ cell tumours. The differentiation of putative PGCs from ESCs in vitro recapitulates the early stages of gamete development in vivo, and provides an accessible system for discovering novel genes involved in germ cell development and malignancy. PMID:19578360

  16. Radiation Therapy of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Choi, Doo Ho; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors treated by megavoltage external beam irradiation between Feb. 1979 and Dec. 1985. Follow-up period of survivors was 30 to 91 months. Histologic diagnosis was obtained before radiation therapy in 10 patients (9 germinomas and 1 mixed). Five patients were treated without histologic verification. In 9 patients with biopsy-proven germinomas radiation therapy was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 6, to the whole brain in 3. In 5 patients with mixed germ cell tumor or elevated tumor marker, irradiation was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 2, to the whole brain in 2, and to the primary site only in 1. Total doses ranged from 5,000 to 5,500 cGy to the primary site, 3,000 to 4,400 cGy to the whole brain, and 1,300 to 3,000 cGy to the spine. In these 14, local tumor was controlled and primary or spinal failure was not observed. One patient without elevated tumor marker was treated to the whole brain, The tumor was not controlled and he had spinal recurrence. It is proven that radiation therapy is an effective treatment for suprasellar germ cell tumors. The neuroendocrinologic presentation, tumor marker status, early response to radiation measured on CT seem to be useful means for selecting patients for radiation therapy when tissue diagnosis is not available

  17. Understanding Mammalian Germ Line Development with In Vitro Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Míguez-Forján, Jose M; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Medrano, Jose V

    2015-09-15

    Germ line development is crucial in organisms with sexual reproduction to complete their life cycle. In mammals, knowledge about germ line development is based mainly on the mouse model, in which genetic and epigenetic events are well described. However, little is known about how germ line development is orchestrated in humans, especially in the earliest stages. New findings derived from human in vitro models to obtain germ cells can shed light on these questions. This comprehensive review summarizes the current knowledge about mammalian germ line development, emphasizing the state of the art obtained from in vitro models for germ cell-like cell derivation. Current knowledge of the pluripotency cycle and germ cell specification has allowed different in vitro strategies to obtain germ cells with proven functionality in mouse models. Several reports during the last 10 years show that in vitro germ cell derivation with proven functionality to generate a healthy offspring is possible in mice. However, differences in the embryo development and pluripotency potential between human and mouse make it difficult to extrapolate these results. Further efforts on both human and mouse in vitro models to obtain germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may help to elucidate how human physiological events take place; therefore, therapeutic strategies can also be considered.

  18. Convergent evolution of germ granule nucleators: A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Arpita; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2017-10-01

    Germ cells have been considered "the ultimate stem cell" because they alone, during normal development of sexually reproducing organisms, are able to give rise to all organismal cell types. Morphological descriptions of a specialized cytoplasm termed 'germ plasm' and associated electron dense ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures called 'germ granules' within germ cells date back as early as the 1800s. Both germ plasm and germ granules are implicated in germ line specification across metazoans. However, at a molecular level, little is currently understood about the molecular mechanisms that assemble these entities in germ cells. The discovery that in some animals, the gene products of a small number of lineage-specific genes initiate the assembly (also termed nucleation) of germ granules and/or germ plasm is the first step towards facilitating a better understanding of these complex biological processes. Here, we draw on research spanning over 100years that supports the hypothesis that these nucleator genes may have evolved convergently, allowing them to perform analogous roles across animal lineages. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marijne Heeren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception. Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development.

  20. Tear fluid analysis in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome using lectin probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Kirsten Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    Ophthalmology, Sjögren's syndrome, dry eye, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, glycoprotein, mucus, lectins, Coomassie, electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE-blotting......Ophthalmology, Sjögren's syndrome, dry eye, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, glycoprotein, mucus, lectins, Coomassie, electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE-blotting...

  1. Wheat biotechnology: A minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, Debasis; Khurana, Paramjit

    2001-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulties associated with gene delivery into regenerable explants and recovery of plantlets with the introduced transgene, wheat was the last among cereals to be genetically transformed. This review attempts to summarize different efforts in the direction of achieving genetic transformation of wheat by various methods. Particle bombardment is the most widely employed procedure for the introduction of marker genes and also for the generation of transformed wheat with int...

  2. Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pągowska-Klimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host.

  3. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  4. Probing the cons and pros of lectin-induced immunomodulation: case studies for the mistletoe lectin and galectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, H J

    2001-07-01

    When imagining to monitor animal cells through a microscope with resolution at the molecular level, a salient attribute of their surfaces will be the abundance of glycan chains. They present galactosides at their termini widely extending like tentacles into the extracellular space. Their spatial accessibility and their potential for structural variability endow especially these glycan parts with capacity to act as docking points for molecular sensors (sugar receptors such as lectins). Binding and ligand clustering account for transmission of post-binding signals into the cell interior. The range of triggered activities has turned plant lectins into popular tools in cell biology and immunology. Potential for clinical application has been investigated rigorously only in recent years. As documented in vitro and in vivo for the galactoside-specific mistletoe lectin, its apparent immunomodulatory capacity reflected in upregulation of production of proinflammatory cytokines will not necessarily be clinically favorable but a double-edged sword. In fact, lectin application has been shown to stimulate tumor growth in cell lines, histocultures of human tumors and in two animal models using chemical carcinogenesis or tumor transplantation. When testing immunological effects of the endogenous lectin galectin-1, protection against disorders mediated by activated T cells came up for consideration. Elimination of these cells via CD7-dependent induction of apoptosis, and a shift to the Th2 response by the galectin, are factors to ameliorate disease states. This result encourages further efforts with other galectins. Functional redundancy, synergism, diversity or antagonism among galectins are being explored to understand the actual role of this class of endogenous lectins in inflammation. Regardless of the results of further preclinical testing for galectin-1, these two case studies break new ground in our understanding how glycans as ligands for lectins convey reactivity to

  5. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  6. Lectin histochemical evaluation of glycoconjugates in dog efferent ductules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, S; Furusato, M; Takahashi, H; Motoya, M; Ushigome, S

    1996-06-01

    Glycoconjugates in the epithelial cells of the efferent ductules in the dog were investigated using lectin histochemistry. These ductules connect the extratesticular rete with the epididymis. The epithelium of the ductules consisted both of ciliated and nonciliated cells. Whereas the apical zone of ciliated cells showed selective binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA and neuraminidase-PNA, that of nonciliated cells bound to all lectins used in the present study: WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA, PNA, neuraminidase-PNA, RCA1, DBA and SBA. The nonciliated cells were divided into 3 types: type A cells which lacked both specific granules and vacuoles, type B cells which were characterised by a few specific apical vacuoles and many large specific granules, and type C cells which were characterised by some specific apical vacuoles and small basal granules. The specific granules and vacuoles of type B cells showed binding with WGA, SWGA and MAA. The specific granules of type C cells showed binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA, PNA and neuraminidase-PNA, while their specific vacuoles showed binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA and MAA. The Golgi zone both of ciliated and type A cells did not bind with any lectins used in this study, while type B and C cells showed similar lectin binding patterns between the Golgi zone and their specific granules. Specific lectin binding patterns revealed a different carbohydrate composition of each type of cell, indicating a biological difference between the ciliated cells and the 3 types of nonciliated cells in dog efferent ductules.

  7. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membrane structural changes of soleus muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats were detected with a panel of six biotinylated lectins. Samples of muscles were obtained from normal and diabetic rats. The biotinylated lectins in staining were detected by avidin-peroxidase complex. Lectin stainning of soleus muscle cryostat sections ...

  8. DMPD: C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18160296 C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Willment JA, Brown GD. Tre...nds Microbiol. 2008 Jan;16(1):27-32. Epub 2007 Dec 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show C-type lectin receptors in antifun...gal immunity. PubmedID 18160296 Title C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Author

  9. Lin28a regulates germ cell pool size and fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Gen; de Soysa, T. Yvanka; Seligson, Marc T.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Huang, Pei Yi; Hagan, John P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Moss, Eric G.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of LIN28A is associated with human germ cell tumors and promotes primordial germ cell (PGC) development from embryonic stem cells in vitro and in chimeric mice. Knockdown of Lin28a inhibits PGC development in vitro, but how constitutional Lin28a deficiency affects the mammalian reproductive system in vivo remains unknown. Here, we generated Lin28a knockout (KO) mice and found that Lin28a deficiency compromises the size of the germ cell pool in both males and females by affecting PGC proliferation during embryogenesis. Interestingly however, in Lin28a KO males the germ cell pool partially recovers during postnatal expansion, while fertility remains impaired in both males and females mated to wild type mice. Embryonic overexpression of let-7, a microRNA negatively regulated by Lin28a, reduces the germ cell pool, corroborating the role of the Lin28a/let-7 axis in regulating the germ lineage. PMID:23378032

  10. Germ Plasm Biogenesis--An Oskar-Centric Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Germ granules are the hallmark of all germ cells. These membrane-less, electron-dense structures were first observed over 100 years ago. Today, their role in regulating and processing transcripts critical for the establishment, maintenance, and protection of germ cells is well established, and pathways outlining the biochemical mechanisms and physical properties associated with their biogenesis are emerging. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Apios Tuber Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Kenmochi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apios tuber lectin, named ATL, was isolated from Apios americana Medikus by two chromatography steps, hydrophobic chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The minimum concentration required for the hemagglutination activity toward rabbit erythrocytes of ATL was 4 μg/mL. ATL was composed of a homodimer of 28.4 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of ATL was similar to those of other legume lectins. The lectin showed moderate stability toward heating and acidic pH, and the binding affinity against several monosaccharides, such as D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine. ATL also bound to desialylated or agalactosylated glycoproteins such as asialo and agalacto transferrin. ATL decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting the effect on the tight junction-mediated paracellular transport.

  12. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H P S; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blends had higher loaf volume as compared to bran and germ breads. Among corn byproducts, gluten cookies were rated superior with respect to top grain. Muffins from germ blends and gluten blends had higher acceptability scores than the bran muffins. Blending of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten at 5 and 10% with wheat flour resulted in satisfactory bread, cookie, and muffin score. Quality of noodles was significantly influenced by addition of corn byproducts and their levels. Corn byproducts blending had significant influence on cooking time, however, gruel solid loss affected non-significantly in case of noodles. Expansion ratio and density of extruded snacks was affected non significantly by blending source and blending level. However, significant effect was observed on amperage, pressure, yield and overall acceptability of extruded snacks. Acceptable extruded products (noodles and extruded snacks) could be produced by blending corn byproducts with semolina upto 10% level.

  13. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular biological features of male germ cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIROSE, MIKA; TOKUHIRO, KEIZO; TAINAKA, HITOSHI; MIYAGAWA, YASUSHI; TSUJIMURA, AKIRA; OKUYAMA, AKIHIKO; NISHIMUNE, YOSHITAKE

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell differentiation is required throughout the life of a multicellular organism to maintain homeostasis. In contrast, germ cells have only one specific function; to preserve the species by conveying the parental genes to the next generation. Recent studies of the development and molecular biology of the male germ cell have identified many genes, or isoforms, that are specifically expressed in the male germ cell. In the present review, we consider the unique features of male germ cell differentiation. (Reprod Med Biol 2007; 6: 1–9) PMID:29699260

  15. Effect of Lectins from Diocleinae Subtribe against Oral Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Holanda Teixeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface colonization is an essential step in biofilm development. The ability of oral pathogens to adhere to tooth surfaces is directly linked with the presence of specific molecules at the bacterial surface that can interact with enamel acquired pellicle ligands. In light of this, the aim of this study was to verify inhibitory and antibiofilm action of lectins from the Diocleinaesubtribe against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis. The inhibitory action against planctonic cells was assessed using lectins from Canavaliaensi formis (ConA, Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr, Canavalia maritima (ConM, Canavalia gladiata (CGL and Canavalia boliviana (ConBol. ConBol, ConBr and ConM showed inhibitory activity on S. mutans growth. All lectins, except ConA, stimulated significantly the growth of S. oralis. To evaluate the effect on biofilm formation, clarified saliva was added to 96-well, flat-bottomed polystyrene plates, followed by the addition of solutions containing 100 or 200 µg/mL of the selected lectins. ConBol, ConM and ConA inhibited the S. mutans biofilms. No effects were found on S. oralis biofilms. Structure/function analysis were carried out using bioinformatics tools. The aperture and deepness of the CRD (Carbohydrate Recognition Domain permit us to distinguish the two groups of Canavalia lectins in accordance to their actions against S. mutans and S. oralis. The results found provide a basis for encouraging the use of plant lectins as biotechnological tools in ecological control and prevention of caries disease.

  16. Purification of a thermostable antinociceptive lectin isolated from Andira anthelmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Nascimento, Francisco Lucas Faustino do; Silva, Mayara Torquato Lima; Nobre, Camila Bezerra; Moreira, Cleane Gomes; Brizeno, Luiz André Cavalcante; da Ponte, Edson Lopes; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Andira anthelmia (tribe Dalbergieae), a plant from Brazilian Amazon, possesses a seed lectin that was purified by affinity chromatography in sepharose-mannose. This novel Dalbergieae lectin, named AAL, agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes treated with trypsin. The hemagglutinating activity of AAL was maintained after incubation at a wide range of temperature (40 to 70 °C) and pH, was shown to be dependent on divalent cations, and was inhibited by d-mannose and d-sucrose. AAL showed an electrophoretic profile in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis similar to other lectins of the tribe Dalbergieae, presenting a double band of molecular weight with approximately 20 kDa and other minor bands of 17, 15, and 13 kDa, being the smaller fragment glycosylated. AAL injected by intravenous route in mice showed antinociceptive activity in two behavioral tests (writhing and formalin). In the writhing test induced by acetic acid, AAL showed inhibitory effect at 0.01 mg/kg (68%), 0.1 mg/kg (46%) and 1 mg/kg (74%). In the formalin test, AAL (0.1 mg/kg) inhibited by 48% the licking time in the inflammatory phase, an effect that was recovered by the lectin association with mannose. In conclusion, AAL presents analgesic effect involving the lectin domain via peripheral mechanisms of inflammatory nociception. This activity highlights the importance of lectins as tools to be used for understanding the interaction of protein-carbohydrate in processes associated to inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Studies on murine plasmocytoma treatment with mistletoe lectin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, F.; Storch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Mistletoe lectin I was tested in vivo and in vitro for its cytotoxic activity against murine plasmacytoma cells P3/X63-Ag8. As a result of this treatment, 30 to 60% of the BALB/c mice developed complete tumor regressions. 83% of the mice treated with mistletoe lectin I were resistant to viable tumor cell challenge after 100 days. The cytotoxic activity in vitro tested by 3 H-thymidine incorporation into P3/X63-Ag8 cells was very high. The rate was markedly reduced at concentrations up to 0.07 ng/ml. (author)

  18. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, B.; Martensson, U.; Weintraub, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera...... and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen-specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S...

  19. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Angeli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1,4 did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column.

  20. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  1. Gene manipulation: churches against germ changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, S

    An immediate ban on human genetic engineering that alters germ cells is called for in a resolution, written by activist Jeremy Rifkin, that was released last week over the signatures of 21 Catholic bishops, a broad spectrum of Protestant and Jewish religious leaders, and three scientists. The resolution takes a much harder line than was espoused by religious leaders in a letter to the now-defunct President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Several of the signers indicated that they did not fully agree with the resolution, but saw it as a good vehicle to encourage public discussion.

  2. Collectin-11/MASP complex formation triggers activation of the lectin complement pathway--the fifth lectin pathway initiation complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Collectins and ficolins are important in the clearance of endogenous and exogenous danger materials. A new human collectin-11 was recently identified in low concentration in serum in complex with mannose-binding lectin (MBL)/ficolin-associated serine proteases. Collectin-11 binds to carbohydrate...... complement complex on C. albicans. Moreover, spiking collectin-11-depleted serum, which did not mediate complement activation, with recombinant collectin-11 restored the complement activation capability. These results define collectin-11 as the fifth recognition molecule in the lectin complement pathway...

  3. Purification and characterization of a new type lactose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin by affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1991-02-01

    A new type lactose-binding lectin was purified from extracts of Ulex europaeus seeds by affinity chromatography on a column of galactose-Sepharose 4B, followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. This lectin, designated as Ulex europaeus lectin III (UEA-III), was found to be inhibited by lactose. The dimeric lectin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 70,000 Da; it consists of two apparently identical subunits of a molecular mass of 34,000 Da. Compositional analysis showed that this lectin contains 30% carbohydrate and a large amount of aspartic acid, serine and valine, but no sulfur-containing amino acids. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin I (UEA-I) and di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin II (UEA-II), both of which we have already purified and characterized, and that of UEA-III were determined and compared.

  4. Radiation- induced aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tease, C.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of ionizing radiation to induce aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells has been investigated experimentally in the laboratory mouse using a variety of cytogenetic and genetic methods. These studies have provided unambiguous evidence of induced nondisjunction in both male and female germ cells when the effect of irradiation is screened in meiotic cells or preimplantation embryos. In contrast, however, cytogenetic analyses of post-implantation embryos and genetic assays for induced chromosome gains have not found a significant radiation effect. These apparently contradictory findings may be reconciled if (a) radiation induces tertiary rather than primary trisomy, or (b) induces embryo-lethal genetic damage, such as deletions, in addition to numerical anomalies. Either or both of these explanations may account for the apparent loss during gestation of radiation-induced trisomic embryos. Extrapolating from the information so far available, it seems unlikely that environmental exposure to low doses if low dose rate radiation will result in a detectable increase in the rate of aneuploidy in the human population. (author)

  5. Intestinal obstruction in germ-free dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, J B; Robinson, J W; Menge, H; Winistörfer, B

    1981-08-01

    Mechanical occlusions were created in the intestines of four germ-free dogs. At the time of the operation, a control loop of mid-intestine was perfused in vivo and then excised for examinations in vitro, which included the determination of the equilibrium uptake of phenylalanine and of beta-methyl-glucoside, the influx kinetics of phenylalanine and morphometric analysis of the mucosa by microdissection and stereological techniques. Seven days after establishment of the occlusion the abdomen was reopened, and loops above and below the occlusion were perfused, and then excised for the same tests in vitro. Unlike occluded loops of conventional dogs, the intestine of the germ-free animal above the occlusion does not secrete water and electrolytes into the lumen. Its transport properties in vitro do not differ from those of the control loop, and the morphometric analyses reveal only slight changes in villus structure. The loop below the obstruction undergoes marked atrophy, as has been observed in conventional dogs. The results suggest that the copious secretion that occurs above an intestinal obstruction in normal animals is due to the presence of an abundant bacterial population in the obstruction fluid.

  6. Primordial germ cells and amnion development in the avian embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Melo Bernardo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the progenitors of the gametes, responsible for transmitting genetic information from generation to generation. Although there is a long history of gamete biology research, there is still a lot to be learned about many of the mechanisms underlying germ cell

  7. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make hormones. Yolk sac tumors make the hormone alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Mixed germ cell tumors are made of ... used to diagnose some CNS germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Blood ...

  8. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  9. Germ cell transplantation in an azoospermic Klinefelter bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerg, Hannes; Janett, Fredi; Schlatt, Stefan; Mueller, Simone; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Suwattana, Duangsmorn; Asai, Mika; Stranzinger, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Germ cell transplantation is a technique that transfers donor testicular cells into recipient testes. A population of germ cells can colonize the recipient testis, initiate spermatogenesis, and produce sperm capable of fertilization. In the present study, a nonmosaic Klinefelter bull was used as a germ cell recipient. The donor cell suspension was introduced into the rete testis using ultrasound-guided puncture. A pulsatile administration of GnRH was performed to stimulate spermatogenesis. The molecular approach to detect donor cells was done by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction with allele discrimination based on a genetic mutation between donor and recipient. Therefore, a known genetic mutation, associated with coat-color phenotype, was used to calculate the ratio of donor to recipient cells in the biopsy specimens and ejaculates for 10 mo. After slaughtering, meiotic preparations were performed. The injected germ cells did not undergo spermatogenesis. Six months after germ cell transplantation, the donor cells were rejected, which indicates that the donor cells could not incorporate in the testis. The hormone stimulation showed that the testosterone-producing Leydig cells were functionally intact. Despite subfertility therapy, neither the recipient nor the donor cells underwent spermatogenesis. Therefore, nonmosaic Klinefelter bulls are not suitable as germ cell recipients. Future germ cell recipients in cattle could be mosaic Klinefelters, interspecies hybrids, bulls with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, or bulls with disrupted germ cell migration caused by RNA interference.

  10. Editorial Introduction [to Female Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an editorial introduction to the special issue of utation Research, titled, emale Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic isk, which is an attempt to present a collection of papers that emphasize the distinct properties of female germ cells and their characteristic response to mu...

