WorldWideScience

Sample records for lebanon electronic resource

  1. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  2. Salafism in Lebanon: Local and Transnational Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pall, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I look at the anatomy and dynamics of the Salafi da‛wa in North Lebanon. My analysis is based on an eighteen months long ethnographic fieldwork in Lebanon, Kuwait, Qatar and Europe. The study seeks answers how and why Salafism emerged as a key player on the Lebanese Sunni

  3. Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    General notes about Lebanon are presented: political history, government, population, geography, economy and foreign relations. Lebanon lies on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, and is composed of a coastal plain bound on the east by high mountains. The population numbers about 2.5 million, although no census has been taken since 1932. 6 different types of Christian sects and 3 of Muslims contribute to instability. The strife has been aggravated by invasions by Israel against Palestinians encamped there, and by Syria as part of an Arab peace-keeping force. Despite constant civil war since the 1950s, the Lebanese government has continued to function, a parliamentary constitutional system with a judicial system based on the Napoleonic code. Amendments to the 1926 constitution have mandated that representation in the National Assembly and among top government positions be apportioned based on distribution of significant religious groups. Political parties in Lebanon are extremely complex, and include parties loyal to clan or local leaders, those ranging from the right to left, those resembling Arab parties in other nations, and those dedicated to religious sects. The economy is normally based on agriculture, and on commerce and banking in the primary coastal cities, but is in decline currently.

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Geologically speaking, Lebanon is a young country since the oldest rocks are of Upper Jurassic age. Two volcanic periods are included in the more recent rocks. The country is intersected by numerous faults mainly striking NNE but also including numerous small transverse faults. No prospecting for nuclear raw materials has been recorded and there is no known activity at the present time. Lebanon has no national geological organization to support uranium prospecting. From the geological standpoint, possibilities of occurrences of nuclear minerals in Lebanon are poor and the Speculative Potential is placed in the less than 1000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  5. Energy resource allocation using multi-objective goal programming: the case of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, T.; Chedid, R.; Zahabi, W.

    1998-01-01

    The traditional energy-resources allocation problem is concerned with the allocation of limited resources among the end-uses such that the overall return is maximized. In the past, several techniques have been used to deal with such a problem. In this paper, the energy allocation process is looked at from two points of view: economy and environment. The economic objectives include costs, efficiency, energy conservation, and employment generation. The environmental objectives consider environmental friendliness factors. The objective functions are first quantified and then transformed into mathematical language to obtain a multi-objective allocation model based upon pre-emptive goal programming techniques. The proposed method allows decision-makers to encourage or discourage specific energy resources for the various household end-uses. The case of Lebanon is examined to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed technique. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Saleh, Shadi; El-Jardali, Fadi; Dimassi, Hani; Mourad, Yara

    2012-11-22

    Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR), associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC) sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory). A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1-3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%), better job opportunities outside the country (35.1%) and lack of professional development (33.7%). A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits and allied health professionals. Particular attention should

  7. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alameddine Mohamad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR, associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory. A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate. Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Results Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1–3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%, better job opportunities outside the country (35.1% and lack of professional development (33.7%. A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. Conclusions The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits

  8. Preliminary contamination hazard assessment of land resources in Central Bekaa plain of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Jomaa, I.; Awad, M.; Boumetri, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Central Bekaa plain constitutes the main region with prime agricultural land in Lebanon. The agricultural sector is the main consumer of available water resources (up to70%). Intensive agriculture, urban expansion and industrial activity have been increasingly stressing the limited soil and water resources. In the Central Bekaa, farmers are enforced to use contaminated water to recompense water shortage during the peak crop demands. Water scarcity and mismanagement increased contagion hazards and pressure on soil and groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to provide a synopsis of the assessment methodologies and analyze the soil-groundwater vulnerability to contamination by heavy metals as based on the risks of metal transfer and the degree of protection offered by the soil cover and soil-metal interaction. The soils of the area are distinguished by a high content of clay and relatively high pH that would reduce the danger of heavy metals transfer and mobility. However, throughout the study area, the perched groundwater table is relatively high with a depth varying between 60 and 500 cm making it highly vulnerable to pollution. Metals might be more mobile under reducing conditions. The area of high, medium and low soil and groundwater table vulnerability were determined and spatially located according to international standards. Referring to the German Concept on soil protection effectiveness, the residence time of percolating water carrying soluble pollutants in the unsaturated soil zone was assessed. It varied between several months and 10 years. Zones of high soil and ground water vulnerability risk require special management to establish pollution prevention programs. Results can help land use planning oriented to the choice of suitable crops, promulgate sustainable use of natural resources and environmental preservation. (author)

  9. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  10. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  11. Vulnerability of soil resources to heavy metals contamination in Central Bekaa-Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.; Jomaa, I.; Sukarieh, W.; Chihny, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Changes in land use and urbanization yield more pressure put on limited soil and water resources, including the risk of pollution with toxic heavy metals. The study area lies in the Bekaa valley totaling about 12753 ha. The valley receives from the west torrential fan deposits and a mixture of colluvial and alluvial material. The principal soil classes are Fluvisols, Cambisols, Regosols, Vertisols and Luvisols. The area is populated and also the most important agricultural part of the plain. Agriculture in the plain is being practiced mainly with cash, field crops and vegetables. The western surrounding area is being used mainly for terraced fruit trees. This Arab-German Technical Cooperation Project (ACSAD-BGR) aimed, following the ISO standards and Eikman-Klocke recommendations, at investigating the nature of the extends of soil pollution by heavy metals in two pilot areas: The central Bekaa-Lebanon and Ghouta-Damascus. Different institutions cooperate in the implementation of this project to assess soil and groundwater vulnerability within the context of possible rehabilitation and land use. In the investigation area, possible soil contamination results from human activities such as agriculture, industry, dumping of municipal wastes etc..fertilization and pesticide applications are considered a source of Ni and Cr in the soil. Each kind of activities represents hazard of toxic heavy metals input to the upper, most active part of the soil, where plant roots remove nutrients. For example, the spatial distribution of As and Pb could be associated with leather factory and traffic. However, the higher values of As and Pb distribution, though remaining within the range of the soil multifunctional use, could be linked to the transfer by surface water. In addition, water storage made farmers use non-conventional sources of irrigation water with hazards of contamination of both soil and groundwater resources. Our analyses of water samples taken downstream in

  12. Upscaling the recruitment and retention of human resources for health at primary healthcare centres in Lebanon: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Khodr, Hiba; Mourad, Yara; Yassoub, Rami; Abi Ramia, Jinane

    2016-05-01

    The sustainability of primary healthcare (PHC) worldwide has been challenged by a global shortage in human resources for health (HRH). This study is a unique attempt at systematically soliciting and synthesising the voice of PHC and community stakeholders on the HRH recruitment and retention strategies at the PHC sector in Lebanon, the obstacles and challenges hindering their optimisation and the recommendations to overcome such obstacles. A qualitative design was utilised, involving 22 semi-structured interviews with PHC experts in Lebanon conducted in 2013. Nvivo qualitative data analysis software was employed for the thematic analysis of data collected from interviews. Five comprehensive themes emerged: understanding PHC scope, HRH recruitment issues, HRH retention challenges, rural areas' specific challenges and stakeholders' recommendations. Analysis of stakeholders' responses revealed a lack of a unified understanding of the PHC scope impacting the capacity for appropriate HRH planning. Identified impediments to recruitment included the suboptimal supply of HRH, financial constraints and poor management. Retention difficulties were attributed to poor working environments, financial constraints and lack of professional development. There was consensus that HRH challenges faced were aggravated in rural areas, jeopardising the equitable access to PHC services of quality. Equitable access was also jeopardised by the reported shortage of female HRH in a sociocultural context where many females prefer providers of the same gender. The study sets the path towards upscaling recruitment and retention policies and practices through the endorsement of a nationally acknowledged PHC definition and scope, the sustainable development of the PHC workforce and through the implementation of targeted recruitment and retention strategies addressing rural settings and gender equity. Decision-makers and planners are urged to identify HRH as the most important input for the success

  13. Fieldtrip Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Hansen, Bent S. E.; Kjøller Olsen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This handbook is the sum of the experiences of 20 social workers and a researcher on a fieldtrip to Lebanon during August 2017. The handbook was created from the participants’ notes, collected and interpreted and put together by Michelle Pace, Bent SE Hansen and Brian Kjøller Olsen. This manual...... offers a platform through which good practices of all those working with young arrivals in host communities can be shared with their counterparts not just across Denmark and Lebanon, but hopefully across other European and MENA host societies....

  14. Treatment patterns, resource utilization, and outcomes among hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matar MJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Madonna J Matar,1 Rima Moghnieh,2 Adel F Alothman,3 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,4 Thamer H Alenazi,3 Fayssal M Farahat,4 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Seema Haider,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Notre Dame des Secours University Hospital, Jbeil, Lebanon; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Infection Prevention and Control, King AbdulAziz Medical City, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Pharmerit International, Real-World Evidence/Data Analytics, Bethesda, MD, 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 8Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: To describe treatment patterns and medical resource use for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon in terms of drug selection against the infecting pathogen as well as hospital resource utilization and clinical outcomes among patients with these infections. Methods: This retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from five hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA cSSTI, which was culture-proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients with each infection type to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: Data were abstracted from medical records of 87 patients with MRSA cSSTI; mean age 52.4±25.9 years and 61% male. Only 64% of patients received an MRSA active initial therapy, with 56% of first

  15. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  16. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  17. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  18. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  19. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  20. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  1. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  2. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  3. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  4. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  5. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  6. Lebanon: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfleet, P

    1988-05-01

    A brief profile of Lebanon's economy, people, health, culture and political situation is presented. Lebanon has an estimated 3.5 million people, with a Maronite Christian elite, a Muslim Shiite majority, and Muslim Sunnis and Druze groups. The infant mortality is estimated at 41/1000; literacy is 69% among women and 86% among men; life expectancy was 66 years, 10 years ago. The economy, previously thriving on banking, manufacturing and agriculture, is now decimated, and Lebanon's once active tourist industry, based on elegant facilities in Beirut and neighboring beaches and ski slopes, is the victim of 15 years of civil strife. Israel has invaded, supporting Maronite Christians, Syria has invaded in support Muslim and Druze militias, and Iran has aggressively supported Shiite factions.

  7. Energy efficient home in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present new methods or new products that could save money while improving the environment in Lebanon. Cost of energy is on the increase and is predicted to increase even more in the future. Environmental issues and awareness are gaining momentum in Lebanon. With electricity production directly linked to power plants that represent about 30% of the air pollution which is also linked to health related issues. There is an intermediate need to introduce more energy efficient products in the construction industry which require less energy to operate or could be linked indirectly to energy. In this context, cost-benefit analysis of heating, light, painting, energy consumption and energy lamp burning hours in addition to fuel burner, gas and electric heater in buildings are presented in tables. Finally, there is a lack of awareness on the positive impact on the environment reflected in the saving of natural resources, reducing pollution and creation of a better living environment

  8. Aging in Lebanon: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-08-01

    This spotlight offers a unique window into factors affecting aging in Lebanon. As a bridge between east and west, both geographically and culturally, Lebanon has the fastest growing older adult population in the Arab region, but few societal resources to address its needs. In a country with a history of political instability and war, but also a culture with strong family values, aging adults in Lebanon are vulnerable in some ways and advantaged in others. Outmigration of youth is an important determinant of the wellbeing of the elderly. While often advantaged by remittances sent by their children, older Lebanese adults have less access to instrumental social and personal support previously provided by young adults in the family. How Lebanon manages these challenges is likely to foreshadow the future aging experience for much of the Arab region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  10. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  11. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  12. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  13. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  14. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  15. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  16. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  17. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  18. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  19. Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  1. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  2. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  3. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  4. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  5. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  6. Lupus nephritis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, I W; Muffarij, A A; Mudawar, W A; Nasr, F W; Masri, A F

    2001-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of the clinicopathological characteristics of 50 systemic lupus erythematosus patients with nephritis who underwent a kidney biopsy and were admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center, in Lebanon, between 1979 and 1999. There were 43 females and seven males, with a median age of 24 y. Renal histology slides from these patients were assessed according to the World Health Organization classification, and were distributed as follows: class I (n = 3, 6%); class II (n = 14, 28%); class III (n = 11, 22%); class IV (n = 19, 38%); class V (n = 1, 2%); class VI (n = 2, 4%). All the patients received oral prednisone, in addition the following treatments were used: pulse intravenous (i.v.) cyclophosphamide (n = 23, 46%); azathioprine (n = 22, 44%); pulse i.v. steroids (n = 19, 38%); chloroquine sulfate (n = 17, 34%); methotrexate (n = 5, 10%); and plasmapheresis (n = 2, 4%). The median duration of follow-up was 5 y (range 1-33 y). On their last evaluation, out of 37 patients who were followed, 20 patients (54%) had controlled disease, eight patients (22%) were still on active medical treatment, four patients (11%) were on chronic hemodialysis, and five patients (13%) had died. Unlike three other Arab populations studies from Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, where the most frequent histopathologic abnormality was class III, diffuse proliferative LN (class IV) was the most common type of lupus nephritis in Lebanon, similarly to reports from USA, France, Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and Taiwan.

  7. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  8. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  9. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  10. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  11. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  12. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  13. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  14. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  15. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  16. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  17. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  18. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Knowledge and Stigma Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder among College Students in Lebanon and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rita; Daou, Nidal; DeNigris, Danielle; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Brooks, Patricia J.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Although misconceptions associated with ASD are apparent worldwide, they may differ across cultures. This study compares knowledge and stigma associated with ASD in a country with limited autism resources, Lebanon, and a country with substantial autism resources, the United States (US). College students in the US (N = 346) and Lebanon (N = 329)…

  19. Solid wastes management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Simon E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of wastes in Lebanon and their management according to international (European and French) descriptions. It presents the situation in Lebanon including the policies taken by the ministry of environment towards the treatment of different types of wastes especially solid wastes. It is estimated that the production of wastes in Lebanon is 5854 tones per day and it is distributed as follows: Domestic wastes 3200 t/d; industrial wastes 1300 t/d; commercial wastes 1000 t/d; slaughter-houses 150 t/d; waste oils 100 t/d; hospital wastes 64 t/d; vehicle wheels 40 t/d. The annual production within regions is also presented in tables. Collection, transportation, recycling, composting and incineration of wastes are included

  20. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  1. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  2. The geological controls of geothermal groundwater sources in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, Amin [National Council for Scientific Research, Remote Sensing Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalaf-Keyrouz, Layla [Notre Dame University-Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon)

    2013-07-01

    Lebanon is a country that is relatively rich in water resources, as compared to its neighboring states in the Middle East. Several water sources are issuing on the surface or subsurface, including nonconventional water sources as the geothermal groundwater. This aspect of water sources exists in Lebanon in several localities, as springs or in deep boreholes. To the present little attention has been given to these resources and their geological setting is still unidentified. The preliminary geological field surveys revealed that they mainly occur in the vicinity of the basalt outcrops. Therefore, understanding their geological controls will help in exploring their origin, and thus giving insights into their economical exploitation. This can be investigated by applying advanced detection techniques, field surveys along with detailed geochemical analysis. This study aims at assessing the geographic distribution of the geothermal water in Lebanon with respect to the different geological settings and controls that govern their hydrogeologic regimes. It will introduce an approach for an integrated water resources management which became of utmost significance for the country.

  3. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  4. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  5. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  6. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  7. Hospital waste management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaker, Alissar

    1999-01-01

    Hospital wastes comprises approximately 80% domestic waste components, also known as non-risk waste and 20% hazardous or risk waste. The 20% of the hospital waste stream or the risk waste (also known as infectious, medical, clinical wastes) comprises components which could be potentially contaminated with infections, chemical or radioactive agents. Therefore, it should be handled and disposed of in such a manner as to minimize potential human exposure and cross-contamination. Hospital risk waste and be subdivided into seven general categories as follows: infections, anatomical/pathological, chemical, pharmaceutical, radioactive waste, sharps and pressurised containers. These waste categories are generated by many types of health care establishments, including hospitals, clinics, infirmaries.... The document presents also tables of number of hospitals and estimated bed number in different regions in Lebanon; estimated hospital risk and non-risk waste generation per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010 and finally sensitivity analysis of estimated generation of hospital risk waste in Lebanon per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010. The management, treatment and disposal of hospital risk waste constitute important environmental and public safety issues. It is recognised that there is alack of infrastructure for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of hospital waste in Lebanon

  8. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  9. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  10. Lebanon: assessment of the state of the environment.Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The study concerns the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon and the identification of policy options has three specific objectives namely to determine the conditions of the environment in Lebanon after years of wars (1975-1992); to identify environmentals trends associated with Lebanon's development and to assess their sustainability; to identify policy options for environmental management. Issues of the environment concerned are both the brown issues e.g. the management of wastes and effluent arising from human activitiesand green issues, the natural resource base defined through main receptors:air, water (including coastal waters), land and terrestrial ecology sectors such as agriculture, industry, energy, transport, tourism and fisheries, population and human settlements are also studied

  11. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  12. Crisis in Lebanon: camps for Syrian refugees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Loveless

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon has absorbed the enormous Syrian influx but at a high costto both refugees and Lebanese populations. Current humanitarianprogrammes can no longer cope and new approaches are needed.

  13. Lebanon's Hizbollah Movement: The Party of God

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schad, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1982 in Lebanon, a group of radical Shi'a Muslim clerics in association with Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen formed the secretive and at times deadly movement known as Hizbollah, or the Party of God...

  14. Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Prados, Alfred; Gallis, Paul; Rennack, Dianne; Rollins, John; Browne, Marjorie; Bowman, Steve; Veillette, Connie; Kumins, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    ... in a surprise attack along the Israeli-Lebanese border. Israel has responded by carrying out air strikes against suspected Hezbollah targets in Lebanon, and Hezbollah has countered with rocket attacks against cities and towns in northern Israel...

  15. Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Prados, Alfred; Gallis, Paul; Rennack, Dianne; Rollins, John; Bowman, Steve; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    ... in a surprise attack along the Israeli-Lebanese border. Israel responded by carrying out air strikes against suspected Hezbollah targets in Lebanon, and Hezbollah countered with rocket attacks against cities and towns in northern Israel...

  16. Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas Hezbollah Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Prados, Alfred; Gallis, Paul; Rennack, Dianne; Rollins, John; Bowman, Steve; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    ... in a surprise attack along the Israeli-Lebanese border. Israel responded by carrying out air strikes against suspected Hezbollah targets in Lebanon, and Hezbollah countered with rocket attacks against cities and towns in northern Israel...

  17. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  18. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  19. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  20. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  1. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition ... Region: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, United States ... Region: Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel.

  2. lebanon : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel ... Sujet: HUMAN RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY, DEMOCRATIZATION, CULTURAL RELATIONS ... Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Sudan.

  3. Tackling inflation and pension reform in Lebanon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... In Lebanon, the elderly constitute a large share of its population; moreover, Lebanese ... More than half live in poverty and face shortages in health services, water, ... The team reviewed price statistics for Lebanon, identifying ...

  4. The Eisenhower Doctrine and its Implementation in Lebanon - 1958

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, David

    2002-01-01

    In May 1958, President Camille Chamoun of Lebanon sent an urgent cable to U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower requesting military aid under the terms of the Eisenhower Doctrine, to put down civil unrest in Lebanon...

  5. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  6. Monitoring the snowpack volume in a sinkhole on Mount Lebanon using time lapse Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, C.; Gascoin, S.; Somma, J.; Drapeau, L.; Fanise, P.

    2017-12-01

    Lebanon is one of the richest country in the Middle East for water resources, thanks to its mountain ranges that trigger precipitation from the moist air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea. Snowpack acts as natural water storage in winter and supply fresh water during spring and summer. Yet, Lebanon is facing a serious water scarcity problem due to: i) decreasing amount of precipitation and climate change; ii) major growth of population of original residence and large number of refugees during regional wars. Therefore, continuous and systematic monitoring of the Lebanese water resources is becoming crucial. The Mount Lebanon is made of karstic depressions named "sinkholes". It is important to monitor the snowmelt process inside these sinkholes because of their key role as "containers" of seasonal snow. By isolating the snowpack from sun radiation and wind, they slow down the natural melting process and sublimation, thus delaying as well the low water flow period. An observatory is set up to monitor the snowpack evolution in a pilot sinkhole located in Mount Lebanon. The system uses three time-lapse cameras and structure-from-motion principles to reconstruct the snow volume within the sinkhole. The approach is validated by standard topographic surveys. The results indicate that snow depth can be retrieved with an accuracy between 20 and 60 cm (residuals standard deviation) and a low bias of 50 cm after coregistration of the digital elevation models.

  7. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  8. 76 FR 59503 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...-0558; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-13] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA AGENCY: Federal... at Lebanon, PA, to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures that have been developed... amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Lebanon, PA (76 FR 39038). Subsequent to...

  9. Lebanon: A Case of History Education in a Sectarian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the extant literature on history education in Lebanon. The sectarian nature of the country and the recent civil war make the case of Lebanon a unique and compelling one. Three emerging understandings underscore the complexity of history education in Lebanon and demonstrate the ways in which history is used to undercut…

  10. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  11. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  13. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  14. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  15. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  16. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  17. The Syrian refugees in Lebanon and the EU-Lebanon Partnership Compact – new strategies, old agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the cooperation between the EU and Lebanon with a focus on the newly launched EU-Lebanon Partnership Compact, based on a decision by the EU-Lebanon Association Council of 11 November 2016. The Compact describes the suggested (and partly mutual) commitments by the EU...... and Lebanon aiming at securing the stabilization of Lebanon in general, but also measures attempting to “provide an appropriate and safe environment for refugees and displaced persons from Syria during their temporary stay in Lebanon.”2 An important discussion in connection with that is the question of easing...... the refugees’ controlled access to the Lebanese labour market – obviously a controversial issue. The article concludes that the main EU interests are twofold. Firstly, it is about avoiding destabilization of Lebanon by supporting the integration of refugees in the Lebanese society. Secondly, the reputation...

  18. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  19. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  20. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  1. The economic geology of clays/shales raw materials for the ceramics industry in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiyyah, Frida

    1986-01-01

    Author.Field, laboratory and market studies are a must for proper evaluation of natural resources for the mineral industry of lebanon. Sites selectively convenient to the existing major Lebanese ceramics industry centered in the Beqa'a region, were investigated as to their geology, geography and economic character. The raw materials are shales, mud stones, siltstones and other argillaceous rocks of Jurassic to Cretaceous age coming from selective sites in south and central Lebanon. The finished products include wall, floor, roofing tiles, pipes, sanitary ware, pottery and brick specimens. Differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, firing and physico-chemical tests and analyses characterized the raw materials into two major groups: the suitable are siliceous argillaceous rocks and unsuitable calcareous argillaceous rocks. The suitable group is divided into two varieties. The first is dominantly a disordered Kaolinite with low drying and firing values, low plasticity index, giving a gray firing color, and with low iron and soluble salts content. The second is dominantly illite with the above properties showing medium values, and giving a red color due to the iron content. The unsuitable group is dominantly an intermixed clay type with high plasticity, soluble salts content and shrinkage values. The exposed parts, of the studied 11 sites the proved suitable, have estimated reserves around 23000 m 3 . This is only a fraction of the resources available to meet industrial consumption requirements. Further area coverage investigation and drilling would prove the very high potential existing for the industry. These Lebanese materials as determined by their properties, are used partially or fully in the various products. The foreign import, notably from non-Arab sources can be substituted by nearby economic Arab deposits. The ceramics industry is faced with developmental problems, economic, social and technical. Securing the local and the surrounding

  2. The economic geology of clays/shales raw materials for the ceramics industry in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atiyyah, Frida [Dept. of Geology, American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon)

    1986-07-01

    Author.Field, laboratory and market studies are a must for proper evaluation of natural resources for the mineral industry of lebanon. Sites selectively convenient to the existing major Lebanese ceramics industry centered in the Beqa'a region, were investigated as to their geology, geography and economic character. The raw materials are shales, mud stones, siltstones and other argillaceous rocks of Jurassic to Cretaceous age coming from selective sites in south and central Lebanon. The finished products include wall, floor, roofing tiles, pipes, sanitary ware, pottery and brick specimens. Differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, firing and physico-chemical tests and analyses characterized the raw materials into two major groups: the suitable are siliceous argillaceous rocks and unsuitable calcareous argillaceous rocks. The suitable group is divided into two varieties. The first is dominantly a disordered Kaolinite with low drying and firing values, low plasticity index, giving a gray firing color, and with low iron and soluble salts content. The second is dominantly illite with the above properties showing medium values, and giving a red color due to the iron content. The unsuitable group is dominantly an intermixed clay type with high plasticity, soluble salts content and shrinkage values. The exposed parts, of the studied 11 sites the proved suitable, have estimated reserves around 23000 m{sup 3}. This is only a fraction of the resources available to meet industrial consumption requirements. Further area coverage investigation and drilling would prove the very high potential existing for the industry. These Lebanese materials as determined by their properties, are used partially or fully in the various products. The foreign import, notably from non-Arab sources can be substituted by nearby economic Arab deposits. The ceramics industry is faced with developmental problems, economic, social and technical. Securing the local and the surrounding

  3. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  4. Chemical Composition of Rain Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; SAAD, Z.; GHADDAR, A.; NASREDDINE, M.; KATTAN, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of rainfall water were collected from fifteen stations in Lebanon during the period between October 1999 and April 2000 (the rainy season in Lebanon). Nine of these stations are distributed along the urban coastal cities, from the north to the south. The remaining 6 stations which have different altitudes ranging fom 400 m to 1200 m high are distributed in the mountainous rural areas. The concentrations of major cations (H + ,Na + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 + and NH + 4 ) and major anions (Cl - , NO - 3 , HCO - 3 and SO 2 - 4 are determined for the first time in Lebanon. It has been found that the rain water is not acidic, due to the presence of carbonate dust particles in the atmosphere, which arise from the natural carbonate rocks, especially predominance in the mountains and internal regions of Lebanon. The high predominance of Na + and Cl - in the coastal investigated stations, is attributed to marine aerosol spray. The concentrations of SO - 4 and NO - 3 are close to the concentrations expected in typical urban areas. The correlation between the concentration of chemical species confirms the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources. (author)

  5. Energy in Lebanon facing the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said; Matar, Toni

    2001-01-01

    Competitive, diverse and secure energy supplies are the very lifeblood of modern economies. These supplies are often taken for granted but as past experience has shown, even brief interruptions in supply have serious economic and social consequences. With this central importance of energy in mind, Lebanon energy policy must for the future be based upon three main objectives: competitiveness, diversity and security of energy supplies. These objectives aim to address the complex set of strategic challenges facing the energy sector and the wider energy system, the later comprising end-use sector and the economy at large. They aim also to insure that the energy system is contributing to sustainable development of the lebanese economy with regard to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of the sustainability. The study includes tables on the evolution of the importation bill of fossil fuel; on the total primary energy production and consumption; it presents also the existing thermal and hydro-electrical power plants in Lebanon; the evolution of the electrical energy production; it gives also the emissions estimation of atmospheric pollutant due to the energy sector; the electricity rates in Lebanon; consumption of combustibles in the household; liquid petroleum prices breakdown in 1999 and the comparison of gasoline, diesel, fuel-oil and LPG prices as sold in Lebanon

  6. School-Parent Relations in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majzoub, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Lebanon is a nation whose history may be depicted as continuous social, political, and sectarian conflict due to European political meddling and a protracted civil war. Although finding common ground in this complex milieu over the past several decades has been challenging, political and educational reforms have been enacted. The role of parents…

  7. State of the energy in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said; Matar Toni

    1998-01-01

    The article describes the state of the energy in Lebanon. In 1996, Lebanon consumed 4647 Ktoe as a primary energy. 97% of this energy is imported mainly polluting oil products: 1623 Ktons fuel-oil, 1379 Ktons gasoline, 930 Ktons diesel, 200 Ktons coal, 124 Ktons LPG, 107 Ktons jet-fuel/Kerosene, 109 Ktons Asphaltic products. The remaining 3% of the energy consumption is renewable energy. As for production, the state owns two refineries which are not used anymore. The year 2000 plan includes an expansion project for the Tripoli refinery and an alternative plan for the Zahrani refinery. These refineries require a total investment in order to reach a production capacity of 50000 barrels a day. The article is a description of the pollution type sources and location in Lebanon. The combustion of the total energy produces yearly more than 15 Ktons of dust, 85 Ktons of SO 2 , 40 Ktons of NOX and 3500 Ktons of CO 2 . Another risk of pollution is due to spilling oil along the Lebanese coast which represents a potential oil spill hazard, with a serious impact on marine and coastal ecosystem. The paper presents also a proposed management schemes of energy policy , control and monitoring options. In addition to the energy balance in 93/94; the consumption of oil products in 93/94/96; oil products importations in 93/96; electricity consumption in 96; ventilation of thermal and hydraulic electricity production in 95/96; estimated inventory of emissions of selected pollutants to air in Lebanon in 93 and 2010; maximum permissible air pollutants in Lebanon; storage capacity of major petroleum importers

  8. Radioactive waste management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assi, Muzna

    2011-01-01

    The disused sealed radioactive sources including orphan sources in Lebanon, along with the growing industry of sealed radioactive sources in medical, industrial and research fields have posed a serious problem for authorities as well as users due to the lack of a national store for disused radioactive sources. Assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was requested to condition and store disused radium needles and tubes present at two facilities. The mission took place on July 25, 2001 and was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission (LAEC). Other disused radioactive sources were kept in the facilities till a safer and securer solution is provided; however orphan sources, found mainly during export control, were brought and stored temporarily in LAEC. The necessity of a safe and secure store became a must. Prior to October 2005, there was no clear legal basis for establishing such store for disused radioactive sources, until the ministerial decree no 15512 dated October 19, 2005 (related to the implementation of decree-law no 105/83) was issued which clearly stated that 'The LAEC shall, in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Health, establish a practical mechanism for safe disposal of radioactive waste'. Following this, the work on inventory of disused sealed sources along with collecting orphan sources and placing them temporarily in LAEC was legally supported. Moreover, several missions were planned to repatriate category I and II sources, one of which was completed specifically in August 2009; other missions are being worked on. In 2008, a national technical cooperation project with the IAEA was launched. Under the Technical Cooperation (TC) project with reference number LEB3002, the project was entitled 'Assistance in the establishment of a safe temporary national storage at the LAEC for orphan sources and radioactive waste' which cycle is 2009-2011. Under this project, a national store for

  9. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  10. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  11. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  12. Challenge of the energy in Lebanon: Analysis and synthesis of the survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    The article is a survey conducted by the students of the ESIB Saint Joseph University within the ministry of Industry and petroleum, ministry of Hydraulic and Electrical resources and the Central Administration of statistics in Lebanon. The survey presents the primary and secondary energy, its sectorial production and consumption. Tables and figures describe the essential socio-economic indicators of energy, primary and secondary consumption of energy in 1995. Sectorial distribution of final energy in 1995 per habitant, imported products and varieties as gasoline, gasoil, fuel oil etc....Charts for imported petroleum products, percentage of electric production between hydraulic and thermal energy are also included. Tarification of the EDL, prices of electricity per consumer and estimation of EDL of electricity per GWH are also described. Combustion of energy in Lebanon is a main source of air pollution by emitting substances as follows: 15 Ktonnes of dust, 80 Kt of SO 2 and 40 Kt of CO 2 per year

  13. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  14. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  15. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  16. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  17. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  18. The plant macroremains from PPNB Tell Labwe (Lebanon)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyurova, Dobrina; Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Richter, Tobias

    Tell Labwe constitutes the oldest Neolithic settlement in the Beqaa Valley (Lebanon). This site was excavated by D. Kirkbride in 1966 and revealed a sequence dated from the Late PPNB to the Pottery Neolithic. In 2011, a Lebanese-Spanish team carried out a fieldwork season in order to complete...... the Neolithic in Lebanon....