  11. Antiproliferative activity of cytotoxic tuber lectins from Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... E-mail: hasanimtiaj@yahoo.co.uk, rashelkabir@ru.ac.bd. .... blue and then counted by a hemocytometer under an inverted microscope (XDS-1R .... and lectin-treated mice counted by a light microscope on day. 6 of tumor ...

  12. Mitogenic Properties Of Lectin From Mucuna Sloanei Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (p<0.05) increases in the values of the immunological parameters relative to those seen in the controls. This study, suggest that the isolated lectin from mucona sloanei seeds possesses mitogenic properties, and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases such as blood typing disorders and obesity.

  13. Tetranectin, a trimeric plasminogen-binding C-type lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtet, T L; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Clemmensen, I

    1997-01-01

    -linking analysis and SDS-PAGE to be a homo-trimer in solution as are other known members of the collectin family of C-type lectins. Biochemical evidence is presented showing that an N-terminal domain encoded within exons 1 and 2 of the tetranectin gene is necessary and sufficient to govern subunit trimerization....

  14. Cancer Biomarker Discovery: Lectin-Based Strategies Targeting Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker discovery can identify molecular markers in various cancers that can be used for detection, screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease progression. Lectin-affinity is a technique that can be used for the enrichment of glycoproteins from a complex sample, facilitating the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers associated with a disease state.

  15. Clinical manifestations of mannan-binding lectin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Frederiksen, P D; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2006-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a plasma protein of the innate immune system with the ability to initiate antimicrobial and inflammatory actions. MBL deficiency is common. More than 10% of the general population may, depending on definition, be classified as MBL deficient, underlining the redundan...

  16. Protozoa lectins and their role in host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Walia, Amandeep Kaur; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc., and bind reversibly to carbohydrates present on the apposing cells. They have at least two carbohydrate binding sites and their binding can be inhibited by one or more carbohydrates. Owing to carbohydrate binding specificity of lectins, they mediate cell-cell interactions and play role in protozoan adhesion and host cell cytotoxicity, thus are central to the pathogenic property of the parasite. Several parasitic protozoa possess lectins which mediate parasite adherence to host cells based on their carbohydrate specificities. These interactions could be exploited for development of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence and thus helpful in eradicating wide spread of protozoan diseases. The current review highlights the present state knowledge with regard to protozoal lectins with an emphasis on their haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, characteristics and also their role in pathogenesis notably as adhesion molecules, thereby aiding the pathogen in disease establishment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mannan-binding lectin in astma and allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, S.; Thiel, Steffen; Sarma, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a vital and versatile component of innate immunity. It is present in serum and may bind to a plethora of microbial pathogens and mediate opsonization of these by complement-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Low-MBL levels in serum, attributed to certain genet...

  18. Presenting Precision Glycomacromolecules on Gold Nanoparticles for Increased Lectin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Boden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-functionalized gold nanoparticles have great potential as biosensors and as inhibitors due to their increased binding to carbohydrate-recognizing receptors such as the lectins. Here we apply previously developed solid phase polymer synthesis to obtain a series of precision glycomacromolecules that allows for straightforward variation of their chemical structure as well as functionalization of gold nanoparticles by ligand exchange. A novel building block is introduced allowing for the change of spacer building blocks within the macromolecular scaffold going from an ethylene glycol unit to an aliphatic spacer. Furthermore, the valency and overall length of the glycomacromolecule is varied. All glyco-functionalized gold nanoparticles show high degree of functionalization along with high stability in buffer solution. Therefore, a series of measurements applying UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS and surface plasmon resonance (SPR were performed studying the aggregation behavior of the glyco-functionalized gold nanoparticles in presence of model lectin Concanavalin A. While the multivalent presentation of glycomacromolecules on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs showed a strong increase in binding compared to the free ligands, we also observed an influence of the chemical structure of the ligand such as its valency or hydrophobicity on the resulting lectin interactions. The straightforward variation of the chemical structure of the precision glycomacromolecule thus gives access to tailor-made glyco-gold nanoparticles (glyco-AuNPs and fine-tuning of their lectin binding properties.

  19. Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by dendritic cells are crucial for tailoring immune responses to pathogens. Following pathogen binding, CLRs trigger distinct signalling pathways that induce the expression of specific cytokines which determine T cell polarization fates. Some CLRs can induce

  20. Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Nabi, Md Mahamodun; Nurujjaman, Md; Abu Reza, Md; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Uz Zaman, Rokon; Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Khandaker Md; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Md Masudul Hasan; Hossain, Md Anowar; Uddin, Md Salim; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2015-03-01

    In last three decades, several studies were carried out on the D-galactose-specific lectin of Momordica charantia seeds (MCL). In the present study, in vitro growth inhibition (8-23 %) at different concentrations (6-24 μg/ml) of MCL was observed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MCL also showed 28, 45, and 75 % growth inhibitions against EAC cells when administered 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.), respectively for five consequent days in vivo in mice. After lectin treatment, the level of red blood cell and hemoglobin was increased significantly with the decrease of white blood cell and maintained the normal level when compared with EAC-bearing control and normal mice without EAC cells. Although MCL caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells, any irregular shape or apoptotic morphological alterations in the lectin-treated EAC cells was not observed by an optical and fluorescence microscope. Lectin showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC50 value of 49.7 μg/ml. Four out of seven pathogenic bacteria were agglutinated by MCL in the absence of inhibitory sugar D-lactose/D-galactose. In conclusion, MCL showed strong cytotoxic effect and therefore can be used as a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent.

  1. Galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin: the coordinator of host cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Involvement of the lectin ... tion of the extra-cellular matrix (DeMeester et al 1990). The goal of this review is to ... E. histolytica molecules discovered that bind these resi- dues are the ..... Fas-dependent, non-tumor necrosis factor alpha depen-.

  2. Mannan-binding lectin and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Complement activation may play a prominent role in acute pancreatitis (AP). Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) participate in complement activation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of MBL and MASP-2 as markers in AP with regard...

  3. Developmental arrest of germ cells in the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Brøndum-Nielsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Clinical observations and epidemiological evidence suggest that important aetiopathological events that cause neoplastic transformation of the male germ cell may occur in fetal life or early infancy. The incidence of germ cell neoplasia is high in individuals with various disorders of gonadal...... development and sexual differentiation, such as gonadal dysgenesis or androgen insensitivity syndrome. Increased risk has also been noted in individuals with trisomy 21, idiopathic infertility and low birth weight. Infertility is sometimes associated with small aberrations of sex chromosomes (e.g. low...... frequency mosaicism XY/XO) which can also be found in patients with testicular cancer. The variety of conditions that predispose to testicular neoplasia and the rise in its incidence in many countries speaks for the influence of environmental factors which may affect genetically predisposed individuals. We...

  4. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  5. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C

    2017-09-23

    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis b motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of germ cell-specific expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D; Niederberger, C; Slaughter, G R; Cooney, A J

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear receptors, such as those for androgens, estrogens, and progesterones, control many reproductive processes. Proteins with structures similar to these receptors, but for which ligands have not yet been identified, have been termed orphan nuclear receptors. One of these orphans, germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), has been shown to be germ cell specific in the adult and, therefore, may also participate in the regulation of reproductive functions. In this paper, we examine more closely the expression patterns of GCNF in germ cells to begin to define spatio-temporal domains of its activity. In situ hybridization showed that GCNF messenger RNA (mRNA) is lacking in the testis of hypogonadal mutant mice, which lack developed spermatids, but is present in the wild-type testis. Thus, GCNF is, indeed, germ cell specific in the adult male. Quantitation of the specific in situ hybridization signal in wild-type testis reveals that GCNF mRNA is most abundant in stage VII round spermatids. Similarly, Northern analysis and specific in situ hybridization show that GCNF expression first occurs in testis of 20-day-old mice, when round spermatids first emerge. Therefore, in the male, GCNF expression occurs postmeiotically and may participate in the morphological changes of the maturing spermatids. In contrast, female expression of GCNF is shown in growing oocytes that have not completed the first meiotic division. Thus, GCNF in the female is expressed before the completion of meiosis. Finally, the nature of the two different mRNAs that hybridize to the GCNF complementary DNA was studied. Although both messages contain the DNA binding domain, only the larger message is recognized by a probe from the extreme 3' untranslated region. In situ hybridization with these differential probes demonstrates that both messages are present in growing oocytes. In addition, the coding region and portions of the 3' untranslated region of the GCNF complementary DNA are conserved in the rat.

  7. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, M.; Uozumi, T.; Kiya, K.; Mukada, K.; Arita, K.; Kurisu, K.; Sugiyama, K.; Onda, J.; Satoh, H.; Ikawa, F.; Migita, K.

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  8. Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

    1982-01-01

    Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD 50 as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, 3 HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD 50 level for chronic exposure being only 2μCi/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with 60 Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of 3 HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 μCi/ml, the LD 50 level being 0.5 μCi/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as 3 HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as 3 H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female

  9. Mannan-binding lectin and healing of a radiation-induced chronic ulcer--a case report on mannan-binding lectin replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Bonde, C; Laursen, I

    2011-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin is an important component of innate immunity, and insufficiency is associated with several clinical disorders. Recently, experimental replacement therapy with plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin has become an option. The current article presents the case of a patient with a...

  10. The galactophilic lectin (PA-IL, gene LecA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Its binding requirements and the localization of lectin receptors in various mouse tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Hansen, Axel K; d'Apice, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    . aeruginosa lectin were compared with the results obtained using an isolectin from the legume shrub Griffonia simplicifolia: the GSI-134 isolectin, which is highly specific for glycans terminating in Ga1 alpha 1-R. In the wild-type mice, lectin histochemistry showed a strong capillary reaction in heart...

  11. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  12. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  13. Studies on lectins. XXXII. Application of affinity electrophoresis to the study of the interaction of lectins and their derivatives with sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsí, V; Tichá, M; Kocourek, J

    1977-09-29

    Affinity electrophoresis was used to study the sugar binding heterogeneity of lectins or their derivatives. Commercial and demetallized preparations of concanavalin A could be resolved by affinity electrophoresis into three components with different affinity to immobilized sugar. Similarly the Vicia cracca lectin obtained by affinity chromatography behaved on affinity gels as a mixture of active and inactive molecular species. Affinity electrophoresis has shown that the nonhemagglutinating acetylated lentil lectin and photo-oxidized or sulfenylated pea lectin retain their sugar binding properties; dissociation constants of saccharide complexes of these derivatives are similar to those of native lectins. The presence of specific immobilized sugar in the affinity gel improved the resolution of isolectins from Dolichos biflorus and Ricinus communis seeds.

  14. Plant lectins: the ties that bind in root symbiosis and plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoff, Peter L; Brill, Laurence M; Hirsch, Ann M

    2009-07-01

    Lectins are a diverse group of carbohydrate-binding proteins that are found within and associated with organisms from all kingdoms of life. Several different classes of plant lectins serve a diverse array of functions. The most prominent of these include participation in plant defense against predators and pathogens and involvement in symbiotic interactions between host plants and symbiotic microbes, including mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Extensive biological, biochemical, and molecular studies have shed light on the functions of plant lectins, and a plethora of uncharacterized lectin genes are being revealed at the genomic scale, suggesting unexplored and novel diversity in plant lectin structure and function. Integration of the results from these different types of research is beginning to yield a more detailed understanding of the function of lectins in symbiosis, defense, and plant biology in general.

  15. High molecular weight lectin isolated from the mucus of the giant African snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigeru; Shimizu, Masahiro; Nagatsuka, Maki; Kitajima, Seiji; Honda, Michiyo; Tsuchiya, Takahide; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    To understand better the host defense mechanisms of mollusks against pathogens, we examined the anti-microbial activity of mucus from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Hemagglutination activity of the mucus secreted by the integument of snails inoculated with Escherichia coli was observed to increase and to cause hemagglutination of rabbit red blood cells. Purification of the snail mucus lectin by sequential column chromatography revealed that the relative molecular mass of the lectin was 350 kDa. The hemagglutination activity of the lectin was Ca(2+)-dependent and was inhibited by galactose. Growth arrest tests showed that the lectin did not inhibit bacterial growth, but did induce agglutination of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Tissue distribution analyses using a polyclonal antibody revealed that the lectin was expressed in the tissues of the mantle collar. The lectin isolated from the mucus of the snail appeared to contribute to its innate immunity.

  16. Lectins in fish skin: do they play a role in host-monogenean interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, K

    2001-09-01

    Mucus samples from rainbow trout skin with or without infections by Gyrodactylus derjavini were tested for the presence of lectins reacting with mannose, galactose and lactose. The samples inhibited the binding of biotinylated lectins (from Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia and Erythrina corallodendron, respectively) to microtitre plates with covalently bound carbohydrates (mannopyranoside, galactopyranoside and lactose, respectively). However, the inhibition of C. ensiformis and A. integrifolia lectins was slightly greater when mucus from infected (but recovering) fish was used, suggesting an increase of mannose and galactose binding lectins in fish skin exposed to parasites. As mannose, galactose and lactose are present on the glycocalyx of Gyrodactylus derjavini, it is suggested that lectins could play a dual role in interactions between fish hosts and their monogenean parasites. Thus, recognition between parasite and host and also host responses towards parasite infections could both, at least partly, involve carbohydrate-lectin binding.

  17. Electronic Detection of Lectins Using Carbohydrate Functionalized Nanostructures: Graphene versus Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanan; Vedala, Harindra; Kotchey, Gregg P.; Audfray, Aymeric; Cecioni, Samy; Imberty, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien; Star, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Here we investigated the interactions between lectins and carbohydrates using field-effect transistor (FET) devices comprised of chemically converted graphene (CCG) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Pyrene- and porphyrin-based glycoconjugates were functionalized noncovalently on the surface of CCG-FET and SWNT-FET devices, which were then treated with 2 µM of nonspecific and specific lectins. In particular, three different lectins (PA-IL, PA-IIL and ConA) and three carbohydrate epitopes (galactose, fucose and mannose) were tested. The responses of 36 different devices were compared and rationalized using computer-aided models of carbon nanostructure/glycoconjugate interactions. Glycoconjugates surface coverage in addition to one-dimensional structures of SWNTs resulted in optimal lectin detection. Additionally, lectin titration data of SWNT- and CCG-based biosensors were used to calculate lectin dissociation constants (Kd) and compare them to the values obtained from the isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) technique. PMID:22136380

  18. Visualizing the dental biofilm matrix by means of fluorescence lectin-binding analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawakoli, Pune Nina; Neu, Thomas R; Busck, Mette Marie

    2017-01-01

    lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal microscopy. FLBA was then performed with 10 selected lectins on biofilms grown in situ for 48 h in the absence......The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled......-biofilms: Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Calystega sepiem (Calsepa), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA), Morniga-G (MNA-G) and Helix pomatia (HPA). No significant correlation between the binding of specific lectins and bacterial composition was found. Fluorescently labeled lectins enable the visualization of glycoconjugates...

  19. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  20. Glycoproteins of axonal transport: affinity chromatography on fucose-specific lectins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, S.; Ohlson, C.; Karlsson, J.O.

    1982-03-01

    Rapidly transported fucose-labeled glycoproteins from axons of rabbit retinal ganglion cells were solubilized with nonionic detergents. The solubilized components were subjected to affinity chromatography on three different fucose-specific lectins. A recently characterized fucose-specific lectin from Aleuria aurantia bound reversibly approximately 60% of the applied protein-bound radioactivity. The lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Ulex europaeus bound are very small proportions of the labeled rapidly transported glycoproteins.

  1. Sugar residues content and distribution in atrophic and hyperplastic postmenopausal human endometrium: lectin histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gheri, G.; Gheri Bryk, S.; Taddei, G.; Moncini, D.; Noci, I.

    1996-01-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the glycoconjugate saccharidic moieties of the human postmenopausal endometrium (14 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic). For this purpose a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEA I) was used. No differences in lectin binding between atrophic and hyperplastic endometria were observed. This investigation allowed us to provide a basic picture of the oligo...

  2. C-type lectins in immunity: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambuza, Ivy M; Brown, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Of particular interest are the single extracellular CTLD-containing receptors of the ‘Dectin-1’ and ‘Dectin-2’ clusters, which associate with signalling adaptors or possess integral intracellular signalling domains. These CLRs have traditionally been associated with the recognition of fungi, but recent discoveries have revealed diverse and unexpected functions. In this review, we describe their newly identified roles in anti-microbial host defence, homeostasis, autoimmunity, allergy and their functions in the recognition and response to dead and cancerous cells. PMID:25553393

  3. [Studies on the location of eight lectins in breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z; Ji, Z M

    1990-12-01

    100 cases of breast carcinoma were studied with lectin affinitive histochemistry technology. The result showed that Ricinus comunis agglutinin (RCA1) was located in almost all intraductal carcinomas but one, while the positive rates in the other types were obviously low (P less than 0.05). The positive rate of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA1) in well-differentiated types was higher than that in poorly-differentiated ones (P less than 0.05). The location of Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Bandeiraea Simplicifolia (BSL) and UEA1 in breast carcinomas exhibited some regularity and it might be useful in understanding the differentiation of breast carcinomas. No relationship between changes of the eight lectins and metastases in axillary lymph nodes was observed, but the authors considered that PNA-affinitive histochemistry was beneficial to the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes.

  4. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Laura Elena; Moreno-Celis, Ulisses; Cervantes-Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferriz-Martínez, Roberto Augusto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; García-Gasca, Teresa

    2017-07-03

    Digestive system cancers-those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas-are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  5. Griffithsin: An Antiviral Lectin with Outstanding Therapeutic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Lusvarghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Griffithsin (GRFT, an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin.

  6. Chitovibrin: a chitin-binding lectin from Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildemeister, O S; Zhu, B C; Laine, R A

    1994-12-01

    A novel 134 kDa, calcium-independent chitin-binding lectin, 'chitovibrin', is secreted by the marine bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus, inducible with chitin or chitin-oligomers. Chitovibrin shows no apparent enzymatic activity but exhibits a strong affinity for chitin and chito-oligomers > dp9. The protein has an isoelectric pH of 3.6, shows thermal tolerance, binds chitin with an optimum at pH 6 and is active in 0-4 M NaCl. Chitovibrin appears to be completely different from other reported Vibrio lectins and may function to bind V. parahemolyticus to chitin substrates, or to capture or sequester chito-oligomers. It may be a member of a large group of recently described proteins in Vibrios related to a complex chitinoclastic (chitinivorous) system.

  7. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elena Estrada-Martínez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Digestive system cancers—those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas—are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  8. Studies on luciferin-luciferase ATP assay in plants (etiolated wheat germs, and bean leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For ATP determination by the method of bioluminescence apparatus of home production was adapted from the equipment available in any isotope laboratory. The measurement error did not exceed 1.5 per cent. Methodical experiments concerned the choice of the extraction, fixation and storage methods of plant material for determination at the given moment of the amount of ATP in the tissues, unchanged by the analytical procedure. The highest ATP amounts were recovered by extraction with perchloric acid at high (25% concentrations of the tissue in the homogenate. The best way of fixation of the material for later analyses was found to be freezing of ready extracts. Lyophilization and freezing of the plant material caused a several-fold decrease of the ATP level in the tissues. These results suggest the necessity of working in conditions of low temperature during the entire analytical procedure and strict observation of time limitation.

  9. Nkrp1 Family, from Lectins to Protein Interacting Molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbeský, Daniel; Ivanova, Ljubina; Hernychová, Lucie; Grobárová, Valeria; Novák, Petr; Černý, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 3463-3478 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : NATURAL-KILLER-CELL * C-TYPE LECTIN * CARBOHYDRATE -RECOGNITION DOMAIN Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  10. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.

  11. Detection, purification and characterization of a lectin from freshwater green algae Spirogyra spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIA S. DE OLIVEIRA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Freshwater algae are rich sources of structurally biologically active metabolites, such as fatty acids, steroids, carotenoids and polysaccharides. Among these metabolites, lectins stand out. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin which bind to carbohydrates or glycoconjugates, without changing ligand structure. Many studies have reported on the use of Spirogyra spp. as effective bioindicators of heavy metals; however, reports on Spirogyra molecular bioprospecting are quite limited. Therefore, this study aimed to detect, isolate, purify and characterize a lectin present in the freshwater green algae Spirogyra. Presence of the lectin protein in the extract was detected by hemagglutination assays. Subsequently, the protein extract was subjected to a sugar inhibition assay to identify the lectin-specific carbohydrate. Following this, the extract was applied to a guar gum column to afford the pure lectin. The lectin was inhibited by N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetyl-beta-D-mannose, but more strongly by D-galactose. The apparent molecular mass of the purified lectin was evaluated by Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE. Electrophoretic analysis revealed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 56 kDa. Thus, it could be concluded that a lectin was purified from Spirogyra spp.

  12. Lipid phosphate phosphatase activity regulates dispersal and bilateral sorting of embryonic germ cells in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Andrew D.; Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    In Drosophila, germ cell survival and directionality of migration are controlled by two lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP), wunen (wun) and wunen-2 (wun2). wun wun2 double mutant analysis reveals that the two genes, hereafter collectively called wunens, act redundantly in primordial germ cells. We find that wunens mediate germ cell-germ cell repulsion and that this repulsion is necessary for germ cell dispersal and proper transepithelial migration at the onset of migration and for the equal sorting of the germ cells between the two embryonic gonads during their migration. We propose that this dispersal function optimizes adult fecundity by assuring maximal germ cell occupancy of both gonads. Furthermore, we find that the requirement for wunens in germ cell survival can be eliminated by blocking germ cell migration. We suggest that this essential function of Wunen is needed to maintain cell integrity in actively migrating germ cells. PMID:20431117

  13. Development of gastrointestinal surface. VIII. Lectin identification of carbohydrate differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, K.Y.; Bresson, J.L.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Binding of microvillus membranes (MVM) from newborn and adult rats by concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus (UEA I), Dolichos bifluorus (DBA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA) was examined to determine the availability of carbohydrate-containing sites for these lectins on the intestinal surface during development. Consistent patterns of differences in the reaction of MVM with these lectins were found. Con A and UEA had much higher reactivities to MVM of adult than newborn rats. 125 I-labeled-UEA gel overlay experiments revealed the abundance of UEA-binding sites in MVM of adult rat in contrast to the two binding sites in MVM of a newborn rat. DBA bound only to MVM of the adults, and very few binding sites were found in immature MVM. In contrast to these lectins, WGA binding was much higher in MVM of the newborns and decreased with maturation. Additional experiments on the age dependence of UEA and DBA reactivities revealed that the most striking changes occur in animals from 2 to 2 wk of age. In MVM from 2-wk-old rats, there were only 13.9% and < 0.2% of the adult binding capacities for UEA and DBA, respectively. By the time the animals were 4 wk old, the binding capacity for UEA had attained close to the level of the adults, whereas for DBA it reached 71.3% of the adult value. These results provide definite evidence of changes in the intestinal surface during perinatal development

  14. Development of gastrointestinal surface. VIII. Lectin identification of carbohydrate differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, K.Y.; Bresson, J.L.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-05-01

    Binding of microvillus membranes (MVM) from newborn and adult rats by concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus (UEA I), Dolichos bifluorus (DBA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA) was examined to determine the availability of carbohydrate-containing sites for these lectins on the intestinal surface during development. Consistent patterns of differences in the reaction of MVM with these lectins were found. Con A and UEA had much higher reactivities to MVM of adult than newborn rats. /sup 125/I-labeled-UEA gel overlay experiments revealed the abundance of UEA-binding sites in MVM of adult rat in contrast to the two binding sites in MVM of a newborn rat. DBA bound only to MVM of the adults, and very few binding sites were found in immature MVM. In contrast to these lectins, WGA binding was much higher in MVM of the newborns and decreased with maturation. Additional experiments on the age dependence of UEA and DBA reactivities revealed that the most striking changes occur in animals from 2 to 2 wk of age. In MVM from 2-wk-old rats, there were only 13.9% and < 0.2% of the adult binding capacities for UEA and DBA, respectively. By the time the animals were 4 wk old, the binding capacity for UEA had attained close to the level of the adults, whereas for DBA it reached 71.3% of the adult value. These results provide definite evidence of changes in the intestinal surface during perinatal development.

  15. Histochemistry of lectin-binding sites in Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, A; Schumacher, U; Storch, V

    2001-02-01

    Priapulida represent one of the phylogenetically oldest multicellular animal groups. In multicellular animals (Metazoa) cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions are often mediated by carbohydrate residues of glycoconjugates. To analyze the carbohydrate composition of a phylogenetically old species, lectin histochemistry was employed on 5 specimens of the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus. Many lectins bound to the chitin-containing cuticle, including those specific for carbohydrates other than N-acetylglucosamine, the principle building block of chitin. The connective tissue of the animals contained both N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Mannose residues were widely distributed with the exception of the cuticle, but complex type carbohydrates were not present in the entire animal. Sialic acid residues were only detected in the cuticle and brush border of the intestinal epithelium, while fucose was limited to the cuticle. Thus, the lectin-binding pattern indicated that sugars typical for the linking region of both N- and O-glycoproteins in mammals are also present in H. spinulosus. Carbohydrate residues that are typical for the complex type of N-linked glycans in vertebrates are not present as are carbohydrate residues typical for the termination of O-linked carbohydrate chains. Hence, a truncated form of both N- and O-linked glycosylation is present in H. spinulosus indicating that more complex patterns of glycosylation developed later during evolution.

  16. Treatment Options By Stage (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ... and restore) the body’s blood cells. New treatment options Combination chemotherapy (the use of more than one ...

  17. Germ Cells are Made Semiotically Competent During Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Germ cells are cross-roads of development and evolution. They define the origin of every new generation and, at the same time, represent the biological end-product of any mature organism. Germ cells are endowed with the following capacities: (1) to store a self-descriptive program, (2......) to accumulate a protein-synthesizing machinery (ribosomes), and (3) to incorporate enough nourishment to sustain embryonic development (yolk). To accomplish this goal, germ cells do not simply unfold a pre-determined program or realize a sole instructive role. On the contrary, due to the complexity...... milieu and experience the compatibility of selected developmental sequences. The question of which signaling pathways are activated at each developmental stage does not result from a strictly predetermined program instructing germ cell stemness. Rather, each developmental sequence is an open...

  18. Primary pleuro-pulmonary malignant germ cell tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideeswar P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lungs and pleura are rare sites for malignant germ-cell tumours. Two cases, pure yolk-sac tumour and yolk sac-sac tumour/embryonal carcinoma are described in young males who presented with rapid progression of respiratory symptoms. The malignant mixed germ cell tumour occurred in the right lung, while the yolk-sac tumour had a pseudomesotheliomatous growth pattern suggesting a pleural origin. Alpha-foetoprotein was immunohistochemically demonstrated in both.

  19. Endocytosis of lysosomal acid phosphatase; involvement of mannose receptor and effect of lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Yoshimura, T

    1994-08-01

    Acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase are unique among lysosomal enzymes in that they have both high mannose and complex type sugasr chains, whereas oligosaccharide chains of lysosomal enzymes in matrix are of high mannose type. We have previously shown that beta-glucosidase was endocytosed into macrophages via an unidentified receptor different from a mannose/fucose receptor (K. Imai, Cell Struct. Funct. 13, 325-332, 1988). Here, we show that uptake of acid phosphatase purified from rat liver lysosomes into rat macrophages was inhibited by ligands for a mannose/fucose receptor and was mediated via an apparently single binding site with Kuptake of 24.7 nM. These results indicate that acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase recognize different types of receptors even if they have similar sugar chains. Polyvalent concanavalin A which binds both to the enzyme and to macrophages specifically stimulated the uptake in a dose dependent manner, whereas wheat germ agglutinin and phytohaemagglutinin did not.

  20. Preconception exposures to potential germ-cell mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation and other agents can cause germ-cell mutations in animal systems. No human germ-cell mutagen has been identified, but this does not mean that human germ-cells are not vulnerable to mutagenesis. There has been particular concern about the possible health effects on offspring following parental preconception exposure to ionizing radiation - both occupational and therapeutic. A strong association with preconception radiation exposure in the fathers of the cases was found in a case-control study of young people with leukaemia living near the Sellafield nuclear plant in the UK. Subsequent studies of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation have failed to confirm these findings. No statistically significant effects have been reported from studies of possible indicators of germ-cell mutagenesis in the A-bomb survivors. Studies of offspring of cancer survivors who receive radiotherapy and mutagenic chemotherapy have found no evidence of germ-cell mutagenesis. Failure to detect human germ-cell mutagenic agents may be a consequence of inadequate study sizes or insufficiently sensitive laboratory techniques. (authors)

  1. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...

  2. Baldness, acne and testicular germ cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Amato, Robert J.; Strom, Sara S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen levels during critical periods of testicular development may be involved in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). We evaluated the roles of adolescent and early adult life correlates of androgen exposure and TGCT in a hospital-based case control study. TGCT cases (n=187) and controls (n=148), matched on age, race and state of residence, participated in the study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations between TGCT and male pattern baldness, severe acne, markers of puberty onset and body size. Cases were significantly less likely to report hair loss than controls (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Amount of hair loss, increasing age at onset and increasing rate of loss were all inversely associated with TGCT (rate of hair loss: p-trend=0.03; age at onset: p-trend=0.03; amount of hair loss: p-trend=0.01). History of severe acne was inversely associated with TGCT (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3, 0.9) and height was positively associated with TGCT (p-trend=0.02). Increased endogenous androgen levels during puberty and early adulthood may be associated with decreased risk of TGCT. Additional studies of endogenous hormone levels during puberty and early adult life are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of androgen synthesis, metabolism and uptake. PMID:21128977

  3. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.; Korogi, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Ikushima, I.; Shigematsu, Y.; Okuda, T.; Takahashi, M.; Kochi, M.; Ushio, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  4. Purification and characterization of a mucin specific mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis: application for mitogenic and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Kaur, Hemant Preet; Singh, Jatinder

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins or glycoproteins that bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates present on the apposing cells, which are responsible for their ability to agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc. Interest in lectins has been intensified due to their carbohydrate specificity as they can be valuable reagents for the investigation of cell surface sugars, purification and characterization of glycoproteins. The present study reports the purification, characterization and evaluation of mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of a mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis. Affinity chromatography on mucin-sepharose column was carried out for purification of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis lectin. The lectin was characterized for physico-chemical parameters. Mitogenic potential of the lectin was evaluated against splenocytes of Swiss albino mice by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of the purified lectin has also been evaluated by disc diffusion assay. Single-step affinity purification resulted in 18.6-fold purification of the mycelial lectin. The molecular mass of the lectin was found to be 70 kDa and it was composed of two subunits of 34.8 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. pH optima of the lectin was found to be 6.5-9.5, while optimum temperature for lectin activity was 20-30 °C. Lectin was stable within a pH range of 7.0-10.5 and showed fair thermostability. EDTA did not affect lectin activity whereas it was found susceptible to the denaturants tested. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of A. gorakhpurensis lectin at a concentration upto 150 µg/mL. Antimicrobial activity assay showed its potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcous aureus and Escherichia coli and marginal antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is the first report on the mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis lectin. The

  5. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  6. Maternal smoking and testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Zhang, Yawei; Sakoda, Lori C; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L; Graubard, Barry I

    2006-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer among men ages 15 to 35 years in the United States. The well-established TGCT risk factors cryptorchism, prior diagnosis of TGCT, and family history of testicular cancer indicate that exposures in early life and/or in the familial setting may be critical to determining risk. Previous reports of familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and testicular cancers in sons suggest that passive smoking in childhood may be such an exposure. To clarify the relationship of passive smoking exposure to TGCT risk, data from 754 cases and 928 controls enrolled in the Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Data from 1,086 mothers of the cases and controls were also examined. Overall, there was no relationship between maternal [odds ratio (OR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.9-1.3] or paternal smoking (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3) and TGCT risk. Although living with a non-parent smoker was marginally related to risk (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1), there was no relationship with number of smokers, amount smoked, or duration of smoking. Responses from both case-control participants and mothers also revealed no relationship between either maternal smoking while pregnant or while breast-feeding. Results did not differ by TGCT histology (seminoma, non-seminoma). These results do not support the hypothesis that passive smoking, either in utero or in childhood, is related to risk of TGCT. Other early life exposures, however, may explain the familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and TGCT in sons.

  7. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  8. Specification of primordial germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Erez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primordial germ cells (PGCs give rise to gametes that are responsible for the development of a new organism in the next generation. Two modes of germ line specification have been described: the inheritance of asymmetrically-localized maternally provided cytoplasmic determinants and the induction of the PGC fate by other cell types. PGCs specification in zebrafish appears to depend on inheritance of germ plasm in which several RNA molecules such as vasa and nanos reside. Whether the specification mode of PGCs found in zebrafish is general for other fish species was brought into question upon analysis of olvas expression – the vasa homologue in another teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes. Here, in contrast to the findings in zebrafish, the PGCs are found in a predictable position relative to a somatic structure, the embryonic shield. This finding, coupled with the fact that vasa mRNA, which is localized to the germ plasm of zebrafish but does not label a similar structure in medaka opened the possibility of fundamentally different mechanisms governing PGC specification in these two fish species. Results In this study we addressed the question concerning the mode of PGC specification in medaka using embryological experiments, analysis of RNA stability in the PGCs and electron microscopy observations. Dramatic alterations in the somatic environment, i.e. induction of a secondary axis or mesoderm formation alteration, did not affect the PGC number. Furthermore, the PGCs of medaka are capable of protecting specific RNA molecules from degradation and could therefore exhibit a specific mRNA expression pattern controlled by posttrancriptional mechanisms. Subsequent analysis of 4-cell stage medaka embryos using electron microscopy revealed germ plasm-like structures located at a region corresponding to that of zebrafish germ plasm. Conclusion Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea that in medaka the inheritance of

  9. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  10. Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and susceptibility to infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, P; Madsen, H O; Halberg, P

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections.......To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections....

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Dauter, Z; Sekar, K; Surolia, A; Vijayan, M

    2004-11-01

    The banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca, MW 29.4 kDa, has been isolated, purified and crystallized. The trigonal crystals contain one dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement to a resolution of 3 A. The structure of the subunit is similar to that of jacalin-like lectins.

  12. Preparation of Ulex europaeus lectin-gliadin nanoparticle conjugates and their interaction with gastrointestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, I; Arangoa, M A; Irache, J M; Stainmesse, S; Chabenat, C; Popineau, Y; Orecchioni, A M

    1999-11-25

    One approach to improve the bioavailability and efficiency of drugs consists of the association of a ligand (i.e. lectins), showing affinity for biological structures located on the mucosa surfaces, to nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. In this context, Ulex europaeus lectin-gliadin nanoparticle conjugates (UE-GNP) were prepared with the aim of evaluating their in vitro bioadhesive properties. The lectin was fixed by a covalent procedure to gliadin nanoparticles by a two-stage carbodiimide method. Typically, the amount of bound lectin was calculated to be approximately 15 microg lectin/mg nanoparticle, which represented a coupling efficiency of approximately 16% of the initial lectin concentration. In addition, the activity of these conjugates was tested with bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM) and the level of binding to this mucin was always much greater with UE-GNP than with controls (gliadin nanoparticles). However, the presence of 50 micromol fucose, which is the reported specific sugar for U. europaeus lectin, specifically inhibited the activity of these conjugates and, therefore, the UE-GNP binding to BSM was attenuated by 70%. These results clearly showed that the activity and specificity of U. europaeus lectin was preserved after covalent coupling to these biodegradable carriers.

  13. Serine protease immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry in the small intestine of weaned and unweaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Wells, M

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of goblet cells containing serine protease and of those binding the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) in the pig small intestine is altered during the period after weaning. Goblet cells exhibiting binding of other lectins were not altered. These alterations and other...

  14. The Lectin Complement Pathway in Patients with Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Rasmussen, Lars S; Pilely, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins are pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) that play an important role during infection through activation of the lectin complement pathway. We assessed whether plasma PRM levels were associated with mortality in patients with necrotizing soft t...

  15. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan); Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Irimura, Tatsuro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Feldmann, Heinz [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Takada, Ayato, E-mail: atakada@czc.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  16. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and the risk of arterial thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlaeger, Tommy; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene are associated with SLE as well as with severe atherosclerosis. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin variant alleles were associated...

  17. Purification and characterization of liver lectins from a lizard, Sceloporus spinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, N Bertha; Arreguín, L Barbarin; Méndez, C Fausto; Arreguín, E Roberto

    2004-05-01

    This study discusses the purification of soluble beta-galactose lectins obtained from the lizard liver of Sceloporus spinosus. The first lectin named lizard hepatic lectin-1 (LHL-1) presented a molecular weight of 31,750, with an isoelectric point of 4.25. The highest specific hemagglutinating activity was achieved using human blood type A1: N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-galactose (Gal)-fucose (Fuc). Carbohydrate inhibition assays indicated a higher lectin specificity for GalNAc. For LHL-2 the molecular weight obtained was 23,850 with an isoelectric point of 3.25. The highest carbohydrate specificity was observed for Gal. These lizard hepatic lectins are similar to the mammal hepatic lectins previously reported. However, it is different from the alligator hepatic lectin (AHL). The homology analyses of LHL-1 resulted in 100% identity with the Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), while LHL-2 was similar to adenylate kinase (75% identity). We suggest that these liver lectins are related to the inherent functions of liver previously reported.

  18. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Irimura, Tatsuro; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. → Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. → Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. → C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. → Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  19. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement

  20. Human mannose-binding lectin inhibitor prevents Shiga toxin-induced renal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozaki, Masayuki; Kang, Yulin; Tan, Ying Siow

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC HUS) is a worldwide endemic problem, and its pathophysiology is not fully elucidated. Here we tested whether the mannose-binding lectin (MBL2), an initiating factor of lectin complement pathway activation, plays a cr...

  1. Mitogenic activity of new lectins from seeds of wild Artocarpus species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, E; Ngoc, L D; Aucouturier, P; Preud'Homme, J L; Barra, A

    1996-05-01

    Proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by new lectins purified from seeds of differents Artocarpus species from Vietnam (A. asperulus, A. heterophyllus, A. masticata, A. melinoxylus, A. parva and A. petelotii) was studied and compared to those of the lectin jacalin purified from jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) seeds collected in the island La Réunion. All lectins stimulated human PBMC to proliferate, with a variable efficiency of the mitogenic activity. Phenotypic analysis of cells recovered after 7 day-cultures showed that these lectins mostly stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results suggest that these lectins from different Artocarpus species are similar in terms of their mitogenic activity although their structural features are not identical.

  2. Lectin histochemistry of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    1983-10-01

    Lectins linked to fluorescein were used as carbohydrate probes to examine the goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell surface glycoconjugate alterations in an experimental rodent model of colonic neoplasia induced with parenteral 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Lectins derived from Triticum vulgare (WGA), Ricinus communis (RCA1), and Limulus polyphemus (LPA) showed reduced labeling of goblet cell mucin in these tumors, while binding with peanut lectin from Arachis hypogaea (PNA), a lectin ordinarily failing to bind to mucin in normal colon, was positive. In addition, RCA1 and LPA showed increased cell surface labeling of neoplastic epithelial cells. Finally, alterations were observed in lectin binding to "transitional" colonic mucosa adjacent to colonic tumors from carcinogen-treated rats. These findings indicate that significant alterations in both membrane and mucin glycoconjugates occur in colonic tumors and mucosa adjacent to tumors in a chemically induced experimental animal model of human colon cancer.

  3. Small unilamellar vesicles as reagents: a chemically defined, quantitative assay for lectins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rando, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Samll unilamellar vesicles containing synthetic glycolipids can be prepared. These vesicles are aggregated by the appropriate lectin (Orr et al., 1979; Rando and Bangerter, 1979; Slama and Rando, 1980). It is shown here that extent of aggregation of these vesicles as measured by light scattering at 360 nm, is, under certain conditions, linear with amount of lectin added. This forms the basis of a rapid and simple quantitative assay for lectins using the modified vesicles as a defined chemical substrate. The assay is sensitive to lectin concentrations in the low ..mu..g range. The assay is applied here to studies on concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin and the ..cap alpha..-fucosyl binding lectin from Ulex europaeus (Type I).

  4. Immunofluorescence Analysis of Testicular Biopsies With Germ Cell and Sertoli Cell Markers Shows Significant MVH Negative Germ Cell Depletion With Older Age of Orchidopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Sun, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Undescended testis is the most common defect in newborn boys. It is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in these testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. The aim of our study was to analyse germ cell development verses ...... age of orchidopexy using a germ cell marker and a Sertoli cell marker on testicular biopsies.......Undescended testis is the most common defect in newborn boys. It is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in these testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. The aim of our study was to analyse germ cell development verses...

  5. Nuclear Reprogramming in Mouse Primordial Germ Cells: Epigenetic Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Felici

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique capability of germ cells to give rise to a new organism, allowing the transmission of primary genetic information from generation to generation, depends on their epigenetic reprogramming ability and underlying genomic totipotency. Recent studies have shown that genome-wide epigenetic modifications, referred to as “epigenetic reprogramming”, occur during the development of the gamete precursors termed primordial germ cells (PGCs in the embryo. This reprogramming is likely to be critical for the germ line development itself and necessary to erase the parental imprinting and setting the base for totipotency intrinsic to this cell lineage. The status of genome acquired during reprogramming and the associated expression of key pluripotency genes render PGCs susceptible to transform into pluripotent stem cells. This may occur in vivo under still undefined condition, and it is likely at the origin of the formation of germ cell tumors. The phenomenon appears to be reproduced under partly defined in vitro culture conditions, when PGCs are transformed into embryonic germ (EG cells. In the present paper, I will try to summarize the contribution that epigenetic modifications give to nuclear reprogramming in mouse PGCs.