  19. School Counseling in Lebanon: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash-Abdo, Huda; Alamuddin, Rayane; Mukallid, Samar

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the status of school counseling in Lebanon. An overview that points out some weakness in the educational system, such as high dropout and repetition rates, is presented. Calls for counseling have been voiced partly because of the psychological consequences of social change, such as political instability in Lebanon. A sample…

  20. Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities at Notre Dame University, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loan, Amira

    2013-01-01

    Disability issues in Lebanon are not being addressed on a national scale. Among the myriad of underrepresented groups, individuals with disabilities in Lebanon continue to be marginalized in education, employment, health care, politics, and all aspects of society. The focus of this project investigation was to identify the attitudes of faculty…

  1. Cooperation challenges for the Special Tribunal for Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, B.

    2007-01-01

    While the Agreement between the United Nations and Lebanon provides a solid framework for cooperation between the Special Tribunal and Lebanon, Security Council Resolution 1757 (2007) is silent on the duty of third states to assist the Tribunal. As a result, the Special Tribunal will be confronted

  2. 76 FR 50535 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7555] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... States to waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon and I hereby...

  3. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. The social context of tobacco products use among adolescents in Lebanon (MedSPAD-Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Bejjani

    2012-03-01

    Conclusions: Further analysis confirmed that narguileh use is now an accepted familial and social phenomenon, with restrictions apparently decreasing. These results necessitate drawing strategies to address this public health concern that is becoming more prevalent in Lebanon and elsewhere in the Middle East.

  5. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  6. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  7. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  8. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  9. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  10. Implementation of a SenseMaker® research project among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhache, Nour; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Bergquist, Harveen; Davison, Colleen; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced over 1.2 million Syrians into Lebanon. As a result of displacement, some Syrian families are turning to child marriage as a coping mechanism. The prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased and the average age of marriage decreased during the crisis. The aim of the project was to understand the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker®. This manuscript explores the process of implementing this novel research tool in a humanitarian setting. Twelve interviewers conducted SenseMaker® interviews with married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents, as well as married and unmarried men. Participants were asked to share a story about the lives of Syrian girls in Lebanon and to self-interpret the narratives by answering follow-up questions in relation to the story provided. Data collection occurred across three locations: Beirut, Beqaa, and Tripoli. In total 1422 narratives from 1346 unique participants were collected over 7 weeks. Data collection using SenseMaker® was efficient, capable of electronically capturing a large volume of quantitative and qualitative data. SenseMaker® limitations from a research perspective include lack of skip logic and inability to adjust font size on the iOS app. SenseMaker® was an efficient mixed methods data collection tool that was well received by participants in a refugee setting in Lebanon. The utility of SenseMaker® for research could be improved by adding skip logic and by being able to adjust font size on the iOS app.

  11. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  12. The Repercussions of the Syrian crisis on Tourism in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Salem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon is characterised by a touristic industry, making of it the highest touristic destination in the Arab world before 1975, the year in which Lebanon's civil war has erupted, a war from which Lebanon still suffers until now. Moreover, Lebanon suffers from internal political conflicts and the repercussions of the geopolitical conflicts in the Middle East, the latest of which is the Syrian war. While the crises in Lebanon prevail- from political, security, economic, social to even environmental - Lebanese policymakers are still seeking to make out of Lebanon a country considered as a touristic one, and are working on achieving a sustainable touristic development. In this context, this study tackles the crisis that Lebanon is experiencing as a result of forced Syrian displacement into its territory, and sheds light on its negative and positive effects on Lebanese tourism. The study also aims to determine the effectiveness of sustainable tourism development in times of crisis, based on the study of Lebanese touristic data during a specific period of time.

  13. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  14. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  15. FATHI YAKAN THE PIONEER OF ISLAMIC ACTIVISM IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Rabil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ideology of Fathi Yakan, the pioneer of Sunni Islamism in Lebanon and a principal founder of the Islamist party al-­‐Jama'a al-­‐Islamiya.  It also traces the establishment of  al_Jama'a as the first organized Islamist party in Lebanon.  As Secretary General of al-­‐Jama'a, Fathi Yakan blazed the ideological trail for Islamism's participation in Lebanon's political realm.  Significantly, Yakan's political activism, in much the same vein as that of Druze "Socialist" Kamal Jumblat, was also more about removing Maronite hegemony over the state.

  16. Consanguinity in Lebanon: prevalence, distribution and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Bernadette; Salameh, Pascale

    2009-07-01

    The union of individuals with a common ancestor may lead to serious health consequences in their offspring. Consanguinity is high in Middle Eastern communities; it was around 26% in 1988. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of consanguinity in Beirut and other Lebanese regions, and its associated factors in different subgroups. The cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample of married women in Lebanon. The women were administered a standardized questionnaire in a face-to-face interview by independent enquirers. Among 1556 women, the overall prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 35.5%, and the consanguinity coefficient was 0.020; 968 marriages (62.2%) were not consanguineous, 492 (31.6%) were first cousin, 61 (3.9%) were second cousin and 36 (2.3%) had lower degrees of consanguinity. Beirut suburb dwelling, low education subgroups, women working in the home and non-Christian religion presented the highest rates of consanguinity (pwomen thinking that consanguinity would not lead to serious diseases. Consanguinity is therefore still a prevailing problem in Lebanon. Specific health education, and genetic counselling in particular, are suggested to explain the consequences of consanguinity to the general population and to help couples make informed choices.

  17. Attitudes Toward Placebo Use in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna

    2015-05-01

    Placebo use, both in clinical trials and patient care, is a problematic ethical issue surrounded by opposing arguments from those who advocate its use versus those who do not. This problematic aspect of placebo is more challenging in Lebanon where religious ideologies dominate people's beliefs, and where laws that guide medical care are vague. This paper aims to highlight the cultural ideologies that dominate medical care and the perspectives of people associated with the field. The method relied on semi-structured interviews with religious leaders, representatives of society and healthcare professionals. Panel discussions incorporating healthcare professionals, academics, scientists and medical researchers were also organized. The legal environment in Lebanon is characterized by lack of an appropriate legislative guideline that categorically clarifies the value of the human person in medical care. There is a lack of a common ethical standard within a society characterized by social and political dissent. The culturally upheld principles and actual application of the principles of ethics surrounding patient autonomy were overviewed. Medical practitioners failed to agree to a general outline that should guide the use of placebo where it became evident that each practitioner adopted a subjective framework which ultimately undermines patient autonomy. The paper proposes that until a new legislative code that clarifies ethical principles properly guiding medical care is coined, the process of placebo use will continue to be subject to the paternalistic assessments of medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospital waste management status in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, R.; Oueida, F.; Tissot-Guerraz, F.; Trepo, D.; Collombel, C.

    2000-01-01

    author.The existing management of hospital waste in Lebanon currently poses both an environmental hazard as well as a public health risk. This is due mainly to lack of legislation, information and modern treatment and disposal facilities designed for this purpose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted to asses the status of hospital waste management. The study started from October 1997 till August 1998. We found that 75% of the surveyed hospitals completely ignore their total waste quantity: 73% of hospitals surveyed practice segregation at source of infectious, pathological, sharps and pharmaceuticals; more than 40% dispose of their hospital risk wastes through the municipality waste disposal, 24% by burning in open fires, 14% by on-site hospital incinerators, 11% in on-site dumping, 8% handled by a private contractor and 1% in uncontrolled landfill. We conclude that with some exceptions, the hospital waste management situation in Lebanon is very far from being satisfactory and therefore needs to be reconsidered. 1 Fig., 6 tabs., 18 refs

  19. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  20. Socioeconomic differences in smoking in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine: A cross-sectional analysis of national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Jawad, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The association between education and wealth, as fundamental determinants of health, and smoking is well-established. Yet, social inequalities have received little attention in the expanding field of tobacco research in the Arab region. In this study, we examine inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and wealth in four Arab countries. Utilizing the most recently available population-level data sets (Syria 2009 PAPFAM, Jordan 2012 DHS, Palestine 2010 Family Health Survey, and Lebanon 2004 PAPFAM), we tested the association between cigarette smoking and education and wealth-controlling for age, marital status, and region of residence-for each country, and among men and women depending on data availability. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Arab men is high- 51.3% in Syria, 39.7% in Palestine, and 42.1% in Lebanon; among women, prevalence is 8.4% in Syria, 10.9% in Jordan, and 24.3% Lebanon. Cigarette smoking shows the expected patterns inequalities by education among men in Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, and among women in Jordan and Lebanon. On the other hand, wealth does not show a clear pattern in its association with cigarette smoking and, in some cases (men in Palestine and women in Syria) the behavioral risk is higher among the wealthiest. Available data from 2004-2012 show that cigarette smoking among men and women in the four Arab countries is predominant among those with limited access to education as a fundamental cause. The weak or absent negative association between wealth and cigarette smoking suggests that access to material resources does not precipitate a reduction in the consumption of tobacco.

  1. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Europe, Turkey, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine ... will have a negative impact on employment and the economy in tobacco-producing countries. ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  2. Reducing early marriage of adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in Lebanon: Improving access to sexual and reproductive health information and services ... on family planning, and higher risk of gender-based violence. ... in the 2016-2030 WHO led Global Strategy for Women, Children and Adolescents, ...

  3. Limited legal status for refugees from Syria in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Aranki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having limited legal status has direct negative consequences for Syrian refugees’ access to protection and assistance during their stay in Lebanon. Limited legal status also increases the risks of abuse and exploitation.

  4. When is return voluntary? Conditions of asylum in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Keith

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision of Syrian refugees in Lebanon to return to Syria must not be based on a deteriorating quality of asylum that creates physical, social and material pressures on decisions to return.

  5. U.S. Foreign Aid to Lebanon: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2007-01-01

    In Lebanon today, there is a battle for political primacy between the anti-Syrian, pro-Western government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora and the opposition, led by the Hezbollah and former General Michel Aoun...

  6. Searching for radiations in consumed meat in Lebanon in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage, N.

    1987-01-01

    The thesis is a survey on the contamination of meat in Lebanon following Chernobyl accident, taking into consideration that Lebanon is a big importer of meat from eastern european countries. The first part of the study presents an exhaustive description of radioactivity and different types of irradiation; the impact of Chernobyl accident on environment ; sources of contamination of meat by Iodine 131, Strontium 90 and Cesium 137; radiation doses admitted and radiation effects on men organs. The survey describes radioactivity analysis of one hundred samples of meat collected from different regions in Lebanon along the period dating from June to September 1986. Results showed the absence of radioactive contamination of consumed meat in Lebanon after Chernobyl accident. Recommendations are formulated for a permanent control of food products by Lebanese government in application of IAEA international regulations on preservation of food products from radioactive elements

  7. Electricity in Lebanon: a century report (1885-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reports the status of the 'electricity' in Lebanon since 1885 with an emphasis on its present economical situation. Data concerning electric power consumption and distribution as well as the average of rainwater, spring and weather are given. Power plants in Lebanon, the production of electric power and its consumption are described. A quantitative analysis of specifications of power plants and their annual and monthly production of electric power, the distribution of electricity consumption in Lebanon (geographical, annual, monthly) are presented in tables and graphs. An overview of the economical status of the 'electricity' in Lebanon is presented. The evolution of prices charges, hour cuts, damages and the impact of Lebanese wars on the distribution and the consumption of electricity are presented

  8. All projects related to lebanon | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / lebanon ... IDRC's Acacia program identified small-scale agriculture, including environment and natural ... but tend to be poorly organized and lacking in programs and networking opportunities.

  9. lebanon : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: EMIGRANTS, POLITICAL AFFILIATION, POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR, ... et manquent de structures pour soutenir des programmes et se regrouper en réseaux. ... South Asia, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Syria, Yemen, Palestine, Réunion.

  10. All projects related to lebanon | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Improving access to sexual and reproductive health information and services ... to provide employment counseling and job matching services for male and ... refugee crisis on the education systems in Jordan and Lebanon is immense.

  11. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  12. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  13. Health equity in Lebanon: a microeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Firas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector in Lebanon suffers from high levels of spending and is acknowledged to be a source of fiscal waste. Lebanon initiated a series of health sector reforms which aim at containing the fiscal waste caused by high and inefficient public health expenditures. Yet these reforms do not address the issues of health equity in use and coverage of healthcare services, which appear to be acute. This paper takes a closer look at the micro-level inequities in the use of healthcare, in access, in ability to pay, and in some health outcomes. Methods We use data from the 2004/2005 Multi Purpose Survey of Households in Lebanon to conduct health equity analysis, including equity in need, access and outcomes. We briefly describe the data and explain some of its limitations. We examine, in turn, and using standardization techniques, the equity in health care utilization, the impact of catastrophic health payments on household wellbeing, the effect of health payment on household impoverishment, the equity implications of existing health financing methods, and health characteristics by geographical region. Results We find that the incidence of disability decreases steadily across expenditure quintiles, whereas the incidence of chronic disease shows the opposite pattern, which may be an indication of better diagnostics for higher quintiles. The presence of any health-related expenditure is regressive while the magnitude of out-of-pocket expenditures on health is progressive. Spending on health is found to be "normal" and income-elastic. Catastrophic health payments are likelier among disadvantaged groups (in terms of income, geography and gender. However, the cash amounts of catastrophic payments are progressive. Poverty is associated with lower insurance coverage for both private and public insurance. While the insured seem to spend an average of almost LL93,000 ($62 on health a year in excess of the uninsured, they devote a smaller

  14. BLC Bank - Lebanon : Leading in Banking on Women

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to learn about the impact of International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) Banking on Women (BoW) Program in the Europe and Central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) through BLC Bank of Lebanon. The objective of this specific case study is to understand the success of the BoW program for BLC Bank in Lebanon in terms of the program’s contri...

  15. Emergency response to mass casualty incidents in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen J

    2013-08-01

    The emergency response to mass casualty incidents in Lebanon lacks uniformity. Three recent large-scale incidents have challenged the existing emergency response process and have raised the need to improve and develop incident management for better resilience in times of crisis. We describe some simple emergency management principles that are currently applied in the United States. These principles can be easily adopted by Lebanon and other developing countries to standardize and improve their emergency response systems using existing infrastructure.

  16. Snow observations in Mount Lebanon (2011-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; Fanise, Pascal; Drapeau, Laurent; Somma, Janine; Fadel, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    We present a unique meteorological and snow observational dataset in Mount Lebanon, a mountainous region with a Mediterranean climate, where snowmelt is an essential water resource. The study region covers the recharge area of three karstic river basins (total area of 1092 km2 and an elevation up to 3088 m). The dataset consists of (1) continuous meteorological and snow height observations, (2) snowpack field measurements, and (3) medium-resolution satellite snow cover data. The continuous meteorological measurements at three automatic weather stations (MZA, 2296 m; LAQ, 1840 m; and CED, 2834 m a.s.l.) include surface air temperature and humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, incoming and reflected shortwave irradiance, and snow height, at 30 min intervals for the snow seasons (November-June) between 2011 and 2016 for MZA and between 2014 and 2016 for CED and LAQ. Precipitation data were filtered and corrected for Geonor undercatch. Observations of snow height (HS), snow water equivalent, and snow density were collected at 30 snow courses located at elevations between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l. during the two snow seasons of 2014-2016 with an average revisit time of 11 days. Daily gap-free snow cover extent (SCA) and snow cover duration (SCD) maps derived from MODIS snow products are provided for the same period (2011-2016). We used the dataset to characterize mean snow height, snow water equivalent (SWE), and density for the first time in Mount Lebanon. Snow seasonal variability was characterized with high HS and SWE variance and a relatively high snow density mean equal to 467 kg m-3. We find that the relationship between snow depth and snow density is specific to the Mediterranean climate. The current model explained 34 % of the variability in the entire dataset (all regions between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l.) and 62 % for high mountain regions (elevation 2200-2900 m a.s.l.). The dataset is suitable for the investigation of snow dynamics and for the forcing

  17. Multilingual educational trends and practices in Lebanon: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahous, Rima; Bacha, Nahla Nola; Nabhani, Mona

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on the multilingual background, language education policies and practices in Lebanon. Specifically, it shows how the multilingual make-up in the country is translated into language policies in schools. A survey of 30 private school principals, middle managers and teachers was administered online to obtain their views on school policies, problems, successes, concerns and quality ranking. Results showed that a great deal of work has been done to introduce a language of instruction and a third language as decreed by the Ministry of Education and at the same time keep the national language, Arabic, alive. The main concerns of the participants were the need for teacher training programmes and resources. Although the research implies that the school systems, in keeping up with this multilingual milieu, could be contributing to the death of the national language as well as producing students who are not fluent in any of the languages, there continues to be an attempt to keep alive a quality multilingual educational context which contributes to a cohesive society.

  18. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Background Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. Methods We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. Results In studying the case of Lebanon we used input–process–output–outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Conclusion Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved. PMID:28154758

  19. Determinants of caesarean section in Lebanon: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Marion; Zein, Ali; Ghosn, Nada; Du Mazaubrun, Christiane; Breart, Gérard

    2008-03-01

    This study, based on the Lebanese National Perinatal Survey which included 5231 women, examined the relations between the caesarean section (CS) rate and the characteristics of mothers, children, antenatal care and maternity units in two geographical zones of Lebanon (Beirut-Mount Lebanon and the rest of the country) and then looked at geographical variations. This analysis concerned 3846 women with singleton pregnancies and livebirths at low risk of CS, after exclusion of women with a previous CS, non-cephalic fetal presentations, or delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. The principal end point was caesarean delivery. The relations between the factors studied and CS were estimated by odds ratios (OR), both crude and adjusted, using logistic regression. The rate of CS was higher in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone than elsewhere (13.4% vs. 7.6%). After adjustment, several factors remained associated with caesarean delivery in each zone. Common factors were primiparity, gestational age > or = 41 weeks and antenatal hospitalisation. Factors identified only in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone were obstetric history and insurance coverage, whereas for the other zones we only found major risk factors for obstetric disease: maternal age > or = 35 years, number of antenatal consultations > or = 4 and birthweight Lebanon (OR = 1.80 [95% CI 1.09, 2.95]). In conclusion, the CS rates in Lebanon were high, with geographical differences that were associated with access to care and with obstetric practices.

  20. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  1. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  2. Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Farver, JoAnn M

    2016-10-01

    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women's experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women's experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

  3. Survey on the energy in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1998-01-01

    The state of energy sector in Lebanon for 1997 is presented. Balance of primary and final energy is drawn up as well as the production and consumption of electricity for 1997. Results have shown that primary energy is imported and is based essentially on petroleum products such as fuel oil 33,5%, gas oil 27,5%, gasoline 27%, GPL 3% and carbureactor 2%. Energy consumption has increased by 13% in 1997. Energy pricing has increased by 9% comparing to 1996. Balance of final energy shows that 80% of this energy is represented by gas oil, gasoline and electricity. Emissions of toxic substances due to the combustion of energy based on hydrocarbures are estimated. Economic analysis of electricity sector is presented. Tables and statistics support the results reported

  4. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  5. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  6. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  7. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  8. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  9. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  10. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Path Dependence and Foreign Policy: A Case Study of United States Policy toward Lebanon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reyes, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    ... there. What has often been overlooked is the historical legacy of a tiny nation in the Levant: Lebanon. Many studies show Lebanon as a viable democracy prior to the start of its civil war in 1975...

  12. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  13. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Th...

  15. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  16. Evaluating Sea water Quality in the Coastal Zone of North Lebanon using Telemac-2DTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Mohamad; Darwich, T.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean are undergoing rapid development withgrowing and conflicting demands on the natural resources. Coastal zones are often subjected to irreversible land degradation and environmental deterioration. Lebanon is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin and the integrated management of the environment in the Lebanese coastal zone must be given concern. Most of the successful decisions addressing the environment protection or the elaboration of preventive measures in the coastal zone. These decisions depend on the availability of efficient simulation tools. The existence of these tools can help protecting the environment and establishing the ground for sustainable natural resources in the coastal zones. In this paper, a simulation tool called Telemac-2D TM software was used to simulate the business as usual, pessimistic, and optimistic status of the sea water quality in the coastal zone of Tripoli (North Lebanon). The coastal zone is affected by the effluents of solid and liquid wastes from Abou-Ali river. The different quality states of the coastal zone represent the normal, high, and low flow of the effluents (plume pollutants) from Abou-Ali river. In addition, it represents the variation of different factors such as wind and sea currents speed and direction. This simulation will help the decision makers to implement pre-cautious measures before a disaster takes place by assessing the quality of the sea water near the coastal zones. (author)

  17. Financing and Political Economy of Higher Education: The Case of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Charbel

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the adequacy, efficiency, and equity of higher education in Lebanon in both the public and private sectors, while highlighting challenges that are specific to Lebanon. It concludes by discussing various approaches and strategies to remedy the challenges facing higher education in Lebanon.

  18. 78 FR 46487 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0... With Respect to Lebanon On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Lebanon pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C...

  19. 76 FR 39038 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ...-0558; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-13] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Lebanon, PA, to accommodate new Standard Instrument... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Lebanon...

  20. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  1. Characterization of organic aerosols in Beirut, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waked, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of PM2.5 includes both organic and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds, which constitute a significant fraction of the PM2.5 mass, can be emitted directly as primary aerosol from sources such as fossil-fuel combustion, biomass burning, and natural biogenic emissions, or formed in the atmosphere via chemical reactions leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. SOA, which account for 20 - 80 % of total organic aerosol, are currently a major source of uncertainty in air quality modeling. The identification and quantification of the chemical composition of the organic fraction of PM2.5 and its source apportionment are of great interest, especially in the Middle East region where data on organic aerosols are currently lacking. Lebanon, a small developing country in the Middle East region located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean basin represents a good example for characterizing organic aerosols in this region. To address this issue, the air quality in Beirut (the capital city of Lebanon) was investigated with a focus on organic aerosols. First, an air pollutant emission inventory was developed for Lebanon with a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and for Beirut with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km. The results obtained show that the road transport sector is the major contributor to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions, whereas fossil fuel-fired power plants and large industrial plants are the major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and primary particulate matter (PM) emissions. Then, two intensive 15-day measurement campaigns were conducted at a semi-urban site located in a Beirut suburb to characterize air pollutant concentrations. The first measurement campaign took place in July 2011 and the second in February 2012. Measurements included PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentrations as well as a molecular

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Lebanon: the need for an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, R.; El-Fadel, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.This study focuses on the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Lebanon. It addresses the current status of MSW management in Lebanon in terms of collection, transport and disposal, infers the associated impacts of such practices and discusses mitigation measures and finally proposes basic guidelines for a national strategy for solid waste management in the country. The study is based on available previous investigations and on a field survey of 113 villages in four different countries. The study revealed the absence of an effective environmental policy and poor collection and disposal methods throughout the country, except for the Greater Beirut Area (G A), where better solid waste management practices are employed. Although collection of MSW outside GBA was found to be acceptable by local authorities, resources (labor and equipment) were not used efficiently. Furthermore, treatment of collected waste is almost not available. Waste collected is invariably open dumped and /or open burned outside GBA. The poor quality of the services were reflected by the low budgets available in the solid waste sanitation departments of most surveyed villages. Unlike the situation outside the GBA a solid waste management component can be identified in the GBA. However, until recently, nearly 90 percent of the total waste generated in the GBA is being ultimately disposed of at the landfill. This raises into question the purpose of the sorting-processing-composting facilities as well as the recycling program. Apparently, the current waste management activities, particularly source reduction and recycling have not measured up favorably with the steps outlined in an integrated solid waste management system. The study concludes with a series of policy measures that can constitute the framework for a long-term strategy in order to implement an effective solid waste master plan in Lebanon

  3. The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagher, Leila; Yacoubian, Talar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Lebanon over the period 1980–2009. Within a bivariate framework, imposed on us due to data limitations, and in an effort to increase the robustness of our results, we employ a variety of causality tests, namely, Hsiao, Toda-Yamamoto, and vector error correction based Granger causality tests. We find strong evidence of a bidirectional relationship both in the short-run and in the long-run, indicating that energy is a limiting factor to economic growth in Lebanon. From a policy perspective, the confirmation of the feedback hypothesis warns against the use of policy instruments geared towards restricting energy consumption, as these may lead to adverse effects on economic growth. Consequently, there is a pressing need to revise the current national energy policy that calls for a 5% energy conservation target. Also, to shield the country from external supply shocks, given its substantial dependence on energy imports, policymakers should emphasize the development of domestic energy resources. Further, the most pertinent implication is that relaxing the present electric capacity shortages should be made a national priority, in view of its potential positive effect on the economy. - Highlights: ► We investigate the energy-GDP nexus for Lebanon. ► Evidence of a bidirectional relationship both in the short- and the long-run is found. ► Reducing outages by expanding electric capacity should thus be prioritized. ► The energy plan calling for a 5% reduction in energy consumption needs to be revised. ► Development of domestic energy sources will help in mitigating energy supply shocks.

  4. Rangeland degradation in two watersheds of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T; Faour, G.

    2008-01-01

    A complex and rugged nature characterizes the Lebanese mountains.The climatic pattern prevailing in the country, deforestation and man made erosion caused increased rangeland degradation. The purpose of this study was to monitor two contrasting watersheds, representing the Lebanese agro-ecological zones, to analyze the vegetation dynamics and trace the state of rangeland degradation. The Kfarselouane (205 km2) and Aarsal (316.7 km2) watersheds are located in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountain chain and characterized by sub humid and semi-arid climate respectively.Using multitemporal spot vegetation images between 1999 and 2005 to analyze the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) revealed some improvement of the vegetation cover over recent years in Kfaselouane with a steady state in Aarsal. The NDVI trend curve inclines in spring and declines in summer and fall. Judging by the time scale amplitude change and highest magnitude between the peak and lower NDVI level in Aarsal, an increased vulnerability to drought is observed in the dry Lebanese areas. Comparing land cover/use in Aarsal area between 1962 and 2000 using aerial photos and large resolution Indian satellite images (IRS) showed wood fragmentation and slight increase of the degenerated forest cover from 1108 ha to 1168 ha. Landuse change was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cultivated lands (mostly fruit trees) from 932 ha to 4878 ha with absence of soil conservation and water harvesting practices. On the contrary, grasslands decreased from 29581 ha to 25000 ha. In Kfarselouane, the area of grassland was invaded by forestland where rangeland decreased from 8073 ha to 3568 ha and woodland increased from 5766 ha to 11800 ha. Forest expansion occurred even at the account of unproductive land which decreased from 2668 ha to 248 ha, while cultivated lands did not reveal any substantial change. Based on animals' seasonal feeding pattern, a mismatch between land carrying capacity and grazing

  5. Etiologic agents of dermatophyte infection in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, George F; Racoubian, Eddie S; Daher, Nemat K

    2004-01-01

    Dermatophytes are common and cause important human fungal infections in many parts of the world, including Lebanon. The prevalence of these fungi, however, tends to vary with time and geographic location. In our region, studies on the prevalence of dermatophytoses and the distribution of the various dermatophyte species involved are rare. In Lebanon, only one study was published on this subject over the last forty years. This study was undertaken to shed light on the types and prevalence of dermatophytes recovered at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), and to compare the findings with those of the only study from the same hospital published in the early 1960s. Records from the clinical microbiology section were reviewed for the patients on whom dermatophyte cultures were requested between 1996 and 2002. All positive cultures were identified and analyzed. Among 1631 submitted specimens for culture (one per patient), 208 (12.7%) yielded 11 species of dermatophytes, dominated by Trichophyton spp. (89.9%), followed by Microsporum spp. (9.1%), Epidermophyton floccosum (0.4%) and Trichosporum beigelii (0.4%). The male to female ratio was almost 1:1, and the age range was 1 to 77 yrs for both sexes; 14% were children (< or = 15 yrs). The most commonly recovered species were: T. tonsurans (54.8%), T. mentagrophytes (24.5%), M. canis (7.7%), T. rubrum (5.3%) and T. verrucosum (4%). The distribution of infection according to body sites was : tinea unguium (44.2%), tinea corporis (43.2%), tinea capitis (7.7%) and tinea pedis (4.8%). Compared to the previous study from AUBMC in 1962, the current study showed an overall lower prevalence of dermatophytoses (12.7 vs 18.5%, p = 0.001) and variations in the prevalence rates of the dermatophyte species involved (dominated by T. tonsurans and T. mentagrophytes in the current study compared to E. floccosum and T. rubrum recovered in 1962). Based on the source of infection the current study showed higher

  6. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  8. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  9. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  10. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  11. Dementia prevalence, care arrangement, and access to care in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Kieu T T; Chaaya, Monique; Prince, Martin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In North Africa and the Middle East, studies about dementia prevalence are scarce. A pilot study was conducted in Lebanon to assess dementia prevalence, using the Arabic-validated 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) diagnostic assessment for case ascertainment. The study also examined...... care arrangement and access to care. METHODS: A random sample of 502 persons older than 65 years and their informant were recruited from Beirut and Mount Lebanon governorates through multistage cluster sampling. RESULTS: The crude and age-standardized dementia prevalences were 7.4% and 9.......0%, respectively. People with dementia were mainly cared for by relatives at home. Access to formal care was very limited. DISCUSSION: Dementia prevalence in Lebanon ranks high within the global range of estimates. These first evidence-based data about disease burden and barriers to care serve to raise awareness...