  6. Barnacle larval destination: piloting possibilities by bacteria and lectin interaction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Raghukumar, S.

    considerable hike in metamorphosis was evident in the Glycine max-treated films. 4. Discussion Epifluorescence microscopy coupled with the lectin specificity has been suggested as a new way to probe rapidly and precisely spatial relationships of complex.... 238, 86–95. Costerton, J.W., Lewandowski, Z., DeBeer, D., Caldwell, D., Korber, D., James, G., 1994. Minireview: biofilms, the customized microniche. J. Bacteriol. 176, 2137–2142. Costerton, J.W., Lewandowski, Z., Caldwell, D.E., Korber, D.R., Lappin...

  7. Immunologically related lectins from stems and roots of developing seedlings of Cucurbita ficifolia: purification and some properties of root and stem lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating activity has been found in acetate extracts from roots and stems of squash seedlings (Cucurbita ficifolia. The hemaglutinating activity changes during seeds germination and seedling development. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that proteins from these vegetative tissues cross-reacted with antibodies raised against endogenous cotyledons lectin CLBa and Con A.Lectins were isolated from stems and roots of 6-day old seedlings by precipitation with ethanol, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, gel filtration on Bio-gel P100 and separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Three purified lectins (RLA1, RLA2, RLA3 were obtained from roots and four from stems (SLA1, SLA2, SLA3, SLA4. The purified lectins from roots and stems agglutinated all human red blood cells, but sheep erythrocytes were most sensitive to agglutination. The hemagglutination of the root lectins RLA2 and RLA3 was inhibited by a very low concentration of arabinose, while RLA1, of xylose and Ga1NAc. Arabinose and Xylose were also found to be the most effective inhibitors of all stem lectins.

  8. "Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female

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    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.

  9. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berney, Daniel M; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Idrees, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity and disagr......The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity...... and disagreement on its name. Initially termed 'carcinoma in situ' (CIS), it has also been known as 'intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified' (IGCNU) and 'testicular intraepithelial neoplasia' (TIN). In this paper, we review the history of discovery and controversy concerning these names and introduce...

  10. Germ-line mutations at a mouse ESTR (Pc-3) locus and human microsatellite loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo, Haruko; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nomura, Taisei

    2006-01-01

    We examined the use of the mouse Pc-3 ESTR (expanded simple tandem repeat) locus and 72 human microsatellite loci as potentially sensitive biomarkers for mutagenic exposures to germ cells in mice and humans respectively. In the mouse work, we treated male mice with TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlo-rodibenzo-p-dioxin; a chemical known to induce congenital anomalies in humans and mice) and, analysed the F 1 fetuses for Pc-3 mutations. Although the incidence of anomalies was higher in the TCDD group, there were no induced mutations. However, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) was observed in 3 of 7 fetuses born to male mice which were treated with TCDD and which showed abnormal length of Pc-3 allele. In the human studies, the children of Chernobyl liquidators were examined for mutations at a total of 72 (31 autosomal, 1 X-linked and 40 Y-linked) microsatellite loci. This study was prompted by earlier findings of increases in microsatellite mutations in barn swallows and wheat in the highly contaminated areas after the Chernobyl accident. We examined 64 liquidator families (70 children) and 66 control families (70 children). However, no increases in mutation rates were found. The estimated mean dose to the liquidators was about 39 mSv and this might be one possible reason why no increases of mutations could be found. (author)

  11. Carbohydrate specificity of lectin, purified from the fruiting bodies of Mycena pura /Fr./ Kumm. and its use in histochemical investigation

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    Ambarova N. O.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this investigation was to research carbohydrate specificity of a new lectin from fruiting body of Mycena pura and possibilities of its application in histochemical studies. Methods. The lectin has been purified by affinity chromatography on «îvomucine». The lectin carbohydrate specificity has been determined by a reaction of inhibiting haemagglutination by haptens. Histological materials were fixed in 4 % neutral formalin solution. Alkaline phosphatase was revealed in the cryostat unfixed microscopical sections. Results. The lectin yield from fresh fruit bodies of raw material was 9 mg/kg. Mol. mass of the lectin is 40 kDa. The lectin poorly interacted with D-glucose and D-mannose in contrast to lectins from Pisum sativum and Leucojum vernum. The peculiarity of this lectin is its strong interaction with alkaline phosphatase, the highest among twenty tested lectins. However, the receptors for Mycena lectin binding in mammalian tissues are not limited by this enzyme being presented also by glycoconjugates of another structure, as it was shown for fetus calf small intestine and kidney of rat. Conclusions. An important role in the lectin interaction with glycoproteins probably belongs to the disaccharide links of GlcNAcb(1-2Mana(1-6 or GlcNAcb(1- 2Mana(1-2, which not necessarily are terminal

  12. Germ-line gene therapy and the medical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Ronald; Davis, Lawrence H

    1992-06-01

    Somatic cell gene therapy has yielded promising results. If germ cell gene therapy can be developed, the promise is even greater: hundreds of genetic diseases might be virtually eliminated. But some claim the procedure is morally unacceptable. We thoroughly and sympathetically examine several possible reasons for this claim but find them inadequate. There is no moral reason, then, not to develop and employ germ-line gene therapy. Taking the offensive, we argue next that medicine has a prima facie moral obligation to do so.

  13. Reduction of the number of germs in spices by radappertization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beczner, Laszlone; Kiss, Istvan

    1983-01-01

    The sterilization by fumigation with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide of ground paprika and spice mixtures used in preserves and meat industry was compared with the radappertization of the same spices. The number of germs including that of spores and moulds was determined. It can be established that irradiation with ionizing radiation (5 kGy) has the same effect on the reduction of the number of germs as sterilization by ethylene oxide. In addition, the side effects of sterilization can be avoided. (V.N.)

  14. Radiation-induced genetic effects in germ cells of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Schans, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project are a better understanding of the fundamental principles that determine the radiation sensitivity in humans, with specific attention for the role of DNA repair in germ cells. The induction and repair of damage in DNA of germ cells of the Syrian golden hamster exposed to ionizing radiation is studied at biologically relevant doses. It has also been investigated which aspects of DNA sequence or chromosomal organisation are important with respect to their influence on the repairability of DNA damage. (R.P.) 10 refs

  15. Use of lectin-functionalized particles for oral immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesner, Susanne C; Wang, Xue-Yan; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Untersmayr, Eva; Gabor, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy, in recent times, has found its application in a variety of immunologically mediated diseases. Oral immunotherapy may not only increase patient compliance but may, in particular, also induce both systemic as well as mucosal immune responses, due to mucosal application of active agents. To improve the bioavailability and to trigger strong immunological responses, recent research projects focused on the encapsulation of drugs and antigens into polymer particles. These particles protect the loaded antigen from the harsh conditions in the GI tract. Furthermore, modification of the surface of particles by the use of lectins, such as Aleuria aurantia lectin, wheatgerm agglutinin or Ulex europaeus-I, enhances the binding to epithelial cells, in particular to membranous cells, of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Membranous cell-specific targeting leads to an improved transepithelial transport of the particle carriers. Thus, enhanced uptake and presentation of the encapsulated antigen by antigen-presenting cells favor strong systemic, but also local, mucosal immune responses. PMID:22834202

  16. Anti-Neuroblastoma Properties of a Recombinant Sunflower Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pinedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to their sugar recognition specificity, plant lectins are proposed as bioactive proteins with potential in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Helja is a mannose-specific jacalin-like lectin from sunflower which was shown to inhibit the growth of certain fungi. Here, we report its recombinant expression in a prokaryotic system and its activity in neurobalstoma cells. Helja coding sequence was fused to the pET-32 EK/LIC, the enterokinase/Ligation-independent cloning vector and a 35 kDa protein was obtained in Escherichia coli representing Helja coupled to thioredoxin (Trx. The identity of this protein was verified using anti-Helja antibodies. This chimera, named Trx-rHelja, was enriched in the soluble bacterial extracts and was purified using Ni+2-Sepharose and d-mannose-agarose chromatography. Trx-rHelja and the enterokinase-released recombinant Helja (rHelja both displayed toxicity on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas. rHelja decreased the viability of these tumor cells by 75% according to the tetrazolium reduction assay, and microscopic analyses revealed that the cell morphology was disturbed. Thus, the stellate cells of the monolayer became spheroids and were isolated. Our results indicate that rHelja is a promising tool for the development of diagnostic or therapeutic methods for neuroblastoma cells, the most common solid tumors in childhood.

  17. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Katsuya; Tanaka, Toru; McNeil, Paul L

    2007-08-01

    Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  18. Innate Immunity in Lobsters: Partial Purification and Characterization of a Panulirus cygnus Anti-A Lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Robert L P

    2012-01-01

    A lectin detected in haemolymph from the Australian spiny lobster Panulirus cygnus agglutinated human ABO Group A cells to a higher titre than Group O or B. The lectin also agglutinated rat and sheep erythrocytes, with reactivity with rat erythrocytes strongly enhanced by treatment with the proteolytic enzyme papain, an observation consistent with reactivity via a glycolipid. The lectin, purified by affinity chromatography on fixed rat-erythrocyte stroma, was inhibited equally by N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Comparison of data from gel filtration of haemolymph (behaving as a 1,800,000 Da macromolecule), and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified lectin (a single 67,000 Da band), suggested that in haemolymph the lecin was a multimer. The purified anti-A lectin autoprecipitated unless the storage solution contained chaotropic inhibitors (125 mmol/L sucrose: 500 mmol/L urea). The properties of this anti-A lectin and other similar lectins are consistent with a role in innate immunity in these invertebrates.

  19. Comparative Study of Lectin Domains in Model Species: New Insights into Evolutionary Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Van Holle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are present throughout the plant kingdom and are reported to be involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we provide a comparative analysis of the lectin families from model species in a phylogenetic framework. The analysis focuses on the different plant lectin domains identified in five representative core angiosperm genomes (Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Cucumis sativus, Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa ssp. indica. The genomes were screened for genes encoding lectin domains using a combination of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, hidden Markov models, and InterProScan analysis. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships were investigated by constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees. The results demonstrate that the majority of the lectin families are present in each of the species under study. Domain organization analysis showed that most identified proteins are multi-domain proteins, owing to the modular rearrangement of protein domains during evolution. Most of these multi-domain proteins are widespread, while others display a lineage-specific distribution. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analyses reveal that some lectin families evolved to be similar to the phylogeny of the plant species, while others share a closer evolutionary history based on the corresponding protein domain architecture. Our results yield insights into the evolutionary relationships and functional divergence of plant lectins.

  20. Interactions of soybean lectin, soyasaponins, and glycinin with rabbit jejunal mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J.R.; Torres-Pinedo, R.

    1982-09-01

    Mucosal samples from rabbit jejunum were incubated (30 min, 25 degrees C) with (/sup 125/I)glycinin in the presence of buffer, soybean lectin (50 micrograms/ml) soyasaponins (1 mg/ml), or both lectin and saponins. The mucosal uptake of (/sup 125/I)glycinin was negligible with buffer, and increased progressively with additions of soybean lectin (P less than 0.05), soyasaponins (P less than 0.005), and both (P less than 0.0001). The stimulation of uptake by lectin and saponins together was greater than the sum of their individual effects (P less than 0.0005). The effect of soybean lectin on glycinin uptake was concentration dependent, reaching a maximum at approximately 50 micrograms/ml for the stimulation of uptake in the presence of saponins, and was inhibited by D-GaINAc. Although the mechanisms involved in mucosal uptake of glycinin cannot be described from these data, we have assumed the presence of two independent pathways for lectin-stimulated and saponin-induced uptakes. In addition, we have proposed that soybean lectin, by binding to terminal galactoside sites at the enterocyte apical membrane, enhances a crenator effect of saponins that leads to increasing leakage of glycinin into the cell.

  1. Structure of Dioclea virgata lectin: relations between carbohydrate binding site and nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatorre, P.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Nobrega, R.B.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nascimento, K.S.; Naganao, C.S.; Sampaio, A.H.; Cavada, B.S.; Pires, A.F.; Assreuy, A.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins with at least one noncatalytic domain binding reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. By binding to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface, lectins participate in a range of cellular processes without changing the properties of the carbohydrates involved. The lectin of Dioclea virgata (DvirL), both native and complexed with X-man, was submitted to X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystal structure was compared to that of other Diocleinae lectins in order to better understand differences in biological proper- ties, especially with regard to the ability of lectins to induce nitric oxide (NO) production. The DvirL diffraction analysis revealed that both the native crystal and the X-Man-complexed form are orthorhombic and belong to space group I222. The cell parameters were: a=65.4 , b=86.6 and c=90.2 (native structure), and a=61.89 , b=87.67 and c=88.78 (X-Man-complexed structure). An association was observed between the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the ability to induce NO production and the relative positions of Tyr12, Arg228 and Leu99. Thus, differences in biological activity induced by Diocleinae lectins are related to the configuration of amino acid residues in the carbohydrate binding site and to the structural conformation of subsequent regions capable of influencing site-ligand interactions. In conclusion, the ability of Diocleinae lectins to induce NO production depends on CRD configuration. (author)

  2. Lectin Histochemical Study of Cell Surface Glycoconjugate in Gastric Carcinoma Using Helix Pomatia Agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arab

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nAltered glycosylation of proteins in cancer cells is one of the main processes responsible for anaplasia, invasion and metastatic potential of neoplastic cells. Lectins are nonimmunogenetic compounds which specifically detect certain terminal sugars of glycoconjugates. The aim of the present study was to identify the N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac containing glycoconjugates in cancer cells in all grades of gastric carcinoma. Paraffin blocks belong to 30 patients of gastric carcinoma (10 cases from each grade was collected from pathology file of Ali-Ebn-Abitaleb Hospital in Zahedan during 2005-2007. Prepared sections (5-7μm in thickness were stained by Alcian Blue, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA conjugated lectin. Lectin diluted up to 10μg/ml in PBS (0.1M, pH=6.8. Lectin reactivity was visualized by 0.03% diaminobenzidine (DAB solution. Sections were graded according to staining intensity to lectin (0-4+. Although there was some difference for lectin staining intensity between cancer cells in different grades of gastric carcinoma, statistical analysis showed that there was only a significant difference for cancer cells reactivity between histopathological grades of II and III. The pattern of reactivity to HPA lectin were also different from all histopathological grades. It seems that in cancer cells, the amount and distribution of GalNac containing glycoconjugate differ from neoplastic cells of different histopathological grades in gastric carcinoma.

  3. Lectin Histochemical Study of Cell Surface Glycoconjugate in Gastric Carcinoma Using Helix Pomatia Agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arab

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Altered glycosylation of proteins in cancer cells is one of the main processes responsible for anaplasia, invasion and metastatic potential of neoplastic cells. Lectins are nonimmunogenetic compounds which specifically detect certain terminal sugars of glycoconjugates. The aim of the present study was to identify the N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac containing glycoconjugates in cancer cells in all grades of gastric carcinoma. Paraffin blocks belong to 30 patients of gastric carcinoma (10 cases from each grade was collected from pathology file of Ali-Ebn-Abitaleb Hospital in Zahedan during 2005-2007. Prepared sections (5-7μm in thickness were stained by Alcian Blue, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA conjugated lectin. Lectin diluted up to 10μg/ml in PBS (0.1M, pH=6.8. Lectin reactivity was visualized by 0.03% diaminobenzidine (DAB solution. Sections were graded according to staining intensity to lectin (0-4+. Although there was some difference for lectin staining intensity between cancer cells in different grades of gastric carcinoma, statistical analysis showed that there was only a significant difference for cancer cells reactivity between histopathological grades of II and III. The pattern of reactivity to HPA lectin were also different from all histopathological grades. It seems that in cancer cells, the amount and distribution of GalNac containing glycoconjugate differ from neoplastic cells of different histopathological grades in gastric carcinoma.

  4. BEL β-trefoil: a novel lectin with antineoplastic properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Cenci, Lucia; Perduca, Massimiliano; Capaldi, Stefano; Carrizo, Maria E; Civiero, Laura; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2013-05-01

    A novel lectin was purified from the fruiting bodies of king bolete mushrooms (Boletus edulis, also called porcino, cep or penny bun). The lectin was structurally characterized i.e its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined. The new protein is a homodimer and each protomer folds as β-trefoil domain and therefore we propose the name Boletus edulis lectin (BEL) β-trefoil to distinguish it from the other lectin that has been described in these mushrooms. The lectin has potent anti-proliferative effects on human cancer cells, which confers to it an interesting therapeutic potential as an antineoplastic agent. Several crystal forms of the apoprotein and of complexes with different carbohydrates were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the apoprotein was solved at 1.12 Å resolution. The interaction of the lectin with lactose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc, was examined in detail. All the three potential binding sites present in the β-trefoil fold are occupied in at least one crystal form and are described in detail in this paper. No important conformational changes are observed in the lectin when comparing its co-crystals with carbohydrates with those of the ligand-free protein.

  5. Structure of a lectin with antitumoral properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Carrizo, Maria E; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2011-08-01

    A novel lectin has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (king bolete, penny bun, porcino or cep) by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. We propose for the lectin the name BEL (B. edulis lectin). BEL inhibits selectively the proliferation of several malignant cell lines and binds the neoplastic cell-specific T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc. The lectin was structurally characterized: the molecule is a homotetramer and the 142-amino acid sequence of the chains was determined. The protein belongs to the saline-soluble family of mushroom fruiting body-specific lectins. BEL was also crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.15 Å resolution. The structure is similar to that of Agaricus bisporus lectin. Using the appropriate co-crystals, the interactions of BEL with specific mono- and disaccharides were also studied by X-ray diffraction. The six structures of carbohydrate complexes reported here provide details of the interactions of the ligands with the lectin and shed light on the selectivity of the two distinct binding sites present in each protomer.

  6. In-house preparation of lectin panel and detection of Tn polyagglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Sekhar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyagglutination is a condition in which red cells are agglutinated by ABO-compatible adult human sera, but not by cord blood sera and may be acquired or inherited. Lectins are invaluable reagents in the investigation of red cells polyagglutination. We prepared in-house lectin panel and confirmed Tn polyagglutination in a pregnant lady. The lady was anemic and refused blood transfusion elsewhere due to serological discrepancy. We found ABO discrepancy and an incompatible minor cross-match in the initial investigation and suspected polyagglutination. Confirmation of polyagglutination was done using adult and cord sera. We then used the in-house lectin panels to detect the type of polyagglutination. The agglutination pattern with the various lectins was suggestive of Tn polyagglutination, which was further supported by the enzyme study. Most blood banks in India lack commercial lectin panels because of cost and procurement difficulty. Lectins play an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of polyagglutination and immunohematological management of patient. The important and basic lectins can be prepared in-house using specific raw seeds following standardized protocol.

  7. In-house preparation of lectin panel and detection of Tn polyagglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Polyagglutination is a condition in which red cells are agglutinated by ABO-compatible adult human sera, but not by cord blood sera and may be acquired or inherited. Lectins are invaluable reagents in the investigation of red cells polyagglutination. We prepared in-house lectin panel and confirmed Tn polyagglutination in a pregnant lady. The lady was anemic and refused blood transfusion elsewhere due to serological discrepancy. We found ABO discrepancy and an incompatible minor cross-match in the initial investigation and suspected polyagglutination. Confirmation of polyagglutination was done using adult and cord sera. We then used the in-house lectin panels to detect the type of polyagglutination. The agglutination pattern with the various lectins was suggestive of Tn polyagglutination, which was further supported by the enzyme study. Most blood banks in India lack commercial lectin panels because of cost and procurement difficulty. Lectins play an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of polyagglutination and immunohematological management of patient. The important and basic lectins can be prepared in-house using specific raw seeds following standardized protocol.