  12. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  13. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among battered women in Lebanon: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra, Christelle; Wehbe, Nancy; Lachance Fiola, Jacinthe; Skaff, Wadih; Nehmé, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is common in Lebanon and can lead to major health problems. However, the incidence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in battered women has not been extensively explored in the Lebanese cultural context. The objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to determine the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among women in Lebanon who have been physically abused by their partners, (b) to assess whether the rate of PTSD symptoms varied according to sociodemographic variables, and (c) to reveal other attributes that might be risk factors for developing symptoms of PTSD. Of the 95 physically abused women who met inclusion criteria, 85 completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic questions, the physical abuse subscale of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Results showed a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms (97%), positively correlated with physical violence (r = .719). Lower education level and recent abuse were correlated with symptom severity, as were the number of problematic habitual behaviors in the abusive partner and the use of psychotherapy. Increased involvement of health care professionals in the detection of women at risk, with referral to appropriate resources, is suggested to improve prevention and management efforts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Extrahuman Epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rayane; Hamze, Monzer; Pailhoriès, Hélène; Eveillard, Matthieu; Marsollier, Laurent; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Dabboussi, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Acinetobacter baumannii outside hospitals is still a controversial issue. The objective of our study was to explore the extrahospital epidemiology of A. baumannii in Lebanon. From February 2012 to October 2013, a total of 73 water samples, 51 soil samples, 37 raw cow milk samples, 50 cow meat samples, 7 raw cheese samples, and 379 animal samples were analyzed by cultural methods for the presence of A. baumannii. Species identification was performed by rpoB gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was investigated, and the A. baumannii population was studied by two genotyping approaches: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). A. baumannii was detected in 6.9% of water samples, 2.7% of milk samples, 8.0% of meat samples, 14.3% of cheese samples, and 7.7% of animal samples. All isolates showed a susceptible phenotype against most of the antibiotics tested and lacked carbapenemase-encoding genes, except one that harbored a blaOXA-143 gene. MLST analysis revealed the presence of 36 sequence types (STs), among which 24 were novel STs reported for the first time in this study. blaOXA-51 SBT showed the presence of 34 variants, among which 21 were novel and all were isolated from animal origins. Finally, 30 isolates had new partial rpoB sequences and were considered putative new Acinetobacter species. In conclusion, animals can be a potential reservoir for A. baumannii and the dissemination of new emerging carbapenemases. The roles of the novel animal clones identified in community-acquired infections should be investigated. PMID:25616788

  15. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; Hachem, Hoda

    1999-01-01

    Full text.National programs of neonatal screening were introduced in most countries and have proved their effectiveness against different types of retardation in children. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common causes of physical and mental retardation in children. Programs of screening have shown that the incidence of this disorder is ethnic-background: it is low in Africans: 1-32000 whereas it is 1-3500 and 1-5000 in Hispanic and European newborns respectively. No previous mass screening programs were done in Lebanon. For this purpose, this program was introduced in collaboration with the IAEA. Cord blood is spotted into circles on filter paper just after delivery. These samples are air-dried at room temperature and kept at 4 degree C. They are then collected from hospitals to be screened. In the laboratory, all samples are assayed for IRMA TSH first. Those showing high or borderline TSH level (20mU/L) are then assayed for RIA TT4. Only those showing straight forward high TSH and low TT4 are considered as congenital hypothyroidism cases. For IRMA and RIA, the technique of coated beads is used. We started the program by using reagents from NETRIA, but actually, we start preparing most of our reagents with the exception pf the tracer. A total of 7500 babies have been up now. One case was detected as possible case of congenital hypothyroidism: straight forward high TSH and borderline TT4: this case is now under treatment by endocrinologist and is supposed to have a problem at the pituitary level

  16. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  17. Trust and cooperation relations in environmental management of Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  18. All Glory Is Fleeting: Insights from the Second Lebanon War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    longer has claim to underdog status as it did in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. The reasons are several and not particularly rel- evant to the discussion...Israel Probes Use of Cluster Munitions in Lebanon,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, December 6, 2006f. ———, “Debriefing Teams Brand IDF Doctrine ‘Completely

  19. Trust and cooperation relations in environmental management of Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates trust and cooperation in the context of environmental management in Lebanon. Literature already indicated increasing environmental problems in this area that suffered from repeated episodes of armed conflict. The Lebanese government has been faced by many difficulties to

  20. Organizational Support of Technology Integration in One School in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Rosine S.

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been at the center of heated debates in educational settings driving schools to compete for the best technological equipments. However, in Lebanon there is a lag in technology integration matching twenty first century advances. Several barriers related to teacher attitudes, lack of technical skills and organizational constraints to…

  1. Gender-Based Differences Among Entrepreneurs and Workers in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Lebanon has faced a continuous series of economic setbacks fueled by mounting political uncertainties and war over the decades. The current global financial crisis compounds the levels of uncertainty and anxiety facing households with regards to their future security. The need for earned income and employment is therefore higher than ever and an increasing number of women are entering the ...

  2. Innovative tools to fight chronic diseases in Lebanon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Refugees in Lebanon are unable to access several critical services, including ... In doing so, the eHealth system has shown how digital technologies such as ... access to health services and improve the quality of service for Palestinians in ... Healthcare providers, most of them nurses, were offered training ...

  3. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

  4. A Model for the Education of Gifted Learners in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model for developing a comprehensive system of education for gifted learners in Lebanon. The model consists of three phases and includes key elements for establishing gifted education in the country, such as raising community awareness, adopting valid identification measures, and developing effective…

  5. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: prevalence and risk factors in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, E; Hosri, C; Abi-Rizk, A

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey, accompanied by a serological analysis,was conducted on samples taken from Lebanese goat herds in order to determine the prevalence of infection with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Lebanon. The results of the survey provided information on various livestock production, animal health and herd management factors. Serum samplesfrom 952 goats, including the local breeds (Baladi and Damascene) and imported breeds (Alpine and Saneen), were taken from 60 farms distributed throughout Lebanon and tested for the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies. The data obtained were analysed using a statistical model to assess CAEV infection risk factors in Lebanon. In total, 125 samples proved to be positive, representing a prevalence in selected individuals of 13.1% and in selected herds of 51.7%. The Bekaa region had the highest number of herds with seropositive goats (90% of herds); the level was lower in Mount Lebanon, the North and the South (54%, 34% and 33%, respectively). The prevalence in relation to the livestock production system was 70% in herds in intensive systems, 54% in semi-intensive systems and 45% in extensive systems. The indigenous breeds were more resistant and tolerant of CAEV than the imported breeds. This study confirms the presence of CAEV in Lebanese goat herds and identifies the different livestock production practices likely to favour the rapid spread of the virus.

  6. Refugee activists’ involvement in relief effort in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Topham Smallwood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cadre of educated middle-class Syrian refugees dedicated to improving conditions for Syrians at home and in Lebanon are building a civil society in exile but face obstacles to consolidating their presence and becoming more effective.

  7. Attitudes of Teachers and Headteachers towards Inclusion in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khochen, Maha; Radford, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In the Arabic region, the drive towards inclusive practices in mainstream schools is at a relatively early stage, although, in Lebanon, the recent initiative of the National Inclusion Project (NIP), a project managed by a consortium of four organisations aimed at addressing the exclusion experienced by people with a disability, has the potential…

  8. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  9. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  10. Israeli Deterrence And the 2nd Lebanon War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    06 April 2017 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic ...peace and stability on the Israel-Lebanon border. This stability owes to strong Israeli deterrence, whose roots stem at the 2006 war. This essay claims

  11. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  12. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  13. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cybertechnology Ethics of University Students in Lebanon: Assessing University Students' Activities and Perceptions of Cybertechnology Ethics in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Khayrazad Kari

    2011-01-01

    Use of internet technologies is widespread in Lebanon. Technology has a revolutionary impact on our lives, behavior, and in particular a strong impact on our students. Part of our students every day routine is to use the computer and the Internet to play, learn, and communicate. Although most students use the computer and the Internet on a daily…

  15. LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION/ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011/by WILLIAM HARRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Salameh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION, ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; London: C. Hurst & Company, 2012. 323 pp. $29.95. LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011, WILLIAM HARRIS; Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 360 pp. $34.95.

  16. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  17. Venous trauma in the Lebanon War--2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitecki, Samy S; Karram, Tony; Hoffman, Aaron; Bass, Arie

    2007-10-01

    Reports on venous trauma are relatively sparse. Severe venous trauma is manifested by hemorrhage, not ischemia. Bleeding may be internal or external and rarely may lead to hypovolemic shock. Repair of major extremity veins has been a subject of controversy and the current teaching is to avoid venous repair in an unstable or multi-trauma patient. The aim of the current paper is to present our recent experience in major venous trauma during the Lebanon conflict, means of diagnosis and treatment in a level I trauma center. All cases of major venous trauma, either isolated or combined with arterial injury, admitted to the emergency room during the 33-day conflict were reviewed. Out of 511 wounded soldiers and civilians who were admitted to our service over this period, 12 (2.3%) sustained a penetrating venous injury either isolated (5) or combined with arterial injury (7). All injuries were secondary to high velocity penetrating missiles or from multiple pellets stored in long-range missiles. All injuries were accompanied by additional insult to soft tissue, bone and viscera. The mean injury severity score was 15. Severe external bleeding was the presenting symptom in three cases of isolated venous injury (jugular, popliteal and femoral). The diagnosis of a major venous injury was made by a CTA scan in five cases, angiography in one and during surgical exploration in six cases. All injured veins were repaired: three by venous interposition grafts, four by end to end anastomosis, three by lateral suture and two by endovascular techniques. None of the injuries was treated by ligation of a major named vein. Immediate postoperative course was uneventful in all patients and the 30-day follow-up (by clinical assessment and duplex scan) has demonstrated a patent repair with no evidence of thrombosis. Without contradicting the wisdom of ligating major veins in the setup of multi-trauma or an unstable patient, our experience indicates that a routine repair of venous trauma can

  18. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  19. A societal cost-of-illness study of hemodialysis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Salameh, Pascale; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure is a growing public health problem, and is mainly treated by hemodialysis. This study aims to estimate the societal costs of hemodialysis in Lebanon. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study conducted alongside the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial. Costs were assessed with a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach, for the period of June-December 2011. The data of 114 patients recruited from six hospital-based units were collected through a questionnaire measuring healthcare costs, costs to patients and family, and costs in other sectors. Recall data were used for the base-case analysis. Sensitivity analyses employing various sources of resources use and costs were performed. Costs were uprated to 2015US$. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the predictors of societal costs. The mean 6-month societal costs were estimated at $9,258.39. The larger part was attributable to healthcare costs (91.7%), while costs to patient and family and costs in other sectors poorly contributed to the total costs (4.2% and 4.1%, respectively). In general, results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Using the maximum value for hospitalization resulted in the biggest difference (+15.5% of the base-case result). Female gender, being widowed/divorced, having hypertension comorbidity, and higher weekly time on dialysis were significantly associated with greater societal costs. Information regarding resource consumption and cost were not readily available. Rather, they were obtained from a variety of sources, with each having its own strengths and limitations. Hemodialysis represents a high societal burden in Lebanon. Using extrapolation, its total annual cost for the Lebanese society is estimated at $61,105,374 and the mean total annual cost ($18,516.7) is 43.70% higher than the gross domestic product per capita forecast for 2015. Measures to reduce the economic burden of hemodialysis should be taken, by promoting

  20. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  1. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  2. Barriers to breastfeeding in Lebanon: A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Filteau, Suzanne; Knai, Cecile

    2017-08-01

    Although the issue of breastfeeding in Lebanon has risen on the political agenda, the country does not meet international recommendations for early breastfeeding practices. This study analysed barriers to dissemination, implementation, and enforcement of key policies to improve early breastfeeding practices. We conducted interviews with stakeholders in breastfeeding policy in Lebanon and used a framework approach for analysing data. We found a disconnect between policy endorsement and translation on the ground, weak engagement of professional associations and governmental institutions, undue influence by the breast milk substitute industry, and competing priorities-most notably the current refugee crisis. This study highlights the potential policy opportunities to counter these barriers and points to the role of international organisations and grassroots advocacy in pushing, monitoring, and implementing policies that protect breastfeeding, where government capacity is limited, and the private sector is strong.

  3. Sleep patterns and disorders among university students in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Shafika; Costanian, Christy; Haddad, Georges; Tannous, Fida

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a significant public health issue with adverse medical consequences. Sleep disturbances are common among university students and have an effect on this group's overall health and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep habits and disorders in a population of university students across Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012 among 735 students aged 18-25 yrs. old, enrolled at six universities across Lebanon. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and habits. Less than half of the total study population (47.3%) were good sleepers (PSQILebanon. This study suggests that sleep problems among Lebanese college students were common and such problems may interfere with daily performance. Findings from this study have important implications for programs intended to improve academic performance by targeting sleep habits of students.

  4. Policy development for solar water heaters: the case of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The electric energy demand in Lebanon is estimated to grow at an average of 3-5% per year for the coming 10 years. Such an increase in energy demand is problematic for Lebanon since its economy is almost totally dependent on imported fuel which contributes to 97% of the overall energy requirements. Solar water heaters (SWH) are regarded as the most important element in a long term energy conservation and management strategy for this country, but their promotion is a national issue requiring the participation of many stake holders and decision makers. Additionally, the success of solar energy penetration into the existing energy market is constrained by many factors such as technical and financial limitations, decision criteria and policy instruments. This paper will explore the feasibility of SWH, and will work out, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique, a policy to ensure a large scale diffusion of SWH in the energy market

  5. The Uneasy Inter-communal Relations in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina NEDELCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the inter-communal relations in Lebanon and it approaches issues such as diversity and identity. Ever since the creation of modern Lebanon in 1920, the principle of proportionality has been subject of a significant inter-communal debate. Although, proportionality was to support state’s development and fair representation of all religious groups, it ended up the basis for a rigid political system, which turned into a major problem for the inter-communal political relationship, situation which escalated to civil war. The war, not only emphasized the inter-communal debate of what constituted a fair power-distribution system, but it also deepened this question, because it added new components such as new political actors.

  6. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  7. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  8. Epidemiology of hip fractures in Lebanon: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, G; Bachour, F; Hlais, S; Maalouf, N M; Yazbeck, P; Yaghi, Y; Yaghi, K; El Hage, R; Issa, M

    2013-10-01

    Hip fractures are a reliable indicator of osteoporosis. Despite their importance, few studies have assessed their epidemiology in Lebanon and the Middle East. Hip fracture incidence rates in Lebanon approximate those of Northern countries, and show the same characteristics, particularly the exponential increase with age, higher incidence in women, and a recent trend of rate leveling in women but not in men. A national database of hip fracture cases admitted to hospitals in Lebanon in 2007 was created. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated at 5-year intervals for individuals over age 50. These rates were also standardized to the 2000 United States population, and compared to those of other countries. Projected incidence rates in Lebanon in 2020 and 2050 were also calculated. A total of 1199 patients were included in the study. The crude annual incidence rate in individuals over 50 was 147 per 100,000 individuals, 132 per 100,000 males and 160 per 100,000 females, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.2. The age-standardized annual incidence rates (per 100,000) were 180 in males and 256 in females. Assuming unchanged healthcare parameters, the projected crude incidence rates for people over 50 are expected to reach 174 and 284 per 100,000 in 2020 and 2050 respectively. Lebanese hip fracture rates are lower than Northern countries, but show many similar characteristics such as an exponential increase with age, a higher incidence in women, and clues of a leveling of rates in women but not in men. Numbers are expected to increase substantially in the coming decades. Level IV. Epidemiological study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Centennial Olive trees in Lebanon: a substantial patrimony

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, L.; Malas, F.; Hamadeh, B.; Essalouh, Laila; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the centennial olive trees growing across Lebanon, with the perspective of conservation of the ancient germplasm. The survey indicated the existence of numerous centennial olive trees distributed in different agro-climatic areas, from 80 to 1350 meters altitude across the country. Centennial olives were found in large size orchards and scattered as well as in young orchards, road hedges and gardens for ornamental purposes. Yet, no reliable information...

  10. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of traumatic brain injury in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Abbass, Hussein; Bahmad, Hisham; Ghandour, Hiba; Fares, Jawad; Wazzi-Mkahal, Rayyan; Yacoub, Basel; Darwish, Hala; Mondello, Stefania; Harati, Hayat; El Sayed, Mazen J.; Tamim, Hani; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a debilitating medical and emerging public health problem that is affecting people worldwide due to a multitude of factors including both domestic and war-related acts. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the status of TBI in Lebanon – a Middle Eastern country with a weak health system that was chartered by several wars and intermittent outbursts of violence - in order to identify the present gaps in knowledge, direct future research initiatives and to assist policy makers in planning progressive and rehabilitative policies. Methods: OVID/Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google Scholar were lastly searched on April 15th, 2016 to identify all published research studies on TBI in Lebanon. Studies published in English, Arabic or French that assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI in Lebanon were warranting inclusion in this review. Case reports, reviews, biographies and abstracts were excluded. Throughout the whole review process, reviewers worked independently and in duplicate during study selection, data abstraction and methodological assessment using the Downs and Black Checklist. Results: In total, 11 studies were recognized eligible as they assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI on Lebanese soils. Considerable methodological variation was found among the identified studies. All studies, except for two that evaluated domestic causes such as falls, reported TBI due to war-related injuries. Age distribution of TBI victims revealed two peaks, young adults between 18 and 40 years, and older adults aged 60 years and above, where males constituted the majority. Only three studies reported rates of mild TBI. Mortality, rehabilitation and systemic injury rates were rarely reported and so were the complications involved; infections were an exception. Conclusion: Apparently, status of TBI in Lebanon suffers from several gaps which need to be bridged through implementing more basic

  11. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  12. An Assessment of the 2006 Lebanon-Israeli War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-29

    across the region. This “tactical plagiarism ” includes the successful use of improvised explosive devices and suicide bombers in Iraq, which have...tactical plagiarism ” comes from Hoffman, 16. For a discussion of the rise of suicide bombings in Afghanistan see Brian Glyn Williams, “Suicide Bombings in...18 Scott Macleod, “What Makes Lebanon so Skeptical About the Peace,” Time (August 2006), http://www.time.com/time/world/ article

  13. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  14. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  15. Guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon Public Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Salim M; El Saghir, Nagi S; Ammar, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of national epidemiological data since the late 1990s has led to the adoption of evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon (2006). Almost 50% of breast cancer patients in Lebanon are below the age of 50 years and the age-adjusted incidence rate is estimated at 69 new cases per 100,000 per year (2004). This official notification calls for breast self-examination (BSE) every month starting age 20, and a clinical breast examination (CBE) performed by a physician every three years between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Starting age 40, and for as long as a woman is in good health, an annual CBE and mammography are recommended. Women with known genetic family history of breast cancer should start screening 10 years earlier than the first young patient in the family, or earlier depending on medical advice. The Breast Cancer National Task Force (BCNTF) recommends certification of mammography centers and continued training of personnel to assure high quality mammograms, and to minimize unnecessary investigations and surgeries.It recommends that a national program should record call-backs of women for annual screening and follow-up data on abnormal mammograms. BCNTF encourages the adoption of these guidelines and monitoring of their results, as well as follow-up of breast cancer epidemiology and registry in Lebanon, and scientific progress in early breast cancer detection to determine needs for modifications in the future.

  16. Promoting women entrepreneurs in Lebanon: the experience of UNIFEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseini, R

    1997-02-01

    The work of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in West Asia began in 1994 with a regional program to strengthen women-owned enterprises in Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. In Lebanon, a survey of 100 women entrepreneurs, as well as nontraditional credit programs and banks, was conducted prior to program design. A second survey assessed micro-entrepreneurs' demands for financial and other services. Since gender analysis was a new concept in Lebanon, UNIFEM organized a gender awareness workshop for representatives of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the banking sector, followed by a strategic planning workshop. The surveys confirmed that women were concentrated mainly in the less profitable economic sectors, producing handicrafts and food products or running small service or trading companies. Women were less likely than men to get bank loans or to register their businesses. Women's problems accessing credit--the main obstacle limiting their ability to develop their businesses--were compounded by their lack of information, male-oriented collateral requirements, and discriminatory banking regulations. UNIFEM decided to channel counseling of women entrepreneurs on legal matters, marketing, and credit sources through the Ministry of Social Affairs. It is expected that knowledge of gender-related employment issues and the use of gender-specific analysis will become integral to the Ministry's program as a result.

  17. Financial Burden of Cancer Drug Treatment in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Fadia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Adib, Salim M; Karam, Rita; Harb, Hilda; Awar, May; Zalloua, Pierre; Ammar, Walid

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Lebanon provides cancer drugs free of charge for uninsured patients who account for more than half the total caseload. Other categories of cancer care are subsidized under more stringent eligibility criteria. MOPH's large database offers an excellent opportunity to analyze the cost of cancer treatment in Lebanon. Using utilization and spending data accumulated at MOPH during 20082013, the cost to the public budget of cancer drugs was assessed per case and per drug type. The average annual cost of cancer drugs was 6,475$ per patient. Total cancer drug costs were highest for breast cancer, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and NonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which together represented 74% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure. The annual average cancer drug cost per case was highest for CML ($31,037), followed by NHL ($11,566). Trastuzumab represented 26% and Imatinib 15% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure over six years. Sustained increase in cancer drug cost threatens the sustainability of MOPH coverage, so crucial for socially vulnerable citizens. To enhance the bargaining position with pharmaceutical firms for drug cost containment in a small market like Lebanon, drug price comparisons with neighboring countries which have already obtained lower prices may succeed in lowering drug costs.

  18. Diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; Tempesta, Maria; Bayan, Ali; Vesco, Gesualdo; Vesco, Gesualdo; Greco, Grazia; Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; Ezzedine, Mohamad; Mortada, Hussein; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Mortada, Mohamad

    2017-06-30

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014. A total of 272 adult hard ticks were randomly collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) located at 37 Lebanese farms, distributed among 30 villages. Ticks belonged to 4 Ixodidae genera: Rhipicephalus (72.4%), Haemaphysalis (11.4%), Dermacentor (8.1%), and Hyalomma (8.1%). They included the following species: Rhipicephalus annulatus (50.7%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (18.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (8.1%), Haemaphylasis punctata (11.4%), Dermacentor marginatus (8.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.5%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.4%). Rhipicephalus turanicus and H. anatolicum were found on cattle, sheep, and goats, R. annulatus on cattle and sheep, R. sanguineus, D. marginatus and Hea. punctata on sheep and goats, while R. bursa was collected only on sheep. Tick species involved in pathogen transmission were found and some of the identi ed species were recorded in Lebanon for the rst time.

  19. Responding to a Refugee Influx: Lessons from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninette Kelley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2015, Lebanon received over one million Syrian refugees. There is no country in the world that has taken in as many refugees in proportion to its size: by 2015, one in four of its residents was a refugee from Syria. Already beset, prior to the Syrian crisis, by political divisions, insecure borders, severely strained infrastructure, and over-stretched public services, the mass influx of refugees further taxed the country. That Lebanon withstood what is often characterized as an existential threat is primarily due to the remarkable resilience of the Lebanese people. It is also due to the unprecedented levels of humanitarian funding that the international community provided to support refugees and the communities that hosted them. UN, international, and national partners scaled up more than a hundred-fold to meet ever-burgeoning needs and creatively endeavored to meet challenges on the ground. And while the refugee response was not perfect, and funding fell well below needs, thousands of lives were saved, protection was extended, essential services were provided, and efforts were made to improve through education the future prospects of the close to half-a-million refugee children residing in Lebanon. This paper examines what worked well and where the refugee response stumbled, focusing on areas where improved efforts in planning, delivery, coordination, innovation, funding, and partnerships can enhance future emergency responses.

  20. Burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among hospitalized patients in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaqafi AO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,1 Madonna J Matar,2 Rima Moghnieh,3 Adel F Alothman,4 Thamer H Alenazi,5 Fayssal Farahat,1 Shelby Corman,6 Caitlyn T Solem,6 Nirvana Raghubir,7 Cynthia Macahilig,8 Seema Haider,9 Jennifer M Stephens6 1Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, 3Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanese Republic; 4Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Central Region, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, 5Infection Prevention & Control Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 6Real World Evidence: Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, 7Medical Affairs, Pfizer, New York, NY, 8Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 9Outcomes & Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities, treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials, hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay, and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality. Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results: Chart

  1. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  2. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  3. Responsiveness of Lebanon's primary healthcare centers to non-communicable diseases and related healthcare needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassoub, Rami; Hashimi, Suha; Awada, Siham; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Lebanon currently faces a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) that is stressing the population's health and financial well-being. Preventive care is recognized as the optimal health equitable, cost-effective solution. The study aims to assess the responsiveness of primary health care centers (PHCs) to NCD, and identify the needed health arrangements and responsibilities of PHCs, the Ministry Of Public Health and other healthcare system entities, for PHCs to purse a more preventive role against NCD. Single and group interviews were conducted via a semi-structured questionnaire with 10 PHCs from Lebanon's primary health care network that have undergone recent pilot accreditation and are recognized for having quality services and facilities. This manifested administrative aspects and NCD-related services of PHCs and generated information regarding the centers' deficiencies, strengths and areas needing improvement for fulfilling a more preventive role. Administrative features of PHCs varied according to number and type of health personnel employed. Variations and deficiencies within and among PHCs were manifested specifically at the level of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. PHCs identified the pilot accreditation as beneficial at the administrative and clinical levels; however, various financial and non-financial resources, in addition to establishing a strong referral system with secondary care settings and further arrangements with MOPH, are necessary for PHCs to pursue a stronger preventive role. The generated results denote needed changes within the healthcare system's governance, financing and delivery. They involve empowering PHCs and increasing their breadth of services, allocating a greater portion of national budget to health and preventive care, and equipping PHCs with personnel skilled in conducting community-wide preventive activities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and family planning behaviors and practice among pregnant Syrian refugees in various living conditions and multiple geographic areas of Lebanon. A field-based survey was conducted between July and October 2013 in 14 main geographic sites of refugee concentration. The assessment evaluated antenatal services among a non-randomized sample of 420 self-identified pregnant Syrian refugee women that included demographics, gestational age, living accommodation, antenatal care coverage, antenatal care content, antenatal health behaviors, antenatal health literacy, and family planning perception and practices. In total, 420 pregnant Syrian refugees living in Lebanon completed the survey. Of these, 82.9% (348) received some antenatal care. Of those with at least one antenatal visit, 222 (63.8%) received care attended by a skilled professional three or more times, 111 (31.9%) 1-2 times, and 15 (4.3%) had never received skilled antenatal care. We assessed antenatal care content defined by blood pressure measurement, and urine and blood sample analyses. Of those who had received any antenatal care, only 31.2% received all three interventions, 18.2% received two out of three, 32.1% received one out of three, and 18.5% received no interventions. Only (41.2%) had an adequate diet of vitamins, minerals, and folic acid. Access, content and health behaviors varied by gestational age, type of accommodation and location in Lebanon. Standards of antenatal care are not being met for pregnant Syrian refugee women in

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rached, Antoine; Abou Kheir, Selim; Saba, Jowana; Ammar, Walid

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B and C are two potentially life threatening liver infections. Lebanon is ranked as a zone of moderate endemicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Lebanon and their distribution according to age, region and sex. This national prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2011 till December 2012 in the six Lebanese Governorates in collaboration with municipalities, the Ministry of Public Health, Health Centres and dispensaries. An upcoming screening for hepatitis B and C was announced? in different districts of each Governorate. All individuals presenting to local laboratory, not known to have chronic hepatitis, were asked for a blood sample and answered a questionnaire addressing sex, age, place of birth and residence. Screening tests were "Abbots" for hepatitis B and "Human Hexagon" for hepatitis C. PCR testing was used to confirm the positivity of the previous tests. Of 31147 individuals screened, 542 had a rapid test positive for HBV (prevalence 1.74%, 95% CI 1.6-1.89) with a male to female ratio of 1.08. This prevalence was higher in the South and Nabatieh (1.9%) compared to Beirut (0.73%). Of 31,147 individuals screened, 64 had a rapid test positive for HCV (prevalence 0.21%, 95% CI 0.16-0.27) with a male to female ratio of 0.85. This prevalence was higher in Nabatieh (0.61%) compared to Mount Lebanon (0.08%). The prevalence of HBV and HCV in Lebanon is 1.74% and 0.21%, respectively with a higher prevalence in South and Nabatieh districts. These data rank Lebanon amongst countries with low endemicity for both viruses. Decrease in the prevalence of HBV is due to awareness campaign as well as success of the MOPH National Hepatitis Program in vaccinating all new born since 1998 and in screening and vaccinating high risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hashish in Morocco and Lebanon: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsahi, Kenza; Darwich, Salem

    2016-05-01

    In the 1960s and the 1970s, Morocco and Lebanon became major producers of hashish for export to markets in West and Central Europe, Africa and the Middle East. By using a comparative approach, this paper aims to evaluate changes in production in the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation in the Rif (Morocco) and the Beqaa (Lebanon) and to better understand the role that these countries play in current trends in the global cultivation and consumption of cannabis. The comparative approach takes in account the historical and institutionnal context, and the perception of cannabis in those two country. We rely on primary field research done in the Rif (from 2002) and in the Beqaa (from 1995) in the form of interviews and observations with farmers and intermediaries. Acreage and production estimates of hashish for both countries have been triangulated from different sources. Maghreb and Middle East have a long history of consumption, production and marketing of cannabis. Over the past 12 centuries, migration, trade and different spiritual practices and trends have led to the expansion of cannabis markets. This long period is marked by stages and rifts caused by foreign interference, a worldwide prohibition of cannabis at the beginning of the 20th century and increased global demand in the 1960s and the 1970s. Morocco and Lebanon are among the most important producers of hashish to be exported for trade for the last fifty years. The global prohibition of cannabis and the global sustained demand have created opportunities for poor farmers in the Rif and the Beqaa regions to survive and get wealthy. It is difficult to understand the reasons why areas producing cannabis are steadily increasing. If the Rif and the Beqaa share some features (such are marginalized areas of production, repressive legislation, huge international demand, range of comparable tasks and Mediterranean climate suitable for growing cannabis, etc.) then a comparison between the two countries makes it

  7. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  8. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  9. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-07-25

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Thematic analysis was used to examine the data. Interviewed women were mainly adults. They believed that, in Lebanon, they were subjected to early marriage compared to the norm in Syria due to their financial situation and uncertainty. Cost was reported as the main barrier to use contraception in Lebanon but some Syrian refugee women were not aware of free services covering sexual and reproductive health. In general, marriage, pregnancy, and family planning behavior of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon slightly differed from those in Syria pre-conflict in terms of age of marriage, conception subsequent to marriage, and contraception method. Hence, interventions to increase awareness of subsidized sexual and reproductive health services, including free contraceptives at primary health care centers, and those targeting protection from early marriage of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon are strongly recommended.

  10. Slowly but Surely: Small Steps toward Establishing Gifted Education Programs in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed light on the state of gifted education in Lebanon and to describe the efforts underway to establish programs for gifted learners in the country. The article starts with a description of the Lebanese system of education followed by research conducted in Lebanon on an instrument called Discovering Intellectual…

  11. A National Peace Education Program in Lebanon: Exploring the Possibilities from the Leaders' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Joseph M.; Oueijan, Harvey N.

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding peace education in Lebanon. The emergence of Lebanon from a long civil war necessitates the existence of a peace program that will educate the new generations for a culture of peace. In this study, we tried to explore the potential of the development of a unified peace program…

  12. Contribution to the Study of the flora diatomic Nahr Yahfufah (Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; ALOUF, N.

    1984-01-01

    Contribution to the study of Diatomic flora on Nahr Yahfufah Lebanon. From October 1980 to June 1982 a hydrobiologic study has taken place on the river of Yahfufah situated to the west of anti Lebanon. From the diatomic population 52 species and varieties were designated. Further more the physico-chemical parameters were followed and studied. (author).

  13. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8469] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon, and I...

  14. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  15. Teaching for Citizenship in Lebanon: Teachers Talk about the Civics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Bassel

    2012-01-01

    "National and Civic Education" is a program of study compulsory across all grade levels in Lebanon aimed at promoting social cohesion and active citizenship. A sample of 19 civics teachers in Lebanon across four of the six governorates participated in semi-structured interviews. The conversations delved into their conceptions of…

  16. Educating Children with Down Syndrome in Lebanon: An Exploratory Study of Urban Mothers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum, Rima J.

    2010-01-01

    In view of the fact that Lebanon does not currently have a special education infrastructure, the purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to understand the phenomenon of educating children with Down syndrome (DS) in Lebanon in terms of the meanings mothers ascribe to it and their description of their experience. The intent was to develop…

  17. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8282] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon and I...

  18. War Memories and the Refusal of Male Dominance in Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the war memories in the construction of the female gender identity in Evelyin Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon," in which the female protagonist refuses to belong to her Arab identity when she lives in the United States because of the brutal war memories she witnesses in Lebanon. Such memories make the…

  19. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  20. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  1. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  2. Area Handbook Series: Lebanon: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    government surveys most Lebanese were adequately sheltered and fed. Known for their ingenuity and resourcefulness in trading and in entrepreneurship ...proceedings in 1985. In 1985 Bank Al Mashrek also bough’ two branches of the Brit- ish Standard Chartered Bank. Banque Libano- Franchise bought the...closed their Beirut operations, the former handing over its business to Banque Sabbag et Franchise pour le Moyen Orient. By the end of 1986, only

  3. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  4. Perspectives of displaced Syrian women and service providers on fertility behaviour and available services in West Bekaa, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Mourtada, Rima; Bashour, Hyam; Kak, Faysal El; Zurayk, Huda

    2017-10-01

    Prior to the conflict, Syria had relatively high fertility rates. In 2010, it had the sixth highest total fertility rate in the Arab World, but it witnessed a fertility decline before the conflict in 2011. Displacement during conflict influences fertility behaviour, and meeting the contraceptive needs of displaced populations is complex. This study explored the perspectives of women and service providers about fertility behaviour of and service provision to Syrian refugee women in Bekaa, Lebanon. We used qualitative methodology to conduct 12 focus group discussions with Syrian refugee women grouped in different age categories and 13 in-depth interviews with care providers from the same region. Our findings indicate that the displacement of Syrians to Lebanon had implications on the fertility behaviour of the participants. Women brought their beliefs about preferred family size and norms about decision-making into an environment where they were exposed to both aid and hardship. The unaffordability of contraceptives in the Lebanese privatised health system compared to their free provision in Syria limited access to family planning services. Efforts are needed to maintain health resources and monitor health needs of the refugee population in order to improve access and use of services.

  5. Mesotheliomas in Lebanon: Witnessing a Change in Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Joseph; Eid, Roland; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Farhat, Fadi; Ghosn, Marwan; Ghorra, Claude; Tomb, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are relatively rare tumors in Lebanon. The only previous study goes back to 14 years ago, when we published epidemiological characteristics of mesotheliomas in Lebanon, showing that the pleural location accounted for the vast majority of cases, with clear evidence of asbestos exposure from the Eternit factory of Chekka region. The objective of this current study was to estimate the incidence of mesothelioma in the past decade and to identify its epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic characteristics, making comparisons with our first study published in 2001. Between 2002 and 2014, patients diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital were investigated. Epidemiological data focusing on asbestos exposure history were collected from medical records and interviews with the families. A total of 26 patients were diagnosed with mesothelioma, 21 of which were successfully investigated. The mean age of these 21 patients is 62.5 (19-82). Only 3 (14.29%) are women. 18 (85.71%) were smokers. Among the 21 available mesotheliomas, 15 (71.4%) are pleural, while 5 (23.8%) are peritoneal and 1 (4.8%) pericardial. Only 60% of patients with pleural mesothelioma and 50% of those with an obvious exposure to asbestos lived and/or worked in Chekka region. The mean time of asbestos exposure in patients with mesothelioma is 24.5 (1-50) years and the mean latency is 37.4 (4-61) years. Of the 21 patients, 10 (47.6%) underwent surgery during their treatment, 16 (76.2%) received chemotherapy and 3 (14.3%) received best supportive care. Compared to the previous study (1991-2000), substantial changes in the epidemiology of mesothelioma in Lebanon were observed, such as an increase in peritoneal localizations and a lower correlation with Chekka region asbestos contamination.

  6. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulsi, Mona

    2011-08-30

    Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  7. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  8. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk in North Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Kassaa, I; El Omari, Kh.; Esmail, B.; Hamze, M; Saati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis, although a zoonosis, is an invasive disease that can affect newborns, pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Clinical manifestations can be expressedby febrile gastroenteritis, invasive forms including severe sepsis, meningitis, rhombencephalitis, prenatal infections and abortions. Species of Listeria bacteria are ubiquitous and adaptableto the environment in animal and plant foods. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in 100 samples of fresh cow milk collected from different areas of North Lebanon. Listeria monocytogenes was detected by using the Grand VIDAS technique (Biomérieux France). The results obtained revealed the absence of Listeria monocytogenes inall analyzed samples. (Author)

  9. Acute spinal cord injuries in the Lebanon War, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, A; Rozin, R

    1984-04-01

    Our experience with 17 patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) acquired in the Lebanon War, 1982, is described. The SCI were due to gunshot wounds in 12 patients and to other causes in 5. Two laparotomies and one thoracotomy were performed. Corticosteroids were not seen to influence recovery, nor was laminectomy, which was performed in three cases. Complications such as pressure sores, hydronephrosis, ileus and deep vein thrombosis were rare or did not occur. Three high quadriplegics died. Based on our experience, we recommend conservative treatment and rehabilitation in acute SCI.

  10. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  11. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  13. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  14. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  15. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  16. Trends in nutritional intakes and nutrition-related cardiovascular disease risk factors in Lebanon: the need for immediate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah A; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Helou, Khalil; Adra, Nada; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    To examine the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and their association with dietary variables in the Lebanese population while reviewing secular trends in the population's nutritional intakes and nutrition-related CVD risk factors. Data on CVD risk factors and food consumption patterns in Lebanon were collected from scholarly papers, including individual studies and systematic review articles. Electronic databases were searched using combinations of key terms. The prevalence of obesity in Lebanon followed an alarming increasing trend over time, paralleled by an escalation in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Food consumption surveys illustrate an increasing trend in energy intake and the proportion of energy derived from fat and animal products, with a concomitant decrease in carbohydrates and cereals intakes. The shift towards an atherogenic diet coupled with the alarming increase in nutrition-related cardiovascular risk factors suggest that the Lebanese population is at an increased risk for CVDs. This should alert to the importance of formulating multicomponent intervention strategies at both the individual and population levels to halt the progression of nutrition-related diseases in the country, while highlighting the need for immediate public health efforts to promote the adoption of healthy dietary habits.

  17. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  18. Social Relations in Lebanon: Convoys Across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-10-01

    This study systematically analyzed convoys of social relations to investigate the ways in which gender and income shape patterns of social relations across the life course in Lebanon. Data were drawn from a representative sample of adults aged 18 and older in Greater Beirut, Lebanon (N = 500). Multiple linear regression and multilevel models were conducted to examine main and interactive effects of age, gender, and income on social relations. Findings indicate main effects of age, income, and gender on network structure and relationship quality. Older age was associated with larger network size, greater proportion of kin in network, higher positive and lower negative relationship quality. Higher income was associated with larger network size and decreased contact frequency. Female gender was also associated with decreased contact frequency. Gender interacted with income to influence network size and network composition. Higher income was associated with a larger network size and higher proportion of kin for women. Findings suggest diversity in the experience of social relations. Such nuance is particularly relevant to the Lebanese context where family is the main source of support in old age. Policy makers and program planners may need to refrain from viewing social relations simplistically. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Implementing opioid substitution in Lebanon: Inception and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Joseph; Abbas, Zeinab; Nakhle, Pascale E; Matar, Marie-Therese

    2016-05-01

    Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) is a firmly established method of treating and managing dependence to opioids in Europe, the US and rest of the developed world. It has a solid evidence base and a positive safety track record. Dissemination of its practice, in parallel to the acceptance of harm reduction as an effective approach, is still timid in low and middle Income countries. After years of advocacy on the parts of clinicians and the voluntary sector, the government of Lebanon launched a national opioid substitution program in 2011 using buprenorphine as the substance of substitution. Lebanon is one of the first countries in the MENA region to establish such a program despite a difficult socio-political context. This paper provides the background of harm reduction efforts in the region and presents the outline of the program from inception to present date. Challenges and recommendations for the future are also discussed. The Lebanese experience with opioid substitution is encouraging so far and can be used as a template for others in the region who might be contemplating broadening the range of services available to tackle addiction to heroin and related substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  1. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Kobeissi, Loulou; Nassar, Zaher; Lakkis, Da'ad; Fakih, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians). Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history, risk factor interview, and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male patients and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. The rates of consanguineous marriage were relatively high among the study sample. Patients (46%) were more likely than controls (37%) to report first-degree (parental) and second-degree (grandparental) consanguinity. The study demonstrated a clear pattern of family clustering of male factor infertility, with patients significantly more likely than controls to report infertility among close male relatives (odds ratio = 2.58). Men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia showed high rates of both consanguinity (50%) and family clustering (41%). Consanguineous marriage is a socially supported institution throughout the Muslim world, yet its relationship to infertility is poorly understood. This study demonstrated a significant association between consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility cases, suggesting a strong genetic component.

  2. Habitat Characterization of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in North Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noujeim Abi Nader, E.; El Hayek, P.; Darwich, T.; Khater, C.; Nemer, N.; Thaler, O.

    2010-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are soil organisms, adapted to most climatic conditions in hot, temperate, and cold zones, distributed from lowlands to high alpine altitudes (Steiner, 1996). During a previous survey of entomopathogenic nematodes-EPNs in Lebanon (Noujeim Abi Nader et al., in review), 3 out of 19 sites were estimated positive in EPNs. The reasons for the presence of EPNs in some sites in Lebanon rather than others, are still not well established. Even less is known about the correlation between EPNs distribution in land and soil texture, soil pH, insect hosts, and vegetation cover. In the current study, assessment of habitat preference of EPNs is conducted in a positive site previously sampled for EPNs occurrence. The relationship between EPNs, entomofauna, vegetation cover and soil characteristics is determined using a gridded method and baiting with Galleria mellonella tubes introduced in situ into soil. The method used allows precision sampling with minimal soil disturbance. Results showed a correlation between EPNs and some soil characteristics (humidity, organic matter, texture, porosity) and also communities of invertebrates. No significant linkages were demonstrated between the presence of EPNs and the vegetation nor with the soil pH or any specific entomofauna order. (author)

  3. Mental health care in the Lebanon War, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, S; Levy, R; Solomon, Z

    1984-04-01

    Lessons in mental health care learned from the October 1973 War were applied in the Lebanon War 1982. A three-echelon system of management was followed according to the practices prevalent in Western armies. The clinical pictures were essentially similar to those observed in other wars. Combat stress reactions (CSR) comprised 15 to 20% of the total casualties during the active phase of the war; the rate of late reactions was 30 to 40% of the total CSR. Treatment on the battlefield was more effective than treatment following airlift to the rear, in returning soldiers to their units. The role of stress in causing CSR, and the importance of leadership and cohesion in its prevention were evident. The important lessons learned from the Lebanon War are discussed and include: 1) the need for a broad definition of CSR; 2) the importance of forward unit intervention; 3) the necessity of mobility and divisibility of mental health treatment units; 4) fighting units should not be dispersed immediately after combat; and 5) the management of stress reactions to be the responsibility not only of the mental health services, but of all sections of the medical corps, both in treatment and prevention.

  4. Situation analysis of community pharmacy owners in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallit S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the current community pharmacists’ interventions and job satisfaction, secondary to the alteration in the financial rewards. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, using a proportionate random sample of Lebanese community pharmacy owners from all districts of Lebanon. Results: Out of 1618 distributed questionnaires, 1465 (90.5% were collected back from pharmacy owners. Our study results showed that the monthly sales and profit decreased significantly in the last decade as well as the number of loyal customers (p<0.001 for all. The rent, the total assistant pharmacists’ and employees’ salaries, income taxes, municipality fees, the total bills (electricity, water, cleaning, security and the disposal of expired products per year significantly increased during the last 10 years (p<0.001. 95% of the owners said they cannot afford to hire any more pharmacists while 45% said they cannot afford buying software for their pharmacies. Finally, 89% of these owners admitted that their situation was better 10 years ago compared to nowadays. Conclusion: Most Lebanese community pharmacists are not financially satisfied; their financial situation deteriorated in the last decade. The ministry of Health along with the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon should cooperate together to resolve this problem since they are two entities responsible for the patient’s health.

  5. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  6. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  7. Dietetic practices in hemodialysis units in Lebanon and their conformity with KDOQI nutrition guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavetian, M.; Elzein, H.; Nahla, H.; de Vries, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: In Lebanon, HD units are exclusively hospital based, and most hospitals have only one dietitian performing all nutrition related activities in the hospital. This study investigated current dietetic practices and their conformity with Kidney Disease Quality Outcomes Initiative

  8. Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Kamal F; Akl, Elie A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lebanon suffers from a large scale emigration of physicians coupled with an oversaturation of the physician job market. Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation. Discussion The neighboring Arabian Gulf countries are suffering from a serious shortage of clinicians and academicians. In spite of their enormous investments in educa...

  9. Heart health in Lebanon and considerations for addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deek, Hiba; Newton, Phillip; Inglis, Sally; Kabbani, Samer; Noureddine, Samar; Macdonald, Peter S; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon is a small country located at the western boundary of the Middle East. Approximately 40% of health care in Lebanon is financed by the public sector. Cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon are scarcely addressed in the literature raising the need for baseline data on these health condition to be better treated. To (1) aggregate and define the burden of cardiovascular disease in Lebanon and (2) describe implications for policy, practice and research to improve health outcomes in Lebanon. An integrative review was conducted of both peer-reviewed papers and unpublished reports. CINAHL, Medline, Google Scholar and Academic Search Complete were searched along with the websites of The World Health Organization, Ministry of Public Health Lebanon and Central Intelligence Agency of Lebanon. No year limit was applied to our search. The search yielded 28 peer-reviewed articles and 15 reports. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Lebanon and is also the primary cause of hospital admission. A range of social, political, economic and cultural factors explain the burden of cardiovascular diseases, some of these risks are culture specific such as the arghile smoking and the high rates of familial hypercholesterolemia. Workforce shortage produced by high rates of migrating nurses also has an implication on the patients' outcomes. Conclusion: Much of the presented data are sourced from the gray literature; more research, using systematic and prospective data collection methods, are needed to inform health services planning, delivery and evaluation. Primary care needs to be enhanced to produce better outcomes for a population with high profile of cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Drought or humidity oscillations? The case of coastal zone of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Amin; Houhou, Rola

    2015-10-01

    There is discrepancy in classifying Lebanon according to the different climatic zones; however, it is often described as a semi-arid region. Lately, Lebanon has been witnessing climatic oscillations in the meteorological parameters. The impact of these oscillations on water sector has been reflected also on energy-food nexus. Yet, there are a number of studies obtained to identify the climate of Lebanon, and they show contradictory results; especially these studies elaborated different datasets and applied diverse methods which often modeled only on large-scale regions. Therefore, the analysis of climatic data depended on complete and long-term climatic records that can be applied to assess the existing climatic status of Lebanon, as well as to assure whether Lebanon is under drought, humidity or it is oscillating between both. This study utilized considerable datasets, from different sources including the remotely sensed systems (e.g. TRMM). These datasets were interpolated and analyzed statistically according to De Martonne Aridity Index. Aiming to affirm the climatic attribute of Lebanon; however, ten climatic stations were investigated. They are with representative geographic setting and diverse time series in the coastal zone of Lebanon were investigated. Even though, Lebanon is known as a semi-arid region, yet results in this study show that the studied zone does not evidence any drought, since around 70% of the investigated years are characterized by semi-humid to humid climate. This climatic figure is well pronounced since rainfall rate exceeds 900 mm, average temperature rate is about 19 °C, and snow remains for a couple of months annually.

  11. PREVALENCE OF SICKLE CELL TRAIT IN THE SOUTHERN SUBURBS OF BEIRUT, LEBANON

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Badih El Ariss; Mohamad Younes; Jad Matar; Zeina Berjaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, gender differences, and time trends of Sickle Cell Trait in the Southern Suburb of Beirut, Lebanon, as well as to highlight the importance of screening for Sickle Cell Trait carriers in this population. Another objective was to describe a new screening technique for Sickle Cell Trait carriers. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study carried out at a private laboratory in the Southern Suburb of Beirut, Lebanon between 20...

  12. Cost of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon.

    OpenAIRE

    Fayad, Rim; Nuwayhid, Iman; Tamim, Hala; Kassak, Kassem; Khogali, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medical and compensation costs of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon and to examine cost distributions by worker and injury characteristics. METHODS: A total of 3748 claims for work injuries processed in 1998 by five major insurance companies in Lebanon were reviewed. Medical costs (related to emergency room fees, physician consultations, tests, and medications) and wage and indemnity compensation costs were identified from the claims. FINDINGS: ...

  13. Two New Records from Lebanon: Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small (Euphorbiaceae) and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    HABER, Ricardus M.; SEMAAN, Myrna T.

    2007-01-01

    Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small (Euphorbiaceae) and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner (Poaceae) are described as new records for the flora of Lebanon. Specimens of C. nutans collected from roadsides and rocks in a middle mountain forest confirm the occurrence of the species on the western slopes of the Mount Lebanon Range. Additionally, specimens of E. indica were collected from wasteland and roadsides in the coastal town of Kaslik. The species were observed to thrive abundantly in similar habitat...

  14. Bottom-up approach to sustainable urban development in Lebanon: The case of Zouk Mosbeh

    OpenAIRE

    El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Ebohon, O. J.; Taki, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast with the “top-down” approach to development, the dominant methodology in Lebanon, Iemphasize rather the “bottom-up” approach where all stakeholders have equal opportunities to participate in policy formulation and implementation. The bottom-up or participatory approach to sustainable development has hardly been tested for urban development and management in Lebanon. This research concerns the sustainable rehabilitation of the built environment in the area of Zouk Mosbeh (ZM) in ...

  15. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  16. NATIONAL CAPACITY SELF ASSESSMENT FOR NON-ANNEX I NATIONS: THE CASE OF LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid B. Chaaban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries, both developed and developing, are called on to identify, through self assessments, their priority environmental issues such as mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, combating deforestation, promoting sustainable land and water management, and minimizing their vulnerabilities to the impact of climate change. Root cause analysis is conducted to determine the major barriers and institutional capacities. This papers presents capacity constraints in national priority issues typically encountered in developing or non-annex one nations, with the national capacity self assessment of Lebanon taken as a case study. The analysis of the information has identified a number of achievements and difficulties related to the fulfillment of the commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The common priority issues are national action plan for GHG abatement, vulnerability and adaptation, research and systematic observation, technology transfer, and education and public awareness. Root cause analysis related to priority issues has been carried out during which the causes and impacts of the constraints have been identified. The corresponding assessment matrices are also presented. Lack of financial resources is found to be the constraint facing priority issues.

  17. Needs assessment with elder Syrian refugees in Lebanon: Implications for services and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Zeina; Borba, Christina P C; Johnson, Kelsey; Khair, Sama; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2017-09-12

    Currently, over 1 million Syrian and Palestinian refugees have fled Syria to take refuge in Lebanon. Among this vulnerable population, elder refugees warrant particular concern, as they shoulder a host of additional health and safety issues that require additional resources. However, the specific needs of elder refugees are often overlooked, especially during times of crisis. Our study used a semi-structured interview to survey the needs of elder refugees and understand their perceived support from Lebanese fieldworkers. Results indicate a high prevalence of depression and cognitive deficits in elder refugees, who expressed concerns surrounding illness, loneliness, war, and instability. Elders highlighted the importance of family connectedness in fostering security and normalcy and in building resilience during times of conflict. Elders spoke of their role akin that of the social workers with whom they interacted, in that they acted as a source of emotional support for their communities. Overall, this study clarifies steps to be taken to increase well-being in elder refugee populations and urges the response of humanitarian organisations to strengthen psychological support structures within refugee encampments.

  18. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  19. Defining Terrorism at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Puchooa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2011, the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL issued an interlocutory decision regarding the legal definition of terrorism.This decision was in response to a Pre-Trial Chamber (PTC list of questions requesting,' inter alia', an elaboration of the elements of this crime.In exploring this matter, the Appeals Chamber defined the subjective ('mens rea' and objective elements ('actus reus' of terrorism by referring to domestic Lebanese law and international law. It thereby set out the applicable law for the court. The consequence of this decision however is not limited to the law of STL but may be seen as having far-reaching consequences for the conception of terrorism under both international law and International Criminal Law (ICL. Given the significance of the Appeals Chamber judgment, this paper will scrutinise three areas of concern regarding its propriety:

  20. Modeling money demand components in Lebanon using autoregressive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses monetary aggregate in Lebanon and its different component methodology of AR model. Thirteen variables in monthly data have been studied for the period January 1990 through December 2005. Using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) procedure, twelve variables are integrated at order 1, thus they need the filter (1-B)) to become stationary, however the variable X 1 3,t (claims on private sector) becomes stationary with the filter (1-B)(1-B 1 2) . The ex-post forecasts have been calculated for twelve horizons and for one horizon (one-step ahead forecast). The quality of forecasts has been measured using the MAPE criterion for which the forecasts are good because the MAPE values are lower. Finally, a pursuit of this research using the cointegration approach is proposed. (author)

  1. High burden of rheumatic diseases in Lebanon: a COPCORD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Slim, Zeinab N; Habib, Rima R; Arayssi, Thurayya; Dana, Rouwayda; Hamdan, Omar; Assi, Maher; Issa, Zeinab; Uthman, Imad

    2012-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in Lebanon and to explore their distribution by geographic location, age, and gender.   Using the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology, a random sample of 3530 individuals aged 15 and above was interviewed from the six Lebanese governorates. Positive respondents were evaluated by rheumatologists using the internationally accepted classification criterion of the American College of Rheumatology for the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases. Prevalence rates of current and past musculoskeletal problems were 24.4% and 8.4%, respectively. Shoulder (14.3%), knee (14.2%) and back (13.6%) were the most common pain sites. Point prevalence of rheumatic diseases was 15.0%. The most frequent types of rheumatic diseases were of mechanical origin, namely soft tissue rheumatism (5.8%) and osteoarthritis (4.0%). Rheumatoid arthritis (1.0%) and spondylathropathies (0.3%) constituted the most common inflammatory diseases. Coastal areas had the lowest prevalence of all diseases except for fibromyalgia. All diseases showed an increasing prevalence pattern with age and a higher prevalence among women than men. This is the first study to give population-based estimates of rheumatic diseases in Lebanon. The high burden calls for public health attention for early detection, control and prevention of these conditions. Point prevalence of individual diseases was within the range of results from other COPCORD surveys with some variations that can be attributed to differences in methodology and geo-ethnic factors. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Kidney cancer in Lebanon: a specific histological distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaja, Sarah; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Matar, Dany; Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Kidney cancer is the third most frequent urologic cancer in Lebanon after prostate and bladder cancer, accounting for 1.5% of all diagnosed cancers. In this paper, we report the histologic characteristics and distribution of kidney cancer, never described in Lebanon or the Middle East. Pathology results of operated kidney cancer were collected during a two year period (2010-2011) from two different Lebanese hospitals (Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital and Saint Joseph Hospital). A total of 124 reports were reviewed and analyzed according to WHO classification of 2009. The 124 patients diagnosed with kidney cancer had a median age of 62.4 [18-86], 75% being men and 25% women. Some 71 % of the lesions were renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25.8% had a urothelial histology, 1.6% were lymphomas and 1.6% were metastases to the kidney. Patients having RCC had a median age of 60.3 [18-85], 77.3% were men and 22.7% women. Of the RCCs, 59.1% were clear cell carcinoma, 22.7% papillary, 11.4% chromophobic, 3.4% rom the collecting ducts of Bellini and 3.4% were not otherwise classified. Histological distribution of Lebanese kidney cancer seems unusual when compared to the literature. The percentage of urothelial renal pelvis tumors is strikingly high. Moreover, clear cell carcinoma accounts for only 59.1% of RCCS in contrast to the 75% described elsewhere, while papillary carcinoma represents more than 22.7% compared to 10%.

  3. Optimising Nitrogen utilization by fertigated protected cucumber in coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, Therese; Darwich, Talal; Awad, Souhail; El-Moujabber, Maroun

    1999-01-01

    Full text.In Lebanon, protected cultures are in expansion with indications of new greenhouses installed every year, particularly at altitudes between 400 and 500 m. In these intensive systems, few studies looked at the crop requirements, the management practices and their consequences on the soil and water. This study was carried out under field conditions in Jbeil (lebanon) at 100 m of altitude for a spring cucumber. For the follow-up of the nitrogen use efficiency, labelled nitrogen fertilizer (with the heavy isotope 15 N) was used. Treatments consisted of combining two irrigation frequencies: every 2 or 3 days with two modalities of fertigation: continuous and discontinuous, with every other irrigation. Otherwise, the levels of water and nutrients were equal among all treatments. Results focused on the plant performance under these modalities and also on the nitrogen balance in the plant-soil system. The plants fertigated continuously, every two days, presented higher fresh fruit yield and above-ground dry ,matter production. In addition, the number of non-commercial fruits were significantly smaller than in the other treatments. This suggests less stressful conditions under the continuous input of nutrients and the stable EC of the fertigation solution. Concerning the nitrogen balance, it was calculated by the difference between input removal for each treatment. These values were compared with the nitrate-nitrogen build-up in the soil. Very close correspondence was found, which indicates minimal nitrogen losses for all treatments which could be related to the amount accumulated in the soil as nitrates. Overall, under the experimental conditions the continuous fertigation at a 2-day frequency was the most adequate in promoting plant production and minimizing losses from the soil-plant system

  4. The development of a gas transmission system in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudian, Serko; Rickaert, Stefan [Tractebel Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Tractebel Engineering is undertaking for the Lebanese Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) advisory services for the launching and for the awarding of a DBOT (Design, Build, Operate and Transfer) contract for the development of a gas transmission system through Lebanon. The service embraces a global approach, integrating legal, market, technical and financial matters, to provide MEW with a clear strategy to its gas development program, aimed at attracting private investors willing to tender on this DBOT project.The Legal Framework Report examines the existing Lebanese legal system and analyzes its suitability to the regulatory framework required to operate gas networks; it also provides recommendations aimed at attracting potential DBOT developers, by facilitating bureaucratic procedures with possible enactment of new laws. The Gas Demand Due Diligence Report provides the market study for present and future demand of gas in Lebanon in the next 25 years (duration of the DBOT contract), with anticipated needs resulting from power generation, industrial sector, commercial and residential sectors. The Pipeline Alternative Solutions Report provides several alternative routing and configurations for the gas transmission pipeline, including surveys, in-land routing (through rough mountain and heavily populated areas), or off-shore routing (through rough marine canyons and sea water depth in excess of 1,500 meters). Basic technical economical study is elaborated for more than 30 options.The Pipeline Financial Optimization Report compares the economics and provides for each solution the expected postal tariff (the compensation that MEW would need to pay to the developer for the execution of the 25 year DBOT contract). The advisory services are completed with preparation of the Pre-Qualification Notice (aimed at selecting a short list of qualified Bidders), preparation of the Request For Proposal (bidding on the selected pipeline option), evaluation of proposal, selection of

  5. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  6. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  7. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  8. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  9. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  10. Burden and treatment patterns of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized patients in the Middle East: real-world data from Saudi Arabia and Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alothman AF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adel F Alothman,1 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,2 Madonna J Matar,3 Rima Moghnieh,4 Thamer H Alenazi,1 Fayssal M Farahat,2 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Claudie Charbonneau,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1College of Medicine, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, King AbdulAziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, Lebanon; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Real-world Evidence/Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 8Pfizer International Operation, Paris, France Objectives: The objective of this study was to document the burden and treatment patterns associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs due to Candida and Aspergillus species in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study was conducted using data recorded from 2011 to 2012 from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of IFI due to Candida or Aspergillus, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive results were reported. Results: Five hospitals participated and provided data on 102 patients with IFI (51 from Lebanon and 51 from Saudi Arabia. The mean age of the patients was 55 years, and 55% were males. Comorbidities included diabetes (41%, coronary artery disease (24%, leukemia (19%, moderate

  11. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon I: spatial variation and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2006-06-01

    Surface water bodies are progressively subject to increasing stress as a result of environmentally degrading processes primarily related to anthropogenic activities. This study assesses and examines the impact of land use and land-based activities on the spatial variation in water quality of the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon. It is the first detailed study of its kind in Lebanon and adds to the existing knowledge by shedding light on a relatively small Mediterranean river in a developing country where there is a paucity of such studies. The assessment was conducted at the end of the dry season in 2002 and 2003 and the end of the wet season in 2003 and 2004. The study has demonstrated the importance of anthropogenic influences on the water quality of the Abou Ali River Basin, as concentrations of most contaminants were higher at locations with greatest human activity. The most adversely affected area was the section of the river that flows through an entirely urbanized and highly populated region, the Tripoli conurbation. Upstream rural sites were enriched by contaminants primarily from non-point sources such as agricultural runoff and poultry litter whereas contaminant concentrations at the urban sites were enriched by a combination of sewage discharge and flow of contaminants from upstream. If the Abou Ali River is to be utilized as a managed water resource and its water quality sustained, point source discharges will require treatment and land use management must be planned to minimize the impact of diffuse source pollution on the river. A high priority should be given to the implementation and enforcement of the precautionary and polluter pays principles. Moreover, an effective legal, economic and institutional framework is required to encourage investment in waste reduction and control and to introduce environmentally sound practices.

  12. Prevalence, correlates and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon: findings from a national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanian, Christy; Bennett, Kathleen; Hwalla, Nahla; Assaad, Shafika; Sibai, Abla M

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to examine the prevalence, associated risk factors and complications of diabetes, as well management and preventive care in Lebanon, a small, middle-income country of the Mediterranean region. Using a comprehensive multi-dimensional questionnaire, a cross-sectional national survey of 2195 Lebanese adults aged ≥25 years was conducted based on the WHO STEPwise guidelines. The outcome variable, diabetes, was self-reported. Measures for diabetes management included frequency of blood glucose testing and regular eye and foot exams. Macrovascular and microvascular complications were also recorded. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 8.5% (95%CI=7.3-9.7). Factors associated with an increased risk of having diabetes were: being divorced or widowed (OR=2.56; 95%CI=1.07-5.42) compared to single, being obese (OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.00-2.57), and having a family history of diabetes (OR=3.40;95%CI=2.48-5.19). Vigorous physical activity significantly decreased the odds of diabetes (OR=0.42; 95%CI=0.24-0.72). Diabetes management and self-care goals were as follows: 82% were not measuring their blood sugar via dextro on a daily basis, 64.2% did not have a foot exam within the past year, and 52.4% did not obtain the recommended yearly eye exam. The most common complications included heart disease (27.8%) and retinopathy (16.6%). Prevalence of diabetes in Lebanon was comparable to that found in the West, yet remained lower than estimates in other resource-rich neighboring countries. Adherence to management and self-care measures was sub-optimal resulting in high complication rates. Contextual factors play a role in increasing diabetes risk. Population-based interventions to enhance and promote self-management behaviors are essential to improve complication rates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  14. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  15. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  16. 75 FR 34049 - FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-786; MB Docket No. 05-10; RM-11279] FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake, Oregon... 279C, Lebanon, Oregon, Bicoastal Media Licenses IV, LLC (``Bicoastal''), licensee of Station KACI-FM...