  8. Lectin-Like Molecules of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Inhibit Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I.; Imholz, Nicole C. E.; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Balzarini, Jan; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Schols, Dominique; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Increased antibiotic resistance has catalyzed the research on new antibacterial molecules and alternative strategies, such as the application of beneficial bacteria. Since lectin molecules have unique sugar-recognizing capacities, and pathogens are often decorated with sugars that affect their survival and infectivity, we explored whether lectins from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG have antipathogenic properties. Methods The genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG was screened for the presence of lectin-like proteins. Two genes, LGG_RS02780 and LGG_RS02750, encoding for polypeptides with an N-terminal conserved L-type lectin domain were detected and designated Llp1 (lectin-like protein 1) and Llp2. The capacity of Llp1 and Llp2 to inhibit biofilm formation of various pathogens was investigated. Sugar specificity was determined by Sepharose beads assays and glycan array screening. Results The isolated lectin domains of Llp1 and Llp2 possess pronounced inhibitory activity against biofilm formation by various pathogens, including clinical Salmonella species and uropathogenic E. coli, with Llp2 being more active than Llp1. In addition, sugar binding assays with Llp1 and Llp2 indicate specificity for complex glycans. Both proteins are also involved in the adhesion capacity of L. rhamnosus GG to gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. Conclusions Lectins isolated from or expressed by beneficial lactobacilli could be considered promising bio-active ingredients for improved prophylaxis of urogenital and gastrointestinal infections. PMID:27537843

  9. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Miyake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. CONCLUSIONS: Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  10. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found

  11. Lectin-Like Molecules of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Inhibit Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I; Imholz, Nicole C E; Verhoeven, Tine L A; Balzarini, Jan; Van Damme, Els J M; Schols, Dominique; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Increased antibiotic resistance has catalyzed the research on new antibacterial molecules and alternative strategies, such as the application of beneficial bacteria. Since lectin molecules have unique sugar-recognizing capacities, and pathogens are often decorated with sugars that affect their survival and infectivity, we explored whether lectins from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG have antipathogenic properties. The genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG was screened for the presence of lectin-like proteins. Two genes, LGG_RS02780 and LGG_RS02750, encoding for polypeptides with an N-terminal conserved L-type lectin domain were detected and designated Llp1 (lectin-like protein 1) and Llp2. The capacity of Llp1 and Llp2 to inhibit biofilm formation of various pathogens was investigated. Sugar specificity was determined by Sepharose beads assays and glycan array screening. The isolated lectin domains of Llp1 and Llp2 possess pronounced inhibitory activity against biofilm formation by various pathogens, including clinical Salmonella species and uropathogenic E. coli, with Llp2 being more active than Llp1. In addition, sugar binding assays with Llp1 and Llp2 indicate specificity for complex glycans. Both proteins are also involved in the adhesion capacity of L. rhamnosus GG to gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. Lectins isolated from or expressed by beneficial lactobacilli could be considered promising bio-active ingredients for improved prophylaxis of urogenital and gastrointestinal infections.

  12. Evolutionary history and stress regulation of the lectin superfamily in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Srinivasan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lectins are a class of carbohydrate-binding proteins. They play roles in various biological processes. However, little is known about their evolutionary history and their functions in plant stress regulation. The availability of full genome sequences from various plant species makes it possible to perform a whole-genome exploration for further understanding their biological functions. Results Higher plant genomes encode large numbers of lectin proteins. Based on their domain structures and phylogenetic analyses, a new classification system has been proposed. In this system, 12 different families have been classified and four of them consist of recently identified plant lectin members. Further analyses show that some of lectin families exhibit species-specific expansion and rapid birth-and-death evolution. Tandem and segmental duplications have been regarded as the major mechanisms to drive lectin expansion although retrogenes also significantly contributed to the birth of new lectin genes in soybean and rice. Evidence shows that lectin genes have been involved in biotic/abiotic stress regulations and tandem/segmental duplications may be regarded as drivers for plants to adapt various environmental stresses through duplication followed by expression divergence. Each member of this gene superfamily may play specialized roles in a specific stress condition and function as a regulator of various environmental factors such as cold, drought and high salinity as well as biotic stresses. Conclusions Our studies provide a new outline of the plant lectin gene superfamily and advance the understanding of plant lectin genes in lineage-specific expansion and their functions in biotic/abiotic stress-related developmental processes.

  13. Differential activity of a lectin from Solieria filiformis against human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Holanda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A lectin isolated from the red alga Solieria filiformis was evaluated for its effect on the growth of 8 gram-negative and 3 gram-positive bacteria cultivated in liquid medium (three independent experiments/bacterium. The lectin (500 µg/mL stimulated the growth of the gram-positive species Bacillus cereus and inhibited the growth of the gram-negative species Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1000 µg/mL but the lectin (10-1000 µg/mL had no effect on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and B. subtilis, or on the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The purified lectin significantly reduced the cell density of gram-negative bacteria, although no changes in growth phases (log, exponential and of decline were observed. It is possible that the interaction of S. filiformis lectin with the cell surface receptors of gram-negative bacteria promotes alterations in the flow of nutrients, which would explain the bacteriostatic effect. Growth stimulation of the gram-positive bacterium B. cereus was more marked in the presence of the lectin at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. The stimulation of the growth of B. cereus was not observed when the lectin was previously incubated with mannan (125 µg/mL, its hapten. Thus, we suggest the involvement of the binding site of the lectin in this effect. The present study reports the first data on the inhibition and stimulation of pathogenic bacterial cells by marine alga lectins.

  14. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  15. A sperm-agglutinating lectin from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjuntra, P; Muanwongyathi, P; Chulavatnatol, M

    1985-04-30

    A lectin specific for N-acetylgalactosamine was isolated from seed extract of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by affinity chromatography on a Affigel-galactosamine-agarose column. The lectin possessed agglutinating activities for human and rat sperm as well as human red blood cells. It was found to have Mr = 62,000 consisting of two dissimilar subunits of Mr = 18,000 and 13,000. It also cross-reacted with an antibody against the lectin of Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera).

  16. Genomic sequence and organization of two members of a human lectin gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitt, M.A.; Barondes, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA encoding a human dimeric soluble lactose-binding lectin. The gene has four exons, and its upstream region contains sequences that suggest control by glucocorticoids, heat (environmental) shock, metals, and other factors. They have also isolated and sequenced three exons of the gene encoding another human putative lectin, the existence of which was first indicated by isolation of its cDNA. Comparisons suggest a general pattern of genomic organization of members of this lectin gene family

  17. New perspectives on mannan-binding lectin-mediated complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Søren Egedal; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate immune system, mediating several major effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. Three complement activation pathways exist: the classical pathway (CP), the alternative pathway (AP), and the lectin pathway (LP). The LP......, allowing C3 activation in the absence of components otherwise believed critical. The classical bypass pathways are dependent on C1 and components of the AP. A recent study has shown the existence also of a lectin bypass pathway dependent on mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and AP components. The emerging...

  18. File list: Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular germ cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  2. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ewen-Campen

    2013-04-01

    Primordial germ cell (PGC formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  3. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E M; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2013-06-15

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this "germ plasm" acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  4. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. It is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located both...

  5. Great migration: epigenetic reprogramming and germ cell-oocyte metamorphosis determine individual ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Onder; Aygun, Banu Kumbak; Celik, Nilufer; Aydin, Suleyman; Haberal, Esra Tustas; Sahin, Levent; Yavuz, Yasemin; Celik, Sudenaz

    2016-01-01

    Emigration is defined as a synchronized movement of germ cells between the yolk sack and genital ridges. The miraculous migration of germ cells resembles the remigration of salmon traveling from one habitat to other. This migration of germ cells is indispensible for the development of new generations. It is not, however, clear why germ cells differentiate during migration but not at the place of origin. In order to escape harmful somatic signals which might disturb the proper establishment of germ cells forced germ cell migration may be necessary. Another reason may be to benefit from the opportunities of new habitats. Therefore, emigration may have powerful effects on the population dynamics of the immigrant germ cells. While some of these cells do reach their target, some others die or reach to wrong targets. Only germ cell precursors with genetically, and structurally powerful can reach their target. Likewise, epigenetic reprogramming in both migratory and post-migratory germ cells is essential for the establishment of totipotency. During this journey some germ cells may sacrifice themselves for the goodness of the others. The number and quality of germ cells reaching the genital ridge may vary depending on the problems encountered during migration. If the aim in germ cell specification is to provide an optimal ovarian reserve for the continuity of the generation, then this cascade of events cannot be only accomplished at the same level for every one but also are manifested by several outcomes. This is significant evidence supporting the possibility of unique individual ovarian reserve.

  6. Carcinoma in situ testis displays permissive chromatin modifications similar to immature foetal germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Nielsen, J E; Mlynarska, O

    2010-01-01

    The majority of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS) stage. The CIS cell is a neoplastic counterpart of foetal germ cells. During their development, foetal germ cells undergo extensive and essential epigenetic modifications, but little is known about...

  7. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors form from germ cells (a type of cell that forms as a fetus develops and later becomes sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries). Learn about the signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment of pediatric germ cell tumors in the brain in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Molecular mechanisms governing primordial germ cell migration in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doitsidou, M.

    2005-01-01

    In most sexually reproducing organisms primordial germ cells (pGCs) are specified early in development in places that are distinct from the region where the somatic part of the gonad develops. From their places of specification they have to migrate towards the site where they associate with somatic

  9. Genetic analysis of neonatal and infantile germ cell tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) can be classified into five distinct types, based on differences in anatomical location, histology, clinical outcome, age and genotype. The first type, the type I GCTs primarily occur in neonates and infants under the age of five years and include teratomas and yolk

  10. Germ cell tumours in neonates and infants: a distinct subgroup?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, I.M.; Schepens, M.T.M.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Strong, L.C.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can be classified into four major subgroups. One of these subgroups encompasses (immature) teratomas and yolk sac tumours of patients under the age of 5 years. In this paper we review the various clinical, histological

  11. Mutability of germ cells of descedants of irradiated drosophila males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokina, T.L.; Vorobtsova, I.E.

    1987-01-01

    The increased frequency of random and radiation-induced mutation was registered in germ cells of drosophila irradiated male descendants of the first generation. The effect observed depended on of radiation dose delivered to parent males, test dose to posterity, type of mutation registered, and sex of the descendants under study

  12. Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  13. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  14. Dynamics of germs responsible for acute bacterial meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyze ten (10) years of epidemiological surveillance data of meningitis in Burkina Faso for high risk germs patterns identification in order to contribute to the strengthening of prevention strategies. A retrospective study of the past decade (2005- 2014) of cases of acute bacterial meningitis ...

  15. 10 original article dynamics of germs responsible for acute bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    The aim of this study was to analyze ten (10) years of epidemiological surveillance data of meningitis in Burkina Faso for high risk germs patterns identification in order to contribute to the strengthening of prevention strategies. A retrospective study of the past decade (2005- 2014) of cases of acute bacterial meningitis ...

  16. Towards Optimal Diagnosis of Type II Germ Cell Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Stoop (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathobiology of testicular cancer (type II Germ Cell Tumors) to create possibilities for optimalization of diagnosis for this type of malignancy in routine pathology laboratories. The different studies

  17. Clinical and genetic aspects of testicular germ cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzik, Martijn F. Lutke; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Sleijfer, Dirk Th.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we review clinical and genetic aspects of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). TGCT is the most common type of malignant disorder in men aged 15-40 years. Its incidence has increased sharply in recent years. Fortunately, survival of patients with TGCT has improved enormously, which

  18. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  19. Protein Adsorption and Its Role in Bacterial Film Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-27

    only the secondary antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase was used. Combined Amino Acids as Measured by HPLC We are interested in a simple, direct...specific assay for chitin that relies on the lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Lectins are a general class of proteins that bind to carbohydrates. The...protein; 2) a new method for measuring combined amino acids (includes proteins) in seawater was shown to measure higher concentration than the old

  20. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  1. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  2. Canola-Wheat Rotation versus Continuous Wheat for the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Jason C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Vitale, Jeffrey D.; Peeper, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Crop rotations are not common in the wheat belt of the Southern Plains. After years of continuous wheat, weeds have become increasingly difficult and expensive to manage. Yield data were elicited from farmers and used to determine if canola-wheat-wheat rotations are economically competitive with continuous wheat in the region.

  3. THE IMPACT OF REFORMING WHEAT IMPORTING STATE-TRADING ENTERPRISES ON THE QUALITY OF WHEAT IMPORTED

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Recent surveys of wheat importers indicate that countries that import wheat via a state trader are less sensitive to quality issues in import decision making than countries that import wheat through private traders. This study examines conceptually and empirically the impact of the deregulation of wheat imports on the quality and source of wheat imports.

  4. International germ cell consensus classification : A prognostic factor-erased staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, GM; Stenning, SP; Cook, P; Fossa, SD; Horwich, A; Kaye, SB; Oliver, RTD; deMulder, PHM; deWit, R; Stoter, G; Sylvester, RJ; Bajorin, DF; Bosl, GJ; Mazumdar, M; Nichols, CR; Amato, R; Pizzocaro, G; Droz, JP; Kramar, A; Daugaard, G; CortesFunes, H; PazAres, L; Levi, JA; Colls, BM; Harvey, VJ; Coppin, C

    Purpose: Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy has dramatically improved the outlook for patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCT), and overall cure rates now exceed 80%. To make appropriate risk-based decisions about therapy and to facilitate collaborative trials, a simple prognostic factor-based

  5. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    in predicting grain yield even before maturity for a wide range of growing conditions in the Mediterranean climate, governed by different annual weather patterns. The results were evaluated on the basis of regression and normalized root mean squared error with known crop yield statistics at regional level....... durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...

  6. Multiplicity of carbohydrate-binding sites in β-prism fold lectins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    cancer metastasis, embryogenesis, tissue development and mitogenic stimulation ... within the sequence exhibit reasonable correlation. The distribution of the ..... II fold lectins with known structure in complex with sugar. Sugars are shown in ...

  7. Ulex europaeus I lectin as a marker for vascular endothelium in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthöfer, H; Virtanen, I; Kariniemi, A L; Hormia, M; Linder, E; Miettinen, A

    1982-07-01

    Ulex europaeus I agglutinin, a lectin specific for some alpha-L-fucose-containing glycocompounds, was used in fluorescence microscopy to stain cryostat sections of human tissues. The endothelium of vessels of all sizes was stained ubiquitously in all tissues studied as judged by double staining with a known endothelial marker, antibodies against human clotting factor VIII. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but not fibroblasts, also bound Ulex lectin. The staining was not affected by the blood group type of the tissue donor. In some tissues Ulex lectin presented additional binding to epithelial structures. Also, this was independent on the blood group or the ability of the tissue donor to secrete soluble blood group substances. Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, another lectin specific for some alpha-L-fucose-containing moieties failed to react with endothelial cells. Our results suggest that Ulex europaeus I agglutinin is a good histologic marker for endothelium in human tissues.

  8. A journey through the lectin pathway of complement-MBL and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, Peter; Genster, Ninette; Pilely, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    , and Carnevale) embryonic development syndrome originates from rare mutations affecting either collectin-11 or MASP-3, indicating a broader functionality of the complement system than previously anticipated. This review summarizes the characteristics of the molecules in the lectin pathway....

  9. Lectin Domains of Polypeptide GalNAc Transferases Exhibit Glycopeptide Binding Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine T-B G

    2011-01-01

    UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide a-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of up to 20 transferases that initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The transferases are structurally composed of catalytic and lectin domains. Two modes have been identified for the selection...... of glycosylation sites by GalNAc-Ts: confined sequence recognition by the catalytic domain alone, and concerted recognition of acceptor sites and adjacent GalNAc-glycosylated sites by the catalytic and lectin domains, respectively. Thus far, only the catalytic domain has been shown to have peptide sequence...... on sequences of mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC7 as well as a random glycopeptide bead library, we examined the binding properties of four different lectin domains. The lectin domains of GalNAc-T1, -T2, -T3, and -T4 bound different subsets of small glycopeptides. These results indicate...

  10. Differential effect of plant lectins on mast cells of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Histamine release induced by plant lectins was studied with emphasis on the carbohydrate specificity, external calcium requirement, metal binding sites, and mast cell heterogeneity and on the importance of antibodies bound to the mast cell membrane to the lectin effect. Peritoneal mast cells were obtained by direct lavage of the rat peritoneal cavity and guinea pig intestine and hamster cheek pouch mast cells were obtained by dispersion with collagenase type IA. Histamine release was induced with concanavalin A (Con A, lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, mannose-specific Cymbosema roseum, Maackia amurensis, Parkia platycephala, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and demetallized Con A and C. brasiliensis, using 1-300 µg/ml lectin concentrations applied to Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells, peaking on 26.9, 21.0, 29.1, 24.9, 17.2, 10.7, 19.9, and 41.5%, respectively. This effect was inhibited in the absence of extracellular calcium. The lectins were also active on hamster cheek pouch mast cells (except demetallized Con A and on Rowett nude rat (animal free of immunoglobulins peritoneal mast cells (except for mannose-specific C. roseum, P. platycephala and WGA. No effect was observed in guinea pig intestine mast cells. Glucose-saturated Con A and C. brasiliensis also released histamine from Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. These results suggest that histamine release induced by lectins is influenced by the heterogeneity of mast cells and depends on extracellular calcium. The results also suggest that this histamine release might occur by alternative mechanisms, because the usual mechanism of lectins is related to their binding properties to metals from which depend the binding to sugars, which would be their sites to bind to immunoglobulins. In the present study, we show that the histamine release by lectins was also induced by demetallized lectins and by sugar-saturated lectins (which would avoid their binding to other sugars. Additionally, the lectins

  11. Association of Low Ficolin-Lectin Pathway Parameters with Cardiac Syndrome X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horváth, Z; Csuka, Dorottya; Vargova, K

    2016-01-01

    In patients with typical angina pectoris, inducible myocardial ischaemia and macroscopically normal coronaries (cardiac syndrome X (CSX)), a significantly elevated plasma level of terminal complement complex (TCC), the common end product of complement activation, has been observed without.......003). In conclusion, in patients with typical angina and myocardial ischaemia despite macroscopically normal coronary arteries, low levels of several lectin pathway parameters were observed, indicating complement activation and consumption. Complement activation through the ficolin-lectin pathway might play a role...

  12. Low mannose-binding lectin serum levels are associated with reduced kidney graft survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Jakob Thaning; Sørensen, Søren S; Hansen, Jesper M

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the complement system is initiated by the alternative, the classical, or the lectin pathway. As the complement system is involved in the pathophysiology of graft rejection after kidney transplantation, we investigated the possible role of mannose-binding lectin in kidney transplanta...... immunity in maintaining kidney graft survival, but these are probably overruled by HLA immunization.Kidney International advance online publication, 21 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.373....

  13. A C-Type Lectin from Bothrops jararacussu Venom Disrupts Staphylococcal Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Raphael Contelli; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Feio, Renato Neves; Malouin, François; Ribon, Andréa de Oliveira Barros

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16) showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model. PMID:25811661

  14. A C-type lectin from Bothrops jararacussu venom disrupts Staphylococcal biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Contelli Klein

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16 showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model.

  15. Stability of Curcuma longa rhizome lectin: Role of N-linked glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Himadri; Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Curcuma longa rhizome lectin, a mannose-binding protein of non-seed portions of turmeric, is known to have antifungal, antibacterial and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. We studied the role of complex-type glycans attached to asparagine (Asn) 66 and Asn 110 to elucidate the role of carbohydrates in lectin activity and stability. Apart from the native lectin, the characteristics of a deglycosylated Escherichia coli expressed lectin, high-mannose oligosaccharides at both asparagines and its glycosylation mutants N66Q and N110Q expressed in Pichia pastoris, were compared to understand the relationship between glycosylation and activity. Far UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra, fluorescence emission maximum, hemagglutination assay show no change in secondary or tertiary structures or sugar-binding properties between wild-type and aforementioned recombinant lectins under physiological pH. But reduced agglutination activity and loss of tertiary structure are observed in the acidic pH range for the deglycosylated and the N110Q protein. In thermal and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnCl)-induced unfolding, the wild-type and high-mannose lectins possess higher stability compared with the deglycosylated recombinant lectin and both mutants, as measured by a higher Tm of denaturation or a greater free energy change, respectively. Reversibility experiments after thermal denaturation reveal that deglycosylated proteins tend to aggregate during thermal inactivation but the wild type shows a much greater recovery to the native state upon refolding. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in turmeric lectin is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in pH, and that the oligosaccharides help in maintaining the active conformation and prevent aggregation in unfolded or partially folded molecules. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A study on effective extraction of isoflavones from soy germ using the electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hoon [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Tae Beom [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Wook [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: swkim@kaeri.re.kr; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Kook Hyun [Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yukook@dongguk.edu

    2009-07-15

    Soy germ was irradiated with 2 MeV electron beam with different doses ranging from 1 to 20 kGy. The amount of isoflavones from irradiated soy germ was compared with those from natural soy germ by extracting with ethanol and methanol. The changed amounts of isoflavones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with standard calibration curve. Each extract of soy germ was quantified for antioxidant activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The amount of isoflavones was found to be increased after electron-beam irradiation. Particularly ethanol extract with 15 kGy irradiated soy germ contained the maximum amount of isoflavones. Antioxidant activity of irradiated soy germ was higher than that of natural soy germ.

  17. Immunocytochemical localisation of phloem lectin from Cucurbita maxima using peroxidase and colloidal-gold labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L M; Sabnis, D D; Johnson, R P

    1987-04-01

    Antibodies were raised against lectin purified from the sieve-tube exudate of Cucurbita maxima. Immunocytochemistry, using peroxidase-labelled antibodies and Protein A-colloidal gold, was employed to determine the location of the lectin within the tissues and cells of C. maxima and other cucurbit species. The anti-lectin antibodies bound to P-protein aggregates in sieve elements and companion cells, predominantly in the extrafascicular phloem of C. maxima. This may reflect the low rate of translocation in these cells. Under the electron microscope, the lectin was shown to be a component of P-protein filaments and was also found in association with the sieve-tube reticulum which lines the plasmalemma. The anti-lectin antibodies reacted with sieve-tube proteins from other species of the genus Cucurbita but showed only limited reaction with other genera. We suggest that the lectin serves to anchor P-protein filaments and associated proteins to the parietal layer of sieve elements.