  17. Early Admission Call-Up: A Strategy and Marketing Perk for Attracting Better Students to a College in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimy, Viviane; Nasser, Ramzi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an early call-up strategy helps in attracting better students to a private university in Lebanon. Early admission call-up was administered to the top 25 percentile-ranked students of main feeder schools at a private university in Lebanon. Admission data was accrued for students who applied for…

  18. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  19. Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osta Mike A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. Methods C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. Results We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher’s exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of Saprinus Erichson, 1834 of forensic relevance from Lebanon (Coleoptera, Histeridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayya, Salman; Dégallier, Nicolas; Nel, André; Azar, Dany; Lackner, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many histerid beetles are necrophilous on carrion during both active and advanced stages of decomposition. In this study, 13 species of Saprinus were recorded on carrion from Lebanon, containing eight that are new for the Lebanese fauna. The following Saprinus species are newly recorded from Lebanon: 1) Saprinus (S.) caerulescens caerulescens (Hoffmann, 1803); 2) S. (S.) calatravensis Fuente, 1899; 3) S. (S.) chalcites (Illiger, 1807); 4) S. (S.) godet (Brullé, 1832); 5) S. (S.) maculatus (P. Rossi, 1792); 6) S. (S.) strigil Marseul, 1855; 7) S. (S.) submarginatus J. Sahlberg, 1913; and 8) S. (S.) tenuistrius sparsutus Solsky, 1876. The peak activity was recorded, key for the species is provided, and habitus images and male genitalia are illustrated in order to facilitate their taxonomic identifications. Saprinus species are diverse and common on animal carcass; they were likewise collected from a human cadaver in Lebanon. Preliminary comments on biology and distribution of the studied species are given. Our paper represents the first faunistic study on Histeridae from Lebanon. A rigorous research program regarding the biology of Saprinus in Lebanon and the neighbouring countries would greatly improve the knowledge of the diversity, activity, and possible forensic value of Saprinus. PMID:29670426

  1. Bouguer gravity and crustal structure of the Dead Sea transform fault and adjacent mountain belts in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal; Khawlie, Mohamad; Haddad, Fuad; Barazangi, Muawia; Seber, Dogan; Chaimov, Thomas

    1993-08-01

    The northern extension of the Dead Sea transform fault in southern Lebanon bifurcates into several faults that cross Lebanon from south to north. The main strand, the Yammouneh fault, marks the boundary between the Levantine (eastern Mediterranean) and Arabian plates and separates the western mountain range (Mount Lebanon) from the eastern mountain range (Anti-Lebanon). Bouguer gravity contours in Lebanon approximately follow topographic contours; i.e., positive Bouguer anomalies are associated with the Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges. This suggests that the region is not in simple isostatic compensation. Gravity observations based on 2.5-dimensional modeling and other available geological and geophysical information have produced the following interpretations. (1) The crust of Lebanon thins from ˜35 km beneath the Anti-Lebanon range, near the Syrian border, to ˜27 km beneath the Lebanese coast. No crustal roots exist beneath the Lebanese ranges. (2) The depth to basement is ˜3.5-6 km below sea level under the ranges and is ˜8-10 km beneath the Bekaa depression. (3) The Yammouneh fault bifurcates northward into two branches; one passes beneath the Yammouneh Lake through the eastern part of Mount Lebanon and another bisects the northern part of the Bekaa Valley (i.e., Mid-Bekaa fault). The Lebanese mountain ranges and the Bekaa depression were formed as a result of transtension and later transpression associated with the relative motion of a few crustal blocks in response to the northward movement of the Arabian plate relative to the Levantine plate.

  2. Farmers' Willingness to Adopt Conservation Agriculture: New Evidence from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Irani, Alexandra; Chaaban, Jad; Bashour, Issam; Seyfert, Karin; Smoot, Kaitlyn; Abebe, Gumataw Kifle

    2017-10-01

    With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics-years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption. We found that farming experience, information sources, frequency of irrigation, and severity of weed infestation in the past, participation in specific trainings, and farmers' perception about the long-term impact of conservation agriculture, were key determinants of conservation agriculture adoption. Our paper encourages policymakers to invest in conservation agriculture to overcome food insecurity and environmental changes affecting food systems in the Middle East. The paper also informs agribusiness firms to view conservation agriculture as a viable alternative to strengthen their business relationship with farmers in arid and semi-arid regions.

  3. Health after childbirth: patterns of reported postpartum morbidity from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Shayboub, Rawan; Ataya, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    The postpartum period is under-researched in low and middle income countries. The scarce literature reveals heavy burden of ill health experienced in that period and under utilisation of health services. Understanding the postpartum morbidity burden and identifying the care-seeking behaviours is essential to improve service delivery. This paper examines reported postpartum morbidity, care seeking behaviour and whether postpartum morbidity is associated with method of birth. A cross sectional study of women delivering in 18 private hospitals from two regions in Lebanon was undertaken. Women in their second or third trimester of pregnancy, visiting private obstetric clinics affiliated with participating hospitals were interviewed for baseline information. Reported postpartum morbidity was assessed in an interview conducted at women's homes from 40 days up to six months postpartum. Of the 269 women recruited, physical postpartum health problems were reported by 93.6% and psychological health problems by 84.4% of women, with more health problems being reported beyond two months postpartum. Women were less likely to seek professional care for psychological health problems. Reporting postpartum health problems was not associated with method of birth. A heavy burden of postpartum morbidity is experienced by women with gaps in utilisation of relevant health services. Efforts should be directed towards the organisation and delivery of comprehensive maternity care services. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feminine hygiene practices among female patients and nurses in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad

    2016-05-23

    Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. The study included 249 women. 21.3 % of the 136 nurses and 38.9 % of the 113 patients reported a history of vulvovaginitis. The majority of women took an intimate bath at least twice daily. 14 % of nurses and 17 % of patients douched.20. Seven percent of the nurses and 43.4 % of the patients used wet wipes. 1.5 % of nurses and 4.4 % of patients used feminine deodorant sprays. There was a significant lack of awareness mainly among patients about suitable hygiene practices as well for their adverse effects. Education provided by nurses, and other healthcare providers is essential to promote reproductive health among Lebanese women.

  5. Econometric modeling of electricity consumption in post-war Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, G.E.; Badr, E.A.; Dibeh, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies econometric models to investigate determinants of electrical energy consumption in post-war Lebanon. The impact of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), proxied by total imports (TI), and degree days (DD) on electricity consumption is investigated over different time spans covering the period from 1993 to 1997. The time spans are chosen according to the rationing level of electricity supply. For the 1993-1994 time span, TI is found to be a significant determinant of energy consumption, whereas, DD has a negative correlation. This inconsistency might be attributed to an extensive rationing policy followed during this period. For the 1995-1997 time span which includes reduced rationing period (1995), all electrical energy consumption determinants are found to be significant at the 5% significance level. Analysis results for the rationing free 1996-1997 time span also show the significance of TI and DD at the 5% level. Furthermore, cointegration analysis for the 1995-1997 and 1996-1997 subsets reveals the existence of a long-run relationship between all variables. In addition, error correction models for both subsets are developed to predict short-run dynamics. Finally, statistical performance measures such as mean square error, mean average deviation and mean average percentage error are presented for all models

  6. Radon measurements in well and spring water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Samer M.; Habib, Rima R.; Nuwayhid, Rida Y.; Chatila, Malek; Katul, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The variation of dissolved radon ( 222 Rn) levels in water supplies remains of interest because of the radiation-induced public health hazards. A large part of the Lebanese population relies on springs and wells for their drinking water. 222 Rn measurements in spring and well water sources were conducted using the E-PERM method at sites ranging from sea level to 1200m above sea level and across several geologic formations within Lebanon. The dissolved radon concentrations ranged from a low of 0.91BqL -1 in a coastal well source to a high of 49.6BqL -1 for a spring source in a mountainous region. Of the 20 sites sampled, only five had radon levels above 11BqL -1 and these mostly occurred in areas adjacent to well-known geological fault zones. A preliminary national average radon level was determined to be about 11.4BqL -1 . In general, as all determined concentrations were well below the 100 and 146BqL -1 revised reference levels proposed in the European Union and the United States, respectively, it is concluded that there is no reason to believe these water sources pose any radon-related hazard. On the other hand, at locations where water is collected directly from the springhead, it is advisable to have a settling/piping system installed allowing for further radon decay and radon loss into the air to alleviate any possible radon problem

  7. Farmers' Willingness to Adopt Conservation Agriculture: New Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Irani, Alexandra; Chaaban, Jad; Bashour, Issam; Seyfert, Karin; Smoot, Kaitlyn; Abebe, Gumataw Kifle

    2017-10-01

    With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics—years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption. We found that farming experience, information sources, frequency of irrigation, and severity of weed infestation in the past, participation in specific trainings, and farmers' perception about the long-term impact of conservation agriculture, were key determinants of conservation agriculture adoption. Our paper encourages policymakers to invest in conservation agriculture to overcome food insecurity and environmental changes affecting food systems in the Middle East. The paper also informs agribusiness firms to view conservation agriculture as a viable alternative to strengthen their business relationship with farmers in arid and semi-arid regions.

  8. Phase-out of leaded gasoline: a prescription for Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisho, Z.; El-Fadel, M.; Ayoub, G.; Baaj, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Lead is a toxic heavy metal. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 800 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitutes more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas. Concentrations of lead in air and blood are strongly correlated with gasoline lead content and traffic volume. As a result of the increasing awareness about the dangers of lead to human health and the measures to manage urban air pollution, the use of leaded gasoline has been decreasing worldwide. In Lebanon, in the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline is the predominant grade. The objective of this research work is to analyze the current status of gasoline, and to assess the feasibility and prospect of such action. For this purpose, background information are presented, data about gasoline usage and specifications have been collected, field measurements have been performed and a public survey has been conducted. The comparison of the expected cost savings from phasing out leaded gasoline with the potential costs indicates that such action is economically highly justified. If effective regulatory measures are undertaken, leaded gasoline can be phased-out immediately without a significant cost

  9. The Second Lebanon War Experience at Western Galilee Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Bartholomew; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Giloni, Carlos; Bharoum, Masad; Daniel, Moshe; Dallas, Cham

    2016-02-01

    The summer of 2006 in northern Israel served as the battleground for the second war against Hezbollah based along Israel's border with southern Lebanon. Western Galilee Hospital (WGH), which is located only 6 miles from the Lebanese border, served as a major medical center in the vicinity of the fighting. The hospital was directly impacted by Hezbollah with a Katyusha rocket, which struck the ophthalmology department on the 4th floor. WGH was able to utilize a 450-bed underground facility that maintained full hospital functionality throughout the conflict. In a major feat of rapid evacuation, the entire hospital population was relocated under the cover of darkness to these bunkers in just over 1 hour, thus emptying the building prior to the missile impact. Over half of the patients presenting during the conflict did not incur physical injury but qualified as acute stress disorder patients. The particulars of this evacuation remain unique owing to the extraordinary circumstances, but many of the principles employed in this maneuver may serve as a template for other hospitals requiring emergency evacuation. Hospital functionality drastically changed to accommodate the operational reality of war, and many of these tactics warrant closer investigation for possible implementation in other conflict zones.

  10. Nitrogen Requirements and Balance of Protected Cucumber in Coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Protected cultures are widespread along the Lebanese narrow coastline, encouraged by mild winter conditions. Although one of the most intensive production systems, water and nutrients managements are mostly empirical, based on the experience of the grower himself or of his workers. So far, water has been available in Lebanon, but it will become scarce within ten years. The conservation of water quality by a rational addition of nutrients is particularly relevant to protected cultures. This is important as greenhouses are developed on imported shallow soils that could be fragile and highly vulnerable to pollution. Sound management includes the amount and the forms of fertilizers as well as the modality of fertigation. An experiment was conducted during two spring seasons in a location along the northern coast in a typical unheated greenhouse. The cucumber response to two frequencies and modalities of fertigation was followed: continuous T2C and T3C and discontinuous T2D and T3D every two and three days respectively. Nitrogen recovery by the crop was possible through the use of 15 N-labeled fertilizers. An evaluation of the nitrogen fertilizer fate in the plant-soil system was undertaken in 1999, despite large proportions of Ndff(%) plant N fertilizer recovery was smaller than in the previous season and did not exceed 55% of N inputs

  11. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John

    2016-11-01

    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  13. A 27-year experience with infective endocarditis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chakhtoura, Nadim; Yasmin, Mohamad; Kanj, Souha S; Baban, Tania; Sfeir, Jad; Kanafani, Zeina A

    Although rare, infective endocarditis (IE) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Previous data from the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) had shown predominance of streptococcal infection. As worldwide studies in developed countries show increasing trends in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis, it becomes vital to continually inspect local data for epidemiological variations. We reviewed all IE cases between 2001 and 2014, and we performed a comparison to a historical cohort of 86 IE cases from 1987 to 2001. A total of 80 patients were diagnosed with IE between 2001 and 2014. The mean age was 61 years. The most commonly isolated organisms were streptococci (37%), compared to 51% in the previous cohort. S. aureus accounted for 11%. Only one S. aureus isolate was methicillin-resistant. In the historical cohort, 26% of cases were caused by S. aureus. Enterococci ranked behind staphylococci with 22% of total cases, while in the previous cohort, enterococcal IE was only 4%. Compared to previous data from AUBMC, the rates of streptococcal and staphylococcal endocarditis have decreased while enterococcal endocarditis has increased. This study reconfirms that in Lebanon, a developing country, we continue to have a low predominance of staphylococci as etiologic agents in IE. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The tobacco industry's thwarting of marketing restrictions and health warnings in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2009-08-01

    This article outlines how the tobacco industry has undermined tobacco control efforts in Lebanon since the early 1970s. An analysis of online and on-site tobacco industry documents, reviews of newspapers, policy and other documents, and interviews with key policy makers were conducted. Findings reveal how the weakness of tobacco control legislation in Lebanon has been the product of an effective tobacco industry strategy to weaken the content and scope of regulation, and delay adoption and implementation. The tobacco industry has built and maintained strong alliances that were and are regularly mobilised to effectively oppose regulation. Despite ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005, Lebanon's tobacco control track remains weak. Public health professionals and the government should work hard to oppose such tobacco industry tactics.

  15. Distribution and predictors of emergency department charges: the case of a tertiary hospital in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi; Mourad, Yara; Dimassi, Hani; Hitti, Eveline

    2016-03-18

    As health care costs continue to increase worldwide, health care systems, and more specifically hospitals are facing continuous pressure to operate more efficiently. One service within the hospital sector whose cost structure has been modestly investigated is the Emergency Department (ED). The study aims to report on the distribution of ED resource use, as expressed in charges, and to determine predictors of/contributors to total ED charges at a major tertiary hospital in Lebanon. The study used data extracted from the ED discharge database for visits between July 31, 2012 and July 31, 2014. Patient visit bills were reported under six major categories: solutions, pharmacy, laboratory, physicians, facility, and radiology. Characteristics of ED visits were summarized according to patient gender, age, acuity score, and disposition. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with total charges as the dependent variable. Findings revealed that the professional fee (40.9 %) followed by facility fee (26.1 %) accounted for the majority of the ED charges. While greater than 80 % of visit charges went to physician and facility fee for low acuity cases, these contributed to only 52 and 54 % of the high acuity presentations where ancillary services and solutions' contribution to the total charges increased. The total charges for males were $14 higher than females; age was a predictor of higher charges with total charges of patients greater than 60 years of age being around $113 higher than ages 0-18 after controlling for all other variables. Understanding the components and determinants of ED charges is essential to developing cost-containment interventions. Institutional modeling of charging patterns can be used to offer price estimates to ED patients who request this information and ultimately help create market competition to drive down costs.

  16. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  17. Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Fadi H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon. The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes. The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show δ18OV-PDB values of about -5.0‰ and δ13C V-PDB values of -11.8‰, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in δ18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2‰, and δ13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1‰. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals ‘invading’ the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes, and the slight depletion in δ18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated δ18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2‰ matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

  18. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Lemaire, B.; Vinc on Leite, B.; Tassin, B.; Amacha, N.; Slim, K.; Atoui, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  19. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  20. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  1. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  2. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  3. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  4. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  5. The Case of Educational Gerontology in Lebanon: A Harbinger of Empowerment, Emancipation and Social Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Hany; Nikkola, Eeva; Zaidan, Amani

    2017-01-01

    Context: In Lebanon, older adults face socioeconomic challenges that are expected to worsen due to an increase in older adult population, chronic governmental neglect, institutionalised ageism and a lack of educational and social gerontologists. Consequently, local older adults are in dire need for social change, which can be initiated through…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Notre Dame University-Louaize in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how students perceive quality of education and identifying the most important quality factors from their perspectives represent a first stage for quality improvement and customer satisfaction in higher education. The purpose of this project was to investigate how higher education students in Lebanon perceived the concept of quality…

  7. The status of pediatric cardiology at a tertiary center in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mariam; Majdalani, Marianne; El Hajj, Maria Atoui; Nemer, Georges; Sawaya, Fadi; Obeid, Mounir; Bitar, Fadi F

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac disease, both congenital and acquired, contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in children. This article describes the status of pediatric cardiology at the Children's Heart Center in the American University of Beirut Medical Center. It addresses the available clinical services as well as the research and educational activities that are present at a tertiary center in Lebanon, a developing country with a population of 4 million. Lebanon has witnessed major developments in the field of pediatric cardiology over the past few years. About 650 babies are born with heart disease every year, with more than 425 needing treatment. Nearly all types of interventional catheterization procedures are currently being performed. About 300 open and closed pediatric cardiac surgeries are performed per year in Lebanon. In 2008, the in-hospital surgical mortality rate at our center was 2.6%, reflecting the good level of care in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Lebanon. Basic research in the field of pediatric cardiology is emerging at our center. Our team has been studying the effect of chronic hypoxemia on the neonatal myocardium in an animal model of chronic hypoxia, as well as the study of molecular basis of CHD. Appropriate identification of cardiac disease, its epidemiology, and outcome is of utmost importance in guiding adequate care. Centralization of facilities is important to improve results and level of care.

  8. Whose History and Who Is Denied? Politics and the History Curriculum in Lebanon and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maadad, Nina; Rodwell, Grant

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain and develop a better understanding of the relationship between the History curriculum and the consequences of political motive. It compares the History curricula of Australia and Lebanon, and is relevant to understanding the purpose of the History curricula in the two countries as well as, more generally, other…

  9. Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Nader, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades Lebanon's energy sector has been largely ignored and this has led to high economic and environmental costs. The sector is characterized by electricity poverty, an expanding and mainly unregulated transport sector and a lack of energy savings spanning through all sectors of the economy. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has committed to increase the share of renewable energy to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013. This paper aims at contributing to the formulation of a more comprehensive energy strategy for Lebanon by analyzing the recent changes in policy direction and by recommending legal, regulatory and policy measures in order to transform current shortcomings into opportunities allowing the country to become a regional 'success story' in the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → This paper reviews the current situation of Lebanon's energy sector. → We analyze the recent development of the markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency. → Policy recommendations that will allow for a sustainable energy future are made.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and awareness regarding fertility preservation among oncologists and clinical practitioners in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazeeri, Ghina; Zebian, Dina; Nassar, Anwar H; Harajly, Sally; Abdallah, Alain; Hakimian, Stephanie; Skaiff, Bassem; Abbas, Hussein A; Awwad, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    Fertility preservation (FP) aims to help individuals overcome the infertility associated with cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness, attitudes and knowledge of oncologists' and clinical practitioners' (CPs) about fertility preservation and its options in Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional study with surveys carried out between March 2012 and February 2013 on CPs at the American University of Beirut Medical Centre and Saint Jude's Children Cancer Centre as well as all registered oncologists in Lebanon. Ninety percent of CPs (n = 88) and 94% of oncologists (n = 53) agreed that fertility preservation should be discussed with patient before their cancer treatment. Our data showed a gender bias in relation to patients being informed of their FP options, as well as conflicting knowledge of FP options available in Lebanon among oncologists. The CPs were more likely to have accurate knowledge of FP options and treatment than oncologists. A proactive approach is required to: (1) increase the awareness and knowledge of FP; (2) improve attitudes towards FP; and (3) encourage its communication between CPs, oncologists and patients in Lebanon. Increased education programs, awareness campaigns and development of dedicated FP centres are needed.

  11. Developing Effective Earthquake Risk Reduction Strategies: The Potential Role of Academic Institutions in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon faces the risk of powerful earthquakes with potentially devastating effects. However, the Lebanese people in general have not yet recognized this risk, as current educational programs and government officials have failed to inform them about it. This article discusses the essential role that Lebanese institutions of higher education should…

  12. Lebanon's 2011 ICT Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan: Curriculum Success or Abeyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ghada; Diab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Lebanon's Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan (LERSAP) set in 2011 as a form of the educational reform the curriculum underwent through focusing on promoting and employing the information communication technology (ICT) tools. The LERSAP was launched to equip teachers…

  13. Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…

  14. Energy for Lebanon of tomorrow: paradigm of sustainable development and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, S.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the present status of energy sector in Lebanon and requirements of its future development is presented. The study is based on an economic analysis of needs and energy consumption among the population and on a comparison with other developing countries. Tables and graphs on energy distribution, needs and demands per habitant and national income are included. 3 figs. 3 tabs

  15. Education for Social Cohesion Attempts in Lebanon: Reflections on the 1994 and 2010 Education Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuayb, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Following the end of the Lebanese civil war, education was put forward as a major means for rebuilding Lebanon and promoting social cohesion and unity. A huge education development plan was launched in 1994 culminating in a new national curriculum in 1997 and the production of new textbooks. Although the quality of education improved in public…

  16. HIV Risk, Prevalence, and Access to Care Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Robert; Barbour, Russell; Khouri, Danielle; Crawford, Forrest W; Shebl, Fatma; Aaraj, Elie; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about HIV prevalence and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) in much of the Middle East, including Lebanon. Recent national-level surveillance has suggested an increase in HIV prevalence concentrated among men in Lebanon. We undertook a biobehavioral study to provide direct evidence for the spread of HIV. MSM were recruited by respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and offered HIV testing anonymously at sites located in Beirut, Lebanon, from October 2014 through February 2015. The interview questionnaire was designed to obtain information on participants' sociodemographic situation, sexual behaviors, alcohol and drug use, health, HIV testing and care, and experiences of stigma and discrimination. Individuals not reporting an HIV diagnosis were offered optional, anonymous HIV testing. Among the 292 MSM recruited, we identified 36 cases of HIV (12.3%). A quarter of the MSM were born in Syria and recently arrived in Lebanon. Condom use was uncommon; 65% reported condomless sex with other men. Group sex encounters were reported by 22% of participants. Among the 32 individuals already aware of their infection, 30 were in treatment and receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV prevalence was substantially increased over past estimates. Efforts to control future increases will have to focus on reducing specific risk behaviors and experience of stigma and abuse, especially among Syrian refugees.

  17. Digital Literacies and Generational Micro-Cultures: Email Feedback in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coursey, Christina; Dandashly, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the introduction of email feedback, in a private university in Lebanon with marked generational differences and a traditional instructor culture focused on grammar correction. The instructor profile showed insufficient ELT training and a disjuncture between those with low and those with long service. Instructors were trained,…

  18. Nationalist Narratives, Boundaries and Social Inclusion/Exclusion in Palestinian Camps in South Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how in the contexts of exile and statelessness and in the absence of Palestinian institutions, such as schools, Palestinian youth in south Lebanon construct their identities through nationalist narratives of shared history, kinship, culture and religion. Although these narratives help to construct shared notions of…

  19. Assessing Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Mitri; Mireille G. Jazi; David McWethy

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence and extent of large-scale wildfires in the Mediterranean have been linked to extended periods of warm and dry weather. We set out to assess Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions. The Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) was the primary climate variable used in our evaluation of climate/fire...

  20. Technologies for adaptation to climate change. Examples from the agricultural and water sectors in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Stephan, Jean

    2015-01-01

    for integrating adaptation technologies into the planning and implementation of on-going and future projects. Based on local-level data from a technology needs assessment project in Lebanon, this paper presents two examples of the economic feasibility of implementing adaptation technologies in the agricultural...

  1. Self-Reported Factors That Influence Choice of College-Bound Students in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Nassif, Samir M.

    2011-01-01

    The number of students entering universities in Lebanon has steadily increased in the past ten years. This trend makes it imperative that the different stakeholders, like students, parents, schools, universities, and education officials, understand what influences the decision of a student to choose a specific college. Understanding these factors…

  2. On Progress of Mass Tertiary Education: Case of Lebanon, Kenya and Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Mutinda, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Mass higher education is a huge force to be reckoned with and its existence, already in the expansion of tertiary institutions is undeniable. This study will focus on three countries: Lebanon, Kenya and Oman. The purpose of this study is to evaluate mass tertiary education progress in these countries. It will synthesize data results of gross…

  3. Dementia and depression among nursing home residents in Lebanon : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, L. M.; Bijlsma, A.; Hospers, A. P. N.; Chemali, Z.

    Background The proportion of elderly in the Lebanese population is 7.1% and this is expected to increase to 10.2% by the year 2025. The nursing home (NH) population in Lebanon has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dementia and depression among a portion of

  4. “Best Practices” of Global Memory and the Politics of Atonement in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Lebanon, Haugbolle argues, the state has left the task of addressing difficult questions about mass violence in the recent past to cultural producers. While the impulse for truth telling and memory work evolved out of domestic debates, the logic and institutional design of the resulting cultural...

  5. Perceived Online Education Barriers of Administrators and Faculty at a U.S. University in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Turk, Sahar; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the perceived barriers obstructing the implementation of online education by administrators and faculty at the School of Arts and Sciences of a U.S. university located in Lebanon. The aim of this study was to offer a solution to the most important perceived barriers to online education that…

  6. Chemotype common planets in Lebanon gender and gender Micromeria Origanum (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilan, Ch.; Rabiha, S.; Aitour, S.

    2011-01-01

    The chemotype or (chimiotype) is the original denomination, meant to characterizean essential oil from the botanic and biochemical view point. It is so important that it is today acknowledged and used in the whole biological and botanic classification, earmarking the wildly present molecule in an essential oil. This classification is linked to factors directly related to the specific life conditions of the plant namely: the country, climate, soil and the harvest period which can influence the essential oil composition. One speaks about a chemotype essential oil (Zhiri and Baudoux, 2005). This study shows the classification of four Origanums: Origanum syriacum L.,Origanum majorana L., Origanum ehrenbergii Boiss. and Origanum libanoticum Boiss., the last 2 being endemic to Lebanon; and four Micromeria: Micromeria barbata Boiss., wild and endemic, Micromeria barbata, domesticated, Micromeria libanotica Boiss., also endemic to Lebanon and Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss Origanum of Lebanon is 'thyme of thymo' and Micromeria grown in Lebanon contain less pulegone rate than in other countries These endangered species could find a field of valorization in the food industry sector, which will definitely help in preserving them and will lead to a potential new income to the Lebanese industry . (author)

  7. Maternal Health Care Utilization Among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Burton, Ann; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-09-01

    Purpose The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan and Lebanon over the last 5 years presents an immense burden to national health systems. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of maternal health services among Syrian refugees in both countries. Description A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees living in urban and rural (non-camp) settings was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling in 2014-2015. Eighty-six percent of surveyed households in Lebanon and 88% of surveyed households in Jordan included women with a live birth in the last year. Information from women in this sub-set of households was analyzed to understand antenatal and intrapartum health service utilization. Assessment A majority of respondents reported seeking antenatal care, 82% and 89% in Jordan and Lebanon, respectively. Women had an average of at least six antenatal care visits. Nearly all births (98% in Jordan and 94% in Lebanon) took place in a health facility. Cesarean rates were similar in both countries; approximately one-third of all births were cesarean deliveries. A substantial proportion of women incurred costs for intrapartum care; 33% of Syrian women in Jordan and 94% of Syrian women in Lebanon reported paying out of pocket for their deliveries. The proportion of women incurring costs for intrapartum care was higher in Jordan both countries for women with cesarean deliveries compared to those with vaginal deliveries; however, this difference was not statistically significant in either country (Jordan p-value = 0.203; Lebanon p-value = 0.099). Conclusion Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon had similar levels of utilization of maternal health services, despite different health systems and humanitarian assistance provisions. As expected, a substantial proportion of households incurred out-of-pocket costs for essential maternal and newborn health services, making cost a major factor in care

  8. Parochial education in a global world? Teaching history and civics in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Bahous

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory article is based on a research project which runs from 2011 to 2013 that examines how global processes are expressed in educational policies and pedagogical texts in Lebanon, Sweden and Turkey by focusing on school subjects like civics, history, geography, and religion. In this text we discuss the development of education in Lebanon, the development of history and civics after the civil war, and on opinions about these school subjects in order to make a preliminary analysis of how the future Lebanese citizen is depicted in policies, curricula, and textbooks. Lebanon is interesting because of its unique education system in which foreign international institutions rather than national ones have the task of preparing individuals for a globalized world. Material for the study were collected from a sample of curricula used in private and public or national schools for history and civics/citizenship education in grade 8 as well as interviews and conference proceedings and conversations with activists, teachers and principals. We also reviewed findings of relevant empirical studies conducted in Lebanon. Our data collection was guided by three questions: how is the right citizen depicted in the Lebanese material? How is the relationship between national and global perspectives treated in guidance documents and pedagogical texts? What civic rights and obligations are given attention and what individuals are included/ excluded? Our preliminary findings imply that there is no consensus on the importance of teaching a unified history and civics book and subjects in Lebanon. Other findings indicate that private and international schools have a greater impact than national schools on preparing Lebanese students as future citizens.