  18. Lectin of Bacillus subtilis sp. as overinducer of gamma-interferonogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishko, Ia H; Vasylenko, M I; Pidhors'kyĭ, V S; Kovalenko, E O

    1997-01-01

    It has been demonstrated experimentally that lectin of Bacillus subtilis sp. in comparison with generally accepted Con A, PHA and lectin of "gold rain" grass--Laburnum anagyroides M e d i k in trials on white mice of CBA line gave in 4 hours of induction maximal titers of gamma-IFN in blood serum of animals--153.6 +/- 17.0 IU/ml. Practically identical titers had been obtained after induction by lectin "gold rain", some lower--after Con A and PHA. At swine gamma-IFN synthesis optimal density of cell suspension must contain 2.5 + 10(7) immunocytes in 1 ml, owing to which it is possible to obtain the titer equal 1 : 2150. Materials with using of bacterial lectins at various degree of purification had shown that maximal titers in blood serum of mongrel white mice were registered at administration to animals of non-purified lectin, 4 times lower--at using of half-purified and purified lectins. Data of these trials in vivo were confirmed by materials of gamma-IFN induction by immunocytes of swine, cattle and even man.

  19. [Lectin-binding patterns and cell kinetics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, T

    1991-01-01

    In order to elucidate the cell characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, the cell kinetics and lectin binding patterns were compared with the histological classification and staging of the tumors, using surgically resected materials (maxillary sinus 10, oral cavity 21, pharynx 8, larynx 11). Eight biotinylated lectins (WGA, 1-PHA, ConA, UEA1, RCA1, SBA, DBA, PNA) were applied to the paraffin-embedded sections, and were visualized histochemically by the streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase method. The DNA contents of the isolated carcinoma cells obtained from the adjacent thick sections were evaluated using an epi-illumination cytofluorometer after propidium iodide staining. On lectin histochemistry, the binding pattern of WGA lectin was similar between carcinoma tissues and normal tissues, but the binding was more intense in well differentiated than less differentiated carcinomas. Lymph node metastasis was found to be related to the presence of cells with poor WGA-binding. In the binding patterns of the other lectins, RCA1, SBA and ConA were related to the differentiation of carcinomas, but they were not related to the TNM-classification. DNA cytofluorometry exhibited marked polyploidization, which progressed with the advancement of the clinical and pathological staging of carcinomas. However, the DNA ploidy pattern was not associated with the cell characteristics such as the degree of histological differentiation and the lectin-binding pattern, except that the appearance of aneuploidy had some relationship with the binding-patterns of UEA1 and 1-PHA.

  20. Lysis of fresh human solid tumors by autologous lymphocytes activated in vitro with lectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, A.; Grimm, E.A.; Zhang, H.Z.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with a variety of cancers, were incubated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The lectin-activated PBL of nine patients were capable of lysing fresh autologous tumor during a 4-hr 51Cr release assay. Multiple metastases from the same patient were equivalently lysed by these activated autologous PBL. No lysis of fresh PBL or lectin-induced lymphoblast cell targets was seen, although tumor, PBL, and lymphoblast cells were shown to be equally lysable using allosensitized cells. The activated cells could be expanded without loss of cytotoxicity in crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The generation of cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor was dependent on the presence of adherent cells, although the lytic cell itself was not adherent. Proliferation was not involved in the induction of lytic cells since equal lysis was induced in irradiated and nonirradiated lymphocytes. Lectin was not required in the lytic assay, and the addition of alpha-methyl-D-mannoside to concanavalin A-activated lymphoid cells did not increase the lysis of fresh tumor cells. Activation by lectin for 3 days appears to be an efficient and convenient method for generating human cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor. These lytic cells may be of value for studies of the cell-mediated lysis of human tumor and possibly for tumor immunotherapy as well

  1. Integrated Microfluidic Lectin Barcode Platform for High-Performance Focused Glycomic Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Zeng, Yun; Zeng, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges in analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and speed of lectin microarray. Moreover, we established an on-chip lectin assay which employs a very simple blocking method to effectively suppress the undesired background due to lectin binding of antibodies. Using this technology, we demonstrated focused differential profiling of tissue-specific glycosylation changes of a biomarker, CA125 protein purified from ovarian cancer cell line and different tissues from ovarian cancer patients in a fast, reproducible, and high-throughput fashion. Highly sensitive CA125 detection was also demonstrated with a detection limit much lower than the clinical cutoff value for cancer diagnosis. This microfluidic platform holds the potential to integrate with sample preparation functions to construct a fully integrated “sample-to-answer” microsystem for focused differential glycomic analysis. Thus, our technology should present a powerful tool in support of rapid advance in glycobiology and glyco-biomarker development.

  2. Activation of the lectin pathway of complement in experimental human keratitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Michael; Brown, Karl D; Kong, David C M; Daniell, Mark; Eisen, Damon P

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) microbial keratitis (MK) is a sight-threatening disease. Previous animal studies have identified an important contribution of the complement system to the clearance of P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition receptor of the lectin pathway of complement, has been implicated in the host defense against P. aeruginosa. However, studies addressing the role of the lectin pathway in P. aeruginosa MK are lacking. Hence, we sought to determine the activity of the lectin pathway in human MK caused by P. aeruginosa. Primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) from cadaveric donors were exposed to two different P. aeruginosa strains. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, MBL, and other complement proteins was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and MBL synthesis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intracellular flow cytometry. MBL gene expression was not detected in unchallenged HCECs. Exposure of HCECs to P. aeruginosa resulted in rapid induction of the transcriptional expression of MBL, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, expression of several complement proteins of the classical and lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, were upregulated after 5 h of challenge, including MBL-associated serine protease 1. However, MBL protein secretion was not detectable 18 h after challenge with P. aeruginosa. MK due to P. aeruginosa triggers activation of MBL and the lectin pathway of complement. However, the physiologic relevance of this finding is unclear, as corresponding MBL oligomer production was not observed.

  3. Rachycentron canadum (cobia) lectin promoted mitogenic response in mice BALB/c splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriolano, M C; de Melo, C M L; Santos, A J G; Pereira, V R A; Coelho, L C B B

    2012-12-01

    The mitogenic lectins are invaluable tools to study the biochemical changes associated with lymphocyte activation and proliferation of various immune cells. Rachycentron canadum lectin (RcaL) was detected and purified from serum of cobia fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proliferative response and cytokine production in splenocytes of mice in vitro stimulated with RcaL lectin; Canavalia ensiformis lectin (Con A) was used as positive control. A high proliferation index was induced by RcaL in relation to control cells. Furthermore, RcaL induced higher IL-2 and IL-6 production in relation to control. The cell viability was 90% in splenocytes treated with RcaL lectin, but RcaL promoted significant late apoptosis after 24 and 48 h in relation to control. RcaL induced proliferative responses suggesting that this lectin can be used as a mitogenic agent in immunostimulatory assays. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Multivalent Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions: How Synthetic Chemistry Enables Insights into Nanometric Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Roy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycan recognition by sugar receptors (lectins is intimately involved in many aspects of cell physiology. However, the factors explaining the exquisite selectivity of their functional pairing are not yet fully understood. Studies toward this aim will also help appraise the potential for lectin-directed drug design. With the network of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins as therapeutic targets, the strategy to recruit synthetic chemistry to systematically elucidate structure-activity relationships is outlined, from monovalent compounds to glyco-clusters and glycodendrimers to biomimetic surfaces. The versatility of the synthetic procedures enables to take examining structural and spatial parameters, alone and in combination, to its limits, for example with the aim to produce inhibitors for distinct galectin(s that exhibit minimal reactivity to other members of this group. Shaping spatial architectures similar to glycoconjugate aggregates, microdomains or vesicles provides attractive tools to disclose the often still hidden significance of nanometric aspects of the different modes of lectin design (sequence divergence at the lectin site, differences of spatial type of lectin-site presentation. Of note, testing the effectors alone or in combination simulating (pathophysiological conditions, is sure to bring about new insights into the cooperation between lectins and the regulation of their activity.

  5. Sugar-Binding Profiles of Chitin-Binding Lectins from the Hevein Family: A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Itakura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitin-binding lectins form the hevein family in plants, which are defined by the presence of single or multiple structurally conserved GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine-binding domains. Although they have been used as probes for chito-oligosaccharides, their detailed specificities remain to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed six chitin-binding lectins, DSA, LEL, PWM, STL, UDA, and WGA, by quantitative frontal affinity chromatography. Some novel features were evident: WGA showed almost comparable affinity for pyridylaminated chitotriose and chitotetraose, while LEL and UDA showed much weaker affinity, and DSA, PWM, and STL had no substantial affinity for the former. WGA showed selective affinity for hybrid-type N-glycans harboring a bisecting GlcNAc residue. UDA showed extensive binding to high-mannose type N-glycans, with affinity increasing with the number of Man residues. DSA showed the highest affinity for highly branched N-glycans consisting of type II LacNAc (N-acetyllactosamine. Further, multivalent features of these lectins were investigated by using glycoconjugate and lectin microarrays. The lectins showed substantial binding to immobilized LacNAc as well as chito-oligosaccharides, although the extents to which they bound varied among them. WGA showed strong binding to heavily sialylated glycoproteins. The above observations will help interpret lectin-glycoprotein interactions in histochemical studies and glyco-biomarker investigations.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a novel lectin from the mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.; Liu, Q.H.; Ng, T.B.; Liu, H.Z.; Li, J.Q.; Chen, G.; Sheng, H.Y.; Xie, Z.L.; Wang, H.X.

    2006-01-01

    From the dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens, a dimeric lectin with a molecular mass of 29.4 kDa has been isolated. The purification procedure involved (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin could not be inhibited by simple sugars but was inhibited by the polysaccharide inulin. The activity was stable up to 70 o C but was acid- and alkali-labile. Salts including FeCl 3 , AlCl 3 , and ZnCl 2 inhibited the activity whereas MgCl 2 , MnCl 2 , and CaCl 2 did not. The lectin stimulated mitogenic response of mouse splenocytes with the maximal response achieved by 1 μM lectin. Proliferation of tumor cells including MBL2 cells, HeLa cells, and L1210 cells was inhibited by the lectin with an IC 5 of 2.5, 5, and 10 μM, respectively. However, proliferation of HepG2 cells was not affected. The novel aspects of the isolated lectin include a novel N-terminal sequence, fair thermostability, acid stability, and alkali stability, together with potent mitogenic activity toward spleen cells and antiproliferative activity toward tumor cells

  7. Detection of Cytotoxic Activity of Lectin on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma (Sw480 and Epithelial Cervical Carcinoma (C33-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirandeli Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a heterogeneous class of proteins that recognize the carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates with high specificity. Numerous studies have shown that lectins are capable of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties displayed by malignant cells or tissues. The present work was performed to investigate the effects of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius lectins on proliferation, colony formation, and alteration of DNA synthesis of human malignant cells. Tepary bean lectin showed dose dependent  effects on the inhibition of viability as well as on colony formation in two human malignant cells lines (C33-A, Sw480; By contrast, tepary bean lectin only showed significant effects on DNA synthesis on Sw480 cells. Our results provide evidence of the anti- proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the tepary bean lectins on C33-A and Sw480 cells lines.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Prostate Cancer Associated Protein Biomarkers Using High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    lectins, a class of proteins found in plants, bacteria, fungi and animals that are known to bind specific oligosaccharide moieties (44-47). Unlike... wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, binds terminal N-acetylglucosamines) and Concanavalin A (ConA, binds terminal mannoses and glucoses) were also included. The

  9. [Inhibition by cysteine of the carbohydrate-binding activity of lectins from Ricinus communis, Canavalia ensiformis and Euonymus europaeus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, V M

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation induced by different lectins has been studied in the presence of some aminoacids. It was shown that precipitates formed by lectins from Ricinus communis (RCA1), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Euonymus europaeus (Eel) in the presence of appropriate carbohydrate-containing molecules disappeared after cysteine addition, like after addition of specific carbohydrate precipitation inhibitors. It is assumed that cysteine residues of RCA1, Con A and Eel lectins are essential for their carbohydrate binding activity.

  10. Fungal lectin MpL enables entry of protein drugs into cancer cells and their subcellular targeting

    OpenAIRE

    ?urga, Simon; Nanut, Milica Peri?i?; Kos, Janko; Saboti?, Jerica

    2017-01-01

    Lectins have been recognized as promising carrier molecules for targeted drug delivery. They specifically bind carbohydrate moieties on cell membranes and trigger cell internalization. Fungal lectin MpL (Macrolepiota procera lectin) does not provoke cancer cell cytotoxicity but is able to bind aminopeptidase N (CD13) and integrin ?3?1, two glycoproteins that are overexpressed on the membrane of tumor cells. Upon binding, MpL is endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner and accumulates initia...

  11. Radiation enhances shelf life of Nendra bananas without changing the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Neil Renault; Nivas, Shashikiran; D'Souza, L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study shows that the shelf life of bananas is increased with low doses of radiation (300 Gy, 400 Gy, 500 Gy). However, there is no decrease in the lectin content. This improves the keeping quality of nendra bananas without affecting their lectin content. Hence, radiation can be used safely for the bananas distributed to HIV children. The present study was also to compare the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra bananas with the gamma irradiated bananas

  12. MRI Findings of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors in Two Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laurie; Tensley, Michelle; Drost, Wm Tod; Koivisto, Christopher; Oglesbee, Michael

    A 4 yr old border collie presenting for mydriasis and decreased mentation and a 7 yr old Boston terrier presenting for obtundation, head tilt, and paraparesis were both evaluated using MRI. Findings in both included mass lesions of the thalamus and brainstem that were hypo- to isointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with regions of hypointensity, and robust contrast enhancement and displacement of adjacent structures. Postmortem histopathology findings, tumor location, and a mixed pattern of epithelial cell differentiation were consistent with germ cell tumor in both cases. Germ cell tumor of the suprasellar region is an infrequently reported neoplasm of dogs and imaging findings in this species have not been well described in the prior literature.

  13. Video-assisted thoracic surgery mediastinal germ cell metastasis resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Marco; Jayakumar, Shruti; Migliore, Marcello; Dunning, Joel

    2017-07-01

    Thoracoscopy can be safely used for dissection of masses in the visceral mediastinum. We report the case of a 31-year-old man affected by metastatic germ cell tumour and successfully treated with a 3-port posterior approach video-assisted thoracic surgery. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation-induced genetic effects in germ cells of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buul, P.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the project is to gain information on the effects of ionizing radiation on germ cells of rodents and primates as measured by induced chromosomal translocations. Different aspects of the very significant interspecies differences between the mouse and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) for translocation induction in spermatogonial stem cells were studied. In addition, possible mechanisms for the well established reduced transmission of induced mouse translocations were investigated. (R.P.) 6 refs

  15. On the number of founding germ cells in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Breck

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of founding germ cells (FGCs in mammals is of fundamental significance to the fidelity of gene transmission between generations, but estimates from various methods vary widely. In this paper we obtain a new estimate for the value in humans by using a mathematical model of germ cell development that depends on available oocyte counts for adult women. Results The germline-development model derives from the assumption that oogonial proliferation in the embryonic stage starts with a founding cells at t = 0 and that the subsequent proliferation can be defined as a simple stochastic birth process. It follows that the population size X(t at the end of germline expansion (around the 5th month of pregnancy in humans; t = 0.42 years is a random variable with a negative binomial distribution. A formula based on the expectation and variance of this random variable yields a moment-based estimate of a that is insensitive to the progressive reduction in oocyte numbers due to their utilization and apoptosis at later stages of life. In addition, we describe an algorithm for computing the maximum likelihood estimation of the FGC population size (a, as well as the rates of oogonial division and loss to apoptosis. Utilizing both of these approaches to evaluate available oocyte-counting data, we have obtained an estimate of a = 2 – 3 for Homo sapiens. Conclusion The estimated number of founding germ cells in humans corresponds well with values previously derived from chimerical or mosaic mouse data. These findings suggest that the large variation in oocyte numbers between individual women is consistent with a smaller founding germ cell population size than has been estimated by cytological analyses.

  16. Differential binding properties of Gal/GalNAc specific lectins available for characterization of glycoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Song, S C; Sugii, S; Herp, A

    1997-01-01

    Differentiating the binding properties of applied lectins should facilitate the selection of lectins for characterization of glycoreceptors on the cell surface. Based on the binding specificities studied by inhibition assays of lectin-glycan interactions, over twenty Gal and/or GalNAc specific lectins have been divided into eight groups according to their specificity for structural units (lectin determinants), which are the disaccharide as all or part of the determinants and of GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the peptide chain. A scheme of codes for lectin determinants is illustrated as follows: (1) F (GalNAc alpha 1-->3GalNAc), Forssman specific disaccharide--Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (2) A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3 Gal), blood group A specific disaccharide--Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides (CFT), Soy bean (SBL), Vicia villosa-A4 (VVL-A4), and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (3) Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the protein core)--Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4), Salvia sclarea (SSL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). (4) T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), the mucin type sugar sequences on the human erythrocyte membrane(T alpha), T antigen or the disaccharides at the terminal nonreducing end of gangliosides (T beta)--Peanut (PNA), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Sophora japonica (SJL), Artocarpus lakoocha (Artocarpin) lectins and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA).(5) I and II (Gal beta 1-->3(4)GlcNAc)--the disaccharide residue at the nonreducing end of the carbohydrate chains derived from either N- or O-glycosidic linkage--Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Datura stramonium (TAL, Thorn apple), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL, Coral tree), and Geodia cydonium (GCL). (6) B (Gal alpha 1-->3Gal), human blood group B specific disaccharide--Griffonia(Banderiaea) simplicifolia B4 (GSI-B4). (7) E (Gal alpha 1-->4Gal), receptors for pathogenic E

  17. Purification and characterization of a mucin specific mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis: application for mitogenic and antimicrobial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sarup Singh

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins or glycoproteins that bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates present on the apposing cells, which are responsible for their ability to agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc. Interest in lectins has been intensified due to their carbohydrate specificity as they can be valuable reagents for the investigation of cell surface sugars, purification and characterization of glycoproteins. The present study reports the purification, characterization and evaluation of mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of a mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis.Affinity chromatography on mucin-sepharose column was carried out for purification of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis lectin. The lectin was characterized for physico-chemical parameters. Mitogenic potential of the lectin was evaluated against splenocytes of Swiss albino mice by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of the purified lectin has also been evaluated by disc diffusion assay.Single-step affinity purification resulted in 18.6-fold purification of the mycelial lectin. The molecular mass of the lectin was found to be 70 kDa and it was composed of two subunits of 34.8 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. pH optima of the lectin was found to be 6.5-9.5, while optimum temperature for lectin activity was 20-30 °C. Lectin was stable within a pH range of 7.0-10.5 and showed fair thermostability. EDTA did not affect lectin activity whereas it was found susceptible to the denaturants tested. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of A. gorakhpurensis lectin at a concentration upto 150 µg/mL. Antimicrobial activity assay showed its potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcous aureus and Escherichia coli and marginal antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae.This is the first report on the mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Celso S.; Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Cavada, Benildo S.; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago Do; Nunes, Eudismar Vale; Sampaio, Alexandre H.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a red marine alga lectin isolated from H. musciformis is reported. HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis, defines a novel lectin family. Orthorhombic crystals of HML belonging to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 grew within three weeks at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected at 2.4 Å resolution. HML is the first marine alga lectin to be crystallized

  19. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmoll, H. J.; Souchon, R.; Krege, S.; Albers, P.; Beyer, J.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Fossa, S. D.; Skakkebaek, N. E.; de Wit, R.; Fizazi, K.; Droz, J. P.; Pizzocaro, G.; Daugaard, G.; de Mulder, P. H. M.; Horwich, A.; Oliver, T.; Huddart, R.; Rosti, G.; Paz Ares, L.; Pont, O.; Hartmann, J. T.; Aass, N.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Classen, J.; Clemm, S.; Culine, S.; de Wit, M.; Derigs, H. G.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Flasshove, M.; Garcia del Muro, X.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J. R.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.; Kaiser, G.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Kisbenedek, L.; Koehrmann, K. U.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, M. P.; Leiva, O.; Loy, V.; Mason, M. D.; Mead, G. M.; Mueller, R. P.; Nicolai, N.; Oosterhof, G. O. N.; Pottek, T.; Rick, O.; Schmidberger, H.; Sedlmayer, F.; Siegert, W.; Studer, U.; Tjulandin, S.; von der Maase, H.; Walz, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Winter, E.; Wittekind, C.