  9. Maternal mortality ratio in Lebanon in 2008: a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Abi Chaker, Samer; Harb, Hilda; Rahbany Saad, Rita; Ammar, Walid; Adib, Salim

    2014-01-01

    International agencies have recently assigned Lebanon to the group H of countries with "no national data on maternal mortality," and estimated a corresponding maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 150 per 100,000 live births. The Ministry of Public Health addressed the discrepancy perceived between the reality of the maternal mortality ratio experience in Lebanon and the international report by facilitating a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study, sponsored by the World Health Organization Representative Office in Lebanon, aiming at providing an accurate estimate of a maternal mortality ratio for 2008. The survey allowed a detailed analysis of maternal causes of deaths. Reproductive age deaths (15-49 years) were initially identified through hospital records. A trained MD traveled to each hospital to ascertain whether recorded deaths were in fact maternal deaths or not. ICD10 codes were provided by the medical controller for each confirmed maternal deaths. There were 384 RA death cases, of which 13 were confirmed maternal deaths (339%) (numerator). In 2008, there were 84823 live births in Lebanon (denominator). The MMR in Lebanon in 2008 was thus officially estimated at 23/100,000 live births, with an "uncertainty range" from 153 to 30.6. Hemorrhage was the leading cause of death, with double the frequency of all other causes (pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, infection, and embolism). This specific enquiry responded to a punctual need to correct a clearly inadequate report, and it should be relayed by an on-going valid surveillance system. Results indicate that special attention has to be devoted to the management of peri-partum hemorrhage cases. Arab, postpartum hemorrhage, development, pregnancy management, verbal autopsy

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  11. A review of national policies and strategies to improve quality of health care and patient safety: a case study from Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Fadlallah, Racha

    2017-08-16

    Improving quality of care and patient safety practices can strengthen health care delivery systems, improve health sector performance, and accelerate attainment of health-related Sustainability Development Goals. Although quality improvement is now prominent on the health policy agendas of governments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), progress to date has not been optimal. The objective of this study is to comprehensively review existing quality improvement and patient safety policies and strategies in two selected countries of the EMR (Lebanon and Jordan) to determine the extent to which these have been institutionalized within existing health systems. We used a mixed methods approach that combined documentation review, stakeholder surveys and key informant interviews. Existing quality improvement and patient safety initiatives were assessed across five components of an analytical framework for assessing health care quality and patient safety: health systems context; national policies and legislation; organizations and institutions; methods, techniques and tools; and health care infrastructure and resources. Both Lebanon and Jordan have made important progress in terms of increased attention to quality and accreditation in national health plans and strategies, licensing requirements for health care professionals and organizations (albeit to varying extents), and investments in health information systems. A key deficiency in both countries is the absence of an explicit national policy for quality improvement and patient safety across the health system. Instead, there is a spread of several (disjointed) pieces of legal measures and national plans leading to fragmentation and lack of clear articulation of responsibilities across the entire continuum of care. Moreover, both countries lack national sets of standardized and applicable quality indicators for performance measurement and benchmarking

  12. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon. I: Spatial variation and land use

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud, MA; El-Fadel, M; Scrimshaw, MDirector; Lester, JN

    2006-01-01

    Surface water bodies are progressively subject to increasing stress as a result of environmentally degrading processes primarily related to anthropogenic activities. This study assesses and examines the impact of land use and anthropogenic activities on the spatial variation in water quality of the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon. It is the first detailed study of its kind in Lebanon and adds to the existing Knowledge by shedding light on a relatively small Mediterranean river in a developing...

  13. Analysis of Survival of Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treated with Imatinib in the Last 15 Years in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Marcel; Sakr, Riwa; Kerbage, Fouad; Makdissi, Joseph; Hawi, Jenny; Rached, Layale; Nasr, Fady; Chahine, Georges

    2017-07-01

    In the 2000s, the introduction of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), imatinib, improved the survival outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In Lebanon, we rapidly adopted this treatment strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the survival rates of Lebanese CML patients. We examined the rates of major molecular response (MMR) and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and analyzed the overall survival, progression-free survival, and event-free survival of CML patients treated with front-line imatinib in 3 university hospitals in Lebanon. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 46 patients diagnosed with CML and treated with front-line imatinib 400 mg/day from 2000 and followed up to 2015. In all patients, initially, 2 diagnostic tests were performed: cytogenetic analysis and qualitative molecular testing of the BCR-ABL transcript. The male-to-female sex ratio was 3:1. The median age at diagnosis was 49 years, and the mean age was 44.52 years. At diagnosis, 46 patients were in the chronic phase. All patients started imatinib 400 mg/day. Of the 46 patients, 35 had a typical karyotype, 8 an atypical karyotype, and 3 hypoploidism. The MMR rate at 18 months was 58.69%. The cumulative CCyR rate at 18 months of therapy with imatinib at the standard dose was 67.39%. The event-free survival rate was 75.86% and 74.14% at 5 and 8 years, respectively. The progression-free survival rate was 77.59% and 75.86% at 5 and 8 years, respectively. The overall survival rate was 98.27% and 98.27% at 5 and 8 years, respectively. Of the 46 patients, 12 developed disease progression and were salvaged by second-generation TKIs. These 12 patients were still alive with a MMR. In our study population, the achievement of a MMR and CCyR and overall survival, progression-free survival, and event-free survival were similar to previous published data. Reaching high survival rates with a first-generation TKI in a country with limited

  14. Pathways linking war and displacement to parenting and child adjustment: A qualitative study with Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Amanda; Fazel, Mina; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-03-01

    Forcibly displaced children are at risk of a range of negative outcomes, yet little is known about how to support war-affected caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial resilience. The current study uses qualitative methods to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of war and displacement on parenting and child adjustment in order to inform intervention development. In April and November 2016, group and individual interviews were conducted with 39 Syrian parents and 15 children in partnership with a humanitarian organization in Lebanon. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results show three interrelated pathways linking daily displacement stressors to various dimensions of parenting: (1) economic hardship prevents parents from meeting their children's basic needs and forces adaptation strategies that impair positive parent-child interactions; (2) parental psychological distress contributes to harsh parenting; and (3) perceptions and experiences of insecurity in the community results in increased parental control. Greater economic resources and social support emerged as potential protective factors for maintaining positive parenting despite exposure to war and displacement-related adversity. Our findings suggest that implementation of policies and programs to remove structural barriers to refugees' physical and economic security can have tangible impacts on parental mental health, parenting quality, and child psychosocial outcomes. Future research priorities include a stronger focus on the effects of war and displacement on family processes, taking into account interactions with the broader social, economic and political context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  16. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  17. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  18. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  19. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  20. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  1. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  2. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1998-01-01

    The document presents an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon, with an analysis of sources of pollution, their impact on local and global environment and their control.Local causes of pollution are mainly: -Thermal power plants of electric power production which produce 75% SO 2 emission and 60% dust - Industries, especially cement industry - Land transportation which produces 70% NOX emission and 50% CO 2 A description of air pollution caused by these three sectors is revealed. Pollutants derived from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, Co 2 emission will reach 5204450 tons, SO 2 emission will be 136470 tons, NOX emissions 96870 and dust estimated to 4130 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal Protocol are described. Recommendations for control of air pollution in Lebanon within a national policy are presented

  3. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  4. Are women engineers in Lebanon prepared for the challenges of an engineering profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the status of women engineers in the Middle East, considering women engineers in Lebanon as a case study. The author investigated the following questions: What are the influences behind females' decisions to choose engineering as their major course of study? What are the motives behind this decision? What are the perceptions of females regarding the essential skills for a successful engineering career? An online survey consisting of Likert-scale items was completed by 327 female engineers who graduated from universities in Lebanon and now work in various locations around the world. A genuine interest in the field appeared to be the main influence in the participants' decisions to choose engineering profession. The potential for professional growth was the leading motivator for choosing engineering. Although participants reported that they possessed adequate theoretical knowledge and technical skills before graduation, in the actual practice of engineering, they noted weaknesses in creativity and innovation.

  5. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    2000-01-01

    The article is an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon. It presents an analysis of sources of pollution in the country and their impacts on local and global environment and describes their control. Air pollution is mainly due to the industrial, electrical and transportation sectors. Pollutants from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, CO 2 emissions will reach 5987250 tons, SO 2 emissions is estimated to be 182950 tons, Nox to 105180 and dusts to 4965 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal protocol are described. Consumption of primary energy, consumption of petroleum products, quantity of petroleum in refineries and production of cement in Lebanon are also presented in tables

  6. Introduced, Captive, Caged and Escaped Exotic and Native Bird Species in the Littoral Area of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan -Jradi, G.; Ramadan -Jradi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Some introduced exotic bird species may cause damages to the ecosystem they are introduced to; others may have no effect or can be beneficial to humans and ecosystems.Whatever the case is, the exotic bird species remain an issue in Lebanon, especially that they are not given the appropriate priority at the national level. With the recent intentional or accidental introduction of exotic species,the problem is increasing and therefore necessitating comprehensive evaluation of the status and origin of these species in Lebanon.Since many of the introduced species are escapes from cages, it was necessary to also evaluate both status and origin of all caged birds in order to see whether they are introduced or native to the country. (author)

  7. Scenarios of application of energy certification procedure for residential buildings in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantin, R.; Mourtada, A.; Guarracino, G.; Adra, N.; Nasser, M.; Maamari, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a French-Lebanese scientific cooperation, between 2001 and 2005, about 'Rational use of energy in the residential buildings in Lebanon and adaptation of an energy certification procedure'. The aim of this project is to promote the energy efficiency in the existing residential buildings in Lebanon, using an energy certification procedure, and to evaluate the energy certification foresight with prospective methods. The paper first describes an energy investigation in Lebanese residential buildings, and the energy certification procedure. It presents the foresight methodology implemented to identify the key variables and the actors. Finally, the paper exposes the morphological method which allows to elaborate three scenarios of energy performance certification. These scenarios are presented in order to provide a decision making for the actors of the Lebanese energy policy

  8. Assessment of energy efficiency options in the building sector of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.B.; Ghajar, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the merits of implementing energy efficiency policies in the building sector in Lebanon following the approach normally adopted in Climate Change studies. The paper first examines the impact of the energy sector on the Lebanese economy, and then assesses the feasibility of implementing suitable energy efficiency options in the building sector. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of the building sector in Lebanon is presented with emphasis on the thermal characteristics of building envelopes and the energy consuming equipment. The long-term benefits of applying energy efficiency options in the building sector are then assessed using a scenario-type analysis that compares these benefits against those of a baseline scenario that assumes no significant implementation of energy efficiency policies. Finally, feasible options are highlighted and recommendations to remove the major barriers hindering the penetration of energy efficiency options in the Lebanese market are provided

  9. Introduced marine macroflora of Lebanon and its distribution on the Levantine coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BITAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine macroflora introduced into Lebanon was studied through an analysis of historical data and field studies carried out since 1991. A total of 29 introduced species have been listed: 3 Chromobionta, 13 Rhodobionta, 12 Chlorobionta and 1 Streptobionta. Among them, Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla, Spatoglossum variabile and Womersleyella setacea are recorded for the first time from Lebanon. Among them, Asparagopsis taxiformis, C. taxifolia var. distichophylla, Cladophora patentiramea, Codium arabicum, Codium parvulum, Galaxaura rugosa, Halophila stipulacea, Hypnea cornuta, Laurencia cf. chondrioides, Lophocladia lallemandii, Stypopodium schimperi, Ulva lactuca and Womersleyella setacea are potentially invasive species, and several of them already occupy extensive stretches of the Lebanese coast. The distribution of species on the Levantine coast, their dynamics and the current status of their populations are discussed.

  10. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    Lebanon has imported in 1996 5000 Kt of carburants causing about 80 Kt of SO x ; 40 Kt of NO x ; 3 Kt of dusts and 3.5 million tons of CO 2 . The atmospheric pollution in Lebanon is due to three main sources: - Thermal central of electric production - Industries (cement) - Transportation sector The document describes in tables: the inventory of pollutants and pollutant emissions in 1993 and 2010; industrial and heating gas oil; liquified petroleum gas commercial propane; fuel oil for EDL; consumption of energy in 1996; sectorial distribution of pollutants PPM; emissions of CO 2 per tons per habitant in 1993; consumption in 1993 broken down by use and application. Finally, three projects concerning public transportation were presented

  11. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  12. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-01-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures e...

  13. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Mu?a, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 1Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon Abstract: Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the ...

  14. REPRODUCING VIOLENCE THROUGH RECONSTRUCTING THE HYMEN? Gender-Based Violence Against Women in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Hajali, Majd

    2015-01-01

    Virginity in Lebanon is still a controversial and sensitive issue. Women’s value and honour is linked to the “hymen mystique”, which they fear losing before marriage. Regardless of the reasons for virginity loss, a non-virgin woman is deemed a sinner according to the Lebanese patriarchal social standards. With the existence of three-dimensional function of the hymen: honourable, social and physiological, hymen reconstruction surgeries emerged. Since studies and literature on hymenoplasty are ...

  15. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adults presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridi, Hanaa Dakour; Alami, Ramzi S; Fouani, Tarek; Shamseddine, Ghassan; Tamim, Hani; Safadi, Bassem

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among obese patients presenting for bariatric surgery in Europe and North America. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this patient population in Lebanon and the Middle East has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of patients presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon. American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Data was extracted from a prospective database of patients presenting for bariatric surgery at the American University of Beirut Medical Center from July 2011 until June 2014. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was determined using established cut-offs followed by analysis of the relationship between low vitamin D and certain patient characteristics. More than two thirds of all patients (68.9%) were vitamin D deficient (≤19.9 ng/mL), whereas 22.6% had insufficient levels (20-29.9 ng/mL) and only 8.6 % had sufficient levels (≥30 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were inversely associated with BMI>50 kg/m(2). Low vitamin D levels were also correlated with younger age, male gender, lack of physical exercise, and nonsunny season. No association was shown between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, osteoarticular disease, hypertension, or depression. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among patients with Class II or Class III obesity presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon. These findings emphasize the need for careful attention when evaluating patients before bariatric surgery and the importance of providing patients with adequate supplementation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Burns in the Lebanon War 1982: "the blow and the cure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldad, A; Torem, M

    1990-03-01

    There were 70% more burns in the October 1973 war than in the Six Day War of 1967. This increase caused great concern and emphasized the need for better personal and crew protection against burns. Some of these measures were already implemented by the outbreak of the 1982 war in Lebanon. Analysis of the burn injuries of this war is the subject of this short report.

  17. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of...

  18. Experimental transmission of West Nile Virus and Rift Valley Fever Virus by Culex pipiens from Lebanon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Zakhia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV are two emerging arboviruses transmitted by Culex pipiens species that includes two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. In Lebanon, human cases caused by WNV and RVFV have never been reported. However, the introduction of these viruses in the country is likely to occur through the migratory birds and animal trades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Cx. pipiens, a predominant mosquito species in urban and rural regions in Lebanon, to transmit WNV and RVFV. Culex egg rafts were collected in the West Bekaa district, east of Lebanon and adult females of Cx. pipiens were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 1.6×108 and 1.33×107 plaque forming units (PFU/mL, respectively. We estimated viral infection, dissemination and transmission at 3, 7, 14 and 19 days post infection (dpi. Results showed that infection was higher for WNV than for RVFV from 3 dpi to 19 dpi. Viral dissemination and transmission started from 3 dpi for WNV; and only from 19 dpi for RVFV. Moreover, Cx. pipiens were able to excrete in saliva a higher number of viral particles of WNV (1028 ± 405 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi than RVFV (42 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi. Cx. pipiens from Lebanon are efficient experimental vectors of WNV and to a lower extent, RVFV. These findings should stimulate local authorities to establish an active entomological surveillance in addition to animal surveys for both viruses in the country.

  19. Does Good Governance Mediate Relationship Between E-Government and Public Trust in Lebanon?

    OpenAIRE

    Alaaraj, Hassan; Hassan, Sallahudin

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the mediating effect of good governance on the relationship between e-government practices and public trust in Lebanon. Based on extensive literature review and conceptual background including the theories of institutional-based trust and the diffusion of innovation, the theoretical research framework was developed. Primary data was collected using survey involving 400 Lebanese employees from different small and medium enterprises in Beirut. The...

  20. The Arab Uprisings and Social Rights: Asian Migrant Workers in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Picard , Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Arab spring of 2011 first reverberated in Lebanon in the form of political protest against the rule, not of one despotic autocrat but of a clique of collusive confessional leaders. Soon, however, demands and demonstrations in favor of reform and secularization fizzled out, engulfed by the 8 March - 14 March dispute exacerbated by the spilling over of the Syrian crisis. Democratization forces and anti-system groups appeared divided along confessional and clannish lines. Hope for political ...

  1. Medication safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among community pharmacists in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Aline; Hallit, Souheil; Ramia, Elsy; Salameh, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of a national post-marketing surveillance program depends directly on the active participation of all health professionals. There is no current comprehensive and active pharmacovigilance program available in Lebanon. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Lebanon with respect to potential pharmacovigilance and adverse-drug-reaction reporting in Lebanon. A cross-sectional descriptive study, using a self-administered KAP questionnaire and conducted between March and July 2016, included 1857 pharmacists practicing in community settings. Statistical analysis included χ 2 test for dichotomous or multinomial qualitative variables, and Wilcoxon test for quantitative variables with non-homogeneous variances or non-normal distribution. The majority of responders had good knowledge concerning the concept and purpose of pharmacovigilance as well as adverse drug reactions (how to report these/the importance of reporting adverse events/the definition of an adverse event and pharmacovigilance). Concerning community pharmacists' attitudes and practice towards pharmacovigilance, the majority described having a positive attitude towards their role in adverse drug reaction reporting and this activity was even seen as one of their core duties. The questionnaire revealed a lack of practice and training regarding pharmacovigilance. Nonetheless, the pharmacists agreed on the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon and the Ministry of Health's role in promoting this practice and helping them be more involved in reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The pharmacists thought that they are well positioned regarding patient-safety practice in their pharmacies and the results were not statistically different between pharmacy employers and employees. Lebanese pharmacists have the required knowledge and positive attitude to start reporting ADRs, were aware of ADRs occurring with various medicines post-marketing, yet were currently not

  2. CAN BUSINESS EDUCATION CHANGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NON-WESTERN SOCIETIES: LESSONS FROM LEBANON

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay Jim; Kassar Abdul-Nassar; Neal Mark

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which students from an American-style Business School in Lebanon expect the managerial behaviors that they are taught in the classroom to actually be applied by managers in the Lebanese workplace. Broadly categorized as accountability, gender equity, religious tolerance, consultation and transparency, the authors found little indication that such expectations existed. Even when they could be identified such as with racial equality, thei...

  3. A Preliminary study on the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila infection in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamze, M.; Mallat, H.; Mokhbat, J.

    2009-01-01

    After the first outbreak of Legionnaire disease was described for the first time in1976, legionellosis has been increasingly recognized in association with many outbreaks, both community and hospital acquired. This disease remains a model of water borne transmission. In Lebanon, no report has yet been published on the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila infections. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of legionellosis in hospitalized patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (HAP). The study was conducted between April 2004 and August 2007. Eleven community hospitals participated to this endeavour. Laboratory evaluation was conducted in two centers (Middle East Health Institute, Bsalim, Lebanon and Nini Hospital, Tripoli, Lebanon). Two hundred and forty two urinary samples and ninety one pulmonary samples from 242 patients were analyzed. The age range was 16 to 71 years. Two hundred and fifteen were from community acquired pneumonias and twenty seven were nosocomially acquired in intensive care units. The urinary antigen was investigated in 242 patients; the Binax kit ® was used in this research. In lung secretions of 91 patients, the presence of Legionella pneumophila was searched for using direct immunofluorescence method and culture. Among the 215 urinary samples from patients with CAP, three were positive for Legionella antigen with a prevalence of 1.4 %. Among the 27 patients with HAP, one was positive for Legionella antigen with a prevalence of 3.7%. This preliminary study reveals the fact that legionellosis is indeed present in Lebanon, hence the importance of considering it in the work-up and the management of patients with pneumonia. Hospital laboratories should therefore routin ely search for this pathogen through at least urinary antigen detection. Health authorities should also enforce microbiological regulations concerning water sanitation in hospitals and in the community to prevent the

  4. Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl Elie A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lebanon suffers from a large scale emigration of physicians coupled with an oversaturation of the physician job market. Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation. Discussion The neighboring Arabian Gulf countries are suffering from a serious shortage of clinicians and academicians. In spite of their enormous investments in educational, clinical and research collaborative initiatives with some of the most renowned North American medical schools and institutions, their ability to recruit and retain highly qualified clinicians and academicians remains a major challenge. Lebanese universities have the opportunity to establish triangular collaborations with the Gulf regional medical centers and their North American partners. They could achieve this goal by tapping into the globalized and high quality Lebanese physician workforce and consequently regionalize healthcare delivery in the Middle East. Summary By recruiting its globalized and high quality physician workforce to establish collaborations with the Gulf regional, Lebanon could become a regional "academic hub".

  5. Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F; Akl, Elie A

    2010-06-16

    Lebanon suffers from a large scale emigration of physicians coupled with an oversaturation of the physician job market. Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation. The neighboring Arabian Gulf countries are suffering from a serious shortage of clinicians and academicians. In spite of their enormous investments in educational, clinical and research collaborative initiatives with some of the most renowned North American medical schools and institutions, their ability to recruit and retain highly qualified clinicians and academicians remains a major challenge. Lebanese universities have the opportunity to establish triangular collaborations with the Gulf regional medical centers and their North American partners. They could achieve this goal by tapping into the globalized and high quality Lebanese physician workforce and consequently regionalize healthcare delivery in the Middle East. By recruiting its globalized and high quality physician workforce to establish collaborations with the Gulf regional, Lebanon could become a regional "academic hub".

  6. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  7. The Sexual Health of Women in Lebanon: Are There Differences by Sexual Orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereige, Jessica D; Zhang, Li; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    From studies conducted in Western countries (United States, United Kingdom, and Australia), we know that the sexual health of sexual minority women (SMW) differs in key ways from that of heterosexual women (HSW). To date, the sexual health of SMW living in the Middle East and North Africa region has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual health of SMW and HSW living in Lebanon. SMW and HSW living in Lebanon (N = 95) completed an anonymous, self-administered survey. SMW's risk perceptions and health promoting and sexual behaviors were compared to those of HSW. We examined differences by sexual orientation by using t tests and Fisher's exact tests. The 45 SMW and 50 HSW had similar demographic characteristics. Significantly more SMW had heard of human papillomavirus, but only 22% of women from both groups knew of its association with abnormal Papanicolaou tests. Cervical cancer screening rates were similar in SMW and HSW, although remarkably low (42%) compared with rates in Western countries. Significantly more SMW (18%) reported difficulty with access to care than HSW (0%). Forty-four percent of SMW reported discomfort in disclosing their sexual orientation to their healthcare provider and 61% reported that healthcare providers lacked sensitivity toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender needs. Unwanted sexual contact occurred more frequently in SMW (53%) than HSW (23%). The sexual health of women is affected by sociocultural factors. SMW living in Lebanon have unique health needs that should be addressed within their sociocultural context.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis: newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khneisser, I; Adib, S; Assaad, S; Megarbane, A; Karam, P

    2015-12-01

    Few countries in the Middle East-North Africa region have adopted national newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We aimed to evaluate the cost-benefit of newborn screening for such disorders in Lebanon, as a model for other developing countries in the region. Average costs of expected care for inborn errors of metabolism cases as a group, between ages 0 and 18, early and late diagnosed, were calculated from 2007 to 2013. The monetary value of early detection using MS/MS was compared with that of clinical "late detection", including cost of diagnosis and hospitalizations. During this period, 126000 newborns were screened. Incidence of detected cases was 1/1482, which can be explained by high consanguinity rates in Lebanon. A reduction by half of direct cost of care, reaching on average 31,631 USD per detected case was shown. This difference more than covers the expense of starting a newborn screening programme. Although this model does not take into consideration the indirect benefits of the better quality of life of those screened early, it can be argued that direct and indirect costs saved through early detection of these disorders are important enough to justify universal publicly-funded screening, especially in developing countries with high consanguinity rates, as shown through this data from Lebanon. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Preventing thalassemia in Lebanon: successes and challenges in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Saad, Michele; Haddad, Anthony G; Alam, Elie S; Aoun, Sanaa; Maatouk, Pascale; Ajami, Najat; Khairallah, Therese; Koussa, Suzanne; Musallam, Khaled M; Taher, Ali T

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia continues to be a major health burden. The chronicity of the disease and the high cost of life-long treatment make prevention strategies crucial in the management of this disease. In this article, we revisit different successful prevention strategies, and underline the Lebanese model. The Chronic Care Center (CCC), Beirut, is the only specialized center in Lebanon for the treatment and prevention of thalassemia. The current number of patients registered up to August 2013 was 724, representing cases from all over Lebanon. In 1994, the center launched a national prevention program following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The major activities of the program include awareness campaigns, screening for thalassemia carriers in the general population and high risk groups, registry of new cases and follow-up on the mandatory premarital law (established at the same time). Screening programs showed a carrier rate of around 2.3% in the general population, and 4.0-41.0% in high risk groups. The major pitfall in the law is that only persons with a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of >70.0 fL are asked to perform further hemoglobin (Hb) testing. A significant decrease in the number of new cases of thalassemia patients in Lebanon reflects the efforts deployed in the prevention of the disease. However, some limitations are faced in reaching a complete eradication of the disease, mainly due to the fact that abortion is illegal and due to pitfalls and incorrect implementation of the premarital law.

  10. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of cultural policies in Lebanon (Abou Rizk. In cultural policy research, there is a distinction between explicit and implicit cultural policy (Ahearne. In this article, the concept of explicit and implicit cultural policy is applied to the case of Lebanon. The two terms are extended so that the former does not only include cultural policies designatedas such by the state, but also those created by civil society actors, and that the latter does not only include political strategies, but also practices that in the end determine cultural policies. Drawing on empirical research conducted in the context of a larger study on the role of cultural institutions in the public sphere, the power struggles between different actors involved in cultural policy making cultural policy defined in the Lebanese context, which in turn will be positioned within the regional context.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies.

  12. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, D.; Moilleron, R.; Lorgeoux, C.; El Samarani, A.; Chebbo, Gh.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  13. Survey of Leafhopper Species in Almond Orchards Infected with Almond Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Efat Abou-Fakhr; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) account for more than 80% of all “Auchenorrhynchous” vectors that transmit phytoplasmas. The leafhopper populations in two almond witches'-broom phytoplasma (AlmWB) infected sites: Tanboureet (south of Lebanon) and Bourj El Yahoudieh (north of Lebanon) were surveyed using yellow sticky traps. The survey revealed that the most abundant species was Asymmetrasca decedens, which represented 82.4% of all the leafhoppers sampled. Potential phytoplasma vectors in members of the subfamilies Aphrodinae, Deltocephalinae, and Megophthalminae were present in very low numbers including: Aphrodes makarovi, Cicadulina bipunctella, Euscelidius mundus, Fieberiella macchiae, Allygus theryi, Circulifer haematoceps, Neoaliturus transversalis, and Megophthalmus scabripennis. Allygus theryi (Horváth) (Deltocephalinae) was reported for the first time in Lebanon. Nested PCR analysis and sequencing showed that Asymmetrasca decedens, Empoasca decipiens, Fieberiella macchiae, Euscelidius mundus, Thamnottetix seclusis, Balclutha sp., Lylatina inexpectata, Allygus sp., and Annoplotettix danutae were nine potential carriers of AlmWB phytoplasma. Although the detection of phytoplasmas in an insect does not prove a definite vector relationship, the technique is useful in narrowing the search for potential vectors. The importance of this information for management of AlmWB is discussed. PMID:21864154

  14. Re-evaluation and updating of the seismic hazard of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijer, Carla; Harajli, Mohamed; Sadek, Salah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the implications of the newly mapped offshore Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT) fault system on the seismic hazard of Lebanon and the current seismic zoning and design parameters used by the local engineering community. This re-evaluation is critical, given that the MLT is located at close proximity to the major cities and economic centers of the country. The updated seismic hazard was assessed using probabilistic methods of analysis. The potential sources of seismic activities that affect Lebanon were integrated along with any/all newly established characteristics within an updated database which includes the newly mapped fault system. The earthquake recurrence relationships of these sources were developed from instrumental seismology data, historical records, and earlier studies undertaken to evaluate the seismic hazard of neighboring countries. Maps of peak ground acceleration contours, based on 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997), as well as 0.2 and 1 s peak spectral acceleration contours, based on 2 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per International Building Code (IBC) 2012), were also developed. Finally, spectral charts for the main coastal cities of Beirut, Tripoli, Jounieh, Byblos, Saida, and Tyre are provided for use by designers.

  15. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan RK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rouba Karen Zeidan,1 Rita Farah,2 Mirna N Chahine,3 Roland Asmar,3 Hassan Hosseini,4,5 Pascale Salameh,6,7 Atul Pathak8 1Doctoral School of Biology Health and Biotechnologies, Toulouse III University, Toulouse, 2Doctoral School of Life and Health Sciences, Paris-Est University, Creteil, France; 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, F-MRI®, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Neurology, Henri Mondor Hospital AP-HP, 5EA 4391, Nerve Excitability and Therapeutics, Université Paris-Est, Creteil, France; 6School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, 7Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiology Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon; 8Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hypertension, Risk Factors and Heart Failure Unit, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France Background: Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs, as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose: To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs. Results: Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect

  17. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  18. A roadmap to parity in mental health financing: the case of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Farah; Nahas, Ziad; Saleh, Shadi

    2014-09-01

    Inadequate access to mental health (MH) services in Lebanon, where prevalence is noteworthy, is a concern. Although a multitude of factors affects access to services, lack of financial coverage of MH services is one that merits further investigation. This study aims at providing a systematic description of MH financing systems with a special focus on Lebanon, presenting stakeholder viewpoints on best MH financing alternatives/strategies and recommending options for enhancing financial coverage. A comprehensive review of existing literature on MH financing systems was conducted, with a focus on the system in Lebanon. In addition, key stakeholders were interviewed to assess MH organizational and financing arrangements. Finally, a national round table was organized with the aim of discussing findings (from the review and interviews) and developing an action roadmap. Taxation and out-of-pocket payments are the most common MH financing sources worldwide and in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In Lebanon, all funding entities, except private insurance and mutual funds, cover inpatient and outpatient MH services, albeit with inconsistencies in levels of coverage. The national roundtable recommended two main MH financing enhancements: (i) creating a knowledge-sharing committee between insurers and MH specialists, and (ii) convincing labor unions/representatives to lobby for MH coverage as part of the negotiated benefit package. There are concerns regarding the equity, effectiveness and efficiency of the MH financing system in Lebanon. The fragmented system in Lebanon leads to differences in MH coverage across different financing intermediaries, which is inequitable. The fact that one out of four Lebanese suffer a mental disorder throughout their lives and very low percentages of those obtain treatment signals a problem in effectiveness. As for efficiency, the inefficient fragmentation of MH financing among seven intermediaries is a problematic characteristic of the

  19. Notes from the field: a case of hepatic failure and reflections on current status of healthcare of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Kahler, John; Kalabani, Mutaz

    2018-01-01

    Recent trends and research suggest health conditions of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon are deteriorating. The following case study highlights some of the problems that refugees encounter seeking health care services in Lebanon. A coordinated response from Non-governmental organization (NGO) with intense focus on non-communicable disease (NCD) is needed to avert further worsening of health conditions on the ground.

  20. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  1. All projects related to lebanon | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement ... linked to the world economy through simple resource-based activities: oil, minerals, ... brought a new Islamic-oriented political party to power, with almost two-thirds of ...

  2. Cesarean sections among Syrian refugees in Lebanon from december 2012/january 2013 to june 2013: probable causes and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Karin M J; Patterson, Njogu; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul

    2014-09-01

    There are nearly 3 million Syrian refugees, with more than 1 million in Lebanon. We combined quantitative and qualitative methods to determine cesarean section (CS) rates among Syrian refugees accessing care through United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-contracted hospitals in Lebanon and possible driving factors. We analyzed hospital admission data from UNHCR's main partners from December 2012/January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2013. We collected qualitative data in a subset of hospitals through semi-structured informant interviews. Deliveries accounted for almost 50 percent of hospitalizations. The average CS rate was 35 percent of 6,366 deliveries. Women expressed strong preference for female providers. Clinicians observed that refugees had high incidence of birth and health complications diagnosed at delivery time that often required emergent CS. CS rates are high among Syrian refugee women in Lebanon. Limited access and utilization of antenatal care, privatized health care, and male obstetrical providers may be important drivers that need to be addressed.

  3. Focus Groups Investigating Mental Health Attitudes and Beliefs of Parents and Teachers in South Lebanon: Are They Culturally Determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Farhood, Laila F; Hamady, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    The wars that Lebanon had endured led to a devastating number of deaths, injuries, and displacements. Such tragedies have detrimentally affected its civilians psychologically. To identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers and parents concerning child/adolescent mental health. Using purposeful sampling, five focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents of students from elementary, middle, and secondary levels in two private hub schools in South Lebanon. A total of 27 teachers and 18 parents participated separately in focus groups. Three themes emerged: (a) Mental health care is a priority for overall health, (b) Mental illness is a cultural taboo, and (c) There is a need for better education and cultural understanding about mental health. This is the first study in Lebanon directly targeted at parents' and teachers' mental health concerns. Such findings will add to transcultural nursing knowledge about the importance of mental health care.

  4. The Links between Energy Consumption, Financial Development, and Economic Growth in Lebanon: Evidence from Cointegration with Unknown Structural Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abosedra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between financial development, energy consumption, and economic growth in the economy of Lebanon over the period 2000M2–2010M12. Our findings confirm the existence of cointegration among the variables. The results indicate that financial development and energy consumption contribute to economic growth in Lebanon. The impact of energy consumption on economic growth is positive showing the significance of energy as a main stimulant of economic growth. Financial development is also found to play a vital role in enhancing economic growth. Financial development and economic growth also result in further increase in energy consumption. We offer some policy implications specific to Lebanon considering the recent discovery of large oil and gas reserves in the country and the historical importance of its banking sector which remains a center of Lebanon’s service-oriented economy.

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  6. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Nadine; Salti, Haytham; Al-Mokaddam, Mona; Merheb, Marie; Salti, Ibrahim; Nasrallah, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabetic populations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its major risk factors in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Diabetic patients followed in the outpatient department at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) were included in a prospective observational study. AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typically handles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patients were classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as having normoalbuminuria (ACR or =300 mg/g creatinine). The three groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria and its risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria were determined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an odds ratio. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were present in 33.3% and 12.7% of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years, 58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associated with microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use, and total and LDL cholesterol. Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in addition to glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension, elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), and presence of neuropathy, retinopathy and peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic control was an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathy for macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highly prevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glycemic control and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management.

  7. A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtada, Rima; Schlecht, Jennifer; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that child marriage among Syrians may be increasing as a result of displacement and conflict. This study sought to gather qualitative data about the factors that promote child marriage practices among Syrian refugees in Al Marj area in the Bekaa valley, Lebanon, where the majority of Syrian refugees have settled in Lebanon. The second aim of this study was to generate recommendations on how to mitigate the drivers and consequences of child marriage practices based on the findings. Eight focus group discussions were conducted separately with married and unmarried young women and mothers and fathers of married and unmarried women. Furthermore, researchers conducted 11 key informant interviews with service providers and stakeholders to understand how conflict and displacement influenced marriage practices of Syrian refugees in Al Marj community. Although child marriage was a common practice in pre-conflict Syria, new factors seem to contribute to a higher risk of child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Respondents cited conflict- and displacement-related safety issues and feeling of insecurity, the worsening of economic conditions, and disrupted education for adolescent women as driving factors. Service providers, young women, and parents also reported changes in some marriage practices, including a shorter engagement period, lower bride price, change in cousin marriage practices, and a reduced age at marriage. Recommendations for interventions to mitigate the drivers of child marriage and its negative consequences should be built on a clear understanding of the local refugee context and the drivers of child marriage in refugee settings. Interventions should involve multiple stakeholders, they should be adjusted to target each specific context, age group and marital status. For these interventions to be effective, they should be addressed concurrently, and they should be delivered in a culturally sensitive and practical manner.

  8. They aren't all first cousins: Bedouin marriage and health policies in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nisrine; Chatty, Dawn; El-Kak, Faysal; Yassin, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Fertility and consanguineous marriages among the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East have long generated interest particularly around health outcomes and social relations. In particular, Bedouin in Lebanon have increasingly embraced the Lebanese national bio-medical health system in the past two decades, while Lebanese policy-makers' responses continue to be minimal and ill-informed. This paper investigates the mismatch between policy-makers' formulations of Bedouin consanguineous marriages and the Bedouins's actual reproductive practices and discusses the implications of these formulations on the Bedouins's access to health services. The findings are drawn from the data collected as part of the Bedouin Health Project, an EU-funded five-year study (2005-2010), aiming at assessing access to reproductive and child health care among the Bedouin in Lebanon. The data was collected from 6 clusters representing the main Bedouin informal and unrecognized settlements in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon. The data consists of 111 socioeconomic questionnaires with Bedouin women users of local public, private, and nongovernmental reproductive and child health-focused clinics, in addition to 40 in-depth interviews with Bedouin women across the clusters and 17 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers. The findings suggest a gap between the perceptions of policy-makers and the incidence of consanguineous marriages and reproductive practices among the Bedouin. While there was no national data available for the Bedouin populations, policy-makers relied on a constructed 'Bedouin reproductive profile' that portrayed them as 'a problematic health group'. The national policy formulation of the Bedouin reproductive profile has an exclusionary impact on the Bedouin population as they are ignored from any targeted health policies or provided with politically motivated palliative care provision. These findings highlight the importance of addressing stereotyping and discrimination among health

  9. Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese Masterson, Amelia; Usta, Jinan; Gupta, Jhumka; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2014-02-20

    The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Lebanon. Information is needed to provide adequate health and related services particularly to women in this displaced population. We conducted a needs assessment in Lebanon (June-August 2012), administering a cross-sectional survey in six health clinics. Information was collected on reproductive and general health status, conflict violence, stress, and help-seeking behaviors of displaced Syrian women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between exposure to conflict violence, stress, and reproductive health outcomes. We interviewed 452 Syrian refugee women ages 18-45 who had been in Lebanon for an average of 5.1 (± 3.7) months. Reported gynecologic conditions were common, including: menstrual irregularity, 53.5%; severe pelvic pain, 51.6%; and reproductive tract infections, 53.3%. Among the pregnancy subset (n = 74), 39.5% of currently pregnant women experienced complications and 36.8% of those who completed pregnancies experienced delivery/abortion complications. Adverse birth outcomes included: low birthweight, 10.5%; preterm delivery, 26.5%; and infant mortality, 2.9%. Of women who experienced conflict-related violence (30.8%) and non-partner sexual violence (3.1%), the majority did not seek medical care (64.6%). Conflict violence and stress score was significantly associated with reported gynecologic conditions, and stress score was found to mediate the relationship between exposure to conflict violence and self-rated health. This study contributes to the understanding of experience of conflict violence among women, stress, and reproductive health needs. Findings demonstrate the need for better targeting of reproductive health services in refugee settings, as well as referral to psychosocial services for survivors of violence.

  10. Sociological Transition and Breast Cancer in the Arab World: the Experience of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Lakkis, Najla; Adib, Salim M; Hamadeh, Ghassan; El Jarrah, Rana; H Osman, Mona

    2017-05-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among females in Lebanon. This study aimed at analyzing its epidemiology in the country over time. Methods: Data were extracted from the Lebanese National Cancer Registry (NCR) for the years 2004 through 2010. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates for cancers per 100,000 population were calculated. Results: Breast cancer ranked first, accounting for an average of 37.6% of all new female cancer cases in Lebanon during the period of 2004-2010. Breast cancer was found to have been increasing faster than other hormone-related women’s cancers (i.e. of the ovaries and corpus uteri). The breast cancer age-standardized incidence rates (world population) (ASRw) increased steadily from 2004 (71.0) to 2010 (105.9), making the burden comparable to that in developed countries, reflecting the influence of sociological and reproductive patterns transitioning from regional norms to global trends. The age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer rose steeply from around age 35-39 years, to reach a first peak in the age group 45-49 years, and then dropped slightly between 50 and 64 years to rise again thereafter and reach a second peak in the 75+ age group. Five-year age-specific rates among Lebanese women between 35 and 49 years were among the highest observed worldwide in 2008. Conclusion: Breast cancer is continuously on the rise in Lebanon. The findings of this study support the national screening recommendation of starting breast cancer screening at the age of 40 years. It is mandatory to conduct an in-depth analysis of contributing factors and develop consequently a comprehensive National Breast Cancer Control strategy. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. A quality approach to maintain the properties of S235 JR structural carbon steel in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidawi, J.A.; Al Khatib, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.S235JR carbon steel is one of the most popular steels used in Lebanon. It is imported by steel dealers and is widely used by all fabricators and manufacturers of steels for many structural purposes and applications. This kind of steel has good ductile properties as well as excellent weldability. It is still known by its previous designation St 37-2 or E 24-2. S235JR is produced in many shapes and thicknesses such as steel plates, sheets, angles and different other geometric shapes. Standard chemical and mechanical tests were conducted and reported on S235JR hot-rolled structural low-carbon mild steel specimens collected from Lebanese steel market. The main objective of this work is to assure the compliance of these properties with those set by the steel manufacturer. The above mentioned tests were performed at the laboratories of the Industrial Research Institute (IR) in Lebanon to assure the quality and credibility of the results. related European and American standards were presented as references and compared with the achieved results. Discussion was presented to show the similarities and differences between S235JR steel samples and standard requirements. Some of the reasons for such differences were discussed. Sufficient data was furnished through this work for the public and mainly for the Lebanese Standard Organization LIBNOR to easily adopt and implement the EN 10025:1993 European standard that can be applied in Lebanon concerning the most commonly used hot rolled low carbon structural steel. A follow up concerning adopting and implementing EN 10025:1993 will be briefed

  12. Candida profiles and antifungal resistance evolution over a decade in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, George Farah; Asmar, Rima George; Avedissian, Aline Zakaria

    2015-09-27

    Infection with and antifungal resistance of Candida species have been on the rise globally. Relevant data on these pathogens are relatively few in our region, including Lebanon, thus warranting this study. This retrospective study of Candida spp. profiles and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility was based on analysis requests for 186 Candida non-albicans and 61 C. albicans during three periods (2005-2007, 2009-2011, and 2012-2014) over the span of the last 10 years at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. Identification of Candida was done using the API 20C AUX system, and the E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents. Among the 1,300-1,500 Candida isolates recovered yearly, C. albicans rates decreased from 86% in 2005 to around 60% in 2014. Simultaneously, the non-albicans rates increased from 14% in 2005 to around 40% in 2014, revealing 11 species, the most frequent of which were C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. All these demonstrated high resistance (35%-79%) against itraconazole, but remained uniformly susceptible (100%) to amphotericin B. Though C. albicans and the other species maintained high susceptibility against fluconazole and voriconazole, their MIC90 showed an elevated trend over time, and C. glabrata had the highest resistance rates. The observed rise in resistance among Candida spp. in Lebanon mandates the need for close surveillance and monitoring of antifungal drug resistance for both epidemiologic and treatment purposes.

  13. ATTITUDES TOWARDS AND PRACTICE OF SEXUALITY AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN LEBANON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Zeenny, R; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2016-03-01

    Sexuality is still a taboo in Middle Eastern countries, and Lebanon is no exception. This study's objective was to evaluate attitudes towards sexuality and its practice among university students in Lebanon and assess their respective correlates. The cross-sectional study was carried out among students selected from seventeen universities across Lebanon. The participants received a self-administered standardized questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards sexuality. It included questions on socio-demographic factors, risk-taking, risky behaviours and sexuality-related questions. Among 3384 students, 2700 (79.8%) answered the questions on sexuality. Around 15% had engaged in sexual activity, while 20% were regularly sexually active. Among males, 34.8% had never had sexual activity, 29.9% had tried it and 35.3% were regularly sexually active. Among females the results were respectively 85.1%, 5.3% and 9.6% (p<0.001). Only 36% regularly used condoms during their relationships. A liberal attitude towards sex, male sex, motives for risky behaviours, current cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol consumption were associated with sexual activity. Realizing that risky behaviours are dangerous, health concerns related to sexual relationships and a liberal attitude towards sex were associated with regular condom use. However, being bothered by condoms and female sex were inversely associated with condom use. Finally, participants who had motives for, and those who felt excited about risky behaviours, and those reporting current cigarette and waterpipe smoking and problematic alcohol consumption (β=0.600; p=0.002) embraced a more liberal attitude towards sex. Conversely, females (β=-7.58; p<0.001) and individuals who considered risky behaviours as dangerous reported an unfavourable attitude towards sexuality. A substantial proportion of Lebanese university students have regular sexual activity, but a low percentage use condoms for protection. Interventions are

  14. Incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Peleg, Kobi; Bigman, Galya; Givon, Adi; Lin, Shaul

    2008-08-01

    To analyze the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in the Second Lebanon War, that occurred during the summer of 2006, among Israeli soldiers and civilians. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israel National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War. Data refer to all general hospitals throughout the country. Data were analyzed according to the etiology of the injury, severity of trauma using the Injury Severity Score, trauma location, and duration of hospital stay. Cases with multiple injuries that included maxillofacial injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Patients with only dental injuries and superficial facial soft tissue lacerations were excluded because they were referred to the military dental clinics and not to general hospitals. Maxillofacial injuries were found in 36 (6.4%) of the 565 wounded. Patients with maxillofacial injuries ranged in age from 20 to 44 years (mean age, 25.5 +/- 5.7 years). Greater than 50% of the injuries required more than 3 hospitalization days. Mortality rate of the maxillofacial injured was 2.8%. Most of the maxillofacial injuries (33; 91.7%) were combined with other organ injuries; 9 (25%) patients also had dental injuries. In the Second Lebanon War, the incidence and severity of true maxillofacial injuries, without dental injuries alone, were relatively low compared with previous reports of other conflicts. However, because most injuries involved multiple organs, special attention is required when planning and providing emergency, as well as secondary and tertiary medical care to war wounded.

  15. Aero-medical evacuation from the second Israel-Lebanon war: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Resheff, Avram; Geftler, Alex; Weiss, Aviram; Birenbaum, Erez; Lavon, Ophir

    2009-05-01

    The second Lebanon war started as a limited operation and progressed to a large-scale campaign. Most of the fighting took place in mountainous villages and small towns inhabited with civilians. The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) Airborne rescue and evacuation unit is charged with air evacuation of soldiers and civilians in times of peace, limited conflict, and war. We describe this unit's activities in the second Lebanon war, analyzing injury, treatment, and evacuation characteristics Data were collected from flight medical reports, debriefings of aero-medical team members (usually immediately upon return from mission), ground units medical reports and debriefings, and hospital records. 725 IDF soldiers were injured and 117 killed either in Lebanon or near the Israeli-Lebanese border during the war. A total of 338 (46%) were evacuated in 95 airlifts (averaging 4.5 evacuees per airlift) from the fighting zones or the border. Air evacuation used dedicated helicopters with advanced care capacities, and most victims were evacuated straight from the battlefield, as the fighting was ensuing. Many wounded first received advanced medical care upon the arrival of the aero-medical teams. In military operations within civilian populated areas with threats to ground transport, air evacuation can sometimes be the only readily available option. Providing timely ground advanced medical care proved difficult in many instances. Thus, for many, the rescue helicopter was the first point of access to such care. Aero-medical aircrafts and personnel faced threats from gunfire and missiles, causing both delays in evacuation and a high average number of evacuees per airlift. This article proposes ways of coping with situations in which similar rescue and evacuation problems are likely.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabeticpatients in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, N.; Al-Mokadda, M.; Merheb, M.; Salti, I.; Nasrallah, M.; Salti, H.

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabeticpopulations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. Weconducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its majorrisk factors in cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Diabetic patientsfollowed in the outpatient department at the American University of BeirutMedical Center (AUBMC) were included in prospective observational study.AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typicallyhandles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patientswere classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)as having normoalbuminuria (ACR -300mg/g creatinine). Thethree groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria andits risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria weredetermined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an oddsratio. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuira were present in 33.3% and 12.7%of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years,58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associatedwith microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use and total andLDL cholesterol. Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in additionto glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension,elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and presence of neuropathy, retinopathyand peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic controlwas an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathyfor macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highlyprevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glycemiccontrol and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management.(author)

  17. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadine, Taleb

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabetic populations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its major risk factors in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Patients and Diabetic patients followed in the outpatient department at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) were included in a prospective observational study. AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typically handles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patients were classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as having normoalbuminuria (ACR<30 mg/g creatinine), microalbuminuria (ACR=30 to <300 mg/g creatinine), or macro-albuminuria (ACR 2300 mg/g creatinine). The three groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria and its risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria were determined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an odds ratio.Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were present in 33.3% and 12.7% of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years, 58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associated with microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use, and total and LDL cholesterol.Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in addition to glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension, elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), and presence of neuropathy, retinopathy and peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic control was an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathy for macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highly prevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glyce-mic control and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management (Author).

  18. The effect of taxation on tobacco consumption and public revenues in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Nakkash, Rima; Alaouie, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco consumption rates in Lebanon are among the highest worldwide. The country ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005. A law was passed in 2011 which regulates smoking in closed public spaces, bans advertising, and stipulates larger warnings. Despite international evidence confirming that increasing taxation on tobacco products lowers tobacco consumption, no such policy has yet been adopted: a cigarette pack costs on average US$1.50. To date no studies in Lebanon have addressed the welfare and public finance effects of increasing taxes on tobacco products. Using the 2005 national survey of household living conditions, we estimate an almost ideal demand system to generate price elasticities of demand for tobacco. Using estimated elasticities and a conservative scenario for expected smuggling, we simulate the consumption and tax revenue effects of a change in the price of tobacco under various tax schemes. Increasing taxes on all tobacco products so as to double the price of imported cigarettes would lower their consumption by 7% and consumption of domestically produced cigarettes by over 90%. Young adults (ages 15-30) are more sensitive: consumption would drop by 9% for imported cigarettes and by 100% for domestic cigarettes. Government revenues would increase by approximately 52%. The estimated elasticities indicate that an increase in taxes on all tobacco products would lead to a reduction in consumption and an increase in government revenue. Evidence from Lebanon on the effectiveness of increased taxation may help initiate national debate on the need to raise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  20. When Policy and Strategy Collide: U.S. Intervention in Lebanon 1982-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Constantine J. Pettallides, “Cedars to the East: A Study of Modern Lebanon,” accessed January 5, 2014, http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/603/cedars-to-the...legacy of the Holocaust affecting the nation of Israel.57 New Zionism united with Begin’s vision of Israel’s proper place in the world formed a noted...Begin’s vision , this universe is one of unremitting conflict.”60 Begin’s outlook stemmed from what the Prime Minister described as “the rules of history

  1. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  2. Seeking maternal care at times of conflict: the case of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Shayboub, Rawan; El-Kak, Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Providing quality maternity care within the emergency care packages for internally displaced populations in war-affected areas is somewhat challenging, although very essential. In this retrospective study, we describe the experiences and health care seeking behaviors of 1,015 pregnant and postpartum women during the 2006 war in Lebanon. Women reported interruptions in regular maternity care and experienced more complications during this period. Availability of health services and experiences of complications were the most important determinants of health care seeking behaviors. Maternal health services should be a part of any comprehensive emergency responsiveness plan, catering to women's needs in war-affected areas.

  3. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P job satisfaction and their intent to stay. This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghattas

    Full Text Available Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501 was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43 of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22 severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86 while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84. Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97 and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66, as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38 and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13. Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001 and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001 or welfare (p<0.001. They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102. Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  5. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p university students reported a higher consumption of the westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a

  6. Chemical composition of the essentialoil of the artemisia arborescens L. growing wild in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beyrouthy, M.; Arnold-Spotolides, N.; Labaki, M.; Najm, S.; Cazier, F.; Abou kais, A.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from air dried aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens L. from Lebanon was analyzed by GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 95.33% of the oil sample were identified. The major component wasβ -thujone (68.5%), followed by chamazulene (12.3%), and some lesser amounts of terpinen-4-ol (1.8%), myrcene (1.3%),α -thujone (1.2%), linalool (1%), cis-thuyanol-4-ol (1%), carvacrol (0.9%), β -cubebene (0.8%) and camphor (0.8%).

  7. Preliminary economic assessment of the use of waste frying oils for biodiesel production in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Elyssa G; Salam, Darine A

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a method for assessing the costs of biodiesel production from waste frying oils in Beirut, Lebanon, was investigated with the aim of developing an economic evaluation of this alternative. A hundred restaurant and hotel enterprises in Beirut were surveyed for promoting them in participating in the biodiesel supply chain, and for data collection on waste frying oils generation, disposal methods and frequency, and acquisition cost. Also, waste frying oils were collected and converted into biodiesel using a one-step base catalyzed transesterification process. Physicochemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were conforming to international standards. Data produced from laboratory scale conversion of waste frying oils to biodiesel, as well as data collected from the only biodiesel plant in Lebanon was used to determine the production cost of biodiesel. Geographic Information System was used to propose a real-time vehicle routing model to establish the logistics costs associated with waste frying oils collection. Comparing scenarios of the configuration collection network of waste frying oils, and using medium-duty commercial vehicles for collection, a logistics cost of US$/L 0.08 was optimally reached. For the calculation of the total cost of biodiesel production, the minimum, average, and maximum values for the non-fixed cost variables were considered emerging 81 scenarios for possible biodiesel costs. These were compared with information on the commercialization of diesel in Lebanon for the years 2011 through 2017. Although competitive with petroleum diesel for years 2011 to 2014, the total biodiesel cost presented less tolerance to declining diesel prices in the recent years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the acquisition cost of waste frying oils is the key factor affecting the overall cost of biodiesel production. The results of this study validate the economic feasibility of waste frying oils' biodiesel production in the studied

  8. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  9. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  11. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  12. Status and distribution of migrating and breeding marine birds in north Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarade, Gh.R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of marine birds in the northern part of Lebanon recorded 2681 individuals, distributed over 86 species. Among them 35 are foreshore species, 18 coastal, 6 maritime, 9 ducks, 6 herons, 9 various saltwater related species and 3 terrestrial. The highest density is shown by the yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and common blackheaded gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The globally vulnerable yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, an endemic species to the Mediterranean, appears on the 9th rank in the classification of seabird species from the more to the least abundant, highlighting as such, beside other 6 globally near threatened species, the role that Lebanon can play in improving the conservation status of these species. Regarding the phenological status of species, 48 are passage migrant/winter visitors, 31 passage migrants, 5 winter visitors and 2 vagrant species. The surveys revealed that three coastal seabird species (Armenian gull Larus armenicus, slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei and sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis) and one ubiquist species (Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria) are not rare as it was believed in previous papers but fairly common winter visitors. The study identified the yellow-legged gull breeding population to be 160 couples, and confirmed the second and third breeding records of the little ringed plover Charadrius dubius.(author)

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, Francois; Zahreddine, Nada R; Maragel, Michel G; Almustafa, Mustafa A; Soufia, Michel; Haddad, Ramzi; Richa, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Lebanon is the main hosting country for the Syrian crisis, with more than one million Syrian refugees. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identify its possible predictors, in a sample of Syrian refugees living in camps in Lebanon. We conducted a household survey on Syrian refugees between 18 and 65years old in 6 camps of the Central Bekaa region, using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as a diagnostic tool. Among the 452 respondents, we found a lifetime prevalence of PTSD of 35.4%, and a point prevalence of 27.2%. The lifetime prevalence of SUD was 1.99% and the point prevalence 0.66%. Multivariate logistic regression could not identify any predictor of current PTSD among a list of demographic variables, but identified the Syrian hometown as a significant predictor of lifetime PTSD (p=.013), with refugees from Aleppo having significantly more PTSD than those coming from Homs (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.28, 3.56], p=.004). PTSD was a real mental health issue in our sample of adult Syrian refugees in Central Bekaa camps, unlike SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Community-Based Noncommunicable Disease Care for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Stephen; Jonsson, Rebecka; Skaff, Rony; Tyler, Frank

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the sixth year of the Syrian conflict, 11 million people have been displaced, including more than 1.1 million seeking refuge in Lebanon. Prior to the crisis, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for 80% of all deaths in Syria, and the underlying health behaviors such as tobacco use, obesity, and physical inactivity are still prevalent among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Humanitarian agencies initially responded to the acute health care needs of refugees by delivering services to informal settlements via mobile medical clinics. As the crisis has become more protracted, humanitarian response plans have shifted their focus to strengthening local health systems in order to better address the needs of both the host and refugee populations. To that end, we identified gaps in care for NCDs and launched a program to deliver chronic disease care for refugees. Based on a participatory needs assessment and community surveys, and building on the success of community health programs in other contexts, we developed a network of 500 refugee outreach volunteers who are supported with training, supervision, and materials to facilitate health promotion and disease control for community members, target NCDs and other priority conditions, and make referrals to a primary health care center for subsidized care. This model demonstrates that volunteer refugee health workers can implement community-based primary health activities in a complex humanitarian emergency. PMID:28928227

  15. Prenatal and neonatal Group B Streptococcus screening and serotyping in Lebanon: incidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoud, Muheiddine; Nassar, Anwar H; Zalloua, Pierre; Boghossian, Nansi; Ezeddine, Jihad; Fakhoury, Hassan; Abboud, Joseph; Melki, Imad; Araj, George; Nacouzi, Ghinwa; Sanyoura, May; Yunis, Khalid

    2010-03-01

    The study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, perinatal transmission, and serotypes of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) among pregnant women and their newborns in Beirut, Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional study of all pregnant women admitted from February to September 2006 to three major hospitals. Overall, 137 of 775 (17.7%) mothers and 50 of 682 newborns (7.3%) tested positive for GBS. Maternal colonization was not associated with maternal age, household income, gravidity, intrapartum fever, preterm labor, or premature rupture of membrane. Transmission rate was 40/120 (30%). Serotype 5 (24.1%) was the most common followed by serotype 1a (15.0%), 3 (14.4%), 2 (11.8%) and 1b (7.5%). Pregnant women in Lebanon appear to have a relatively high prevalence of GBS colonization with no identifiable risk factors for its acquisition. These results could provide basis for the institution of a national policy for universal maternal GBS screening to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Geographic epidemiology in a small area: cancer incidence in Baakline, Lebanon, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, S M; Tabbal, N; Hamadeh, R; Ammar, W

    2013-04-01

    Aggregate data of the National Clr cac gi s in Lebanon cannot discriminate cance r incidence i n small areas. Trained community members surveyed the permanent population of the Baakline municipality using the verbal autopsy approach. We surveyed 1042 households with at least 1 member living permanently in Baakline during 2000-2008. Data covered 4330 persons yielding 34,143 years of observation and 56 new cases of cancer were reported. Median age at diagnosis varied significantly between men (77 years) and women (56 years). The most common types were lung cancer (20%) followed by colorectal (12.5%) and breast (9%). Estimated crude cancer incidence rate was 164 cases/100,000 persons/year, significantly higher in men (194) than women (130), and much lower overall than the national figure (218). The permanent Baakline population is older than that of Lebanon itself, yet the cancer incidence rate is markedly lower than the national figure. This finding pleads for serious efforts to preserve the low environmental contamination and the healthy lifestyles in food and tobacco abstinence that have protected the population so far.

  17. Attitudes towards domestic violence in Lebanon: a qualitative study of primary care practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Feder, Gene; Antoun, Jumana

    2014-06-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is highly prevalent in the developing and developed world. Healthcare systems internationally are still not adequately addressing the needs of patients experiencing violence. To explore physicians' attitudes about responding to DV, their perception of the physician's role, and the factors that influence their response. Qualitative study using individual interviews among primary care practitioners working in Lebanon. Primary care clinicians practising for >5 years and with >100 patient consultations a week were interviewed. Physicians were asked about their practice when encountering women disclosing abuse, their opinion about the engagement of the health services with DV, their potential role, and the anticipated reaction of patients and society to this extended role. Physicians felt that they were well positioned to play a pivotal role in addressing DV; yet they had concerns related to personal safety, worry about losing patients, and opposing the norms of a largely conservative society. Several physicians justified DV or blamed the survivor rather than the perpetrator for triggering the violent behaviour. Moreover, religion was perceived as sanctioning DV. Perceived cultural norms and religious beliefs seem to be major barriers to physicians responding to DV in Lebanon, and possibly in the Arab world more generally. Financial concerns also need to be addressed to encourage physicians to address DV. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  18. Hymen protection and the sexual practices, perceptions, and attitudes of female university students from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kak, Faysal; El Salibi, Noura; Yasmine, Rola; Ghandour, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    To investigate associations between hymen protection and women's alternative sexual practices, perceptions, and attitudes. A cross-sectional online survey was administered among university students (aged 18-30 years) in Lebanon between April 30 and August 31, 2012. The present analysis focused on female students who had engaged in oral/anal sex. Among 416 included women, 163 (39.3%) reported anal/oral sex to protect their hymen. Women ever concerned with hymen protection were less likely to be non-Lebanese and not religious/spiritual, but more likely to report unwanted sexual activities, a relationship in which they felt things were moving too fast physically, and to feel guilty about sexual feelings (all Pwomen who later engaged in vaginal sex (n=75) were less religious and more accepting of premarital sex than were those who continued to protect their hymen (n=88; all PWomen concerned about hymen-breaking engage in alternative sexual practices, yet experience pressure, guilt, worry, and indecisiveness regarding their sex-related decisions. The navigation of sexual decisions is a more vulnerable process for these women because of prevailing patriarchal values and discriminating gender norms in Lebanon. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  19. Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoo-Smith, E; Gosling, A L; Platt, D; Kardailsky, O; Prost, S; Cameron-Christie, S; Collins, C J; Boocock, J; Kurumilian, Y; Guirguis, M; Pla Orquín, R; Khalil, W; Genz, H; Abou Diwan, G; Nassar, J; Zalloua, P

    2018-01-01

    The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE) and Phoenician (~700-400 BCE) samples from Lebanon (n = 4) and Sardinia (n = 10) and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic) site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society.

  20. Maternal smoking: determinants and associated morbidity in two areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Rana; Chaaya, Monique

    2008-05-01

    This study assessed the factors related to smoking during pregnancy in two areas in Lebanon, and the association of smoking to selected maternal and newborn health related factors. This was a secondary analysis of data on 538 women who delivered in nine hospitals in two areas in Lebanon. Women were interviewed about their smoking practices, and on demographic and psychosocial variables. 396 women were followed up and re-interviewed about their smoking status, and the mother's and baby's health after delivery. Smoking during pregnancy included both cigarettes and narghile smoking. About 25.7% of women were smoking some kind of tobacco during pregnancy. Older women, Muslim women, women with poor education, those who had financial difficulty, nervousness, lower support, and delay in seeking prenatal care were more likely to smoke during pregnancy. Women who smoked during pregnancy were more likely to have a low birth weight baby and to stop breastfeeding. It is important to address smoking among women in general, and not only during pregnancy. We discuss the role of public and private sectors in smoking cessation and interventions.

  1. A qualitative analysis of multi-level barriers to HIV testing among women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kirsty A; Keene, Danya E; Pachankis, John E; Fattal, Omar; Rizk, Nesrine; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2017-09-01

    While the number of HIV cases in the Middle East and North Africa region is low compared to other regions, recent studies show that incidence is increasing especially among high-risk populations; in particular, little is known about women and HIV in the region. Through semi-structured interviews with sexual healthcare providers and staff at non-governmental organisations, we sought to understand barriers to HIV testing among women in Lebanon. Using snowball sampling, key informants were recruited from greater Beirut (12 physicians, 9 non-governmental organisation staff). Data were analysed using a grounded theory framework. Findings identified barriers to HIV testing among women at each level of an adapted social-ecological model (i.e. social-cultural barriers, policy barriers, interpersonal healthcare provider barriers and intrapersonal barriers). Primary findings include the culture of sex as taboo; lack of sexual health education among women; fear of disclosing HIV testing and diagnosis; financial barriers linked to stigmatising insurance policies; and provider attitudes towards women. Findings can be used to inform HIV-related sexual health interventions at multiple levels for women in Lebanon and the greater region.