    2004-01-01

    Germ cell tumour is the most frequent malignant tumour type in young men with a 100% rise in the incidence every 20 years. Despite this, the high sensitivity of germ cell tumours to platinum-based chemotherapy, together with radiation and surgical measures, leads to the high cure rate of > or = 99%

  20. Biochemical Intestinal Parameters in Germ-free Minipigs and Rats and in Ex-germ-free Minipigs and Rats Monoassociated with Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cardona, M.,E.; Kozáková, Hana; Collinder, E.; Persson, A.-K.; Midtvedt, T.; Norin, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), s. 109-113 ISSN 1548-9213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : germ-free * minipigs * ex-germ-free Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2005

  1. DAZ Family Proteins, Key Players for Germ Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xia-Fei; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Wang, Lin-Qing; Yin, Shen; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    DAZ family proteins are found almost exclusively in germ cells in distant animal species. Deletion or mutations of their encoding genes usually severely impair either oogenesis or spermatogenesis or both. The family includes Boule (or Boll), Dazl (or Dazla) and DAZ genes. Boule and Dazl are situated on autosomes while DAZ, exclusive of higher primates, is located on the Y chromosome. Deletion of DAZ gene is the most common causes of infertility in humans. These genes, encoding for RNA binding proteins, contain a highly conserved RNA recognition motif and at least one DAZ repeat encoding for a 24 amino acids sequence able to bind other mRNA binding proteins. Basically, Daz family proteins function as adaptors for target mRNA transport and activators of their translation. In some invertebrate species, BOULE protein play a pivotal role in germline specification and a conserved regulatory role in meiosis. Depending on the species, DAZL is expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and/or pre-meiotic and meiotic germ cells of both sexes. Daz is found in fetal gonocytes, spermatogonia and spermatocytes of adult testes. Here we discuss DAZ family genes in a phylogenic perspective, focusing on the common and distinct features of these genes, and their pivotal roles during gametogenesis evolved during evolution. PMID:26327816

  2. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh

    1983-01-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported.FThe first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe.FTotal removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule.FHistological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma.FPrimary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma.FIn this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. (author)

  3. Origins and molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Victor E

    2005-02-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors can be divided into three groups (infantile/prepubertal, adolescent/young adult and spermatocytic seminoma), each with its own constellation of clinical histology, molecular and clinical features. They originate from germ cells at different stages of development. The most common testicular cancers arise in postpubertal men and are characterized genetically by having one or more copies of an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12 [i(12p)] or other forms of 12p amplification and by aneuploidy. The consistent gain of genetic material from chromosome 12 seen in these tumors suggests that it has a crucial role in their development. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type (IGCNU) is the precursor to these invasive tumors. Several factors have been associated with their pathogenesis, including cryptorchidism, elevated estrogens in utero and gonadal dysgenesis. Tumors arising in prepubertal gonads are either teratomas or yolk sac tumors, tend to be diploid and are not associated with i(12p) or with IGCNU. Spermatocytic seminoma (SS) arises in older patients. These benign tumors may be either diploid or aneuploid and have losses of chromosome 9 rather than i(12p). Intratubular SS is commonly encountered but IGCNU is not. The pathogenesis of prepubertal GCT and SS is poorly understood.

  4. POMB/ACE chemotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M; Brock, C; Holden, L; Nelstrop, A; Makey, A R; Rustin, G J; Newlands, E S

    1997-05-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumours (MGCT) are rare and most published series reflect the experiences of individual institutions over many years. Since 1979, we have treated 16 men (12 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and 4 seminomas) with newly diagnosed primary MGCT with POMB/ACE chemotherapy and elective surgical resection of residual masses. This approach yielded complete remissions in 15/16 (94%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.0 years and no relapses occurred more than 2 years after treatment. The 5 year overall survival in the non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) is 73% (95% confidence interval 43-90%). One patient with NSGCT developed drug-resistant disease and died without achieving remission and 2 patients died of relapsed disease. In addition, 4 patients with bulky and/or metastatic seminoma were treated with POMB/ACE. One died of treatment-related neutropenic sepsis in complete remission and one died of relapsed disease. Finally, 4 patients (2 NSGCT and 2 seminomas) referred at relapse were treated with POMB/ACE and one was successfully salvaged. The combination of POMB/ACE chemotherapy and surgery is effective management for MGCT producing high long-term survival rates.

  5. Human DAZL, DAZ and BOULE genes modulate primordial germ cell and haploid gamete formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Kehkooi; Angeles, Vanessa T; Flores, Martha; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Pera, Renee A Reijo

    2009-01-01

    The leading cause of infertility in men and women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ cell (oocyte and sperm) development. Yet, it has not been possible to examine the unique developmental genetics of human germ cell formation and differentiation due to inaccessibility of germ cells during fetal development. Although several studies have shown that germ cells can be differentiated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells, human germ cells differentiated in these studies generally did not develop beyond the earliest stages1-8. Here we used a germ cell reporter to quantitate and isolate primordial germ cells derived from both male and female hESCs. Then, by silencing and overexpressing genes that encode germ cell-specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins (not transcription factors), we modulated human germ cell formation and developmental progression. We observed that human DAZL (Deleted in AZoospermia-Like) functions in primordial germ cell formation, whereas closely-related genes, DAZ and BOULE, promote later stages of meiosis and development of haploid gametes. These results are significant to the generation of gametes for future basic science and potential clinical applications. PMID:19865085

  6. Tre1, a G protein-coupled receptor, directs transepithelial migration of Drosophila germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat S Kunwar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most organisms, germ cells are formed distant from the somatic part of the gonad and thus have to migrate along and through a variety of tissues to reach the gonad. Transepithelial migration through the posterior midgut (PMG is the first active step during Drosophila germ cell migration. Here we report the identification of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, Tre1, that is essential for this migration step. Maternal tre1 RNA is localized to germ cells, and tre1 is required cell autonomously in germ cells. In tre1 mutant embryos, most germ cells do not exit the PMG. The few germ cells that do leave the midgut early migrate normally to the gonad, suggesting that this gene is specifically required for transepithelial migration and that mutant germ cells are still able to recognize other guidance cues. Additionally, inhibiting small Rho GTPases in germ cells affects transepithelial migration, suggesting that Tre1 signals through Rho1. We propose that Tre1 acts in a manner similar to chemokine receptors required during transepithelial migration of leukocytes, implying an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transepithelial migration. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was shown to direct migration in vertebrate germ cells. Thus, germ cells may more generally use GPCR signaling to navigate the embryo toward their target.

  7. Germ cell development in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera; Vasa and Nanos expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearden Peter K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of specification of germ-cells in insect embryos has indicated that in many taxa the germ cells form early in development, and their formation is associated with pole plasm, germ plasm or an organelle called the oosome. None of these morphological features associated with germ cell formation have been identified in the Honeybee Apis mellifera. In this study I report the cloning and expression analysis of Honeybee homologues of vasa and nanos, germ cell markers in insects and other animals. Results Apis vasa and nanos RNAs are present in early honeybee embryos, but the RNAs clear rapidly, without any cells expressing these germ cell markers past stage 2. These genes are then only expressed in a line of cells in the abdomen from stage 9 onwards. These cells are the developing germ cells that are moved dorsally by dorsal closure and are placed in the genital ridge. Conclusion This study of the expression of germ cell markers in the honeybee implies that in this species either germ cells are formed by an inductive event, late in embryogenesis, or they are formed early in development in the absence of vasa and nanos expression. This contrasts with germ cell development in other members of the Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

  8. The diversity of nanos expression in echinoderm embryos supports different mechanisms in germ cell specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresques, Tara; Swartz, Steven Zachary; Juliano, Celina; Morino, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Mani; Akasaka, Koji; Wada, Hiroshi; Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-07-01

    Specification of the germ cell lineage is required for sexual reproduction in all animals. However, the timing and mechanisms of germ cell specification is remarkably diverse in animal development. Echinoderms, such as sea urchins and sea stars, are excellent model systems to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to germ cell specification. In several echinoderm embryos tested, the germ cell factor Vasa accumulates broadly during early development and is restricted after gastrulation to cells that contribute to the germ cell lineage. In the sea urchin, however, the germ cell factor Vasa is restricted to a specific lineage by the 32-cell stage. We therefore hypothesized that the germ cell specification program in the sea urchin/Euechinoid lineage has evolved to an earlier developmental time point. To test this hypothesis we determined the expression pattern of a second germ cell factor, Nanos, in four out of five extant echinoderm clades. Here we find that Nanos mRNA does not accumulate until the blastula stage or later during the development of all other echinoderm embryos except those that belong to the Echinoid lineage. Instead, Nanos is expressed in a restricted domain at the 32-128 cell stage in Echinoid embryos. Our results support the model that the germ cell specification program underwent a heterochronic shift in the Echinoid lineage. A comparison of Echinoid and non-Echinoid germ cell specification mechanisms will contribute to our understanding of how these mechanisms have changed during animal evolution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. FLI-1 Flightless-1 and LET-60 Ras control germ line morphogenesis in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dentler William L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the C. elegans germ line, syncytial germ line nuclei are arranged at the cortex of the germ line as they exit mitosis and enter meiosis, forming a nucleus-free core of germ line cytoplasm called the rachis. Molecular mechanisms of rachis formation and germ line organization are not well understood. Results Mutations in the fli-1 gene disrupt rachis organization without affecting meiotic differentiation, a phenotype in C. elegans referred to here as the germ line morphogenesis (Glm phenotype. In fli-1 mutants, chains of meiotic germ nuclei spanned the rachis and were partially enveloped by invaginations of germ line plasma membrane, similar to nuclei at the cortex. Extensions of the somatic sheath cells that surround the germ line protruded deep inside the rachis and were associated with displaced nuclei in fli-1 mutants. fli-1 encodes a molecule with leucine-rich repeats and gelsolin repeats similar to Drosophila flightless 1 and human Fliih, which have been shown to act as cytoplasmic actin regulators as well as nuclear transcriptional regulators. Mutations in let-60 Ras, previously implicated in germ line development, were found to cause the Glm phenotype. Constitutively-active LET-60 partially rescued the fli-1 Glm phenotype, suggesting that LET-60 Ras and FLI-1 might act together to control germ line morphogenesis. Conclusion FLI-1 controls germ line morphogenesis and rachis organization, a process about which little is known at the molecular level. The LET-60 Ras GTPase might act with FLI-1 to control germ line morphogenesis.

  10. Role of aromatic amino acids in carbohydrate binding of plant lectins : Laser photo chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization study of hevein domain-containing lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebert, HC; vonderLieth, CW; Kaptein, R; Beintema, JJ; Dijkstra, K; vanNuland, N; Soedjanaatmadja, UMS; Rice, A; Vliegenthart, JFG; Wright, CS; Gabius, HJ

    Carbohydrate recognition by lectins often involves the side chains of tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine residues. These moieties are able to produce chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) signals after laser irradiation in the presence of a suitable radical pair-generating dye.

  11. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum...

  12. T-antigen binding lectin with antibacterial activity from marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra): Possible involvement in differential recognition of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowda, N.M.; Goswami, U.; Khan, M.I.

    report a study of a lectin (HSL) involved in immune response in the echinoderm, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra). Correlative studies indicate that the expression of this defensive lectin is induced by bacterial challenge, wherein cell wall...

  13. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  14. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Unger, Wendy W. J.; Kooyk, Yvette van, E-mail: y.vankooyk@vumc.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-08-08

    Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future.

  15. The peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.I.; Keeble, S.; Watt, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The peanut lectin (PNA) is known to bind more strongly to keratinocytes that are undergoing terminal differentiation than to proliferating keratinocytes. In order to investigate the significance of this change in cell-surface carbohydrate authors have identified the PNA-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes and antibodies against them. Two heavily glycosylated bands of 110 and 250 kDa were resolved by PAGE of [ 14 C]galactose- or [ 14 C]mannose- and [ 14 C]glucosamine-labeled cell extracts eluted with galactose from PNA affinity columns. The higher molecular weight band was also detected on PNA blots of unlabeled cell extracts transferred to nitrocellulose. Both bands were sensitive to pronase digestion, but only the 250-kDa band was digested with trypsin. A rabbit antiserum that we prepared (anti-PNA-gp) immunoprecipitated both bands from cell extracts. In contrast to PNA, anti-PNA-gp bound equally to proliferating and terminally differentiating cells, indicating that some epitope(s) of the PNA-binding glycoproteins is present on the cell surface prior to terminal differentiation. When keratinocytes grown as a monolayer in low-calcium medium were switched to medium containing 2 mM calcium ions in order to induce desmosome formation and stratification, there was a dramatic redistribution of the PNA-binding glycoproteins, which became concentrated at the boundaries between cells. This may suggest a role for the glycoproteins in cell-cell interactions during stratification

  16. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S Patil

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  17. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  18. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  19. Mannose-binding lectin impairs Leptospira activity through the inhibitory effect on the motility of cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Guo, Yijie; Nakamura, Shuichi; Islam, Md Shafiqul; Tomioka, Rintaro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

    2015-02-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays key role in lectin pathway of innate immunity, and shows the ability of triggering opsonization intermediately. Substantial increase in the serum level of MBL has been confirmed during leptospirosis, which caused by a pathogenic spirochete, Leptospira. Leptospira has a fascinating locomotion pattern, which simultaneously gyrating and swimming forward, such motility enables that Leptospira is difficult to be captured by immune cells if without any assistance. In this study, the effect of mannose-binding lectin to Leptospira was quantitatively investigated by measuring some kinematic parameters, to discover the mechanism behind MBL-mediated immune responses during leptospiral infection. The results showed that mannose-binding lectin is capable of inhibiting the motility of Leptospira by transforming free swimming cells to tumbled rotating cells, resulted in the increase number of rotating cells. Otherwise, decrease in rotation rate of rotating cell has been observed. However, the swimming speed of swimming Leptospira cells showed no observable change under the effect of MBL. The inhibitory effect were only valid in a relatively short period, Leptospira cells regained their original motility after 2 h. This raises an interesting topic that Leptospira is somehow able to escape from the inhibitory effect of MBL by dragging such unfavorable molecules toward to the cell end and eventually throwing it out. The inhibitory effect of MBL on the motility of Leptospira is expected to provide a new insight into lectin pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Separate factors influencing the interaction of carbohydrate- containing liposomes with galactose-specific lectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, V M; Vidershaĭn, G Ia

    1984-11-01

    Some natural (Gal-Cer, Lac-Cer, desyalylated gangliosides) and synthetic (HMGal) glycolipids differing in the length of the bridge linking the terminal galactose with the hydrophobic moiety were incorporated into the liposome membranes. The precipitation of the thus obtained vesicles induced by galactose-specific lectin RCA was studied. It was shown that when the amount of the glycolipids used for the incorporation into the liposomes (1 mol. %) was the same, the vesicles with HMGal or Gal-Cer incorporated into them did not precipitate in the presence of lectin, whereas the liposomes with incorporated Lac-Cer or desyalylated gangliosides did precipitate. It was thus concluded that in order for galactose-containing liposomes precipitation by lectin RCA1 to be induced, galactose should be separated from the liposome membrane with a distance not less than 7 A. The nature of lectin-induced nonspecific precipitation of ganglioside-containing liposomes, ganglioside mycelles and cardiolipin-lecithine liposomes containing lactosylceramide was investigated. Some nonspecific ionic interactions of negatively charged liposomes and ganglioside mycelles with lectin were observed, which disappeared with a rise in the NaCl concentration up to 150-200 mM.

  1. Purification of a lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds and its potential antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M D L; Andrade, C A S; Santos-Magalhães, N S; Coelho, L C B B; Teixeira, J A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Correia, M T S

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the antimicrobial properties of a purified lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds. The E. uniflora lectin (EuniSL) was isolated from the seed extract and purified by ion-exchange chromatography in DEAE-Sephadex with a purification factor of 11.68. The purified lectin showed a single band on denaturing electrophoresis, with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. EuniSL agglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes with a higher specificity for rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutination was not inhibited by the tested carbohydrates but glycoproteins exerted a strong inhibitory action. The lectin proved to be thermo resistant with the highest stability at pH 6.5 and divalent ions did not affect its activity. EuniSL demonstrated a remarkable nonselective antibacterial activity. EuniSL strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.5 microg ml(-1), and moderately inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp. and Escherichia coli with a MIC of 16.5 microg ml(-1). EuniSL was found to be effective against bacteria. The strong antibacterial activity of the studied lectin indicates a high potential for clinical microbiology and therapeutic applications.

  2. Recombinant production of plant lectins in microbial systems for biomedical application – the frutalin case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eOliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutalin is a homotetrameric partly-glycosylated alpha-D-galactose-binding lectin of biomedical interest from Artocarpus incisa (breadfruit seeds, belonging to the jacalin-related lectins family. As other plant lectins, frutalin is a heterogeneous mixture of several isoforms possibly with distinct biological activities. The main problem of using such lectins as biomedical tools is that batch-to-batch variation in isoforms content may lead to inconstant results. The production of lectins by recombinant means has the advantage of obtaining high amounts of proteins with defined amino-acid sequences and more precise properties. In this mini review, we provide the strategies followed to produce two different forms of frutalin in two different microbial systems: Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. The processing and functional properties of the recombinant frutalin obtained from these hosts are compared to those of frutalin extracted from breadfruit. Emphasis is given particularly to recombinant frutalin produced in P. pastoris, which showed a remarkable capacity as biomarker of human prostate cancer and as apoptosis-inducer of cancer cells. Recombinant frutalin production opens perspectives for its development as a new tool in human medicine.

  3. Recombinant production of plant lectins in microbial systems for biomedical application – the frutalin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Teixeira, José A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    Frutalin is a homotetrameric partly glycosylated α-D-galactose-binding lectin of biomedical interest from Artocarpus incisa (breadfruit) seeds, belonging to the jacalin-related lectins family. As other plant lectins, frutalin is a heterogeneous mixture of several isoforms possibly with distinct biological activities. The main problem of using such lectins as biomedical tools is that “batch-to-batch” variation in isoforms content may lead to inconstant results. The production of lectins by recombinant means has the advantage of obtaining high amounts of proteins with defined amino-acid sequences and more precise properties. In this mini review, we provide the strategies followed to produce two different forms of frutalin in two different microbial systems: Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. The processing and functional properties of the recombinant frutalin obtained from these hosts are compared to those of frutalin extracted from breadfruit. Emphasis is given particularly to recombinant frutalin produced in P. pastoris, which showed a remarkable capacity as biomarker of human prostate cancer and as apoptosis-inducer of cancer cells. Recombinant frutalin production opens perspectives for its development as a new tool in human medicine. PMID:25152749

  4. Structure prediction and functional analysis of a non-permutated lectin from Dioclea grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Bruno Lopes; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Simões, Rafael da Conceição; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape da Silva; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Legume lectins have been widely studied and applied for many purposes in the last few decades, but many of their physiological aspects remain elusive. The Diocleinae legume subtribe, which includes intensively explored lectins, such as ConA, presents an unusual and extensive post-translational process which results in minor alterations in protein structure, in turn making its function elusive. Despite previous reports about Diocleinae precursor activity, no structural or functional analyses have ever been carried out to understand the impacts of post-translational processing relative to lectin structure and binding specificity. Here we analyzed the functionality of a non glycosylated, recombinantly expressed lectin precursor from Dioclea grandiflora through inhibition assays, corroborating the experimental data with structural information generated by molecular modeling, docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that Diocleinae precursors are active and share the same carbohydrate specificity as mature lectins. At the same time, however, subtle structural alterations were detected and mostly result in an "incomplete" functionality of the precursor, as consequence of an immature binding site and an unstructured tetramer interface, affecting carbohydrate binding and oligomer formation, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. PITHOMYCES CHARTARUM AS A PATHOGEN OF WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, B; Csösz, M; Dijksterhuis, J; Frisvad, J C; Varga, J

    2007-01-01

    During routine surveys of wheat-growing (Triticum aestivum L.) areas of Hungary, symptomatic leaf samples were collected from different wheat cultivars. Macro- and micromorphological examinations of singlespore isolates showed some of them to belong to Pithomyces chartarum (teleomorph:

  6. Origin of pluripotent germ cell tumours: the role of microenvironment during embryonic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Sonne, Si Brask; Ottesen, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    into virtually any type of tissue and form teratomas (non-seminomas). CIS cells display a close phenotypic similarity to fetal germ cells (primordial germ cells or gonocytes) suggesting an origin due to a developmental delay or arrest of differentiation of early germ cells. The pluripotency of these neoplasms...... in several tissue specific stem cells, such as TFAP2C (AP-2gamma) or KIT. CIS and seminomas highly express a number of pre-meiotic germ cell specific genes, which are down-regulated during development to non-seminomas, while the expression of other embryonic markers, such as SOX2, is up...