  2. Attitudes towards domestic violence in Lebanon: a qualitative study of primary care practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Feder, Gene; Antoun, Jumana

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic violence (DV) is highly prevalent in the developing and developed world. Healthcare systems internationally are still not adequately addressing the needs of patients experiencing violence. Aim To explore physicians’ attitudes about responding to DV, their perception of the physician’s role, and the factors that influence their response. Design and setting Qualitative study using individual interviews among primary care practitioners working in Lebanon. Method Primary care clinicians practising for >5 years and with >100 patient consultations a week were interviewed. Physicians were asked about their practice when encountering women disclosing abuse, their opinion about the engagement of the health services with DV, their potential role, and the anticipated reaction of patients and society to this extended role. Results Physicians felt that they were well positioned to play a pivotal role in addressing DV; yet they had concerns related to personal safety, worry about losing patients, and opposing the norms of a largely conservative society. Several physicians justified DV or blamed the survivor rather than the perpetrator for triggering the violent behaviour. Moreover, religion was perceived as sanctioning DV. Conclusion Perceived cultural norms and religious beliefs seem to be major barriers to physicians responding to DV in Lebanon, and possibly in the Arab world more generally. Financial concerns also need to be addressed to encourage physicians to address DV. PMID:24868068

  3. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  4. Smuggling as the "key to a combined market": British American Tobacco in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-10-01

    To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT's market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie's legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem.

  5. Citizenship education in Lebanon: An introduction into students’ concepts and learning experiences

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    Bassel Akar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon continues to use citizenship education as a tool for social cohesion in its post-conflict sectarian society. Recently, teachers from previous studies (Akar, 2006 have raised certain issues concerning the challenges of teaching citizenship in Lebanon’s National and Civic Education classrooms. This initial study in Lebanon explores some of the challenges that students face when learning citizenship within their classroom by investigating their concepts of citizenship in addition to their learning experiences. Thirty-one students from two year-11 classrooms in different schools participated. During a 45-minute class lesson, I administered a survey pack collecting quantitative and qualitative data. This pack included a diamond ranking exercise, open-ended questions and a 15-minute class discussion at the end of class. Evidence showed that these students value active and dynamic behaviours based on humanistic and democratic principles. They also demonstrated a strong sense of national identity with little or no reference to a global one. Finally, the findings showed that traditional methods of learning such as memorization and the paradoxical climate of learning democratic civic behaviours in a society of internal conflicts further challenged their learning experiences.

  6. The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Naamani, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Assess the socioeconomic costs of smoking in Lebanon and understand the tobacco market and identify the winners and losers from the Lebanese tobacco trade. We take a close look at the market for tobacco and related markets to identify the main stakeholders and estimate the direct costs and benefits of tobacco. We also estimate lower bounds for the costs of tobacco, in terms of lost productivity, the cost of medical treatment, lost production due to premature death, and environmental damage. The paucity of data means our cost estimates are conservative lower bounds and we explicitly list the effects that we are unable to include. We identify the main actors in the tobacco trade: the Régie (the state-owned monopoly which regulates the tobacco trade), tobacco farmers, international tobacco companies, local distributors, retailers, consumers, and advertising firms. We identify as proximate actors the Ministries of Finance and Health, employers, and patients of smoking-related illnesses. In 2008, tobacco trade in Lebanon led to a total social cost of $326.7 million (1.1% of GDP). Low price tags on imported cigarettes not only increase smoking prevalence, but they also result in a net economic loss. Lebanese policymakers should consider the overall deficit from tobacco trade and implement the guidelines presented in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to at once increase government revenue and reduce government outlays, and save the labor market and the environment substantial costs.

  7. Typing and comparative genome analysis of Brucella melitensis isolated from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Zaki, Natalia; Salloum, Tamara; Osman, Marwan; Rafei, Rayane; Hamze, Monzer; Tokajian, Sima

    2017-10-16

    Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis. This study aimed at typing and characterizing genetic variation in 33 Brucella isolates recovered from patients in Lebanon. Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP of omp31, omp2a and omp2b were performed. Sixteen representative isolates were chosen for draft-genome sequencing and analyzed to determine variations in virulence, resistance, genomic islands, prophages and insertion sequences. Comparative whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism analysis was also performed. The isolates were confirmed to be B. melitensis. Genome analysis revealed multiple virulence determinants and efflux pumps. Genome comparisons and single nucleotide polymorphisms divided the isolates based on geographical distribution but revealed high levels of similarity between the strains. Sequence divergence in B. melitensis was mainly due to lateral gene transfer of mobile elements. This is the first report of an in-depth genomic characterization of B. melitensis in Lebanon. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. LIBS, Raman spectroscopy, and optical microscopy analyses of superficial encrustations on ancient tesserae in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkowska, Anna; Chmielewski, Krzysztof; Skrzyczanowski, Wojciech; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Ostrowski, Roman; Strzelec, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The aim of research was determination of composition and nature of superficial deposits, cumulated at the selected mosaic's tesserae from Lebanon. Selected were three series of objects from different locations, namely from the seaside and mountain archaeological sites as well as from the mosaics exposed in the city center. Analyzed were stone and ceramic tesserae. The selection of objects was dictated by wide diversification of factors influencing the state of preservation and composition of deposits in given location. Investigations were performed including LIBS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and optical 3D microscopy. The experimental results included composition and kind of deposit at the tesserae surfaces, and composition of tesserae itself. Compounds in the superficial deposits were identified. Confirmed was occurrence of different encrustations in dependence on geographic localization of a given sample. The interpretation of results was supported by multivariate statistical techniques, especially by the factor analysis. Performed analyses constitute the pioneer realization in terms of determination of deposits composition at the surface of mosaics from the Lebanon territory.

  9. Adherence to International Guidelines for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Lebanon

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    Wissam K. Kabbara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study is to evaluate antibiotic-prescribing practices and adherence to IDSA guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Lebanon. Methods. This observational prospective study was conducted in 15 community pharmacies in Lebanon over 1 year in adult females. A regimen of nitrofurantoin 100 mg bid for 5 days or fosfomycin 3 grams single dose were considered appropriate. For the bivariate analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results. A total of 376 patients were included in this study. The prescribed antibiotic was appropriate in 35 percent of the patients. Age (more than 50 years did not significantly affect the appropriateness of the prescribed antibiotic (p=0.508. The frequency of attacks per year (more than 3 negatively affected the choice of antibiotic (p=0.025. The dose and duration of the prescribed antibiotic was appropriate in 73 and 58 percent of the patients, respectively, with a significant inappropriate dose and duration with fluoroquinolones as compared to nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin (p<0.001 for the dose and p=0.014 for the duration of therapy. Conclusions. In an era of increasing bacterial resistance, interventions that improve physicians’ prescribing practices for uncomplicated urinary tract infections are needed.

  10. Community-Based Noncommunicable Disease Care for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Stephen; Jonsson, Rebecka; Skaff, Rony; Tyler, Frank

    2017-09-27

    In the sixth year of the Syrian conflict, 11 million people have been displaced, including more than 1.1 million seeking refuge in Lebanon. Prior to the crisis, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for 80% of all deaths in Syria, and the underlying health behaviors such as tobacco use, obesity, and physical inactivity are still prevalent among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Humanitarian agencies initially responded to the acute health care needs of refugees by delivering services to informal settlements via mobile medical clinics. As the crisis has become more protracted, humanitarian response plans have shifted their focus to strengthening local health systems in order to better address the needs of both the host and refugee populations. To that end, we identified gaps in care for NCDs and launched a program to deliver chronic disease care for refugees. Based on a participatory needs assessment and community surveys, and building on the success of community health programs in other contexts, we developed a network of 500 refugee outreach volunteers who are supported with training, supervision, and materials to facilitate health promotion and disease control for community members, target NCDs and other priority conditions, and make referrals to a primary health care center for subsidized care. This model demonstrates that volunteer refugee health workers can implement community-based primary health activities in a complex humanitarian emergency. © Sethi et al.

  11. Rhabdomyosarcoma treatment and outcome at a multidisciplinary pediatric cancer center in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Maysaa; Tamim, Hani; Medlej, Fouad; El-Ariss, Tarek; Saad, Fatima; Boulos, Fouad; Eid, Toufic; Muwakkit, Samar; Khoury, Nabil; Abboud, Miguel; Saab, Raya

    2012-05-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Outcome of patients treated on standard protocols, in a multidisciplinary cancer center setting outside of clinical trials, is not well reported. We reviewed characteristics and outcome of 23 pediatric patients treated at a single, multidisciplinary cancer center in Lebanon, between April 2002 and December 2010. Median follow-up was 41 months. The most commonly affected primary site was the head and neck (48%, n = 11). Nineteen tumors (82.6%) were of embryonal histology. Tumor size was ≥5 cm in eight (34.8%) patients. Sixteen patients (69.6%) had localized disease, and one (4.4%) had metastatic disease. Fifteen (65.2%) had Group III tumors. All patients received chemotherapy, for a duration ranging 21-51 weeks. Upfront surgical resection was performed in 10 patients (43.5%). Eighteen patients (78.3%) received radiation therapy. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 83% and 64%, respectively. Relapse correlated with absence of surgery. Treatment of childhood RMS in a multidisciplinary cancer center in Lebanon results in similar survival to that in developed countries when similar protocols are applied. There was a higher incidence of local relapse, but those were salvageable with further therapy and surgical local control.

  12. Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A. L.; Platt, D.; Kardailsky, O.; Prost, S.; Cameron-Christie, S.; Collins, C. J.; Boocock, J.; Kurumilian, Y.; Guirguis, M.; Pla Orquín, R.; Khalil, W.; Genz, H.; Abou Diwan, G.; Nassar, J.; Zalloua, P.

    2018-01-01

    The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE) and Phoenician (~700–400 BCE) samples from Lebanon (n = 4) and Sardinia (n = 10) and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic) site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society. PMID:29320542

  13. An exploratory study of HIV risk behaviours and testing among male sex workers in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunon, Frances M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Maher, Rabih; Khouri, Danielle; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a particularly high-risk subset of men who have sex with men in Lebanon and report higher numbers of sex partners and lower rates of condom use. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing among MSW. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSW living in Beirut and working in bathhouses (hammam) or as escorts; content analysis identified emergent themes. Escorts reported more consistent condom use with clients and HIV testing than hammam MSW, with influential factors including HIV risk knowledge and perceived risk susceptibility, job security, and internalized stigma and related feelings of self-worth and fatalism regarding health and HIV risk. In contrast, both groups of MSW typically opted not to condoms with nonclient sex partners, in an effort to differentiate sex for work versus pleasure. The uptake of HIV testing was limited by concerns about the confidentiality of the test results and fear of repercussions of a positive test result for their health and employment. The respondents described an insular existence within the sex work culture, in part to limit exposure to stigma, which has implications for access to support as well as the influence of peer norms regarding sexual risk behavior and health seeking behaviors such as HIV testing. Further research is needed to tailor prevention and HIV testing efforts to reflect the distinct sexual health “cultures” that distinguish these two populations of MSW in Lebanon. PMID:25950906

  14. Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Matisoo-Smith

    Full Text Available The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE and Phoenician (~700-400 BCE samples from Lebanon (n = 4 and Sardinia (n = 10 and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society.

  15. Social networks and health among older adults in Lebanon: the mediating role of support and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one's network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  17. The passage of tobacco control law 174 in Lebanon: reflections on the problem, policies and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R T; Torossian, L; El Hajj, T; Khalil, J; Afifi, R A

    2018-06-01

    Progress in tobacco control policy making has occurred worldwide through advocacy campaigns involving multiple players- civil society groups, activists, academics, media and policymakers. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-the first ever global health treaty-outlines evidence-based tobacco control policies. Lebanon ratified the FCTC in 2005, but until 2011, tobacco control policies remained rudimentary and not evidence-based. Beginning in 2009, a concerted advocacy campaign was undertaken by a variety of stakeholders with the aim of accelerating the process of adopting a strong tobacco control policy. The campaign was successful, and Law 174 passed the Lebanese Parliament in August 2011. In this article, we analyse the policy making process that led to the adoption of Law 174 using Kingdon's model. The analysis relies on primary and secondary data sources including historical records of key governmental decisions, documentation of the activities of the concerted advocacy campaign and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. We describe the opening of a window of opportunity as a result of the alignment of the problem, policy and politics streams. Furthermore, findings revealed that despite the challenge of persistent tobacco industry interference and established power relations between the industry, its allies and policymakers; policy entrepreneurs succeeded in supporting the alignment of the streams, and influencing the passage of the law. Kingdon's multiple stream approach was useful in explaining how tobacco control became an emerging policy issue at the front of the policy agenda in Lebanon.

  18. Landscape and Urban Governance: Participatory Planning of the Public Realm in Saida, Lebanon

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    Jala Makhzoumi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The political shift in Lebanon since the 1990s towards market-led development has encouraged the incremental appropriation of public spaces and state lands, and their conversion into gated, monitored enclaves that serve a privileged few. The process disregards the role of the urban public realm and undermines its potential as an inclusive space and enabling platform for urban governance. This article advocates a participatory approach to urban development, one that engages local stakeholders, institutions, and the public at large as active partners working towards sustainable urban futures. We draw on a case study in Saida, Lebanon, to illustrate participatory planning methods and demonstrate the role of landscape architects in enabling community-led development that is place responsive and sensitive to local narratives of heritage and identity. The project’s participatory methodology and landscape architecture’s expansive framing, the paper argues, democratizes the planning process and contributes to urban governance that empowers local authorities and local stakeholders in the face of privatization and market-led development.

  19. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among shi'a populations of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kheshen, Ghadir; Saadat, Mostafa

    2013-09-01

    In genetics, a consanguineous marriage means union between couples who are related as second cousins or closer. The present cross-sectional study was carried out in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages in the Shi'a population living in widespread territories in Lebanon including the Bekaa Valley, the south of Lebanon and the southern suburb of Beirut. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 1203. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. The overall frequency of consanguinity was found to be 28.4%, with first cousin marriages (21.3%) being the most common type followed by first cousins once removed (5.5%), then double first cousins (0.8%). The frequencies of second cousin and beyond second cousin marriages were the same at 0.4% of all the marriages. The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was estimated at about 0.0161 for the population. There were no significant differences between the three studied territories for frequencies of different types of marriages (p>0.1), nor were there significant differences between the rural and urban areas (p>0.1).

  20. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among injecting drug users in Lebanon

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    Shamra Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV among injecting drug users (IDUs in Lebanon, to establish the current prevalence of HCV genotypes in this population and to determine whether demographic characteristics and behavioral variables differ between participants who were HCV-RNA positive and those who were HCV-RNA negative or between the different genotypes. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling method. The blood samples were collected as dried blood spots and then eluted to be tested for HCV, HBV and HIV by ELISA. Anti-HCV positive samples were subjected to RNA extraction followed by qualitative detection and genotyping. Results Among 106 IDUs, 56 (52.8% were anti-HCV-positive. The two groups did not differ in terms of age, marital status, and nationality. As for the behavioral variable, there was a trend of increased risky behaviors among the HCV-RNA positive group as compared to the HCV-RNA negative group but none of the variables reached statistical significance. Half (50% of the 56 anti-HCV-positive were HCV-RNA positive. Genotype 3 was the predominant one (57.1% followed by genotype 1 (21% and genotype 4 (18%. Conclusions The predominance of genotype 3 seems to be the predominant genotype among IDUs in Lebanon, a situation similar to that among IDUs in Western Europe. This study provides a base-line against possible future radical epidemiological variant that might occur in IDUs.

  1. Use of RIA (radioimmunoassay) for the screening o prostate cancer in lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is known to be high in USA and europpe and very low in asia. There are lots of controversies about the early screening programs of this cancer because of the low cost effctiveness and the limited choices of treatment. However, in USA, early screening programs have helped in increasing the ratee of eaarly detection of this cancer. Actually, 75% of patients are detected when their cancer is still organ confined. This rate was 25% before this program. There is no statistical data in lebanon or any other arabic country about the incidence of this cancer. In this study, 300 men aged 40 years and more from the area of mount lebanon were screened for prostate cancer. This was done by digital rectal examination (DRE) followed by blood withdrawal for PSA (prostate specific antigen) test. IRMA technique was used for assaying PSA by kits fromimmunotech. 23 men have abnormal PSA values. Results of this study showed the presence of two cases of prostate cancer, 3 cases of prostatitis and 8 cases of BPH (being prostate hypeeerplasial0, which proof that the incidence of prostate cancer is not low as expected (in japan, the rate of cancer is 1:50 000 men) and that the early screening is very important in our country at least to increase the awareness from this cancer. Because purchasing kits from international sources is very expensive, local preparation of PSA kits is a necessity to overcome this problem

  2. The use of isotopes in hydrology: Proceedings of a symposium, held in Beirut -Lebanon, December 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium had covered three general areas in which isotopes could have been beneficially used. these areas are: -Water use and water use efficiency studies. -Ground water investigations -Water problems in the arab countries. The individual papers had dealt with these subjects: -Hydrological research in the arab countries by use of radioisotopes. -The perspectives of use of radioisotopes in hydrological studies in Syria. -Water use efficiency and sub-soil water studies. -Sea water inclusion in a coast el aquifers in Lebanon. -Irrigation requirements of crops in Lebanon as determined by a Neutron probe with reference to other methods. -The use of the neutron moisture meter and other methods of the determination of the evapotranspiration of maize. -Ground water investigations, dating and nuclear methods applied to hydrology. -Ground water investigation in Wa di El-Nat run, U.A.R. -Velocity distribution along the pumped well using radioactive tracers. -Problems and costs of water use studies by neutron probe and lysimeter. Figs

  3. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

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    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  4. An atmospheric emission inventory of anthropogenic and biogenic sources for Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel; Seigneur, Christian

    2012-04-01

    A temporally-resolved and spatially-distributed emission inventory was developed for Lebanon to provide quantitative information for air pollution studies as well as for use as input to air quality models. This inventory covers major anthropogenic and biogenic sources in the region with 5 km spatial resolution for Lebanon and 1 km spatial resolution for its capital city Beirut and its suburbs. The results obtained for CO, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for the year 2010 were 563, 75, 62, 115, 4, 12, and 9 Gg, respectively. About 93% of CO emissions, 67% of NMVOC emissions and 52% of NOx emissions are calculated to originate from the on-road transport sector while 73% of SO2 emissions, 62% of PM10 emissions and 59% of PM2.5 emissions are calculated to originate from power plants and industrial sources. The spatial allocation of emissions shows that the city of Beirut and its suburbs encounter a large fraction of the emissions from the on-road transport sector while urban areas such as Zouk Mikael, Jieh, Chekka and Selaata are mostly affected by emissions originating from the industrial and energy production sectors. Temporal profiles were developed for several emission sectors.

  5. Safeguards Status in Lebanon as SQP Country and Reinforcement within a Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.

    2015-01-01

    As SQP State, the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission LAEC, as regulatory authority, was assigned by the Lebanese government to deal with all issues related to safeguards within the small quantities protocol. Consequently, the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) was established within the LAEC and linked to the Nuclear Security Department. In this regard, an initial report was submitted to the IAEA, followed by a first inventory on nuclear materials existing in Lebanon. In the initial report, it was declared that there are no nuclear facilities in Lebanon (power plant, reactor, nuclear fuel fabrication, nuclear fuel processing) and no mining activities related to nuclear materials, therefore, there is no nuclear material used for the above mentioned purposes. However, in the first inventory it was reported on the existing of nuclear materials, commonly for non-nuclear use, and they are mainly located in hospitals, industries, universities and research institutes. In this inventory report, we have included information about these materials such as type, quantity, form, location and exact use, in compliance with the inventory form attached to the SQP guidance document. During the inventory preparation, it was noticed some synergy between nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards. However, this inventory should be upgraded soon. A nuclear law is prepared by LAEC with the technical assistance of IAEA. The first draft is already available and waiting to be promulgated to the Lebanese parliament. In this law, the IAEA-SSS concept (safety, security and safeguards) is covered in a comprehensive way. (author)

  6. Perceptions from the public and private sector on trust and cooperation in the field of environmental management in Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2013-01-01

    This paper positions trust and cooperation in the context of environmental management in Lebanon. Previous studies indicated increasing environmental problems in this area. The effectiveness of the Lebanese government to address these challenges has been reported to be constrained by large varieties

  7. Multiple Intelligences and ESL Teaching and Learning: An Investigation in KG II Classrooms in One Private School in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' use of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers during English as a second language (ESL) classes in a K-12 school in Lebanon. Eighty kindergartners (KG II, aged 5 years) and eight teachers constituted the sample. The study used mixed methods, including observations of videotaped…

  8. Older Adults, in Lebanon, Committed to Learning: Contextualizing the Challenges and the Benefits of Their Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Hany; Vuopala, Essi

    2016-01-01

    The University for the Third Age, a relatively new concept in Lebanon, provides educational and social opportunities for older adults. The goal of later-life educational institutions supposedly covers more than a mere provision of learning. This being said, highlighting the significance of rewards associated with older adult learning--and the…

  9. Civic Engagement in a Challenging Political Context: The Neighborhood Initiative at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myntti, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This essay uses the experience of one community engagement program at the American University of Beirut (AUB), a prominent private university in Lebanon, to reflect on the value and challenges of civic engagement in a non-Western context. It describes the Lebanese sectarian political system, provides an overview of the AUB Neighborhood Initiative,…

  10. Learning the Nation in Exile: Constructing Youth Identities, Belonging and "Citizenship" in Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which "Palestine" and "Palestinianess" are culturally, socially and symbolically produced and regulated through formal and non-formal institutional sites in Palestinian camps in south Lebanon. It argues that although institutional power, processes and outcomes help to construct shared notions of…

  11. Implementation of the Social Decision-Making Skills Curriculum on Primary Students (Grades 1-3) in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassan, Karma; Mouganie, Zeina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the Social Decision-Making Skills Curriculum (SDSC) on the emotional intelligence and the prosocial behaviors of primary students in Grades 1-3, in a private school in Lebanon. Students were trained in social problem-solving and social decision-making skills through the implementation of the SDSC. Participants…

  12. Impact of war, religiosity and ideology on PTSD and psychiatric disorders in adolescents from Gaza Strip and South Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which differences in the types of war trauma, economic pressure, religiosity and ideology accounted for variation in PTSD and psychiatric disorders among adolescents from Gaza Strip and South Lebanon. Participants were 600 adolescents aged 12-16 years. They were selected from the public school system in the highly war exposed areas. Questionnaires were administered in an interview format with adolescents at school by two trained psychologists. Results indicated that the various types of trauma had differential effects on the psychological status of adolescents in both countries. Economic pressure was more predictive of PTSD and psychological distress in adolescents from Gaza. Differences in religiosity and ideology did not account for similar variation in stress response among adolescents from Gaza and South Lebanon. While higher levels of religiosity evidenced the greatest levels of depression and anxiety in adolescents from Gaza, religiosity had an attenuated effect on adolescents from South Lebanon. Ideology was negatively associated with depression and anxiety in Gaza strip adolescents, whereas it did not play a role for adolescents from South Lebanon. The clinical and research implications of these conclusions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Qartaba Structure: An Active Backthrust In Central Mt-Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ata Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Qartaba structure in central Mt-Lebanon is a 15x5km box fold running parallel to the restraining bend of the sinsitral Yammouneh Fault, the main fault of the central segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The Qartaba structure has long been described as a "horst" and associated with Mesozoic normal faulting. However, the Qartaba anticline is suitably oriented with the direction of maximum compression along the restraining bend. Jurassic carbonate rocks form the core of this anticline culminating at ~1953m asl to the east, of the highest structural elevation of the Mt-Lebanon range indicating important tectonic uplift rate. The fold is asymmetric. The western limb is steep and bordered by the Lebanese Flexure, a prominent continuous monocline of Upper Jurassic to Mid Cretaceous rocks, running along the western flank of Mt-Lebanon. The eastern limb of the anticline has a very steep dip, and forms a 200m high cliff well marked in the topography. Its Jurassic layers are almost vertical and end up overhanging Lower Cretaceous beds. Our study suggest that the Qartaba structure is a growing anticline, built by active thrusting over a west dipping thrust fault that cuts the surface at the base of the eastern limb of the anticline. The fault plane can be seen dipping 30-35 degrees to the west. At depth, this thrust is likely to connect with the blind thrust ramp of the Mt-Lebanon Flexure. The Qartaba backthrust with a dip to the west, is opposite to the general vergence of similar structures in the area. On some of the segments of the steep cliff forming the faulted eastern limb, a fresh scarp with smooth and polished surfaces bearing vertical slickensides can be followed over ~700m along the base of the cliff. It corresponds with the location of the thrust fault tip. Talus accumulation over the steep eastern limb covers most of the cliff base, and may be masking further extent of this scarp. We interpret this scarp as the freeface of a co-seismic rupture on the underlying

  14. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA

  15. The safety and quality of childbirth in the context of health systems: mapping maternal health provision in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Akik, Chaza; El Kak, Faysal; Osman, Hibah; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective to provide basic information on the distribution (public/private and geographically) and the nature of maternity health provision in Lebanon, including relevant health outcome data at the hospital level in order to compare key features of provision with maternal/neonatal health outcomes. Design a self-completion questionnaire was sent to private hospitals by the Syndicate of Private Hospitals in collaboration with the study team and to all public hospitals in Lebanon with a functioning maternity ward by the study team in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Health. Setting childbirth in an institutional setting by a trained attendant is almost universal in Lebanon and the predominant model of care is obstetrician-led rather than midwife-led. Yet due to a 15-year-old civil war and a highly privatised health sector, Lebanon lacks systematic or publically available data on the organisation, distribution and quality of maternal health services. An accreditation system for private hospitals was recently initiated to regulate the quality of hospital care in Lebanon. Participants in total, 58 (out of 125 eligible) hospitals responded to the survey (46% total response rate). Only hospital-level aggregate data were collected. Measurements the survey addressed the volume of services, mode of payment for deliveries, number of health providers, number of labour and childbirth units, availability of neonatal intensive care units, fetal monitors and infusion rate regulation pumps for oxytocin, as well as health outcome data related to childbirth care and stillbirths for the year 2008. Findings the study provides the first data on maternal health provision from a survey of all eligible hospitals in Lebanon. More than three-quarters of deliveries occur in private hospitals, but the Ministry of Public Health is the single most important source of payment for childbirth. The reported hospital caesarean section rate is high at 40.8%. Essential equipment for safe maternal

  16. Factors influencing dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in Lebanon and Jordan: results of the Dyslipidemia International Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar ST

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami T Azar,1 Hadi Abu Hantash,2 Selim Jambart,3 Mohammad M El-Zaheri,4 Rachoin Rachoin,5 Amal Chalfoun,6 Layla Lahoud,6 Osama Okkeh,2 Peter Bramlage,7 Philippe Brudi,8 Baishali M Ambegaonkar81American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Istishari Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 3St Joseph University Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 5Notre Dame des Secours Hospital, Jbeil, Lebanon; 6MSD Levant, Beirut, Lebanon; 7Institut für Pharmakologie und präventive Medizin, Mahlow, Germany; 8Merck and Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USABackground: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Therefore, as part of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS, we have analyzed the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and risk factors for dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in Lebanon and Jordan.Methods: This cross-sectional, multicenter study enrolled 617 patients at 13 hospitals in Lebanon and Jordan. Patients were at least 45 years old and had been treated with statins for at least 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine patient characteristics contributing to dyslipidemia during statin therapy.Results: Our findings indicated that 55.9% of statin-treated patients (mean age 60.3 years, 47% female in Lebanon and Jordan did not achieve goal levels for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol which were dependent on Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE risk, and 70% of patients (76% men and 63.3% of women were at very high cardiovascular risk. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals were not achieved in 67.2% of those with very high cardiovascular risk. The most commonly prescribed statin was atorvastatin (44.6%, followed by simvastatin (27.7%, rosuvastatin (21.2%, fluvastatin (3.3%, pravastatin (3%, and lovastatin (0.2%. Approximately half of the population was treated with a statin dose potency of 4, equaling 40 mg of simvastatin. In

  17. Challenges in Estimating Vaccine Coverage in Refugee and Displaced Populations: Results From Household Surveys in Jordan and Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Weiss, William; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country’s vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies. Among households with a child aged 12–23 months, 55.1% of respondents in Jordan and 46.6% in Lebanon were able to produce the child’s EPI card. Only 24.5% of Syrian refugee children in Jordan and 12.5% in Lebanon were fully immunized through routine vaccination services (having received from non-campaign sources: measles, polio 1–3, and DPT 1–3 in Jordan and Lebanon, and BCG in Jordan). Respondents in Jordan (33.5%) and Lebanon (40.1%) reported difficulties obtaining child vaccinations. Our estimated immunization rates were lower than expected and raise serious concerns about gaps in vaccine coverage among Syrian refugees. Although our estimates likely under-represent true coverage, given the additional benefit of campaigns (not captured in our surveys), there is a clear need to increase awareness, accessibility, and uptake of immunization services. Current methods to measure vaccine coverage in refugee and displaced populations have limitations. To better understand health needs in such groups, we need research on: validity of recall methods, links between campaigns and routine immunization programs, and improved sampling of hard-to-reach populations. PMID:28805672

  18. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  19. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  20. Readiness of healthcare providers for eHealth: the case from primary healthcare centers in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi; Khodor, Rawya; Alameddine, Mohamad; Baroud, Maysa

    2016-11-10

    eHealth can positively impact the efficiency and quality of healthcare services. Its potential benefits extend to the patient, healthcare provider, and organization. Primary healthcare (PHC) settings may particularly benefit from eHealth. In these settings, healthcare provider readiness is key to successful eHealth implementation. Accordingly, it is necessary to explore the potential readiness of providers to use eHealth tools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of healthcare providers working in PHC centers in Lebanon to use eHealth tools. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants' socio-demographics, computer use, literacy, and access, and participants' readiness for eHealth implementation (appropriateness, management support, change efficacy, personal beneficence). The study included primary healthcare providers (physicians, nurses, other providers) working in 22 PHC centers distributed across Lebanon. Descriptive and bivariate analyses (ANOVA, independent t-test, Kruskal Wallis, Tamhane's T2) were used to compare participant characteristics to the level of readiness for the implementation of eHealth. Of the 541 questionnaires, 213 were completed (response rate: 39.4 %). The majority of participants were physicians (46.9 %), and nurses (26.8 %). Most physicians (54.0 %), nurses (61.4 %), and other providers (50.9 %) felt comfortable using computers, and had access to computers at their PHC center (physicians: 77.0 %, nurses: 87.7 %, others: 92.5 %). Frequency of computer use varied. The study found a significant difference for personal beneficence, management support, and change efficacy among different healthcare providers, and relative to participants' level of comfort using computers. There was a significant difference by level of comfort using computers and appropriateness. A significant difference was also found between those with access to computers in relation to personal beneficence and