  7. Sex-specific differences in fetal germ cell apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G. [CEA, DSV/DRR/SEGG/LDRG, Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G. [Univ. Paris 7-Denis Diderot, UFR of Biology, UMR-S 566, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G. [INSERM, U566, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bakalska, M. [Institute of Experimental Morphology and Anthropology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Frydman, R. [Univ Paris-Sud, Clamart F-92140 (France); Frydman, R. [AP-HP, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique et Medecine de la Reproduction, Hopital Antoine Beclere, Clamart F-92141 (France); Frydman, R. [INSERM, U782, Clamart F-92140 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Background: We have previously shown that male human fetal germ cells are highly radiosensitive and that their death depends on p53 activation. Male germ cell apoptosis was initiated with doses as low as 0.1 Gy and was prevented by pifithrin {alpha}, a p53 inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitivity of early female and male fetal proliferating germ cells. Methods and results: Both male and female fetal germ cells displayed a similar number of {gamma}H2AX foci in response to ionizing radiation (IR). In organ culture of human fetal ovaries, the germ cells underwent apoptosis only when exposed to high doses of IR (1.5 Gy and above). Accumulation of p53 was detected in irradiated male human fetal germ cells but not in female ones. Inhibition of p53 with pifithrin {alpha} did not affect oogonia apoptosis following irradiation. IR induced apoptosis similarly in mouse fetal ovaries in organ culture and in vivo during oogonial proliferation. Germ cell survival in testes from p53 knockout or p63 knockout mice exposed to IR was better than wild-type, whereas female germ cell survival was unaffected by p53 or p63 knockout. Conclusions: These findings show that pre-meiotic male and female fetal germ cells behave differently in response to a genotoxic stress-irradiation with oogonia being less sensitive and undergoing p53-independent apoptosis. (authors)

  8. Pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia in testicular dysgenesis and disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in individuals with 46,XY DSD. We summarise knowledge concerning development and sex differentiation of human gonads, with focus on sex-dimorphic steps of germ cell maturation, including meiosis. We also briefly outline the histopathology of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and gonadoblastoma (GDB), which......Development of human gonads is a sex-dimorphic process which evolved to produce sex-specific types of germ cells. The process of gonadal sex differentiation is directed by the action of the somatic cells and ultimately results in germ cells differentiating to become functional gametes through...

  9. Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazoe, Makoto; Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tsubokawa, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author)

  10. Insights into female germ cell biology: from in vivo development to in vitro derivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dajung; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of human germ cell biology is important for developing infertility treatments. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate human gametogenesis due to the difficulties in collecting samples, especially germ cells during fetal development. In contrast to the mitotic arrest of spermatogonia stem cells in the fetal testis, female germ cells proceed into meiosis and began folliculogenesis in fetal ovaries. Regulations of these developmental events, including the initiation of meiosis and the endowment of primordial follicles, remain an enigma. Studying the molecular mechanisms of female germ cell biology in the human ovary has been mostly limited to spatiotemporal characterizations of genes or proteins. Recent efforts in utilizing in vitro differentiation system of stem cells to derive germ cells have allowed researchers to begin studying molecular mechanisms during human germ cell development. Meanwhile, the possibility of isolating female germline stem cells in adult ovaries also excites researchers and generates many debates. This review will mainly focus on presenting and discussing recent in vivo and in vitro studies on female germ cell biology in human. The topics will highlight the progress made in understanding the three main stages of germ cell developments: namely, primordial germ cell formation, meiotic initiation, and folliculogenesis.

  11. Sex-specific differences in fetal germ cell apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G.; Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G.; Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G.; Bakalska, M.; Frydman, R.; Frydman, R.; Frydman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that male human fetal germ cells are highly radiosensitive and that their death depends on p53 activation. Male germ cell apoptosis was initiated with doses as low as 0.1 Gy and was prevented by pifithrin α, a p53 inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitivity of early female and male fetal proliferating germ cells. Methods and results: Both male and female fetal germ cells displayed a similar number of γH2AX foci in response to ionizing radiation (IR). In organ culture of human fetal ovaries, the germ cells underwent apoptosis only when exposed to high doses of IR (1.5 Gy and above). Accumulation of p53 was detected in irradiated male human fetal germ cells but not in female ones. Inhibition of p53 with pifithrin α did not affect oogonia apoptosis following irradiation. IR induced apoptosis similarly in mouse fetal ovaries in organ culture and in vivo during oogonial proliferation. Germ cell survival in testes from p53 knockout or p63 knockout mice exposed to IR was better than wild-type, whereas female germ cell survival was unaffected by p53 or p63 knockout. Conclusions: These findings show that pre-meiotic male and female fetal germ cells behave differently in response to a genotoxic stress-irradiation with oogonia being less sensitive and undergoing p53-independent apoptosis. (authors)

  12. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infectivity with a broad range of lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Vestergaard, B F

    1991-01-01

    Five lectins with specificity for N- and O-linked oligosaccharides were examined for inhibition of HIV-1 and HSV-1 infectivity in vitro. HIV-1 isolate HTLVIIIB was preincubated with lectin and subsequently inoculated onto MT-4 cells. Lectins specific for N-linked oligosaccharides blocked HIV infe...

  13. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a glycoprotein and a member of the C-type lectin super family, the collectin family, and the acute phase protein family. The MBL exerts its function by directly binding to microbial surfaces through its carbohydrate recognition domains, followed by direct opsonizati...

  14. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron Alves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL, Vatairea macrocarpa (VML, Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL, Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL, and Hypnea musciformis (HML showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units. The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins.

  15. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Poulsen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats...

  16. Mannan-binding lectin is involved in the protection against renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury by dietary restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shushimita; P. van der Pol (Pieter); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); C. van Kooten (Cees); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPreoperative fasting and dietary restriction offer robust protection against renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury (I/RI) in mice.We recently showed that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation, plays a pivotal role in renal I/RI. Based on

  17. Lectin complement pathway gene profile of the donor and recipient does not influence graft outcome after kidney transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, J.; Kok, J.L.; Snieder, H.; Leuvenink, H.G.; Goor, H. van; Hillebrands, J.L.; Dijk, M.C.R.F. van; Hepkema, B.G.; Reznichenko, A.; Born, J. van den; Borst, M.H. de; Bakker, S.J.; Navis, G.J.; Ploeg, R.J.; Seelen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In kidney transplantation, complement activation was found to be induced by donor brain death, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. There are three known pathways of complement activation: the classical, lectin and the alternative pathway. The lectin complement pathway can be

  18. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Schrøder, Malene; Wilcks, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The 90-day animal study is the core study for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods in the SAFOTEST project. The model compound tested in the 90-day study was a rice variety expressing the kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris lectin agglutinin E-form (PHA-E lectin). Female Wistar rats were...... safety testing of genetically modified foods....

  19. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) and ficolin-2 (FCN2) polymorphisms in patients on peritoneal dialysis with staphylococcal peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijvis, Sabine C. A.; Herpers, Bjorn L.; Endeman, Henrik; de Jong, Ben; van Hannen, Erik; van Velzen-Blad, Heleen; Krediet, Raymond T.; Struijk, Dirk G.; Biesma, Douwe H.; Bos, Willem Jan W.

    Background. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-2 (FCN) are activators of the lectin pathway of complement and act as primary defences against infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MBL2 and FCN2 genes influence the functionality of the proteins. Both proteins are capable of

  20. Mutation breeding in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study aims to improve the productivity of wheat by using gamma ray (100 - 600 Gy) in mutation breading. Five local varieties were used and the program continued for the Sakha 69 for seven generations. Seeds irradiated with 600 Gy were not germinated in the field, while low doses (100-150 Gy) stimulated the root growth and spike length. The higher doses caused gradual decrease of growth with differences in varieties response. in the second generation, a genetic differences were noticed in most varieties using doses of 100-300 Gy, and the dispike was disappeared when 250 Gy was used. 79 plants from irradiated Sakha 69 were selected according to spike length and the number of grains and planted with the control to test the third generation. differences between the varieties were noticed and 8 mutants with high productivity were selected and evaluated in the fourth and fifth generations with the local variety. The mutants improve the productivity and in particular the mutants Nos.. (19-1), (14-3), and (30-2). The experiment showed the relation between the planting sites and the mutants in the sixth and seven generations

  1. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities.

  2. Inactivation and fragmentation of lectin from Bothrops leucurus snake venom by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, E.S.; Souza, M.A.A.; Vaz, A.F.M.; Coelho, L.C.B.B.; Aguiar, J.S.; Silva, T.G.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Oliva, M.L.V.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma radiation alters the molecular structure of biomolecules and is able to mitigate the action of snake venoms and their isolated toxins. The effect of γ-radiation on the folding of Bothrops lecurus venom lectin was measured by a hemagglutinating assay, intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence. Intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence analyses indicated that irradiation caused unfolding followed by aggregation of the lectin. Our results suggest that irradiation can lead to significant changes in the protein structure, which may promote the loss of its binding property and toxic action. - Highlights: ► Gamma radiation alters the molecular structure of biomolecules. ► The radiation has been able to mitigate snake venoms and its isolated toxins. ► Our aim was to evaluate the effects of radiation in Bothrops lecurus venom lectin. ► The irradiation acts as a detoxification strategy in snake venoms.

  3. Complementary Roles of the Classical and Lectin Complement Pathways in the Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Anne; Genster, Ninette; Pilely, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus infections are associated with a high mortality rate for immunocompromised patients. The complement system is considered to be important in protection against this fungus, yet the course of activation is unclear. The aim of this study was to unravel the role of the classical......, lectin, and alternative pathways under both immunocompetent and immunocompromised conditions to provide a relevant dual-perspective on the response against A. fumigatus. Conidia (spores) from a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus were combined with various human serum types (including serum deficient...... complement on A. fumigatus, but required classical and/or lectin pathway for initiation. In normal human serum, this initiation came primarily from the classical pathway. However, with a dysfunctional classical pathway (C1q-deficient serum), lectin pathway activated complement and mediated opsonophagocytosis...

  4. PVA-Glutaraldehyde as support for lectin immobilization and affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rêgo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized lectins are a powerful biotechnological tool for separation and isolation of glycoconjugates. In the present study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and glutaraldehyde (GA were used as a support for Concanavalin A (Con A covalent immobilization and for entrapment of Parkia pendula seed gum (PpeG. Con A immobilization yielded approximately 30% and 0.6 M glucose solution was the minimum concentration able to elute fetuin from column. PVA-GA-PpeG column was efficiently recognized by pure P. pendula lectin (PpeL. These findings indicate that PVA-GA interpenetrated network showed to be an efficient support for lectin covalent immobilization and as affinity chromatography matrix after trapping of PpeG.

  5. Lectins Labelled with Digoxin as a Novel Tool to Study Glycoconjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerka Dumić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has become clear that carbohydrate portions of glycoconjugates are performing numerous vital physiological functions in higher organisms. However, since glycobiology is a relatively new science, and carbohydrate structures are highly complex, the continuous development of novel analytical techniques is necessary to support the process of understanding the intricate nature of glycoconjugate structure and function. The introduction of digoxin as a novel tag for labelling of lectins that are being used to analyse glycoconjugates in immunoassay-like techniques is described. Lectins labelled with digoxin have significant advantages over biotin- or digoxigenin-labelled lectins and will hopefully prove to be a useful addition to the repertoire of glycobiological tools.

  6. Direct demonstration of the lectin activity of gp90MEL, a lymphocyte homing receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates gp90MEL as a lymphocyte homing receptor mediating lymphocyte attachment to high endothelial venules of lymph nodes in mouse. The protein appears to function as a calcium- dependent, lectin-like receptor as inferred primarily by the ability of specific carbohydrates to block its function and by the presence of a calcium-type lectin domain in its primary sequence. An ELISA assay is described which provides the first demonstration that the isolated protein has lectin activity and allows a further definition of its carbohydrate specificity. In addition to the monosaccharides mannose-6- phosphate and fructose-1-phosphate, ligand activity is shown for the sulfated glycolipid, sulfatide, and for two sulfated fucose-containing polysaccharides (fucoidin and egg jelly coat) from nonmammalian sources. PMID:2202735

  7. Soybean Lectin Enhances Biofilm Formation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the Absence of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Pérez-Giménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean lectin (SBL purified from soybean seeds by affinity chromatography strongly bound to Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 cell surface. This lectin enhanced biofilm formation by B. japonicum in a concentration-dependent manner. Presence of galactose during biofilm formation had different effects in the presence or absence of SBL. Biofilms were completely inhibited in the presence of both SBL and galactose, while in the absence of SBL, galactose was less inhibitory. SBL was very stable, since its agglutinating activity of B. japonicum cells as well as of human group A+ erythrocytes was resistant to preincubation for one week at 60°C. Hence, we propose that plant remnants might constitute a source of this lectin, which might remain active in soil and thus favor B. japonicum biofilm formation in the interval between soybean crop seasons.

  8. Morphological Specifications of the Bird Schistosome Cercariae and Surface Carbohydrates as Receptors for Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Moebedi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the morphological specifications of the bird schistosomes cercaria from Lymnaea gedrosiana and to detect the surface carbohydrates as receptors for host lectins in the host-parasite relationship systems such as avian schistosomiasis and human cercarial dermatitis. Methods: One hundred ninety two snails collected from Dezful areas in Khuzestan Province, in the south west of Iran, during 2005-2006 were examined for cercariae using shedding and crushing methods. In addition, surface carbohydrates on the cercariae were detected by lentil (Lens culinaris lectins. Results: From the total number of Lymnaea gedrosiana, which examined for bird schistosomes cercaria, 9(4% snails were found to be infected with furcocercus cercaria of the bird schistosomes (probably Gigantobilharzia sp.. Mannose monosaccharide CH2OH (CHOH4CHO as surface carbohydrate was also detected on the cercariae. Conclusion: Mannose carbohydrate on these cercariae may be used as receptor by lectins.

  9. Structural characterization of coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin and its effect on hemostatic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana de Andrade; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Santana, Lucimeire Aparecida; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Paiva, Patricia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2013-07-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate recognition proteins. cMoL, a coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin, was isolated from seeds of the plant. Structural studies revealed a heat-stable and pH resistant protein with 101 amino acids, 11.67 theoretical pI and 81% similarity with a M. oleifera flocculent protein. Secondary structure content was estimated as 46% α-helix, 12% β-sheets, 17% β-turns and 25% unordered structures belonging to the α/β tertiary structure class. cMoL significantly prolonged the time required for blood coagulation, activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT) and prothrombin times (PT), but was not so effective in prolonging aPTT in asialofetuin presence. cMoL acted as an anticoagulant protein on in vitro blood coagulation parameters and at least on aPTT, the lectin interacted through the carbohydrate recognition domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  11. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...

  12. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...

  13. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  14. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  15. Weed Dynamics and Management in Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabran, Khawar; Mahmood, Khalid; Melander, Bo

    2017-01-01

    ) chemical weed control; and (vi) integrated weed management strategy in wheat. A critical analysis of recent literature indicated that broadleaved weeds are the most common group of weeds in wheat fields followed by grass weeds, while sedges were rarely noted in wheat fields. Across the globe, the most...

  16. Improvement of wheat for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, M.; Malinga, J.N.; Wanyama, J.; Karanja, L.; Njau, P.; Leo, T.; Alomba, E.

    2001-01-01

    Breeding for resistance against Russian wheat aphid in Kenya is reported. Results of six of the lines were found to have high to moderate resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Popular lines were susceptible in the greenhouse when subjected to aphid pressure but showed moderate susceptibility when screened under field conditions, indicating that in years or location with low aphid pressure farmers may still get a crop. However in areas of high aphid pressure or bad years they may lose their crop. Consequently, developing resistant/torerant varieties is urgent

  17. Anti-insect potential of lectins from Arisaema species towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Kuljinder; Rup, Pushpinder J; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-11-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), also known as melon fruit fly, is one of the major insect pests of cucurbits in several parts of Asia, Africa and Pacific. In the present investigation, effect of lectins from two sources i.e. Arisaema intermedium Blume and Arisaema wallichianum Hook f. (Family-Araceae) has been studied on the development of second instar larvae of melon fruit fly. The lectins were incorporated separately in artificial diet at a concentration of 10 to 160 microg ml(-1) and fed adlibitum to the second instar larvae. Both the lectins were found to prolong the development period and significantly inhibited the pupation and emergence in a dose dependent manner. Total development period was found to be prolonged by 3.5 and 2.3 days in case of larvae fed on artificial diet containing A. intermedium (AIL) and A. wallichianum (AWL), respectively. LC50 values calculated on the basis of adult emergence came out to be 32.8 and 29 microg ml(-1) for AIL and AWL, respectively. Both the lectins tested, were found to increase the activity of esterases as larvae proceeded from 24 to 72 hr of treatment. The activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly in larvae reared on diet containing LC50 of AIL, while in case of AWL significant decrease was observed only at 72 hr of treatment. Alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly on treatment with both of these lectins. These results showed that AIL and AWL have promising anti-insect potential. So, lectin gene/s from either of these species can be cloned and subsequently can be employed to develop transgenics to control melon fruit flies specifically and insect pests in general. This approach could be used as a part of Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.

  18. New crystal forms of Diocleinae lectins in the presence of different dimannosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Oliveira, Taianá Maia de; Souza, Emmanuel Prata de; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da; Benevides, Raquel Guimarães; Delatorre, Plínio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Azevedo, Walter Filgueira Jr de

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe, Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group P3 2 and those with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P2 1 2 1 2 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported. Studying the interactions between lectins and sugars is important in order to explain the differences observed in the biological activities presented by the highly similar proteins of the Diocleinae subtribe. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe, Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group P3 2 and those with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P2 1 2 1 2 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported. The crystal complexes of ConA-like lectins with Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe are reported here for the first time

  19. Expression of C-type lectin receptor mRNA in chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Han, Seung-Ho; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Kim, Young Il; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2017-06-01

    The levels of expression of various C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) messenger ribo nucleic acids (mRNAs) were significantly higher in cholesteatomas than in normal skin, suggesting that these CLRs may be involved in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Altered expression of pattern recognition receptors may be associated with immune responses in patients with cholesteatoma. This study assessed the levels of expression of CLR mRNAs in normal skin and in cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma specimens were obtained from 38 patients with acquired cholesteatoma. The levels of expression of various CLR mRNAs were assessed quantitatively using real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and correlated with age, sex, the presence of bacteria, hearing level, frequency of surgery, and degree of ossicle destruction. The levels of CD206 (cluster of differentiation 206), DEC-205 (Dendritic and epithelial cell-205), MGL (monoacylglycerol lipase), CLEC5A (C-type lectin domain family 5 member A), Dectin-2 (dendrite cell-associated C-type lectin-2), BDCA2 (Blood dendritic cell antigen 2), Mincle, DCIR (dendritic cell immunoreceptor), Dectin-1, MICL (Myeloid inhibitory C type-like lectin), and CLEC12B (C-type lectin domain family 12, member B) mRNAs were significantly higher in cholesteatoma than in control skin samples (p C-type lectin domain family 5 member) and Dectin-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in cholesteatomas with ≥2 than ≤1 destroyed ossicles (p < 0.05), and the levels of MGL, Mincle, Dectin-1, and CLEC12B mRNAs were significantly higher in recurrent than initial cholesteatoma specimens (p < 0.05). The level of CLEC5A mRNAs was significantly higher in patients with severe than mild-to-moderate hearing loss (p < 0.05).

  20. Effects of environmental factors on C-type lectin recognition to zooxanthellae in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Zhao, Shuimiao; Ni, Junyi; Su, Yilu; Wang, Lingui; Xu, Yanlai

    2018-05-15

    C-type lectin is a superfamily of Ca 2+ -dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that play significant roles in nonself-recognition and pathogen clearance. In the present study, a C-type lectin (PdC-Lectin) was chosen from stony coral Pocillopora damicornis to understand its recognition characteristics to zooxanthellae. PdC-Lectin protein contained a signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain with EPN motif in Ca 2+ -binding site 2. The PdC-Lectin recombinant protein was expressed and purified in vitro. The binding of PdC-Lectin protein to zooxanthellae was determined with western blotting method, and the bound protein to 10-10 5  cell mL -1 zooxanthellae was detectable in a concentration-dependent manner. Less PdC-Lectin protein binding to zooxanthellae was observed for the incubation at 36 °C than that at 26 °C. Furthermore, the PAMP recognition spectrum of PdC-Lectin protein was tested through surface plasmon resonance method, and it bound to LPS and Lipid A, but not to LTA, β-glucan, mannose or Poly (I:C). When PdC-Lectin protein was preincubated with LPS, there was less protein binding to zooxanthellae compared with that in non-preincubation group. These results collectively suggest that PdC-Lectin could recognize zooxanthellae, and the recognition could be repressed by high temperature and pathogenic bacteria, which would help to further understand the molecular mechanism of coral bleaching and the establishment of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral P. damicornis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.